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  1. Sporadic paediatric diarrhoeal illness in urban and rural sites in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campylobacter was the predominant bacterial pathogen (17% urban, 15% rural), followed by Shigella and nontyphoidal Salmonella (both 4% urban and 5% rural). In both communities, susceptibilities of these pathogens to the most commonly prescribed antibiotics was low (<50%); 70% of all episodes of diarrhoea were ...

  2. Urban Forest and Rural Cities: Multi-sited Households, Consumption Patterns, and Forest Resources in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Padoch

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In much of the Amazon Basin, approximately 70% of the population lives in urban areas and urbanward migration continues. Based on data collected over more than a decade in two long-settled regions of Amazonia, we find that rural-urban migration in the region is an extended and complex process. Like recent rural-urban migrants worldwide, Amazonian migrants, although they may be counted as urban residents, are often not absent from rural areas but remain members of multi-sited households and continue to participate in rural-urban networks and in rural land-use decisions. Our research indicates that, despite their general poverty, these migrants have affected urban markets for both food and construction materials. We present two cases: that of açaí palm fruit in the estuary of the Amazon and of cheap construction timbers in the Peruvian Amazon. We find that many new Amazonian rural-urban migrants have maintained some important rural patterns of both consumption and knowledge. Through their consumer behavior, they are affecting the areal extent of forests; in the two floodplain regions discussed, tree cover is increasing. We also find changes in forest composition, reflecting the persistence of rural consumption patterns in cities resulting in increased demand for and production of açaí and cheap timber species.

  3. Fossil and Contemporary Fine Carbon Fractions at 12 Rural and Urban Sites in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schichtel, B; Malm, W; Bench, G; Fallon, S; McDade, C; Chow, J

    2007-03-01

    Fine particulate matter collected at two urban, four near-urban, and six remote sites throughout the United States were analyzed for total carbon (TC) and radiocarbon ({sup 14}C). Samples were collected at most sites for both a summer and winter season. The radiocarbon was used to partition the TC into fossil and contemporary fractions. On average, contemporary carbon composed about half of the carbon at the urban, {approx}70-97% at near-urban, and 82-100% at remote sites. At Phoenix, Arizona, and Seattle, Washington, one monitor was located within the urban center and one outside to assess the urban excess over background concentrations. During the summer the urban and rural sites had similar contemporary carbon concentrations. However, during the winter the urban sites had more than twice the contemporary carbon measured at the neighboring sites, indicating anthropogenic contributions to the contemporary carbon. The urban fossil carbon was 4-20 times larger than the neighboring rural sites for both seasons. Organic (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) from TOR analysis were available. These and the radiocarbon data were used to estimate characteristic fossil and contemporary EC/TC ratios for the winter and summer seasons. These ratios were applied to carbon data from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments network to estimate the fraction of contemporary carbon at mostly rural sites throughout the United States. In addition, the ratios were used to develop a semiquantitative, lower bound estimate of secondary organic carbon (SOC) contribution to fossil and contemporary carbon. SOC accounted for more than one-third of the fossil and contemporary carbon.

  4. Atmospheric wet and litterfall mercury deposition at urban and rural sites in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Fu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg concentrations and deposition fluxes in precipitation and litterfall were measured at multiple sites (six rural sites and an urban site across a broad geographic area in China. The annual deposition fluxes of Hg in precipitation at rural sites and an urban site were 2.0 to 7.2 and 12.6 ± 6.5 µg m−2 yr−1, respectively. Wet deposition fluxes of Hg at rural sites showed a clear regional difference with elevated deposition fluxes in the subtropical zone, followed by the temporal zone and arid/semi-arid zone. Precipitation depth is the primary influencing factor causing the variation of wet deposition. Hg fluxes through litterfall ranged from 22.8 to 62.8 µg m−2 yr−1, higher than the wet deposition fluxes by a factor of 3.9 to 8.7 and representing approximately 75 % of the total Hg deposition at the forest sites in China. This suggests that uptake of atmospheric Hg by foliage is the dominant pathway to remove atmospheric Hg in forest ecosystems in China. Wet deposition fluxes of Hg at rural sites of China were generally lower compared to those in North America and Europe, possibly due to a combination of lower precipitation depth, lower GOM concentrations in the troposphere and the generally lower cloud base heights at most sites that wash out a smaller amount of GOM and PBM during precipitation events.

  5. Characterization of dustfall in rural and urban sites during three dust storms in northern China, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Yanli; Qu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Lianyou; Guo, Lanlan; Yang, Yanyan; Hu, Xia; Xiong, Yiying; Zhang, Guoming; Zhao, Mengdi; Liang, Bo; Dai, Jiadong; Zuo, Xiyang; Jia, Qingpan; Zheng, Hao; Han, Xujiao; Zhao, Shoudong; Liu, Qi

    2017-10-01

    Dust transport and deposition processes are important for understanding the environmental risk of dust storms. This study investigated characteristics of dustfall at two rural sites and four urban sites from dust sources to downwind regions during three dust storms (DS1: March 19-22, DS2: April 24-26, DS3: May 7-10, 2010). Analysis of near-surface instantaneous maximum wind speed and prevailing wind direction revealed the dust storms bursted out from northwestern arid and semiarid regions to eastern China. Microaggregates, angular, subangular, columnar, subrounded, and spherical particles were identified by scanning electron microscope. Dust deposition flux (DDF) during the dust storms was significantly high at sites near sand deserts and sandy land. During DS2, DDF was 25.1, 9.9, 2.3, and 1.5 g m-2 in Jingbian, Shapotou, Lanzhou, and Beijing, respectively. The three dust storms contributed 7.3% of Beijing's annual dustfall in 2010, which suggests anthropogenic dust might contribute the majority of annual dustfall in urban areas. The mass medium diameter of dustfall during DS2 in Shapotou, Jingbian, Lanzhou, and Beijing was 26.1, 9.0, 16.4, and 15.5 μm, respectively. Urban dustfall contained more heavy metals, sulfur and arsenic than rural dustfall. Cadmium contamination was identified in all urban dust particles. Anthropogenic pollutants in combination with mineral dust might lead to complex environmental risk on local, regional, and global scales. China's environmental pollution control should integrate reductions in land desertification and multisource anthropogenic emissions within the context of climate change mitigation.

  6. Trends in atmospheric ammonia at urban, rural, and remote sites across North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Yao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Interannual variabilities in atmospheric ammonia (NH3 during the most recent 7–11 years were investigated at 14 sites across North America using the monitored data obtained from NAPS, CAPMoN and AMoN networks. The long-term average of atmospheric NH3 ranged from 0.8 to 2.6 ppb, depending on location, at four urban and two rural/agricultural sites in Canada. The annual average at these sites did not show any deceasing trend with largely decreasing anthropogenic NH3 emission. An increasing trend was actually identified from 2003 to 2014 at the downtown Toronto site using either the Mann–Kendall or the ensemble empirical mode decomposition method, but “no” or “stable” trends were identified at other sites. The ∼ 20 % increase during the 11-year period at the site was likely caused by changes in NH4+–NH3 partitioning and/or air–surface exchange process as a result of the decreased sulfur emission and increased ambient temperature. The long-term average from 2008 to 2015 was 1.6–4.9 ppb and 0.3–0.5 ppb at four rural/agricultural and at four remote US sites, respectively. A stable trend in NH3 mixing ratio was identified at one rural/agricultural site while increasing trends were identified at three rural/agricultural (0.6–2.6 ppb, 20–50 % increase from 2008 to 2015 and four remote sites (0.3–0.5 ppb, 100–200 % increase from 2008 to 2015. Increased ambient temperature was identified to be a cause for the increasing trends in NH3 mixing ratio at four out of the seven US sites, but what caused the increasing trends at other US sites needs further investigation.

  7. Characteristics of surface ozone and nitrogen oxides at urban, suburban and rural sites in Ningbo, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Lei; Zhang, Huiling; Yu, Jie; He, Mengmeng; Xu, Nengbin; Zhang, Jingjing; Qian, Feizhong; Feng, Jiayong; Xiao, Hang

    2017-05-01

    Surface ozone (O3) is a harmful air pollutant that has attracted growing concern in China. In this study, the mixing ratios of O3 and nitrogen oxides (NOx) at three different sites (urban, suburban and rural) of Ningbo were continuously measured to investigate the spatiotemporal characteristics of O3 and its relationships with environmental variables. The diurnal O3 variations were characterized by afternoon maxima (38.7-53.1 ppb on annual average) and early morning minima (11.7-26.2 ppb) at all the three sites. Two seasonal peaks of O3 were observed in spring (April or May) and autumn (October) with minima being observed in winter (December). NOx levels showed generally opposite variations to that of O3 with diurnal and seasonal maxima occurring in morning/evening rush-hours and in winter, respectively. As to the inter-annual variations of air pollutants, generally decreasing and increasing trends were observed in NO and O3 levels, respectively, from 2012 to 2015 at both urban and suburban sites. O3 levels were positively correlated with temperature but negatively correlated with relative humidity and NOx levels. Significant differences in O3 levels were observed for different wind speeds and wind directions (p population and plant growth.

  8. Comparison of metal bioavailability in frogs from urban and rural sites of Western Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolyar, O B; Loumbourdis, N S; Falfushinska, H I; Romanchuk, L D

    2008-01-01

    The seasonal and spatial fluctuations of heavy metals in the liver of the frog Rana ridibunda from a river in Western Ukraine were investigated. Liver weight was seen to increase from spring to summer/autumn, most probably as a result of accumulation of metabolites, especially fat and glycogen. The concentrations of the metals found in the liver of the frog was in the order: Fe>Cu approximately Zn>Mn>Cd. For most metals, the highest concentration was recorded in the frogs inhabiting the urban site. The highest level of Cu in the liver was observed in the spring, in the agricultural site, while the highest level of other metals was observed in the summer. The most probable explanation for the high concentration of Cu in the rural site was that in this wetland there were discharge effluents from fungicides with Cu in their formula. Compared to other metals, the bioavailability of Cu was approximately 1000 times higher. The high concentration of Fe rather reflects its fluctuation in the water. Despite its very low concentration in the water (below the limit of detection), Cd was detected in the liver of frogs inhabiting both sites. This is an indication that tissues accumulate Cd, despite the very low concentration detected in the water. This may be an indication of intermittent exposure of frogs to Cd and possibly of other heavy metals.

  9. Physiological and developmental effects of O3 on cottonwood growth in urban and rural sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Jillian W; Jones, Clive G; Dawson, Todd E

    2006-12-01

    Previously we found that cloned cottonwood saplings (Populus deltoides) grew twice as large in New York, New York, USA, compared to surrounding rural environments and that soils, temperature, CO2, nutrient deposition, and microclimatic variables could not account for the greater urban plant biomass. Correlations between final season biomass and cumulative O3 exposures, combined with twofold growth reductions in an open-top chamber experiment provided strong evidence that higher cumulative O3 exposures in rural sites reduced growth in the country. Here, we assess the field gas exchange, growth and development, and allocation responses underlying the observed growth differences and compare them with isolated O3 responses documented in the open-top chamber experiment. Cottonwoods showed no visible foliar injury, reduced photosynthesis of recently expanded foliage, early leaf senescence, protective reduction in stomatal conductance, or compensatory allocation to shoot relative to root biomass for either the chamber or field experiment. Instead, O3-impacted chamber plants had significantly higher conductance and reduced photosynthesis of older foliage that led to reduced leaf area production and a twofold biomass reduction in the absence of visible injury. Rural-grown field plants showed the same pattern of significantly higher conductance in the absence of concomitant increases in photosynthesis that was indicative of a loss of stomatal control. Incremental changes in foliar production were also significantly inversely related to fluctuations in ambient O3 exposures. The similarity in biomass, gas exchange, phenological, and allocation responses between chamber and field experiments indicate that mechanisms accounting for reduced growth at rural sites were consistent with those in the open-top chamber O3 experiment. This study shows the limitation of visible symptoms as a sole diagnostic factor for documenting detrimental O3 impacts and points toward a new approach to

  10. Urbanizing rural waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, Lena; Boelens, Rutgerd

    2017-01-01

    This article studies how urbanization processes and associated rural-urban water transfers in the Lima region (Peru) create water control hierarchies that align the municipal drinking water company, hydropower plants and rural communities on unequal positions. By scrutinizing the history of water

  11. Breeding performance of blue tits (Cyanistes cæruleus ultramarinus) in relation to lead pollution and nest failure rates in rural, intermediate, and urban sites in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmia, Zahra; Scheifler, Renaud; Crini, Nadia; Maas, Samuel; Giraudoux, Patrick; Benyacoub, Slim

    2013-03-01

    The breeding parameters and the egg and nestling morphology of Cyanistes caeruleus populations from rural, intermediate, and urban sites in Algeria and the relationships of those variables with lead contamination were studied during three consecutive years. Breeding success was explained only by predation and vandalism rates. Predation was higher in the rural area, whereas vandalism was higher in the urban site. The other measured breeding parameters and egg characteristics were relatively insensitive to study site. The morphology of urban nestlings exhibited a trend toward smaller body size and mass compared to individuals from intermediate and rural sites. Although lead concentrations were higher in the tissues of urban birds than in intermediate and rural individuals, we did not detect a clear influence of this variable on nestling morphology. We conclude that urbanization influenced blue tit breeding parameters through predation and vandalism and nestling morphology through mechanisms other than lead pollution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Aerosol composition of urban plumes passing over a rural monitoring site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellestad, T.G.

    1980-01-01

    A field study conducted at a ground site 100 km north of St. Louis, Mo., to measure the aerosol composition and gaseous concentrations of urban plumes passing the site is discussed. Coarse and fine aerosol elemental concentrations, height scattering, meteorological data and concentrations of SO 2 , CO, O 3 , and NO-NO/sub x/ were measured and then analyzed together with data from associate investigators on fluorocarbon-11, total hydrocarbons, and size distributions. The results show that: (1) gaseous and elemental aerosol concentrations at the ground site 100 km from the St. Louis urban area were clearly influenced by the St. Louis urban plume, (2) the urban plumes of Chicago and Indianapolis, 350 km from the ground site, may have been detected, (3) sulfur compounds, presumably sulfates, accounted for 30-40% of the mass loading within the St. Louis urban plume, and resided almost entirely within the size range below 2.5 microns, (4) the most reliable urban-plume tracers in this study were fine Pb, fluorocarbon-11, total nonmethane hydrocarbons, and CO, and (5) over a period of several days, there may have been a regional buildup of fine S, light scattering, aerosol mass, O 3 , and NO/sub x/ and, to a lesser extent, CO and fluorocarbon-11

  13. Characteristics and diurnal variations of NMHCs at urban, suburban, and rural sites in the Pearl River Delta and a remote site in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, J. H.; Chan, L. Y.; Chan, C. Y.; Li, Y. S.; Chang, C. C.; Liu, S. C.; Wu, D.; Li, Y. D.

    The Pearl River Delta (PRD) is one of the most industrialized and urbanized regions in China. With rapid growth of the economy, it is suffering from deteriorating air quality. Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were investigated at urban and suburban sites in Guangzhou (GZ), a rural site in PRD and a clean remote site in South China, in April 2005. Additional roadside samples in GZ and Qingxi (QX, a small industrial town in PRD), ambient air samples at the rooftop of a printing factory in QX and exhaust samples from liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)—fueled taxis in GZ were collected to help identify the source signatures of NMHCs. A large fraction of propane (47%) was found in exhaust samples from LPG-fueled taxis in GZ and extremely high levels of toluene (2.0-3.1 ppmv) were found at the rooftop of the printing factory in QX. Vehicular and industrial emissions were the main sources of NMHCs. The effect of vehicular emission on the ambient air varied among the three PRD sites. The impact of industrial emissions was widespread and they contributed greatly to the high levels of aromatic hydrocarbons, especially toluene, at the three PRD sites investigated. Leakage from vehicles fueled by LPG contributed mainly to the high levels of propane and n-butane at the urban GZ site. Ethane and ethyne from long-range transport and isoprene from local biogenic emission were the main contributors to the total hydrocarbons at the remote site. Diurnal variations of NMHCs showed that the contribution from vehicular emissions varied with traffic conditions and were more influenced by fresh emissions at the urban site and by aged air at the suburban and rural sites. Isoprene from biogenic emission contributed largely to the ozone formation potential (OFP) at the remote site. Ethene, toluene and m/ p-xylene were the main contributors to the OFP at the three PRD sites.

  14. Rural versus Urban

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøning, Signe Wedel

    and take position within larger social structures of unequal power structures through such employment. The adolescents did not explicitly discuss power relations between urban and rural Denmark in their everyday social encounters, but when they employ Stylised vestjysk and Stylised københavnsk......This ethnographic project discerns how rural adolescents living in West Jutland, Denmark, carry out their daily lives under globalised conditions. The project shows how the young speakers (re)activate, align with and discard ideological perceptions of rural and urban Denmark. By investigating......, they continuously ascribe low social status to the former and high social status to the latter. Thus, the overall picture is one reproducing urban Denmark as a powerful and prestigious centre, whereas rural Denmark is disempowered....

  15. Size distributions and sources of elements in particulate matter at curbside, urban and rural sites in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jingchun; Tan, Jihua; Wang, Shulan; Hao, Jimin; Chai, Fahe

    2012-01-01

    Size distributions of 29 elements in aerosols collected at urban, rural and curbside sites in Beijing were studied. High levels of Mn, Ni, As, Cd and Pb indicate the pollution of toxic heavy metals cannot be neglected in Beijing. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicates 4 sources of combustion emission, crust related sources, traffic related sources and volatile species from coal combustion. The elements can be roughly divided into 3 groups by size distribution and enrichment factors method (EFs). Group 1 elements are crust related and mainly found within coarse mode including Al, Mg, Ca, Sc, Ti, Fe, Sr, Zr and Ba; Group 2 elements are fossil fuel related and mostly concentrated in accumulation mode including S, As, Se, Ag, Cd, Tl and Pb; Group 3 elements are multi-source related and show multi-mode distribution including Be, Na, K, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Mo, Sn and Sb. The EFs of Be, S, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Ga, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb, Tl and Pb show higher values in winter than in summer indicating sources of coal combustion for heating in winter. The abundance of Cu and Sb in coarse mode is about 2-6 times higher at curbside site than at urban site indicating their traffic sources. Coal burning may be the major source of Pb in Beijing since the phase out of leaded gasoline, as the EFs of Pb are comparable at both urban and curbside sites, and about two times higher in winter than that in summer.

  16. Measurements of gas and particle polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air at urban, rural and near-roadway sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, G. C.; Herbrandson, C.; Krause, M. J.; Schmitt, C.; Lippert, C. J.; McMahon, C. R.; Ellickson, K. M.

    2018-04-01

    We measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in gas and particle phases over two years using high volume samplers equipped with quartz fiber filters and XAD-4 at a rural site, an urban site, and a site adjacent to a heavily trafficked roadway. Overall results were generally as expected, in that concentrations increased from rural to urban to near-roadway sites, and PAHs with high vapor pressures (liquid subcooled, PoL) and low octanol-air partition coefficients (Koa) were mainly in the gas phase, while those with low PoL and high Koa were predominantly in the particle phase. Intermediate PAHs existed in both phases with the phase distribution following a seasonal pattern of higher gas phase concentrations in summer due to temperature effects. The overall pattern of phase distribution was consistent with PAH properties and ambient conditions and was similar at all three sites. The particle-bound fraction (ϕ) was well-described empirically by nonlinear regressions with log Koa and log PoL as predictors. Adsorption and absorption models underestimated the particle-bound fraction for most PAHs. The dual aerosol-air/soot-air model generally represented the gas-particle partitioning better than the other models across all PAHs, but there was a tendency to underestimate the range in the particle-bound fraction seen in measurements. There was a statistically insignificant tendency for higher PAHs in the particle phase at the near roadway site, and one piece of evidence that PAHs may be enriched on ultrafine particles at the near roadway site. Understanding the phase and particle size distributions of PAHs in highly polluted, high exposure microenvironments near traffic sources will help shed light on potential health effects.

  17. Size-resolved source apportionment of carbonaceous particulate matter in urban and rural sites in central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Walter A.; Kleeman, Michael J.

    2011-08-01

    Very little is currently known about the relationship between exposure to different sources of ambient ultrafine particles (PM 0.1) and human health effects. If human health effects are enhanced by PM 0.1's ability to cross cell membranes, then more information is needed describing the sources of ultrafine particles that are deposited in the human respiratory system. The current study presents results for the source apportionment of airborne particulate matter in six size fractions smaller than 1.8 μm particle diameter including ultrafine particles (PM 0.1) in one of the most polluted air basins in the United States. Size-resolved source apportionment results are presented at an urban site and rural site in central California's heavily polluted San Joaquin Valley during the winter and summer months using a molecular marker chemical mass balance (MM-CMB) method. Respiratory deposition calculations for the size-resolved source apportionment results are carried out with the Multiple Path Particle Dosimetry Model ( MPPD v 2.0), including calculations for ultrafine (PM 0.1) source deposition. Diesel engines accounted for the majority of PM 0.1 and PM 1.8 EC at both the urban and rural sampling locations during both summer and winter seasons. Meat cooking accounted for 33-67% and diesel engines accounted for 15-21% of the PM 0.1 OC at Fresno. Meat cooking accounted for 22-26% of the PM 0.1 OC at the rural Westside location, while diesel engines accounted for 8-9%. Wood burning contributions to PM 0.1 OC increased to as much as 12% of PM 0.1 OC during the wintertime. The modest contribution of wood smoke reflects the success of emissions control programs over the past decade. In contrast to PM 0.1, PM 1.8 OC had a higher fraction of unidentified source contributions (68-85%) suggesting that this material is composed of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) or primary organic aerosol (POA) that has been processed by atmospheric chemical reactions. Meat cooking was the largest

  18. Comparative field study on precipitation, throughfall, stemflow, fog water, and atmospheric aerosol and gases at urban and rural sites in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, Masahide; Hiraki, Takatoshi; Tamaki, Motonori

    2006-07-31

    Precipitation collected by a wet-only sampler (WP), precipitation collected by a filtering-type bulk sampler (BP), throughfall (TF), stemflow (SF), fog water (FW), and atmospheric aerosol and gases were collected at two sites with different site classifications: an urban site (Mt. Rokko) and a rural site (Mt. Awaga) to investigate canopy-atmosphere interactions and to study the chemistry of precipitation in forested areas located in different atmospheric conditions. Compared to those at the rural site, the monthly volume-weighted pH values at the urban site were not significantly (p>0.05) different for WP, higher (p 0.05) different for TF, lower (p<0.01) for SF, and lower (p<0.01) for FW. The order of mean pH values at the urban site was FWrural site was FWurban site were higher than those at the rural site in all samples and all chemical species. In particular, higher NO(3)(-) concentrations at the urban site were observed in all samples. The amount of dry deposition on leaves at the urban site was approximately 1.17 times larger than that at the rural site. The monthly net TF (=TF-BP) in autumn seemed to be larger than that in summer; this trend was remarkable in K(+). The monthly NO(3)(-) deposition in the net TF was larger at the urban site than at other parameters and at the rural site. The concentrations of chemical species in aerosol and gases that were measured near the central part of Kobe City were ca. 3.4 times higher than those in the rural area. Mt. Rokko borders the central part of the city, which caused the concentrations at Mt. Rokko to be higher than those at Mt. Awaga. The deposition amounts at Mt. Rokko were larger than those at Mt. Awaga, which probably can be attributed to the higher concentrations of chemical species in atmospheric aerosol and gases.

  19. Relationship of atmospheric pollution characterized by gas (NO2) and particles (PM10) to microbial communities living in bryophytes at three differently polluted sites (rural, urban, and industrial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Caroline; Gilbert, Daniel; Gaudry, André; Franchi, Marielle; Nguyen, Hung Viet; Fabure, Juliette; Bernard, Nadine

    2010-02-01

    Atmospheric pollution has become a major problem for modern societies owing to its fatal effects on both human health and ecosystems. We studied the relationships of nitrogen dioxide atmospheric pollution and metal trace elements contained in atmospheric particles which were accumulated in bryophytes to microbial communities of bryophytes at three differently polluted sites in France (rural, urban, and industrial) over an 8-month period. The analysis of bryophytes showed an accumulation of Cr and Fe at the rural site; Cr, Fe, Zn, Cu, Al, and Pb at the urban site; and Fe, Cr, Pb, Al, Sr, Cu, and Zn at the industrial site. During this study, the structure of the microbial communities which is characterized by biomasses of microbial groups evolved differently according to the site. Microalgae, bacteria, rotifers, and testate amoebae biomasses were significantly higher in the rural site. Cyanobacteria biomass was significantly higher at the industrial site. Fungal and ciliate biomasses were significantly higher at the urban and industrial sites for the winter period and higher at the rural site for the spring period. The redundancy analysis showed that the physico-chemical variables ([NO(2)], relative humidity, temperature, and site) and the trace elements which were accumulated in bryophytes ([Cu], [Sr], [Pb]) explained 69.3% of the variance in the microbial community data. Moreover, our results suggest that microbial communities are potential biomonitors of atmospheric pollution. Further research is needed to understand the causal relationship underlined by the observed patterns.

  20. Detailed Comparison of OC/EC Aerosol at an Urban and a Rural Czech Background Site during Summer and Winter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vodička, Petr; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Cusack, Michael; Ždímal, Vladimír

    518-519, JUN 15 (2015), s. 424-433 ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/11/1342 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : carbonaceous aerosol * urban and rural background * organic carbon fractions Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.976, year: 2015

  1. A statistical intercomparison between "urban" and "rural" precipitation chemistry data from greater Manchester and two nearby secondary national network sites in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David S.; Longhurst, James W. S.

    Precipitation chemistry data from a dense urban monitoring network in Greater Manchester, northwest England, were compared with interpolated values from the U.K. secondary national acid deposition monitoring network for the year 1988. Differences were found to be small. However, when data from individual sites from the Greater Manchester network were compared with data from the two nearest secondary national network sites, significant differences were found using simple and complex statistical analyses. Precipitation chemistry at rural sites could be similar to that at urban sites, but the sources of some ions were thought to be different. The synoptic-scale gradients of precipitation chemistry, as shown by the secondary national network, also accounted for some of the differences.

  2. Fine and coarse PM composition and sources in rural and urban sites in Switzerland: local or regional pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguillón, M C; Querol, X; Baltensperger, U; Prévôt, A S H

    2012-06-15

    The chemical composition and sources of ambient particulate matter (PM) in Switzerland were studied. PM(1) and PM(10) samples were collected in winter and summer at an urban background site in Zurich and a rural background site in Payerne. Concentrations of major and trace elements, NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), NH(4)(+), organic and elemental carbon were determined. A subsequent Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis was performed. PM(10) and PM(1) concentrations varied similarly at both sites, with average PM(10) concentrations 24-25 μg/m(3) and 13-14 μg/m(3) in winter and summer, respectively, and average PM(1) concentrations 12-17 μg/m(3) and 6-7 μg/m(3). The influence of local sources was found to be higher in winter. PM was dominated by nitrate and organic matter in winter, and by mineral matter and organic matter in summer. Trace element concentrations related to road traffic (Zn, Cu, Sb, Sn) were higher at Zurich. Concentrations of Tl and Cs, attributed to the influence of a glass industry, were higher at Payerne. The elements mainly present in the coarse fraction were those related to mineral matter and brake and tyre abrasion (Cu, Mn, Ti, Sb, Sr, Bi, Li, La, Nd), and those in the fine fraction were related to high temperature anthropogenic processes (Pb, As, Cd, Tl, Cs). Common PM(1) and PM(1-10) sources identified by PMF were: ammonium nitrate, present in winter, negligible in summer; ammonium sulfate+K(biomass burning)+road traffic; and road traffic itself, related to exhaust emissions in PM(1) and to road dust resuspension in PM(1-10). Size-fraction specific sources were: a PM(1) glass industry source characterized by Cs, Tl, Rb, Li and Na, only present in Payerne; a PM(1) background source characterized by V, Ni, sulfate and Fe; two PM(1-10) mineral-related sources, with higher contribution in summer; a PM(1-10) salt source; and a PM(1-10) organic source, with higher contribution in summer, attributed to bioaerosols. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B

  3. An assessment of atmospheric mercury in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model at an urban site and a rural site in the Great Lakes Region of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Holloway

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative analysis of three atmospheric mercury species – gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0, reactive gaseous mercury (RGHg and particulate mercury (PHg – has been limited to date by lack of ambient measurement data as well as by uncertainties in numerical models and emission inventories. This study employs the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model version 4.6 with mercury chemistry (CMAQ-Hg, to examine how local emissions, meteorology, atmospheric chemistry, and deposition affect mercury concentration and deposition the Great Lakes Region (GLR, and two sites in Wisconsin in particular: the rural Devil's Lake site and the urban Milwaukee site. Ambient mercury exhibits significant biases at both sites. Hg0 is too low in CMAQ-Hg, with the model showing a 6% low bias at the rural site and 36% low bias at the urban site. Reactive mercury (RHg = RGHg + PHg is over-predicted by the model, with annual average biases >250%. Performance metrics for RHg are much worse than for mercury wet deposition, ozone (O3, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, or sulfur dioxide (SO2. Sensitivity simulations to isolate background inflow from regional emissions suggests that oxidation of imported Hg0 dominates model estimates of RHg at the rural study site (91% of base case value, and contributes 55% to the RHg at the urban site (local emissions contribute 45%.

  4. Urban-Rural Temperature Differences in Lagos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent N. Ojeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the hourly air temperature differences between City hall (urban and Okoafo (rural in Lagos, Nigeria, were calculated using one year of meteorological observations, from June 2014 to May 2015. The two sites considered for this work were carefully selected to represent their climate zones. The city core, City hall, is within the Local Climate Zone (LCZ 2 (Compact midrise while the rural location, Okoafo, falls within LCZ B (Scattered Trees in the south-western part on the outskirt of the city. This study is one of very few to investigate urban temperature conditions in Lagos, the largest city in Africa and one of the most rapidly urbanizing megacities in the world; findings show that maximum nocturnal UHI magnitudes in Lagos can exceed 7 °C during the dry season, and during the rainy season, wet soils in the rural environment supersede regional wind speed as the dominant control over UHI magnitude.

  5. Interface between urban and rural

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper

    2007-01-01

      Counterurbanisation combined with recent trends in agricultural technology has resulted in a ‘multifunctional countryside regime', raising new questions on the relation between nature and land use in rural areas and between very different values and interests developing in these areas. Indicators...... for new trends in rural landscapes have been related to a model for urban pressure on rural areas in Denmark however without any convincing results. A model for the historical development of a typical Danish village has been made, to see if the socially differentiated process of counterurbanisation can...... be related to the differentiation in the development of different types of village developments. Such a model can elucidate the potentials of a multifunctional landscape as a basis for a varied and and attractive fulfilment of human needs in an urban-rural continuum....

  6. Connecting rural-urban economies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marianne Nylandsted; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Lazaro, Evelyn

    The interlinked relationships between urban settlements and their rural hinterlands in Sub-Saharan Africa are perceived crucial in enhancing possibilities for livelihood diversification and poverty reduction. Urban settlements provide opportunities for investment in more remunerative economic...... are based on data from multiple sources, including a survey of 695 households and interviews with 35 businesses in the rural hinterlands of the two EUCs. The EUCs have experienced rapid population growth and attracted new investments in businesses by both migrants and the indigenous population in an effort...

  7. Rural Urban Interaction to Cope with Climate Change (Nigeria ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    . Site internet. http://www.nest.org.ng/. Extrants. Rapports. Triggering Rural-Urban Interactions to Cope With Climate Change: An Adaptation Experiment In Aba and its Region, Southeastern Nigeria - Final Technical Report. Rapports.

  8. Demography, Urbanization and Development : Rural Push, Urban Pull and ... Urban Push?

    OpenAIRE

    Jedwab, Remi; Christiaensen, Luc; Gindelsky, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Developing countries have urbanized rapidly since 1950. To explain urbanization, standard models emphasize rural-urban migration, focusing on rural push factors (agricultural modernization and rural poverty) and urban pull factors (industrialization and urban-biased policies). Using new historical data on urban birth and death rates for seven countries from Industrial Europe (1800–1910) an...

  9. ADJUSTMENT OF RURAL YOUTH TO URBAN ENVIRONMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHIFFMAN, BERNARD M.

    OUR POPULATION HAS BEEN SHIFTING FROM RURAL TO URBAN CENTERS FOR SEVENTY YEARS, REFLECTED BY THE FACT THAT IN 1900, 78 PERCENT OF THE POPULATION LIVED IN RURAL AREAS, IN CONTRAST TO 33 PERCENT IN 1960. THESE STATISTICS REVEAL THAT ALL PEOPLE, AND ESPECIALLY RURAL YOUTH, MUST LEARN TO LIVE IN A CHANGING URBAN ENVIRONMENT. IT IS A MISTAKE TO…

  10. Rural areas under urban pressure in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, M.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this Introduction paper, I will describe the motivation behind this special issue on the role of rural-urban relationships in preserving the rural landscape in Europe. Based on the RURBAN project 'Building new relationships in rural areas under urban pressure', the special issue aims to identify

  11. Echocardiogram Utilization Among Rural and Urban Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okrah, Kingston; Vaughan-Sarrazin, Mary; Kaboli, Peter; Cram, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To compare echocardiography use among urban and rural veterans and whether differences could be accounted for by distance. Methods We used Veterans Administration (VA) administrative data from 1999 to 2007 to identify regular users of the VA Healthcare System (VA users) who did and did not receive echocardiography. Each veteran was categorized as residing in urban, rural or highly rural areas using RUCA codes. Poisson regression was used to compare echocardiography utilization rates among veterans residing in each area after adjusting for demographics, comorbidities, clustering of patients within VA networks and distance to the nearest VA medical center offering echocardiography. Findings Our study included 22.7 million veterans of whom 1.3 million (5.7%) received at least one echocardiogram. Of echocardiography recipients, 69.2% lived in urban, 22.0% in rural and 8.8% in highly rural areas. In analyses adjusting for patient demographics, comorbidities, and clustering, utilization of echocardiography was modestly lower for highly rural and rural veterans compared with urban veterans (42.0 vs 40.1 vs 43.1 echocardiograms per 1,000 VA users per year for highly rural, rural and urban, respectively; P rural and rural areas than it was for urban areas (44.9 vs 41.8 vs 40.8 for highly rural, rural and urban, respectively; P rural and highly rural veterans was marginally lower than for urban veterans, but these differences can be accounted for by the greater distance of more rural veterans from facilities offering echocardiograms. PMID:22236338

  12. Breastfeeding practices in urban and rural Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thu Huong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to describe and compare breastfeeding practices in rural and urban areas of Vietnam and to study associations with possibly influencing person and household factors. This type of study has not been conducted in Vietnam before. Methods Totally 2,690 children, born from 1st March 2008 to 30th June 2010 in one rural and one urban Health and Demographic Surveillance Site, were followed from birth to the age of 12 months. Information about demography, economy and education for persons and households was obtained from household surveys. Standard statistical methods including survival and regression analyses were used. Results Initiation of breastfeeding during the first hour of life was more frequent in the urban area compared to the rural (boys 40% vs. 35%, girls 49% vs. 40%. High birth weight and living in households with large number of assets significantly increased the probability for early initiation of breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfeeding at three months of age was more commonly reported in the rural than in the urban area (boys 58% vs. 46%, girls 65% vs. 53%. The duration of exclusive breastfeeding as well as of any breastfeeding was longer in the rural area than in the urban area (medians for boys 97 days vs. 81 days, for girls 102 days vs. 91 days. The percentages of children with exclusive breastfeeding lasting at least 6 months, as recommended by WHO, were low in both areas. The duration of exclusive breastfeeding was significantly shorter for mothers with three or more antenatal care visits or Caesarean section in both areas. High education level of mothers was associated with longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding in the rural area. No significant associations were found between duration of exclusive breastfeeding and mother’s age, household economy indicators or household size. Conclusion Intervention programs with the aim to promote breastfeeding are needed. Mothers should

  13. Breastfeeding practices in urban and rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thu, Huong Nguyen; Eriksson, Bo; Khanh, Toan Tran; Petzold, Max; Bondjers, Göran; Kim, Chuc Nguyen Thi; Thanh, Liem Nguyen; Ascher, Henry

    2012-11-12

    The aim of this study was to describe and compare breastfeeding practices in rural and urban areas of Vietnam and to study associations with possibly influencing person and household factors. This type of study has not been conducted in Vietnam before. Totally 2,690 children, born from 1st March 2008 to 30th June 2010 in one rural and one urban Health and Demographic Surveillance Site, were followed from birth to the age of 12 months. Information about demography, economy and education for persons and households was obtained from household surveys. Standard statistical methods including survival and regression analyses were used. Initiation of breastfeeding during the first hour of life was more frequent in the urban area compared to the rural (boys 40% vs. 35%, girls 49% vs. 40%). High birth weight and living in households with large number of assets significantly increased the probability for early initiation of breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfeeding at three months of age was more commonly reported in the rural than in the urban area (boys 58% vs. 46%, girls 65% vs. 53%). The duration of exclusive breastfeeding as well as of any breastfeeding was longer in the rural area than in the urban area (medians for boys 97 days vs. 81 days, for girls 102 days vs. 91 days). The percentages of children with exclusive breastfeeding lasting at least 6 months, as recommended by WHO, were low in both areas. The duration of exclusive breastfeeding was significantly shorter for mothers with three or more antenatal care visits or Caesarean section in both areas. High education level of mothers was associated with longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding in the rural area. No significant associations were found between duration of exclusive breastfeeding and mother's age, household economy indicators or household size. Intervention programs with the aim to promote breastfeeding are needed. Mothers should particularly be informed about the importance of starting breastfeeding

  14. Comparison of Submicron Particles at a Rural and an Urban Site in the North China Plain during the December 2016 Heavy Pollution Episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaojing; Sun, Junying; Zhang, Xiaoye; Zhang, Yangmei; Wang, Yaqiang; Tan, Kaiyan; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Lu; Qi, Xuefei; Che, Haochi; Zhang, Zhouxiang; Zhong, Junting; Zhao, Huarong; Ren, Sanxue

    2018-02-01

    An extensive field experiment for measurement of physical and chemical properties of aerosols was conducted at an urban site in the Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences (CAMS) in Beijing and at a rural site in Gucheng (GC), Hebei Province in December 2016. This paper compares the number size distribution of submicron particle matter (PM1, diameter PM1 number concentration at GC was twice that at CAMS, and the mass concentration was three times the amount at CAMS. It is found that the accumulation mode (100-850 nm) particles constituted the largest fraction of PM1 at GC, which was significantly correlated with the local coal combustion, as confirmed by a significant relationship between the accumulation mode and the absorption coefficient of soot particles. The high PM1 concentration at GC prevented the occurrence of new particle formation (NPF) events, while eight such events were observed at CAMS. During the NPF events, the mass fraction of sulfate increased significantly, indicating that sulfate played an important role in NPF. The contribution of regional transport to PM1 mass concentration was approximately 50% at both sites, same as that of the local emission. However, during the red-alert period when emission control took place, the contribution of regional transport was notably higher.

  15. Particle size, chemical composition, seasons of the year and urban, rural or remote site origins as determinants of biological effects of particulate matter on pulmonary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, M G; Gualtieri, M; Consonni, V; Ferrero, L; Sangiorgi, G; Longhin, E; Ballabio, D; Bolzacchini, E; Camatini, M

    2013-05-01

    Particulate matter (PM), a complex mix of chemical compounds, results to be associated with various health effects. However there is still lack of information on the impact of its different components. PM2.5 and PM1 samples, collected during the different seasons at an urban, rural and remote site, were chemically characterized and the biological effects induced on A549 cells were assessed. A Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis has been performed to relate PM chemical composition to the toxic effects observed. Results show that PM-induced biological effects changed with the seasons and sites, and such variations may be explained by chemical constituents of PM, derived both from primary and secondary sources. The first-time here reported biological responses induced by PM from a remote site at high altitude were associated with the high concentrations of metals and secondary species typical of the free tropospheric aerosol, influenced by long range transports and aging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Rural EMR adoption rates overtake those in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitacre, Brian E

    2015-03-01

    To assess rural-urban differences in electronic medical record (EMR) adoption among office-based physician practices in the United States. Survey data on over 270 000 office-based physician sites (representing over 1 280 000 physicians) in the United States from 2012 was used to assess differences in EMR adoption rates among practices in rural and urban areas. Logistic regression tests for differences in the determinants of EMR adoption by geography, and a nonlinear decomposition is used to quantify how much of the rural-urban gap is due to differences in measureable characteristics (such as type of practice or affiliation with a health system). Overall EMR adoption rates were significantly higher for practices in rural areas (56%) vs those in urban areas (49%) in 2012 (P rural and urban areas, with only two states demonstrating higher rates in urban areas. EMR adoption continues to be higher for primary care practices when compared to specialists (51% vs 49%, P rural-urban differences in adoption are more pronounced for specialists. The decomposition technique finds that only 14% of the rural-urban gap can be explained by differences in measurable characteristics between practices. At the national level, rates of EMR adoption are higher for rural practices than for their urban counterparts, reversing earlier trends. This suggests that outreach efforts, namely the Regional Extension Centers created by the Office of the National Coordinator, have been particularly effective in increasing EMR adoption in rural areas. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Determination of Urban Thermal Characteristics on an Urban/Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explores the potential of multispectral remotely sensed dataset in determining the influence of rural/urban LULC gradient on urban thermal characteristics. A rectangular eleven band Landsat 8 image subset was delineated from the central business district to the rural periphery and classified into most dominant ...

  18. Rural-urban migration and urban unemployment in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigbokhan, B E

    1988-01-01

    This paper argues that urban unemployment in Nigeria has been due largely to a failure on the part of the government to pursue policies that reflect commitment on its part to its stated objectives, particularly with regard to employment opportunities. Rural-urban migration has been taking place in the country since the 1960s and at an increasing rate since the 1970s. Economic policies have contributed to this, notably the rural-urban imbalance resulting from the pattern of allocation of public investment expenditures and the wages determination process which tends to concentrate more on the urban sector. These have contributed to the widening urban-rural income differentials. In the face of such migration, the urban industrial sector has been able to absorb only a negligible proportion of migrants. A major factor that has contributed to this is the increased capital-intensity of the sector. Some laudable measures have been introduced this year, notably the establishment of the Directorate of Employment and the Directorate of Food, Road, and Rural infrastructure. The latter, if effectively implemented, should enhance rural income and thereby reduce the rural-urban income gap. The former should reduce the problem of open unemployment. While it is too early to assess the effects of these 2 measures on urban unemployment, they may not improve urban unemployment significantly. There is still the need to design policies to increase labor absorption in general.

  19. Compelling Factors of Urbanization and Rural-Urban Migration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cntaganda

    Abstract. This article illustrates the policy intricacies of post-war reconstruction in contemporary Africa. It specifically examines the often neglected effects of rural- urban migration on urbanization and development in Rwanda after the genocide of. 1994. Given the waves of urbanization caused by refugees returning to ...

  20. Rural Dimensions of Homelessness: A Rural-Urban Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooe, Roger M.; Cunningham, Maryanne Lynch

    1992-01-01

    Compared homelessness among persons in a metropolitan setting based on whether or not the person had migrated from a rural area. Found that those from rural areas had a lower level of educational achievement, experienced a higher degree of isolation from families, and frequently had come to the urban area seeking jobs. (KS)

  1. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF AMBIENT FINE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM2.5) DATA OBTAINED FROM URBAN AND RURAL MONITORING SITES ALONG THE UPPER OHIO RIVER VALLEY; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2002-01-01

    The report discusses the following conclusions: (1) The TEOM equipment performed as well as the sequential filter samplers in accounting for ambient PM(sub 2.5) levels; however, the FRM-obtained data was consistently lower than the averages from the TEOM/DRI-SFS measurements; (2) The trending in the PM(sub 2.5) levels was similar for Lawrenceville and Holbrook, which represent an urban and a rural site sixty-five miles apart. This implies that the PM(sub 2.5) levels appear to be impacted more by regional than by local effects; (3) The absolute median PM(sub 2.5) levels were slightly higher for Lawrenceville than for Holbrook, implying that local urban environmental contributions had a minor but measurable effect on total PM(sub 2.5) mass concentration; (4) PM(sub 2.5) and PM(sub 10) mass concentration levels were consistently higher in summer than in winter, with intermediate levels observed in the spring and fall; (5) Sulfate levels predominated in the speciation data obtained from both the Holbrook and the Lawrenceville sites during winter and summer intensive sampling. Sulfate level measured at Holbrook were higher than those taken at Lawrenceville regardless of the season; (6) Ammonium levels remained relatively constant between seasons and between sites; (7) Nitrate levels measured at Lawrenceville were higher than those measured at Holbrook during winter intensive sampling. Nitrate levels measured during the summer intensive period were found to be very low at both locations; (8) In general, the predominant inorganic fraction of the samples analyzed could be described as being composed of a mixture of ammonium bisulfate and ammonium sulfate with minor amounts of ammonium nitrate; (9) The PM10 fraction had a larger percentage of geological material and a smaller percentage of condensable material (ammonium bisulfate, ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate and total carbon species) than the PM(sub 2.5) fraction for samples collected in winter at Lawrenceville; and

  2. CVD prevention strategies with urban and rural African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Armenia; Wold, Judith; Dunkin, Jeri; Idleman, Lynda; Jackson, Cennette

    2004-08-01

    Using Pender's Health Promotion Model, this study tested a work site cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor reduction intervention among low-income African American (LAAW) women. Individual CVD risk profiles were identified at the work site through (1) health risk appraisal, (2) blood pressure measurement, (3) body mass index calculation, (4) individual interviews about diet and exercise behaviors, and (5) total cholesterol analysis. Two LAAW groups, one urban and one rural, exhibited higher or similar pretest CVD relative risks (RR) when statistically compared with a national sample of African American women. The LAAW study samples were younger and more educated. Pretest cholesterol and fat intake for the rural women were higher than for the urban women (<.05). Posttest changes in cholesterol and fat intake risks were more significant in rural LAAW than in urban LAAW (<.05).

  3. Rural Growth and Urban Newcomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliegel, Frederick C.; Sofranko, Andrew J.

    1980-01-01

    Compares the attitudes of newcomers to rural areas from cities with those of rural newcomers and rural residents on several growth and development issues. The research suggests that rural newcomers may be more likely to function as advocates of change in a local situation than former urbanites. (Author/CT)

  4. Rural-Urban Partnering in Continuing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malay, Michael E.; Moore, Jayne F.

    2002-01-01

    Interactive television was used to deliver instruction on advanced cardiac life support to rural health care providers. The partnership between rural and urban hospitals enabled the provision of high-quality, cost-effective continuing education to geographically isolated populations. (SK)

  5. Rural Push, Urban Pull and... Urban Push? New Historical Evidence from Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Remi Jedwab; Luc Christiaensen; Marina Gindelsky

    2014-01-01

    Standard models explain urbanization by rural-urban migration in response to an (expected) urban-rural wage gap. The Green Revolution and rural poverty constitute rural push factors of migration. The Industrial Revolution and the urban bias are urban pull factors. This paper offers an additional demographic mechanism, based on internal urban population growth, i.e. an urban push. Using newly compiled historical data on urban birth and death rates for 7 countries from Industrial Europe (1800-1...

  6. Dimensions of Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill in the General Population Stability and Change over Time at Urban and Rural Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, Tom; Sørensen, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Items measuring attitudes toward the mentally ill can be limited in relevance to a particular period or place. The main objective of the study was to provide evidence toward a questionnaire that was short and psychometrically stable over time and geography, and that could be used within comprehensive mental health surveys of general populations. Four rural samples, Lofoten 1983 (n = 470), 1990 (n = 947), 2000 (n = 864), and Valdres 2010 (n = 772), and two urban samples, Oslo 1990 (n = 948) an...

  7. Patterns and sources of particle-phase aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban and rural sites of western Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaitzoglou, Maria; Terzi, Eleni; Samara, Constantini

    Particle-bound aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (AHs and PAHs, respectively) were determined in the ambient air of the Eordea basin, in western Greece, where intensive coal burning for power generation takes place. Thirteen PAHs, n-alkanes (C 14-C 35), hopanes, and isoprenoid hydrocarbons (pristane and phytane) were determined in the total suspended particles collected from the atmosphere of four sites within the basin receiving potential impacts from various sources, such as fly ash, coal mining, automobile traffic, domestic heating, and agricultural or refuse burning. The same organic species were also determined in the fly ash generated in power stations, and in particulate emissions from open burning of biomass (dry corn leaves) and refuse burning. Organic particle sources were resolved using concentration diagnostic ratios and factor analysis (FA). A multivariate statistical receptor model (Absolute Principal Component Analysis, APCA) was finally employed to estimate the contribution of identified sources to the measured concentrations of organic pollutants. Four major sources for ambient PAHs and AHs were identified displaying variable contribution in different sites: (a) fossil fuel combustion, (b) biogenic emissions, (c) refuse burning, and (d) oil residues. Fuel combustion was the major source of ambient PAHs and an important source of n-alkanes in the range C 21-C 28. Oil residues were found to be the major source of low molecular weight n-alkanes (particularly the C 14-C 16), and an important source of pristane, phytane and UCM. Biogenic sources were primarily responsible for the high molecular weight n-alkanes explaining almost the entire concentration levels of homologues >C 32. Biomass burning was particularly important for the C 23-C 26n-alkanes. Despite the vicinity of certain sampling sites to power stations, coal fly ash was not identifiable as a source for ambient PAHs and AHs.

  8. Long-term study of VOCs measured with PTR-MS at a rural site in New Hampshire with urban influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, C.; Fitz, E.; Hagan, T.; Sive, B.; Frinak, E.; Haase, K.; Cottrell, L.; Buckley, S.; Talbot, R.

    2009-07-01

    A long-term, high time-resolution volatile organic compound (VOC) data set from a ground site that experiences urban, rural, and marine influences in the Northeastern United States is presented. A proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) was used to quantify 15 VOCs: a marine tracer dimethyl sulfide (DMS), a biomass burning tracer acetonitrile, biogenic compounds (monoterpenes, isoprene), oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs: methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) plus methacrolein (MACR), methanol, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), acetaldehyde, and acetic acid), and aromatic compounds (benzene, toluene, C8 and C9 aromatics). Time series, overall and seasonal medians, with 10th and 90th percentiles, seasonal mean diurnal profiles, and inter-annual comparisons of mean summer and winter diurnal profiles are shown. Methanol and acetone exhibit the highest overall median mixing ratios 1.44 and 1.02 ppbv, respectively. Comparing the mean diurnal profiles of less well understood compounds (e.g., MEK) with better known compounds (e.g., isoprene, monoterpenes, and MVK + MACR) that undergo various controls on their atmospheric mixing ratios provides insight into possible sources of the lesser known compounds. The constant diurnal value of ~0.7 for the toluene:benzene ratio in winter, may possibly indicate the influence of wood-based heating systems in this region. Methanol exhibits an initial early morning release in summer unlike any other OVOC (or isoprene) and a dramatic late afternoon mixing ratio increase in spring. Although several of the OVOCs appear to have biogenic sources, differences in features observed between isoprene, methanol, acetone, acetaldehyde, and MEK suggest they are produced or emitted in unique ways.

  9. Long-term study of VOCs measured with PTR-MS at a rural site in New Hampshire with urban influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Talbot

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A long-term, high time-resolution volatile organic compound (VOC data set from a ground site that experiences urban, rural, and marine influences in the Northeastern United States is presented. A proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS was used to quantify 15 VOCs: a marine tracer dimethyl sulfide (DMS, a biomass burning tracer acetonitrile, biogenic compounds (monoterpenes, isoprene, oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs: methyl vinyl ketone (MVK plus methacrolein (MACR, methanol, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK, acetaldehyde, and acetic acid, and aromatic compounds (benzene, toluene, C8 and C9 aromatics. Time series, overall and seasonal medians, with 10th and 90th percentiles, seasonal mean diurnal profiles, and inter-annual comparisons of mean summer and winter diurnal profiles are shown. Methanol and acetone exhibit the highest overall median mixing ratios 1.44 and 1.02 ppbv, respectively. Comparing the mean diurnal profiles of less well understood compounds (e.g., MEK with better known compounds (e.g., isoprene, monoterpenes, and MVK + MACR that undergo various controls on their atmospheric mixing ratios provides insight into possible sources of the lesser known compounds. The constant diurnal value of ~0.7 for the toluene:benzene ratio in winter, may possibly indicate the influence of wood-based heating systems in this region. Methanol exhibits an initial early morning release in summer unlike any other OVOC (or isoprene and a dramatic late afternoon mixing ratio increase in spring. Although several of the OVOCs appear to have biogenic sources, differences in features observed between isoprene, methanol, acetone, acetaldehyde, and MEK suggest they are produced or emitted in unique ways.

  10. Overview of the LADCO winter nitrate study: hourly ammonia, nitric acid and PM2.5 composition at an urban and rural site pair during PM2.5 episodes in the US Great Lakes region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shaw

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the LADCO (Lake Michigan Air Directors Consortium Winter Nitrate Study (WNS is presented. Sampling was conducted at ground level at an urban-rural pair of sites during January–March 2009 in eastern Wisconsin, toward the western edge of the US Great Lakes region. Areas surrounding these sites experience multiday episodes of wintertime PM2.5 pollution characterized by high fractions of ammonium nitrate in PM, low wind speeds, and air mass stagnation. Hourly surface monitoring of inorganic gases and aerosols supplemented long-term 24-h aerosol chemistry monitoring at these locations. The urban site (Milwaukee, WI experienced 13 PM2.5 episodes, defined as periods where the seven-hour moving average PM2.5 concentration exceeded 27 μg m−3 for at least four consecutive hours. The rural site experienced seven episodes by the same metric, and all rural episodes coincided with urban episodes. Episodes were characterized by low pressure systems, shallow/stable boundary layer, light winds, and increased temperature and relative humidity relative to climatological mean conditions. They often occurred in the presence of regional snow cover at temperatures near freezing, when snow melt and sublimation could generate fog and strengthen the boundary layer inversion. Substantial contribution to nitrate production from nighttime chemistry of ozone and NO2 to N2O5 and nitric acid is likely and requires further investigation. Pollutant-specific urban excess during episode and non-episode conditions is presented. The largest remaining uncertainties in the conceptual model of the wintertime episodes are the variability from episode-to-episode in ammonia emissions, the balance of daytime and nighttime nitrate production, the relationship between ammonia controls, NOx controls and ammonium nitrate reductions, and the extent to which snow and fog are causal (either through meteorological or chemical processes rather than just correlated with episodes

  11. Intellectually Gifted Rural-to-Urban Migrant Children's Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; He, Yunfeng; Tao, Ting; Shi, Jian-Nong

    2016-01-01

    The term "intellectually gifted rural-to-urban migrant children" refers to intellectually gifted children who are in migration from rural to urban areas. We compared performances on seven attention tasks among intellectually gifted (n = 26) and average (n = 30) rural-to-urban migrant and intellectually gifted urban children (n = 31). Our…

  12. Urban and rural land use in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian Martinuzzi; William A. Gould; Olga M. Ramos Gonzalez; Maya Quinones; Michael E. Jimenez

    2008-01-01

    We have developed three land use regions for Puerto Rico: Urban, Suburban, and Rural (Gould et al. 2008; Martinuzzi et al. 2007). These three regions can also be considered urban, densely-populated rural, and sparsely-populated rural or as urban and wildland with a wildland-urban interface. The suburban use is the most dynamic in terms of population growth and land...

  13. Urban-rural migration and cultural transformation of rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Helle

    Rural areas are presently challenged by various restructuring processes; functionally and economically with changes in employment structure etc. as well as social and cultural transformations due to demographic change, population loss but also due to in-migration. This paper addresses how rural...... communities change due to urban-rural migration by investigating reasons and motivations that influence migration decisions, studying relations between newcomers and local residents and exploring social relations and sense of belonging.  The study applies a biographical approach seeking to demonstrate...

  14. Entrepreneurship within Urban and Rural Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freire-Gibb, L. Carlos; Nielsen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    , utilizing responses from 1,108 entrepreneurs and 420 non-entrepreneurs. Creativity is only found to be relevant for start-up in urban areas, but it does not influence survival in any of the two areas. The social network matters, in particular in rural areas. By combining the person and the environment......The entrepreneurial dynamics of urban and rural areas are different, and this paper explores creativity and social networks factors in both places. The probabilities of becoming an entrepreneur and of surviving are analyzed. The results are based on longitudinal data combined with a questionnaire......, common entrepreneurship beliefs can be questioned and entrepreneurship theory benefited....

  15. Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ) Urban-Rural Population Estimates, Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project (GRUMP), Alpha Version

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ) Urban-Rural Estimates consists of country-level estimates of urban, rural and total population and land area country-wide and...

  16. Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ) Urban-Rural Population Estimates, Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project (GRUMP), Alpha Version

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ) Urban-Rural Population Estimates consists of country-level estimates of urban, rural and total population and land area...

  17. Liberalizing rural-to-urban construction land transfers in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Rong; Wang, Rongyu; Heerink, Nico

    2018-01-01

    China's land market is characterized by a dual urban-rural system, with the government in control of rural-urban land transfers. In recent years, different types of pilot projects have been implemented to experiment with liberalizing markets for rural-urban construction land transfers. The objective

  18. Rural and Urban Social Work Comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, John; Smith, Marshall L.; Hull, Grafton H., Jr.; Ray, JoAnn

    1995-01-01

    Survey of 2,006 graduates with at least a bachelor's degree in social work (BSW) (86% female, 88% White, average age 34) found that, compared to urban workers, rural social workers were more likely to be White; had fewer master's degrees and lower incomes; were more satisfied with their BSW preparation; and showed greater community involvement.…

  19. Strategies for Sustainable Urban Development and Urban-Rural Linkages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Kjell; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Aalbers, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    , identified how land use conflicts and the pressure towards peri- urban areas can be strategically managed in different development and regulatory contexts. To summarise, the following strategies were identified as important steps towards more sustainable urban-rural futures: (i) better coordination...... of transport, land use and open space planning; (ii) urban containment and densification – development a green compact city; (iii) preservation of blue and green infrastructure; and (iv) preservation of agricultural land and the promotion of local production. The need also remains to strengthen governance...

  20. The effect of long-range air mass transport pathways on PM10 and NO2 concentrations at urban and rural background sites in Ireland: Quantification using clustering techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Aoife A; Broderick, Brian M; Misstear, Bruce D

    2015-01-01

    The specific aims of this paper are to: (i) quantify the effects of various long range transport pathways nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter with diameter less than 10μm (PM10) concentrations in Ireland and identify air mass movement corridors which may lead to incidences poor air quality for application in forecasting; (ii) compare the effects of such pathways at various sites; (iii) assess pathways associated with a period of decreased air quality in Ireland. The origin of and the regions traversed by an air mass 96h prior to reaching a receptor is modelled and k-means clustering is applied to create air-mass groups. Significant differences in air pollution levels were found between air mass cluster types at urban and rural sites. It was found that easterly or recirculated air masses lead to higher NO2 and PM10 levels with average NO2 levels varying between 124% and 239% of the seasonal mean and average PM10 levels varying between 103% and 199% of the seasonal mean at urban and rural sites. Easterly air masses are more frequent during winter months leading to higher overall concentrations. The span in relative concentrations between air mass clusters is highest at the rural site indicating that regional factors are controlling concentration levels. The methods used in this paper could be applied to assist in modelling and forecasting air quality based on long range transport pathways and forecast meteorology without the requirement for detailed emissions data over a large regional domain or the use of computationally demanding modelling techniques.

  1. Strategies for Sustainable Urban Development and Urban-Rural Linkages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Kjell; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Aalbers, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    An important driving force behind urban expansion is the growth of the urban population. But for Europe, this is not a sufficient explanation. The major trend is that European cities have become much less compact. Since the mid-1950s European cities have expanded on average by 78%, whereas......, identified how land use conflicts and the pressure towards peri- urban areas can be strategically managed in different development and regulatory contexts. To summarise, the following strategies were identified as important steps towards more sustainable urban-rural futures: (i) better coordination...... the population has grown by only 33%. In the PLUREL project - an integrated project within the EU’s 6th Research Framework Programme - more than 100 researchers from 15 countries analysed the impacts of urban land consumption at a pan-European level and, through six European and one Chinese case studies...

  2. The Vermont model for rural HIV care delivery: eleven years of outcome data comparing urban and rural clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Christopher; Kutzko, Deborah; Alston, W Kemper; Ramundo, Mary; Polish, Louis; Osler, Turner

    2010-01-01

    Provision of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care in rural areas has encountered unique barriers. To compare medical outcomes of care provided at 3 HIV specialty clinics in rural Vermont with that provided at an urban HIV specialty clinic. This was a retrospective cohort study. Over an 11-year period 363 new patients received care, including 223 in the urban clinic and 140 in the rural clinics. Patients in the 2 cohorts were demographically similar and had similar initial CD4 counts and viral loads. There was no difference between the urban and rural clinic patients receiving Pneumocystis carinii prophylaxis (83.5% vs 86%, P= .38) or antiretroviral therapy (96.8% vs 97.5%, P= .79). Both rural and urban cohorts had similar decreases in median viral load from 1996 to 2006 (3,876 copies/mL to vs 8,331 copies/mL to vs 16%-71.4%, P= .11). Rural and urban cohorts had similar increases in median CD4 counts (275/mm(3)-350/mm(3) vs 182 cells/mm(3)-379/mm(3)). A repeated measures regression analysis showed that neither fall in viral load (P= .91) nor rise in CD4 count (P= .64) were associated with urban versus rural site of care. Survival times, using a Cox proportional hazards model, were similar for urban and rural patients (hazard ratio for urban = 0.80 [95% CI, 0.39-1.61; P= .53]). This urban outreach model provides similar quality of care to persons receiving care in rural areas of Vermont as compared to those receiving care in the urban center.

  3. Urban Agriculture: Search for Agricultural Practice in Urbanized Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celile Özçiçek Dölekoğlu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization in developing countries involves unplanned migration, unemployment and poverty. The steady shrinking of rural areas and the use of agricultural land for other purposes are progressively increasing the pressure on natural resources. This development on the one hand increases the risk to food security, and on the other triggers climate change. The rural population who migrate to the cities or who are absorbed into urban areas continue their agricultural activities in the urban in order to provide themselves with an income or to maintain their food security. In the big cities of the developed world, contact with nature is kept by means of hobby gardens, recreational areas and urban and suburban plant and animal farming, and creative ideas such as roof gardens can be found. This development, known as urban agriculture, is practiced by 800 million people in the world. Urban agriculture has many economic, social and environmental benefits, but it may also have risks and adverse effects. In this study, the developments in this area in Turkey and the world are presented, and all aspects of its effects and outcomes are discussed.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Households Solid Waste Management in Rural and Urban Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appiah, Divine Odame; Poku, Adjoa Afriyie; Garsonu, Emmanuel Kofi

    2016-01-01

    The comparative analysis of solid waste management between rural and urban Ghana is largely lacking. This study investigated the solid waste situation and the organisation of solid waste management in both urban and rural settings from the perspective of households. The study employed cross-sectional survey covering both rural and urban districts in the Ashanti and Greater Accra Regions of Ghana. The study systematically sampled houses from which 400 households and respondents were randomly selected. Pearson's Chi square test was used to compare demographic and socioeconomic variables in rural and urban areas. Multivariate Test, Tests of Between-Subjects Effects, and Pair-Wise Comparisons were performed through one-way MANOVA to determine whether or not solid waste situations in rural and urban areas are significantly different. The results revealed that location significantly affects solid waste management in Ghana. Urban communities had lower mean scores than rural communities for poor solid waste situation in homes. However, urban communities had higher mean scores than rural communities for poor solid waste situation in principal streets and dumping sites. The study recommends that the local government authorities implement very comprehensive policies (sanitary inspection, infrastructure development, and community participation) that will take into consideration the specific solid waste management needs of both urban and rural areas. PMID:27807453

  5. Comparative Analysis of Households Solid Waste Management in Rural and Urban Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boateng, Simon; Amoako, Prince; Appiah, Divine Odame; Poku, Adjoa Afriyie; Garsonu, Emmanuel Kofi

    2016-01-01

    The comparative analysis of solid waste management between rural and urban Ghana is largely lacking. This study investigated the solid waste situation and the organisation of solid waste management in both urban and rural settings from the perspective of households. The study employed cross-sectional survey covering both rural and urban districts in the Ashanti and Greater Accra Regions of Ghana. The study systematically sampled houses from which 400 households and respondents were randomly selected. Pearson's Chi square test was used to compare demographic and socioeconomic variables in rural and urban areas. Multivariate Test, Tests of Between-Subjects Effects, and Pair-Wise Comparisons were performed through one-way MANOVA to determine whether or not solid waste situations in rural and urban areas are significantly different. The results revealed that location significantly affects solid waste management in Ghana. Urban communities had lower mean scores than rural communities for poor solid waste situation in homes. However, urban communities had higher mean scores than rural communities for poor solid waste situation in principal streets and dumping sites. The study recommends that the local government authorities implement very comprehensive policies (sanitary inspection, infrastructure development, and community participation) that will take into consideration the specific solid waste management needs of both urban and rural areas.

  6. education as a means of smooth rural-urban migration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Etsub [ ETSUB

    urban socio-economic problems, can be achieved by making quality education a ... rural surplus labor. This led to a decline in the share of rural population in Western. Europe. Rural-urban migration is believed to help reallocate resources, .... analysis gives a particular emphasis to the role of education in inducing smooth.

  7. Rural Medicine Realities: The Impact of Immersion on Urban-Based Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Allison M; Jeter, Karie; Mullins, Samantha; Shadoan, Amber; Ziegler, Craig; Crump, William J

    2017-05-02

    The purpose of our study was to determine what effect a rural-based 8-week surgical clerkship during the third year of medical school in a rural setting has on students' opinions about rural living and practice. Thirty-three third-year medical students completed a rural health opinion survey at the beginning and end of their 8-week rural rotation and a survey measuring their interest in rural practice after the rotation. The setting was a rural hospital with an average acute care census of 100 that is a regional referral center for 5 rural counties. Urban campus-based students had a statistically significant positive change in opinions about rural comfortable living, availability of quality services, community support, and medical resources. The urban campus-based students also showed a significantly increased interest in small town practice after the rotation. Our hypothesis that urban-based students would report an increased level of rural community support at the end of the rotation was confirmed. These urban-based students also reported positive opinions about rural living and practice. The students primarily based at the urban campus also showed a statistically significant more positive attitude toward pursuing a career in a small town after the 8-week experience. This suggests that brief rural immersion experiences may make the larger student pool at an urban campus available to address rural workforce challenges. Future studies at multiple rural sites with a larger sample size are needed to confirm this possibility. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.

  8. Contrasting responses of urban and rural surface energy budgets to heat waves explain synergies between urban heat islands and heat waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dan; Sun, Ting; Liu, Maofeng; Yang, Long; Wang, Linlin; Gao, Zhiqiu

    2015-01-01

    Heat waves (HWs) are projected to become more frequent and last longer over most land areas in the late 21st century, which raises serious public health concerns. Urban residents face higher health risks due to synergies between HWs and urban heat islands (UHIs) (i.e., UHIs are higher under HW conditions). However, the responses of urban and rural surface energy budgets to HWs are still largely unknown. This study analyzes observations from two flux towers in Beijing, China and reveals significant differences between the responses of urban and rural (cropland) ecosystems to HWs. It is found that UHIs increase significantly during HWs, especially during the nighttime, implying synergies between HWs and UHIs. Results indicate that the urban site receives more incoming shortwave radiation and longwave radiation due to HWs as compared to the rural site, resulting in a larger radiative energy input into the urban surface energy budget. Changes in turbulent heat fluxes also diverge strongly for the urban site and the rural site: latent heat fluxes increase more significantly at the rural site due to abundant available water, while sensible heat fluxes and possibly heat storage increase more at the urban site. These comparisons suggest that the contrasting responses of urban and rural surface energy budgets to HWs are responsible for the synergies between HWs and UHIs. As a result, urban mitigation and adaption strategies such as the use of green roofs and white roofs are needed in order to mitigate the impact of these synergies. (letter)

  9. Disparities in Prevalence of Cardiometablic Risk Factors in Rural, Urban-Poor, and Urban-Middle Class Women in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Mohan

    Full Text Available Urbanization is an important determinant of cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. To determine location-based differences in CVD risk factors in India we performed studies among women in rural, urban-poor and urban middle-class locations.Population-based cross-sectional studies in rural, urban-poor, and urban-middle class women (35-70 y were performed at multiple sites. We evaluated 6853 women (rural 2616, 5 sites; urban-poor 2008, 4 sites; urban middle-class 2229, 11 sites for socioeconomic, lifestyle, anthropometric and biochemical risk factors. Descriptive statistics are reported.Mean levels of body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR, systolic BP, fasting glucose and cholesterol in rural, urban-poor and urban-middle class women showed significantly increasing trends (ANOVAtrend, p 80 cm (28.3, 63.4, 61.9%, waist >90 cm (8.4, 31.4, 38.2%, waist hip ratio (WHR >0.8 (60.4, 90.7, 88.5, WHR>0.9 (13.0, 44.3, 56.1%, hypertension (31.6, 48.2, 59.0% and hypercholesterolemia (13.5, 27.7, 37.4% (Mantel Haenszel X2 ptrend <0.01. Inverse trend was observed for tobacco use (41.6, 19.6, 9.4%. There was significant association of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes with overweight and obesity (adjusted R2 0.89-0.99.There are significant location based differences in cardiometabolic risk factors in India. The urban-middle class women have the highest risk compared to urban-poor and rural.

  10. Rural-urban migrants - Challenges to Kilimo Kwanza initiatives in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More than 80% of the population in Iringa region lives in rural areas where majority relies on agricultural productions. In spite of this dependency, 80% of agricultural practices are done using simple hand tools which makes rural life relatively tasking. These tasking rural lives are thought to accelerate rural-urban migration in ...

  11. Prehospital Management of Acute Stroke in Rural versus Urban Responders

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Gregory; Bal, Simerpreet; Schellenberg, Kerri Lynn; Alcock, Susan; Ghrooda, Esseddeeg

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Stroke guideline compliance of rural Canadian prehospital emergency medical services (EMS) care in acute stroke is unknown. In this quality assurance study, we sought to compare rural and urban care by prehospital EMS evaluation/management indicators from patients assessed at an urban Canadian stroke center. Materials and Methods: One hundred adult patients were randomly selected from the stroke registry. Patients were transported through Rural EMS bypass protocols or urban EMS pro...

  12. Seasonal variability of aerosols and their characteristics in urban and rural locations of Delhi-NCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Purnima; Pandey, Alok Kumar; Kumar, Krishan; Jain, V. K.

    2017-10-01

    Present study shows the seasonal variation of the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and aerosols characteristics in an urban and rural environment over Delhi-NCR. Aerosol sampling was carried out using a Mini-Volume sampler at an urban and rural location in Delhi-NCR. A relatively higher PM2.5 (particulate matter of size agglomerate (soot) in urban area whereas the rural area was relatively clean. The winter season SEM results showed the presence of aggregates of smaller particles at urban site whereas flaky, round and irregular shaped particles were observed at the rural site. EDX analysis showed the presence of elements such as C, Cu, Zn, Ga and Fe (representative elements) in varying concentrations at both the urban and rural sampling locations. NASA's Aqua satellite MODIS sensor AOD data for summer and winter seasons have been used to study the spatial distributions of aerosols over the study region. AOD was found to be relatively higher in urban area as compared to the rural area in both the summer and winter seasons indicating the contribution of high amount of anthropogenic aerosols in the urban atmosphere.

  13. Importance of latrine communication in European rabbits shifts along a rural-to-urban gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziege, Madlen; Bierbach, David; Bischoff, Svenja; Brandt, Anna-Lena; Brix, Mareike; Greshake, Bastian; Merker, Stefan; Wenninger, Sandra; Wronski, Torsten; Plath, Martin

    2016-06-14

    Information transfer in mammalian communication networks is often based on the deposition of excreta in latrines. Depending on the intended receiver(s), latrines are either formed at territorial boundaries (between-group communication) or in core areas of home ranges (within-group communication). The relative importance of both types of marking behavior should depend, amongst other factors, on population densities and social group sizes, which tend to differ between urban and rural wildlife populations. Our study is the first to assess (direct and indirect) anthropogenic influences on mammalian latrine-based communication networks along a rural-to-urban gradient in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) living in urban, suburban and rural areas in and around Frankfurt am Main (Germany). The proportion of latrines located in close proximity to the burrow was higher at rural study sites compared to urban and suburban ones. At rural sites, we found the largest latrines and highest latrine densities close to the burrow, suggesting that core marking prevailed. By contrast, latrine dimensions and densities increased with increasing distance from the burrow in urban and suburban populations, suggesting a higher importance of peripheral marking. Increased population densities, but smaller social group sizes in urban rabbit populations may lead to an increased importance of between-group communication and thus, favor peripheral over core marking. Our study provides novel insights into the manifold ways by which man-made habitat alterations along a rural-to-urban gradient directly and indirectly affect wildlife populations, including latrine-based communication networks.

  14. Differences in knowledge about birds and their conservation between rural and urban residents of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar O. Vazquez-Plass; Joseph M. Wunderle

    2010-01-01

    People’s knowledge of birds and the opinions and perceptions about specific issues related to the conservation of birds were quantified in rural and urban communities in northeastern Puerto Rico. Data were collected using questionnaires in interviews with 131 citizens haphazardly selected within the study site. Our results indicate that urban residents had a...

  15. Buzz in Paris: flower production and plant-pollinator interactions in plants from contrasted urban and rural origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desaegher, James; Nadot, Sophie; Dajoz, Isabelle; Colas, Bruno

    2017-12-01

    Urbanisation, associated with habitat fragmentation, affects pollinator communities and insect foraging behaviour. These biotic changes are likely to select for modified traits in insect-pollinated plants from urban populations compared to rural populations. To test this hypothesis, we conducted an experiment involving four plant species commonly found in both urban and rural landscapes of the Île-de-France region (France): Cymbalaria muralis, Geranium robertianum, Geum urbanum and Prunella vulgaris. The four species were grown in four urban and four rural experimental sites in 2015. For each species and each experimental site, plants were grown from seeds collected in five urban and five rural locations. During flowering, we observed flower production and insect-flower interactions during 14 weeks and tested for the effects of experimental site location and plant origin on flower production and on the number of floral visits. The study species had various flower morphology and hence were visited by different floral visitors. The effect of experimental sites and seed origin also varied among study species. We found that (1) insect visits on P. vulgaris were more frequent in rural than in urban sites; (2) for C. muralis, the slope relating the number of pollinator visits to the number of flowers per individual was steeper in urban versus rural sites, suggesting a greater benefit in allocating resources to flower production in urban conditions; (3) as a likely consequence, C. muralis tended to produce more flowers in plants from urban versus rural origin.

  16. Measuring the quality of diabetes care in urban and rural Indian health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kelly; Roubideaux, Yvette; Noonan, Carolyn; Goldberg, Jack; Shields, Ray; Acton, Kelly

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the quality of diabetes care provided to American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) by urban and rural Indian health programs. Medical record review data collected by the Indian Health Service as part of the Diabetes Care and Outcomes Audit in 2002. Seventeen urban Indian health clinics and 225 rural Indian health programs. All urban AI/AN patients (n = 710) and random sample records of rural AI/AN patients (n=1420). Adherence to guidelines for process measures and intermediate outcomes of diabetes care. Compared to the rural sample, urban patients were more likely to have received diabetes education during the prior year (P urban patients than rural patients (19% vs 41%, P care and the percentage achieving recommended levels varied slightly but were not statistically or clinically significant. Few differences in the quality of diabetes care were found between urban and rural Indian health sites. Differences in the receipt of dental examinations may reflect differences in resources and staffing between urban and rural settings. This study serves as a baseline for the assessment of ongoing interventions aimed at improving the quality of care.

  17. Rural-Urban Migration and Unemployment: Theory and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Zenou, Yves

    2010-01-01

    We develop a regional model where, in the city, unemployment prevails because of too high (efficiency) wages, while, in the rural area, workers are paid at their marginal productivity. We characterize the steady-state equilibrium and show that it is unique. We then consider two policies: decreasing urban unemployment benefits and subsidizing urban employment. We find that decreasing the unemployment benefit in the city creates urban jobs and reduces rural-urban migration since new migrants ha...

  18. Consumer Empowerment Profile in Rural and Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megawati Simanjuntak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to analyze the profile of consumer empowerment and the influence of demographic characteristics, socio-economic status and cosmopoliteness on consumer empowerment in rural and urban area. The research finding indicated a low consumer empowerment in urban and rural area. In general, most respondents who were not categorized as empowered consumer were aged >37 years old, working in rural areas, included in income category ranged IDR 397,874.57/capita/month both in rural and urban areas, family size of ≤ 4 persons in rural areas,length of education ≤9 years in rural areas and not cosmopolite in rural areas. Higher level of education and the more cosmopolite the respondents would increase consumer empowerment both in ruraland urban area. One of the attempts in empowering consumers is by intensifying consumer education involving government, NGOs, and private sector.

  19. Income inequality and urban/rural migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slottje, D J; Hayes, K J

    1987-01-01

    "The purpose of this paper is to examine some of the consequences of [U.S.] migration trends from 1970-1980, focusing on the relationship of income inequality within a state with population shifts within and across states. Furthermore, we wish to determine if the movement of wealth and the changing employment opportunities [have] had any effect on the distribution of income within the four census regions and for urban and rural populations across all fifty states." Data are from the 1970 and 1980 censuses. excerpt

  20. Five-years of microenvironment data along an urban-rural transect; temperature and CO2 concentrations in urban area at levels expected globally with climate change.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Kate; Ziska, Lewis H; Bunce, James A; Quebedeaux, Bruno

    2007-11-01

    The heat island effect and the high use of fossil fuels in large city centers is well documented, but by how much fossil fuel consumption is elevating atmospheric CO2 concentrations and whether elevations in both atmospheric CO2 and air temperature are consistent from year to year are less well known. Our aim was to record atmospheric CO2 concentrations, air temperature and other environmental variables in an urban area and compare it to suburban and rural sites to see if urban sites are experiencing climates expected globally in the future with climate change. A transect was established from Baltimore city center (Urban site), to the outer suburbs of Baltimore (suburban site) and out to an organic farm (rural site). At each site a weather station was set-up to monitor environmental variables annually for five years. Atmospheric CO2 was significantly increased on average by 66 ppm from the rural to the urban site over the five years of the study. Air temperature was significantly higher at the urban site (14.8 oC) compared to the suburban (13.6 oC) and rural (12.7 oC) sites. Relative humidity was not different between sites but vapor pressure deficit (VPD) was significantly higher at the urban site compared to the suburban and rural sites. During wet years relative humidity was significantly increased and VPD significantly reduced. Increased nitrogen deposition at the rural site (2.1 % compared to 1.8 and 1.2 % at the suburban and urban sites) was small enough not to affect soil nitrogen content. Dense urban areas with large populations and high vehicular traffic have significantly different microclimates compared to outlying suburban and rural areas. The increases in atmospheric CO2 and air temperature are similar to changes predicted in the short term with global climate change, therefore providing an environment suitable for studying future effects of climate change on terrestrial ecosystems.

  1. Summer atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers in urban and rural areas of northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chen; Li Wei; Chen Jiwei; Wang Hongqijie; Li Tongchao; Shen Guofeng; Shen Huizhong; Huang Ye; Wang Rong; Wang Bin; Zhang Yanyan; Tang Jianhui; Liu Wenxin; Wang Xilong; Tao Shu

    2012-01-01

    High levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been extensively reported in urban areas and at e-waste recycling sites in coastal China. However, data are scarce in northern China and are not available in rural areas at all. In addition, it is often believed that air concentrations in rural areas are lower than those in urban areas without distinguishing rural residential areas and open fields. In this study, air samples were collected at 17 sites covering urban and rural (residential and open field) areas in northern China using active samplers. With BDE-209 dominated in all congeners, the average concentrations of BDE-209 (41 ± 72 pg/m 3 ) and other 13 PBDEs (16 ± 12 pg/m 3 ) were significantly lower than those found in south China, such as in Guangzhou or Hong Kong. On average, the total PBDE concentrations at the urban sites were 2.2 and 2.9 times of those at the rural residential and field sites, respectively. - Graphical abstract: Concentration of PBDEs at each site of the studied area. Highlights: ► High levels of PBDEs with BDE-209 domination were detected in air in northern China. ► PBDE concentrations in rural residential areas were significantly higher than those in rural open fields. ► Proportions of BDE-209 in urban areas were higher than those in rural areas. ► PBDE concentrations were correlated to local population density and Gross Domestic Production. - In northern China, PBDEs in air in rural residential areas were significantly higher than those in open fields.

  2. Cats in Czech Rural and Urban Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Baranyiová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of rural and urban environments on the coexistence of humans and their cats. From the obtained questionnaire data we selected the rural cats (R, n = 54 and compared them with urban cats (U, n = 144. The R group cats lived predominantly in family houses, U cats in urban apartments. The pressures of physical and social factors in the small niches of urban apartments (dwellings in Czech urban high-density living settings, though comfortable, are smaller than in numerous European countries; they prevailed in our U group resulted in statistically significant differences in only 31 (51.7% out of 60 traits under study. Among them, 15 (68.2% out of 22 concerned the conduct of household members, and 16 (42.1% out of 38 concerned the behaviour of their cats. Thus the conduct of people in U households showed relatively higher proportion of changes than the behaviour of their cats. U onwers more frequently purchased their cats (R = 24.1%, U = 48.6%, chi-square = 10.648, df = 4, p < 0.05, they kept the cat pedigrees (R = 37.0%, U = 75.4%, chisquare = 24.661, df = 1, p < 0.001, paid more attention to their cats ((R = 93.0%, U = 100.0%, chi-square = 8.950, df = 1, p < 0.005, talked to them daily (R = 87.0%, U = 98.6%, chi-square = 12.024, df = 1, p < 0.001, allowed them to use furniture (R = 77.8%, U = 100.0%, chi-square = 33.839, df = 1, p < 0.001, sleep in beds of family members (R = 61.1%, U = 95.1%, chi-square = 37.149, df = 1, p < 0.001, and celebrated their birthdays (R = 25.9%, U = 100.0%, chi-square = 7.014, df = 2, p < 0.05. Their cats were more destructive than R cats, hunted less and were less aggressive when stroked. However, they showed a slightly larger scope of aggressive behaviours and were more frequently described as nervous and restless. The nature of the significant differences found in this study indicates that the co-existence of cats with people in the urbanized world is becoming more

  3. Rural Urban Interaction to Cope with Climate Change (Nigeria ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Rural Urban Interaction to Cope with Climate Change (Nigeria). This project aims to reduce the vulnerability of rural-urban systems in Nigeria to climate change by sharing the results generated from a pilot project conducted in and around the city of Aba, Southeastern Nigeria. The project team will help the Aba Committee of ...

  4. Rural-Urban Interdependence in Food Systems in Nsukka Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    by influencing the decision to migrate, remain in the rural area, or provide urban services in rural areas. The interdependence revolves around five key aspects namely; the urban supply of food and raw materials, migration, labour supply, remittance, and socio-cultural obligations which facilitate the extent of flow of money ...

  5. Periodontal treatment needs of urban and rural populations in Edo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the Periodontal Treatment Needs of urban and rural population in Edo State, Nigeria, and ascertain if there is any difference, using the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN). Method: All patients who reported at the venue selected rural and urban centres during a sixteen month ...

  6. Changing rural urban linkages in Africa in a globalizing economy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of rural-urban linkages is critically vital for Africa‟s development in this era of rapid socio-economic transformation. A better understanding of cities and how they relate both to the rural and urban development is needed in view of the continuous changes in development. This paper argues that many of Africa‟s ...

  7. Rural And Urban Youth Participation In Community Development In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focused on participation in community development activities, constraints to and benefits derived from participation. It compared rural and urban youth participation in community development activities in Ido local government area of Oyo State. Proportionate random sampling was used to select 2 rural, 1 urban ...

  8. Urban-rural linkages enhancing European territorial competitiveness: background paper

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Gill

    2008-01-01

    This background paper provides the context for the seminar on urban-rural linkages enhancing European territorial competitiveness, to be held by DG REGIO on 17th September 2008. This seminar forms part of an ongoing debate at European level on the importance of urban-rural linkages for territorial competitiveness, and on appropriate support mechanisms to assist these developments in Member States.

  9. Barriers to Services for Rural and Urban Survivors of Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, TK; Evans, Lucy; Stevenson, Erin; Jordan, Carol E.

    2005-01-01

    A significant proportion of survivors of rape do not utilize formal services to cope with the aftermath of rape. Understanding victimization experiences in environments that differ on resources, such as rural versus urban areas, may be an important dimension to consider in understanding barriers. Thirty women (18 rural and 12 urban) were recruited…

  10. The composition of atmospheric coarse particles at an urban and non-urban site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, K. E.; Draftz, R.; Fang, K. Y. P.

    The composition of four samples of atmospheric coarse particles (> 6 μm diameter) was determined by morphology using an optical microscope. Two samples were from a rural site and two from an urban site in the midwestern United States. The urban samples represented a heavily industrial sector and a commercial sector of the urban area. The contributions of various sources to total mass concentration were compared. Results indicate that limestone and silicates were the main source of material at the non-urban site. Anthropogenic sources, represented by flyash and coal, were present in the industrial sector sample and rubber tire was present in the commercial sector sample. The mass median diameters (MMD) for different components were as follows: limestone (20 μm), silicates (12 μm), coal, flyash and iron oxide (12 μm) and rubber tire (25 μm).

  11. Differential embryotoxicity of the organic pollutants in rural and urban air particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, Sofia R.; Drooge, Barend L. van; Oliveira, Eva; Grimalt, Joan O.; Barata, Carlos; Vieira, Natividade; Guimarães, Laura; Piña, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) is a recognized risk factor for human populations. Here we assessed the toxic potential of the organic constituents from PM collected in urban and rural sites during warm and cold periods of 2012/2013, and fractionated into 6 size fractions. The finest PM fraction (<0.5 μm) showed the highest biological activity (dioxin-like activity and fish embryotoxicity) in all samples, and the maximal activity was observed in rural samples from the cold period. Zebrafish embryo transcriptome analysis showed a strong induction of the AhR signaling pathway correlated to PAH concentrations. Oxidative stress-related genes and pancreatic and eye-lens gene markers appeared de-regulated in embryos exposed to urban extracts, whereas exposure to rural extracts affected genes implicated in basic cellular functions. The observed effects can be directly related to air pollution-related human disorders, suggesting different potential adverse outcomes for human populations exposed to air pollution from specific sources. - Highlights: • Embryotoxicity of airborne organic compounds collected in urban and rural areas. • Ultrafine particles (<0.5 μm) accumulated most of the observed toxicity. • Strong seasonal differences in rural areas, probably linked to wood combustion. • Rural and urban samples showed quantitative and qualitative differences in toxicity. • At least one independent toxic modes of action especially linked to urban emissions. - Quantitative and qualitative differences in embryotoxic effects of airborne particulate matter from urban and rural areas.

  12. The effect of health on urban-settlement intention of rural-urban migrants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shenghua; Wang, Jinxian; Chen, Juan; Ritakallio, Veli-Matti

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies have not paid enough attention to the effect of health on urban-settlement intention of rural-urban migrants in China. Using survey data from the Rural Urban Migration in China project, this article examines how self-rated physical and mental health influence rural-urban migrants' intention to settle down in cities. First, the results show that both self-rated physical and mental health are significant factors influencing the migrants' intention to permanently move to cities. Second, the effect of physical health on rural-urban migrants' intentions to permanently reside in cities can be moderated by their length of urban residence. Third, the impact of health on rural-urban migrants' urban-settlement intention shows no generational differences. According to the research findings, this paper discusses how urban-settlement intention of rural-urban migrants based on health selection might impair urbanization, exacerbate health disparity between the rural and urban areas, and aggravate the burden on healthcare system in rural areas of China in the long run. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Particulate matter in rural and urban nursery schools in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, R.A.O.; Branco, P.T.B.S.; Alvim-Ferraz, M.C.M.; Martins, F.G.; Sousa, S.I.V.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have been showing strong associations between exposures to indoor particulate matter (PM) and health effects on children. Urban and rural nursery schools have different known environmental and social differences which make their study relevant. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate indoor PM concentrations on different microenvironments of three rural nursery schools and one urban nursery school, being the only study comparing urban and rural nursery schools considering the PM 1 , PM 2.5 and PM 10 fractions (measured continuously and in terms of mass). Outdoor PM 2.5 and PM 10 were also obtained and I/O ratios have been determined. Indoor PM mean concentrations were higher in the urban nursery than in rural ones, which might have been related to traffic emissions. However, I/O ratios allowed concluding that the recorded concentrations depended more significantly of indoor sources. WHO guidelines and Portuguese legislation exceedances for PM 2.5 and PM 10 were observed mainly in the urban nursery school. - Highlights: • This is the only study comparing urban and rural nurseries considering PM fractions. • A low number of children in classrooms is enough to increase PM concentrations. • Children in urban nurseries are exposed to higher PM concentrations than in rural. • Children were mainly exposed to the finer fractions, which are worse to health. - PM levels were higher in the urban nursery than in the rural ones, which might have been related to traffic emissions. Still concentrations depended more significantly of indoor sources

  14. Communication and education about asthma in rural and urban schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillemeier, Marianne M; Gusic, Maryellen; Bai, Yu

    2006-01-01

    To assess the quality of communication and education about asthma in Pennsylvania public schools. Survey of a stratified random sample of school nurses in rural and urban Pennsylvania public schools (n = 996) concerning communication with school nurses about asthma by physicians and parents, nurses' perceived obstacles to asthma management at school, and utilization of and need for education about asthma. A total of 757 surveys were received (response rate 76%). Thirty-nine percent of school nurses rated their communication with physicians about asthma as either poor or very poor. Urban nurses were significantly more likely to report poor/very poor physician communication (P = .09). Fifty-two percent of the nurses overall (43% rural, 56% urban) also cited lack of communication with parents as an important obstacle to asthma management. Forty-nine percent of school nurses (43% rural, 52% urban) reported attending an asthma education program during the previous year, and 75% (83% rural, 71% urban) expressed interest in additional education. Education about asthma was provided for classroom teachers in 54% of schools (56% rural, 54% urban) and provided for students in 58% of schools (54% rural, 60% urban). These findings document need for improvement in communication about children's asthma between school nurses and physicians. Although communication appears better in rural relative to urban schools, it is a salient issue in both settings. Study findings also indicate the need for expanded professional education opportunities for school nurses and improved access to appropriate curricular materials for school staff, parents, and students.

  15. Social vulnerability and environmental change along urban-rural interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Schelhas; Sarah Hitchner; Cassandra Johnson

    2012-01-01

    As the world becomes increasingly urbanized and interconnected, the distinction between urban and rural areas is diminishing. Creation of new urban–rural interface areas causes immediate changes in local natural and social environments, and theseareas are also susceptible to both short-term and long-term environmental changes. Different groups of people...

  16. Urban-Rural Problems. Contemporary Social Problems Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lee

    Various social problems are created by migration of low-income rural people into urban areas. These people are classified "low income" because their material level-of-living is often less than that found in urban areas. The dominant national values for material well-being are based upon urban middle class standards, thus creating a social problem…

  17. Degradation of Rural and Urban Great Tit Song

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mockford, Emily J; Marshall, Rupert C; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    song, suggesting additional benefits to singing rural songs in this setting. In an attempt to create artificial urban song, we mimicked the increase in minimum frequency found several times previously in urban song. However, this did not replicate the same transmission properties as true urban song...

  18. Rural-urban disparities in child abuse management resources in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Esther K; Spiro, David M; Lowe, Robert A; Newgard, Craig D; Hall, Michael Kennedy; McConnell, Kenneth John

    2010-01-01

    To characterize differences in child abuse management resources between urban and rural emergency departments (EDs). We surveyed ED directors and nurse managers at hospitals in Oregon to gain information about available abuse-related resources. Chi-square analysis was used to test differences between urban and rural EDs. Multivariate analysis was performed to examine the association between a variety of hospital characteristics, in addition to rural location, and presence of child abuse resources. Fifty-five Oregon hospitals were surveyed. A smaller proportion of rural EDs had written abuse policies (62% vs 95%, P= .006) or on-site child abuse advocates (35% vs 71%, P= .009). Thirty-two percent of rural EDs had none of the examined abuse resources (vs 0% of urban EDs, P= .01). Of hospital characteristics studied in the multivariate model, only rural location was associated with decreased availability of child abuse resources (OR 0.19 [95% CI, 0.05-0.70]). Rural EDs have fewer resources than urban EDs for the management of child abuse. Other studied hospital characteristics were not associated with availability of abuse resources. Further work is needed to identify barriers to resource utilization and to create resources that can be made accessible to all ED settings. © 2010 National Rural Health Association.

  19. RURAL - URBAN DIFFERENCES IN HEALTH CARE QUALITY ASSESSMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasojevic, Nada; Vasilj, Ivan; Hrabac, Boris; Celik, Damir

    2015-12-01

    To determine the rural-urban differences in primary care practice, hospital inpatient care and total services. This cross-sectional study used data from Zenica-Doboj Canton in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH). The overall sample size for the study was 1,995. Individual interviews were conducted in one randomly selected day of the week, except Monday and Friday, on the basis of EUROPEP (European Task Force on Patient Evaluations of General Practice Care) standardized questionnaire. Out of total number (n=1 995), 47.9% was urban population and median of age was 42 years for both populations. The most of urban residents (81.4%) had finished high school or higher education compared with rural residents (58.5%) (p rural and urban population (p Rural residents are more likely to travel more than 15 minutes to see their health facilities compared with urban residents (61.7% vs. 24.4%, respectively). Median of distance (kilometers) from residence location to the nearest hospital was statistically significantly higher in rural Me = 8.0 (5.0 do 14.5) km compared to urban population Me = 1.5 (1.0 to 3.0) km (p rural population was more likely to buy drugs for medical treatment (p care practice (p health care assessment of rural populations as compared to urban populations.

  20. Job embeddedness scoring: measurement equivalence between rural and urban nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, O Ed; Kim, MyoungJin

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the measurement equivalency (ME) of the job embeddedness (JE) instrument for rural and urban registered nurses (RNs) using a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional mailed survey. JE represents the sum of reasons an employee remains at the present job. RNs from both rural and urban areas returned a 40-item JE instrument designed to assess their level of embeddedness. Analysis was performed using a multi-group confirmatory factor analysis for JE ratings of rural and urban RNs. The findings indicated that the original 40-item JE instrument needed to be respecified to achieve adequate fit for the sample of rural and urban RNs. This 32-item respecified instrument demonstrated that rural and urban RNs use the same metric when giving ratings for JE items. The findings of ME across rural and urban RNs facilitate comparisons between the two groups. The implications of these findings are that differences in ratings between rural and urban RNs may be attributed to real differences and not merely measurement artifact. Examination of these differences may lead to real strategies to retain nurses, thus mitigating the impact of the global nursing shortage.

  1. Chronic Lower Limb Wound Outcomes Among Rural and Urban Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouldin, Erin D; Taylor, Leslie L; Littman, Alyson J; Karavan, Mahsa; Rice, Kenneth; Reiber, Gayle E

    2015-01-01

    Veterans in rural areas generally have lower health care utilization than veterans in urban areas, but the impact of this difference on health outcomes has received little study. Chronic wounds provide a model for studying access to complex chronic care since they often are related to underlying health conditions and require lengthy treatment. Our goals were to describe chronic wound care utilization among rural and urban veterans and to determine the association between rural residence and wound healing. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 160 rural and 160 urban veterans in the Pacific Northwest with an incident of chronic lower limb wound between October 1, 2006, and September 30, 2007. We followed individuals for up to 1 year, measuring wound care utilization within Veterans Health Administration and Medicare. We compared wound healing using a competing risks proportional hazards model accounting for amputation and death. Rural veterans had fewer outpatient wound care visits (6.8 vs 9.9) than urban veterans and a similar number of inpatient wound care stays (0.9 and 0.8, respectively). During follow-up, 234 veterans' wounds healed (77% rural, 69% urban). The adjusted hazard ratio for wound healing was 1.11 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.84-1.47, P = .45) for rural compared to urban veterans. The hazard of amputation was higher among rural veterans (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.65, 95% CI: 1.02-6.87, P = .045) and the hazard of death was lower (HR = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.12-0.97, P = .043). Despite lower wound care utilization, rural veterans' wounds were as likely to heal as urban veterans' wounds. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  2. Use of psychotherapy by rural and urban veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cully, Jeffrey A; Jameson, John P; Phillips, Laura L; Kunik, Mark E; Fortney, John C

    2010-01-01

    To examine whether differences exist between rural and urban veterans in terms of initiation of psychotherapy, delay in time from diagnosis to treatment, and dose of psychotherapy sessions. Using a longitudinal cohort of veterans obtained from national Veterans Affairs databases (October 2003 through September 2004), we extracted veterans with a new diagnosis of depression, anxiety, or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (n = 410,923). Veterans were classified as rural (categories 6-9; n = 65,044) or urban (category 1; n = 149,747), using the US Department of Agriculture Rural-Urban Continuum Codes. Psychotherapy encounters were identified using Current Procedural Terminology codes for the 12 months following patients' initial diagnosis. Newly diagnosed rural veterans were significantly less likely (P Urban veterans were roughly twice as likely as rural veterans to receive 4 or more (9.46% vs 5.08%) and 8 or more (5.59% vs 2.35%) psychotherapy sessions (P Rural veterans are significantly less likely to receive psychotherapy services, and the dose of the psychotherapy services provided for rural veterans is limited relative to their urban counterparts. Focused efforts are needed to increase access to psychotherapy services provided to rural veterans with depression, anxiety, and PTSD.

  3. Prehospital Management of Acute Stroke in Rural versus Urban Responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Gregory; Bal, Simerpreet; Schellenberg, Kerri Lynn; Alcock, Susan; Ghrooda, Esseddeeg

    2017-08-01

    Stroke guideline compliance of rural Canadian prehospital emergency medical services (EMS) care in acute stroke is unknown. In this quality assurance study, we sought to compare rural and urban care by prehospital EMS evaluation/management indicators from patients assessed at an urban Canadian stroke center. One hundred adult patients were randomly selected from the stroke registry. Patients were transported through Rural EMS bypass protocols or urban EMS protocols (both bypass and direct) to our stroke center between January and December 2013. Patients were excluded if they were first evaluated at any other health center. Prehospital care was assessed using ten indicators for EMS evaluation/management, as recommended by acute stroke guidelines. Compliance with acute stroke EMS evaluation/management indicators were statistically similar for both groups, except administrating a prehospital diagnostic tool (rural 31.8 vs. urban 70.3%; P = 0.002). Unlike urban EMS, rural EMS did not routinely document scene time. Rural EMS responders' compliance to prehospital stroke evaluation/management was similar to urban EMS responders. Growth areas for both groups may be with prehospital stroke diagnostic tool utilization, whereas rural EMS responders may also improve with scene time documentation.

  4. Prehospital management of acute stroke in rural versus urban responders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Hansen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Stroke guideline compliance of rural Canadian prehospital emergency medical services (EMS care in acute stroke is unknown. In this quality assurance study, we sought to compare rural and urban care by prehospital EMS evaluation/management indicators from patients assessed at an urban Canadian stroke center. Materials and Methods: One hundred adult patients were randomly selected from the stroke registry. Patients were transported through Rural EMS bypass protocols or urban EMS protocols (both bypass and direct to our stroke center between January and December 2013. Patients were excluded if they were first evaluated at any other health center. Prehospital care was assessed using ten indicators for EMS evaluation/management, as recommended by acute stroke guidelines. Results: Compliance with acute stroke EMS evaluation/management indicators were statistically similar for both groups, except administrating a prehospital diagnostic tool (rural 31.8 vs. urban 70.3%; P = 0.002. Unlike urban EMS, rural EMS did not routinely document scene time. Conclusion: Rural EMS responders' compliance to prehospital stroke evaluation/management was similar to urban EMS responders. Growth areas for both groups may be with prehospital stroke diagnostic tool utilization, whereas rural EMS responders may also improve with scene time documentation.

  5. Urban Rural Differences in Breast Cancer in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Lawrenson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Many rural communities have poor access to health services due to a combination of distance from specialist services and a relative shortage of general practitioners. Our aims were to compare the characteristics of urban and rural women with breast cancer in New Zealand, to assess breast cancer-specific and all-cause survival using the Kaplan–Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model, and to assess whether the impact of rurality is different for Māori and New Zealand (NZ European women. We found that rural women tended to be older and were more likely to be Māori. Overall there were no differences between urban and rural women with regards their survival. Rural Māori tended to be older, more likely to be diagnosed with metastatic disease and less likely to be screen detected than urban Māori. Rural Māori women had inferior breast cancer-specific survival and all-cause survival at 10 years at 72.1% and 55.8% compared to 77.9% and 64.9% for urban Māori. The study shows that rather than being concerned that more needs to be done for rural women in general it is rural Māori women where we need to make extra efforts to ensure early stage at diagnosis and optimum treatment.

  6. Urban and rural differences in hypertension risk factors in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daştan, İlker; Erem, Ayşegül; Çetinkaya, Volkan

    2017-07-01

    Existing literature shows considerable regional differences in terms of hypertension (HT) prevalence in Turkey. The purpose of this study was to analyze some of the known HT risk factors contributing to the variations between urban and rural areas of Turkey in HT development. We used data from the 2011 Chronic Diseases and Risk Factors Survey that was conducted by the Turkish Ministry of Health on a representative sample of the Turkish adult population aged 20 years or more (n=16.227). HT was defined as having at least one of the following: a mean systolic/diastolic blood pressure of at least 140/90 mm Hg, a previously diagnosed disease, or use of antihypertensive medication. Stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate HT risk factors in urban and rural settings. Although the HT prevalence was higher in rural areas (28.4%) than in urban areas (23.9%), in this study, urbanization was found to be a contributing factor in multivariate regression analysis. Furthermore, separate regressions for urban and rural settings revealed that age, obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and smoking were independently and positively associated (purban areas only. The findings of our study demonstrate that contributory factors show some variations between urban and rural settings, and on gender within each setting. Taking into account the variations between urban and rural areas in HT development may provide greater insight into the design of prevention strategies.

  7. HIV seroprevalence across the rural/urban continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, C B; Metsch, L R; McCoy, H V; Weatherby, N L

    1999-01-01

    While the first decade of the AIDS epidemic was characterized by high prevalence rates of AIDS infection in urban areas, there is increasing recognition of the spread of HIV into rural communities in the United States. Data from the Miami CARES cohort collected on 3,555 chronic drug users from 1988 to 1994 provide a unique opportunity to assess sociodemographic characteristics, drug-using behaviors and HIV risk behaviors related to HIV seropositivity in three communities across the rural-urban continuum: Miami, Florida; Belle Glade, Florida and Immokalee, Florida. The three very different communities studied demonstrate that HIV is no respecter of ecological site. The spread of HIV between areas and within areas is specifically correlated with the risk factors including injection drug use, use of crack cocaine, exchange of sex for money, and the rates for sexually transmitted diseases. All of these factors are shown to increase the risk of HIV so that the constellation of these practices helps determine the differential rates and spread of HIV in the three different areas.

  8. Atmospherically derived organic surface films along an urban-rural gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingrich, S E; Diamond, M L; Stern, G A; McCarry, B E

    2001-10-15

    Atmospherically derived organic films have been found on an impervious surface along an urban-rural gradient in the Toronto, Ontario, Canada area. Film thickness and concentrations, expressed on an aerial basis, of sigman-alkanes, sigmaPCB, sigmaPAH, and sigmaOC (organochlorine) pesticides decrease along this gradient, coincident with lower atmospheric emissions (PCB and PAH) and less accumulation in thinner rural films (OC pesticides). For PCBs and some OC pesticides, patterns of chemical abundance also shift, indicating a "fresh" pattern near emission sources (downtown) versus aged patterns at rural locations that are indicative of atmospheric transport. Plant-derived n-alkane concentrations were greater at urban than rural sites, and we hypothesize greater urban plant wax production and erosion due to air pollution. As expected, along the urban-rural gradient the concentration of particle-phase PAH decreased more rapidly than that of gas-phase compounds, but unexpectedly the contribution of alkylated PAH increased from urban to rural locations. Distances over which concentrations decline by 63% vary from 50 km for persistent gas-phase compounds (e.g., P1,2CB) to 10-20 km for reactive gas-phase compounds (e.g., naphthalene, fluoranthene) to particle-phase compounds (e.g., P6-10CB, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[e]pyrene).

  9. Book Review: Untitled: Securing Land Tenure in Urban and Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Book Title: Untitled: Securing Land Tenure in Urban and Rural South Africa. Book Authors: Hornby D, Kingwill R, Royston L & Cousins B (Eds.) (2017 University of KwaZulu-Natal Press) ISBN: 1869143507 ...

  10. Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project (GRUMP), Alpha Version

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project (GRUMP), Alpha Version consists of estimates of human population for the years 1990, 1995, and 2000 by 30 arc-second (1km)...

  11. Research notes : roadway design treatments for rural to urban transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    An ODOT Research study, lead by Karen Dixon at Oregon State University, reviewed research evaluating potential traffic calming strategies for rural-to-urban transitions on high speed highways. Driving simulator evaluations were conducted to assess se...

  12. Photosynthesis and isoprene emission from trees along an urban-rural gradient in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahr, Eleanor C; Schade, Gunnar W; Crossett, Caitlin C; Watson, Matthew R

    2015-11-01

    Isoprene emission is an important mechanism for improving the thermotolerance of plant photosystems as temperatures increase. In this study, we measured photosynthesis and isoprene emission in trees along an urban-rural gradient that serves as a proxy for climate change, to understand daily and seasonal responses to changes in temperature and other environmental variables. Leaf-level gas exchange and basal isoprene emission of post oak (Quercus stellata) and sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua) were recorded at regular intervals over an entire growing season at urban, suburban, and rural sites in eastern Texas. In addition, the temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration experienced by leaves were experimentally manipulated in spring, early summer, and late summer. We found that trees experienced lower stomatal conductance and photosynthesis and higher isoprene emission, at the urban and suburban sites compared to the rural site. Path analysis indicated a daily positive effect of isoprene emission on photosynthesis, but unexpectedly, higher isoprene emission from urban trees was not associated with improved photosynthesis as temperatures increased during the growing season. Furthermore, urban trees experienced relatively higher isoprene emission at high CO2 concentrations, while isoprene emission was suppressed at the other sites. These results suggest that isoprene emission may be less beneficial in urban, and potentially future, environmental conditions, particularly if higher temperatures override the suppressive effects of high CO2 on isoprene emission. These are important considerations for modeling future biosphere-atmosphere interactions and for understanding tree physiological responses to climate change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Does Urbanization Affect Rural Poverty? Evidence from Indian Districts

    OpenAIRE

    Calì, Massimiliano; Menon, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Although a high rate of urbanization and a high incidence of rural poverty are two distinct features of many developing countries, there is little knowledge of the effects of the former on the latter. Using a large sample of Indian districts from the 1983-1999 period, the authors find that urbanization has a substantial and systematic poverty-reducing effect in the surrounding rural areas....

  14. Changing bee and hoverfly pollinator assemblages along an urban-rural gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Bates

    Full Text Available The potential for reduced pollination ecosystem service due to global declines of bees and other pollinators is cause for considerable concern. Habitat degradation, destruction and fragmentation due to agricultural intensification have historically been the main causes of this pollinator decline. However, despite increasing and accelerating levels of global urbanization, very little research has investigated the effects of urbanization on pollinator assemblages. We assessed changes in the diversity, abundance and species composition of bee and hoverfly pollinator assemblages in urban, suburban, and rural sites across a UK city.Bees and hoverflies were trapped and netted at 24 sites of similar habitat character (churchyards and cemeteries that varied in position along a gradient of urbanization. Local habitat quality (altitude, shelter from wind, diversity and abundance of flowers, and the broader-scale degree of urbanization (e.g. percentage of built landscape and gardens within 100 m, 250 m, 500 m, 1 km, and 2.5 km of the site were assessed for each study site. The diversity and abundance of pollinators were both significantly negatively associated with higher levels of urbanization. Assemblage composition changed along the urbanization gradient with some species positively associated with urban and suburban land-use, but more species negatively so. Pollinator assemblages were positively affected by good site habitat quality, in particular the availability of flowering plants.Our results show that urban areas can support diverse pollinator assemblages, but that this capacity is strongly affected by local habitat quality. Nonetheless, in both urban and suburban areas of the city the assemblages had fewer individuals and lower diversity than similar rural habitats. The unique development histories of different urban areas, and the difficulty of assessing mobile pollinator assemblages in just part of their range, mean that complementary studies in

  15. Rural-urban comparisons of dengue seroprevalence in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Hoon Chew

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Each year an estimated 390 million dengue infections occur worldwide. In Malaysia, dengue is a growing public health concern but estimate of its disease burden remains uncertain. We compared the urban-rural difference of dengue seroprevalence and determined age-specific dengue seroprevalence in Malaysia. Methods We undertook analysis on 11,821 subjects from six seroprevalence surveys conducted in Malaysia between 2001 and 2013, which composed of five urban and two rural series. Results Prevalence of dengue increased with age in both urban and rural locations in Malaysia, which exceeded 90 % among those aged 70 years or beyond. The age-specific rates of the 5 urban surveys overlapped without clear separation among them, while prevalence was lower in younger subjects in rural series than in urban series, the trend reversed in older subjects. There were no differences in the seroprevalence by gender, ethnicity or region. Poisson regression model confirmed the prevalence have not changed in urban areas since 2001 but in rural areas, there was a significant positive time trend such that by year 2008, rural prevalence was as high as in urban areas. Conclusion Dengue seroprevalence has stabilized but persisted at a high level in urban areas since 2001, and is fast stabilizing in rural areas at the same high urban levels by 2008. The cumulative seroprevalence of dengue exceeds 90 % by the age of 70 years, which translates into 16.5 million people or 55 % of the total population in Malaysia, being infected by dengue by 2013.

  16. Rural-urban comparisons of dengue seroprevalence in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Cheng Hoon; Woon, Yuan Liang; Amin, Faridah; Adnan, Tassha H; Abdul Wahab, Asmah Hani; Ahmad, Zul Edzhar; Bujang, Mohd Adam; Abdul Hamid, Abdul Muneer; Jamal, Rahman; Chen, Wei Seng; Hor, Chee Peng; Yeap, Lena; Hoo, Ling Ping; Goh, Pik Pin; Lim, Teck Onn

    2016-08-18

    Each year an estimated 390 million dengue infections occur worldwide. In Malaysia, dengue is a growing public health concern but estimate of its disease burden remains uncertain. We compared the urban-rural difference of dengue seroprevalence and determined age-specific dengue seroprevalence in Malaysia. We undertook analysis on 11,821 subjects from six seroprevalence surveys conducted in Malaysia between 2001 and 2013, which composed of five urban and two rural series. Prevalence of dengue increased with age in both urban and rural locations in Malaysia, which exceeded 90 % among those aged 70 years or beyond. The age-specific rates of the 5 urban surveys overlapped without clear separation among them, while prevalence was lower in younger subjects in rural series than in urban series, the trend reversed in older subjects. There were no differences in the seroprevalence by gender, ethnicity or region. Poisson regression model confirmed the prevalence have not changed in urban areas since 2001 but in rural areas, there was a significant positive time trend such that by year 2008, rural prevalence was as high as in urban areas. Dengue seroprevalence has stabilized but persisted at a high level in urban areas since 2001, and is fast stabilizing in rural areas at the same high urban levels by 2008. The cumulative seroprevalence of dengue exceeds 90 % by the age of 70 years, which translates into 16.5 million people or 55 % of the total population in Malaysia, being infected by dengue by 2013.

  17. Obesity risk in rural, urban and rural-to-urban migrants: prospective results of the PERU MIGRANT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Larco, R M; Bernabé-Ortiz, A; Pillay, T D; Gilman, R H; Sanchez, J F; Poterico, J A; Quispe, R; Smeeth, L; Miranda, J J

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although migration and urbanization have been linked with higher obesity rates, especially in low-resource settings, prospective information about the magnitude of these effects is lacking. We estimated the risk of obesity and central obesity among rural subjects, rural-to-urban migrants and urban subjects. Methods: Prospective data from the PERU MIGRANT Study were analyzed. Baseline data were collected in 2007–2008 and participants re-contacted in 2012–2013. At follow-up, outcomes were obesity and central obesity measured by body mass index and waist circumference. At baseline, the primary exposure was demographic group: rural, rural-to-urban migrant and urban. Other exposures included an assets index and educational attainment. Cumulative incidence, incidence ratio (IR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for obesity and central obesity were estimated with Poisson regression models. Results: At baseline, mean age (±s.d.) was 47.9 (±12.0) years, and 53.0% were females. Rural subjects comprised 20.2% of the total sample, whereas 59.7% were rural-to-urban migrants and 20.1% were urban dwellers. A total of 3598 and 2174 person-years were analyzed for obesity and central obesity outcomes, respectively. At baseline, the prevalence of obesity and central obesity was 20.0 and 52.5%. In multivariable models, migrant and urban groups had an 8- to 9.5-fold higher IR of obesity compared with the rural group (IR migrants=8.19, 95% CI=2.72–24.67; IR urban=9.51, 95% CI=2.74–33.01). For central obesity, there was a higher IR only among the migrant group (IR=1.95; 95% CI=1.22–3.13). Assets index was associated with a higher IR of central obesity (IR top versus bottom tertile 1.45, 95% CI=1.03–2.06). Conclusions: Peruvian urban individuals and rural-to-urban migrants show a higher incidence of obesity compared with their rural counterparts. Given the ongoing urbanization occurring in middle-income countries, the rapid development of increased obesity

  18. Utilization of Maternal Health Services in Urban and Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of Maternal Health Services in Urban and Rural Communities of Anambra State, Nigeria. ... CONCLUSION: Measures to improve maternal health service utilization especially in rural areas should not only address the issue of access to care, but also improvement in quality of care and women empowerment.

  19. Social impacts of rural-urban transformation | Mhlaba | Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The crux of this paper is on sociological aspects of the transition of people from rural to urban living environment. It is strongly acknowledged that the traditional rural settlements of indigenous African communities have fallen victims of historical underdevelopment, hence the need for accelerated development of their living ...

  20. Nutritional behaviours of pregnant women in rural and urban environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Suliga

    2015-09-01

    The diet of pregnant women from the rural environment compared to that of women from urban areas, was characterized by worse quality. It is necessary to carry out health education in the area of adequate nutrition among pregnant women, and those who plan pregnancy, directed primarily to all women from the rural environment.

  1. Alcohol Consumption among Urban, Suburban, and Rural Veterans Affairs Outpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Emily C.; McFarland, Lynne V.; Nelson, Karin M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: United States rural residents tend toward poorer health than urban residents. Although alcohol use is associated with multiple medical conditions and can be reduced via brief primary care-based interventions, it is unknown whether alcohol consumption differs by rurality among primary care patients. We sought to describe alcohol…

  2. Rural Urban Cooperation on Water Management in the Context of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Rural Urban Cooperation on Water Management in the Context of Climate Change in Burkina Faso. Cities greatly depend on rural areas for agricultural ... Coopération entre milieux ruraux et urbains dans la gestion de l'eau face aux changements climatiques au Burkina Faso. Les villes dépendent fortement des milieux ...

  3. Sun exposure patterns of urban, suburban, and rural children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekær, Mette; Petersen, Bibi; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sun exposure is the main etiology of skin cancer. Differences in skin cancer incidence have been observed between rural and urban populations. OBJECTIVES: As sun exposure begins in childhood, we examined summer UVR exposure doses and sun behavior in children resident in urban, suburban......, and rural areas. METHODS: Personal, electronic UVR dosimeters and sun behavior diaries were used during a summer (3.5 months) by 150 children (4-19 years of age) resident in urban, suburban, and rural areas. RESULTS: On school/kindergarten days rural children spent more time outdoors and received higher UVR...... doses than urban and suburban children (rural: median 2.3 h per day, median 0.9 SED per day, urban: median 1.3 h per day, median 0.3 SED per day, suburban: median 1.5 h per day, median 0.4 SED per day) (p ≤ 0.007). Urban and suburban children exhibited a more intermittent sun exposure pattern than rural...

  4. Urban-rural solar radiation loss in the atmosphere of Greater Cairo region, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robaa, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    A comparative study for measured global solar radiation, G, during the period (1969-2006) and the corresponding global radiation loss in the atmosphere, R L %, over urban and rural districts in Greater Cairo region have been performed. The climatic variabilities of G radiation at the urban and rural sites are also investigated and discussed. Monthly, seasonal and annual mean values of extraterrestrial radiation, Go, and R L % during four successive periods, (1969-1978), (1979-1988), (1989-1998) and (1999-2006) at the above two sites have been calculated and investigated. The results revealed that urban area was always received lower amount of solar radiation due to urbanization factors. The yearly mean values of G radiation were distinctly decreased from maximum value 21.93 and 22.62 MJ m -2 during 1970 year to minimum value 17.57 and 17.87 MJ m -2 during 2004 and 2006 years with average decrease rate 0.09 and 0.10 MJ m -2 per year for the urban and rural areas, respectively. Also, the seasonal and annual mean anomalies of G radiation have been also gradually decreased from maximum values during the eldest period (1969-1978) to minimum values during the recent period (1999-2006). R L % over the urban area was always higher than that rural area. The urban-rural R L % differences range from 0.61% in 1999 year to 4.19% in 2002 year and 2.20% as average value. The yearly mean of R L % values distinctly gradually increase from minimum value 29.47% and 27.28% during 1970 year to maximum value 43.50% and 42.60% during 2004 and 2006 years with average increase rate 0.28% and 0.32% per year for the urban and rural areas, respectively. The minimum value of R L % (26.88%) occurred at rural area during summer season of the eldest period (1969-1978) while the maximum value of R L % (51.27%) occurred at the urban area during winter season of the last recent urbanized period (1999-2006). The linear trend of the yearly variations of R L % revealed that G values will reach zero

  5. Rural-Urban Disparities in Emergency Department Intimate Partner Violence Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choo, Esther K

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Little is known about availability of resources for managing intimate partner violence (IPV at rural hospitals. We assessed differences in availability of resources for IPV screening and management between rural and urban emergency departments (EDs in Oregon. Methods: We conducted a standardized telephone interview of Oregon ED directors and nurse managers on six IPV-related resources: official screening policies, standardized screening tools, public displays regarding IPV, on-site advocacy, intervention checklists and regular clinician education. We used chi-square analysis to test differences in reported resource availability between urban and rural EDs. Results: Of 57 Oregon EDs, 55 (96% completed the survey. A smaller proportion of rural EDs, compared to urban EDs, reported official screening policies (74% vs. 100%, p=0.01, standardized screening instruments (21% vs. 55%, p=0.01, clinician education (38% vs. 70%, p=0.02 or on-site violence advocacy (44% vs. 95%, p<0.001. Twenty-seven percent of rural EDs had none or one of the studied resources, 50% had two or three, and 24% had four or more (vs. 0%, 35%, and 65% in urban EDs, p=0.003. Small, remote rural hospitals had fewer resources than larger, less remote rural hospitals or urban hospitals. Conclusion: Rural EDs have fewer resources for addressing IPV. Further work is needed to identify specific barriers to obtaining resources for IPV management that can be used in all hospital settings. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(2:178-183.

  6. Rural versus urban academic hospital mortality following stroke in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleet, Richard; Bussières, Sylvain; Tounkara, Fatoumata Korika; Turcotte, Stéphane; Légaré, France; Plant, Jeff; Poitras, Julien; Archambault, Patrick M; Dupuis, Gilles

    2018-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death in Canada. While stroke care has improved dramatically over the last decade, outcomes following stroke among patients treated in rural hospitals have not yet been reported in Canada. To describe variation in 30-day post-stroke in-hospital mortality rates between rural and urban academic hospitals in Canada. We also examined 24/7 in-hospital access to CT scanners and selected services in rural hospitals. We included Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) data on adjusted 30-day in-hospital mortality following stroke from 2007 to 2011 for all acute care hospitals in Canada excluding Quebec and the Territories. We categorized rural hospitals as those located in rural small towns providing 24/7 emergency physician coverage with inpatient beds. Urban hospitals were academic centres designated as Level 1 or 2 trauma centres. We computed descriptive data on local access to a CT scanner and other services and compared mean 30-day adjusted post-stroke mortality rates for rural and urban hospitals to the overall Canadian rate. A total of 286 rural hospitals (3.4 million emergency department (ED) visits/year) and 24 urban hospitals (1.5 million ED visits/year) met inclusion criteria. From 2007 to 2011, 30-day in-hospital mortality rates following stroke were significantly higher in rural than in urban hospitals and higher than the Canadian average for every year except 2008 (rural average range = 18.26 to 21.04 and urban average range = 14.11 to 16.78). Only 11% of rural hospitals had a CT-scanner, 1% had MRI, 21% had in-hospital ICU, 94% had laboratory and 92% had basic x-ray facilities. Rural hospitals in Canada had higher 30-day in-hospital mortality rates following stroke than urban academic hospitals and the Canadian average. Rural hospitals also have very limited local access to CT scanners and ICUs. These rural/urban discrepancies are cause for concern in the context of Canada's universal health care system.

  7. Climate Change as Migration Driver from Rural and Urban Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J; Hunter, Lori M; Runfola, Daniel M; Riosmena, Fernando

    2015-11-01

    Studies investigating migration as a response to climate variability have largely focused on rural locations to the exclusion of urban areas. This lack of urban focus is unfortunate given the sheer numbers of urban residents and continuing high levels of urbanization. To begin filling this empirical gap, this study investigates climate change impacts on U.S.-bound migration from rural and urban Mexico, 1986-1999. We employ geostatistical interpolation methods to construct two climate change indices, capturing warm and wet spell duration, based on daily temperature and precipitation readings for 214 weather stations across Mexico. In combination with detailed migration histories obtained from the Mexican Migration Project, we model the influence of climate change on household-level migration from 68 rural and 49 urban municipalities. Results from multilevel event-history models reveal that a temperature warming and excessive precipitation significantly increased international migration during the study period. However, climate change impacts on international migration is only observed for rural areas. Interactions reveal a causal pathway in which temperature (but not precipitation) influences migration patterns through employment in the agricultural sector. As such, climate-related international migration may decline with continued urbanization and the resulting reductions in direct dependence of households on rural agriculture.

  8. Urban and rural mortality and survival in Medieval England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Brittany S; DeWitte, Sharon N

    2017-06-01

    Late medieval England underwent intensive urbanisation, particularly in its largest city: London. Urban dwellers were exposed to factors such as high population density, elevated risk of infection, unsanitary living conditions and precarious food supplies. To assess whether the urban environment was more detrimental to health than the rural environment, this study compares risks of mortality and survival, as proxies for health, in medieval urban vs rural England. This study uses samples from rural St. Peter's cemetery in Barton-upon-Humber, Lincolnshire (c. 1150-1500) and urban St. Mary Spital cemetery in London (c. 1120-1539). Cox proportional hazards analysis and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis are used to assess differences in mortality and survival between urban and rural environments, including differences between sexes. The results indicate that urban adults faced elevated risks of dying and reductions in survivorship. Specifically, urban females faced elevated risks of dying and reductions in survivorship, while the risks for males were similar in both environments. These results suggest that the effects of urbanisation in medieval England varied by sex. Deleterious conditions associated with urbanisation in London were hazardous for adults, particularly females who may have migrated into London from rural areas for labour opportunities.

  9. Child Passenger Restraint System Misuse in Rural Versus Urban Children: A Multisite Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, John W; Kok, Stephanie J; Wang, Huaping; Wren, Dale L; Aitken, Mary E; Miller, Beverly K; Anderson, Byron L; Monroe, Kathy W

    2017-10-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of childhood fatality, making use of properly installed child passenger restraint system (CRS) a public health priority. Motor vehicle crashes in rural environments are associated with increased injuries and fatalities, and overall CRS use tends to be lower compared with urban populations. However, it remains unclear if proper installation of car seats is lower in a rural population compared with a similar matched urban population. A multisite (Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois), observational, case-control study was performed using data from community child passenger safety checkup events in rural (economically and population-controlled) and urban locations. Data were matched to the primary child assessed in a vehicle, and stratified by age, site, and year with urban unscheduled CRS check data. All CRS checks were performed using nationally certified CRS technicians who used the best practice standards of the American Academy of Pediatrics and collected subject demographics, car seat misuse patterns, and interventions using identical definitions. Four hundred eighty-four CRS checks (242 rural and 242 urban) involving 603 total children from 3 states (Alabama, 43 [7%]; Arkansas, 442 [73%]; Illinois, 118 [20%]) were examined; of which, 86% had at least 1 documented CRS misuse. Child passenger restraint system misuse was more common in rural than urban locations (90.5% vs 82.6%; P = 0.01). Child passenger restraint system misuse was more common in rural children aged 4 to 8 years (90.3% vs 80.6%; P = 0.02). In this multisite study, rural location was associated with higher CRS misuse. Child passenger restraint system education and resources that target rural populations specifically appear to be justified.

  10. Preschool overweight and obesity in urban and rural Vietnam: differences in prevalence and associated factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Loan Minh; Tran, Toan Khanh; Eriksson, Bo; Petzold, Max; Nguyen, Chuc T. K.; Ascher, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity may soon be an equally important health threat as undernutrition and infectious diseases. Accurate information about prevalence and risk factors of obesity in children is important for the design of prevention. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of overweight and obesity for preschool children in two Vietnamese areas, one urban and one rural, and to identify risk factors. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted in urban Dong Da and rural Ba Vi districts, Hanoi, Vietnam. Totally, 2,677 children, 1,364 urban and 1,313 rural, were weighed and measured. Caregivers were interviewed. Background information about children and families was obtained from regular household surveys. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity combined were 21.1% (95% CI 18.9–23.3) in the urban area and 7.6% (95% CI 6.2–9.2) in the rural. Multiple logistic regression revealed that at the individual level, in both sites, the risk increased with increased child age. The identified urban risk factors were being a boy, consuming large amounts of food, eating fast, and indoor activity less than 2 hours per day. The rural risk factors were frequent consumption of fatty food. At the family level, significant association was found in rural areas with frequent watching of food advertisements on television. Conclusions Overweight and obesity are emerging problems in Vietnam, particularly in the urban context. Prevention programs should focus on education about healthy eating habits at early preschool age and need to be tailored separately for urban and rural areas since the risk factors differ. Non-healthy food advertisement needs to be restricted. PMID:26452338

  11. Preschool overweight and obesity in urban and rural Vietnam: differences in prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Loan Minh; Tran, Toan Khanh; Eriksson, Bo; Petzold, Max; Nguyen, Chuc T K; Ascher, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity may soon be an equally important health threat as undernutrition and infectious diseases. Accurate information about prevalence and risk factors of obesity in children is important for the design of prevention. The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of overweight and obesity for preschool children in two Vietnamese areas, one urban and one rural, and to identify risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted in urban Dong Da and rural Ba Vi districts, Hanoi, Vietnam. Totally, 2,677 children, 1,364 urban and 1,313 rural, were weighed and measured. Caregivers were interviewed. Background information about children and families was obtained from regular household surveys. The prevalence of overweight and obesity combined were 21.1% (95% CI 18.9-23.3) in the urban area and 7.6% (95% CI 6.2-9.2) in the rural. Multiple logistic regression revealed that at the individual level, in both sites, the risk increased with increased child age. The identified urban risk factors were being a boy, consuming large amounts of food, eating fast, and indoor activity less than 2 hours per day. The rural risk factors were frequent consumption of fatty food. At the family level, significant association was found in rural areas with frequent watching of food advertisements on television. Overweight and obesity are emerging problems in Vietnam, particularly in the urban context. Prevention programs should focus on education about healthy eating habits at early preschool age and need to be tailored separately for urban and rural areas since the risk factors differ. Non-healthy food advertisement needs to be restricted.

  12. Preschool overweight and obesity in urban and rural Vietnam: differences in prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loan Minh Do

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood obesity may soon be an equally important health threat as undernutrition and infectious diseases. Accurate information about prevalence and risk factors of obesity in children is important for the design of prevention. Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of overweight and obesity for preschool children in two Vietnamese areas, one urban and one rural, and to identify risk factors. Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in urban Dong Da and rural Ba Vi districts, Hanoi, Vietnam. Totally, 2,677 children, 1,364 urban and 1,313 rural, were weighed and measured. Caregivers were interviewed. Background information about children and families was obtained from regular household surveys. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity combined were 21.1% (95% CI 18.9–23.3 in the urban area and 7.6% (95% CI 6.2–9.2 in the rural. Multiple logistic regression revealed that at the individual level, in both sites, the risk increased with increased child age. The identified urban risk factors were being a boy, consuming large amounts of food, eating fast, and indoor activity less than 2 hours per day. The rural risk factors were frequent consumption of fatty food. At the family level, significant association was found in rural areas with frequent watching of food advertisements on television. Conclusions: Overweight and obesity are emerging problems in Vietnam, particularly in the urban context. Prevention programs should focus on education about healthy eating habits at early preschool age and need to be tailored separately for urban and rural areas since the risk factors differ. Non-healthy food advertisement needs to be restricted.

  13. Characteristics of Aedes aegypti adult mosquitoes in rural and urban areas of western and coastal Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryson Alberto Ndenga

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti is the main vector for yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. Recent outbreaks of dengue and chikungunya have been reported in Kenya. Presence and abundance of this vector is associated with the risk for the occurrence and transmission of these diseases. This study aimed to characterize the presence and abundance of Ae. aegypti adult mosquitoes from rural and urban sites in western and coastal regions of Kenya. Presence and abundance of Ae. aegypti adult mosquitoes were determined indoors and outdoors in two western (urban Kisumu and rural Chulaimbo and two coastal (urban Ukunda and rural Msambweni sites in Kenya. Sampling was performed using quarterly human landing catches, monthly Prokopack automated aspirators and monthly Biogents-sentinel traps. A total of 2,229 adult Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were collected: 785 (35.2% by human landing catches, 459 (20.6% by Prokopack aspiration and 985 (44.2% by Biogents-sentinel traps. About three times as many Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were collected in urban than rural sites (1,650 versus 579. Comparable numbers were collected in western (1,196 and coastal (1,033 sites. Over 80% were collected outdoors through human landing catches and Prokopack aspiration. The probability of collecting Ae. aegypti mosquitoes by human landing catches was significantly higher in the afternoon than morning hours (P<0.001, outdoors than indoors (P<0.001 and in urban than rural sites (P = 0.008. Significantly more Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were collected using Prokopack aspiration outdoors than indoors (P<0.001 and in urban than rural areas (P<0.001. Significantly more mosquitoes were collected using Biogents-sentinel traps in urban than rural areas (P = 0.008 and in western than coastal sites (P = 0.006. The probability of exposure to Ae. aegypti bites was highest in urban areas, outdoors and in the afternoon hours. These characteristics have major implications for the possible transmission of arboviral

  14. Characteristics of Aedes aegypti adult mosquitoes in rural and urban areas of western and coastal Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndenga, Bryson Alberto; Mutuku, Francis Maluki; Ngugi, Harun Njenga; Mbakaya, Joel Omari; Aswani, Peter; Musunzaji, Peter Siema; Vulule, John; Mukoko, Dunstan; Kitron, Uriel; LaBeaud, Angelle Desiree

    2017-01-01

    Aedes aegypti is the main vector for yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. Recent outbreaks of dengue and chikungunya have been reported in Kenya. Presence and abundance of this vector is associated with the risk for the occurrence and transmission of these diseases. This study aimed to characterize the presence and abundance of Ae. aegypti adult mosquitoes from rural and urban sites in western and coastal regions of Kenya. Presence and abundance of Ae. aegypti adult mosquitoes were determined indoors and outdoors in two western (urban Kisumu and rural Chulaimbo) and two coastal (urban Ukunda and rural Msambweni) sites in Kenya. Sampling was performed using quarterly human landing catches, monthly Prokopack automated aspirators and monthly Biogents-sentinel traps. A total of 2,229 adult Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were collected: 785 (35.2%) by human landing catches, 459 (20.6%) by Prokopack aspiration and 985 (44.2%) by Biogents-sentinel traps. About three times as many Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were collected in urban than rural sites (1,650 versus 579). Comparable numbers were collected in western (1,196) and coastal (1,033) sites. Over 80% were collected outdoors through human landing catches and Prokopack aspiration. The probability of collecting Ae. aegypti mosquitoes by human landing catches was significantly higher in the afternoon than morning hours (P<0.001), outdoors than indoors (P<0.001) and in urban than rural sites (P = 0.008). Significantly more Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were collected using Prokopack aspiration outdoors than indoors (P<0.001) and in urban than rural areas (P<0.001). Significantly more mosquitoes were collected using Biogents-sentinel traps in urban than rural areas (P = 0.008) and in western than coastal sites (P = 0.006). The probability of exposure to Ae. aegypti bites was highest in urban areas, outdoors and in the afternoon hours. These characteristics have major implications for the possible transmission of arboviral

  15. education as a means of smooth rural-urban migration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Etsub [ ETSUB

    urban migration even after accounting for its indirect effect on migration through earnings differential. This may support the argument that education changes the .... The National Pattern. In general, rural-urban migration in Ethiopia has been relatively low for so long. The fact that only 16.2 percent of the 73.9 million people of ...

  16. Songbird abundance and parasatism differ between urban and rural shrublands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirk E. Burhans; Frank R. Thompson

    2006-01-01

    Many studies have examined differences in avian community composition between urban and rural habitats, but few, if any, have looked at nesting success of urban shrubland birds in a replicated fashion while controlling for habitat. We tested factors affecting nest survival, parasitism by the Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater), and species abundance in shrubland...

  17. Urban-Rural Excellence Gaps: Features, Factors, and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Torrano, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the presence of excellence gaps (i.e., differences between subgroups of students performing at the highest levels of achievement) in a sample of 563 students nominated as gifted by their teachers in urban, semi-urban, and rural settings in Spain. In general, the results suggested the existence of excellence…

  18. Urban-rural differences in male cancer incidence and mortality in the Umbria region of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Stracci

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to verify the existence of different rates of cancer incidence and mortality in males in the urban and rural populations of Umbria and to formulate hypotheses as to why this occurs. Methods: Directly age-adjusted incidence rates (AAIR and age-adjusted death rates (AADR were calculated for 1998-2002 and the expected number of rural cases (standardized incidence ratios-SIRs and standardized mortality ratios-SMRs was determined by indirect standardization using urban incidence and mortality. Results: Urban zones have higher AAIR’s for the most common cancer sites. Significantly lower SIRs, in rural areas, were shown for skin melanoma, prostate and bladder cancers and a significantly lower SIR was also determined for the combination of all cancer sites. Lower AADRs in rural areas were demonstrated for the most common cancer sites and significant low SMRs were shown for lung cancer and skin melanoma. Prostate cancer incidence is significantly higher in urban areas whereas the mortality rate is slightly higher in rural municipalities probably due to the effects of the opportunistic screening widely available in Umbria, particularly in zones near diagnostic services. A very similar pattern was found for urinary bladder cancer; this could be related to the association between prostate and bladder cancer sites. Both incidence and mortality from melanoma are significantly lower in rural areas, this may be due to the difficulty in accessing diagnostic services or/and to different occupational exposure patterns. Conclusion: It would appear in Umbria that differences in health services utilization continue to exist. In particular, our results are compatible with a lower diffusion of preventive activities for prostate cancer and skin melanoma in rural areas.

  19. Growing in Cities: An Urban Penalty for Wild Birds? A Study of Phenotypic Differences between Urban and Rural Great Tit Chicks (Parus major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clotilde Biard

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban sprawl is associated with deep and intense modifications of the natural habitats of wild vertebrates. Although, many species are unable to cope with such an environment, a few species can be found in cities and can help us assessing the impact of urbanization on wildlife. Urban-related environmental modifications are multiple and some of them seem beneficial while others seem rather detrimental to wild vertebrates. Moreover, the impact of these modifications on wild vertebrates is likely to vary depending on the phase of the annual life-cycle. Therefore, it is challenging to get a comprehensive picture of the impact of urbanization on wild vertebrates. Overall, urbanization is usually associated with reduced breeding performances in wild birds, but the impact of urbanization on the phenotype and quality of developing offspring has been less studied. In this study, we specifically investigated the impact of urbanization on several proxies of individual quality in great tits (Parus major. We concomitantly measured body size (tarsus length and body mass, plumage coloration, and telomere length in 14-days old chicks issued from 4 populations (two pairs of urban/rural populations located in two different geographical areas of France. First, rural chicks were significantly taller and heavier than urban birds although this impact of urbanization on body size/body mass appears only true for the most urbanized site. Interestingly, body size was also affected by the geographical area of capture, suggesting that regional environmental conditions may attenuate or exacerbate the influence of urbanization on nestling growth. Second, the carotenoid-based yellow plumage of rural nestlings was more colorful than that of urban birds, independently of the area of capture. This suggests that urban birds probably have a low-carotenoid diet relative to rural birds. Finally, telomere length did not differ between rural and urban chicks. These results suggest

  20. Health Disparities between Rural and Urban Women in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjaden, Kim

    2015-10-01

    With much discussion about health disparities in Minnesota in recent years, there has been growing awareness about the inequities between rich and poor and between majority and minority groups. Attention also needs to be paid to the disparities between women who live in rural areas and those who live in urban parts of the state. Rural women are poorer, older and less likely to have adequate health insurance than their urban counterparts, which can compromise their health status. They also fare worse on a number of health indicators and face barriers to adequate health care that can exacerbate disparities. This article describes the root causes of health disparities between women living in rural and urban parts of the state and explores strategies to mitigate them that include increasing the rural physician workforce, improving access to primary and specialty care through telehealth services, and expanding health insurance options.

  1. Schools at the Rural-Urban Boundary - Blurring the Divide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick-Will, Julia; Logan, John R

    2017-07-01

    Schools mirror the communities in which they are located. Research on school inequality across the rural-urban spectrum tends to focus on the contrast between urban, suburban, and rural schools and glosses over the variation within these areas as well as the similarities between them. To address this gap and provide a richer description of the spatial distribution of educational inequality, we examine the school composition, achievement, and resources of all U.S. elementary schools in 2010-2011. We apply standard census definitions of what areas fall within central cities, the remainder of metropolitan regions, and in rural America. We then apply spatially explicit methods to reveal blurred boundaries and gradual gradients rather than sharp breaks at the edges of these zones. The results show high levels of variation within the suburbs and substantial commonality between rural and urban areas.

  2. Campylobacter infection in urban and rural populations in Scotland.

    OpenAIRE

    Sibbald, C. J.; Sharp, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    A review of campylobacter infection in Scotland over five years (1978-82), during which 7808 human isolates were recorded (mean annual isolation rate of 30 per 100000), revealed differences in the epidemiology of the disease between rural and urban populations which were not apparent in the national data. The incidence of infection in the two rural areas studied was greatest in the early months of the year, whereas that in the two urban areas showed a third-quarter predominance. In both urban...

  3. Urban vs. rural factors that affect adult asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Yu; Isa, Zaleha Md; Jie, Xu; Ju, Zhang Long; Ismail, Noor Hassim

    2013-01-01

    In this review, our aim was to examine the influence of geographic variations on asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults, which is important for improving our understanding, identifying the burden, and for developing and implementing interventions aimed at reducing asthma morbidity. Asthma is a complex inflammatory disease of multifactorial origin, and is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. The disparities in asthma prevalence and morbidity among the world's geographic locations are more likely to be associated with environmental exposures than genetic differences. In writing this article, we found that the indoor factors most consistently associated with asthma and asthma-related symptoms in adults included fuel combustion, mold growth, and environmental tobacco smoke in both urban and rural areas. Asthma and asthma-related symptoms occurred more frequently in urban than in rural areas, and that difference correlated with environmental risk exposures, SES, and healthcare access. Environmental risk factors to which urban adults were more frequently exposed than rural adults were dust mites,high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle.Exposure to indoor biological contaminants in the urban environment is common.The main risk factors for developing asthma in urban areas are atopy and allergy to house dust mites, followed by allergens from animal dander. House dust mite exposure may potentially explain differences in diagnosis of asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults in urban vs. rural areas. In addition, the prevalence of asthma morbidity increases with urbanization. High levels of vehicle emissions,Western lifestyles and degree of urbanization itself, may affect outdoor and thereby indoor air quality. In urban areas, biomass fuels have been widely replaced by cleaner energy sources at home, such as gas and electricity, but in most developing countries, coal is still a major source of fuel for cooking and heating

  4. Urban-rural fog differences in Belgrade area, Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujović, Dragana; Todorović, Nedeljko

    2018-02-01

    Urban/rural fog appearance during the last 27 years in the Belgrade region is analysed using hourly meteorological records from two meteorological stations: an urban station at Belgrade-Vračar (BV) and a rural station at Belgrade-Airport (BA). The effects of urban development on fog formation are discussed through analysis of fog frequency trends and comparison with a number of meteorological parameters. The mean annual and the mean annual minimum temperatures were greater at the urban BV station than at the rural BA station. The mean monthly relative humidity and the mean monthly water vapour pressure were greater at the rural than urban station. During the period of research (1988-2014), BA experiences 425 more days with fog than BV, which means that BV experiences fog for 62.68% of foggy days at BA. Trends in the number of days with fog were statistically non-significant. We analysed the fog occurrence during different types of weather. Fog in urban BV occurred more frequently during cyclonal circulation (in 52.75% of cases). In rural BA, the trend was the opposite and fog appeared more frequently during anticyclonic circulation (in 53.58% of cases). Fog at BV occurred most frequently in stable anticyclonic weather with light wind, when a temperature inversion existed (21.86% of cases). Most frequently, fog at BA occurred in the morning and only lasted a short time, followed by clearer skies during the anticyclonic warm and dry weather (22.55% of cases).

  5. School Segregation and Disparities in Urban, Suburban, and Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, John R; Burdick-Will, Julia

    2017-11-01

    Much of the literature on racial and ethnic educational inequality focuses on the contrast between Black and Hispanic students in urban areas and white suburban students. This study extends past research on school segregation and racial/ethnic disparities by highlighting the importance of rural areas and regional variation. Although schools in rural America are disproportionately white, they nevertheless are like urban schools, and disadvantaged relative to suburban schools, in terms of poverty and test performance. The group most affected by rural school disadvantage is Native Americans, who are a small share of students nationally but much more prominent and highly disadvantaged in rural areas, particularly in some parts of the country. These figures suggest a strong case for including rural schools in the continuing conversation about how to deal with unfairness in public education.

  6. Comparative Analysis of the Course of Rural Urbanization and Urban Modernization - A Case Study of Jiangsu Province

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Tong-jun

    2012-01-01

    According to the relevant data in Jiangsu Province during the period 2000-2005, this article conducts comparative analysis of the course of rural urbanization and urban modernization using factor analysis method and principal component analysis method. The results show that the factors influencing the course of rural urbanization and urban modernization in Jiangsu Province can be summarized as 3 common factors (economic urbanization, social urbanization, urbanization of life quality and envir...

  7. Nonmydriatic fundus photography for teleophthalmology diabetic retinopathy screening in rural and urban clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Eric K; Ventura, Bruna V; See, Kai-Yin; Seibles, Joann; Park, Susanna S

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the relative diagnostic value of nonmydriatic fundus photography (nFP) among patients screened for diabetic retinopathy in remote rural medical clinics and an urban academic medical center for nonadherence to recommended annual dilated eye examination. A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed among diabetic patients seen in primary outpatient clinics between 2006 and 2011 who were screened for diabetic retinopathy with nFP for history of nonadherence to recommended annual dilated eye examination. A single nonstereoscopic, 45°, 10-megapixel digital image of the disc and macula of both eyes was obtained locally and transmitted electronically to a retinal specialist for remote review. The results from remote rural Native American Indian reservations were compared with those from an urban academic family practice clinic. The proportion of subjects diagnosed with diabetic retinopathy and the quality of fundus images were compared. Among 872 patients (1,744 eyes) screened from rural sites and 517 subjects (1,034 eyes) screened from an urban site, images were of good quality for evaluation in 82.4% and 85.7% of subjects, respectively. Diabetic retinopathy was noted in 12.6% of rural subjects and 29.6% of urban subjects (p<0.001). nFP can be a useful tool in both rural and urban settings to screen for diabetic retinopathy in patients who are nonadherent to the recommended dilated annual eye exam. In our study population, a surprisingly higher percentage of diabetic subjects screened from the urban clinic had retinopathy compared with subjects screened in rural clinics.

  8. VOCABULARY ENHANCEMENT OF FEMALE ESL LEARNERS THROUGH SHORT STORIES: A RURAL/ URBAN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseer Ahmed

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Teaching English has progressed rapidly with the changing requirements of society. Current study has not only the purpose of testing vocabulary enhancement by short stories but also monitors its effects on rural and urban population at secondary level. Present study utilizes Pre-test, post-test experimental design. Before the commencement of study, 50 students took their pre-test from rural site and 50 students took their pre-test from urban site. Only those 20, 20 students were selected from both sites whose accumulative score was almost the same. After this, five short stories were taught to both groups for five weeks with the same methodology. After the completion of coaching, a post-test was conducted. Marks of pre-test and post-test of both rural and urban groups were compared to see difference in learning. Data was analyzed statistically by using SPSS 20 for windows. Analysis of data proved that urban group had statistically significant improvement as compared to rural group.

  9. Positive body image: inter-ethnic and rural-urban differences among an indigenous sample from Malaysian Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Kannan, Kumaraswami; Furnham, Adrian

    2012-11-01

    Previous studies examining body image from a cross-cultural perspective have tended to neglect samples from different ethnic groups or along a rural-urban continuum. To overcome this limitation, the present study examined positive body image among rural and urban women from three major indigenous ethnic groups in Sabah, Malaysia. A total of 202 women completed the Body Appreciation Scale, as well as measures of media exposure and financial security, and provided their demographic details. s showed that there were significant rural-urban differences in body appreciation, with rural participants having significantly higher body appreciation than urban participants. A comparison with a previous data set of West Malaysian women (Swami & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2008) showed that the current urban sample had significantly lower body appreciation and that the rural group had significantly higher body appreciation. Further results showed that research site (urban vs rural) explained 11.0% of the variance in body appreciation. Participant body mass index and exposure to western forms of media explained an additional 2.0% of the variance. These results suggest that there are differences in body image between rural and urban women. Results are discussed in relation to the promotion of positive body image, particularly in developing societies where health care resources may be limited.

  10. Smoking and heavy drinking patterns in rural, urban and rural-to-urban migrants: the PERU MIGRANT Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Taype-Rondan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have found mixed results about cigarette and alcohol consumption patterns among rural-to-urban migrants. Moreover, there are limited longitudinal data about consumption patterns in this population. As such, this study aimed to compare the smoking and heavy drinking prevalence among rural, urban, and rural-to-urban migrants in Peru, as well as the smoking and heavy drinking incidence in a 5-year follow-up. Methods We analyzed the PERU MIGRANT Study data from rural, urban, and rural-to-urban migrant populations in Peru. The baseline study was carried out in 2006–2007 and follow-up was performed five years later. For the baseline data analysis, the prevalence of lifetime smoking, current smokers, and heavy drinking was compared by population group using prevalence ratios (PR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. For the longitudinal analysis, the incidence of smoking and heavy drinking was compared by population group with risk ratios (RR and 95% CI. Poisson regression with robust variance was used to calculate both PRs and RRs. Results We analyzed data from 988 participants: 200 rural dwellers, 589 migrants, and 199 urban dwellers. Compared with migrants, lifetime smoking prevalence was higher in the urban group (PR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.64–3.20, but lower in the rural group (PR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.31–0.99. Compared with migrants, the urban group had a higher current smoking prevalence (PR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.26–4.16, and a higher smoking incidence (RR = 2.75, 95% CI = 1.03–7.34. Current smoking prevalence and smoking incidence showed no significant difference between rural and migrant groups. The prevalence and incidence of heavy drinking was similar across the three population groups. Conclusions Our results show a trend in lifetime smoking prevalence (urban > migrant > rural, while smoking incidence was similar between migrant and rural groups, but higher in the

  11. Synthetic musk fragrances in urban and rural air of Iowa and the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Aaron M.; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    Synthetic musk fragrances are semivolatile organic compounds used to scent a variety of household and personal care products. In this study, six polycyclic musk fragrances (HHCB, AHTN, ATII, AHMI, ADBI, and DPMI) and two nitro musk fragrances (musk xylene and musk ketone) were evaluated in 181 air samples collected at urban, suburban, and rural sites in Iowa and the Great Lakes. This is the largest reported study of the compounds in ambient air and reveals the ubiquitous nature of these environmental contaminants. HHCB and AHTN were detected most frequently and at the highest concentrations at all sites. Synthetic musk fragrance concentrations were highest in urban locations, including Milwaukee, WI (previously reported) and an urban location in Cedar Rapids, IA. Urban concentrations of HHCB and AHTN are on the order of 1-5 ng m -3 and background terrestrial concentrations are about an order of magnitude less. In rural Iowa, the concentrations and frequency of detection of the synthetic musk fragrances are comparable to (and often greater than) gas-phase pesticide concentrations. The concentrations measured at the suburban location in Iowa City, IA and over the Lakes Erie, Ontario, and Michigan were generally intermediate of those measured at the rural and urban locations. Concentrations of HHCB and AHTN were correlated with temperature at the sampling sites in Iowa.

  12. Urban and Rural MSW Stream Characterization for Separate Collection Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Ciuta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the new legislation framework enacted by new member countries of the European Union (EU, the characterization of municipal solid waste (MSW represents an important instrument for local governments and sanitation operators in setting and achieving targets for waste recycling and recovery. This paper presents the results of a study conducted in accordance with the Romanian methodology for domestic wastes characterization ROMECOM, aiming to provide a proper basis for developing clear and realistic forecasts in current municipal waste management, based on MSW composition and generation rate. The analyzed MSW came both from areas where the waste is collected in mixed and separate ways, in urban and rural areas. The MSW composition by fraction is detailed for dense urban areas, urban areas, rural and touristic areas from Romania. Based on these results, the MSW composition was determined for the eight development regions in Romania, and a generation rate of 0.9·kgMSW inhabitant−1·day−1 for the urban region and 0.4·kgMSW inh−1·day−1 for the rural region was established. The calorific values of urban and rural areas were determined as 6801 kJ·kg−1 and 5613 kJ·kg−1, respectively. In the perspective of sustainable development in this technical area, based on the obtained results and on the prognosis made for the following years, two proposals for urban and rural areas were developed for MSW treating options improvement. The two systems are characterized by selective collection (different efficiencies for urban and rural areas with subsequent recovery of the separated materials and energy recovery of the residual waste in a large-scale waste to energy (WTE plant.

  13. Changes in soil carbon sequestration in Pinus massoniana forests along an urban-to-rural gradient of southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Chen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is accelerating globally, causing a variety of environmental changes such as increases in air temperature, precipitation, atmospheric CO2, and nitrogen (N deposition. However, the effects of these changes on forest soil carbon (C sequestration remain largely unclear. Here, we used urban-to-rural environmental gradients in Guangdong Province, southern China, to address the potential effects of these environmental changes on soil C sequestration in Pinus massoniana forests. In contrast to our expectations and earlier observations, soil C content in urban sites was significantly lower than that in suburban and rural sites. Lower soil C pools in urban sites were correlated with a significant decrease in fine root biomass and a potential increase in soil organic C decomposition. Variation of soil C pools was also a function of change in soil C fractions. Heavy fraction C content in urban sites was significantly lower than that in suburban and rural sites. By contrast, light fraction C content did not vary significantly along the urban-to-rural gradient. Our results suggest that urbanization-induced environmental changes may have a negative effect on forest soil C in the studied region.

  14. Changing communication ecologies in rural, peri-urban and urban Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Poul Erik; Gustafsson, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to discuss changing media ecologies in rural, peri-urban and urban Kenya. The article is based on a comprehensive baseline study of 800 households carried out in October 2014 in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. The survey recorded media access and use and civic engagement as well...... as demographic data. The findings suggest that media ecologies in rural, peri-urban as well as urban Kenya have undergone dramatic changes. The much hyped and unprecedented spread of mobile telephony has taken place simultaneously with the introduction of or increased access to radio and television including...

  15. What Aspects of Rural Life Contribute to Rural-Urban Health Disparities in Older Adults? Evidence From a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Steven A; Cook, Sarah K; Sando, Trisha A; Sabik, Natalie J

    2017-11-29

    Rural-urban health disparities are well-documented and particularly problematic for older adults. However, determining which specific aspects of rural or urban living initiate these disparities remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess associations between place-based characteristics of rural-urban status and health among adults age 65+. Data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were geographically linked to place-based characteristics from the American Community Survey. Self-reported health (SRH), obesity, and health checkup within the last year were modeled against rural-urban status (distance to nearest metropolitan area, population size, population density, percent urban, Urban Influence Codes [UIC], Rural-Urban Continuum Codes [RUCC], and Rural-Urban Commuting Area [RUCA]) using generalized linear models, accounting for covariates and complex sampling, overall, and stratified by area-level income. In general, increasing urbanicity was associated with a reduction in negative SRH for all 7 measures of rural-urban status. For low-income counties, this association held for all measures and characteristics of rural-urban status except population density. However, for high-income counties, the association was reversed-respondents living in areas of increasing urbanicity were more likely to report negative SRH for 4 of the 7 measures (RUCC, UIC, RUCA, and percent urban). Findings were mixed for the outcome of obesity, where rural areas had higher levels, except in low-income counties, where the association between rurality and obesity was reversed (OR 1.033, 95%CI: 1.002-1.064). These results suggest that rural-urban status is both a continuum and multidimensional. Distinct elements of rural-urban status may influence health in nuanced ways that require additional exploration in future studies. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.

  16. Urban-rural differences in oral and maxillofacial trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Anne Margareth; Marques, Leandro Silva; Batista, Aline Elizabeth; Falci, Saulo Gabriel Moreira; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to assess oral and maxillofacial trauma in urban and rural populations of the same region. The data collected included age, gender, year and month of trauma occurrence, origin (rural and urban), cause of injury, and the type of oral and maxillofacial trauma. Records from 1121 patients with 790 instances of oral and maxillofacial trauma were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0 software and involved descriptive statistics and Pearson's chi-squared test. Male patients were more prone to maxillofacial trauma (n = 537; 68%), and the patients were mostly from urban areas (n = 534; 67.6%). The male-to-female ratio was found to be 2.12:1 (urban zone, 1.72:1; rural zone, 3.49:1). The average age was 25.7 years (SD = 14.1). A traffic accident was the most common cause of oral and maxillofacial trauma (27%). The jaw (18%) was the most commonly fractured bone in the facial skeleton, followed by the zygoma (12.9%). Avulsion (8.5%) was the most common dental trauma. A significant statistical relationship was found between place of origin and gender (p trauma in individuals from urban areas. According to these data, it seems reasonable to assume that specific preventive public policy for urban and rural areas must respect the differences of each region.

  17. The business cycle and mortality: Urban versus rural counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sameem, Sediq; Sylwester, Kevin

    2017-02-01

    Many studies have found that mortality declines during recessions, but do such results remain consistent in both urban and rural settings? To help uncover explanations for such a pro-cyclical nature of mortality, the present study revisits this topic but allows for associations between unemployment and mortality to differ between urban and rural areas. Using a total of 66 863 observations across 3066 counties of the U.S. from 1990 to 2013, we allow the coefficient on unemployment to differ between urban and rural counties. With an exception of deaths due to external accidents being pro-cyclical in rural settings, we find that the negative association between unemployment and mortality more generally holds for urban areas, particularly for females and the elderly. Moreover, we find death due to circulatory disease or influenza/pneumonia to be especially more prevalent in urban areas. Given that the negative associations between unemployment and mortality are generally stronger in cities, views attempting to explain pro-cyclical mortality should focus on characteristics in urban settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1): Urban Extents Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1) consists of estimates of human population for the years 1990, 1995, and 2000 by 30 arc-second (1km) grid....

  19. Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1): Urban Extent Polygons, Revision 01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary output of the Global Rural Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1) are a series of grids representing estimated population counts and density for the...

  20. Socioenvironmental conditions and nutritional status in urban and rural schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyhenart, Evelia E; Castro, Luis E; Forte, Luis M; Sicre, Maria L; Quintero, Fabian A; Luis, Maria A; Torres, Maria F; Luna, Maria E; Cesani, Maria F; Orden, Alicia B

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed the nutritional status of urban and rural schoolchildren from Mendoza (Argentina), but avoided rural and urban categorization by generating subpopulations as a function of their socioenvironmental characteristics. We transformed weight and height data into z-scores using the CDC/NCHS growth charts; defined underweight, stunting, and wasting by z-scores of less than -2 SD; and calculated overweight and obesity, according to the cutoff proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Socioenvironmental characteristics included housing, public services, parental resources, and farming practices; we processed these variables by categorical principal-component analysis. The two first axes defined four subgroups of schoolchildren: three of these were associated with urban characteristics, while the remaining subgroup was considered rural. Nutritional status differed across groups, whereas overweight was similar among the groups and obesity higher in urban middle-income children. Urban differences were manifested mainly as underweight, but rural children exhibited the greatest stunting and wasting. Thus, the negative effects of environment on nutritional status in children are not restricted to poor periurban and rural areas, though these are indeed unfavorable environments for growth: some urban families provide children with sufficient quantity and diversity of foods to expose them to obesity. By contrast, the more affluent urban families would appear to have greater possibilities for allowing their children to adopt a healthy life-style. Although the causes of differences in nutritional status between middle- and high-income urban groups are not clear, these determinants probably involve economic as well as educational influences. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. From rural Colombia to urban alienation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Valencia Arias

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between poverty, inequality and conflict exacerbateyouth migration from rural areas. Policymakers need to consider anumber of areas where efforts are needed to address the impact onyoung people – both in the cities and in the rural areas.

  2. A casemix study of patients seen by a dermatology trainee in rural and urban outpatient settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilakaratne, Dev; Warren, Lachlan; Menz, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    For 8 years South Australian dermatologists have provided an outreach service to the Northern Territory (NT), including rural and remote areas. In 2012 and 2013, a trainee accompanied a dermatologist on these outreach visits. This is the first prospective study that documents the spectrum of dermatological diseases requiring outpatient specialist input in various settings in the NT, and also the first study to compare the clinical experience of one Australian dermatology trainee in urban and rural settings. Characteristics of patients managed primarily by the outreach dermatology registrar were recorded prospectively from February 2013 to July 2013. The data from the trainee's urban encounters were compared to that of the rural centres. The spectrum of conditions seen in these two settings was placed in the disease categories specified in the Australasian College of Dermatologists (ACD) curriculum. The Royal Adelaide Hospital outpatient experience provided greater exposure to skin neoplasms, lymphoproliferative and myeloproliferative disorders and non-infectious neutrophilic/eosinophilic disorders. The outreach sites provided greater exposure to infections, adnexal diseases and genodermatoses. Both urban and rural experiences provided a broad exposure to the disease categories outlined in the ACD curriculum. The spectrum of disease requiring specialist dermatology input varies between urban South Australia and rural NT. The inclusion of dermatology trainees in outreach visits broadens their clinical exposure. It is recommended that other dermatology service providers in Australia consider documenting clinical casemix comparisons to assess dermatology demand, outcomes and trainee exposure. © 2014 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  3. Differing burden and epidemiology of non-Typhi Salmonella bacteremia in rural and urban Kenya, 2006-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Tabu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of non-Typhi Salmonella (NTS bacteremia in Africa will likely evolve as potential co-factors, such as HIV, malaria, and urbanization, also change. METHODS: As part of population-based surveillance among 55,000 persons in malaria-endemic, rural and malaria-nonendemic, urban Kenya from 2006-2009, blood cultures were obtained from patients presenting to referral clinics with fever ≥38.0°C or severe acute respiratory infection. Incidence rates were adjusted based on persons with compatible illnesses, but whose blood was not cultured. RESULTS: NTS accounted for 60/155 (39% of blood culture isolates in the rural and 7/230 (3% in the urban sites. The adjusted incidence in the rural site was 568/100,000 person-years, and the urban site was 51/100,000 person-years. In both sites, the incidence was highest in children 85% of blood NTS isolates in both sites, but only 21% (urban and 64% (rural of stool NTS isolates. Overall, 76% of S. Typhimurium blood isolates were multi-drug resistant, most of which had an identical profile in Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis. In the rural site, the incidence of NTS bacteremia increased during the study period, concomitant with rising malaria prevalence (monthly correlation of malaria positive blood smears and NTS bacteremia cases, Spearman's correlation, p = 0.018 for children, p = 0.16 adults. In the rural site, 80% of adults with NTS bacteremia were HIV-infected. Six of 7 deaths within 90 days of NTS bacteremia had HIV/AIDS as the primary cause of death assigned on verbal autopsy. CONCLUSIONS: NTS caused the majority of bacteremias in rural Kenya, but typhoid predominated in urban Kenya, which most likely reflects differences in malaria endemicity. Control measures for malaria, as well as HIV, will likely decrease the burden of NTS bacteremia in Africa.

  4. Rural and urban differences in the commission of animal cruelty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallichet, Suzanne E; Hensley, Christopher

    2005-12-01

    Despite the recent surge in society's interest in human violence, relatively few studies have been conducted examining the closely related phenomenon of animal cruelty. Although several researchers have begun to identify some of the correlates of animal cruelty, few have attempted to understand how differences in the backgrounds of rural and urban residents have led to their abuse of animals. Using survey data from 261 inmates, the authors investigate how demographic, familial differences and species type have contributed to the frequency of acts of animal cruelty. In general, early exposure to animal abuse is a strong predictor of the subsequent behavior. However, rural inmates learned to be cruel by watching family members exclusively, whereas urban inmates learned from family members and friends. Moreover, urban inmates chose dogs, cats, and wild animals as their target animals; however, rural inmates chose only cats.

  5. Rural-urban Migration in China: Evidence from Anhui Province

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Rural-urban migration in China has long been recognized as circular migration. However, few studies have systematically reviewed when rural workers migrate, what factors affect the length of migration, when they return, if they migrate again, how often they circulate over their life cycle, or how circularity has changed in the past 30 years. This dissertation investigates these questions using a longitudinal dataset from two counties in Anhui province. The empirical analysis shows that ove...

  6. Cardiovascular risk assessment between urban and rural population in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor Hassim, I; Norazman, M R; Diana, M; Khairul Hazdi, Y; Rosnah, I

    2016-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) caused significant burden to Malaysia as it accounted for 36% of total deaths. This study aims to evaluate the burden of cardiovascular risk factors among Malaysian adult and assess the difference between urban and rural population in the selected communities. This study is part of the ongoing Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) database, whereby the baseline data were collected since June 2008. CVD risk was measured using INTERHEART risk score which comprised of eleven risk factors i.e. age and gender, family history of heart attack, smoking status, exposure to second hand smoke, diabetes mellitus, hypertension status, waist-hip ratio, self-reported stress, depression, dietary habits and physical activity status. Majority of the studied participants had low cardiovascular risk (57%). Participants from rural area were generally older, had lower educational status, higher prevalence of smokers, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and more likely to be depressed. In comparison, urbanites had lower physical activities and more likely to be stressful. Mean INTERHEART score among rural participants were higher, especially for male, in comparison to urbanite (11.5±5.83 vs. 10.01±5.74, p<0.001). Contradict to common beliefs, participants in rural areas generally have higher cardiovascular risk factors compared to their urban counterparts. The rural population should be targeted for focused preventive interventions, taking account the socioeconomic and cultural context.

  7. Rural Urbanism? About urbanits moving to the countryside

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Maja Louise Stiegnitz de

    I whish to present a part of the analytical framework for the empirical studies of my Ph.D. project titled: Rural Urbanism? A qualitative study of the everyday lives, mobility patterns and practiced constructions of place and nature, that are characteristic of urbanites moving to the countryside...... to the city, and the concept of rhythm is employed as an analytical tool in order to avoid, or mediate, the urban-rural dichotomies. By thinking time-space relations in terms of rhythms I whish to try to capture the specific combinations of everyday experiences and practices such as for example high and low...

  8. Urban-Rural Variation in the Occurrence of Neural Tube Defects in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the pattern and magnitude of urban-rural variation in anencephaly, spina bifida without anencephaly, and encephalocele in Texas using four different indicators of urban-rural status for the period 1999 to 2003.

  9. A cross-sectional survey of Aedes aegypti immature abundance in urban and rural household containers in central Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgaard, Hans J; Olano, Víctor Alberto; Jaramillo, Juan Felipe; Matiz, María Inés; Sarmiento, Diana; Stenström, Thor Axel; Alexander, Neal

    2017-07-27

    Aedes aegypti, the major vector of dengue, breeds in domestic water containers. The development of immature mosquitoes in such containers is influenced by various environmental, ecological and socioeconomic factors. Urban and rural disparities in water storage practices and water source supply may affect mosquito immature abundance and, potentially, dengue risk. We evaluated the effect of water and container characteristics on A. aegypti immature abundance in urban and rural areas. Data were collected in the wet season of 2011 in central Colombia from 36 urban and 35 rural containers, which were either mosquito-positive or negative. Immature mosquitoes were identified to species. Data on water and container characteristics were collected from all containers. A total of 1452 Aedes pupae and larvae were collected of which 81% were A. aegypti and 19% A. fluviatilis. Aedes aegypti immatures were found in both urban and rural sites. However, the mean number of A. aegypti pupae was five times higher in containers in the urban sites compared to those in the rural sites. One of the important factors associated with A. aegypti infestation was frequency of container washing. Monthly-washed or never-washed containers were both about four times more likely to be infested than those washed every week. There were no significant differences between urban and rural sites in frequency of washing containers. Aedes aegypti immature infestation was positively associated with total dissolved solids, but negatively associated with dissolved oxygen. Water temperature, total dissolved solids, ammonia, nitrate, and organic matter were significantly higher in urban than in rural containers, which might explain urban-rural differences in breeding of A. aegypti. However, many of these factors vary substantially between studies and in their degree of association with vector breeding, therefore they may not be reliable indices for vector control interventions. Although containers in urban areas

  10. Soil Aeration deficiencies in urban sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltecke, Katharina; Gaertig, Thorsten

    2010-05-01

    Soil aeration deficiencies in urban sites Katharina Weltecke and Thorsten Gaertig On urban tree sites reduction of soil aeration by compaction or sealing is an important but frequently underestimated factor for tree growth. Up to 50% of the CO2 assimilated during the vegetation period is respired in the root space (Qi et al. 1994). An adequate supply of the soil with oxygen and a proper disposal of the exhaled carbon dioxide are essential for an undisturbed root respiration. If the soil surface is smeared, compacted or sealed, soil aeration is interrupted. Several references show that root activity and fine root growth are controlled by the carbon dioxide concentration in soil air (Qi et al.1994, Burton et al. 1997). Gaertig (2001) found that decreasing topsoil gas permeability leads to reduced fine root density and hence to injury in crown structure of oaks. In forest soils a critical CO2 concentration of more than 0.6 % indicates a bad aeration status (Gaertig 2001). The majority of urban tree sites are compacted or sealed. The reduction of soil aeration may lead to dysfunctions in the root space and consequently to stress during periods of drought, which has its visible affects in crown structure. It is reasonable to assume that disturbances in soil aeration lead to reduced tree vigour and roadworthiness, resulting in high maintenance costs. The assessment of soil aeration in urban sites is difficult. In natural ecosystems the measurement of gas diffusivity and the gas-chromatical analysis of CO2 in soil air are accepted procedures in analyzing the state of aeration (Schack-Kirchner et al. 2001, Gaertig 2001). It has been found that these methods can also be applied for analyzing urban sites. In particular CO2 concentration in the soil atmosphere can be considered as a rapidly assessable, relevant and integrating indicator of the aeration situation of urban soils. This study tested the working hypothesis that soil aeration deficiencies lead to a decrease of fine

  11. Early cancer detection among rural and urban californians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir Zanera

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the stage of cancer detection generally predicts future mortality rates, a key cancer control strategy is to increase the proportion of cancers found in the early stage. This study compared stage of detection for members of rural and urban communities to determine whether disparities were present. Methods The California Cancer Registry (CCR, a total population based cancer registry, was used to examine the proportion of early stage presentation for patients with breast, melanoma, and colon cancer from 1988 to 2003. Cancer stage at time of detection for these cancers was compared for rural and urban areas. Results In patients with breast cancer, there were significantly more patients presenting at early stage in 2003 compared to 1988, but no difference in the percentage of patients presenting with early stage disease between rural and urban dwellers. There were no differences in incidence in early stage cancer incidence between these groups for melanoma patients, as well. In colorectal cancer in 1988, significantly more patients presented with early stage disease in the urban areas (42% vs 34%, p Conclusion This analysis demonstrates that people in rural and urban areas have their breast, melanoma or colorectal cancers diagnosed at similar stages. Health care administrators may take this information into account in future strategic planning.

  12. Violence in Rural, Suburban, and Urban Schools in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Kalen; McDonald, Catherine C; D'Alonzo, Bernadette A; Tam, Vicky; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2018-01-01

    School violence is a public health issue with direct and collateral consequences that has academic and social impacts for youth. School violence is often considered a uniquely urban problem, yet more research is needed to understand how violence in rural and suburban schools may be similar or different from urban counterparts. Using school violence data from a state with urban, suburban, and rural counties, we explored the landscape of school violence in Pennsylvania (PA) through mapping, descriptive statistics, and factor analysis. Results show school violence is not solely an urban problem. Schools in all county types and across grade levels deal with violence to varying degrees, and the majority of schools across county types experience low levels of violence. Types of violence experienced by PA schools loaded onto three factors, suggesting that targeted interventions may be better suited to addressing school violence.

  13. Comparison of Migrants in Two Rural and an Urban Area of Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, E. A.

    The goal of this study was to compare the migration and adaptation of settlers in urban areas with settlers in rural areas of Brazil. A sample of 1,255 families, divided into an urban group, a near-urban rural group, and a rural group were interviewed. The migration patterns of the groups were discussed and factors related to migration were…

  14. Mental Health Problems and Coping Styles of Urban and Rural High School Students in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongjing; Chang, Kyle; Zhang, Fan; Greenberger, Ellen; Chen, Chuansheng

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have compared urban and rural adolescents' mental health problems, especially in developing countries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mental health problems and coping styles of adolescents in urban and rural areas in China. A total of 927 urban and rural high school students in Shandong Province of China were…

  15. Child Nutritional Status by Rural/Urban Residence: A Cross-National Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kiira; Heaton, Tim B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Rural children in developing countries have poor health outcomes in comparison with urban children. This paper considers 4 questions regarding the rural/urban difference, namely: (1) do individual-level characteristics account for rural/urban differences in child nutritional status; (2) do community-level characteristics account for…

  16. Compelling Factors of Urbanization and Rural-Urban Migration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article illustrates the policy intricacies of post-war reconstruction in contemporary Africa. It specifically examines the often neglected effects of ruralurban migration on urbanization and development in Rwanda after the genocide of 1994. Given the waves of urbanization caused by refugees returning to Rwanda, as well ...

  17. Plasmodium falciparum genotypes diversity in symptomatic malaria of children living in an urban and a rural setting in Burkina Faso

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    Konaté Amadou T

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical presentation of malaria, considered as the result of a complex interaction between parasite and human genetics, is described to be different between rural and urban areas. The analysis of the Plasmodium falciparum genetic diversity in children with uncomplicated malaria, living in these two different areas, may help to understand the effect of urbanization on the distribution of P. falciparum genotypes. Methods Isolates collected from 75 and 89 children with uncomplicated malaria infection living in a rural and an urban area of Burkina Faso, respectively, were analysed by a nested PCR amplification of msp1 and msp2 genes to compare P. falciparum diversity. Results The K1 allelic family was widespread in children living in the two sites, compared to other msp1 allelic families (frequency >90%. The MAD 20 allelic family of msp1 was more prevalent (p = 0.0001 in the urban (85.3% than the rural area (63.2%. In the urban area, the 3D7 alleles of msp2 were more prevalent compared to FC27 alleles, with a high frequency for the 3D7 300bp allele (>30%. The multiplicity of infection was in the range of one to six in the urban area and of one to seven in the rural area. There was no difference in the frequency of multiple infections (p = 0.6: 96.0% (95% C.I: 91.6–100 in urban versus 93.1% (95%C.I: 87.6–98.6 in rural areas. The complexity of infection increased with age [p = 0.04 (rural area, p = 0.06 (urban area]. Conclusion Urban-rural area differences were observed in some allelic families (MAD20, FC27, 3D7, suggesting a probable impact of urbanization on genetic variability of P. falciparum. This should be taken into account in the implementation of malaria control measures.

  18. Bronchial hyper-responsiveness and atopy in urban, peri-urban and rural South African children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Harris A; Donson, Hilton; Kawalski, Michelle; Toerien, Ann; Potter, Paul C

    2003-10-01

    Twenty years ago, the prevalence of atopic sensitization and bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) in Xhosa children in a rural location in South Africa was very low. The aim of this study was to document the current prevalence of these two indices by comparing traditional rural Xhosa children, recently urbanized Xhosa children and established city white children, and to consider factors that may account for the observed increase in all of these groups. One thousand four hundred and fifty-seven school children aged 10-14 years from the rural Transkei, from a recently urbanized peri-urban area and from urban Cape Town areas were studied using a questionnaire. Four hundred and eighteen children had histamine challenges, and 492 tests for atopy were also conducted. As determined by bronchial challenge with histamine, 17% of rural and 34.4% of recently urbanized Xhosa children had increased BHR, a marked increase from the 0.03% and 3.17% prevalence of increased BHR previously found using the exercise challenge. The prevalence of increased BHR in white urban children was 33%. Sensitization to one or more aero-allergens, as indicated by CAP RAST tests, was present in 36.6% of the rural Xhosa children with normal BHR and in 62.5% of those with increased BHR, a striking increase from that of previous studies. Atopic sensitization to one or more aero-allergens, as indicated by a skin prick test (SPT), was found in 42.3% of the recently urbanized Xhosa children and 45% of urbanized white children. We have also documented sensitization to house dust mites in the rural Xhosa children for the first time. Passive cigarette smoking was not identified as a risk factor for increased BHR or atopy. Wood smoke in the indoor environment did not play a role in the rural Xhosa children's BHR. Ascaris infection does not appear to play any modifying role in the development of increased BHR in the rural or urban children. We have found that increases in BHR in the rural and recently

  19. Patient Safety Outcomes in Small Urban and Small Rural Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartak, Smruti; Ward, Marcia M.; Vaughn, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess patient safety outcomes in small urban and small rural hospitals and to examine the relationship of hospital and patient factors to patient safety outcomes. Methods: The Nationwide Inpatient Sample and American Hospital Association annual survey data were used for analyses. To increase comparability, the study sample was…

  20. Rural-Urban Dimensions of Inequality Change. Working Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Robert; Lipton, Michael

    This study reviews evidence that overall within-country inequality, although showing no trends from 1960-80, increased after 1980-85, focusing on developing and transitional countries. It explores trends in rural-urban, intrarural, and intraurban inequality of income, poverty risk, health, and education, and the offsetting trends in inequality…

  1. Job Satisfaction: Rural Versus Urban Primary Health Care Workers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Job satisfaction implies doing a job one enjoys, doing it well, and being suitably rewarded for one's efforts. Several factors affect job satisfaction. OBJECTIVE: To compare factors influencing job satisfaction amongst rural and urban primary health care workers in southwestern Nigeria. METHODS: A cross ...

  2. Explaining Late Life Urban vs. Rural Health Discrepancies in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Zachary; Kaneda, Toshiko; Tang, Zhe; Fang, Xianghua

    2010-01-01

    Social characteristics that differ by place of residence are consequential for health. To study implications of this among older adults in rural vs. urban China, this study employs data from the Beijing municipality, a region that has witnessed growth and gaps in development. Life and active life expectancy is assessed using a multistate life…

  3. Rural - Urban differential in housing characteristics in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural - Urban differential in housing characteristics in Nigeria: Empirical evidence. EC Nwogu, IS Iwueze. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Social Sciences Vol. 5 (2) 2006: pp. 83-89. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  4. Decision Making And Reasoning of Rural and Urban Illiterate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Viewing a broad perspective, the literacy programmes should be supplemented with exploration and training in various psychological aspects, such as, intelligence, reasoning, decision making, identity needs, etc. This study aims at exploring rural and urban women\\'s decision-making and reasoning. In all, illiterate women ...

  5. Integrated Rural-Urban Water Management for Climate Based ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Integrated Rural-Urban Water Management for Climate Based Adaptation in Indian Cities (iAdapt). This research project will ... Ce projet de recherche permettra à deux villes indiennes de taille moyenne et à leurs bassins de passer à une approche de gestion de l'eau intégrée et résistante aux changements climatiques,.

  6. Rural-urban disparities in maternal immunization knowledge and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Immunization and appropriate health-seeking behavior are effective strategies to reduce child deaths. Objectives: To compare maternal knowledge about immunization, use of growth chart and childhood health-seeking behavior in rural and urban areas. Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study done in ...

  7. Psychological health among Chinese college students: a rural/urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four standardised psychological health scales were administered to obtain measures of participants' self-esteem, depression, social support, and suicide ideation. Findings indicated that urban students had significantly higher scores than their rural counterparts on self-esteem and social support. However, there was no ...

  8. Utilisation of indigenous plant foods in the urban and rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... study revealed that there was no cultivation of indigenous crops in the urban areas. In the rural areas, cultivation of indigenous crops was limited to a number of species and restricted to household consumption. Keywords: Indigenous knowledge, consumption, indigenous and traditional plant foods, cultivation, consumer.

  9. Retail Rural: Urban Market Integration of Plantain and Banana in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The knowledge about price at various markets determine to a large extent the effectiveness of information flow between the markets which further depicts efficiency of such markets for price prediction. This study examined the trend of prices of plantain and banana and their response between rural and urban markets in ...

  10. Chiropractic Use by Urban and Rural Residents with Insurance Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Bonnie K.; Diehr, Paula K.; Grembowski, David E.; Lafferty, William E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the use of chiropractic care by urban and rural residents in Washington state with musculoskeletal diagnoses, all of whom have insurance coverage for this care. The analyses investigate whether restricting the analyses to insured individuals attenuates previously reported differences in the prevalence of chiropractic use…

  11. Body image dissatisfaction among rural and urban adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Glaner

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify the prevalence of body image dissatisfaction among adolescents living in rural and urban areas, and to analyze the influence of demographic and anthropometric variables on body image dissatisfaction. A total of 629 adolescents aged 13 to 17 years from urban and rural areas participated in the study. Demographic variables (gender, age, area of residence, anthropometric measurements (body weight, height, skinfold thickness and body image data were collected. BMI (underweight: 25 kg/m² and the sum of two skinfold thicknesses, Σ2SF (girls: low: 36 mm; boys: low: 25 mm were then calculated. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction was similar (p≥0,05 among rural (64,2% and urban adolescents (62,8%. Boys wished to increase the size of their body silhouette (41,3%, whereas girls wished to reduce it (50,5% (p<0,001. Adolescents with low and excess weight based on BMI and with high Σ2SF presented a 3,14, 8,45 and 2,08 times higher chance of body image dissatisfaction, respectively. A high prevalence of body image dissatisfaction was observed among adolescents from rural and urban areas. An unhealthy nutritional status and body adiposity increase the chances of body image dissatisfaction. These findings emphasize the social pressure on girls to remain slim and on boys to attain an athletic body.

  12. Project Canada West. A Study of Urban Rural Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Curriculum Project on Canada Studies, Edmonton (Alberta).

    Project SURT, The Study of Rural-Urban Transition, deals with the dynamics of Canadian society. The interdisciplinary curriculum to be produced will be instrumental in assisting tenth and eleventh grade students in two or three months, to assess the changes which are occuring in selected Canadian Communities, and to gain some proficiency in…

  13. Comparison of Urban and Rural Dropout Rates of Distance Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hart, K. L.; Venter J. M. P.

    2013-01-01

    South Africa has one of the highest university dropout rates in the world. As a country, it also has a history of forced location and the withholding of resources, including quality education, from certain rural areas. This study investigates, the effect of urbanization (of the area in which a student resides) on the dropout rate of distance…

  14. Gender, Location and Rural-Urban Differences in the Goal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to identify critical factors necessary to improve the mandate attainment of the National Youth Service Corps (NYSC) Scheme informed this study on gender, location and rural-urban differences in the goal attainment of NYSC in South West Nigeria. Using a multistage sampling procedure, 120 outgoing youth corps ...

  15. illness and choice of treatment in urban and rural ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rahel

    Using large data set from a nationally representative sample of households and discrete choice models, we examine the effect of access to roads, transport and liquidity on seeking treatment for illness and health care provider choice in urban and rural Ethiopia. The results indicate that access to roads and public transport ...

  16. Strengthening Rural-Urban Interactions as a Contemporary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    continuous supply and dependence on raw materials and other infrastructural developments. This study therefore ... thereby accelerating regional integration and development as a whole. Résumé. La population mondiale .... is, the lack of regional integration between rural and urban environments in most African states has ...

  17. Comparative studies of the nutritional indices of rural and urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malnutrition is a major health problem among young children in third World countries. In the present study, a comparative assessment of the nutritional indices of rural and urban school children in Umuahia North Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria was undertaken by assessing both anthropometric and ...

  18. Rural-Urban Population Nexus: Tracing Human Impacts on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To this end per capita contribution to GHG through livelihood activities is considered in line with migration patterns. The paper concludes that percapita GHG emission and environmental impacts increase along rural-urban population nexus. Keywords: Population nexus, per capita GHG, Human impact, Livelihood.

  19. Rural-urban disparities in school nursing: implications for continuing education and rural school health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Mary M; Fullerton, Lynne; Sapien, Robert; Greenberg, Cynthia; Bauer-Creegan, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the professional and educational challenges experienced by rural school nurses. We conducted this study to describe disparities between the urban and rural professional school nurse workforce in New Mexico and to identify how best to meet the continuing education needs of New Mexico's rural school nurse workforce. We analyzed state data from a 2009 New Mexico Department of Health school nurse workforce survey (71.7% response rate). We included all survey respondents who indicated working as a school nurse in a public school setting in any grade K-12 and who identified their county of employment (N = 311). Rural school nurses were twice as likely as metropolitan nurses to provide clinical services to multiple school campuses (67.3% compared to 30.1%, P LGBT) health (P = .0004), and suicide risk identification and prevention (P = .015). Online courses and telehealth were identified by rural school nurses as among the preferred means for receiving continuing education. Our findings support the provision of online courses and telehealth content to address urban-rural disparities in school nursing education and support rural school health. © 2014 National Rural Health Association.

  20. Neighbourhood Environmental Attributes Associated with Walking in South Australian Adults: Differences between Urban and Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Narelle M; Coffee, Neil T; Nolan, Rebecca; Dollman, James; Sugiyama, Takemi

    2017-08-26

    Although the health benefits of walking are well established, participation is lower in rural areas compared to urban areas. Most studies on walkability and walking have been conducted in urban areas, thus little is known about the relevance of walkability to rural areas. A computer-assisted telephone survey of 2402 adults (aged ≥18 years) was conducted to determine walking behaviour and perceptions of neighbourhood walkability. Data were stratified by urban (n = 1738) and rural (n = 664). A greater proportion of respondents reported no walking in rural (25.8%) compared to urban areas (18.5%). Compared to urban areas, rural areas had lower walkability scores and urban residents reported higher frequency of walking. The association of perceived walkability with walking was significant only in urban areas. These results suggest that environmental factors associated with walking in urban areas may not be relevant in rural areas. Appropriate walkability measures specific to rural areas should be further researched.

  1. City without borders: Urban-rural multilocality in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cielo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The social, economic and political dynamics in the Andean region depend fundamentally on the links between city and countryside. This article identifies fundamental characteristics of the mutual constitution of Bolivian rural and urban spheres, based on a collection of studies on the theme. It seeks to explore the consequences of the paradoxical lack of incorporation of these links into insti­tutional and state mechanisms. Although state policies of regularization and popular participation opened economic and political possibilities for the Bolivian rural and indigenous populations, the combination of institutional flexibility of these policies with their lack of attention to urban-rural realities increases the vulnerability of the most marginalized Bolivians. 

  2. Rural-Urban Differences in Awareness and Use of Family Planning Services Among Adolescent Women in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarger, Jennifer; Decker, Martha J; Campa, Mary I; Brindis, Claire D

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare awareness and use of family planning services by rural and urban program site among a sample of adolescent women before participation in the federal Personal Responsibility Education Program in California. We conducted a secondary analysis of survey data collected from youth before participation in California's Personal Responsibility Education Program. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted for a sample of 4,614 females ages 14-18 years to compare awareness and use of family planning services between participants at rural and urban program sites, controlling for the program setting and participant demographic, sexual, and reproductive characteristics. Overall, 61% of participants had heard of a family planning provider in their community, and 24% had visited a family planning provider. Awareness and use of family planning services were lower among rural participants than urban participants. After adjusting for the program setting and participant characteristics, rural participants were less likely to know about a family planning provider in their community (odds ratio, .64; 95% confidence interval, .50-.81) or receive family planning services (odds ratio, .76; 95% confidence interval, .58-.99) than urban participants. Findings suggest that adolescents in rural areas face greater barriers to accessing family planning services than adolescents in urban areas. Targeted efforts to increase awareness and use of family planning services among adolescents in rural areas and among other underserved populations are needed. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Estimation of Large Regional Urban and Rural Population Density Based on the Differences of Population Distribution between Urban and Rural: Take Shandong Province as Example

    OpenAIRE

    LU Nan; ZHANG Weiwei; CHEN Lijun; LI Zhilin; CHEN Jun; LI Ran; CHEN Xuehong; ZHANG Yushuo; LIU Jiyu

    2015-01-01

    Existing methods for large regional population density estimation, which are mostly concentrated in the kilometer scale and only reflect the macro distribution characteristics of the urban and rural population, are difficult to describe details of urban and rural population spatial distribution accurately. In order to resolve the problem above, an estimation method of large regional urban and rural population density, which is based on the first 30 m global land cover dataset(GlobeLand30) is ...

  4. Volatile organic compounds in the western Mediterranean basin: urban and rural winter measurements during the DAURE campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Seco

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs have key environmental and biological roles, but little is known about the daily VOC mixing ratios in Mediterranean urban and natural environments. We measured VOC mixing ratios concurrently at an urban and a rural site during the winter DAURE campaign in the northeastern Iberian Peninsula, by means of PTR-MS at both locations: a PTR-Quad-MS at the urban site and a PTR-ToF-MS at the rural site. All VOC mixing ratios measured were higher at the urban site (e.g. acetaldehyde, isoprene, benzene, and toluene with averages up to 1.68, 0.31, 0.58 and 2.71 ppbv, respectively, with the exception of some short-chain oxygenated VOCs such as acetone (with similar averages of 0.7–1.6 ppbv at both sites. The average diurnal pattern also differed between the sites. Most of the VOCs at the urban location showed their highest mixing ratios in the morning and evening. These peaks coincided with traffic during rush hour, the main origin of most of the VOCs analyzed. Between these two peaks, the sea breeze transported the urban air inland, thus helping to lower the VOC loading at the urban site. At the rural site, most of the measured VOCs were advected by the midday sea breeze, yielding the highest daily VOC mixing ratios (e.g. acetaldehyde, isoprene, benzene, and toluene with averages up to 0.65, 0.07, 0.19, and 0.41 ppbv, respectively. Only biogenic monoterpenes showed a clear local origin at this site. In addition, the concentrations of fine particulate matter observed at both sites, together with the synoptic meteorological conditions and radio-sounding data, allowed the identification of different atmospheric scenarios that had a clear influence on the measured VOC mixing ratios. These results highlight the differences and relationships in VOC mixing ratios between nearby urban and rural areas in Mediterranean regions. Further research in other urban-rural areas is warranted to better understand the urban-rural

  5. Characterization of atmospheric black carbon and co-pollutants in urban and rural areas of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril-Valle, M.; Coz, E.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Močnik, G.; Pandis, S. N.; Sánchez de la Campa, A. M.; Alastuey, A.; Díaz, E.; Pérez, R. M.; Artíñano, B.

    2017-11-01

    A one-year black carbon (BC) experimental study was performed at three different locations (urban traffic, urban background, rural) in Spain with different equivalent BC (eBC) source characteristics by means of multi-wavelength Aethalometers. The Aethalometer model was used for the source apportionment study, based on the difference in absorption spectral dependence of emissions from biomass burning (bb) and fossil fuel (ff) combustion. Most studies use a single bb and ff absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) pair (AAEbb and AAEff), however in this work we use a range of AAE values associated with fossil fuel and biomass burning based on the available measurements, which represents more properly all conditions. A sensitivity analysis of the source specific AAE was carried out to determine the most appropriate AAE values, being site dependent and seasonally variable. Here we present a methodology for the determination of the ranges of AAEbb and AAEff by evaluating the correlations between the source apportionment of eBC using the Aethalometer model with four biomass burning tracers measured at the rural site. The best combination was AAEbb = [1.63-1.74] and AAEff = [0.97-1.12]. Mean eBC values (±SD) obtained during the period of study were 3.70 ± 3.73 μg m-3 at the traffic urban site, 2.33 ± 2.96 μg m-3 at the urban background location, and 2.61 ± 5.04 μg m-3 in the rural area. High contributions of eBC to the PM10 mass were found (values up to 21% in winter), but with high eBC/PM10 variability. The hourly mean eBCff and eBCbb concentrations varied from 0 to 51 μg m-3 and from 0 to 50 μg m-3 at the three sites, respectively, exhibiting distinct seasonal and daily patterns. The fossil fuel combustion was the dominant eBC source at the urban sites, while biomass burning dominated during the cold season (88% of eBCbb) in the rural area. Daily PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected using high-volume air samplers and analyzed for OC and EC. Analysis of biomass

  6. Balancing urban and peri-urban exchange: water geography of rural livelihoods in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Caravantes, Rolando E

    2012-01-01

    The peri-urban area is the region where there is a more dynamic interaction between the urban and rural. The peri-urban area supplies natural resources, such as land for urban expansion and agricultural products to feed the urban population. In arid and semi-arid lands, such as northern Mexico, these areas may also be the source of water for the city's domestic demand. In addition, scholars argue that peri-urban residents may have a more advantageous geographical position for selling their labour and agricultural products in cities and, by doing so, sustaining their livelihoods. A considerable number of studies have examined the peri-urban to urban natural resources transfer in terms of land annexation, housing construction, and infrastructure issues; however, the study of the effects of the reallocation of peri-urban water resources to serve urban needs is critical as well because the livelihoods of peri-urban residents, such as those based on agriculture and livestock, depend on water availability. In the case of Hermosillo there is a tremendous pressure on the water resources of peri-urban small farm communities or ejidos because of urban demand. Based on interviews and structured surveys with producers and water managers, this paper examines how peri-urban livelihoods have been reshaped by the reallocation of the city's natural resources in many cases caused some ejido members or ejidatarios to lose livelihoods.

  7. Food systems: New-Ruralism versus New-Urbanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadi, Hossein; Van Acker, Veronique; Zarafshani, Kiumars; Witlox, Frank

    2012-08-30

    There is a growing debate on whether agricultural land in urban fringes should be maintained or converted to other uses. While 'pro-ruralists' believe agricultural land conversion can threaten food security and cause rural-urban migration, 'pro-urbanists' find it a necessary change for transition from a primitive agricultural-based community to an advanced industrial-based society which has the capacity to create mass productions. New-Ruralists follow an agricultural-based development approach that promotes small-medium farming and acknowledges rural lifestyle while New-Urbanists give a priority to large industrial-based sectors and encourage urban lifestyle. Given the unlike concerns of different societies, the paper concludes that the approaches might have different priorities in the less developed, developing, and developed world. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. HAPPINESS ORIENTATIONS AMONG ADOLESCENTS RAISED IN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisti Anggraeny

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Researcher takes particular interest to discover the respondents’ orientation towards happiness based on where the respondent was raised. The study involves 467 senior high school students with ages ranging from 14-17 years old. The data is analyzed using an adapted society psychological approach. The results shows that adolescents raised in rural areas are consider the family to be a factor that contributes to their happiness. Second, achievement is also a factor that leads to happiness. However for the category, to love and be loved, adolescents growing in urban areas place this as a factor that leads to happiness. Similar with spirituality, friends and leisure time are factors that make adolescents raised in urban areas to become happy. Nevertheless, the results of cross tabulation with Pearson chi square test scoring demonstrates that no correlations exist between adolescent happiness raised from urban or rural areas.

  9. The associations between interpersonal violence and psychological distress among rural and urban young women in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyema, M; Norris, S A; Said-Mohamed, R; Tollman, S T; Twine, R; Kahn, K; Richter, L M

    2018-03-23

    Approximately 25% of the world's population consists of young people. The experience of violence peaks during adolescence and the early adult years. A link between personal experience of violence and mental health among young people has been demonstrated but rural-urban differences in these associations are less well known in low to middle income countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between interpersonal violence and psychological distress among rural and urban young women. Data on experiences of violence and psychological distress were collected from a total of 926 non-pregnant young women aged between 18 and 22 years of age in rural and urban sites in South Africa. The General Health Questionnaire-28 was used to assess psychological distress as an indicator of mental health. Generalised structural equation models were employed to assess potential pathways of association between interpersonal violence and psychological distress. Thirty-four percent of the urban young women (n = 161) reported psychological distress compared to 18% of rural young women (n = 81). In unadjusted analysis, exposure to interpersonal violence doubled the odds of psychological distress in the urban adolescents and increased the odds 1.6 times in the rural adolescents. In adjusted models, the relationship remained significant in the urban area only (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.13-3.00). Rural residence seemed protective against psychological distress (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.24-0.69). Structural equation modelling did not reveal any direct association between exposure to interpersonal violence and psychological distress among rural young women. Stressful household events were indirectly associated with psychological distress, mediated by violence among young women in the urban area. The relationship between violence and psychological distress differs between urban and rural-residing young women in South Africa, and is influenced by individual, household and community

  10. Time allocation to subsistence activities among the Huli in rural and urban Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umezaki, Masahiro; Yamauchi, Taro; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2002-01-01

    Time spent on subsistence activities was compared between rural sedentes and urban migrants of the Huli population in Papua New Guinea. Person-day observation data were collected for rural sedentes (441) in the Tari basin and for urban migrants in Port Moresby (175). The time spent on subsistence activities by males was longer in the urban area than in rural areas, while that by females was similar in both areas. Conspicuous gender inequality with respect to labour hours in rural areas seems to diminish when people move to urban areas, reflecting the different subsistence regime between rural and urban environments.

  11. ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC GAPS BETWEEN URBAN AND RURAL ROMANIAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toader Valentin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors will perform a comparative analysis of the impact that the population residential areas have on the economic and social activity from Romania. Our analysis will be carried out for a time span of 10 years, between 2000 and 2009. The main purposes are to emphasize the economic gaps between the residential areas (urban and rural and to identify the factors that determine these gaps. The economic differences between rural and urban areas and their impact on the peoples standard of living represent an important issue for international institutions like IFRC, UNICEF or OECD. Also, this topic represents a frequent subject in the economic literature from poor and developing countries. Studies conducted by Huong and Booth (2010, Alister, Alana and Ayele (2007, Chao, Zhidong and Mingxing (2008, Mateoc-Srb, Mateoc, Darva?i and Manescu (2008 or Sahn and Stifel (2002 are representative examples. Most of these papers focus on the living standards differences generated by the differences between income and expenditures between urban and rural areas. To achieve our goals, we will use the statistical methods to analyze the data released by the National Institute of Statistics. We will try to find some correlations between the economic indicators household incomes, value and structure of household expenditures, structure of household expenditures the social indicators residential area, education level, age and occupation. The highlight of the gaps between the rural and urban areas will be the main objective during this analysis. We conclude that in Romania there are substantial differences between rural and urban areas. The income differences are determining different consumption patterns between rural and urban persons. In rural areas, the population is spending less in all goods and services aspect that reduce their standard of living. Anyway, the results obtained are the subject of at least two possible limits. The fact that the data

  12. Tamara Jacka, Rural Women in Urban China: Gender, Migration and Social Change.

    OpenAIRE

    Sargeson, Sally

    2009-01-01

    China’s "urban revolution" has become the focus of a large body of literature in recent years. But while much of the new urbanisation literature builds on earlier research into the roles played by rural-urban migration in propelling urban population growth, challenging urban governance institutions and practices, and diversifying urban cultures, there has been relatively little attention given to the gender analysis agenda that undergirded and enriched some of the best studies of rural-urban ...

  13. Domestic biomass burning in rural and urban Zimbabwe: Pt. A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marufu, Lackson; Ludwig, Joerg; Andreae, M.O.; Meixner, F.X.; Helas, Guenter

    1997-01-01

    A questionnaire survey, to estimate biofuel consumption rates in rural and urban households in Zimbabwe, was conducted during the months of March and April 1995. The survey formed part of an integrated campaign aimed at establishing the extent to which domestic biofuel burning in Africa contributes to the atmospheric trace gas budget. Five study areas, four rural and one urban, were covered by the survey. The forms of biofuel used in rural areas were found to be wood, agricultural residues and cow dung, with wood being predominant. When available, agricultural residues were the second most popular form of fuel. Cow dung was only used in situations of severe fuel shortages. On average, rural consumption rates of wood, agricultural residues and cow dung for this time of the year were found to be 3.2, 1.5 and 0.2 kg/capita/day respectively. Wood and agricultural residues were the only biofuels used by urban households and were consumed at rates of 1.6 and > 0.1 kg/capitaday respectively. Across the study areas, consumption rates were a function of fuel availability. (author)

  14. Evaluation of the urban/rural particle-bound PAH and PCB levels in the northern Spain (Cantabria region).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruti, Axel; Fernández-Olmo, Ignacio; Irabien, Ángel

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels in PM(10) and PM(2.5), at one rural and three urban sites in the Cantabria region (northern Spain). From all of these pollutants, benzo(a)pyrene is regulated by the EU air quality directives; its target value (1 ng/m(3)) was not exceeded. The concentration values of the studied organic pollutants at the studied sites are in the range of those obtained at other European sites. A comparison between the rural-urban stations was developed: (a) PAH concentration values were lower in the rural site (except for fluorene). Therefore, the contribution of local sources to the urban levels of PAHs seems relevant. Results from the coefficient of divergence show that the urban PAH levels are influenced by different local emission sources. (b) PCB rural concentration values were higher than those found at urban sites. Because no local sources of PCBs were identified in the rural site, the contribution of more distant emission sources (about 40 km) to the PCB levels is considered to be the most important; the long-range transport of PCBs does not seem to be significant. Additionally, local PAH tracers were identified by a triangular diagram: higher molecular weight PAHs in Reinosa, naphthalene in Santander and anthracene/pyrene in Castro Urdiales. A preliminary PAH source apportionment study in the urban sites was conducted by means of diagnostic ratios. The ratios are similar to those reported in areas affected by traffic emissions; they also suggest an industrial emission source at Reinosa.

  15. Defining urban and rural areas: a new approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, Blanca; Roca, Josep

    2017-10-01

    The separation between the countryside and the city, from rural and urban areas, has been one of the central themes of the literature on urban and territorial studies. The seminal work of Kingsley Davis [10] in the 1950s introduced a wide and fruitful debate which, however, has not yet concluded in a rigorous definition that allows for comparative studies at the national and subnational levels of a scientific nature. In particular, the United Nations (UN) definition of urban and rural population is overly linked to political and administrative factors that make it difficult to use data adequately to understand the human settlement structure of different countries. The present paper seeks to define a more rigorous methodology for the identification of rural and urban areas. For this purpose it uses the night lights supplied by the SNPP satellite, and more specifically by the VIIRS sensor for the determination of the urbanization gradient, and by means of the same construct a more realistic indicator than the statistics provided by the UN. The arrival of electrification to nearly every corner of the planet is certainly the first and most meaningful indicator of artificialization of land. In this sense, this paper proposes a new methodology designed to identify highly impacted (urbanized) landscapes worldwide based on the analysis of satellite imagery of night-time lights. The application of this methodology on a global scale identifies the land highly impacted by light, the urbanization process, and allows an index to be drawn up of Land Impacted by Light per capita (LILpc) as an indicator of the level of urbanization. The methodology used in this paper can be summarized in the following steps: a) a logistic regression between US Urban Areas (UA), as a dependent variable, and night-time light intensity, as an explanatory variable, allows us to establish a nightlight intensity level for the determination of Areas Highly Impacted by Light (AHIL); b) the delimitation of

  16. Social Environmental Eeterminants and Health: Rural Brazil versus Brazil Urban.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rackynelly Alves SARMENTO

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The rural population lives in socioeconomic inequality conditions motivated by several problems, including an insufficient sewage systems and water supply, these, sometimes, most responsibles by the appearance of waterborne diseases that contribute to the rise of child mortality and other problems. Rural areas in Brazil are defined by opposition and exclusion in urban areas. This definition is arbitrary and physical-geographic, not considering the social and economic processes involving the territories. This study purposed to verify, by means of sociodemographic aspects, environmental sanitation and main grievances/diseases importance for public health of the population from forest field and water, if the most rural municipalities (MMR are more precarious than the more urban (MMU. To this end, was carried out a descriptive study based on secondary sources (Atlas of Human Development in Brazil, IBGE census, PNAD and Sinan. Among the results, it follows that the rural population identified by IBGE boils down to 15.6% of Brazil’s population. In 29% of the municipalities, the population living in rural areas exceeds the city. The higher frequencies from IDMH very low are for MMR, while the higher frequency from IDMH very high and high are for MMU. In health, the MMR also exhibit deficiency. It was observed high incidence rates of diseases related to poor conditions of sanitation. From these results, it was identified a more precarious health profile in MMR when compared to MMU.

  17. Habitat and landscape characteristics underlying anuran community structure along an urban-rural gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillsbury, Finn C; Miller, James R

    2008-07-01

    Urbanization has been cited as an important factor in worldwide amphibian declines, and although recent work has illustrated the important influence of broad-scale ecological patterns and processes on amphibian populations, little is known about the factors structuring amphibian communities in urban landscapes. We therefore examined amphibian community responses to wetland habitat availability and landscape characteristics along an urban-rural gradient in central Iowa, USA, a region experiencing rapid suburban growth. We conducted call surveys at 61 wetlands to estimate anuran calling activity, and quantified wetland habitat structure and landscape context. We used canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) to examine patterns in anuran community structure and identify the most important variables associated with those patterns. Urban density at the landscape scale had a significant negative influence on overall anuran abundance and diversity. While every species exhibited a decrease in abundance with increasing urban density, this pattern was especially pronounced for species requiring post-breeding upland habitats. Anurans most affected by urbanization were those associated with short hydroperiods, early breeding activity, and substantial upland habitat use. We suggest that broad-scale landscape fragmentation is an important factor underlying anuran community structure in this region, possibly due to limitations on the accessibility of otherwise suitable habitat in fragmented urban landscapes. This study underscores the importance of a regional approach to amphibian conservation in urban and urbanizing areas; in fragmented landscapes, a network of interconnected wetland and upland habitats may be more likely to support a successful, diverse anuran community than will isolated sites.

  18. Availability of healthy snack foods and beverages in stores near high-income urban, low-income urban, and rural elementary and middle schools in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findholt, Nancy E; Izumi, Betty T; Nguyen, Thuan; Pickus, Hayley; Chen, Zunqiu

    2014-08-01

    Food stores near schools are an important source of snacks for children. However, few studies have assessed availability of healthy snacks in these settings. The aim of this study was to assess availability of healthy snack foods and beverages in stores near schools and examine how availability of healthy items varied by poverty level of the school and rural-urban location. Food stores were selected based on their proximity to elementary/middle schools in three categories: high-income urban, low-income urban, and rural. Audits were conducted within the stores to assess the presence or absence of 48 items in single-serving sizes, including healthy beverages, healthy snacks, fresh fruits, and fresh vegetables. Overall, availability of healthy snack foods and beverages was low in all stores. However, there was significant cross-site variability in availability of several snack and fruit items, with stores near high-income urban schools having higher availability, compared to stores near low-income urban and/or rural schools. Stores near rural schools generally had the lowest availability, although several fruits were found more often in rural stores than in urban stores. There were no significant differences in availability of healthy beverages and fresh vegetables across sites. Availability of healthy snack foods and beverages was limited in stores near schools, but these limitations were more severe in stores proximal to rural and low-income schools. Given that children frequent these stores to purchase snacks, efforts to increase the availability of healthy products, especially in stores near rural and low-income schools, should be a priority.

  19. Urban and Rural Differences in Parental Attitudes About Influenza Vaccination and Vaccine Delivery Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Sean T; Barnard, Juliana; Lockhart, Steven; Kolasa, Maureen; Shmueli, Doron; Dickinson, L Miriam; Kile, Deidre; Dibert, Eva; Kempe, Allison

    2015-01-01

    To assess and compare among parents of healthy children in urban and rural areas: (1) reported influenza vaccination status; (2) attitudes regarding influenza vaccination; and (3) attitudes about collaborative models for influenza vaccination delivery involving practices and public health departments. A mail survey to random samples of parents from 2 urban and 2 rural private practices in Colorado from April 2012 to June 2012. The response rate was 58% (288/500). In the prior season, 63% of urban and 41% of rural parents reported their child received influenza vaccination (P urban and rural parents were found, with 75% of urban and 73% of rural parents agreeing their child should receive an influenza vaccine every year (P = .71). High proportions reported willingness to participate in a collaborative clinic in a community setting (59% urban, 70% rural, P = .05) or at their child's provider (73% urban, 73% rural, P = .99) with public health department assisting. Fewer (36% urban, 53% rural, P health department if referred by their provider. Rural parents were more willing for their child to receive vaccination outside of their provider's office (70% vs. 55%, P = .01). While attitudes regarding influenza vaccination were similar, rural children were much less likely to have received vaccination. Most parents were amenable to collaborative models of influenza vaccination delivery, but rural parents were more comfortable with influenza vaccination outside their provider's office, suggesting that other venues for influenza vaccination in rural settings should be promoted. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  20. Increasing rural-urban gradients in US suicide mortality, 1970-1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gopal K; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2002-07-01

    This study examined rural-urban gradients in US suicide mortality and the extent to which such gradients varied across time, sex, and age. Using a 10-category rural-urban continuum measure and 1970-1997 county mortality data, we estimated rural-urban differentials in suicide mortality over time by multiple regression and Poisson regression models. Significant rural-urban gradients in age-adjusted male suicide mortality were found in each time period, indicating rising suicide rates with increasing levels of rurality. The gradient increased consistently, suggesting widening rural-urban differentials in male suicides over time. When controlled for geographic variation in divorce rate and ethnic composition, rural men, in each age cohort, had about twice the suicide rate of their most urban counterparts. Observed rural-urban differentials for women diminished over time. In 1995 to 1997, the adjusted suicide rates for young and working-age women were 85% and 22% higher, respectively, in rural than in the most urban areas. The slope of the relationship between rural-urban continuum and suicide mortality varied substantially by time, sex, and age. Widening rural-urban disparities in suicide may reflect differential changes over time in key social integration indicators.

  1. The Relationship of Financial Development, Urbanization and Urban-Rural Income Gap: An Empirical Research Based on Provincial Panel Data in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaowei Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Financial development and the urbanization are important influence factors of the urban-rural income gap, and financial development can be measured by three main indexes which are financial scale, financial activities and financial efficiency. The financial development scale of China has obviously widened the urban-rural income gap. But rural financial activities have obvious effect on increasing farmers’ income, and the improvement of financial efficiency is helpful for narrowing the urban-rural income gap. The Kuznets effect between economic development and the urban-rural income gap has regional diversity. Besides that, the improvement of urbanization is also helpful for shorting the urban-rural income gap.

  2. Rural-urban differences of neonatal mortality in a poorly developed province of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Yang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of rural-urban disparities in children's health on neonatal death in disadvantaged areas of China is poorly understood. In this study of rural and urban populations in Gansu province, a disadvantaged province of China, we describe the characteristics and mortality of newborn infants and evaluated rural-urban differences of neonatal death. Methods We analyzed all neonatal deaths in the data from the Surveillance System of Child Death in Gansu Province, China from 2004 to 2009. We calculated all-cause neonatal mortality rates (NMR and cause-specific death rates for infants born to rural or urban mothers during 2004-09. Rural-urban classifications were determined based on the residence registry system of China. Chi-square tests were used to compare differences of infant characteristics and cause-specific deaths by rural-urban maternal residence. Results Overall, NMR fell in both rural and urban populations during 2004-09. Average NMR for rural and urban populations was 17.8 and 7.5 per 1000 live births, respectively. For both rural and urban newborn infants, the four leading causes of death were birth asphyxia, preterm or low birth weight, congenital malformation, and pneumonia. Each cause-specific death rate was higher in rural infants than in urban infants. More rural than urban neonates died out of hospital or did not receive medical care before death. Conclusions Neonatal mortality declined dramatically both in urban and rural groups in Gansu province during 2004-09. However, profound disparities persisted between rural and urban populations. Strategies that address inequalities of accessibility and quality of health care are necessary to improve neonatal health in rural settings in China.

  3. Assessing and Monitoring the Sustainability in Rural World Heritage Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Gullino, Paola; Beccaro, Gabriele; Larcher, Federica

    2015-01-01

    In 2002, the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) established the importance of the sustainability and the need of management plans for the safeguard of cultural heritage. No models, rules or specific definitions have been provided for this purpose. By 2014, UNESCO had recognized 16 rural landscapes as cultural heritage sites. This paper aims to understand the management systems adopted by the rural World Heritage Sites over time in order to identify the be...

  4. Avian Assemblages at Bird Baths: A Comparison of Urban and Rural Bird Baths in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Gráinne P; Parsons, Holly; Davis, Adrian; Coleman, Bill R; Jones, Darryl N; Miller, Kelly K; Weston, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Private gardens provide habitat and resources for many birds living in human-dominated landscapes. While wild bird feeding is recognised as one of the most popular forms of human-wildlife interaction, almost nothing is known about the use of bird baths. This citizen science initiative explores avian assemblages at bird baths in private gardens in south-eastern Australia and how this differs with respect to levels of urbanisation and bioregion. Overall, 992 citizen scientists collected data over two, four-week survey periods during winter 2014 and summer 2015 (43% participated in both years). Avian assemblages at urban and rural bird baths differed between bioregions with aggressive nectar-eating species influenced the avian assemblages visiting urban bird baths in South Eastern Queensland, NSW North Coast and Sydney Basin while introduced birds contributed to differences in South Western Slopes, Southern Volcanic Plains and Victorian Midlands. Small honeyeaters and other small native birds occurred less often at urban bird baths compared to rural bird baths. Our results suggest that differences between urban versus rural areas, as well as bioregion, significantly influence the composition of avian assemblages visiting bird baths in private gardens. We also demonstrate that citizen science monitoring of fixed survey sites such as bird baths is a useful tool in understanding large-scale patterns in avian assemblages which requires a vast amount of data to be collected across broad areas.

  5. Avian Assemblages at Bird Baths: A Comparison of Urban and Rural Bird Baths in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Gráinne P.; Parsons, Holly; Davis, Adrian; Coleman, Bill R.; Jones, Darryl N.; Miller, Kelly K.; Weston, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Private gardens provide habitat and resources for many birds living in human-dominated landscapes. While wild bird feeding is recognised as one of the most popular forms of human-wildlife interaction, almost nothing is known about the use of bird baths. This citizen science initiative explores avian assemblages at bird baths in private gardens in south-eastern Australia and how this differs with respect to levels of urbanisation and bioregion. Overall, 992 citizen scientists collected data over two, four-week survey periods during winter 2014 and summer 2015 (43% participated in both years). Avian assemblages at urban and rural bird baths differed between bioregions with aggressive nectar-eating species influenced the avian assemblages visiting urban bird baths in South Eastern Queensland, NSW North Coast and Sydney Basin while introduced birds contributed to differences in South Western Slopes, Southern Volcanic Plains and Victorian Midlands. Small honeyeaters and other small native birds occurred less often at urban bird baths compared to rural bird baths. Our results suggest that differences between urban versus rural areas, as well as bioregion, significantly influence the composition of avian assemblages visiting bird baths in private gardens. We also demonstrate that citizen science monitoring of fixed survey sites such as bird baths is a useful tool in understanding large-scale patterns in avian assemblages which requires a vast amount of data to be collected across broad areas. PMID:26962857

  6. Social Work Practice Behaviors and Beliefs: Rural-Urban Differences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom A. Croxton

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available There is continuing debate within the social work profession on whether there are significant differences in the practice behaviors and beliefs between rural and urban clinical social workers and whether different standards should be applied in defining ethical practices. This study measures those differences with regard to five practice behaviors: bartering,maintaining confidentiality, competent practice, dual relationships, and social relationships. Differences were found in beliefs regarding the appropriateness of professional behavior though such differences did not translate into practice behaviors.More significantly, the research suggests considerable confusion about the meanings of ethical standards and the utilization of intervention techniques without formal training across both urban and rural social workers.

  7. Location and Lifestyle: The Comparative Explanatory Ability of Urbanism and Rurality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, George D.; Peek, Charles W.

    1974-01-01

    The article focuses on 2 questions pivotal to the issue of rural-urban differences: 1) "Do attitudinal differences remain among the rural and urban residents independent of differences generated by other potent variables?"; and 2) "Will any increase in the predictive utility of rurality be generated by use of a composite definition (residence plus…

  8. Working Memory Differences between Children Living in Rural and Urban Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tine, Michele

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate if the working memory profiles of children living in rural poverty are distinct from the working memory profiles of children living in urban poverty. Verbal and visuospatial working memory tasks were administered to sixth-grade students living in low-income rural, low-income urban, high-income rural, and…

  9. Sterilization of rural and urban women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunde, Britt; Rankin, Kristin; Harwood, Bryna; Chavez, Noel

    2013-08-01

    To examine the prevalence of sterilization among women aged 20-34 years in rural and urban areas in the United States. Data were obtained from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth, a cross-sectional survey conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The study population included the 4,685 female respondents who did not want to become pregnant at the time of the survey. Women who were not sexually active with men or were infertile for reasons other than contraception were excluded. We performed bivariate and stratified analysis and multivariable logistic regression modeling to determine the associations between place of residence and sterilization after considering other demographic characteristics. Rural women were at increased odds of undergoing sterilization compared with urban and suburban women (22.75% compared with 12.69%, respectively; crude odds ratio [OR] 2.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-2.86; risk difference 0.10, 95% CI 0.05-0.16). Education level was found to be a significant effect modifier of the relationship between location of residence and sterilization. In adjusted analysis, controlling for age, parity, race and ethnicity, income, insurance status, history of unintended pregnancy, and relationship status, rural women without a high school degree were more likely to have undergone sterilization compared with urban and rural women with greater than a high school education (OR 8.34, 95% CI 4.45-15.61). Rural women with low education levels have a high prevalence of sterilization. Future studies need to address the reasons for this interaction between education and geography and its influence on contraceptive method choice. II.

  10. Characteristics of indoor/outdoor particulate pollution in urban and rural residential environment of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbeck, I; Nasir, Z A; Ali, Z

    2010-02-01

    Particulate pollution has emerged as a serious environmental health concern in Pakistan. The use of biomass fuels in traditional stoves produces high levels of indoor air pollutants. In Pakistan, 94% of rural and 58% of urban households depend on biomass fuel. This study investigates variations in indoor/outdoor concentrations of particulate matter during various activities for three different micro-environments in Pakistan. At a rural site, the average indoor/outdoor ratios for PM(10), PM(2.5), and PM(1), in kitchens using biomass fuels were 3.80, 4.36, and 4.11, respectively. A large variation was recorded in the mass concentration of particulate matter during cooking with concentrations in the range 4000-8555 microg/m(3). In a living room at a rural site, the average indoor/outdoor ratios for PM(10), PM(2.5), and PM(1) were 1.74, 2.49, and 3.01, respectively. At the urban site, the average indoor/outdoor ratios for the same size fractions were 1.71, 2.88, and 3.47, respectively. Cooking, cleaning and smoking were identified as principal contributors to the high indoor levels of particulate matter. This study showed considerably high concentrations of particulate matter, particularly in kitchens using biomass fuels, as compared to living areas. Thus women and children face the greatest exposure due to the amount of time they spend in the kitchen. In the developing world, particulate air pollution, both indoor and outdoor, is a substantial health hazard to the public. The very high concentrations of particulate matter in both rural and urban sites, particularly in kitchens using biomass fuels, emphasize the severity of this issue in Pakistan. Women and children are extensively at risk due to amount of time spent in kitchens. This state of affairs calls for a large-scale intervention to reduce the exposure to indoor air pollution.

  11. Urban and Rural Dimensions of Income Inequality in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Thi Cam Van Cao; Takahiro Akita

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzes urban and rural inequalities in Vietnam by applying two techniques of inequality decomposition by population groups and income sources based on two data sets from the nationwide household surveys in 2002 and 2004. It is found that within-sector inequalities in income distribution are substantially higher than that in expenditure distribution because expenditure level is more dependent on location characteristics of a household, while the determinants of income level seems ...

  12. Urban-rural interaction and implications for regional planning in China, 1980-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Yuheng Li

    2011-01-01

    Urban-rural interaction in China has evolved a lot due to the economic growth and policy influences in the post-reform era since 1978. This evolution has exerted influences on the urban and rural areas in various aspects of demography, economy and environment. At present, China is on a track of fast economic growth and urbanization development which will definitely shape urban and rural areas at the same time. How will urban-rural interaction in China develop in the future? What are the impli...

  13. Climate shocks and rural-urban migration in Mexico: Exploring nonlinearities and thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J; DeWaard, Jack; Bakhtsiyarava, Maryia; Ha, Jasmine Trang

    2017-01-01

    Adverse climatic conditions may differentially drive human migration patterns between rural and urban areas, with implications for changes in population composition and density, access to infrastructure and resources, and the delivery of essential goods and services. However, there is little empirical evidence to support this notion. In this study, we investigate the relationship between climate shocks and migration between rural and urban areas within Mexico. We combine individual records from the 2000 and 2010 Mexican censuses (n=683,518) with high-resolution climate data from Terra Populus that are linked to census data at the municipality level (n=2,321). We measure climate shocks as monthly deviation from a 30-year (1961-1990) long-term climate normal period, and uncover important nonlinearities using quadratic and cubic specifications. Satellite-based measures of urban extents allow us to classify migrant-sending and migrant-receiving municipalities as rural or urban to examine four internal migration patterns: rural-urban, rural-rural, urban-urban, and urban-rural. Among our key findings, results from multilevel models reveal that each additional drought month increases the odds of rural-urban migration by 3.6%. In contrast, the relationship between heat months and rural-urban migration is nonlinear. After a threshold of ~34 heat months is surpassed, the relationship between heat months and rural-urban migration becomes positive and progressively increases in strength. Policy and programmatic interventions may therefore reduce climate induced rural-urban migration in Mexico through rural climate change adaptation initiatives, while also assisting rural migrants in finding employment and housing in urban areas to offset population impacts.

  14. Otitis media in indonesian urban and rural school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggraeni, Ratna; Hartanto, Widya W; Djelantik, Bulantrisna; Ghanie, Abla; Utama, Denny S; Setiawan, Eka P; Lukman, Erica; Hardiningsih, Chintriany; Asmuni, Suprihati; Budiarti, Rery; Rahardjo, Sutji Pratiwi; Djamin, Riskiana; Mulyani, Tri; Mutyara, Kuswandewi; Carosone-Link, Phyllis; Kartasasmita, Cissy B; Simões, Eric A F

    2014-10-01

    Although the epidemiology of otitis media is well-known in industrialized countries, the extent of otitis media in developing Asian countries, especially in south East Asia is not well studied. To define the burden of otitis media and its sequelae in children 6-15 years of age, we enrolled elementary and junior high school children in 6 areas in rural and urban Indonesia. Randomly selected schools and classrooms were selected. All children were administered a questionnaire and had ear examinations, pneumatic otoscopy and screening audiometry. Children with any abnormality on examination or with a relevant history underwent diagnostic audiometry and tympanometry, if indicated. Of the 7005 children studied, 116 had chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), 30 had acute otitis media and 26 had otitis media with effusion. 2.7% of rural children had CSOM compared with 0.7% of urban children (P children of inactive CSOM was 63 in 6- to 9-year-old children, compared with 37 in children aged 13-15 years. Concomitantly, the rates of tympanosclerosis were 7 and 26/1000, respectively, in these age groups. In Indonesia, the prevalence of CSOM is relatively high with most disease occurring in rural areas. The high rates in rural Bali with early progression to tympanosclerosis suggest a significant burden of potentially vaccine preventable illness.

  15. Lifestyle of the elderly in rural and urban Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaratnam, Doris Padmini; Tin, Poo Bee

    2007-10-01

    Malaysia is steadily progressing toward an aging population demographic pattern. While aging is a natural process, its impact can be painful individually as well as for the nation. Individually there is a loss of a paying job after retirement, loss of physical and mental fitness, and also occasionally the loss of social integration due to lack of mobility. For a nation, an aging population means a growing dependency ratio, a greater need of care, and more medical facilities for this age group. This article looks at the various economic and social implications of the aging population in Malaysia in general, and in the rural and urban setting specifically. The paper focuses on a research sample of 132 (66 rural, 66 urban) elderly persons. The findings suggest that the demographic patterns of the elderly vary from the rural to the urban setting, with differing issues that need to be addressed to alleviate problems encountered related to loneliness, lack of financial stability, and emotional strain. Policy suggestion will be geared toward providing a solution to problems at hand as well as aiding the working group members to prepare and sustain a comfortable livelihood for the aged in their later years.

  16. Family jointness, social interaction and neuroses : a rural urban comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M; Sethi, B B; Bhiman, A

    1984-10-01

    The association between family patterns and neurotic illness has been reported variously in India. Previous work from our centre seems to suggest that a joint family provides better support and security to vulnerable individuals. The present work is a community based project conducted in a selected rural and an urban area. The door to door survey by the research team identified index subjects who were screened for presence of psychotic illness before being included. Non psychotic psychiatric disorders were identified using the Cornell Medical Index and Khatri's scale was used for typing the family pattern. The social interaction schedule was the major instrument to quantify the type and duration of interaction, and life events were scaled using the modified Life Events inventory.Our results indicate that whereas the joint family system was prevalent in the rural areas, the major family constellation in the urban areas was nuclear. Though the primary group of the rural respondent was richer, the average member of the urban area spent more time in interaction and thus utilized the support system better. The results are discussed for their relevance to the understanding of the genesis of neurotic disorders.

  17. Rural:urban inequalities in post 2015 targets and indicators for drinking-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bain, R.E.S.; Wright, J.A.; Christenson, E.; Bartram, J.K.

    2014-01-01

    Disparities in access to drinking water between rural and urban areas are pronounced. Although use of improved sources has increased more rapidly in rural areas, rising from 62% in 1990 to 81% in 2011, the proportion of the rural population using an improved water source remains substantially lower than in urban areas. Inequalities in coverage are compounded by disparities in other aspects of water service. Not all improved sources are safe and evidence from a systematic review demonstrates that water is more likely to contain detectable fecal indicator bacteria in rural areas. Piped water on premises is a service enjoyed primarily by those living in urban areas so differentiating amongst improved sources would exacerbate rural:urban disparities yet further. We argue that an urban bias may have resulted due to apparent stagnation in urban coverage and the inequity observed between urban and peri-urban areas. The apparent stagnation at around 95% coverage in urban areas stems in part from relative population growth – over the last two decades more people gained access to improved water in urban areas. There are calls for setting higher standards in urban areas which would exacerbate the already extreme rural disadvantage. Instead of setting different targets, health, economic, and human rights perspectives, We suggest that the focus should be kept on achieving universal access to safe water (primarily in rural areas) while monitoring progress towards higher service levels, including greater water safety (both in rural and urban areas and among different economic strata)

  18. Trace element composition of airborne particulate matter in urban and rural areas of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaliquzzaman, M.; Biswas, S. K.; Tarafdar, S.A.; Isalam, A.; Khan, A.H.

    1995-11-01

    Size fractionated aerosol samples were collected at an urban site (Dhaka) in Bangladesh for a period of 17 months and at a rural site for six months. The samples were collected using a 'Gent' stacked filter unit in two fractions of 0-2 μm and 2-10 μm sizes. Proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) spectroscopy has been used to determine the concentrations of 18 elements in the range of ng/m 3 . The elements range from Si to Sr and include Pb. The results of analysis of 292 air particulate samples of course and fine types from the urban site are presented. The results are discussed in the context of air pollution specially that of Pb. 6 refs., 7 tables., 2 figs

  19. A Carbon Consumption Comparison of Rural and Urban Lifestyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seppo Junnila

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable consumption has been addressed from different perspectives in numerous studies. Recently, urban structure-related lifestyle issues have gained more emphasis in the research as cities search for effective strategies to reduce their 80% share of the global carbon emissions. However, the prevailing belief often seen is that cities would be more sustainable in nature compared to surrounding suburban and rural areas. This paper will illustrate, by studying four different urban structure related lifestyles in Finland, that the situation might be reversed. Actually, substantially more carbon emissions seem to be caused on a per capita level in cities than in suburban and rural areas. This is mainly due to the higher income level in larger urban centers, but even housing-related emissions seem to favor less urbanized areas. The method of the study is a consumption-based life cycle assessment of carbon emissions. In more detail, a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA model, that is comprehensive in providing a full inventory and can accommodate process data, is utilized.

  20. Variations in Atmospheric CO2 Mixing Ratios across a Boston, MA Urban to Rural Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittain M. Briber

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas are directly or indirectly responsible for the majority of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. In this study, we characterize observed atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios and estimated CO2 fluxes at three sites across an urban-to-rural gradient in Boston, MA, USA. CO2 is a well-mixed greenhouse gas, but we found significant differences across this gradient in how, where, and when it was exchanged. Total anthropogenic emissions were estimated from an emissions inventory and ranged from 1.5 to 37.3 mg·C·ha−1·yr−1 between rural Harvard Forest and urban Boston. Despite this large increase in anthropogenic emissions, the mean annual difference in atmospheric CO2 between sites was approximately 5% (20.6 ± 0.4 ppm. The influence of vegetation was also visible across the gradient. Green-up occurred near day of year 126, 136, and 141 in Boston, Worcester and Harvard Forest, respectively, highlighting differences in growing season length. In Boston, gross primary production—estimated by scaling productivity by canopy cover—was ~75% lower than at Harvard Forest, yet still constituted a significant local flux of 3.8 mg·C·ha−1·yr−1. In order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, we must improve our understanding of the space-time variations and underlying drivers of urban carbon fluxes.

  1. Rural, suburban, and urban differences in factors that impact physician adherence to clinical preventive service guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoong, Elaine C; Gibbert, Wesley S; Garbutt, Jane M; Sumner, Walton; Brownson, Ross C

    2014-01-01

    Rural-urban disparities in provision of preventive services exist, but there is sparse research on how rural, suburban, or urban differences impact physician adherence to clinical preventive service guidelines. We aimed to identify factors that may cause differences in adherence to preventive service guidelines among rural, suburban, and urban primary care physicians. This qualitative study involved in-depth semistructured interviews with 29 purposively sampled primary care physicians (10 rural, 10 suburban, 9 urban) in Missouri. Physicians were asked to describe barriers and facilitators to clinical preventive service guideline adherence. Using techniques from grounded theory analysis, 2 coders first independently conducted content analysis then reconciled differences in coding to ensure agreement on intended meaning of transcripts. Patient epidemiologic differences, distance to health care services, and care coordination were reported as prominent factors that produced differences in preventive service guideline adherence among rural, suburban, and urban physicians. Epidemiologic differences impacted all physicians, but rural physicians highlighted the importance of occupational risk factors in their patients. Greater distance to health care services reduced visit frequency and was a prominent barrier for rural physicians. Care coordination among health care providers was problematic for suburban and urban physicians. Patient resistance to medical care and inadequate access to resources and specialists were identified as barriers by some rural physicians. The rural, suburban, or urban context impacts whether a physician will adhere to clinical preventive service guidelines. Efforts to increase guideline adherence should consider the barriers and facilitators unique to rural, suburban, or urban areas. © 2013 National Rural Health Association.

  2. Infection prevention needs assessment in Colorado hospitals: rural and urban settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Sara M; Gilmartin, Heather; Rich, Karen L; Price, Connie S

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of our study was to conduct a needs assessment for infection prevention programs in both rural and urban hospitals in Colorado. Infection control professionals (ICPs) from Colorado hospitals participated in an online survey on training, personnel, and experience; ICP time allocation; and types of surveillance. Responses were evaluated and compared based on hospital status (rural or urban). Additionally, rural ICPs participated in an interview about resources and training. Surveys were received from 62 hospitals (77.5% response); 33 rural (75.0% response) and 29 urban (80.6% response). Fifty-two percent of rural ICPs reported multiple job responsibilities compared with 17.2% of urban ICPs. Median length of experience for rural ICPs was 4.0 years compared with 11.5 years for urban ICPs (P = .008). Fifty-one percent of rural ICPs reported no access to infectious disease physicians (0.0% urban) and 81.8% of rural hospitals reported no antimicrobial stewardship programs (31.0% urban). Through the interviews it was revealed that priorities for rural ICPs were training and communication. Our study revealed numerous differences between infection prevention programs in rural versus urban hospitals. An infection prevention outreach program established in Colorado could potentially address the challenges faced by rural hospital infection prevention departments. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimizing Peri-URban Ecosystems (PURE) to re-couple urban-rural symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong-Guan; Reid, Brian J; Meharg, Andrew A; Banwart, Steve A; Fu, Bo-Jie

    2017-05-15

    Globally, rapid urbanization, along with economic development, is dramatically changing the balance of biogeochemical cycles, impacting upon ecosystem services and impinging on United Nation global sustainability goals (inter alia: sustainable cities and communities; responsible consumption and production; good health and well-being; clean water and sanitation, and; to protect and conserve life on land and below water). A key feature of the urban ecosystems is that nutrient stocks, carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), are being enriched. Furthermore, urban ecosystems are highly engineered, biogeochemical cycling of nutrients within urban ecosystems is spatially segregated, and nutrients exported (e.g. in food) from rural/peri-urban areas are not being returned to support primary production in these environments. To redress these imbalances we propose the concept of the Peri-URban Ecosystem (PURE). Through the merging of conceptual approaches that relate to Critical Zone science and the dynamics of successional climax PURE serves at the symbiotic interface between rural/natural and urban ecosystems and allow re-coupling of resource flows. PURE provides a framework for tackling the most pressing of societal challenges and supporting global sustainability goals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Peer grouping and performance measurement to improve rural and urban transit in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Rural and small urban transit systems in Texas will become even more important with predicted changes in : population trends. Rural demographic trends indicate growth in the number of persons age 65 and over : coupled with a decrease in population de...

  5. Effects of RuralUrban Interaction on Socio-Economic Status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economic status of rural dwellers in the study area. Policy makers and development workers should exploit the role of rural-urban interaction to bring about sustainable livelihood in the present changing perspective of extension system in ...

  6. Urban-rural shifts in intentional firearm death: different causes, same results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branas, Charles C; Nance, Michael L; Elliott, Michael R; Richmond, Therese S; Schwab, C William

    2004-10-01

    We analyzed urban-rural differences in intentional firearm death. We analyzed 584629 deaths from 1989 to 1999 assigned to 3141 US counties, using negative binomial regressions and an 11-category urban-rural variable. The most urban counties had 1.03 (95% confidence interval [CI]=0.87, 1.20) times the adjusted firearm death rate of the most rural counties. The most rural counties experienced 1.54 (95% CI=1.29, 1.83) times the adjusted firearm suicide rate of the most urban. The most urban counties experienced 1.90 (95% CI=1.50, 2.40) times the adjusted firearm homicide rate of the most rural. Similar opposing trends were not found for nonfirearm suicide or homicide. Firearm suicide in rural counties is as important a public health problem as firearm homicide in urban counties. Policymakers should become aware that intentional firearm deaths affect all types of communities in the United States.

  7. Characteristics and Sources of Heavy Metals in PM2.5 during a Typical Haze Episode in Rural and Urban Areas in Taiyuan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kankan Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available PM2.5 samples were collected in the rural and urban areas of Taiyuan, China during a typical haze episode and the heavy metals (Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb in PM2.5 were analyzed. The haze was characterized by start-up stage with a daily mean PM2.5 of 149.34 ± 52.33 and 146.73 ± 18.96 μg m−3 in the rural and urban sites, respectively, a peak stage (288.20 ± 12.43 and 323.44 ± 5.23 μg m−3, and a weakening stage (226.59 ± 12.43 and 195.60 ± 2.93 μg m−3. The concentrations of PM2.5 in the rural and urban sites in the peak stage were 5.9 and 5.5 times higher than those in the normal stage, respectively. The order of concentrations of heavy metals in PM2.5 at the rural and urban sites were the same and are listed as follows: Zn > Pb > Mn > Cr > Cu > Ni > Cd > As. Pb at the rural site, As at the urban site, and Cd at the both sites failed to meet the air quality standard. The concentrations of Pb and Zn were higher at the rural site than those at the urban site. Principal component analysis indicated that the main sources of heavy metals for the rural area were raw coal combustion and soil/road dust, and for the urban area were coal combustion/industrial emissions, road/soil dust, and vehicle emissions/oil combustion.

  8. Seasonal and diurnal variation of outdoor radon (222Rn) concentrations in urban and rural area with reference to meteorological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podstawczynska, A.; Pawlak, W.; Kozak, K.; Mazur, J.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate temporal variability of outdoor radon ( 222 Rn) concentration registered in the center of Lodz (urban station), at Ciosny (rural station) and Krakow (suburban station) in relation to meteorological parameters (i.e. air temperature, temperature vertical gradient, wind speed, soil heat flux, volumetric water content in soil) with special consideration of urban-rural differences. Continuous measurements of 222 Rn concentration (at 60 min intervals) were performed at a height of 2 m above the ground using AlphaGUARD PQ2000PRO (ionization chamber) from January 2008 to May 2009. 222 Rn levels were characterized by a diurnal cycle with an early morning maximum and a minimum in the afternoon. The well-marked 24 h pattern of radon concentration occurred in summer at anticyclonic weather with cloudless sky, light wind and large diurnal temperature ranges. The urban measurement site was characterized by the lowest atmospheric 222 Rn concentration and an urban-rural differences of radon levels increased from winter to summer and during the nighttime periods. The maximum contrasts of 222 Rn levels between Lodz and Ciosny, reaching - 30 Bq m -3 , were registered in June and July during the urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon (a positive thermal anomaly of a city if compared to rural area) and strong thermal inversion near the ground in the rural area. (authors)

  9. Seasonality of water quality and diarrheal disease counts in urban and rural settings in south India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinkina, Alexandra V.; Mohan, Venkat R.; Francis, Mark R.; Kattula, Deepthi; Sarkar, Rajiv; Plummer, Jeanine D.; Ward, Honorine; Kang, Gagandeep; Balraj, Vinohar; Naumova, Elena N.

    2016-02-01

    The study examined relationships among meteorological parameters, water quality and diarrheal disease counts in two urban and three rural sites in Tamil Nadu, India. Disease surveillance was conducted between August 2010 and March 2012; concurrently water samples from street-level taps in piped distribution systems and from household storage containers were tested for pH, nitrate, total dissolved solids, and total and fecal coliforms. Methodological advances in data collection (concurrent prospective disease surveillance and environmental monitoring) and analysis (preserving temporality within the data through time series analysis) were used to quantify independent effects of meteorological conditions and water quality on diarrheal risk. The utility of a local calendar in communicating seasonality is also presented. Piped distribution systems in the study area showed high seasonal fluctuations in water quality. Higher ambient temperature decreased and higher rainfall increased diarrheal risk with temperature being the predominant factor in urban and rainfall in rural sites. Associations with microbial contamination were inconsistent; however, disease risk in the urban sites increased with higher median household total coliform concentrations. Understanding seasonal patterns in health outcomes and their temporal links to environmental exposures may lead to improvements in prospective environmental and disease surveillance tailored to addressing public health problems.

  10. Approaching integrated urban-rural development in China: The changing institutional roles

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuheng; Hu, Zhichao; Liu, Yansui

    2014-01-01

    Ever since the twenty-first century, the Chinese government has been undertaking a series of rural-favored policies and measures to promote comprehensive development in rural China. The fundamental purpose is to accomplish integrated urban-rural development (IURD) given the ever enlarging urban-rural inequalities during the post-reform era. Considering the long time biased policies against the countryside, the paper aims to examine the institutional roles in approaching the IURD. IURD at prov...

  11. Urban-rural disparities in health care utilization among Chinese adults from 1993 to 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jiajia; Shi, Leiyu; Liang, Hailun; Ding, Gan; Xu, Lingzhong

    2018-01-01

    Background Despite economic growth and improved health outcomes over the past few decades, China still experiences striking urban-rural health inequalities. Urban and rural residents distinguished by the hukou system may experience profound disparities because of institutional effect. The aim of this study is to estimate trends in urban-rural disparities in self-care, outpatient care, and inpatient care utilization from a perspective of the hukou system. Methods Data were extracted from the s...

  12. Comparative Analysis of Households Solid Waste Management in Rural and Urban Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Boateng, Simon; Amoako, Prince; Appiah, Divine Odame; Poku, Adjoa Afriyie; Garsonu, Emmanuel Kofi

    2016-01-01

    The comparative analysis of solid waste management between rural and urban Ghana is largely lacking. This study investigated the solid waste situation and the organisation of solid waste management in both urban and rural settings from the perspective of households. The study employed cross-sectional survey covering both rural and urban districts in the Ashanti and Greater Accra Regions of Ghana. The study systematically sampled houses from which 400 households and respondents were randomly s...

  13. Urban-Rural Relations in China : A Study of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Region

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuheng

    2011-01-01

    Over three decades of rapid economic growth in China, beginning in 1978, has been accompanied by ever-enlarging urban-rural inequalities in terms of the various aspects of income, welfare, infrastructure, medical treatment, and education (amongst others). These two parts – the urban and the rural - have long been treated separately, without much consideration being given to their mutual linkages (relations). Urban and rural development can, essentially, be interpreted as the deployment of key...

  14. Fecal Contamination in the Surface Waters of a Rural- and an Urban-Source Watershed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stea, Emma C.; Hansen, Lisbeth Truelstrup; Jamieson, Rob C.

    2015-01-01

    in each watershed) over 18 months. The human Bacteroidales marker (HF183) occurred in 9-10% of the water samples at nine sampling sites; while a forested site in the urban watershed tested negative. Ruminant/cow Bacteroidales markers (BacR and CowM2) only appeared in the rural watershed (6%). The mt......DNA markers (HcytB and AcytB) showed the same pattern but were less sensitive due to lower fecal concentrations. Higher prevalences (Purban watershed, respectively) and E. coli O157:H7 (12 vs. 3%) were observed in the rural watershed, while Salmonella...... and fecal marker concentrations in the waterways. The employment of multiple FST methods suggested failing onsite wastewater systems contribute to human fecal pollution in both watersheds....

  15. Balancing Rural and Urban Development: Applying Coordinated Urban–Rural Development (CURD Strategy to Achieve Sustainable Urbanisation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Hin Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Land in rural China has been under a separate and closed management system for decades even after the urban land reform that started in the late 1980s. The blurred property rights over rural land have been hindering the rural welfare as surplus rural land in sub-urban areas cannot be circulated into more economic use without first being requisitioned by the state. This traditional conversion process creates a lot of problems, among them are the compensation standard as well as displacement of rural residents to the city, where they cannot find adequate welfare protection. The prolonged disparity in economic outcomes for rural and urban residents in China in the process of urbanisation has made the authority realise that land-based local finance is no longer an option. Coordinated Urban and Rural Development (CURD ideology arises to set a level playing field by giving the rural residents comparable welfare status as their urban counterparts’ one. The CURD ideology is basically linked to the strategic development of the three main issues in the rural area of China, or in the Chinese terminology: San Nong. These three issues are rural villages, rural enterprises and rural farmers (nong cun, nong ye, nong min. CURD ideology is to preserve the livelihood of rural villages, facilitate and promote rural enterprises and increase the living standard of rural farmers. Most importantly, however, CURD policy package bestows rural residents with property rights over their farmland so that they could sub-co1ntract the user-rights to other urban commercial entities for higher benefits. While CURD policies are applied in a lot of different regions in China including Chongqing in the West, Qingdao in the North, Zhongshan in the South and Wuhan in the middle, we focus our examination in Chengdu as the Chengdu model has been widely documented and highly regarded as the most successful model in implementing the CURD strategies. From our case study, we find that

  16. Rural-urban differences in cooking practices and exposures in Northern Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedinmyer, Christine; Dickinson, Katherine; Piedrahita, Ricardo; Kanyomse, Ernest; Coffey, Evan; Hannigan, Michael; Alirigia, Rex; Oduro, Abraham

    2017-07-01

    Key differences between urban and rural populations can influence the adoption and impacts of new cooking technologies and fuels. We examine these differences among urban and rural households that are part of the REACCTING study in Northern Ghana. While urban and rural populations in the study area all use multiple stoves, the types of stoves and fuels differ, with urban participants more likely to use charcoal and LPG while rural households rely primarily on wood. Further, rural and urban households tend to use different stoves/fuels to cook the same dishes—for example, the staple porridge Tuo Zaafi (TZ) is primarily cooked over wood fires in rural areas and charcoal stoves in urban settings. This suggests that fuel availability and ability to purchase fuel may be a stronger predictor of fuel choice than cultural preferences alone. Ambient concentrations of air pollutants also differ in these two types of areas, with urban areas having pollutant hot spots to which residents can be exposed and rural areas having more homogeneous and lower pollutant concentrations. Further, exposures to carbon monoxide and particulate matter differ in magnitude and in timing between urban and rural study participants, suggesting different behaviors and sources of exposures. The results from this analysis highlight important disparities between urban and rural populations of a single region and imply that such a characterization is needed to successfully implement and assess the impacts of household energy interventions.

  17. Are there any differences in medical emergency team interventions between rural and urban areas? A single-centre cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftyka, Anna; Rybojad, Beata; Rudnicka-Drozak, Ewa

    2014-10-01

    To compare interventions of medical emergency teams in urban and rural areas with particular emphasis on response time and on-site medical rescue activities. A retrospective analysis of ambulance call reports from two emergency medical service substations: one in the city and the other in a rural area. Two emergency medical service substations: one in the city and the other in a rural area. Medical emergency teams. Interventions in the city were associated with a substantially shorter response time in comparison to rural areas. In the city, the distances were generally less than 10 km. In the rural area, however, such short distances accounted for only 7.2% of events, while 33.8% were over 30 km. Medical emergency teams more often acted exclusively on-site or ceased any interventions in rural areas. Compared with the city, actions in the rural setting were associated with significantly increased use of cervical collars and decreased use of intravenous access. The presence of a physician in the team raised the probability of pharmacotherapy. The relationship between medical emergency teams activities and the location of intervention shows the real diversity of the functioning of emergency medical service within a city and rural areas. Further research should aim to improve the generalisability of these findings. © 2014 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  18. Rural Renewal of China in the Context of Rural-Urban Integration: Governance Fit and Performance Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongyu Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, rural-urban integrated development has become a vital national strategy in China. In this context, many regions have implemented rural renewal projects to enhance the vitality and development of rural areas. The objective of this study is to reveal the reasons why different rural renewal modes have emerged in contemporary China and assess their ability to facilitate rural-urban integration. An analytical framework, the Institution of Sustainability (IoS and a comparative analysis of two cases are used for the rural renewal evaluation. Our findings indicate that the properties of transactions and the characteristics of the actors involved jointly determine the governance structures of rural renewal. Furthermore, different governance structures contribute to performance differences, particularly differences in the physical outcomes, distribution effects and process efficiency. Finally, we suggest relevant policy recommendations.

  19. Determining effective roadway design treatments for transitioning from rural areas to urban areas on state highways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    This report reviews an Oregon research effort to identify ways to calm operating speeds as the vehicles transition into developed suburban/urban areas from rural roads. Drivers of vehicles approaching the urban environment have few visual cues to red...

  20. Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ) Urban-Rural Population and Land Area Estimates, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ) Urban-Rural Population and Land Area Estimates, Version 2 data set consists of country-level estimates of urban population,...

  1. Acute Effects of Exposure to a Traditional Rural Environment on Urban Dwellers: A Crossover Field Study in Terraced Farmland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juyoung Lee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite an increasing attention and public preference for rural amenities, little evidence is available on the health benefits of a rural environment. In this study, we identified physiological and psychological benefits of exposure to a rural environment using multiparametric methods. Twelve young male adults participated in a 3-day field experiment (mean ± standard deviation age, 22.3 ± 1.3 years. Sleeping environment, diet program, physical activities, and other factors possibly affecting physiological responses were controlled during experiment period. For all participants, salivary cortisol concentration, heart rate variability, and blood pressure were measured at rural and urban field sites. Self-evaluation questionnaires were administered to analyze the psychological states in two different environments. Volatile compounds in the air were also analyzed to investigate air quality. The data were compared between rural and urban environments. The data showed that exposure to a rural environment reduced stress hormone secretion and sympathetic nervous activity and increased parasympathetic nervous activity. Short-term exposure to a rural environment also improved mood states. Our findings indicate that exposure to a rural environment effectively reduced physiological stress and enhanced psychological well-being.

  2. China’s Urban-Rural Integration Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingqing Ye

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis presented here is based on the keynote speech discussing the most recent developments in rural policy on urban-rural integration in China delivered in Chinese by Professor Ye Xingqing at the Ninth European Conference on Agriculture and Rural Development in China (ECARDC9 held at the University of Leeds in the UK on 3-5 April 2009. Professor Ye’s paper provides a comprehensive overview of the main initiatives, their rationale and their context, including some of the debates surrounding them. Professor Ye, who is an invited keynote speaker of ECARDC9 and the director-general of the Department for Rural Economy, Research Office of the State Council, People’s Republic of China, has been personally involved in the process of formulating these policy initiatives.Translated from Chinese by Prof. Flemming Christiansen, professor in Chinese Studies, Department of East Asian Studies, University of Leeds and also Director of National Institute of Chinese Studies, White Rose East Asia Centre, United Kingdom.

  3. Characterization of urban and rural organic particulate in the Lower Fraser Valley using two Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfarra, M. Rami; Coe, Hugh; Allan, James D.; Bower, Keith N.; Boudries, Hacene; Canagaratna, Manjula R.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Jayne, John T.; Garforth, Arthur A.; Li, Shao-Meng; Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2004-11-01

    Two Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometers (AMS) were deployed at three sites representing urban, semi-rural and rural areas during the Pacific 2001 experiment in the Lower Fraser Valley (LFV), British Columbia, Canada in August 2001. The AMS provides on-line quantitative measurements of the size and chemical composition of the non-refractory fraction of submicron aerosol particles. A significant accumulation mode with a peak around 400-500 nm was observed at all sites that was principally composed of sulphate, organics, ammonium and some nitrate. Another significant mode with a peak below 200 nm was also observed at the urban site and when urban plumes affected the other sites. This paper focuses on the variability of the organic particulate composition and size distribution as a function of location and photochemical activity with a particular emphasis on the urban and rural areas. The small organic mode at the urban site was well correlated with gas phase CO, 1,3-butadiene, benzene and toluene with Pearson's r values of 0.76, 0.71, 0.79 and 0.69, respectively, suggesting that combustion-related emissions are likely to be the main source of the small organic mode at this site. The mass spectra of the urban organic particulate are similar to those of internal combustion engine lubricating oil, and of diesel exhaust aerosol particles, implying that they were composed of a mixture of n-alkanes, branched alkanes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics. In contrast, organic particulate at the rural site was dominated by shorter chain oxidized organic compounds. Correlations between the two organic modes and gas phase compounds at the rural site indicated that a significant part of the small mode originated from combustion sources, while the large accumulation organic mode appeared to be the result of photochemical processing. Processing of organic particulate during a relatively high O3 episode at the rural site appeared to increase the modal diameter of the accumulation mode from

  4. Using Geospatial Mapping to Determine the Impact of All-Terrain Vehicle Crashes on Both Rural and Urban Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn S. Qin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Deaths and injuries from all-terrain vehicle (ATV crashes result in approximately 700 deaths each year and more than 100,000 emergency department (ED visits. Common misconceptions about ATV crashes are a significant barrier to injury prevention efforts, as is the lack of key information about where and how crashes occur. The purpose of this study was to determine ATV crash patterns within a state, and to compare and contrast characteristics of these crashes as a function of crash-site rurality. Methods: We performed descriptive, comparative, and regression analyses using a statewide off-road vehicle crash and injury database (2002–2013. Comparisons were performed by rurality as defined using the Rural Urban Commuting Area (RUCA coding system, and we used geographic information system (GIS software to map crash patterns at the zip code and county levels. Results: ATV crashes occurred throughout the state; 46% occurred in urban and 54% in rural zip code areas. Comparisons of rider and crash characteristics by rurality showed similarities by sex, age, seating position, on vs. off the road, and crash mechanism. Conversely, helmet use was significantly lower among victims of isolated rural crashes as compared to other victims (p=0.004. Crashes in isolated rural and small rural areas accounted for only 39% of all crashes but resulted in 62% of fatalities. In both rural and urban areas, less than one-quarter of roadway injuries were traffic related. Relative crash rates varied by county, and unique patterns were observed for crashes involving youth and roadway riders. During the study period, 10% and 50% of all crashes occurred in 2% and 20% of the state’s counties, respectively. Conclusion: This study suggests that ATV crashes are a public health concern for both rural and urban communities. However, isolated rural ATV crash victims were less likely to be helmeted, and rural victims were over-represented among fatalities. Traffic was

  5. Fatalistic cancer beliefs and information sources among rural and urban adults in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Befort, Christie A; Nazir, Niaman; Engelman, Kimberly; Choi, Won

    2013-09-01

    Fatalistic beliefs about cancer prevention can be a significant deterrent to one's likelihood of engaging in cancer prevention behaviors. Lower education and less access to cancer information among rural residents may influence their level of cancer fatalism. The purpose of this study was to examine rural-urban differences in fatalistic beliefs about cancer prevention and cancer information sources using data from the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey (n = 1,482 rural and 6,192 urban residents). Results showed that rural residents were more likely to endorse multiple fatalistic beliefs about cancer prevention than urban residents even after controlling for other significant demographic correlates. Urban residents were more likely to use the internet as their primary cancer information source, whereas rural residents were more likely to rely on print material and healthcare providers. Future educational work to communicate relevant and accurate cancer prevention information to rural residents should consider not only information access but also rural culture and fatalistic perspectives.

  6. [Impact of urbanization on the residents' health service needs and utilization based on the urban and rural integration development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bo; Zhao, Na; Ren, Xiao-Hui; Li, Ning-Xiu

    2013-03-01

    To explore the impact of urbanization on the residents' health service needs and utilization for the purpose of providing references for health making-decision by analyzing the difference of health service needs and utilization in semi-urban residents, urban residents and rural residents. The residents in the three economic zones of Chengdu were selected by stratified ration sampling and interviewed with the questionnaire. The two-week morbidity rate, hospitalization rate, and non clinical visit rate of semi-urban residents were higher than those of other people, and the chronic disease prevalence rate of urban residents was higher. Age, employment status, and the urban-rural identification were the main influential factors of two-week morbidity rate and chronic illness prevalence. After the related factors were controlled, the urban-rural identification was not the impact factor of the health service utilization. The urban-rural integration development has promoted the health service accessibility and narrowed the disparity of health to some extent between urban and rural residents. However, the semi-urban residents should be caught a great deal of attention as a special group, and given more employment assistance.

  7. Built environment and active commuting: Rural-urban differences in the U.S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie X. Fan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate rural-urban differences in participation rates in three modes of active commuting (AC and their built environmental correlates. The 2010 Census supplemented with other datasets were used to analyze AC rates in percent of workers age 16+ walking, biking, or taking public transportation to work in 70,172 Census tracts, including 12,844 rural and 57,328 urban. Random-intercept factional logit regressions were used to account for zero-inflated data and for clustering of tracts within counties. We found that the average AC rates were 3.44% rural and 2.77% urban (p<0.01 for walking to work, 0.40% rural and 0.58% urban (p<0.01 for biking to work, and 0.59% rural and 5.86% urban (p<0.01 for public transportation to work. Some environmental variables had similar relationships with AC in rural and urban tracts, such as a negative association between tract greenness and prevalence of walking to work. Others had opposite correlational directions for rural vs. urban, such as street connectivity for walking to work and population density for both walking to work and public transportation to work. We concluded that rurality is an important moderator in AC-environment relationships. In developing strategies to promote AC, attention needs to be paid to rural-urban differences to avoid unintended consequences.

  8. Rural and urban perspectives on growing old: developing a new research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, Chris; Scharf, Thomas

    2005-06-01

    Urban and rural themes have played an important part in European gerontological research. This paper analyses current issues in the field of urban and rural studies as applied to understanding old age. Both dimensions are being affected by population movements of different kinds, driven to a significant degree by globalisation in its various forms. The paper summarises trends underpinning rural and urban living and evidence regarding the impact of change in these areas on daily life in old age. The article considers a number of research agendas which would advance rural and urban studies of ageing, these combining developments in geography and urban studies with those in critical gerontology. The paper argues that a revitalised rural and urban gerontology will bring forward major new themes and issues for social gerontology in the 21st century.

  9. RURAL ? URBAN DIFFERENCES IN HEALTH CARE QUALITY ASSESSMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Spasojevic, Nada; Vasilj, Ivan; Hrabac, Boris; Celik, Damir

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine the rural?urban differences in primary care practice, hospital inpatient care and total services. Methods: This cross-sectional study used data from Zenica-Doboj Canton in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH). The overall sample size for the study was 1,995. Individual interviews were conducted in one randomly selected day of the week, except Monday and Friday, on the basis of EUROPEP (European Task Force on Patient Evaluations of General Practice Care) standardized q...

  10. Comparative toxicity and endocrine disruption potential of urban and rural atmospheric organic PM1 in JEG-3 human placental cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drooge, Barend L; Marqueño, Anna; Grimalt, Joan O; Fernández, Pilar; Porte, Cinta

    2017-11-01

    Outdoor ambient air particulate matter and air pollution are related to adverse effects on human health. The present study assesses the cytotoxicity and ability to disrupt aromatase activity of organic PM 1 extracts from rural and urban areas at equivalent air volumes from 2 to 30 m 3 , in human placental JEG-3 cells. Samples were chemically analyzed for particle bounded organic compounds with endocrine disrupting potential, i.e. PAH, O-PAH, phthalate esters, but also for organic molecular tracer compounds for the emission source identification. Rural samples collected in winter were cytotoxic at the highest concentration tested and strongly inhibited aromatase activity in JEG-3 cells. No cytotoxicity was detected in summer samples from the rural site and the urban samples, while aromatase activity was moderately inhibited in these samples. In the urban area, the street site samples, collected close to intensive traffic, showed stronger inhibition of aromatase activity than the samples simultaneously collected at a roof site, 50 m above ground level. The cytotoxicity and endocrine disruption potential of the samples were linked to combustion products, i.e. PAH and O-PAH, especially from biomass burning in the rural site in winter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Using benthic diatom assemblages to assess human impacts on streams across a rural to urban gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Cao, Jin-Xiang; Pei, Guo-Feng; Liu, Guo-Xing

    2015-11-01

    Benthic diatom assemblages on the natural substrata were investigated at 21 sites of the Ganhe River watershed (China) once per season and in addition, early spring in 2013. A total of 487 diatom taxa from 36 genera were identified during five investigations. The assemblages were dominated by Achnanthidium minutissimum (Kützing) Czarnecki and Cocconeis placentula in the rural reach, whereas Navicula, Nitzschia, and Gomphonema species were characteristic of urbanized sites. Our results suggest that biodiversity was positively related to high nutrient levels and strongly negatively related to diatom-based indices. The periphyton biomass (expressed as chlorophyll a and ash-free dry mass) was not related to water quality. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that the nutrient concentration gradient was the most important factor that affected the diatom assemblage composition and species distribution. The diatom-based indices (specific pollution sensitivity index (IPS), biological diatom index (IBD), and trophic diatom index (TDI)) were significantly positively correlated with water quality and are adequate for use in China. Slight changes in the biodiversity and diatom-based indices followed a temporal pattern. The species composition was less related to the season or hydrological characteristics of the river but more strongly related to differences in the trophic status. In this region, urbanization masked the impact of rural land use on benthic diatoms. The research will expand the understanding of using benthic diatom assemblages for water quality monitoring in urban streams and improve watershed-scale management and conservation efforts in the Ganhe River, China.

  12. The health and welfare of rural and urban cancer survivors in Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schootman, Mario; Homan, Sherri; Weaver, Kathryn E; Jeffe, Donna B; Yun, Shumei

    2013-09-12

    An estimated 2.8 million cancer survivors reside in rural areas in the United States. We compared the risk behaviors, psychosocial factors, health outcomes, quality of life, and follow-up care of rural and urban cancer survivors in Missouri. We used 2009-2010 Missouri Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data to examine various health outcomes, behaviors, and psychosocial factors among rural and urban cancer survivors and their respective rural and urban counterparts without a cancer history. Cancer survivors also were asked about receipt of survivorship care plan components. Sociodemographic factors, access to medical care, and chronic conditions were examined as potential explanatory factors for differences among the 4 groups. An estimated 9.4% of rural and 7.9% of urban Missourians aged 18 years or older reported a cancer history. Rural survivors reported the highest rates of poor self-reported health, physical distress, and activity limitation; however differences between rural and urban survivors were attributable largely to sociodemographic differences. Both rural and urban cancer survivors reported more fatigue than their respective counterparts without a cancer history. Rural survivors also were less likely to meet Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations for physical activity than their rural controls. The prevalence of smoking among rural survivors was higher than among urban survivors. Only 62% of rural survivors versus 78% of urban survivors reported receiving advice about cancer follow-up care. Rural cancer survivors face many health challenges. Interventions to improve quality of life and health behaviors should be adapted to meet the needs of rural cancer survivors.

  13. Urban-rural disparities in health care utilization among Chinese adults from 1993 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiajia; Shi, Leiyu; Liang, Hailun; Ding, Gan; Xu, Lingzhong

    2018-02-09

    Despite economic growth and improved health outcomes over the past few decades, China still experiences striking urban-rural health inequalities. Urban and rural residents distinguished by the hukou system may experience profound disparities because of institutional effect. The aim of this study is to estimate trends in urban-rural disparities in self-care, outpatient care, and inpatient care utilization from a perspective of the hukou system. Data were extracted from the seven latest waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). We used the hukou system to distinguish between urban and rural residents. Chi-square tests were performed to examine urban-rural gaps in self-care, outpatient care, and inpatient care utilization. Multinomial logistic regression was employed to confirm these disparities and to explore whether the urban-rural gaps have narrowed or widened from 1993 to 2011 once known determinants of utilization are taken into account according to Andersen/Aday's Health Behaviour Model. The urban-rural disparities were evident after controlling for confounding variables: urban adults were 3.24 (p care vs. no care, outpatient care vs. no care, and inpatient care vs. no care than their rural counterparts, respectively. The results showed upward trends in self-care, outpatient care, and inpatient care utilization from 2004 to 2011. The urban-rural gaps in health care utilization gradually narrowed during the period of 1993-2011. The hukou distinctions of self-care, outpatient care, and inpatient care in 2011 were only 33.3%, 35.5%, and 9.6% of that in 1993, respectively. Although rural residents were underutilizing health care when compared to their urban counterparts, the significant decrements in urban-rural disparities reflect the positive effect of the on-going health system reform in China. To maintain an equitable distribution of health care utilization, policy makers need to be aware of challenges due to aging problems and health expenditure

  14. Patterns of tobacco use across rural, urban, and urban-slum populations in a North Indian community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Vivek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco is the leading cause of mortality globally and in India. The magnitude and the pattern of tobacco consumption are likely to be influenced by the geographical setting and with rapid urbanization in India there is a need to study this differential pattern. Aim: The aim was to study the rural, urban, and urban-slum differences in patterns of tobacco use. Settings: The study was conducted in Ballabgarh block, Faridabad district, Haryana, and was a community-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in years 2003-2004 using the WHO STEPS approach with 7891 participants, approximately equal number of males and females, selected using multistage sampling from urban, urban-slum, and rural strata. Statistical Analysis: The analysis was done using the SPSS 12.0 statistical package (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA. Direct standardization to the WHO world standard population was done to and chi-square and ANOVA tests were used for comparison across three study settings. Results: Self-reported tobacco use among males was as follows: urban 35.2%; urban-slums 48.3%; and rural 52.6% (P value <0.05. Self-reported tobacco use among females was as follows: Urban 3.5%; urban-slums 11.9%; and rural 17.7% (P value <0.05. More males reported daily bidi (tobacco wrapped in temburini leaf smoking (urban 17.8%, urban-slums 36.7%, rural 44.6% than cigarette use (urban 9.6%, urban-slums 6.3%, rural 2.9%. Females using smoked tobacco were almost exclusively using bidis (urban 1.7%, 7.9%, 11% in rural. Daily chewed tobacco use had urban, urban-slum, and rural gradients of 12%, 10.5%, and 6.8% in males respectively. Its use was low in females. Conclusion: The antitobacco policies of India need to focus on bidis in antitobacco campaigns. The program activities must find ways to reach the rural and urban-slum populations.

  15. Migration from rural to urban areas in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, K

    1990-12-01

    During the regime of Mao Zedong the migration of rural population to urban areas was forbidden. In 1982 the people's communes were dissolved creating surplus labor. In 1984 permission was given to peasants to move to towns of 100,000 inhabitants or less. In 1986 the state allocation of jobs and lifetime employment practices were abolished leading to the migration of peasants. Urban population has increased 30-50 million annually since 1985. In 1988-89 urban population consisted of urban registry holders numbering 200 million protected by the government, 100 million new residents unqualified for food rations who had moved into towns of 100,000 population, and the so-called floating population getting no government services numbering about 60-80 million in February 1990. Rural towns grew as a result of promotion of smaller sized cities. In 1983 there were 62,310,000 people in such cities, and by 1984 there were over 134 million mainly in the 15-29 age group. The increasing inflow of population into major cities also occurred in 1984-5 owing to the dissolution of communes. 23 cities with populations over 1 million received 10 million migrants/year, and 50 million migrate to towns and cities every year. In 1988 Shanghai had a mostly male floating population of 2.08 million/year, and Beijing had 1,310,000. This phenomenon led to the emergence of surplus agricultural labor. Village and township enterprises absorbed this surplus: in 1988 there were 18,888,600 such entities employing 95,454,600 people or 23.8% of the labor force. Surplus labor totals 220 million out of 400 million agricultural labor force. The gap between the hinterland and the rich coastal areas with special economic zones is widening, reminiscent of the north-south problem. This phenomenon is the harbinger of the transformation of China into a freer society with higher population mobility.

  16. City mouse, country mouse: a mixed-methods evaluation of perceived communication barriers between rural family physicians and urban consultants in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renouf, Tia; Alani, Sabrina; Whalen, Desmond; Harty, Chris; Pollard, Megan; Morrison, Megan; Coombs-Thorne, Heidi; Dubrowski, Adam

    2016-05-06

    To examine perceived communication barriers between urban consultants and rural family physicians practising routine and emergency care in remote subarctic Newfoundland and Labrador (NL). This study used a mixed-methods design. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected through exploratory surveys, comprised of closed and open-ended questions. The quantitative data was analysed using comparative statistical analyses, and a thematic analysis was applied to the qualitative data. 52 self-identified rural family physicians and 23 urban consultants were recruited via email. Rural participants were also recruited at the Family Medicine Rural Preceptor meetings in St John's, NL. Rural family physicians and urban consultants in NL completed a survey assessing perceived barriers to effective communication. Data confirmed that both groups perceived communication difficulties with one another; with 23.1% rural and 27.8% urban, rating the difficulties as frequent (p=0.935); 71.2% rural and 72.2% urban as sometimes (p=0.825); 5.8% rural and 0% urban acknowledged never perceiving difficulties (p=0.714). Overall, 87.1% of participants indicated that perceived communication difficulties impacted patient care. Primary trends that emerged as perceived barriers for rural physicians were time constraints and misunderstanding of site limitations. Urban consultants' perceived barriers were inadequate patient information and lack of native language skills. Barriers to effective communication are perceived between rural family physicians and urban consultants in NL. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Air pollution and decreased semen quality: A comparative study of Chongqing urban and rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Niya; Cui, Zhihong; Yang, Sanming; Han, Xue; Chen, Gangcai; Zhou, Ziyuan; Zhai, Chongzhi; Ma, Mingfu; Li, Lianbing; Cai, Min; Li, Yafei; Ao, Lin; Shu, Weiqun; Liu, Jinyi; Cao, Jia

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association and effects of air pollution level on male semen quality in urban and rural areas, this study examines the outdoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM 10 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrous dioxide (NO 2 ) and semen quality outcomes for 1346 volunteers in both urban and rural areas in Chongqing, China. We found the urban area has a higher pollution level than the rural area, contrasted with better semen quality in the rural residents, especially for sperm morphology and computer assistant semen analysis (CASA) motility parameters. A multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrates that concentrations of PM 10 , SO 2 , and NO 2 significantly and negatively are associated with normal sperm morphology percentage (P  10 , SO 2 , and NO 2 in urban ambient air may account for worse semen quality in urban males. - Highlights: • We investigate the distributions of PM 10 , SO 2 and NO 2 in urban and rural areas in Chongqing, China. • We explore the associations of air pollution and male semen quality. • The concentrations of PM 10 , SO 2 , and NO 2 are significantly higher in urban areas. • Median values of some semen quality parameters in rural male were higher than urban male. • PM 10 , SO 2 , and NO 2 were negatively associated with semen quality parameters. - Air pollution is higher in the urban area while there is better semen quality in rural males. Polluted air may thus account for worse semen quality in urban males

  18. Characterizing the malaria rural-to-urban transmission interface: The importance of reactive case detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina Gómez, Karen; Caicedo, M Alejandra; Gaitán, Alexandra; Herrera-Varela, Manuela; Arce, María Isabel; Vallejo, Andrés F; Padilla, Julio; Chaparro, Pablo; Pacheco, M Andreína; Escalante, Ananias A; Arevalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Sócrates

    2017-07-01

    Reported urban malaria cases are increasing in Latin America, however, evidence of such trend remains insufficient. Here, we propose an integrated approach that allows characterizing malaria transmission at the rural-to-urban interface by combining epidemiological, entomological, and parasite genotyping methods. A descriptive study that combines active (ACD), passive (PCD), and reactive (RCD) case detection was performed in urban and peri-urban neighborhoods of Quibdó, Colombia. Heads of households were interviewed and epidemiological surveys were conducted to assess malaria prevalence and identify potential risk factors. Sixteen primary cases, eight by ACD and eight by PCD were recruited for RCD. Using the RCD strategy, prevalence of 1% by microscopy (6/604) and 9% by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) (52/604) were found. A total of 73 houses and 289 volunteers were screened leading to 41 secondary cases, all of them in peri-urban settings (14% prevalence). Most secondary cases were genetically distinct from primary cases indicating that there were independent occurrences. Plasmodium vivax was the predominant species (76.3%, 71/93), most of them being asymptomatic (46/71). Urban and peri-urban neighborhoods had significant sociodemographic differences. Twenty-four potential breeding sites were identified, all in peri-urban areas. The predominant vectors for 1,305 adults were Anopheles nuneztovari (56,2%) and An. Darlingi (42,5%). One An. nuneztovari specimen was confirmed naturally infected with P. falciparum by ELISA. This study found no evidence supporting the existence of urban malaria transmission in Quibdó. RCD strategy was more efficient for identifying malaria cases than ACD alone in areas where malaria transmission is variable and unstable. Incorporating parasite genotyping allows discovering hidden patterns of malaria transmission that cannot be detected otherwise. We propose to use the term "focal case" for those primary cases that lead to

  19. Characterizing the malaria rural-to-urban transmission interface: The importance of reactive case detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Molina Gómez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Reported urban malaria cases are increasing in Latin America, however, evidence of such trend remains insufficient. Here, we propose an integrated approach that allows characterizing malaria transmission at the rural-to-urban interface by combining epidemiological, entomological, and parasite genotyping methods.A descriptive study that combines active (ACD, passive (PCD, and reactive (RCD case detection was performed in urban and peri-urban neighborhoods of Quibdó, Colombia. Heads of households were interviewed and epidemiological surveys were conducted to assess malaria prevalence and identify potential risk factors. Sixteen primary cases, eight by ACD and eight by PCD were recruited for RCD. Using the RCD strategy, prevalence of 1% by microscopy (6/604 and 9% by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR (52/604 were found. A total of 73 houses and 289 volunteers were screened leading to 41 secondary cases, all of them in peri-urban settings (14% prevalence. Most secondary cases were genetically distinct from primary cases indicating that there were independent occurrences. Plasmodium vivax was the predominant species (76.3%, 71/93, most of them being asymptomatic (46/71. Urban and peri-urban neighborhoods had significant sociodemographic differences. Twenty-four potential breeding sites were identified, all in peri-urban areas. The predominant vectors for 1,305 adults were Anopheles nuneztovari (56,2% and An. Darlingi (42,5%. One An. nuneztovari specimen was confirmed naturally infected with P. falciparum by ELISA.This study found no evidence supporting the existence of urban malaria transmission in Quibdó. RCD strategy was more efficient for identifying malaria cases than ACD alone in areas where malaria transmission is variable and unstable. Incorporating parasite genotyping allows discovering hidden patterns of malaria transmission that cannot be detected otherwise. We propose to use the term "focal case" for those primary cases that

  20. Rural-urban Migration Decisions in China: Evidence from Rural Household Panel Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyeongwon Yoo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the household's off-farm labor response to risk using the Research Center on the Rural Economy (RCRE panel data in China. This paper aims to find out whether the off-farm labor market, especially the migrant labor market, could be used as a means of coping with risk and shocks to income by poor households in rural China who have only limited access to the credit and insurance markets for managing risk. Instead of using the endogenous transitory income variance under the short time span of the data, we suggest using relatively exogenous measure of risk, such as the coefficient of variation of rainfall in each village, might be more appropriate to find the effect of risk on household's off-farm labor participation decision. Our results support the idea that households facing a riskier or more volatile distribution of precipitation are more likely to participate in the off-farm labor market. Attention to the potential risk-coping benefits from off-farm employment is timely for Chinese policy makers because both local and national policies accommodating the growth of markets for off-farm migrant labor have come under increasing pressure. As cities face growing problems of unemployed workers from state- owned enterprises, both local and national governments have taken measures to reduce competition for jobs between rural laborers and those urban residents left unemployed during the state-owned enterprises reform period. This paper suggests that rural resident would suffer from urban policies restricting the in-flow of migrants in two ways. Households sending temporary migrants to cities will suffer both a loss of income, and a loss of means of coping with risk. In fact, the analysis of this paper suggests that the welfare of Chinese farm households in rural areas can be further improved by eliminating the remaining institutional obstacles to expansion of migrant employment opportunities.

  1. Psychotherapy Utilization Among Rural and Urban Veterans From 2007 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, Juliette M; Grubbs, Kathleen M; Sansgiry, Shubhada; Fortney, John C; Cully, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated change in rural and urban veterans' psychotherapy use during a period of widespread effort within the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) to engage rural veterans in mental health care. National VHA administrative databases were queried for patients receiving a new diagnosis of depression, anxiety, or posttraumatic stress disorder in fiscal years (FY) 2007 and 2010. Using the US Department of Agriculture Rural-Urban Continuum Codes, we identified urban (FY 2007: n = 192,347; FY 2010: n = 231,471) and rural (FY 2007: n = 72,923; FY 2010: n = 81,905) veterans. Veterans' psychotherapy use during the 12 months following diagnosis was assessed. From FY 2007 to 2010, the proportion of veterans receiving any psychotherapy increased from 17% to 22% for rural veterans and 24% to 28% for urban veterans. Rural veterans were less likely to receive psychotherapy across both fiscal years; however, the magnitude of this disparity decreased significantly from 2007 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.51) to 2010 (OR = 1.41). Similarly, although urban veterans received more psychotherapy sessions, urban-rural disparities in the receipt of 8 or more psychotherapy sessions decreased over the study period (2007: OR = 2.32; 2010: OR = 1.69). Rural and urban veterans are increasingly making use of psychotherapy, and rural-urban gaps in psychotherapy use are shrinking. These improvements suggest that recent VHA efforts to engage rural veterans in care have been successful at reducing differences between rural and urban veterans with respect to access and engagement in psychotherapy. © 2014 National Rural Health Association.

  2. Evidence for perennial malaria in rural and urban areas under the Sudanian climate of Kandi, Northeastern Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govoetchan, Renaud; Gnanguenon, Virgile; Azondékon, Roseric; Agossa, Rodrigue Fiacre; Sovi, Arthur; Oké-Agbo, Frédéric; Ossè, Razaki; Akogbéto, Martin

    2014-02-24

    In arid settings, droughts usually lead to periods of very low or no malaria transmission. However, in rural Kandi (Sonsoro) in northeastern Benin, several malaria cases are often diagnosed during dry seasons. The underlying factors accounting for this phenomenon remain unknown. The entomological profile of Sonsoro has been studied compared to a location in urban Kandi (Gansosso) for a period of one year. During this period, Anopheles larval habitats were investigated and populations of Anopheles gambiae s.l. were sampled by human landing catches in both areas. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (CSP) were conducted on vector specimens and the entomological inoculation rates (EIR) were determined per season (wet versus dry) in each area. In addition, during the severe drought period, Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) were conducted on school children under the age 10 years in these areas to provide a global view of drought-malaria prevalence and to perform a crossing with entomological data in Kandi. Overall, An. gambiae s.l. was particularly abundant in rural Kandi compared to the urban area with a significant decrease of vector density in both sites during the dry season. In this period, larval sampling data identified household water sources as potential breeding sites in urban and rural Kandi. We also observed a significant seasonal variation of the infectivity rate in both areas but for each period (season), the EIR was higher in the rural site than in the urban. Data of P. falciparum detection was the reflection of entomological findings. The drought-malaria prevalence was 5.5 times higher in rural Kandi as compared to urban Kandi. The presence of a permanent water site and the low level of urbanization in rural Kandi were identified as a risk factor. Our data showed a high level of malaria transmission in the municipality of Kandi. Household water source plays an important role in maintaining the

  3. Technology of Urban, Interurban and Rural Passenger Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Štefančić

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The work will consider the significance of various publictransport modes, since different methods of travel that form thetransport system are interconnected. The application of thelevel of service in one mode influences other transport modesand changes depending on the type of travel and is divided inthree groups: urban, interurban and rural travel. In consideringthe significance of urban public transport there are three levelsof trip-end generation/attraction, with which six types of urbantravel can be identified. lnterurban travel is presented throughtwo main transport modes, rail and bus. Apart from businesstrips, air travel is relatively insignificant, primarily because ofthe prices and small distances. In rural areas, characterized bylow population density, there is the problem of travelling of theelderly people, as well as those without cars, as the difficulty ofproviding economic public transport services has increased becausethe number of carried passengers is small. This results inthe reduction in mobility and the quality of life. Attempts havebeen made to improve the standard of provision of public transportservices by introducing unconventional transport means.

  4. Nutritional behaviours of pregnant women in rural and urban environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Suliga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Monitoring of the environmental differences in the mode of nutrition is especially important in pregnant women, for whom normal body weight gain is especially important for both the course of pregnancy and the normal development of the foetus, and is inseparably associated with rational nutrition. Objective. The objective of the study was evaluation of the mode of nutrition of pregnant women according to the place of residence. Materials and methods. The investigation comprised 704 women. Information was collected by means of an anonymous survey concerning place of residence, consumption of selected products and beverages, and taking folic acid and other vitamin and/or mineral dietary supplements. Results. In the urban environment, pregnant women more frequently consumed vegetables, milk and dairy products, sea fish and wholemeal cereal products, drank more liquids, as well as more fruit and/or vegetable juices, and more often used the supplementation with folic acid, even before becoming pregnant. No significant differences were found in the consumption of fruits, pulses, products which are the source of complete proteins, confectionery products and sweets, according to the place of residence. Conclusions. The diet of pregnant women from the rural environment compared to that of women from urban areas, was characterized by worse quality. It is necessary to carry out health education in the area of adequate nutrition among pregnant women, and those who plan pregnancy, directed primarily to all women from the rural environment.

  5. Similar Secondary Stroke Prevention and Medication Persistence Rates among Rural and Urban Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Daniel; Cox, Margueritte; Zimmer, Louise O.; Olson, DaiWai M.; Goldstein, Larry B.; Drew, Laura; Peterson, Eric D.; Bushnell, Cheryl D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Rural residents are less likely to obtain optimal care for many serious conditions and have poorer health outcomes than those residing in more urban areas. We determined whether rural vs urban residence affected postdischarge medication persistence and 1 year outcomes after stroke. Methods: The Adherence eValuation After Ischemic…

  6. Rurality/Urbanism and Extended Familism Among Working- and Lower-Class Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Katheryn Thomas

    A comprehensive look is taken at the rural-urban variation in extended familism among a segment of the population for which extended familism purportedly is especially salient: lower and working class black Americans. The study is guided by the general hypothesis that rurality/urbanism affects extended familism when nonecological variables are…

  7. Exploring Marine Citizenship among Young People in Select Urban and Rural Villages in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabar, Melvin A.; Regadio, Crisanto Q., Jr.; Collado, Zaldy C.

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the understanding of marine citizenship among young people from two villages (urban and rural) in the Philippines. The purpose of the article is to examine the differences and similarities of their attitudes toward and engagement in marine environment conservation in rural and urban contexts. Young Focus Group Discussion…

  8. Bridging the Rural-Urban Literacy Gap in China: A Mediation Analysis of Family Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingying; Li, Hui; Wang, Dan

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the effects of family involvement on the literacy gap between rural and urban Chinese primary students via mediation analysis. Altogether, 1080 students in Grades 1, 3, and 5 were randomly sampled from three urban and three rural primary schools from Shandong and Guizhou Provinces, representing eastern and western China,…

  9. The effects of ageing and urbanisation on China's future rural and urban populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Quanrun; Dietzenbacher, Erik; Los, Bart

    2017-01-01

    This paper estimates China's future population and labour force by developing a novel forecasting model for population. It combines information about age-specific parameters on fertility and mortality for both rural and urban areas using information about rural-urban migration and the transformation

  10. Self-Assessed Intelligence: Inter-Ethnic, Rural-Urban, and Sex Differences in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Furnham, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined inter-ethnic, rural-urban, and sex differences in self-assessed intelligence (SAI) in a Malaysian general population sample. In total, 633 individuals varying in rural or urban location, ethnicity (Malay, Kadazan, and Bajau), and sex (women versus men) provided their self-assessed overall intelligence and ten multiple…

  11. Rural-Urban Differences in Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Overweight Prevalence of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joens-Matre, Roxane R.; Welk, Gregory J.; Calabro, Miguel A.; Russell, Daniel W.; Nicklay, Elizabeth; Hensley, Larry D.

    2008-01-01

    Context: The increasing prevalence of overweight in youth has been well chronicled, but less is known about the unique patterns and risks that may exist in rural and urban environments. A better understanding of possible rural-urban differences in physical activity profiles may facilitate the development of more targeted physical activity…

  12. Divergent Urban-Rural Trends in College Attendance: State Policy Bias and Structural Exclusion in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Tony; Jiang, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Despite the massive expansion of higher education in China since 1998, the cohort trends of urban and rural "hukou" holders in college attendance have widened sharply. Prevailing explanations emphasize the advantages of urban students over rural students in school quality and household financial resources. We propose the structural…

  13. Rural-urban disparity in lung function parameters of Nigerian children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The socio-demographic, nutritional status as well as lung function parameters measured using incentive Spirometry (MIR Spirolab III srl, Italy) of the children were obtained and compared among the rural and urban children. Results: A total of 250 children (128 rural and 122 urban) aged 9 to 17 years participated in the ...

  14. Two Aspects of the Rural-Urban Divide and Educational Stratification in China: A Trajectory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lingxin; Hu, Alfred; Lo, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Contextualized in China's social change of the past half-century, this article conceptualizes the two aspects of China's rural-urban divide in educational inequality--the household registration system ("hukou") assigns people to a hierarchy, and the rural-urban schooling system institutionalizes unequal resource distribution and diverse…

  15. Rural-Urban Disparities in Child Abuse Management Resources in the Emergency Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Esther K.; Spiro, David M.; Lowe, Robert A.; Newgard, Craig D.; Hall, Michael Kennedy; McConnell, Kenneth John

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize differences in child abuse management resources between urban and rural emergency departments (EDs). Methods: We surveyed ED directors and nurse managers at hospitals in Oregon to gain information about available abuse-related resources. Chi-square analysis was used to test differences between urban and rural EDs.…

  16. Correlates of Shyness and Unsociability during Early Adolescence in Urban and Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linlin; Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the differentiation and correlates of shyness and unsociability during early adolescence in urban and rural China. Participants were 93 urban and 229 rural Chinese sixth- to eighth-graders. Students rated their shyness, unsociability, fear of negative evaluation, self-efficacy for peer interactions, and…

  17. Child gender preferences in an urban and rural community in Enugu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To ascertain the child gender preferences in an urban and rural community in Enugu State. Materials and Methods: A multistage sampling method was employed to select 245 urban and 243 rural women from households in Enugu State, Eastern Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was used to ascertain child ...

  18. Quality of Care for Myocardial Infarction in Rural and Urban Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Chan, Leighton; Andrilla, C. Holly A.; Huff, Edwin D.; Hart, L. Gary

    2010-01-01

    Background: In the mid-1990s, significant gaps existed in the quality of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) care between rural and urban hospitals. Since then, overall AMI care quality has improved. This study uses more recent data to determine whether rural-urban AMI quality gaps have persisted. Methods: Using inpatient records data for 34,776…

  19. Urban-Rural Synergies : An Explorative Study at the NUTS3 Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Eveline

    2015-01-01

    Regions are continually developing. Innovations in agricultural and industrial production affect urban and rural areas in different ways, and climate change and developments in transport and (tele)communication have strong effects on the interaction between them. Although urban and rural areas are

  20. Characteristics of Rural and Urban Cadaveric Organ Transplant Donors and Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, William B.; Lushkov, Gili; Nelson, William A.; Wallace, Amy E.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Health disparities have been found when comparing rural and urban populations. Purpose: To compare characteristics of rural and urban cadaveric transplant donors and recipients. Methods: We used deidentified individual-level data on 55,929 cadaveric transplant donor-recipient exchanges between 2000 and 2003 and examined the relative rates…

  1. Health problems and the health care provider choices: A comparative study of urban and rural households in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma B. Galal

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Urban families have less health complaints than rural; however, rural families recover sooner. Families bypass often public primary health care services. Urban families overuse outpatient clinics in public hospitals.

  2. Rural communities as sites of knowledge: A case for African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, the article argues that the indigenous knowledge systems constitute an ontology on its own terms with both theoretical and practical (utilitarian) properties. The argument is that the indigenous knowledge systems reside in the rural areas (sites) and are available as tools for regional transformation processes.

  3. Rural-Urban Migration in China: Temporary Migrants in Search of Permanent Settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Carrillo

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Massive population flows from rural to urban areas since the start of economic reform have had consequences on almost every social, economic and political issue in the People's Republic of China. This paper maps the developments of rural to urban migration in reform era China, explaining the repercussions of the household registration system on migration patterns, the economic and social inclusion of rural migrant workers into urban communities, and the formation of migrant communities based on ethnic ties in some of China's major cities. The paper ends with a discussion of the consequences of both regional and rural-urban inequalities on future population flows, and on the possibilities of social tensions brought by the increasing presence of rural migrants in urban China.

  4. Medicare-Certified Home Health Care: Urban-Rural Differences in Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Lacey; Jarosek, Stephanie L.; Virnig, Beth A.; Durham, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Context: Availability of Medicare-certified home health care (HHC) to rural elders can prevent more expensive institutional care. To date, utilization of HHC by rural elders has not been studied in detail. Purpose: To examine urban-rural differences in Medicare HHC utilization. Methods: The 2002 100% Medicare HHC claims and denominator files were…

  5. A comparison of rural and urban Indian children's visual detection of threatening and nonthreatening animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkunas, Michael J; Coss, Richard G

    2013-05-01

    Recent studies indicate that young children preferentially attend to snakes, spiders, and lions compared with nondangerous species, but these results have yet to be replicated in populations that actually experience dangerous animals in nature. This multi-site study investigated the visual-detection biases of southern Indian children towards two potentially dangerous taxa, snakes and lions, that constituted major threats during human evolution. Three- to 8-year-old children from two distinct populations were presented with visual-search tasks containing one target image embedded in matrices of eight distractor images. Children living in Bangalore city, an urban setting in which exposure to dangerous animals would only occur occasionally during family outings to zoos and forest areas, were compared with children living in and around National Parks where exposure to dangerous species is frequent. In the first two experiments, children from both locations detected snake and lion images more rapidly than nonthreatening lizard and antelope images, respectively. Neither urban nor rural children displayed a bias for detecting horses versus cows, the latter constituting a familiar animal with strong religious significance. For all three experiments, the reaction times of urban and rural children were very similar, indicating that periodic exposure to dangerous animals early in life, coupled with adult cautioning, did not facilitate better snake and lion detection. This consistency of urban and rural children with different exposure to dangerous animals suggests that detection of some dangerous species may reflect both experience in nature and visual biases shaped by natural selection. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. A quantitative analysis of major determinants of rural-urban migration in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, S O

    1992-11-01

    "This paper discusses some major determinants of rural-urban migration in Nigeria using the logit estimation technique. It utilizes cross-sectional data generated from a national sample survey of internal migration conducted...between January and March 1988.... The empirical results revealed that the significant determinants of rural-urban migration in Nigeria are income, contact, cost, spoken English, ability to speak two Nigerian languages, distance, marital status, sex and ethnicity. The results further suggest that rural-urban migration is selective of single people and males. Proximity to urban areas where prospective migrants have relatives, friends and townspeople is an important factor." excerpt

  7. Rural and Urban Differences in Sexual Behaviors Among Adolescents in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Erika L; Mahony, Helen; Noble, Charlotte; Wang, Wei; Ziemba, Robert; Malmi, Markku; Maness, Sarah B; Walsh-Buhi, Eric R; Daley, Ellen M

    2018-04-01

    The national teen birth rate is higher in rural compared to urban areas. While national data suggest rural areas may present higher risk for adverse sexual health outcomes among adolescents, it is unknown whether there are differences within the state of Florida. Overall, Florida has poorer sexual health indicators for adolescents compared to national rates. The purpose of this study was to assess differences in sexual behaviors among Florida adolescents by rural-urban community location. This study includes baseline data from a randomized controlled trial conducted in Florida high schools. Of the 6316 participants, 74% were urban and 26% were rural. Participants responded to questions on sexual behaviors, sexual behavior intentions, and demographics. We estimated the effect of rural-urban status on risk outcomes after controlling for demographic variables using generalized linear mixed models. More teens from rural areas reported ever having sex (24.0%) compared to urban teens (19.7%). No significant differences were observed for most of sexual behaviors assessed. Nonetheless, urban participants were less likely to intend to have sex without a condom in the next year compared to rural participants (aOR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.63-0.92). Overall, there were no major differences in sexual behaviors between rural and urban adolescents in Florida. However, sexual intentions differed between rural and urban adolescents; specifically, rural adolescents were more likely to intend to have sex without a condom in the next year compared to urban adolescents. Understanding the specific disparities can inform contraception and sexual health interventions among rural youth.

  8. Rural Education and Urbanization: Experiences and Struggles in China Since the Late 1970s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuqin Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available China has adopted an unbalanced policy for economic development to improve its domestic economy and international competiveness for more than three decades. During this process, rural education has undergone a series of reforms. With reference to compulsory education, this article argues that rural education in China is a pragmatic instrument for the state to expand and improve the quality of urbanization. Rural education can be used to serve urbanization, is influenced by the rural-urban disparities brought about by urbanization, and receives urban aid and support in exchange for following state guidelines. Due to deep-rooted disparities and long-standing inequalities, effectively financing rural education, rural education still faces challenges and difficulties related to handling urban-based curricula and evaluation standards, recruiting, and keeping qualified teachers, and the outflow of original rural residents. This article concludes by offering an explanation of Chinese policy implications for the functions and constraints of state-directed rural education in serving urbanization.

  9. Exploring Diet Quality between Urban and Rural Dwelling Women of Reproductive Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Julie C; Moran, Lisa J; Teede, Helena J; Ranasinha, Sanjeeva; Lombard, Catherine B; Harrison, Cheryce L

    2017-06-08

    Health disparities, including weight gain and obesity exist between urban and rural dwelling women. The primary aim was to compare diet quality in urban and rural women of reproductive age, and secondary analyses of the difference in macronutrient and micronutrient intake in urban and rural women, and the predictors of diet quality. Diet quality was assessed in urban ( n = 149) and rural ( n = 394) women by a modified version of the Dietary Guideline Index (DGI) energy, macronutrient and micronutrient intake from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and predictors of diet quality. Diet quality did not significantly differ between urban and rural women (mean ± standard deviation (SD), 84.8 ± 15.9 vs. 83.9 ± 16.5, p = 0.264). Rural women reported a significantly higher intake of protein, fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, cholesterol and iron and a higher score in the meat and meat alternatives component of the diet quality tool in comparison to urban women. In all women, a higher diet quality was associated with higher annual household income (>$Australian dollar (AUD) 80,000 vs. diet quality did not differ in urban and rural women; however, a higher macronutrient consumption pattern was potentially related to a higher lean meat intake in rural women. Women who are unemployed and on a lower income are an important target group for future dietary interventions aiming to improve diet quality.

  10. [Simulation and prediction of urban and rural settlement growth and land use change in Yingkou City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Feng-Ming; He, Hong-Shi; Hu, Yuan-Man; Wu, Xiao-Qing; Bao, Li; Tian, Ying; Wang, Jin-Nian; Ma, Wen-Jun

    2008-07-01

    Based on the 1988, 1992, 1997, 2000, and 2004 Landsat TM remote sensing data of Yingkou City, Liaoning Province, the urban and rural settlement growth and land use change in the city from 2005 to 2030 were simulated and predicted by using the SLEUTH urban growth and land use change model with six scenarios (current trend scenario, no protection scenario, moderate protection scenario, managed growth scenario, ecologically sustainable growth scenario, and regional and urban comprehensive planning scenario). The results showed that in the city, the increased area of urban and rural settlement growth from 1988 to 2004 was 14.93 km2, and the areas of water area, orchard, mine, and agricultural land changed greatly from 1997 to 2004. From 2005 to 2030, based on ecologically sustainable growth scenario, the urban and rural settlement growth would have a slow increase, and agricultural land and forestland would be better protected; under no protection scenario, the urban and rural settlement growth would have a rapid increase, and large area of agricultural land would be lost; under current trend scenario, the agricultural land loss would be similar to that under no protective scenario, but the loss pattern could be different; under moderate protection scenario and managed growth scenario, the agricultural land would have a smaller loss; while under regional and urban comprehensive planning scenario, the urban and rural settlement growth would be mainly distributed in urban development area and urban fringe. The SLEUTH model with different scenarios could simulate how the different land management policies affect urban and rural settlement growth and land use change, which would be instructive to the coordination of Chinese urban and rural settlement development and the socialist new rural reconstruction.

  11. Rural:urban inequalities in post 2015 targets and indicators for drinking-water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, R E S; Wright, J A; Christenson, E; Bartram, J K

    2014-08-15

    Disparities in access to drinking water between rural and urban areas are pronounced. Although use of improved sources has increased more rapidly in rural areas, rising from 62% in 1990 to 81% in 2011, the proportion of the rural population using an improved water source remains substantially lower than in urban areas. Inequalities in coverage are compounded by disparities in other aspects of water service. Not all improved sources are safe and evidence from a systematic review demonstrates that water is more likely to contain detectable fecal indicator bacteria in rural areas. Piped water on premises is a service enjoyed primarily by those living in urban areas so differentiating amongst improved sources would exacerbate rural:urban disparities yet further. We argue that an urban bias may have resulted due to apparent stagnation in urban coverage and the inequity observed between urban and peri-urban areas. The apparent stagnation at around 95% coverage in urban areas stems in part from relative population growth - over the last two decades more people gained access to improved water in urban areas. There are calls for setting higher standards in urban areas which would exacerbate the already extreme rural disadvantage. Instead of setting different targets, health, economic, and human rights perspectives, We suggest that the focus should be kept on achieving universal access to safe water (primarily in rural areas) while monitoring progress towards higher service levels, including greater water safety (both in rural and urban areas and among different economic strata). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Rural?urban migration and mental and sexual health: a case study in Southwestern China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xiushi

    2013-01-01

    Massive rural?urban temporary migration has taken place amid China's rapid economic growth and development. Much has been written about the economic causes and consequences of this massive migration; less studied are the potential health and behavioral impacts of migration on migrants. Using data from a population-based sample survey conducted in southwestern China, this paper examines the potential impact of rural?urban migration and post-migration urban living on migrants' mental health and...

  13. Are rural places less safe for motorists? Definitions of urban and rural to understand road safety disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrews, Carolyn; Beyer, Kirsten; Guse, Clare E; Layde, Peter

    2017-12-01

    The objectives of the study are to understand road safety within the context of regional development processes and to assess how urban-rural categories represent differences in motor vehicle occupant fatality risk. We analysed 2015 motor vehicle occupant deaths in Wisconsin from 2010 to 2014, using three definitions of urban-rural continua and negative binomial regression to adjust for population density, travel exposure and the proportion of teen residents. Rural-Urban Commuting Area codes, Beale codes and the Census definition of urban and rural places do not explain differences in urban and rural transportation fatality rates when controlling for population density. Although it is widely believed that rural places are uniquely dangerous for motorised travel, this understanding may be an artefact of inaccurate constructs. Instead, population density is a more helpful way to represent transportation hazards across different types of settlement patterns, including commuter suburbs and exurbs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Rural-Urban Differences in Escape Behavior of European Birds across a Latitudinal Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo S. M. Samia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral adjustment is a key factor that facilitates species' coexistence with humans in a rapidly urbanizing world. Because urban animals often experience reduced predation risk compared to their rural counterparts, and because escape behavior is energetically costly, we expect that urban environments will select for increased tolerance to humans. Many studies have supported this expectation by demonstrating that urban birds have reduced flight initiation distance (FID = predator-prey distance when escape by the prey begins than rural birds. Here, we advanced this approach and, for the first time, assessed how 32 species of birds, found in 92 paired urban-rural populations, along a 3,900 km latitudinal gradient across Europe, changed their predation risk assessment and escape strategy as a function of living in urban areas. We found that urban birds took longer than rural birds to be alerted to human approaches, and urban birds tolerated closer human approach than rural birds. While both rural and urban populations took longer to become aware of an approaching human as latitude increased, this behavioral change with latitude is more intense in urban birds (for a given unit of latitude, urban birds increased their pre-detection distance more than rural birds. We also found that as mean alert distance was shorter, urban birds escaped more quickly from approaching humans, but there was no such a relationship in rural populations. Although, both rural and urban populations tended to escape more quickly as latitude increased, urban birds delayed their escape more at low latitudes when compared with rural birds. These results suggest that urban birds in Europe live under lower predation risk than their rural counterparts. Furthermore, the patterns found in our study indicate that birds prioritize the reduction of on-going monitoring costs when predation risk is low. We conclude that splitting escape variables into constituent components may provide

  15. Entities contribution to total employment in China after 1978 reforms: urban and rural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udimal, Thomas Bilaliib; Jincai, Zhuang; Ayamba, Emmanuel Caesar; Owusu, Samuel Mensah

    2018-03-01

    The paper specifically looks at the rural-urban interaction and contribution of various entities or agents to the total employment in China, rural China, and urban China. The study concentrated on the total employment after 1978 reforms. The paper looked at the 1978-2004 reform and after 2004 reform. It was revealed that 1978-2004 reform hindered the flow of labor from rural to urban but after 2004 reform promoted the flow of labor force from rural to urban China the development, which resulted in a drastic reduction in the rural labor force. Before the reforms, state- and collective-owned units were the only entities that were employing people in China. Even though private enterprises were allowed after the reforms, the leading role of the state- and collective-owned units persist. State-owned units contribute immensely to the total employment in China and urban employment, but its contribution to employment in rural China is negative. Collective-owned and cooperative units show a positive contribution to employment in rural areas but its contribution to the total employment in China is negative. Units with funds from Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan and rural private enterprises also contribute positively to total employment in China. Cooperative units, joint holding corporations Ltd., foreign-funded units, and rural self-employed individuals contribute negatively to the total employment in China. Collective-owned and cooperative units contribute negatively to employment in the urban areas. Urban and rural private enterprises and rural self-employed individuals contribute positively to urban employment.

  16. Biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution by moss bags: Discriminating urban-rural structure in a fragmented landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzi, F; Giordano, S; Di Palma, A; Spagnuolo, V; De Nicola, F; Adamo, P

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we investigated the possibility to use moss bags to detect pollution inputs - metals, metalloids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) - in sites chosen for their different land use (agricultural, urban/residential scenarios) and proximity to roads (sub-scenarios), in a fragmented conurbation of Campania (southern Italy). We focused on thirty-nine elements including rare earths. For most of them, moss uptake was higher in agricultural than in urban scenarios and in front road sites. Twenty PAHs were analyzed in a subset of agricultural sites; 4- and 5-ringed PAHs were the most abundant, particularly chrysene, fluoranthene and pyrene. Overall results indicated that investigated pollutants have a similar spatial distribution pattern over the entire study area, with road traffic and agricultural practices as the major diffuse pollution sources. Moss bags proved a very sensitive tool, able to discriminate between different land use scenarios and proximity to roads in a mixed rural-urban landscape. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Characteristics of indoor/outdoor particulate pollution in urban and rural residential environment of Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colbeck, I.; Nasir, Z.A. (Univ. of Essex. Dept. of Biological Sciences, Colchester (United Kingdom)); Ali, Z. (Univ. of Veterinary and Animal Sciences. Dept. of Wildlife and Ecosystem, Lahore (Pakistan))

    2009-09-15

    Particulate pollution has emerged as a serious environmental health concern in Pakistan. The use of biomass fuels in traditional stoves produces high levels of indoor air pollutants. In Pakistan, 94% of rural and 58% of urban households depend on biomass fuel. This study investigates variations in indoor/outdoor concentrations of particulate matter during various activities for three different micro-environments in Pakistan. At a rural site, the average indoor/outdoor ratios for PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5}, and PM{sub 1}, in kitchens using biomass fuels were 3.80, 4.36, and 4.11, respectively. A large variation was recorded in the mass concentration of particulate matter during cooking with concentrations in the range 4000-8555 mug/m3. In a living room at a rural site, the average indoor/outdoor ratios for PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5}, and PM{sub 1} were 1.74, 2.49, and 3.01, respectively. At the urban site, the average indoor/outdoor ratios for the same size fractions were 1.71, 2.88, and 3.47, respectively. Cooking, cleaning and smoking were identified as principal contributors to the high indoor levels of particulate matter. This study showed considerably high concentrations of particulate matter, particularly in kitchens using biomass fuels, as compared to living areas. Thus women and children face the greatest exposure due to the amount of time they spend in the kitchen. (au)

  18. Rural health efforts in the urban-dominated political economy: three Third World examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, J M

    1989-06-01

    The theme of this paper is to demonstrate that the urban preference in governmental health delivery programs does exists in capitalist and socialist political economies and that efficient rural health programs exist in capitalist and socialist developing countries. The purpose of the article is to determine strategies to promote accessible rural health care by studying 3 examples. In the State of Kerala, India between 1956-1959, land reforms were carried out, and political parties and agrarian cooperatives involving rural people were organized. rural needs were given top priority in this capitalist economy which resulted in agrarian reform, education, and health delivery. In 1971, food production increased to 5.4 million tons. During this period, the nutritional status rose, the mortality rated declined, and the fertility rates decreased. Thus, the health status for the rural population improved. Bolivia's Montero health program was developed in 1975. This case demonstrates the urban/rural conflict in a capitalist economy with preference given to the urban side. This proposed health program resulted in the urban communities receiving greater resources compared to the rural population. This result is attributed to lack of organization within the rural population. The final case examined was Nicaragua which in 1979 was socialist. The National Unified Health System was established by the Sandinistas and had 4 priorities: revolution defense, economy, education, and health. This movement by the Sandinistas addressed rural health problems and challenged the urban medical organization. Health care workers were trained to deliver more curative and preventative services. The Popular Health Councils in Nicaragua is unique; it provides discussion regarding the urban/rural conflict. A change in the Minister of Health also indicated concern for rural health care delivery. Nicaragua's health status also improved as a result of rural organization. From the 3 cases, it was

  19. The Timing of Family Formation: Rural-Urban Differentials in First Intercourse, Pregnancy, and Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Tim B.; And Others

    The timing of three key family formation events--first sexual intercourse, first conception, and first marriage--was compared for different levels of urbanization. The levels of urbanization considered were central cities, suburbs, nonmetropolitan urban places, and rural area. Data were taken from the National Survey of Family Growth, for which…

  20. Nonnative invasive plants: Maintaining biotic and soceioeconomic integrity along the urban-rural-natural gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia D. Huebner; David J. Nowak; Richard V. Pouyat; Allison R. Bodine

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we evaluate nonnative invasive plant species of the urban-rural-natural area gradient in order to reduce negative impacts of invasive plants on native species and ecosystems. This evaluation includes addressing (i) the concept of urban areas as the primary source of invasive plant species and characteristics of urban nonnative plants, including their...

  1. Urban-Rural Interdependence and the Impact of Climate Change in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Today, 39% of the African population lives in urban areas. Considering the current urbanization rate of 3.5% per annum, this proportion is expected to grow significantly, increasing the demand for food, shelter and social services in urban areas while putting pressure for increased food production on rural areas.

  2. Enlightenment from ancient Chinese urban and rural stormwater management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Che; Qiao, Mengxi; Wang, Sisi

    2013-01-01

    Hundreds of years ago, the ancient Chinese implemented several outstanding projects to cope with the changing climate and violent floods. Some of these projects are still in use today. These projects evolved from the experience and knowledge accumulated through the long coexistence of people with nature. The concepts behind these ancient stormwater management practices, such as low-impact development and sustainable drainage systems, are similar to the technology applied in modern stormwater management. This paper presents the cases of the Hani Terrace in Yunnan and the Fushou drainage system of Ganzhou in Jiangxi. The ancient Chinese knowledge behind these cases is seen in the design concepts and the features of these projects. These features help us to understand better their applications in the contemporary environment. In today's more complex environment, integrating traditional and advanced philosophy with modern technologies is extremely useful in building urban and rural stormwater management systems in China.

  3. Rural Transformation and the Emergence of Urban Centres in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazaro, Evelyne; Agergaard, Jytte; Larsen, Marianne Nylandsted

    that have been stimulated by Tanzanian market liberalizations and its long term effects on private enterprise. The paper is based on a study of four EUCs in Tanzania (Ilula, Igowole, Madizini and Kibaigwa) and seeks to answer three major research questions: 1) What economic and spatial trends, including...... as market places for sale of a dominant crop. In all four cases, new employment opportunities have been created in the value chain sequence of economic activities and the influx of migrant works have increased significantly. 3) How do migration and investments contribute to the consolidation of EUCs...... opportunities for investments and investors, of whom many are migrants. This development has been supported by structural changes within the EUCs making them important administrative and service centers. The paper ends by discussing how the intertwinement of rural transformation and urbanization processes form...

  4. Early Vocabulary Development in Rural and Urban Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Vogt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (short version into three languages spoken in Southern Mozambique. The tool was adapted to study vocabulary development among children of 12 to 25 months of age in two communities: a rural, monolingual Changana speaking community and an urban bilingual Ronga and Portuguese speaking community. We present a norming study carried out with the adaptation, as well as a validation study. The norming study revealed various predictors for reported expressive and receptive vocabulary size. These predictors include age, socioeconomic status, reported health problems, caregiving practices, and location. The validation of the CDI among a small sample in both communities shows positive correlations between the reported expressive vocabulary scores and children’s recorded word production. We conclude that the adapted CDI is useful for research purposes and could be used as a template for adaptations into other languages from similar cultures.

  5. Factors associated with physical growth of children during the first two years of life in rural and urban areas of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong Thu; Eriksson, Bo; Petzold, Max; Bondjers, Göran; Tran, Toan Khanh; Nguyen, Liem Thanh; Ascher, Henry

    2013-09-25

    Differences between urban and rural settings can be seen as a very important example of gaps between groups in a population. The aim of this paper is to compare an urban and a rural area regarding child growth during the first two years of life as related to mother's use of antenatal care (ANC), breastfeeding and reported symptoms of illness. The studies were conducted in two Health and Demographic Surveillance Sites, one rural and one urban in Hanoi, Vietnam. We found that children in the urban area grow faster than those in the rural area. There were statistical associations between growth and the education of the mother as well as household resources. There were positive correlations between the number of ANC visits and child growth. We also saw a positive association between growth and early initiation (first hour of life) of breastfeeding but the reported duration of exclusive breastfeeding was not statistically significantly related to growth. Reporting symptoms of illness was negatively correlated to growth, i.e. morbidity is hampering growth. All predictors of growth discussed in this article, ANC, breastfeeding and illness, are associated with social and economic conditions. To improve and maintain good conditions for child growth it is important to strengthen education of mothers and household resources particularly in the rural areas. Globalization and urbanization means obvious risks for increasing gaps not least between urban and rural areas. Improvement of the quality of programs for antenatal care, breastfeeding and integrated management of childhood illness are also needed in Vietnam.

  6. [Obesity, body morphology, and blood pressure in urban and rural population groups of Yucatan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Pedro; Fernández, Victoria; Loría, Alvar; Pardío, Jeannette; Laviada, Hugo; Vargas-Ancona, Lizardo; Ward, Ryk

    2007-01-01

    To characterize body morphology and blood pressure of adults of the Mexican state of Yucatan. Rural-urban differences in weight, height, waist, and hip circumferences, and blood pressure were analyzed in 313 urban and 271 rural subjects. No rural-urban differences in prevalence of obesity and overweight were found. Hypertension was marginally higher in urban subjects. Rural abnormal waist circumference was higher in young men and young women. Comparison with two national surveys and a survey in the aboriginal population (rural mixtecos) showed similar prevalence of obesity as ENSA-2000 and higher than mixtecos and ENEC-1993. Abnormal waist circumference was intermediate between ENSANUT-2006 and mixtecos and hypertension was intermediate between ENEC and mixtecos. The Maya and mestizo population of Yucatan showed a high prevalence of obesity and abnormal waist circumference not accompanied by a comparable higher hypertension frequency. This finding requires further confirmation.

  7. Dental caries experience in Mexican schoolchildren from rural and urban communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irigoyen, M E; Luengas, I F; Yashine, A; Mejía, A M; Maupomé, G

    2000-02-01

    To compare dental caries experience in Mexican rural and urban settings. Cross-sectional samples of schoolchildren. A school in Mexico City and a rural school in a remote area of the Oaxaca State in Southern Mexico. A total of 347, 9- to 10-year-old schoolchildren (rural area, 131 children; urban, 216) was examined by two standardised dentists using the WHO 1987 criteria. Data were analysed in terms of central tendency measures and 95 per cent confidence intervals. Caries prevalence was 91.6 per cent in the urban area, and 54.4 per cent in the rural area (P caries between rural and urban Mexican children. Dental treatment background also differs markedly. Findings highlight the need to establish distinct preventative and rehabilitative treatment strategies tailored to meet the specific needs of different population groups.

  8. Impact of rural urban migration on physical and social environment: The case of Dhaka city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momtaz Jahan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Rural urban migration is the principle component of rapid and unplanned growth of towns and cities in the developing countries. Gross disparities in socio-economic opportunity between urban and rural areas and frequent natural disasters in some regions encourage large flow of migrants from rural Bangladesh to the large cities. For various reasons Dhaka is an attractive destination for the rural migrants. Migration to Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh, is the focus of this article which identifies the factors contributing to the migration process. The impact of migration is diverse both at the urban destination and at the rural origin. At both ends there are economic, demographic, environmental and socio-cultural impacts. This paper focuses on the urban end. It examines the overall conditions of the underprivileged, poor migrants and the consequences of migration on the physical and social environment on their choice of destination.

  9. Flux-based Enrichment Ratios of Throughfall and Stemflow Found to Vary Significantly within Urban Fragments and Along an Urban-to-Rural Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowtin, A. L.; Levia, D. F., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Throughfall and stemflow are important inputs of water and solutes to forest soils in both rural and urban forests. In metropolitan wooded ecosystems, a number of factors can affect flux-based enrichment ratios, including combustion of fossil fuels and proximity to industry. Use of flux-based enrichment ratios provides a means by which this modification of net precipitation chemistry can be quantified for both throughfall and stemflow, and allows for a characterization of the relative contributions of stemflow and throughfall in the delivery of nutrients and pollutants to forest soils. This study utilizes five mixed deciduous forest stands along an urban-to-rural gradient (3 urban fragments, 1 suburban fragment, and a portion of 1 contiguous rural forest) within a medium-sized metropolitan region of the United States' Northeast megalopolis, to determine how the size, shape, structure, and geographic context of remnant forest fragments determine hydrologic and solute fluxes within them. In situ observations of throughfall and stemflow (the latter of which is limited to Quercus rubra and Quercus alba) within each study plot allow for an identification and characterization of the spatial variability in solute fluxes within and between the respective sites. Preliminary observations indicate significant intra-site variability in solute concentrations as observed in both throughfall and stemflow, with higher concentrations along the respective windward edges of the study plots than at greater depths into their interiors. Higher flux-based stemflow enrichment ratios, for both Q. rubra and Q. alba, were also evident for certain ions (i.e., S2-, NO3-) in the urban forest fragments, with significantly lower ratios observed at the suburban and rural sites. Findings from this research are intended to aid in quantifying the spatial variability of the hydrologic and hydrochemical ecosystem service provisions of remnant metropolitan forest fragments. This research is supported in

  10. Secular trends of obesity prevalence in Chinese children from 1985 to 2010: Urban-rural disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Ma, Jun; Wang, Hai-Jun; Wang, Zhiqiang; Hu, Peijin; Zhang, Bing; Agard, Anette

    2015-02-01

    To examine the trend of urban-rural disparity in obesity prevalence among Chinese children from 1985 to 2010. The data were from five cross-sectional surveys (1985, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010) of Chinese National Surveys on Students' Constitution and Health. Logistic regression was used to estimate the prevalence odds ratio (POR) of urban-rural areas for obesity prevalence in different surveys. The standardized prevalence of obesity in Chinese children increased rapidly from 0.1% in 1985 to 5.0% in 2010, and significant differences were found between two adjacent surveys in most of the age subgroups (Pobesity prevalence was significantly higher in urban than in rural children of all age subgroups at different survey points, the changing pace was faster in rural than in urban areas from 1995 to 2010. The PORs had increased in 1995 in most age subgroups and then began to decline in all age subgroups after 1995. The gradually decreasing urban-rural disparity suggests that the obesity prevalence in rural areas would contribute to a growing proportion of obese children. Therefore, rural children should be included in obesity prevention efforts even though obesity rates are still lower in rural than in urban areas. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  11. Determinants of under-five mortality in rural and urban Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettarh, R R; Kimani, J

    2012-01-01

    The disparity in under-five year-old mortality rates between rural and urban areas in Kenya (also reported in other in sub-Saharan African countries), is a critical national concern. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of geographical location and maternal factors on the likelihood of mortality among under-five children in rural and urban areas in Kenya. Data from the 2008-2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey were used to determine mortality among under-five children (n=16,162) in rural and urban areas in the 5 years preceding the survey. Multivariate analysis was used to compare the influence of key risk factors in rural and urban areas. Overall, the likelihood of death among under-five children in the rural areas was significantly higher than that in the urban areas (pdeterminants of under-five mortality differ in rural and urban areas in Kenya. Innovative and targeted strategies are required to address rural poverty and province-specific sociocultural factors in order to improve child survival in rural Kenya.

  12. Medicaid Expansion Under the Affordable Care Act and Insurance Coverage in Rural and Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Aparna; Hendryx, Michael; Simon, Kosali

    2017-04-01

    To analyze the differential rural-urban impacts of the Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansion on low-income childless adults' health insurance coverage. Using data from the American Community Survey years 2011-2015, we conducted a difference-in-differences regression analysis to test for changes in the probability of low-income childless adults having insurance in states that expanded Medicaid versus states that did not expand, in rural versus urban areas. Analyses employed survey weights, adjusted for covariates, and included a set of falsification tests as well as sensitivity analyses. Medicaid expansion under the Affordable Care Act increased the probability of Medicaid coverage for targeted populations in rural and urban areas, with a significantly greater increase in rural areas (P rural populations (P urban and rural low-income populations, and it specifically increased Medicaid coverage more in rural versus urban populations. There was some evidence that the expansion was accompanied by some shifting from individual purchased insurance to Medicaid in rural areas, and there is a need for future work to understand the implications of this shift on expenditures, access to care and utilization. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.

  13. Urban-rural disparities of child health and nutritional status in China from 1989 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Fang, Hai; Zhao, Zhong

    2013-07-01

    This paper analyzes urban-rural disparities of China's child health and nutritional status using the China Health and Nutrition Survey data from 1989 to 2006. We investigate degrees of health and nutritional disparities between urban and rural children in China as well as how such disparities have changed during the period 1989-2006. The results show that on average urban children have 0.29 higher height-for-age z-scores and 0.19 greater weight-for-age z-scores than rural children. Urban children are approximately 40% less likely to be stunted (OR=0.62; purban-rural health and nutritional disparities have been declining significantly from 1989 to 2006. Both urban and rural children have increased consumption of high protein and fat foods from 1989 to 2006, but the urban-rural difference decreased over time. Moreover, the urban-rural gap in child preventive health care access was also reduced during this period. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Delays in accessing electroconvulsive therapy: a comparison between two urban and two rural populations in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Natalie E

    2015-10-01

    A comparison of the timing, rates and characteristics of electroconvulsive therapy use between urban and rural populations. The medical records of patients who received an acute course of electroconvulsive therapy at two rural and two urban psychiatric hospitals in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, in 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Main outcome measures were the time from symptom onset, diagnosis and admission to commencing electroconvulsive therapy. Rates of use of electroconvulsive therapy were also compared between rural and urban hospitals using NSW statewide data. There was a significant delay in the time it took for rural patients to receive electroconvulsive therapy compared with urban patients when measured both from the time of symptom onset and from when they received a diagnosis. There were corresponding delays in the time taken for rural patients to be admitted to hospital compared with urban patients. There was no difference in the time it took to commence electroconvulsive therapy once a patient was admitted to hospital. NSW statewide urban-rural comparisons showed rates of electroconvulsive therapy treatment were significantly higher in urban hospitals. Patients in rural areas receive electroconvulsive therapy later in their acute illness due to delays in being admitted to hospital. The rate of use of electroconvulsive therapy also differs geographically. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  15. Rural-Urban Differences of Dietary Patterns, Overweight, and Bone Mineral Status in Chinese Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available China is an urban and rural social model country. In the past three decades, the developing speed of rural areas has been much slower than urban areas, which may lead to the differences in dietary patterns. This study aimed to investigate the disparities of dietary structures from urban and rural children, and to analyze the effects of different dietary patterns on their adverse outcome. Among 1590 students, aged 11 years to 17 years, from primary and middle schools, a cross-sectional study was conducted. There were three dietary patterns recognized: Westernization structure, meat diet structure, and Western and Chinese structure. Compared with rural students, more urban students were in the highest categories of the whole dietary patterns (p < 0.001. Overweight/obesity and central adiposity were more prevailing among urban students, while rural students had a more prevailing risk of bone fracture (p < 0.05. Through the adjustment for all confounding factors, the Westernization structure could increase the risk of overweight/obesity and central adiposity, the meat structure could increase the risk of elevated blood pressure/hypertension, while the risk of low bone mineral quality could be reduced by the Chinese and Western structure. In conclusion, a rural-urban disparity in dietary patterns was found in our study, and different dietary patterns were associated with the risk of some adverse outcomes. Therefore, there were different prevalences of the adverse outcomes between rural and urban students.

  16. Blood pressure patterns in rural, semi-urban and urban children in the Ashanti region of Ghana, West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyemang, Charles; Redekop, William K.; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Bruijnzeels, Marc A.

    2005-01-01

    High blood pressure, once rare, is rapidly becoming a major public health burden in sub-Saharan/Africa. It is unclear whether this is reflected in children. The main purpose of this study was to assess blood pressure patterns among rural, semi-urban, and urban children and to determine the

  17. Air pollution and decreased semen quality: a comparative study of Chongqing urban and rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Niya; Cui, Zhihong; Yang, Sanming; Han, Xue; Chen, Gangcai; Zhou, Ziyuan; Zhai, Chongzhi; Ma, Mingfu; Li, Lianbing; Cai, Min; Li, Yafei; Ao, Lin; Shu, Weiqun; Liu, Jinyi; Cao, Jia

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the association and effects of air pollution level on male semen quality in urban and rural areas, this study examines the outdoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrous dioxide (NO2) and semen quality outcomes for 1346 volunteers in both urban and rural areas in Chongqing, China. We found the urban area has a higher pollution level than the rural area, contrasted with better semen quality in the rural residents, especially for sperm morphology and computer assistant semen analysis (CASA) motility parameters. A multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrates that concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2 significantly and negatively are associated with normal sperm morphology percentage (P urban ambient air may account for worse semen quality in urban males. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Rural and urban primary care physician professional beliefs and quality improvement behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, Anne C; Hart, Gary; Campbell, Eric G

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated whether primary care physicians (PCPs) from urban and rural practices differ on attitudes and behaviors related to quality improvement (QI) activities, patient relationships, and professionalism/self-regulation. Data from a national survey that assessed physician attitudes and behaviors based on the Physician Charter on Medical Professionalism were used. Of the 1,891 survey respondents, N = 840 were PCPs (n = 274 family medicine (response rate = 67.5%); n = 257 general internal medicine (60.8%); and n = 309 pediatricians (72.7%)). Using Rural-Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) codes, PCPs were classified as urban and rural according to their practice ZIP code. A total of n = 691 physicians were urban and n = 127 rural. Attitudes regarding participating in QI did not differ by practice location; however, rural PCPs were more likely to have reviewed an other physician's records for QI than urban PCPs (65.6% vs 48.0%, P Rural physicians were more likely to agree that physicians should talk with their patients about the cost of care than urban PCPs (40.5% vs 29.2%, P = .02). While all PCPs endorsed attitudes regarding the importance of professional behaviors (eg, reporting impaired/incompetent colleagues, disclosing medical errors) at generally similar levels, their behaviors differed. More rural physicians had a personal knowledge of an impaired/incompetent physician than urban physicians (20.7% vs 12.7%, P = .02). PCPs from rural and urban areas share similar attitudes regarding the importance of participating in QI and fulfilling professional responsibilities. However, certain behaviors (eg, knowledge of impaired colleagues) do differ. These results should be confirmed in larger studies of rural PCPs. © 2014 National Rural Health Association.

  19. RURAL/URBAN RESIDENCE, ACCESS, AND PERCEIVED NEED FOR TREATMENT AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN COCAINE USERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    BORDERS, TYRONE F.; BOOTH, BRENDA M.; STEWART, KATHARINE E.; CHENEY, ANN M.; CURRAN, GEOFFREY M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine how rural/urban residence, perceived access, and other factors impede or facilitate perceived need for drug use treatment, a concept closely linked to treatment utilization. Study Design Two hundred rural and 200 urban African American cocaine users who were not receiving treatment were recruited via Respondent-Driven Sampling and completed a structured in-person interview. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to test the associations between perceived need and rural/urban residence, perceived access, and other predisposing (eg, demographics), enabling (eg, insurance), and health factors (eg, psychiatric distress). Principal Findings In bivariate analyses, rural relative to urban cocaine users reported lower perceived treatment need (37% vs 48%), availability, affordability, overall ease of access, and effectiveness, as well as lower perceived acceptability of residential, outpatient, self-help, and hospital-based services. In multivariate analyses, there was a significant interaction between rural/urban residence and the acceptability of religious counseling. At the highest level of acceptability, rural users had lower odds of perceived need (OR=.23); at the lowest level, rural users had higher odds of perceived need (OR=2.74) than urban users. Among rural users, the acceptability of religious counseling was negatively associated with perceived need (OR=.64). Ease of access was negatively associated (OR=.71) whereas local treatment effectiveness (OR=1.47) and the acceptability of hospital-based treatment (OR=1.29) were positively associated with perceived need among all users. Conclusions Our findings suggest rural/urban disparities in perceived need and access to drug use treatment. Among rural and urban cocaine users, improving perceptions of treatment effectiveness and expanding hospital-based services could promote treatment seeking. PMID:25213603

  20. Financial and Health Barriers and Caregiving-Related Difficulties Among Rural and Urban Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouldin, Erin D; Shaull, Lynn; Andresen, Elena M; Edwards, Valerie J; McGuire, Lisa C

    2017-09-23

    To assess whether financial or health-related barriers were more common among rural caregivers and whether rural caregivers experienced more caregiving-related difficulties than their urban peers. We used data from 7,436 respondents to the Caregiver Module in 10 states from the 2011-2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Respondents were classified as caregivers if they reported providing care to a family member or friend because of a long-term illness or disability. We classified respondents as living in a rural area if they lived outside of a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). We defined a financial barrier as having an annual household income health barrier as having multiple chronic health conditions, a disability, or fair or poor self-rated health. Rural caregivers more frequently had financial barriers than urban caregivers (38.1% vs 31.0%, P = .0001), but the prevalence of health barriers was similar (43.3% vs 40.6%, P = .18). After adjusting for demographic differences, financial barriers remained more common among rural caregivers. Rural caregivers were less likely than their urban peers to report that caregiving created any difficulty in both unadjusted and adjusted models (adjusted prevalence ratio = 0.90; P rural areas, face financial barriers. Rural caregivers were less likely than urban caregivers to report caregiving-related difficulties. Rural caregivers' coping strategies or skills in identifying informal supports may explain this difference, but additional research is needed to explore this hypothesis. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.

  1. Rural and urban Medicare beneficiaries use remarkably similar amounts of health care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensland, Jeffrey; Akamigbo, Adaeze; Glass, David; Zabinski, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    Medicare payment policies for rural health care providers are influenced by the assumption that the limited supply of physicians in rural areas causes rural Medicare beneficiaries to receive fewer health care services than their urban counterparts do. This assumption has contributed to the growth in special payments to rural providers. As a result, Medicare pays rural providers $3 billion more each year in special payments than they would receive under traditional payment rates. To test the validity of the assumption that rural beneficiaries systematically receive less care, we analyzed claims data for all Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries in 2008, stratified by rural/urban status and region. After adjusting for health status, we found no significant differences between rural and urban beneficiaries in either the amount of health care received or satisfaction with access to care. Although there were systematic differences in the amount of care used across regions of the country, there was very little difference within a region between rural and urban areas. To the extent that Medicare payment policies are designed to ensure access, they should be assessed on the basis of achieving similar service use rather than similar local physician supply. They should also be targeted to isolated rural providers needed to preserve access to care.

  2. Dietary intake and rural-urban migration in India: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza Bowen

    Full Text Available Migration from rural areas of India contributes to urbanisation and lifestyle change, and dietary changes may increase the risk of obesity and chronic diseases. We tested the hypothesis that rural-to-urban migrants have different macronutrient and food group intake to rural non-migrants, and that migrants have a diet more similar to urban non-migrants.The diets of migrants of rural origin, their rural dwelling sibs, and those of urban origin together with their urban dwelling sibs were assessed by an interviewer-administered semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. A total of 6,509 participants were included. Median energy intake in the rural, migrant and urban groups was 2731, 3078, and 3224 kcal respectively for men, and 2153, 2504, and 2644 kcal for women (p<0.001. A similar trend was seen for overall intake of fat, protein and carbohydrates (p<0.001, though differences in the proportion of energy from these nutrients were <2%. Migrant and urban participants reported up to 80% higher fruit and vegetable intake than rural participants (p<0.001, and up to 35% higher sugar intake (p<0.001. Meat and dairy intake were higher in migrant and urban participants than rural participants (p<0.001, but varied by region. Sibling-pair analyses confirmed these results. There was no evidence of associations with time in urban area.Rural to urban migration appears to be associated with both positive (higher fruit and vegetables intake and negative (higher energy and fat intake dietary changes. These changes may be of relevance to cardiovascular health and warrant public health interventions.

  3. Urban and rural factors associated with life satisfaction among older Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengbo; Chi, Iris; Zhang, Xu; Cheng, Zhaowen; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Gong

    2015-01-01

    This study compared urban and rural factors associated with life satisfaction among older adults in mainland China. Study data were extracted at random from 10% of the Sample Survey on Aged Population in urban/rural China in 2006 for 1980 participants aged 60 and older, including 997 from urban cities and 983 from rural villages. In this study, 54.6% of urban older adults and 44.1% of rural older adults reported satisfaction with their lives. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that financial strain, depressive symptoms, filial piety, and accessibility of health services were significantly associated with life satisfaction for both urban and rural participants, but age and financial exchange with children were only associated with life satisfaction among urban older adults. Findings are consistent with some previous studies that indicated the importance of financial strain, depressive symptoms, filial piety, and accessibility of health services to life satisfaction among the older adults in both urban and rural areas. This study also demonstrated the importance of age and family financial exchange to the life satisfaction of urban older adults.

  4. Choreographing Urbanisms: Site, Spatiality and Experimental Dance in Philadelphia

    OpenAIRE

    Vriend, Laura Duncan

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores the relationship between choreographic uses of space and social theories of space and urbanism in three site-specific choreographies in Philadelphia. Through in depth analysis of Headlong Dance Theater's Explanatorium, Nichole Canuso's Wandering Alice, and Kate Watson-Wallace's Car, I seek to understand how spaces and sites shape experimental dance in Philadelphia. By looking at how extant urban spatialities in Philadelphia shape choreography and how choreographies ...

  5. Southern Nevada residents' views about the Yucca Mountain high-level nuclear waste repository and related issues: A comparative analysis of urban and rural survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krannich, R.S.; Little, R.L.; Mushkatel, A.; Pijawka, K.D.; Jones, P.

    1991-10-01

    Two separate surveys were undertaken in 1988 to ascertain southern Nevadans' views about the Yucca Mountain repository and related issues. The first of these studies focused on the attitudes and perceptions of residents in the Las Vegas metropolitan area. The second study addressed similar issues, but focused on the views of residents in six rural communities in three counties adjacent to the Yucca Mountain site. However, parallel findings from the two data sets have not been jointly analyzed in order to identify ways in which the views and orientations of residents in the rural and urban study areas may be similar or different. The purpose of this report is to develop and present a comparative assessment of selected issues addressed in the rural and urban surveys. Because both urban and rural populations would potentially be impacted by the Yucca Mountain repository, such an analysis will provide important insights into possible repository impacts on the well-being of residents throughout southern Nevada

  6. Southern Nevada residents` views about the Yucca Mountain high-level nuclear waste repository and related issues: A comparative analysis of urban and rural survey data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krannich, R.S.; Little, R.L. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Mushkatel, A.; Pijawka, K.D.; Jones, P. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1991-10-01

    two separate surveys were undertaken in 1988 to ascertain southern Nevadans` views about the Yucca Mountain repository and related issues. The first of these studies focused on the attitudes and perceptions of residents in the Las Vegas metropolitan area. The second study addressed similar issues, but focused on the views of residents in six rural communities in three counties adjacent to the Yucca Mountain site. However, parallel findings from the two data sets have not been jointly analyzed in order to identify ways in which the views and orientations of residents in the rural and urban study areas may be similar or different. The purpose of this report is to develop and present a comparative assessment of selected issues addressed in the rural and urban surveys. Because both urban and rural populations would potentially be impacted by the Yucca Mountain repository, such an analysis will provide important insights into possible repository impacts on the well-being of residents throughout southern Nevada.

  7. Prevalence of uncorrected refractive error and other eye problems among urban and rural school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhye, Amruta S; Khandekar, Rajiv; Dharmadhikari, Sheetal; Dole, Kuldeep; Gogate, Parikshit; Deshpande, Madan

    2009-04-01

    Uncorrected refractive error is an avoidable cause of visual impairment. To compare the magnitude and determinants of uncorrected refractive error, such as age, sex, family history of refractive error and use of spectacles among school children 6-15 years old in urban and rural Maharashtra, India. This was a review of school-based vision screening conducted in 2004-2005. Optometrists assessed visual acuity, amblyopia and strabismus in rural children. Teachers assessed visual acuity and then optometrists confirmed their findings in urban schools. Ophthalmologists screened for ocular pathology. Data of uncorrected refractive error, amblyopia, strabismus and blinding eye diseases was analyzed to compare the prevalence and risk factors among children of rural and urban areas. We examined 5,021 children of 8 urban clusters and 7,401 children of 28 rural clusters. The cluster-weighted prevalence of uncorrected refractive error in urban and rural children was 5.46% (95% CI, 5.44-5.48) and 2.63% (95% CI, 2.62-2.64), respectively. The prevalence of myopia, hypermetropia and astigmatism in urban children was 3.16%, 1.06% and 0.16%, respectively. In rural children, the prevalence of myopia, hypermetropia and astigmatism was 1.45%, 0.39% and 0.21%, respectively. The prevalence of amblyopia was 0.8% in urban and 0.2% in rural children. Thirteen to 15 years old children attending urban schools were most likely to have uncorrected myopia. The prevalence of uncorrected refractive error, especially myopia, was higher in urban children. Causes of higher prevalence and barriers to refractive error correction services should be identified and addressed. Eye screening of school children is recommended. However, the approach used may be different for urban and rural school children.

  8. Rural-to-urban migration in Latin America: an update and thoughts on the model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, D L; Piperata, B A

    2004-01-01

    Urbanization is an important demographic phenomenon, and in Latin America it transformed the settlement pattern from rural to predominantly urban in less than 50 years. Understanding the biological consequences of this change in settlement pattern is an important challenge for human biologists. One approach to understanding the effects of urban environments on human biology has been to study rural-to-urban migrants. In Latin America this research has shown that 1) the fertility of migrants tends to be intermediate between that of rural and urban populations, and 2) migrants tend to suffer higher rates of mortality and morbidity, at least initially, than long-term urban residents. There is some indication that the actual physical conditions under which migrants live in urban areas-and these tend to be among the most impoverished-are more important variables than migrant status per se. Studying rural-to-urban migrants requires careful attention to a number of conceptual issues. One issue is the definition of rural and urban. These two types of settlements are no longer as distinct as they once were, and "urban" can mean very different things in different places. Another issue is the complexity of current migration patterns. The classic case of people moving from a distinctly rural setting to a distinctly urban one and staying there for the remainder of their lives is not the norm. Third, the urban environments of large cities are extraordinarily heterogeneous environments with enormous socioeconomic differentials in health. Hence, it matters where in the urban environment the migrants live. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Impact of rural health development programme in the Islamic Republic of Iran on rural-urban disparities in health indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajanian, A; Mehryar, A H; Ahmadnia, S; Kazemipour, S

    2007-01-01

    By 1979 50 years of uneven development and modernization by governments prior to the Islamic Revolution had left rural parts of the Islamic Republic of Iran with extremely low economic and health status. This paper reports on the impact of the rural health development programme implemented as an effective and inexpensive way to improve the heath of the rural population, especially mothers and children. It describes the system of rural health centres, health houses and community health workers (behvarz) and demonstrates the effectiveness of the programme through declining measures of rural-urban disparities in health indicators. The implications of inexpensive rural health policies for other countries in the region such as Afghanistan and Central Asian countries with a similar sociocultural structure are discussed.

  10. Intimate relationship status variations in violence against women: urban, suburban, and rural differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennison, Callie Marie; DeKeseredy, Walter S; Dragiewicz, Molly

    2013-11-01

    Woman abuse varies across intimate relationship categories (e.g., marriage, divorce, separation). However, it is unclear whether relationship status variations in violence against women differ across urban, suburban, and rural areas. We test the hypothesis that rural females, regardless of their intimate partner relationship status, are at higher risk of intimate violence than their urban and suburban counterparts. Results indicate that marital status is an important aspect of the relationship between intimate victimization and geographic area and that rural divorced and separated females are victimized at rates exceeding their urban counterparts.

  11. Urban-rural disparities of child health and nutritional status in China from 1989 to 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hong; Fang, Hai; Zhao, Zhong

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes urban–rural disparities of China’s child health and nutritional status using the China Health and Nutrition Survey data from 1989 to 2006. We investigate degrees of health and nutritional disparities between urban and rural children in China as well as how such disparities have changed during the period 1989–2006. The results show that on average urban children have 0.29 higher height-for-age z-scores and 0.19 greater weight-for-age z-scores than rural children. Urban chil...

  12. Urban-rural migration: uncertainty and the effect of a change in the minimum wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingene, C A; Yu, E S

    1989-01-01

    "This paper extends the neoclassical, Harris-Todaro model of urban-rural migration to the case of production uncertainty in the agricultural sector. A unique feature of the Harris-Todaro model is an exogenously determined minimum wage in the urban sector that exceeds the rural wage. Migration occurs until the rural wage equals the expected urban wage ('expected' due to employment uncertainty). The effects of a change in the minimum wage upon regional outputs, resource allocation, factor rewards, expected profits, and expected national income are explored, and the influence of production uncertainty upon the obtained results are delineated." The geographical focus is on developing countries. excerpt

  13. Transcending an Urban-Rural Divide: Rural Youth's Resistance to Townization and Schooling, a Case Study of a Middle School in Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jingjing

    2011-01-01

    Based on an ethnographic study in a rural middle school in Northwest China, the author explores how the transition of the rural countryside, specifically townization, has challenged the urban-rural dichotomy being reproduced in and by formal schooling. Rural students express criticism of the chaos, pollution, and corruption they have experienced…

  14. Rural Family Physicians Are Twice as Likely to Use Telehealth as Urban Family Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetty, Anuradha; Moore, Miranda A; Coffman, Megan; Petterson, Stephen; Bazemore, Andrew

    2018-04-01

    Telehealth has the potential to reduce health inequities and improve health outcomes among rural populations through increased access to physicians, specialists, and reduced travel time for patients. Although rural telehealth services have expanded in several specialized areas, little is known about the attitudes, beliefs, and uptake of telehealth use in rural American primary care. This study characterizes the differences between rural and urban family physicians (FPs), their perceptions of telehealth use, and barriers to further adoption. Nationally representative randomly sampled survey of 5,000 FPs. Among the 31.3% of survey recipients who completed the survey, 83% practiced in urban areas and 17% in rural locations. Rural FPs were twice as likely to use telehealth as urban FPs (22% vs. 10%). Logistic regressions showed rural FPs had greater odds of reporting telehealth use to connect their patients to specialists and to care for their patients. Rural FPs were less likely to identify liability concerns as a barrier to using telehealth. Telemedicine allows rural patients to see specialists without leaving their communities and permits rural FPs to take advantage of specialist expertise, expand their scope of practice, and reduce the feeling of isolation experienced by rural physicians. Efforts to raise awareness of current payment policies for telehealth services, addressing the limitations of current reimbursement policies and state regulations, and creating new avenues for telehealth reimbursement and technological investments are critical to increasing primary care physician use of telehealth services.

  15. Distribution and pollution, toxicity and risk assessment of heavy metals in sediments from urban and rural rivers of the Pearl River delta in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rong; Bai, Junhong; Huang, Laibin; Zhang, Honggang; Cui, Baoshan; Liu, Xinhui

    2013-12-01

    Sediments were collected from the upper, middle and lower reaches of both urban and rural rivers in a typical urbanization zone of the Pearl River delta. Six heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were analyzed in all sediment samples, and their spatial distribution, pollution levels, toxicity and ecological risk levels were evaluated to compare the characteristics of heavy metal pollution between the two rivers. Our results indicated that the total contents of the six metals in all samples exceeded the soil background value in Guangdong province. Based on the soil quality thresholds of the China SEPA, Cd levels at all sites exceeded class III criteria, and other metals exhibited pollution levels exceeding class II or III criteria at both river sites. According to the sediment quality guidelines of the US EPA, all samples were moderately to heavily polluted by Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. Compared to rural river sites, urban river sites exhibited heavier pollution. Almost all sediment samples from both rivers exhibited moderate to serious toxicity to the environment, with higher contributions from Cr and Ni. A "hot area" of heavy metal pollution being observed in the upper and middle reaches of the urban river area, whereas a "hot spot" was identified at a specific site in the middle reach of the rural river. Contrary metal distribution patterns were also observed along typical sediment profiles from urban and rural rivers. However, the potential ecological risk indices of rural river sediments in this study were equal to those of urban river sediments, implying that the ecological health issues of the rivers in the undeveloped rural area should also be addressed. Sediment organic matter and grain size might be important factors influencing the distribution profiles of these heavy metals.

  16. Degradation of rural and urban great tit song: testing transmission efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockford, Emily J; Marshall, Rupert C; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Acoustic signals play a fundamental role in avian territory defence and mate attraction. Several studies have now shown that spectral properties of bird song differ between urban and rural environments. Previously this has been attributed to competition for acoustic space as a result of low-frequency noise present in cities. However, the physical structure of urban areas may have a contributory effect. Here we investigate the sound degradation properties of woodland and city environments using both urban and rural great tit song. We show that although urban surroundings caused significantly less degradation to both songs, the transmission efficiency of rural song compared to urban song was significantly lower in the city. While differences between the two songs in woodland were generally minimal, some measures of the transmission efficiency of rural song were significantly lower than those of urban song, suggesting additional benefits to singing rural songs in this setting. In an attempt to create artificial urban song, we mimicked the increase in minimum frequency found several times previously in urban song. However, this did not replicate the same transmission properties as true urban song, suggesting changes in other song characteristics, such as temporal adjustments, are needed to further increase transmission of an avian signal in the city. We suggest that the structure of the acoustic environment, in addition to the background noise, plays an important role in signal adaptation.

  17. Degradation of rural and urban great tit song: testing transmission efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J Mockford

    Full Text Available Acoustic signals play a fundamental role in avian territory defence and mate attraction. Several studies have now shown that spectral properties of bird song differ between urban and rural environments. Previously this has been attributed to competition for acoustic space as a result of low-frequency noise present in cities. However, the physical structure of urban areas may have a contributory effect. Here we investigate the sound degradation properties of woodland and city environments using both urban and rural great tit song. We show that although urban surroundings caused significantly less degradation to both songs, the transmission efficiency of rural song compared to urban song was significantly lower in the city. While differences between the two songs in woodland were generally minimal, some measures of the transmission efficiency of rural song were significantly lower than those of urban song, suggesting additional benefits to singing rural songs in this setting. In an attempt to create artificial urban song, we mimicked the increase in minimum frequency found several times previously in urban song. However, this did not replicate the same transmission properties as true urban song, suggesting changes in other song characteristics, such as temporal adjustments, are needed to further increase transmission of an avian signal in the city. We suggest that the structure of the acoustic environment, in addition to the background noise, plays an important role in signal adaptation.

  18. Türkiye’de Kentten - Köye Göç Olgusu = The Phenomenon of the Urban - Rural Migration in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertuğrul GÜREŞÇİ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, causes and results of the urban-rural migration phenomena were evaluated. The relationship between urban-rural migration and rural-urban migration were determined taking them simultaneously. The significant result of study was that that the urban-rural migration stemmed from social changes taking part in Turkey.

  19. Receipt of preventive counseling among reproductive-aged women in rural and urban communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall-Hosenfeld, Jennifer S; Weisman, Carol S

    2011-01-01

    Preventive health interventions often occur less frequently among rural women compared to urban women. Preventive counseling is an important feature of comprehensive preventive healthcare provision, but geographic disparities in the receipt of preventive counseling services have not been fully described. In this study the framework of the behavioral model of healthcare utilization was employed to investigate the association between rurality and receiving preventive counseling. It was hypothesized that demographic differences in rural and urban communities, as well as differential healthcare resources, explain rural-urban healthcare disparities in preventive counseling. Data were collected by telephone survey during 2004-2005 for 2002 participants aged 18-45 years in the Central Pennsylvania Women's Health Study. Measures of preventive counseling were based on US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations as of 2004. Multivariable models assessed the independent contribution of rurality to the receipt of counseling for smoking, alcohol/drug use, birth control, nutrition, weight management, and physical activity. Rurality was assessed using Rural-Urban Community Area Codes. All models controlled for variables that predispose individuals to use health services (age, race/ethnicity, educational level), variables that enable or impede healthcare access (having a usual healthcare provider, using an obstetrician-gynecologist, poverty, and continuous health insurance coverage) and need-based variables (health behaviors and indicators). In bivariate analysis, the rural population was older, had lower educational attainment, and was more likely to be White, non-Hispanic. Urban women tended to report seeing an obstetrician-gynecologist more frequently, and engaged more frequently in binge drinking/drug use. Preventive counseling was low among both rural and urban women, and ranged from 12% of the population for alcohol/drug use counseling, to 37% for diet or nutrition

  20. Population-based incidence of typhoid fever in an urban informal settlement and a rural area in Kenya: implications for typhoid vaccine use in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert F Breiman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High rates of typhoid fever in children in urban settings in Asia have led to focus on childhood immunization in Asian cities, but not in Africa, where data, mostly from rural areas, have shown low disease incidence. We set out to compare incidence of typhoid fever in a densely populated urban slum and a rural community in Kenya, hypothesizing higher rates in the urban area, given crowding and suboptimal access to safe water, sanitation and hygiene. METHODS: During 2007-9, we conducted population-based surveillance in Kibera, an urban informal settlement in Nairobi, and in Lwak, a rural area in western Kenya. Participants had free access to study clinics; field workers visited their homes biweekly to collect information about acute illnesses. In clinic, blood cultures were processed from patients with fever or pneumonia. Crude and adjusted incidence rates were calculated. RESULTS: In the urban site, the overall crude incidence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi bacteremia was 247 cases per 100,000 person-years of observation (pyo with highest rates in children 5-9 years old (596 per 100,000 pyo and 2-4 years old (521 per 100,000 pyo. Crude overall incidence in Lwak was 29 cases per 100,000 pyo with low rates in children 2-4 and 5-9 years old (28 and 18 cases per 100,000 pyo, respectively. Adjusted incidence rates were highest in 2-4 year old urban children (2,243 per 100,000 pyo which were >15-fold higher than rates in the rural site for the same age group. Nearly 75% of S. Typhi isolates were multi-drug resistant. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic urban slum and rural comparison showed dramatically higher typhoid incidence among urban children <10 years old with rates similar to those from Asian urban slums. The findings have potential policy implications for use of typhoid vaccines in increasingly urban Africa.

  1. Appreciating Site-Specific Qualities in Urban Harbours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    When “site-specificity” becomes a central value in city and harbor transformation, it soon proves necessary to address the ways in which scholars and professionals actually determine site-specific qualities in urban fabrics and social life. This paper delves into the above questions by means of o...... of site-specificity, even in the traditional harbor settings. Considered with conceptual care, such situations may teach us what it means to “appreciate site-specific qualities”....

  2. Differences in Family Planning Services by Rural-urban Geography: Survey of Title X-Supported Clinics In Great Plains and Midwestern States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Summer L; Starr, Katherine A; Hellerstedt, Wendy L; Gilliam, Melissa L

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the nature of rural-urban variation in U.S. family planning services would help address disparities in unmet contraceptive need. In 2012, some 558 Title X-supported clinics in 16 Great Plains and Midwestern states were surveyed. Rural-urban commuting area (RUCA) codes were used to categorize clinic locations as urban, large rural city, small rural town or isolated small rural town. Bivariate analyses examined key domains of service provision by RUCA category and clinic type. The proportion of clinics offering walk-in appointments was lower in isolated small rural towns (47%) than in the other RUCA categories (67-73%). Results were similar for sites that do not specialize in family planning or reproductive health, but no variation was seen among specialty clinics. Overall, availability of evening or weekend appointments varied in a linear fashion, falling from 73% in urban areas to 29% in isolated small rural towns. On-site provision of most hormonal methods was most common in urban areas and least common in isolated small rural towns, while provision of nonhormonal methods was similar across RUCA categories. Sixty percent of clinics provided IUDs or implants. For clinics that did not, the only barriers that varied geographically were low IUD demand and lack of trained IUD providers; these barriers were most common in isolated rural towns (42% and 70%, respectively). While important characteristics, such as clinics' specialization (or lack thereof), are linked to the provision of family planning services, geographic disparities exist. Copyright © 2016 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  3. Examining Rural/Urban Differences in Prescription Opioid Misuse Among US Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnat, Shannon M; Rigg, Khary K

    2016-01-01

    This study examines differences in prescription opioid misuse (POM) among adolescents in rural, small urban, and large urban areas of the United States and identifies several individual, social, and community risk factors contributing to those differences. We used nationally representative data from the 2011 and 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health and estimated binary logistic regression and formal mediation models to assess past-year POM among 32,036 adolescents aged 12-17. Among adolescents, 6.8% of rural, 6.0% of small urban, and 5.3% of large urban engaged in past-year POM. Net of multiple risk and protective factors, rural adolescents have 35% greater odds and small urban adolescents have 21% greater odds of past-year POM compared to large urban adolescents. The difference between rural and small urban adolescents was not significant. Criminal activity, lower perceived substance use risk, and greater use of emergency medical treatment partially contribute to higher odds among rural adolescents, but they are also partially buffered by less peer substance use, less illicit drug access, and stronger religious beliefs. Researchers, policy makers, and treatment providers must consider the complex array of individual, social, and community risk and protective factors to understand rural/urban differences in adolescent POM. Potential points of intervention to prevent POM in general and reduce rural disparities include early education about addiction risks, use of family drug courts to link criminal offenders to treatment, and access to nonemergency medical services to reduce rural residents' reliance on emergency departments where opioid prescribing is more likely. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  4. The nurse work environment, job satisfaction and turnover rates in rural and urban nursing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baernholdt, Marianne; Mark, Barbara A

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether there are differences in hospital characteristics, nursing unit characteristics, the nurse work environment, job satisfaction and turnover rates in rural and urban nursing units. Research in urban hospitals has found an association between the nurse work environment and job satisfaction and turnover rates, but this association has not been examined in rural hospitals. Rural and urban nursing units were compared in a national random sample of 97 United States hospitals (194 nursing units) with between 99 and 450 beds. Significant differences were found between hospital and nursing unit characteristics and the nurse work environment in rural and urban nursing units. Both nursing unit characteristics and the work environment were found to have a significant influence on nurse job satisfaction and turnover rates. Job satisfaction and turnover rates in rural and urban nursing units are associated with both nursing unit characteristics and the work environment. Both rural and urban hospitals can improve nurse job satisfaction and turnover rates by changing unit characteristics, such as creating better support services and a work environment that supports autonomous nursing practice. Rural hospitals can also improve the work environment by providing nurses with more educational opportunities.

  5. Built Environment and Active Commuting: Rural-Urban Differences in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jessie X; Wen, Ming; Wan, Neng

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate rural-urban differences in participation rates in three modes of active commuting (AC) and their built environmental correlates. The 2010 Census supplemented with other datasets were used to analyze AC rates in percent of workers age 16+ walking, biking, or taking public transportation to work in 70,172 Census tracts, including 12,844 rural and 57,328 urban. Random-intercept factional logit regressions were used to account for zero-inflated data and for clustering of tracts within counties. We found that the average AC rates were 3.44% rural and 2.77% urban (pwalking to work, 0.40% rural and 0.58% urban (pwalking to work. Others had opposite correlational directions for rural vs. urban, such as street connectivity for walking to work and population density for both walking to work and public transportation to work. We concluded that rurality is an important moderator in AC-environment relationships. In developing strategies to promote AC, attention needs to be paid to rural-urban differences to avoid unintended consequences.

  6. Rural to urban migration is an unforeseen impact of development intervention in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Mhairi A; Gurmu, Eshetu

    2012-01-01

    Rural development initiatives across the developing world are designed to improve community well-being and livelihoods. However they may also have unforeseen consequences, in some cases placing further demands on stretched public services. In this paper we use data from a longitudinal study of five Ethiopian villages to investigate the impact of a recent rural development initiative, installing village-level water taps, on rural to urban migration of young adults. Our previous research has identified that tap stands dramatically reduced child mortality, but were also associated with increased fertility. We demonstrate that the installation of taps is associated with increased rural-urban migration of young adults (15-30 years) over a 15 year period (15.5% migrate out, n = 1912 from 1280 rural households). Young adults with access to this rural development intervention had three times the relative risk of migrating to urban centres compared to those without the development. We also identify that family dynamics, specifically sibling competition for limited household resources (e.g. food, heritable land and marriage opportunities), are key to understanding the timing of out-migration. Birth of a younger sibling doubled the odds of out-migration and starting married life reduced it. Rural out-migration appears to be a response to increasing rural resource scarcity, principally competition for agricultural land. Strategies for livelihood diversification include education and off-farm casual wage-labour. However, jobs and services are limited in urban centres, few migrants send large cash remittances back to their families, and most return to their villages within one year without advanced qualifications. One benefit for returning migrants may be through enhanced social prestige and mate-acquisition on return to rural areas. These findings have wide implications for current understanding of the processes which initiate rural-to-urban migration and transitions to low

  7. Comparisons of urban and rural heat stress conditions in a hot–humid tropical city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Balogun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years the developing world, much of which is located in the tropical countries, has seen dramatic growth of its urban population associated with serious degradation of environmental quality. Climate change is producing major impacts including increasing temperatures in these countries that are considered to be most vulnerable to the impact of climate change due to inadequate public health infrastructure and low income status. However, relevant information and data for informed decision making on human health and comfort are lacking in these countries. Objective: The aim of this paper is to study and compare heat stress conditions in an urban (city centre and rural (airport environments in Akure, a medium-sized tropical city in south-western Nigeria during the dry harmattan season (January–March of 2009. Materials and methods: We analysed heat stress conditions in terms of the mean hourly values of the thermohygrometric index (THI, defined by simultaneous in situ air temperature and relative humidity measurements at both sites. Results: The urban heat island (UHI exists in Akure as the city centre is warmer than the rural airport throughout the day. However, the maximum UHI intensity occurs at night between 1900 and 2200 hours local time. Hot conditions were predominant at both sites, comfortable conditions were only experienced in the morning and evenings of January at both sites, but the rural area has more pleasant morning and evenings and less of very hot and torrid conditions. January has the lowest frequency of hot and torrid conditions at both sites, while March and February has the highest at the city centre and the airport, respectively. The higher frequencies of high temperatures in the city centre suggest a significant heat stress and health risk in this hot humid environment of Akure. Conclusions: More research is needed to achieve better understanding of the seasonal variation of indoor and outdoor heat stress

  8. Variability of Ozone, OX and NOx in Rural and Urban Areas in Marmara Region of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparoǧlu, Sabin; İncecik, Selahattin; Topçu, H. Sema

    2017-04-01

    Marmara region is located in northwest of Turkey and it is bordered by Greece and the Aegean Sea to the west, and Bulgaria, the Black Sea to the north covers about 11,000 km2. Sea of Marmara is located at the center of the region. The region has the largest population in Turkey with about 23 million inhabitants. It is Turkey's main industrial region and It is the territory which is provided by a quarter of the Turkish economy. Moreover, the region is economically the most developed area of Turkey. Its agricultural potential is very rich. For example, about 73% of the sunflower production and 30 % of corn production of Turkey is done in this region. The aim of the study is to assess the spatial and temporal variations in O3, NO, and NO2 in Marmara region of Turkey based on the analysis of hourly concentrations collected at 22 monitoring stations (7 rural and 15 urban) over three years (2013-2016). This is the first study in the region. In this way possible reasons of the results will be useful in the design of control strategies for photochemical pollution in this region. For this purpose, diurnal variations of NOx, O3 and OX were examined for rural and urban sites. The total levels of oxidant (OX) which are considered to be sum of O3 and NO2 were determined. In rural sites, NOx concentrations are generally lower than at urban and polluted sites of Marmara region. We found that usually O3 peak time in rural areas are occurred at around 15:00 LST while mean peak values vary between 70-85 µg/m3. The highest mean concentrations of NO were also observed at 09:00 LST around 35-50 µg/m3 in rural areas while varies at the highest at around 75-85 µg/m3 in polluted sites. Due to the NOx -dependent contribution corresponds to local production of ozone and the NOx -independent contribution corresponds to regional concentrations, we examined OX versus NOx for daytime (10:00-18:00LST) and nighttime (19:00-09:00LST)periods to understand the contaminants of NOx from local

  9. Comparison of domestic violence against women in urban versus rural areas of southeast Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajah LO

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Leonard Ogbonna Ajah,1,2 Chukwuemeka Anthony Iyoke,1 Peter Onubiwe Nkwo,1 Boniface Nwakoby,3 Paul Ezeonu2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria; 3Department of Community Medicine, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria Background: The perception and prevalence of domestic violence (DV in rural areas is poorly understood; the result is that most efforts at eradicating this harmful practice are concentrated in urban areas. The objective of the study was to compare the burden and perception of DV among women living in rural and urban Igbo communities of southeast Nigeria. Methods: This was a comparative, cross-sectional study of women residing in rural and urban communities in Enugu, Nigeria, who had gathered for an annual religious meeting from August 1–7, 2011. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics and was conducted with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, software version 17.0, at a 95% level of confidence. Results: A total of 836 women who met the eligibility criteria participated in the survey. Of these, 376 were from Okpanku, a rural community, while 460 were from Ogui Nike, an urban community. The prevalence of DV among rural women was significantly higher than that among urban women (97% versus 81%, P<0.001. In particular, the prevalence of physical violence was significantly higher among rural women than among urban women (37.2% versus 23.5%; P=0.05. In contrast, rural and urban women did not differ significantly in the proportions that had experienced psychological or sexual violence. The proportion of women who believed that DV was excusable was significantly higher among rural dwellers than among urban dwellers (58.5% versus 29.6%; P=0.03. Conclusion: The burden of DV against women may be higher in rural

  10. Widening rural-urban disparities in youth suicides, United States, 1996-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanella, Cynthia A; Hiance-Steelesmith, Danielle L; Phillips, Gary S; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Lester, Natalie; Sweeney, Helen Anne; Campo, John V

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about recent trends in rural-urban disparities in youth suicide, particularly sex- and method-specific changes. Documenting the extent of these disparities is critical for the development of policies and programs aimed at eliminating geographic disparities. To examine trends in US suicide mortality for adolescents and young adults across the rural-urban continuum. Longitudinal trends in suicide rates by rural and urban areas between January 1, 1996, and December 31, 2010, were analyzed using county-level national mortality data linked to a rural-urban continuum measure that classified all 3141 counties in the United States into distinct groups based on population size and adjacency to metropolitan areas. The population included all suicide decedents aged 10 to 24 years. Rates of suicide per 100,000 persons. Across the study period, 66,595 youths died by suicide, and rural suicide rates were nearly double those of urban areas for both males (19.93 and 10.31 per 100,000, respectively) and females (4.40 and 2.39 per 100,000, respectively). Even after controlling for a wide array of county-level variables, rural-urban suicide differentials increased over time for males, suggesting widening rural-urban disparities (1996-1998: adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.98; 2008-2010: adjusted IRR, 1.19; difference in IRR, P = .02). Firearm suicide rates declined, and the rates of hanging/suffocation for both males and females increased. However, the rates of suicide by firearm (males: 1996-1998, 2.05; and 2008-2010: 2.69 times higher) and hanging/suffocation (males: 1996-1998, 1.24; and 2008-2010: 1.63 times higher) were disproportionately higher in rural areas, and rural-urban differences increased over time (P = .002 for males; P = .06 for females). Suicide rates for adolescents and young adults are higher in rural than in urban communities regardless of the method used, and rural-urban disparities appear to be increasing over time. Further

  11. Perceived ease of access to alcohol, tobacco and other substances in rural and urban US students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jacob C; Smalley, K Bryant; Barefoot, K Nikki

    2015-01-01

    Ease of access to substances has been shown to have a direct and significant relationship with substance use for school-aged children. Previous research involving rural samples of middle and high school students reveals that perceived ease of access to substances is a significant predictor of recent use among rural adolescents; however, it is unclear if perceived access to substances varies between rural and urban areas. The purpose of the present study was to examine rural-urban differences in perceived ease of access to alcohol, smoking and chewing tobacco, marijuana, and seven other substances in the US state of Georgia in order to better inform and promote future substance use prevention and programming efforts in rural areas. Data were analyzed from the 2013 Georgia Student Health Survey II, administered in all public and interested private/charter schools in the state of Georgia. A total of 513 909 students (18.2% rural) indicated their perceived ease of access to 11 substances on a four-point Likert-type scale. Rural-urban differences were investigated using χ2 analysis. In general, it appeared the rural-urban differences fell along legal/illicit lines. For middle school students, a significant difference in perceived ease of access was found for each substance, with rural students reporting greater access to smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco, and steroids, and urban students reporting greater access to alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, inhalants, ecstasy, methamphetamine, hallucinogens, and prescription drugs. Rural high school students reported higher access to alcohol, smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco, and steroids, with urban students reporting higher access to marijuana, cocaine, inhalants, ecstasy, and hallucinogens. Perceptions of ease of access more than doubled for each substance in both geographies between middle and high school. The present study found multiple and fairly consistent differences between rural and urban students' perceived ease of access

  12. Rural-Urban Differences in Escape Behavior of European Birds across a Latitudinal Gradient

    OpenAIRE

    Samia, Diogo S. M.; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Díaz, Mario; Grim, Tomas; Ibáñez-Álamo, Juan Diego; Jokimäki, Jukka; Tätte, Kunter; Markó, Gábor; Tryjanowski, Piotr; Møller, Anders Pape

    2017-01-01

    Behavioral adjustment is a key factor that facilitates species’ coexistence with humans in a rapidly urbanizing world. Because urban animals often experience reduced predation risk compared to their rural counterparts, and because escape behavior is energetically costly, we expect that urban environments will select for increased tolerance to humans. Many studies have supported this expectation by demonstrating that urban birds have reduced flight initiation distance (FID = pre...

  13. A prediction of the trend of population development in urban and rural areas in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y

    1998-01-01

    This study predicts trends in population growth, urbanization, and age structure in China. Data were obtained from the 1990 Census. Population totaled 1.22 billion at the end of 1996. The fertility model predicts future fertility by variant and parity; parameters are provided in a table. High, medium, and low fertility variants, respectively, are based on the total regressive fertility rates (TRFR) of 2.23, 1.9, and 1.6. The medium variant assumes 2 children in rural areas. The low variant is ideal and assumes no third parity in rural areas. Urbanization means an annual average increase of 0.5% after 1996 at pace I and 0.8% at pace II. Urban population will be 57.8% of total population by 2050. Under these three variants, population size in 2000 will be 898 million in rural and 403 million in urban areas, 869 million in rural and 400 million in urban areas, and 856 million in rural and 398 million in urban areas, respectively. Population will peak at 1.7 billion in 2050, at 1.48 billion in 2033, and at 1.38 billion in 2023, respectively. During the period 2000-2020, about 10-14 million rural migrants will move to urban areas; 10 million will move thereafter. The elderly aged over 60 years will reach 7% by 2000 and 20% by 2040. Rural population will age faster than urban population. The working age population will reach 775 million in 2000, peak at 868 million in 2016, and will always be over 60% of total population. School-age population will amount to over 300 million by 2030. Young population will always be more than 25% in rural areas, which is nearly 17 percentage points higher than in urban areas.

  14. Seizures, cysticercosis and rural-to-urban migration: the PERU MIGRANT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Isidro; Miranda, J Jaime; Rodriguez, Silvia; Vargas, Victor; Cjuno, Alfredo; Smeeth, Liam; Gonzalez, Armando E; Tsang, Victor C W; Gilman, Robert H; Garcia, Hector H

    2015-04-01

    To examine the prevalence of seizures, epilepsy and seropositivity to cysticercosis in rural villagers (cysticercosis-endemic setting), rural-to-urban migrants into a non-endemic urban shanty town and urban inhabitants of the same non-endemic shanty town. Three Peruvian populations (n = 985) originally recruited into a study about chronic diseases and migration were studied. These groups included rural inhabitants from an endemic region (n = 200), long-term rural-to-urban migrants (n = 589) and individuals living in the same urban setting (n = 196). Seizure disorders were detected by a survey, and a neurologist examined positive respondents. Serum samples from 981/985 individuals were processed for cysticercosis antibodies on immunoblot. Epilepsy prevalence (per 1000 people) was 15.3 in the urban group, 35.6 in migrants and 25 in rural inhabitants. A gradient in cysticercosis antibody seroprevalence was observed: urban 2%, migrant 13.5% and rural group 18% (P < 0.05). A similarly increasing pattern of higher seroprevalence was observed among migrants by age at migration. In rural villagers, there was strong evidence of an association between positive serology and having seizures (P = 0.011) but such an association was not observed in long-term migrants or in urban residents. In the entire study population, compared with seronegative participants, those with strong antibody reactions (≥ 4 antibody bands) were more likely to have epilepsy (P < 0.001). It is not only international migration that affects cysticercosis endemicity; internal migration can also affect patterns of endemicity within an endemic country. The neurological consequences of cysticercosis infection likely outlast the antibody response for years after rural-to-urban migration. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Variation in pediatric and adolescent firearm mortality rates in rural and urban US counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Michael L; Carr, Brendan G; Kallan, Michael J; Branas, Charles C; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2010-06-01

    We examined whether firearm mortality rates among children varied across US counties along a rural-urban continuum. US vital statistics data were accessed for all pediatric (age: 0-19 years) firearm deaths from 1999 through 2006. Deaths were analyzed according to a modified rural-urban continuum code (based on population size and proximity to metropolitan areas) assigned to each county (3141 counties). In the 8-year study period, there were 23649 pediatric firearm deaths (15190 homicides, 7082 suicides, and 1377 unintentional deaths). Pediatric nonfirearm mortality rates were significantly higher in the most-rural counties (adjusted rate ratio: 1.36 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13-1.64]), compared with the most-urban counties. The most-rural counties demonstrated virtually identical pediatric firearm mortality rates (adjusted rate ratio: 0.91 [95% CI: 0.63-1.32]), compared with the most-urban counties. The most-rural counties had higher rates of pediatric firearm suicide (adjusted rate ratio: 2.01 [95% CI: 1.43-2.83]) and unintentional firearm death (adjusted rate ratio: 2.19 [95% CI: 1.27-3.77]), compared with the most-urban counties. Pediatric firearm homicides rates were significantly higher in the most-urban counties (adjusted rate ratio: 3.69 [95% CI: 2.00-6.80]), compared with the most-rural counties. Children in the most-rural US counties had firearm mortality rates that were statistically indistinguishable from those for children in the most-urban counties. This finding reflects a greater homicide rate in urban counties counterbalanced by greater suicide and unintentional firearm death rates in rural counties. Nonfirearm mortality rates were significantly greater outside the most-urban US counties.

  16. The rural - urban divide in ambulatory care of gastrointestinal diseases in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Tseng, Yen-Han; Chen, Yi-Chun; Lin, Ming-Hwai; Chou, Li-Fang; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Hwang, Shinn-Jang

    2013-03-08

    The utilization of medical care for gastrointestinal diseases increased over the past decade worldwide. The aim of the study was to investigate the difference between rural and urban patients in seeking medical service for gastrointestinal diseases at ambulatory sector in Taiwan. From the one-million-people cohort datasets of the National Health Insurance Research Database, the utilization of ambulatory visits for gastrointestinal diseases in 2009 was analyzed. Rural patients were compared with urban and suburban patients as to diagnosis, locality of visits and choice of specialists. Among 295,056 patients who had ambulatory visits for gastrointestinal diseases in 2009, rural patients sought medical care for gastrointestinal diseases more frequently than urban and suburban patients (1.60 ± 3.90 vs. 1.17 ± 3.02 and 1.39 ± 3.47). 83.4% of rural patients with gastrointestinal diseases were treated by non-gastroenterologists in rural areas. Rural people had lower accessibility of specialist care, especially for hepatitis, esophageal disorders and gastroduodenal ulcer. The rural-urban disparity of medical care for gastrointestinal diseases in Taiwan highlighted the importance of the well communication between rural physicians and gastroenterologists. Besides the establishment of the referral system, the medical teleconsultation system and the arrangement of specialist outreach clinics in rural areas might be helpful.

  17. Smoking among young rural to urban migrant women in China: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xia; Shin, Sanghyuk S; Wang, Qian; Raymond, H Fisher; Liu, Huilin; Ding, Ding; Yang, Gonghuan; Novotny, Thomas E

    2011-01-01

    Rural-to-urban migrant women may be vulnerable to smoking initiation as they are newly exposed to risk factors in the urban environment. We sought to identify correlates of smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women in China. A cross-sectional survey of rural-to-urban migrant women working in restaurants and hotels (RHW) and those working as commercial sex workers (CSW) was conducted in ten provincial capital cities in China. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to identify correlates of smoking. We enrolled 2229 rural-to-urban migrant women (1697 RHWs aged 18-24 years and 532 CSWs aged 18-30 years). Of these, 18.4% RHWs and 58.3% CSWs reported ever tried smoking and 3.2% RHWs and 41.9% CSWs reported current smoking. Participants who first tried smoking after moving to the city were more likely to be current smokers compared to participants who first tried smoking before moving to the city (25.3% vs. 13.8% among RHWs, p = 0.02; 83.6% vs. 58.6% among CSWs, p = smoking (OR 5.69, 95%CI 3.44 to 9.41) among participants who had ever tried smoking. Exposure to female cigarette brands may increase the susceptibility to smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women. Smoke-free policies and increased taxes may be effective in preventing rural-to-urban migrant women from smoking initiation.

  18. Shea (Vitellaria paradoxa Butter Production and Resource Use by Urban and Rural Processors in Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfred Seidu Jasaw

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the use of field experimentation in presenting an account of input inventory, material quantities, and the process flow for shea butter production in Ghana. The shea fruit is a non-timber forest product (NTFP that is indigenous to ecosystems in semi-arid regions of Africa. Current methods and equipment for processing shea kernel into butter impose a dilemma of excessive harvesting of fuel wood for heating and the use of large quantities of water. Thus, the nature of input requirement and production process presents implications for conflict over natural resource use and for sustainability as more processing takes place. Material flow analysis was applied to the data generated from the processing experiments. The outcome was discussed in focus group discussion sessions and individual interviews as a way of data triangulation to validate study parameters. Results from this experiment showed that the quantity of water used in urban processing sites was higher than that used in rural sites. On the other hand, fuel wood use and labor expended were found to be higher in rural sites per unit processing cycle. The nature of the processing equipment, accessibility to input resources, and target market for shea butter were key determinants of the varying resource quantities used in the production process.

  19. Characteristics and sources of aerosol pollution at a polluted rural site southwest in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yang; Wang, Shuxiao; Jiang, Jingkun; Zhou, Wei; Xu, Qingcheng; Li, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Baoxian; Zhang, Dawei; Zheng, Mei

    2018-06-01

    Annual average PM 2.5 concentration in south Beijing was 30% and 40% higher than the whole Beijing city in 2015 and 2016, respectively. Few studies have been conducted to investigate what leads to the characteristics and sources of heavy pollution in the south rural area of Beijing. This study conducted an observation with Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) at a southwest rural site (Liulihe) in Beijing during 2014-2016, to investigate the seasonal aerosol characteristics and their sources. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) algorithm was used to distinguish different components of organic aerosol measured by ACSM. Biomass burning is an important pollution source, mainly due to the open burning after harvest season in autumn, regional transport in spring, and local residential biofuel use in winter. Coal consumption is the largest primary organic aerosol source in winter. Heavy duty diesel trucks contributed significantly to organic aerosol at night-time in the rural area. Results of this study show residential solid fuel burning is the most important source of aerosol pollution in the rural area of Beijing and the results focusing on urban Beijing might have underestimate the contribution from residential emissions in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Urban Agriculture as a Tool for Facilitated Urban Greening of Sites in Transition: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozalija CJEVIĆ

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the possibilities of urban agriculture as a tool for facilitated socially inclusive urban greening and governance of sites in transition. “Beyond the Construction Site” (BCS is the research focus of this article. Urban agriculture proves a tool for including people in site planning and management since it requires presence of users on site. The case study reveals two novelties in the facilitation process in relation to the urban agriculture greening of sites in transition: a multiple level operation engaging users, municipality and general public, and b gradual inclusion of users in site governance. The article presents an example of how general participation in spatial planning between municipalities, spatial planners, and citizens could be developed and institutionalised in the future.

  1. Characterizing urbanization effects on landscape phenology along a rural-urban gradient using three decades of Landsat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, T.; Song, C.; Li, J.

    2016-12-01

    Urbanization is a primary modification of the land surface condition on a global scale by human activities, having profound impacts on vital ecosystem services. It is thus highly valuable to understand how urbanization has impacted terrestrial ecosystem processes. Phenological shift is a key indicator of ecosystem changes that result from both climate change and urbanization. Studies using in-situ measurements have shown major differences in phenological signals between urban and rural area. Satellite-based research using imagery from coarse resolution sensors such as MODIS and AVHRR also have provided evidence on how phenological changes responded to the urban environment. However, little is known about the effects of urbanization on landscape phenology in heterogeneous urban area over long time periods. This study used all available Landsat data, which can provide dense time series of images to detect the spatiotemporal patterns of phenological changes in the urban environment. We defined several temporal periods from 1984 to 2015 and pooled all images within a multiple year period as if all images were collected in a single year. We estimated the average phenological metrics for both forests and agricultural lands including start of growing season, end of growing season, and length of growing season for each period. Then we quantified the spatiotemporal variation in the phenological signals along the rural-urban gradient in Shanghai, China. The preliminary results revealed parks within urban environment and urban-rural fringe experienced smaller changes in growing season length than urban core areas. Phenological changes were also influenced by local land cover conditions. These results can provide valuable information on how urban ecosystem might have been changing through time.

  2. Epidemiologic profile of patients seen in primary care clinics in an urban and a rural setting in Haiti, 2010-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickstein, Yaakov; Neuberger, Ami; Golus, Miri; Schwartz, Eli

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the demographic and epidemiological differences between patient populations presenting to a rural and an urban clinic in Haiti. A primary health clinic was established in urban Leogane, and a once-weekly clinic was established in Magandou, a rural village. Patient data were recorded for all individuals presenting to each clinic. Over 7 months, 6632 patients (median age 25) were seen in the urban clinic, and 567 (median age 47) in the rural clinic. There was a female majority at both sites. Hypertension was diagnosed in 41.9% (238/567) of the rural population over 40 years of age, while 29.5% (1956/6632) of patients in the urban setting had the same diagnosis (pHaiti must address the wide rural prevalence. STDs are a major urban health issue requiring treatment for both patients and their partners. Vector-borne disease was unseen in the rural clinic, despite an altitude insufficient to prevent mosquito-borne illness. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1): Coastlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1) consists of estimates of human population for the years 1990, 1995, and 2000 by 30 arc-second (1km) grid...

  4. Everyday mobility and infrastructure in the configuration of non peri-urban rural space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cerón Aparicio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to determine how the non peri-urban rural space in the Mexico’s central region, which is a highly urbanized context, is organized. Changes taking place within the framework of globalization promote greater openness and flexibilization in the territory, resulting in an increased mobility, which takes a great diversity of forms and expands everyday interaction spaces. In order to study this phenomenon, this article examines the usual movements of rural population, which allow for the definition of ties between rural space and its rural-urban entourage. According to the origin-destination analysis of displacements, the balance of territorial changes is negative as for mobility practices, as well with regard to the interweaving of new interaction networks with their urban environment. Interaction places have remained in the traditional municipal space, even when favorable physical conditions exist for displacement.

  5. Rural and urban transit district benchmarking : effectiveness and efficiency guidance document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Rural and urban transit systems have sought ways to compare performance across agencies, : identifying successful service delivery strategies and applying these concepts to achieve : successful results within their agency. Benchmarking is a method us...

  6. Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1): Population Density Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1) consists of estimates of human population for the years 1990, 1995, and 2000 by 30 arc-second (1km) grid....

  7. Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1): Settlement Points, Revision 01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary output of the Global Rural Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1) are a series of grids representing estimated population counts and density for the...

  8. Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1): National Administrative Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1) consists of estimates of human population for the years 1990, 1995, and 2000 by 30 arc-second (1km) grid...

  9. Oral health status of children and adults in urban and rural areas of Burkina Faso, Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varenne, Benoît; Petersen, Poul Erik; Ouattara, Seydou

    2004-01-01

    %), 12 years (57%), 18 years (58%), 35-44 years (49%). In addition, 10% of 35-44-year-olds had CPI score 4. Rural participants had more severe periodontal scores than did urban individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Health authorities should strengthen the implementation of community-based oral disease prevention......OBJECTIVES: To analyse the oral health status of children and adults in rural and urban areas of Burkina Faso; to provide epidemiological data for planning and evaluation of oral health care programmes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey including different ethnic and socio-economic groups. SAMPLE......). Clinical oral health data collected according to WHO methodology and criteria. RESULTS: At age 6, 38% of children had caries, with prevalence higher in urban than rural areas. At age 12, the mean DMFT was 0.7 with prevalence significantly higher among urban than rural children. Mean DMFT was 1.9 in 18-year...

  10. Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1): Settlement Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1) consists of estimates of human population for the years 1990, 1995, and 2000 by 30 arc-second (1km) grid...

  11. Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1): Population Count Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1) consists of estimates of human population for the years 1990, 1995, and 2000 by 30 arc-second (1km) grid...

  12. Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1): National Identifier Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1) consists of estimates of human population for the years 1990, 1995, and 2000 by 30 arc-second (1km) grid...

  13. Helping behavior in a rural and an urban setting: professional and casual attire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Shauna B; Kennedy, Janice H

    2006-02-01

    This study assessed differences in helping behavior in a rural versus an urban location when directed toward either a professionally or a casually dressed woman. Convenience samples included 40 men and 40 women (10 people of each sex assigned to each condition: rural and professional, rural and casual, urban and professional, and urban and casual). A 21-yr.-old female confederate dropped an envelope near each target helper individually and recorded number of seconds for the target helper to retrieve or point out the dropped item. Analysis indicated significantly faster helping occurred in the rural than in the urban location and that men helped the confederate more often than women. No difference in frequencey of help was related to kind of attire.

  14. Household fuel consumption and resource use in rural-urban Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebreegziabher, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: biofuels; land degradation; technology adoption; fuel-savings efficiency; stove R&D; household and community tree investments; fuelwood availability; animal dung; biogas; urban fuel demand; rural hinterlands; northern Ethiopia.   Fuel scarcity and land degradation are

  15. Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1): Land and Geographic Unit Area Grids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1) consists of estimates of human population for the years 1990, 1995, and 2000 by 30 arc-second (1km) grid....

  16. Rural-to-urban migration, kinship networks, and fertility among the Igbo in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel Jordan

    2013-01-01

    Like many African rural-to-urban migrants, Igbo-speaking migrants to cities in Nigeria maintain close ties to their places of origin. ‘Home people’ constitute a vital core of most migrants’ social networks. The institution of kinship enables migrants to negotiate Nigeria’s clientelistic political economy. In this context, dichotomous distinctions between rural and urban can be inappropriate analytical concepts because kinship obligations and community ties that extend across rural and urban space create a continuous social field. This paper presents ethnographic data to suggest that fertility behavior in contemporary Igbo-speaking Nigeria cannot be understood without taking into account the ways in which rural and urban social and demographic regimes are mutually implicated and dialectically constituted (anthropological demography; migration; kinship; reproductive behavior; Nigeria). PMID:24426181

  17. Guidebook : managing operating costs for rural and small urban public transit systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This guidebook is a resource for rural and small urban transit agency managers to use in better understanding, predicting, and managing operational costs. Doing so can improve the efficiency, effectiveness, and sustainability of public transit in the...

  18. Urbanicity and lifestyle risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases in rural Uganda: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Riha

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban living is associated with unhealthy lifestyles that can increase the risk of cardiometabolic diseases. In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, where the majority of people live in rural areas, it is still unclear if there is a corresponding increase in unhealthy lifestyles as rural areas adopt urban characteristics. This study examines the distribution of urban characteristics across rural communities in Uganda and their associations with lifestyle risk factors for chronic diseases.Using data collected in 2011, we examined cross-sectional associations between urbanicity and lifestyle risk factors in rural communities in Uganda, with 7,340 participants aged 13 y and above across 25 villages. Urbanicity was defined according to a multi-component scale, and Poisson regression models were used to examine associations between urbanicity and lifestyle risk factors by quartile of urbanicity. Despite all of the villages not having paved roads and running water, there was marked variation in levels of urbanicity across the villages, largely attributable to differences in economic activity, civil infrastructure, and availability of educational and healthcare services. In regression models, after adjustment for clustering and potential confounders including socioeconomic status, increasing urbanicity was associated with an increase in lifestyle risk factors such as physical inactivity (risk ratio [RR]: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.24, low fruit and vegetable consumption (RR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.23, and high body mass index (RR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.24, 1.77.This study indicates that even across rural communities in SSA, increasing urbanicity is associated with a higher prevalence of lifestyle risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases. This finding highlights the need to consider the health impact of urbanization in rural areas across SSA. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  19. Oxidized Nitrogen Balance over 15 Months at Rural and Urban New York State Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, J. J.; Ninneman, M.; Marto, J.; Edgerton, E. S.; Blanchard, C. L.; Shaw, S. L.

    2017-12-01

    Continuous measurements of oxidized nitrogen species (NO, NO2, and HNO3), families of species (NOy, alkyl nitrates [or ANs], and peroxyacetyl nitrates [or PANs]), and particle nitrate (pNO3) were carried out for a fifteen-month period from August 2016 through October 2017 at two locations in New York State. The two sites were a rural research station at Pinnacle State Park in Addison, NY and an urban research station at Queens College in New York City. Four different chemiluminescence analyzers with various converters and denuders were employed to make these measurements. Instrumentation used for the study will be described, as well as some of the challenges created by combining data from these independent analyzers to address the oxidized nitrogen budget at the two sites. The Pinnacle State Park site often experiences quite clean air with low ppb levels of total NOy and a greater fraction of oxidized nitrogen products (NOz species). This contrasts with the urban Queens College location, which experiences stronger NOx sources. Seasonal differences in the NOx/NOy and NOz/NOy ratios, and the makeup of the NOz species, are also significant and will be explored in the presentation.

  20. Perforated appendicitis among rural and urban patients: implications of access to care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Ian M; Zuckerman, Randall; Finlayson, Samuel R G

    2011-03-01

    To determine whether rural patients are more likely to present with perforated appendicitis compared with urban patients. Appendiceal perforation has been associated with increased morbidity, length of hospital stay, and overall health care costs. Recent arguments suggest that high rates of appendiceal rupture may be unrelated to the quality of hospital care, and rather associated with inadequate access to surgical care. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 122,990 patients with acute appendicitis from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2003 to 2004. International Classification of Diseases diagnosis 9 (ICD-9) codes were used to determine appendiceal perforation. Urban influence codes from the US Department of Agriculture were used to determine rural versus urban status. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine patient and hospital factors associated with perforation. Overall, 32.07% of patients presented with perforation. Rural patients were more likely than urban patients to present with perforation (35.76% vs. 31.48%). Factors associated with perforation in multivariate analysis were age more than 40 years, male gender, transfer from another facility, black race, poorest 25th percentile, Charlson score of 3 or higher, and rural residence. Thirty percent of rural patients were treated in urban hospitals. Rural patients treated at urban hospitals were more likely to present with perforation compared with rural patients treated at rural hospitals (OR = 1.23). Patients from rural areas have higher rates of perforation with acute appendicitis than urban patients. This difference persists when accounting for other factors associated with perforation. These differences in perforation rates suggest disparities in access to timely surgical care.

  1. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Children and Adolescents in Shandong, China: Urban-Rural Disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Xiu; Wang, Zhao-Xia; Zhao, Jin-Shan; Chu, Zun-Hua

    2016-08-01

    The pattern of urban-rural disparity in childhood obesity varies across countries. The present study examined the change trend of urban-rural disparity in childhood overweight and obesity from 1985 to 2014 in Shandong, China. Data for this study were obtained from four cross-sectional surveys of school children carried out in 1985, 1995, 2005 and 2014 in Shandong Province, China. In this study, 39 943 students aged 7-18 years were included (14 458 in 1985, 7198 in 1995, 8568 in 2005 and 9719 in 2014). Height and weight of all subjects were measured; body mass index (BMI) was calculated from their height and weight. The BMI cutoff points recommended by the International Obesity Task Force were used to define overweight and obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was increasing continuously both in urban and rural areas over the past 29 years (1985-2014). The prevalence of combined overweight and obesity was significantly higher in urban than in rural children and adolescents in 1985, 1995 and 2005 (p overweight and obesity was observed in rural areas after 2005; as a result, the urban-rural disparity was getting narrower, and no significant urban-rural disparity was observed in 2014 (p > 0.05). The change trend of urban-rural disparity should be concerned in the future; policies and interventions focused on childhood overweight and obesity should pay attention to rural areas. © The Author [2016]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Correlates of late-life major depression: a comparison of urban and rural primary care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Bruce; Conwell, Yeates; Delavan, Rachel L

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether factors associated with depression differ between elderly residents of rural and urban areas. The research design was cross-sectional and observational. The study subjects consisted of 926 Medicare primary care patients (650 urban and 276 rural) who were age 65+ and cognitively intact and had enrolled in a randomized, controlled Medicare demonstration. Major depression was identified by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. A logistic regression model was estimated that included a rural-urban indicator variable, additional independent variables, and interaction terms between the rural-urban indicator and independent variables that were significant at p Reporting 0-1 close friends (odds ratio [OR]: 6.86; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.18-21.58), 2+ emergency room visits during the past 6 months (OR: 4.00; 95% CI: 1.19-13.43), and more financial strain (OR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.01-2.23) were associated with significantly higher likelihood of major depression among rural as compared with urban patients. The SF-36 Physical Component Summary score had a curvilinear relationship with major depression and was higher for urban patients. The predicted probability for major depression is lower for the rural patients when financial strain is low, about the same for rural and urban patients when strain is intermediate, and higher for rural patients when strain is high. Clinicians in rural areas should be vigilant for major depression among patients with very few close friends, several recent emergency department visits, and financial strain.

  3. Differences in health care seeking behaviour between rural and urban communities in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    van der Hoeven, Marinka; Kruger, Annamarie; Greeff, Minrie

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to explore possible differences in health care seeking behaviour among a rural and urban African population. Design A cross sectional design was followed using the infrastructure of the PURE-SA study. Four rural and urban Setswana communities which represented different strata of urbanisation in the North West Province, South Africa, were selected. Structured interviews were held with 206 participants. Data on general demographic and socio-economi...

  4. Examining Rural/Urban Differences in Prescription Opioid Misuse Among U.S. Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnat, Shannon M.; Rigg, Khary K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study examines differences in prescription opioid misuse (POM) among adolescents in rural, small urban and large urban areas of the US and identifies several individual, social, and community risk factors contributing to those differences. Methods We used nationally representative data from the 2011 and 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) and estimated binary logistic regression and formal mediation models to assess past-year POM among 32,036 adolescents aged 12–17. Results Among adolescents, 6.8% of rural, 6.0% of small urban, and 5.3% of large urban engaged in past-year POM. Net of multiple risk and protective factors, rural adolescents have 35% greater odds and small urban adolescents have 21% greater odds of past-year POM compared to large urban adolescents. The difference between rural and small urban adolescents was not significant. Criminal activity, lower perceived substance use risk, and greater use of emergency medical treatment partially contribute to higher odds among rural adolescents, but they are also partially buffered by less peer substance use, less illicit drug access, and stronger religious beliefs. Conclusions Researchers, policy makers, and treatment providers must consider the complex array of individual, social, and community risk and protective factors to understand rural/urban differences in adolescent POM. Potential points of intervention to prevent POM in general and reduce rural disparities include early education about addiction risks, use of family drug courts to link criminal offenders to treatment, and access to non-emergency medical services to reduce rural residents’ reliance on emergency departments where opioid prescribing is more likely. PMID:26344571

  5. Tourist Activity of Senior Citizens (60+ Residing in Urban and Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omelan Aneta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of place of permanent residence (urban or rural on the tourist activity of senior citizens (60+ of different socioeconomic statuses. The study involved 380 senior citizens (305 female and 75 male aged 60 years and older who were permanent residents of the region of Warmia and Mazury, Poland. In this group, 244 subjects resided in urban areas and 136 participants were rural dwellers. The respondents were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their socioeconomic status (place of permanent residence, age, gender, educational attainment, financial status, membership in senior organizations, marital status, and professional activity and tourist activity. A significance test of two structure coefficients (α=0.05 was applied. Factors such as gender, professional activity, and marital status were not related with the travel propensity of seniors from different groups (urban and rural, but were significant when rural residents were compared with urban dwellers. Seniors residing in urban areas of Warmia and Mazury, Poland, were significantly more likely to travel for leisure than those residing in rural areas. The tourist activity of seniors decreased significantly (p<0.05 with the age (60-74 years and financial status of rural residents. The travel propensity of elderly people increased significantly (p<0.05 with educational attainment and membership in senior organizations. The study revealed considerable differences in the socioeconomic status and social characteristics of seniors residing in rural and urban areas, and those variations significantly influenced their propensity for travel: urban residents traveled more frequently than rural residents. It can be concluded that place of residence was a crucial factor determining the tourist behavior of senior citizens, and urban dwellers were more likely to travel.

  6. Bushmeat consumption among rural and urban children from Province Orientale, Democratic Republic of Congo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vliet, Nathalie; Nebesse, Casimir; Nasi, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the importance of bushmeat consumption for household nutrition, both in rural and urban settings, is critical to developing politically acceptable ways to reduce unsustainable exploitation. This study provides insights into bushmeat consumption patterns relative to the consumption...... monkeys), probably because rural households tend to consume the less marketable species or the smaller animals. We show that despite the tendency towards more urbanized population profiles and increased livelihood opportunities away from forest and farms, wildlife harvest remains a critical component...

  7. Quality of life of elderly. Comparison between urban and rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Darlene Mara dos Santos Tavares; Alisson Fernandes Bolina; Flavia Aparecida Dias; Pollyana Cristina dos Santos Ferreira; Vanderlei José Haas

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Comparing the scores of quality of life according to place of residence (urban and rural areas). Methods. A cross-sectional study involving 2142 elderly in urban area and other 850 in rural area of the municipality of Uberaba (Minas Gerais, Brazil). Instruments used: Olders Americans Resources and Services, World Health Organization Quality of Life - BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) and World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment for Older Adults (WHOQOL-OLD). Results. We found that in ...

  8. Carabid beetle assemblages (Coleoptera, Carabidae) across urban-rural gradients: an international comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Niemelä, J.; Kotze, J.; Venn, S.; Penev, L.; Stoyanov, I.; Spence, J.; Hartley, D.; Montes de Oca, H.

    2002-01-01

    We studied communities of carabid beetles in residual forest patches along urban-suburban-rural gradients in three cities (Helsinki, Finland; Sofia, Bulgaria and Edmonton, Canada) to examine their responses to urbanisation. Only Finnish carabids showed a marked division of community structure along the gradient. In Bulgaria and Canada, carabids did not separate into distinct urban, suburban and rural communities. Our results provide some support for the predictions that species ri...

  9. Discrimination, Perceived Social Inequity, and Mental Health Among Rural-to-Urban Migrants in China

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Danhua; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Bo; Hong, Yan; Fang, Xiaoyi; Qin, Xiong; Stanton, Bonita

    2009-01-01

    Status-based discrimination and inequity have been associated with the process of migration, especially with economics-driven internal migration. However, their association with mental health among economy-driven internal migrants in developing countries is rarely assessed. This study examines discriminatory experiences and perceived social inequity in relation to mental health status among rural-to-urban migrants in China. Cross-sectional data were collected from 1,006 rural-to-urban migrant...

  10. The prevalence of angina symptoms and association with cardiovascular risk factors, among rural, urban and rural to urban migrant populations in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilman Robert H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural-to-urban migration in low- and middle-income countries causes an increase in individual cardiovascular risk. Cost-effective interventions at early stages of the natural history of coronary disease such as angina may stem an epidemic of premature coronary deaths in these countries. However, there are few data on the prevalence of angina in developing countries, whilst the understanding the aetiology of angina is complicated by the difficulty in measuring it across differing populations. Methods The PERU MIGRANT study was designed to investigate differences between rural-to-urban migrant and non-migrant groups in specific cardiovascular disease risk factors. Mass-migration seen in Peru from 1980s onwards was largely driven by politically motivated violence resulting in less 'healthy migrant' selection bias. The Rose angina questionnaire was used to record chest pain, which was classified definite, possible and non-exertional. Mental health was measured using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12. Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios (adjusted for age, sex, cardiovascular disease risk factors and mental health were used to assess the risk of chest pain in the migrant and urban groups compared to the rural group, and further to assess the relationship (age and sex-adjusted between risk factors, mental health and chest pain. Results Compared to the urban group, rural dwellers had a greatly increased likelihood of possible/definite angina (multi-adjusted OR 2.82 (1.68- 4.73. Urban and migrant groups had higher levels of risk factors (e.g. smoking - 20.1% urban, 5.5% rural. No diabetes was seen in the rural dwellers who complained of possible/definite angina. Rural dwellers had a higher prevalence of mood disorder and the presence of a mood disorder was associated with possible/definite angina in all three groups, but not consistently with non-exertional chest pain. Conclusion Rural groups had a higher prevalence of angina as

  11. Comparative prevalence of otitis media in children living in urban slums, non-slum urban and rural areas of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Shelly K; Gulati, Kriti; Garg, Suneela; Agarwal, Arun K

    2014-12-01

    The study aimed to determine the prevalence and profile of otitis media in different parts of a city, i.e. non-slum urban areas, urban slums and rural areas. A door to door survey was conducted in identified areas of Delhi. A total of 3000 children (0-15 years) were randomly selected and examined for presence of otitis media. These children were equally distributed in the three areas under consideration. Data was analyzed to establish the prevalence of different types of otitis media. Chi-square test was then applied to compare disease prevalence among the three areas. 7.1% of the study population was identified with otitis media, which includes CSOM (4.26%), OME (2.5%) and ASOM (0.4%). In the non-slum urban parts of the city, 4.6% children had otitis media. This was significantly lower compared to 7% children in rural parts of Delhi and 9.9% in urban slums of the city. The prevalence of CSOM was considerably higher in slum areas (7.2%) as compared with rural (3%) and non-slum urban areas (2.6%). Ear infections are significantly more common in urban slums as compared to non-slum city areas and rural parts of Delhi. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Physical growth during the first year of life. A longitudinal study in rural and urban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Huong

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Good infant growth is important for future health. Assessing growth is common in pediatric care all over the world, both at the population and individual level. There are few studies of birth weight and growth studies comparing urban and rural communities in Vietnam. The first aim is to describe and compare the birth weight distributions and physical growth (weight and length of children during their first year in one rural and one urban area of Hanoi Vietnam. The second aim is to study associations between the anthropometric outcomes and indicators of the economic and educational situations. Methods Totally 1,466 children, born from 1st March, 2009 to June 2010, were followed monthly from birth to 12 months of age in two Health and Demographic Surveillance Sites; one rural and one urban. In all, 14,199 measurements each of weight and length were made. Birth weight was recorded separately. Information about demographic conditions, education, occupation and economic conditions of persons and households was obtained from household surveys. Fractional Polynomial models and standard statistical methods were used for description and analysis. Results Urban infants have higher birth weight and gain weight faster than rural infants. The mean birth weight for urban boys and girls were 3,298 grams and 3,203 grams as compared to 3,105 grams and 3,057 grams for rural children. At 90 days, the urban boys were estimated to be 4.1% heavier than rural boys. This difference increased to 7.2% at 360 days. The corresponding difference for girls was 3.4% and 10.5%. The differences for length were comparatively smaller. Both birth weight and growth were statistically significantly and positively associated with economic conditions and mother education. Conclusion Birth weight was lower and the growth, weight and length, considerably slower in the rural area, for boys as well as for girls. The results support the hypothesis that the rather

  13. Physical growth during the first year of life. A longitudinal study in rural and urban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong Thu; Eriksson, Bo; Nguyen, Liem Thanh; Nguyen, Chuc Thi Kim; Petzold, Max; Bondjers, Göran; Ascher, Henry

    2012-03-12

    Good infant growth is important for future health. Assessing growth is common in pediatric care all over the world, both at the population and individual level. There are few studies of birth weight and growth studies comparing urban and rural communities in Vietnam. The first aim is to describe and compare the birth weight distributions and physical growth (weight and length) of children during their first year in one rural and one urban area of Hanoi Vietnam. The second aim is to study associations between the anthropometric outcomes and indicators of the economic and educational situations. Totally 1,466 children, born from 1st March, 2009 to June 2010, were followed monthly from birth to 12 months of age in two Health and Demographic Surveillance Sites; one rural and one urban. In all, 14,199 measurements each of weight and length were made. Birth weight was recorded separately. Information about demographic conditions, education, occupation and economic conditions of persons and households was obtained from household surveys. Fractional Polynomial models and standard statistical methods were used for description and analysis. Urban infants have higher birth weight and gain weight faster than rural infants. The mean birth weight for urban boys and girls were 3,298 grams and 3,203 grams as compared to 3,105 grams and 3,057 grams for rural children. At 90 days, the urban boys were estimated to be 4.1% heavier than rural boys. This difference increased to 7.2% at 360 days. The corresponding difference for girls was 3.4% and 10.5%. The differences for length were comparatively smaller. Both birth weight and growth were statistically significantly and positively associated with economic conditions and mother education. Birth weight was lower and the growth, weight and length, considerably slower in the rural area, for boys as well as for girls. The results support the hypothesis that the rather drastic differences in maternal education and economic conditions lead

  14. Physical growth during the first year of life. A longitudinal study in rural and urban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Good infant growth is important for future health. Assessing growth is common in pediatric care all over the world, both at the population and individual level. There are few studies of birth weight and growth studies comparing urban and rural communities in Vietnam. The first aim is to describe and compare the birth weight distributions and physical growth (weight and length) of children during their first year in one rural and one urban area of Hanoi Vietnam. The second aim is to study associations between the anthropometric outcomes and indicators of the economic and educational situations. Methods Totally 1,466 children, born from 1st March, 2009 to June 2010, were followed monthly from birth to 12 months of age in two Health and Demographic Surveillance Sites; one rural and one urban. In all, 14,199 measurements each of weight and length were made. Birth weight was recorded separately. Information about demographic conditions, education, occupation and economic conditions of persons and households was obtained from household surveys. Fractional Polynomial models and standard statistical methods were used for description and analysis. Results Urban infants have higher birth weight and gain weight faster than rural infants. The mean birth weight for urban boys and girls were 3,298 grams and 3,203 grams as compared to 3,105 grams and 3,057 grams for rural children. At 90 days, the urban boys were estimated to be 4.1% heavier than rural boys. This difference increased to 7.2% at 360 days. The corresponding difference for girls was 3.4% and 10.5%. The differences for length were comparatively smaller. Both birth weight and growth were statistically significantly and positively associated with economic conditions and mother education. Conclusion Birth weight was lower and the growth, weight and length, considerably slower in the rural area, for boys as well as for girls. The results support the hypothesis that the rather drastic differences in maternal

  15. Route of administration for illicit prescription opioids: a comparison of rural and urban drug users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havens Jennifer R

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nonmedical prescription opioid use has emerged as a major public health concern in recent years, particularly in rural Appalachia. Little is known about the routes of administration (ROA involved in nonmedical prescription opioid use among rural and urban drug users. The purpose of this study was to describe rural-urban differences in ROA for nonmedical prescription opioid use. Methods A purposive sample of 212 prescription drug users was recruited from a rural Appalachian county (n = 101 and a major metropolitan area (n = 111 in Kentucky. Consenting participants were given an interviewer-administered questionnaire examining sociodemographics, psychiatric disorders, and self-reported nonmedical use and ROA (swallowing, snorting, injecting for the following prescription drugs: buprenorphine, fentanyl, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, OxyContin® and other oxycodone. Results Among urban participants, swallowing was the most common ROA, contrasting sharply with substance-specific variation in ROA among rural participants. Among rural participants, snorting was the most frequent ROA for hydrocodone, methadone, OxyContin®, and oxycodone, while injection was most common for hydromorphone and morphine. In age-, gender-, and race-adjusted analyses, rural participants had significantly higher odds of snorting hydrocodone, OxyContin®, and oxycodone than urban participants. Urban participants had significantly higher odds of swallowing hydrocodone and oxycodone than did rural participants. Notably, among rural participants, 67% of hydromorphone users and 63% of morphine users had injected the drugs. Conclusions Alternative ROA are common among rural drug users. This finding has implications for rural substance abuse treatment and harm reduction, in which interventions should incorporate methods to prevent and reduce route-specific health complications of drug use.

  16. Mapping the Physiotherapy Profession in Saskatchewan: Examining Rural versus Urban Practice Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Brenna; Gabrush, Jeffery; Fritzler, Rachel; Dickson, Nathan; Bisaro, Derek; Bryan, Kyla; Shah, Tayyab I

    2015-08-01

    People living in rural and remote regions need support to overcome difficulties in accessing health care. The objectives of the study were (1) to compare demographic characteristics, professional engagement indicators, and clinical characteristics between physiotherapists practising in rural settings and those practising in urban settings and (2) to map the distribution of physiotherapists in Saskatchewan. This cross-sectional study used de-identified data collected from the 2013 Saskatchewan College of Physical Therapists membership renewal (n=643), linked with the Saskatchewan Physiotherapy Association's (SPA) 2012 membership list and a list of physiotherapists who had served as clinical instructors. Employment location (rural vs. urban) was determined by postal code. Only 11.2% of Saskatchewan physiotherapists listed a rural primary employment location, and a higher density of physiotherapists per 10,000 people work in health regions with large urban centres. Compared with urban physiotherapists, rural physiotherapists are more likely to provide direct patient care, to provide care to people of all ages, and to have a mixed client level, and they are less likely to be SPA members. Rural and urban physiotherapists in Saskatchewan have different practice and professional characteristics. This information may have implications for health human resource recruitment and retention policies as well as advocacy for equitable access to physiotherapy care in rural and remote regions.

  17. Differential effectiveness of depression disease management for rural and urban primary care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Scott J; Xu, Stanley; Dong, Fran; Fortney, John; Rost, Kathryn

    2006-01-01

    Federally qualified health centers across the country are adopting depression disease management programs following federally mandated training; however, little is known about the relative effectiveness of depression disease management in rural versus urban patient populations. To explore whether a depression disease management program has a comparable impact on clinical outcomes over 2 years in patients treated in rural and urban primary care practices and whether the impact is mediated by receiving evidence-based care (antidepressant medication and specialty care counseling). A preplanned secondary analysis was conducted in a consecutively sampled cohort of 479 depressed primary care patients recruited from 12 practices in 10 states across the country participating in the Quality Enhancement for Strategic Teaming study. Depression disease management improved the mental health status of urban patients over 18 months but not rural patients. Effects were not mediated by antidepressant medication or specialty care counseling in urban or rural patients. Depression disease management appears to improve clinical outcomes in urban but not rural patients. Because these programs compete for scarce resources, health care organizations interested in delivering depression disease management to rural populations need to advocate for programs whose clinical effectiveness has been demonstrated for rural residents.

  18. Comparative study of nutritional status of urban and rural Nigerian school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oninla, S O; Owa, J A; Onayade, A A; Taiwo, O

    2007-02-01

    Nutritional assessment in the community is essential for accurate planning and implementation of intervention programmes to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with under-nutrition. The study was, therefore, carried out to determine and compare the nutritional status of children attending urban and rural public primary schools in Ife Central Local Government Area (ICLGA) of Nigeria. The schools were stratified into urban and rural, and studied schools were selected by balloting. Information obtained on each pupil was entered into a pre-designed proforma. The weight and height were recorded for each pupil, and converted to nutritional indices (weight for age, weight for height, height for age). A total of 749 pupils (366 and 383 children from the rural and urban communities, respectively) were studied. The overall prevalent rates of underweight, wasting and stunting were 61.2, 16.8 and 27.6%, respectively. In the rural area these were 70.5, 17.8 and 35.8%, while in the urban they were 52.2, 15.9 and 19.8%, respectively. The mean nutritional indices (Weight for Age, Weight for Height and Height for Age) were found to be significantly lower among the rural pupils than urban pupils (P school children in Nigeria. This is particularly so in the rural areas. Therefore, prevention of malnutrition should be given a high priority in the implementation of the ongoing primary health care programmes with particular attention paid to the rural population.

  19. Winter Bird Assemblages in Rural and Urban Environments: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryjanowski, Piotr; Sparks, Tim H; Biaduń, Waldemar; Brauze, Tomasz; Hetmański, Tomasz; Martyka, Rafał; Skórka, Piotr; Indykiewicz, Piotr; Myczko, Łukasz; Kunysz, Przemysław; Kawa, Piotr; Czyż, Stanisław; Czechowski, Paweł; Polakowski, Michał; Zduniak, Piotr; Jerzak, Leszek; Janiszewski, Tomasz; Goławski, Artur; Duduś, Leszek; Nowakowski, Jacek J; Wuczyński, Andrzej; Wysocki, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Urban development has a marked effect on the ecological and behavioural traits of many living organisms, including birds. In this paper, we analysed differences in the numbers of wintering birds between rural and urban areas in Poland. We also analysed species richness and abundance in relation to longitude, latitude, human population size, and landscape structure. All these parameters were analysed using modern statistical techniques incorporating species detectability. We counted birds in 156 squares (0.25 km2 each) in December 2012 and again in January 2013 in locations in and around 26 urban areas across Poland (in each urban area we surveyed 3 squares and 3 squares in nearby rural areas). The influence of twelve potential environmental variables on species abundance and richness was assessed with Generalized Linear Mixed Models, Principal Components and Detrended Correspondence Analyses. Totals of 72 bird species and 89,710 individual birds were recorded in this study. On average (± SE) 13.3 ± 0.3 species and 288 ± 14 individuals were recorded in each square in each survey. A formal comparison of rural and urban areas revealed that 27 species had a significant preference; 17 to rural areas and 10 to urban areas. Moreover, overall abundance in urban areas was more than double that of rural areas. There was almost a complete separation of rural and urban bird communities. Significantly more birds and more bird species were recorded in January compared to December. We conclude that differences between rural and urban areas in terms of winter conditions and the availability of resources are reflected in different bird communities in the two environments.

  20. Winter Bird Assemblages in Rural and Urban Environments: A National Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Tryjanowski

    Full Text Available Urban development has a marked effect on the ecological and behavioural traits of many living organisms, including birds. In this paper, we analysed differences in the numbers of wintering birds between rural and urban areas in Poland. We also analysed species richness and abundance in relation to longitude, latitude, human population size, and landscape structure. All these parameters were analysed using modern statistical techniques incorporating species detectability. We counted birds in 156 squares (0.25 km2 each in December 2012 and again in January 2013 in locations in and around 26 urban areas across Poland (in each urban area we surveyed 3 squares and 3 squares in nearby rural areas. The influence of twelve potential environmental variables on species abundance and richness was assessed with Generalized Linear Mixed Models, Principal Components and Detrended Correspondence Analyses. Totals of 72 bird species and 89,710 individual birds were recorded in this study. On average (± SE 13.3 ± 0.3 species and 288 ± 14 individuals were recorded in each square in each survey. A formal comparison of rural and urban areas revealed that 27 species had a significant preference; 17 to rural areas and 10 to urban areas. Moreover, overall abundance in urban areas was more than double that of rural areas. There was almost a complete separation of rural and urban bird communities. Significantly more birds and more bird species were recorded in January compared to December. We conclude that differences between rural and urban areas in terms of winter conditions and the availability of resources are reflected in different bird communities in the two environments.

  1. Rural-urban migration, urban unemployment and underemployment, and job-search activity in LDCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, G S

    1975-06-01

    A quantity adjustment framework is used to analyze unemployment and underemployment in less developed countries (LDCs). The basic premise of the formal theoretical model presented is that the same kinds of forces that explain the choices of workers between the rural and urban sectors can also explain thier choices between 1 labor market and another within an urban area and are most likely made simultaneously. The decision makers, whether family units or individuals, are presumed to consider the various labor market opportunities available to them and to choose the one which maximizes their expected future income. In the model the primary equilibrating force is taken to be the movement of workers between labor markets, not changes in wages. The point of departure is the received theory of rural urban migration in LDS, which is the model of Harris and Todaro (1970). The 1st step is a summary of the basic features of the model. While accepting their basic approach emphasizing movement of workers rather than changes in wages, it is shown that the particular implication of the model with respect to the equilibrium urban unemployment rate substantially overstates the rates actually observed by Turnham (1971) and others. The analysis is then extended to consider several important factors which have previously been neglected--a more generalized approach to the job search process, the possibility of underemployment in the so-called urban "murky sector," preferential treatment by employers of the better educated, and consideration of labor turnover--and demonstrate that the resulting framework gives predictions closer to actual experience. Harris and Todaro in their original discussion concluded that a combination of a wage subsidy in the modern sector and physical restriction of migration would be required to realize a first best state lying on the economy's production possibility frontier. Subsequently Bhagwati and Srinivasan (1974) challenged them and demonstrated that a

  2. Analysis of the division of the urban-rural ecotone in the city of Zhuhai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Nan; Zhou, Sulong; Guo, Luo

    2018-02-01

    In this study, a high-resolution remote sensing image of downtown Zhuhai (2010) was used to analyze the division of the urban-rural ecotone. Based on the information entropy theory, the study analyzed the characteristics of the ecotone’s land use and entropy value distribution, the break entropy values of the inner and outer boundary, as determined by mutation detection, were 0.51 and 0.46, respectively, providing a range for the rough classification of the rural-urban ecotone. The results showed that the boundaries of the ecotone were dynamic and the landscape turbulence of the urban fringe in the section between rural and urban areas was greater than that of the core area and imagery area of Zhuhai city. We concluded that this study provided technical support for urban planning and administration in the city of Zhuhai.

  3. Job opportunities along the rural-urban gradation and female labor force participation in India

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee,Urmila; Murgai,Rinku; Rama,Martin G.

    2015-01-01

    The recent decline in India’s rural female labor force participation is generally attributed to higher rural incomes in a patriarchal society. Together with the growing share of the urban population, where female participation rates are lower, this alleged income effect does not bode well for the empowerment of women as India develops. This paper argues that a traditional supply-side inter...

  4. Urban and rural patterns in emergent pediatric transfer: a call for regionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horeczko, Timothy; Marcin, James P; Kahn, Jeremy M; Sapien, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    National groups call for the regionalization of health care, to direct patients with high-risk conditions to designated hospitals with greater capabilities. Currently there is limited information detailing the characteristics and specific needs of acutely ill and injured children who require transfer to another institution, especially in underserved rural communities. To determine the epidemiology of pediatric transfers from urban and rural emergency departments (EDs). We analyzed data in the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey from 1995 to 2010. Eligible children were Urban and rural EDs showed similar transfer rates. Children transferred from rural EDs were older and more likely to arrive by emergency medical services than children transferred from urban EDs (12.1 vs 8.2 years of age, P rural EDs were more than twice as likely to be transferred for a psychiatric indication (43.5% vs 19.5%, P urban and rural settings. Rural children have additional obstacles to care, especially in access to emergency mental health services. Programs to study and implement regionalization of care should consider diverse patient populations and target improvement in coordination of care, transfer times, and outcomes. © 2013 National Rural Health Association.

  5. Rural-Urban Differences in Preventable Hospitalizations among Community-Dwelling Veterans with Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Joshua M.; Van Houtven, Courtney H.; Sleath, Betsy L.; Thorpe, Carolyn T.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Alzheimer's patients living in rural communities may face significant barriers to effective outpatient medical care. Purpose: We sought to examine rural-urban differences in risk for ambulatory care sensitive hospitalizations (ACSH), an indicator of access to outpatient care, in community-dwelling veterans with dementia. Methods: Medicare…

  6. Rural/Urban Differences in Child Growth and Survival in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Tim B.; Forste, Renata

    2003-01-01

    In Bolivia, a third of rural children are stunted, and rural infants are twice as likely to die before age 2 than urban infants. National survey data indicate child survival and development are related to maternal education and literacy, community sanitation practices, access to health care, and socioeconomic status. Parental knowledge about…

  7. Wet season bird species richness and diversity along urban-rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the variation in diversity and distribution of avian species across an urban–rural gradient during the wet season in Morogoro municipality and its surroundings. A total of 2547 individuals comprising 86 species belonging to 11 orders and 37 families were recorded across urban-rural habitats.

  8. Factors affecting the initial literacy development of urban and rural learners in the Iganga district, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banda, Felix

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The initial motivation for the study was data from the Ministry of Education in Uganda that suggests that in terms of academic performance, urban learners continually outperform rural schools at primary and secondary school levels (Ministry of Education 2002. At present all government examinations are written in English. However, the language in education policy in Uganda differentially stipulates the use English as medium of instruction in urban schools and the use of the mother tongue in rural schools (cf. Kyeyune 2004. Other factors which mitigate against rural learners’ successful academic performance are untrained educators, poor infrastructure and school management practices in rural schools, poverty, lack of supportive academic discourse practices, and a general lack of enthusiasm among rural parents (most of whom have very little formal education for their children’s education. Using data from observations of selected urban and rural homes and schools in The Iganga district and field notes in the form of diary entries, the study draws on New Literacy Studies (NLS particularly the notion of literacy as social practice (Street 2001; Gee 2000; Baynham 2000, 2001, to explore the differential effect of urban and rural-based acculturation processes on the initial literacy development of learners. Finally, since 88% of Ugandans live in rural areas (Uganda Bureau of Statistics 2002, the pedagogical implications for primary schools are discussed and suggestions are made on how to establish an inclusive education system.

  9. Integration of Drainage, Water Quality and Flood Management in Rural, Urban and Lowland Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlotman, W.F.; Wong, T.; Schultz, E.

    2007-01-01

    Managing drainage in rural and peri-urban environments has become an essential part of integrated water management. Drainage has become a science of control, storage and (re)use while meeting triple bottom-line requirements (environment, social and economic assessments). Controlled drainage in rural

  10. The Process of Homelessness among the Mentally Ill: Rural and Urban Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, John R.; McCleese, Glenn

    1988-01-01

    Describes research exploring links between commitment laws and homelessness among mentally ill. Shows treatment differences in rural and metropolitan areas. Suggests narrow urban interpretation of laws leads to homelessness while rural overreaction leads to more unwarranted commitments. Identifies continuum-of-care needs. Suggests topics for…

  11. Rural and Urban Differences in Vocational Rehabilitation Case Mix, Delivery Practices, and Employment Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipsen, Catherine; Swicegood, Grant

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine rural and urban differences in Vocational Rehabilitation (VR) case mix, delivery practices, and employment outcomes. Methods: Rehabilitation Services Administration 911 (RSA-911) case data do not include location indicators that allow for rural analyses. We compiled RSA-911 data with county and ZIP code information from 47 VR…

  12. Gateway to Understanding: Indigenous Ecological Activism and Education in Urban, Rural, and Remote Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowan-Trudeau, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    This article is a response to Kassam, Avery, and Ruelle's insights as presented in this forum on rural science education. Topics considered include troubling the urban/rural divide in the context of Indigenous knowledge and expanding to include the common Canadian notion of the "remote," a designation rooted in our national colonial…

  13. RCE Saskatchewan: The Canadian Prairies Create Synergy for Urban and Rural ESD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahms, Tanya; McMartin, Dena; Petry, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Saskatchewan, Canada, is a province with strong traditions of volunteerism and innovation. In 2001, 36 per cent of its 1 million population was rural, though this was significantly lower than in 1951 when it was 70 per cent (Statistics Canada 2005). Saskatchewan is experiencing higher population growth in urban than in rural regions. Many rural…

  14. Rural-Urban Disparities in Health and Health Care in Africa: Cultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural-Urban Disparities in Health and Health Care in Africa: Cultural Competence, Lay-beliefs in Narratives of Diabetes among the Rural Poor in the Eastern Cape ... to exist in the utilization of cardiac diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, prescription of analgesia for pains, treatment of diabetes (e.g. gym exercise).

  15. Urban–rural inequalities in suicide mortality: a comparison of urbanicity indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Helbich

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urban–rural disparities in suicide mortality have received considerable attention. Varying conceptualizations of urbanity may contribute to the conflicting findings. This ecological study on Germany assessed how and to what extent urban–rural suicide associations are affected by 14 different urban–rural indicators. Methods Indicators were based on continuous or k-means classified population data, land-use data, planning typologies, or represented population-based accessibility indicators. Agreements between indicators were tested with correlation analyses. Spatial Bayesian Poisson regressions were estimated to examine urban–rural suicide associations while adjusting for risk and protective factors. Results Urban–rural differences in suicide rates per 100,000 persons were found irrespective of the indicator. Strong and significant correlation was observed between different urban–rural indicators. Although the effect sign consistently referred to a reduced risk in urban areas, statistical significance was not universally confirmed by all regressions. Goodness-of-fit statistics suggested that the population potential score performs best, and that population density is the second best indicator of urbanicity. Numerical indicators are favored over classified ones. Regional planning typologies are not supported. Conclusions The strength of suicide urban–rural associations varies with respect to the applied indicator of urbanicity. Future studies that put urban–rural inequalities central are recommended to apply either unclassified population potentials or population density indicators, but sensitivity analyses are advised.

  16. Alcohol Consumption and Injury among Canadian Adolescents: Variations by Urban-Rural Geographic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xuran; Li, Dongguang; Boyce, William; Pickett, William

    2008-01-01

    Context: The impact of alcohol consumption on risks for injury among rural adolescents is an important and understudied public health issue. Little is known about whether relationships between alcohol consumption and injury vary between rural and urban adolescents. Purpose: To examine associations between alcohol and medically attended injuries by…

  17. Initiating the Bank's Peri-Urban/Rural and Renewable Energy Activities in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    The workshop entitled, Initiating the Bank's Peri Urban / Rural and Renewable Energy Activities in Nigeria was divided in two parts. Part 1, Energizing rural energy transformation by : scaling up electricity access and renewable energy market development; and part 2, Creating demand and removing barriers to renewable energy market development. The workshop organizers placed great emphasis ...

  18. Understanding Rural-Urban Differences in Depressive Symptoms Among Older Adults in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lydia W; Liu, Jinyu; Xu, Hongwei; Zhang, Zhenmei

    2016-03-01

    Studies have reported that rural elders in China have higher levels of depression than their urban peers. We aimed to examine the extent to which four sets of factors (socioeconomic status [SES], health care access, health status, and social support and participation) account for such rural-urban differences. Cross-sectional data from the 2011 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study were analyzed. A representative sample (N = 5,103) of older Chinese (age 60+) was included. Depressive symptoms were measured by the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10). Multilevel linear regression was conducted. Rural elders had more depressive symptoms than urban elders. When SES at the individual, household, and community level was simultaneously controlled, the rural-urban difference lost its statistical significance. Health status, social support, and social participation accounted for some, whereas health care access explained almost none, of the rural-urban difference. Results suggest that SES is the predominant factor accounting for the rural-urban depression gap in China. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. A comparison of the use of smokeless tobacco in rural and urban teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulson, T C; Lindenmuth, J E; Greer, R O

    1984-01-01

    This paper compared the use of smokeless tobacco and its effects in rural and urban teenagers. A random sample of 445 subjects from rural Colorado were examined: 82.9 percent of the total sample were Caucasian, and 94.6 percent of those who used smokeless tobacco were Caucasian. This percentage supports the findings of an earlier urban study that the habit is predominantly one of male Caucasians. The average age of the users was 16.7 years, slightly older than in the urban study. Of the rural users, 62.5 percent had lesions of the oral tissues, compared with 48.7 percent lesional incidence in urban users. In both studies, those subjects with lesions had longer daily contact with smokeless tobacco, as well as a longer history of use than those without lesions. These are numerical averages that reflect great individual variations in susceptibility. The average duration of use for rural and urban users with lesions was almost the same; the development of lesions appears to be related to the length of daily exposure, which, on the average, was greater among rural users than urban users. Additionally, more than twice as many degree 3 lesions were found among users in the rural study. The habituating effects of nicotine and the influence of this substance on the future tobacco-usage patterns of youngsters who presently use smokeless tobacco are areas of concern. It is hoped that additional research will further delineate the scope of this current health problem.

  20. Do features of public open spaces vary between urban and rural areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, Jenny; Salmon, Jo; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David; Timperio, Anna

    2013-02-01

    Parks are an important setting for physical activity and specific park features have been shown to be associated with park visitation and physical activity. Most park-based research has been conducted in urban settings with few studies examining rural parks. This study examined differences in features of parks in urban compared with rural areas. In 2009/10 a tool was developed to audit 433 urban and 195 rural parks located in disadvantaged areas of Victoria, Australia. Features assessed included: access; lighting/safety; aesthetics; amenities; paths; outdoor courts/ovals; informal play spaces; and playgrounds (number, diversity, age appropriateness and safety of play equipment). Rural parks scored higher for aesthetics compared with urban parks (5.08 vs 4.44). Urban parks scored higher for access (4.64 vs 3.89), lighting/safety (2.01 vs 1.76), and diversity of play equipment (7.37 vs 6.24), and were more likely to have paths suitable for walking/cycling (58.8% vs 40.9%) and play equipment for older children (68.2% vs 17.1%). Although the findings cannot be generalized to all urban and rural parks, the results may be used to inform advocacy for park development in rural areas to create parks that are more supportive of physical activity for children and adults. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Rural and urban married Asian immigrants in Taiwan: determinants of their physical and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Walter; Shiao, Wen-Been; Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju; Lin, Cheng-Chieh

    2013-12-01

    Different geographical areas with unique social cultures or societies might influence immigrant health. This study examines whether health inequities and different social factors exist regarding the health of rural and urban married Asian immigrants. A survey was conducted on 419 rural and 582 urban married Asian immigrants in Taiwan in 2009. Whereas the descriptive results indicate a worse mental health status between rural and urban married Asian immigrants, rural married immigrants were as mentally healthy as urban ones when considering different social variables. An analysis of regional stratification found different social-determinant patterns on rural and urban married immigrants. Whereas social support is key for rural immigrant physical and mental health, acculturation (i.e., language proficiency), socioeconomics (i.e., working status), and family structure (the number of family members and children living in the family) are key to the mental health of urban married immigrants in addition to social support. This study verifies the key roles of social determinants on the subjective health of married Asian immigrants. Area-differential patterns on immigrant health might act as a reference for national authorities to (re)focus their attention toward more area-specific approaches for married Asian immigrants.

  2. Job satisfaction: rural versus urban primary health care workers' perception in Ogun State of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, P C; Ebuehi, O M

    2011-01-01

    Job satisfaction implies doing a job one enjoys, doing it well, and being suitably rewarded for one' efforts. Several factors affect job satisfaction. To compare factors influencing job satisfaction amongst rural and urban primary health care workers in southwestern Nigeria. A cross sectional comparative study recruited qualified health workers selected by multi stage sampling technique from rural and urban health facilities in four local government areas (LGAs) of Ogun State in Southwestern Nigeria. Data were collected and analysed using Epi info V 3.5.1 RESULTS: The response rates were 88(88%) and 91(91%) respectively in the rural and urban areas. While urban workers derived satisfaction from availability of career development opportunities, materials and equipment, in their current job, rural workers derived satisfaction from community recognition of their work and improved staff relationship. Major de-motivating factors common to both groups were lack of supportive supervision, client-provider relationship and lack of in-service training. However more rural 74(84.1%) than urban 62(68.1%) health workers would prefer to continue working in their present health facilities (p=0.04). There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in job satisfaction with respect to tools availability and career development opportunities (pfactors influencing job satisfaction between rural and urban healthcare workers. There is need for human resource policy to be responsive to the diverse needs of health workers particularly at the primary level.

  3. Urbanisation impacts on storm runoff along a rural-urban gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James David; Hess, Tim

    2017-09-01

    Urbanisation alters the hydrological response of catchments to storm events and spatial measures of urban extent and imperviousness are routinely used in hydrological modelling and attribution of runoff response to land use changes. This study evaluates whether a measure of catchment urban extent can account for differences in runoff generation from storm events along an rural-urban gradient. We employed a high-resolution monitoring network across 8 catchments in the south of the UK - ranging from predominantly rural to heavily urbanised - over a four year period, and from this selected 336 storm events. Hydrological response was compared using volume- and scaled time-based hydrograph metrics within a statistical framework that considered the effect of antecedent soil moisture. Clear differences were found between rural and urban catchments, however above a certain threshold of urban extent runoff volume was relatively unaffected by changes and runoff response times were highly variable between catchments due to additional hydraulic controls. Results indicate a spatial measure of urbanisation can generally explain differences in the hydrological response between rural and urban catchments but is insufficient to explain differences between urban catchments along an urban gradient. Antecedent soil moisture alters the volume and timing of runoff generated in catchments with large rural areas, but was not found to affect the runoff response where developed areas are much greater. The results of this study suggest some generalised relationships between urbanisation and storm runoff are not represented in observed storm events and point to limitations in using a simplified representations of the urban environment for attribution of storm runoff in small urban catchments. The study points to the need for enhanced hydrologically relevant catchment descriptors specific to small urban catchments and more focused research on the role of urban soils and soil moisture in storm

  4. Host-feeding patterns of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in urban and rural contexts within Rome province, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Laura; Marini, Francesca; Bongiorno, Gioia; Facchinelli, Luca; Pombi, Marco; Caputo, Beniamino; Maroli, Michele; Della Torre, Alessandra

    2010-04-01

    Knowledge of the frequency of contact between a mosquito species and its different hosts is essential to understand the role of each vector species in the transmission of diseases to humans and/or animals. However, no data are so far available on the feeding habits of Aedes albopictus in Italy or in other recently colonized temperate regions of Europe, due to difficulties in collecting blood-fed females of this diurnal and exophilic species. We analyzed Ae. albopictus host-feeding patterns in two urban and two rural sites within the area of Rome (Italy). Ae. albopictus was collected using sticky-traps and the blood-meal origin of 303 females was determined by direct dot-ELISA. The blood-fed sample, although representing only 4% of the total Ae. albopictus collected, demonstrates the useful application of sticky-trap in studying the feeding behavior of the species. The human blood index was significantly different among sites, ranging from 79-96% in urban sites to 23-55% in rural sites, where horses and bovines represented the most bitten hosts. The results obtained confirm the plastic feeding behavior shown by Ae. albopictus in its original range of distribution and highlights the high potential of this species as a vector of human pathogens in urban areas of Italy, where both humans and the mosquito itself may reach very high densities.

  5. An evaluation of access to health care services along the rural-urban continuum in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Lyn M; Weiner, Jonathan P

    2011-01-31

    Studies comparing the access to health care of rural and urban populations have been contradictory and inconclusive. These studies are complicated by the influence of other factor which have been shown to be related to access and utilization. This study assesses the equity of access to health care services across the rural-urban continuum in Canada before and after taking other determinants of access into account. This is a cross-sectional study of the population of the 10 provinces of Canada using data from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS 2.1). Five different measures of access and utilization are compared across the continuum of rural-urban. Known determinants of utilization are taken into account according to Andersen's Health Behaviour Model (HBM); location of residence at the levels of province, health region, and community is also controlled for. This study found that residents of small cities not adjacent to major centres, had the highest reported utilisation rates of influenza vaccines and family physician services, were most likely to have a regular medical doctor, and were most likely to report unmet need. Among the rural categories there was a gradient with the most rural being least likely to have had a flu shot, use specialist physicians services, or have a regular medical doctor. Residents of the most urban centres were more likely to report using specialist physician services. Many of these differences are diminished or eliminated once other factors are accounted for. After adjusting for other factors those living in the most urban areas were more likely to have seen a specialist physician. Those in rural communities had a lower odds of receiving a flu shot and having a regular medical doctor. People residing in the most urban and most rural communities were less likely to have a regular medical doctor. Those in any of the rural categories were less likely to report unmet need. Inequities in access to care along the rural-urban continuum

  6. Residues of chromium, nickel, cadmium and lead in Rook Corvus frugilegus eggshells from urban and rural areas of Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orłowski, Grzegorz, E-mail: orlog@poczta.onet.pl [Institute of Agricultural and Forest Environment, Polish Academy of Sciences, Bukowska 19, 60-809 Poznań (Poland); Kasprzykowski, Zbigniew [Department of Ecology and Nature Protection, Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Prusa 12, 08-110 Siedlce (Poland); Dobicki, Wojciech; Pokorny, Przemysław [Department of Limnology and Fishery, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Chełmońskiego 38C, 51-630 Wrocław (Poland); Wuczyński, Andrzej [Institute of Nature Conservation, Polish Academy of Sciences, Lower-Silesian Field Station, Podwale 75, 50-449 Wrocław (Poland); Polechoński, Ryszard [Department of Limnology and Fishery, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Chełmońskiego 38C, 51-630 Wrocław (Poland); Mazgajski, Tomasz D. [Museum and Institute of Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Wilcza 64, 00-679 Warszawa (Poland)

    2014-08-15

    We examined the concentrations of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in Rook Corvus frugilegus eggshells from 43 rookeries situated in rural and urban areas of western (= intensive agriculture) and eastern (= extensive agriculture) Poland. We found small ranges in the overall level of Cr (the difference between the extreme values was 1.8-fold; range of concentrations = 5.21–9.40 Cr ppm), Ni (3.5-fold; 1.15–4.07 Ni ppm), and Cd (2.6-fold; 0.34–0.91 Cd ppm), whereas concentrations of Pb varied markedly, i.e. 6.7-fold between extreme values (1.71–11.53 Pb ppm). Eggshell levels of these four elements did not differ between rural rookeries from western and eastern Poland, but eggshells from rookeries in large/industrial cities had significantly higher concentrations of Cr, Ni and Pb than those from small towns and villages. Our study suggests that female Rooks exhibited an apparent variation in the intensity of trace metal bioaccumulation in their eggshells, that rapid site-dependent bioaccumulation of Cu, Cr, Ni and Pb occurs as a result of the pollution gradient (rural < urban), and that Cd levels are probably regulated physiologically, even though these were relatively high, which could be treated as an overall proxy of a heavy Cd load in the soil environment. - Highlights: • Concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb are reported for Rook eggshells from 43 rookeries. • Cr, Ni and Pb levels were significantly higher in urban than in rural areas. • Bioaccumulation of Cr, Ni and Pb suggests a pollution gradient (urban > rural areas). • Females rapidly bioaccumulate Cr, Ni and Pb in breeding areas. • No difference found for Cd levels, which are probably regulated physiologically.

  7. Health and health-related indicators in slum, rural, and urban communities: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mberu, Blessing U; Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Ezeh, Alex C

    2016-01-01

    It is generally assumed that urban slum residents have worse health status when compared with other urban populations, but better health status than their rural counterparts. This belief/assumption is often because of their physical proximity and assumed better access to health care services in urban areas. However, a few recent studies have cast doubt on this belief. Whether slum dwellers are better off, similar to, or worse off as compared with rural and other urban populations remain poorly understood as indicators for slum dwellers are generally hidden in urban averages. The aim of this study was to compare health and health-related indicators among slum, rural, and other urban populations in four countries where specific efforts have been made to generate health indicators specific to slum populations. We conducted a comparative analysis of health indicators among slums, non-slums, and all urban and rural populations as well as national averages in Bangladesh, Kenya, Egypt, and India. We triangulated data from demographic and health surveys, urban health surveys, and special cross-sectional slum surveys in these countries to assess differences in health indicators across the residential domains. We focused the comparisons on child health, maternal health, reproductive health, access to health services, and HIV/AIDS indicators. Within each country, we compared indicators for slums with non-slum, city/urban averages, rural, and national indicators. Between-country differences were also highlighted. In all the countries, except India, slum children had much poorer health outcomes than children in all other residential domains, including those in rural areas. Childhood illnesses and malnutrition were higher among children living in slum communities compared to those living elsewhere. Although treatment seeking was better among slum children as compared with those in rural areas, this did not translate to better mortality outcomes. They bear a disproportionately

  8. Health and health-related indicators in slum, rural, and urban communities: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blessing U. Mberu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is generally assumed that urban slum residents have worse health status when compared with other urban populations, but better health status than their rural counterparts. This belief/assumption is often because of their physical proximity and assumed better access to health care services in urban areas. However, a few recent studies have cast doubt on this belief. Whether slum dwellers are better off, similar to, or worse off as compared with rural and other urban populations remain poorly understood as indicators for slum dwellers are generally hidden in urban averages. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare health and health-related indicators among slum, rural, and other urban populations in four countries where specific efforts have been made to generate health indicators specific to slum populations. Design: We conducted a comparative analysis of health indicators among slums, non-slums, and all urban and rural populations as well as national averages in Bangladesh, Kenya, Egypt, and India. We triangulated data from demographic and health surveys, urban health surveys, and special cross-sectional slum surveys in these countries to assess differences in health indicators across the residential domains. We focused the comparisons on child health, maternal health, reproductive health, access to health services, and HIV/AIDS indicators. Within each country, we compared indicators for slums with non-slum, city/urban averages, rural, and national indicators. Between-country differences were also highlighted. Results: In all the countries, except India, slum children had much poorer health outcomes than children in all other residential domains, including those in rural areas. Childhood illnesses and malnutrition were higher among children living in slum communities compared to those living elsewhere. Although treatment seeking was better among slum children as compared with those in rural areas, this did not translate to

  9. Social and cultural features of cholera and shigellosis in peri-urban and rural communities of Zanzibar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutubessy Raymond

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Responding to the high burden of cholera in developing countries, the WHO now considers vaccination as a supplement to the provision of safe drinking water and improved sanitation in the strategy for cholera control in endemic settings. Cultural concepts of illness affect many aspects of public health. In the first step of a two-step strategy to examine determinants of cholera vaccine acceptance, this study identified social and cultural features of diarrhoeal illness for cholera control in endemic communities. Methods A cultural epidemiological study with locally adapted vignette-based interviews was conducted in two cholera-endemic communities of Zanzibar. A random sample of unaffected peri-urban (n = 179 and rural (n = 177 adults was interviewed to study community ideas of cholera and shigellosis, considering categories of distress, perceived causes, and help-seeking behaviour. Results Cholera was recognised by 88%. Symptoms of dehydration were most prominent in reports at the peri-urban site. Interference with work leading to strain on household finances was frequently emphasised. Dirty environment was the most prominent perceived cause, followed by unsafe drinking water and germ-carrying flies. Causes unrelated to the biomedical basis of cholera were reported more often by rural respondents. Rural women had more difficulty (20% to identify a cause than men (7.1%, p = 0.016. Peri-urban self treatment emphasised rehydration; the rural community preferred herbal treatment and antibiotics. Shigellosis was recognised by 70%. Fewer regarded it as very serious compared with cholera (76% vs. 97%, p Conclusions This study clarified local views of cholera and shigellosis relevant for diarrhoeal disease control in Zanzibar. The finding that rural women were less likely than men to specify causes of cholera suggests more attention to them is required. Better health education is needed for cholera in rural areas and for shigellosis

  10. Perceptions of Shale Gas Development: Differences in Urban and Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby, G.; Grubert, E.; Brandt, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    Shale gas development in Pennsylvania has been shown to have a large impact on nearby rural communities, but almost no research has been done on how development of the Marcellus Shale affects urban residents in neighboring cities. The goal of this project is to examine how the social and environmental priorities of urban and rural communities differ and to determine how well informed urban residents are on shale gas development. An anonymous web survey was used to survey 250 residents of Pennsylvania's largest cities on topics like how respondents prioritize different environmental and social factors and how well informed they feel about shale gas development. The results of this survey were compared to findings of previous surveys on rural communities located near energy development. In terms of environmental priorities, urban residents are more concerned about climate change and air pollution than rural residents. Both urban and rural respondents agreed that healthcare and education were their top social concerns, but urban respondents also prioritized housing and employment. Most urban respondents said that they were unfamiliar with shale gas development, although many were still concerned about what its environmental impacts might be. We also found that our results displayed two well known demographic trends: first, Democrats are far more likely to self identify as environmentalists than those who vote Republican, and second, that people of color are far less likely to identify as environmentalists than white respondents. As a result, there are disproportionately fewer self-identifying environmentalists in urban and largely Democrat-leaning areas with racially diverse populations. Our data displayed known trends in urban populations as well as new information on how urban residents differ from their rural counterparts in their views on shale gas development and their broader social and environmental priorities.

  11. Comparison of Bone Mineral Density between Urban and Rural Areas: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Matsuzaki

    Full Text Available Studies from high income countries (HIC have generally shown higher osteoporotic fracture rates in urban areas than rural areas. Low bone mineral density (BMD increases susceptibility to fractures. This review aimed to assess whether urbanicity is consistently associated with lower BMD globally.Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Global Health (-April 2013 were searched for articles investigating differences in bone mineral content (BMC or BMD between urban and rural areas. Ratio of means (RoM of BMD were used to estimate effect sizes in meta-analysis, with an exception for one study that only presented BMC data.Fifteen articles from eleven distinct populations were included in the review; seven populations from four high income countries and four from three low and middle income countries (LMIC. Meta-analysis showed conflicting evidence for urban-rural difference in BMD; studies from high income countries generally showed higher BMD in rural areas while the results were more mixed in studies from low and middle income countries (HIC RoM = 0.05; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.06; LMIC RoM = -0.04: 95% CI: -0.1 to 0.01.Urban-rural differences of bone mineral density may be context-specific. BMD may be higher in urban areas in some lower income countries. More studies with robust designs and analytical techniques are needed to understand mechanisms underlying the effects of urbanization on bone mass accrual and loss.

  12. Fuel poverty in the UK: Is there a difference between rural and urban areas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Deborah; Vera-Toscano, Esperanza; Phimister, Euan

    2015-01-01

    Fuel poverty is a significant policy issue. An argument often made is that rural households are more likely to be fuel poor due to the nature of rural housing stock and the more limited choice of energy sources in rural areas. This paper uses panel data to compare the level and dynamics of fuel poverty in rural and urban areas of the UK. In addition to descriptive analysis, discrete hazard models of fuel poverty exit and re-entry are estimated and used to assess the influence of housing and personal characteristics on the time spent in fuel poverty. The results indicate that, on average, the experience of fuel poverty in urban areas is longer with a higher probability of fuel poverty persistence. However, on average the rural fuel poor appear more vulnerable to energy price increases while living in private accommodation or a flat increases their probability of remaining fuel poor relative to their urban counterparts. These results indicate policy effectiveness may differ across rural and urban space. However, they also emphasise the limits of spatial targeting. Monitoring the dynamics of fuel poverty is important for ensuring that policy targets are effective and reaching those most in need. - Highlights: • Urban fuel poverty is more persistent on average than rural fuel poverty. • Rural fuel poor are on average more vulnerable to energy price shocks. • Fuel poverty policy measures may have different effects in rural and urban areas. • Both spatial and household targeting required for policy effectiveness. • Policy makers should to consider additional monitoring of dynamics of fuel poverty.

  13. Antibiotic sales in rural and urban pharmacies in northern Vietnam: an observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The irrational overuse of antibiotics should be minimized as it drives the development of antibiotic resistance, but changing these practices is challenging. A better understanding is needed of practices and economic incentives for antibiotic dispensing in order to design effective interventions to reduce inappropriate antibiotic use. Here we report on both quantitative and qualitative aspects of antibiotic sales in private pharmacies in northern Vietnam. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted in which all drug sales were observed and recorded for three consecutive days at thirty private pharmacies, 15 urban and 15 rural, in the Hanoi region in 2010. The proportion of antibiotics to total drug sales was assessed and the revenue was calculated for rural and urban settings. Pharmacists and drug sellers were interviewed by a semi-structured questionnaire and in-depth interviews to understand the incentive structure of antibiotic dispensing. Results In total 2953 drug sale transactions (2083 urban and 870 rural) were observed. Antibiotics contributed 24% and 18% to the total revenue of pharmacies in urban and rural, respectively. Most antibiotics were sold without a prescription: 88% in urban and 91% in rural pharmacies. The most frequent reported reason for buying antibiotics was cough in the urban setting (32%) and fever in the rural area (22%). Consumers commonly requested antibiotics without having a prescription: 50% in urban and 28% in rural area. The qualitative data revealed that drug sellers and customer’s knowledge of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance were low, particularly in rural area. Conclusion Over the counter sales of antibiotic without a prescription remains a major problem in Vietnam. Suggested areas of improvement are enforcement of regulations and pricing policies and educational programs to increase the knowledge of drug sellers as well as to increase community awareness to reduce demand-side pressure for drug sellers to

  14. Prevalence of and Differences in Salad Bar Implementation in Rural Versus Urban Arizona Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenschine, Michelle; Adams, Marc; Bruening, Meg

    2018-03-01

    Rural children consume more calories per day on average than urban children, and they are less likely to consume fruit. Self-service salad bars have been proposed as an effective approach to better meet the National School Lunch Program's fruit and vegetable recommendations. No studies have examined how rural and urban schools differ in the implementation of school salad bars. To compare the prevalence of school-lunch salad bars and differences in implementation between urban and rural Arizona schools. Secondary analysis of a cross-sectional web-based survey. School nutrition managers (N=596) in the state of Arizona. National Center for Education Statistics locale codes defined rural and urban classifications. Barriers to salad bar implementation were examined among schools that have never had, once had, and currently have a school salad bar. Promotional practices were examined among schools that once had and currently have a school salad bar. Generalized estimating equation models were used to compare urban and rural differences in presence and implementation of salad bars, adjusting for school-level demographics and the clustering of schools within districts. After adjustment, the prevalence of salad bars did not differ between urban and rural schools (46.9%±4.3% vs 46.8%±8.5%, respectively). Rural schools without salad bars more often reported perceived food waste and cost of produce as barriers to implementing salad bars, and funding was a necessary resource for offering a salad bar in the future, as compared with urban schools (Pbar promotion, challenges, or resources among schools that currently have or once had a salad bar. After adjustment, salad bar prevalence, implementation practices, and concerns are similar across geographic settings. Future research is needed to investigate methods to address cost and food waste concerns in rural areas. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Rural-urban differences in human papillomavirus knowledge and awareness among US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Kahee A; Subramaniam, Divya S; Geneus, Christian J; Henderson, Emmett R; Dean, Caress A; Subramaniam, Dipti P; Burroughs, Thomas E

    2018-04-01

    Rural residents of the United States have higher HPV-associated cancer incidence and mortality, and suboptimal HPV vaccine uptake compared to urban residents. This study aimed to assess differences in knowledge and awareness of HPV, the HPV vaccine, and HPV-associated cancers among rural and urban residents. We analyzed data from the Health Information National Trends Survey 2013-2017 on 10,147 respondents ages ≥18 years. Multivariable logistic regression analyses compared urban/rural differences in knowledge and awareness of HPV, associated cancers, and HPV vaccine. Models were adjusted for sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, household income, census region, health insurance, regular provider, internet use, and personal history of cancer. Overall, 67.2% and 65.8% of urban residents were aware of HPV and HPV vaccine, respectively, compared to only 55.8% and 58.6% of rural residents. Adjusted models illustrated that compared to urban residents, rural residents were less likely to be aware of HPV (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.53-0.86) and HPV vaccine (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.63-0.97). Among those who were aware of HPV, rural residents were less likely to know that HPV causes cervical cancer (OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.46-0.84) and that HPV can be transmitted through sexual contact (OR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.56-0.94). No significant differences between rural and urban residents were noted for knowledge that HPV is transmitted sexually and that it causes oral, anal, and penile cancers. This study highlights significant rural health disparities in knowledge and awareness of HPV and the HPV vaccine compared to urban counterparts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Exploring Diet Quality between Urban and Rural Dwelling Women of Reproductive Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie C. Martin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Health disparities, including weight gain and obesity exist between urban and rural dwelling women. The primary aim was to compare diet quality in urban and rural women of reproductive age, and secondary analyses of the difference in macronutrient and micronutrient intake in urban and rural women, and the predictors of diet quality. Diet quality was assessed in urban (n = 149 and rural (n = 394 women by a modified version of the Dietary Guideline Index (DGI energy, macronutrient and micronutrient intake from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ and predictors of diet quality. Diet quality did not significantly differ between urban and rural women (mean ± standard deviation (SD, 84.8 ± 15.9 vs. 83.9 ± 16.5, p = 0.264. Rural women reported a significantly higher intake of protein, fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, cholesterol and iron and a higher score in the meat and meat alternatives component of the diet quality tool in comparison to urban women. In all women, a higher diet quality was associated with higher annual household income (>$Australian dollar (AUD 80,000 vs. <$AUD80,000 p = 0.013 and working status (working fulltime/part-time vs. unemployed p = 0.043. Total diet quality did not differ in urban and rural women; however, a higher macronutrient consumption pattern was potentially related to a higher lean meat intake in rural women. Women who are unemployed and on a lower income are an important target group for future dietary interventions aiming to improve diet quality.

  17. Characteristics of the residential neighborhood environment differentiate intimate partner femicide in urban versus rural settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirsten M M; Layde, Peter M; Hamberger, L Kevin; Laud, Purushottam W

    2013-06-01

    A growing body of work examines the association between neighborhood environment and intimate partner violence (IPV). As in the larger literature examining the influence of place context on health, rural settings are understudied and urban and rural residential environments are rarely compared. In addition, despite increased attention to the linkages between neighborhood environment and IPV, few studies have examined the influence of neighborhood context on intimate partner femicide (IPF). In this paper, we examine the role for neighborhood-level factors in differentiating urban and rural IPFs in Wisconsin, USA. We use a combination of Wisconsin Violent Death Reporting System (WVDRS) data and Wisconsin Coalition Against Domestic Violence (WCADV) reports from 2004 to 2008, in concert with neighborhood-level information from the US Census Bureau and US Department of Agriculture, to compare urban and rural IPFs. Rates of IPF vary based on degree of rurality, and bivariate analyses show differences between urban and rural victims in race/ethnicity, marital status, country of birth, and neighborhood characteristics. After controlling for individual characteristics, the nature of the residential neighborhood environment significantly differentiates urban and rural IPFs. Our findings suggest a different role for neighborhood context in affecting intimate violence risk in rural settings, and that different measures may be needed to capture the qualities of rural environments that affect intimate violence risk. Our findings reinforce the argument that multilevel strategies are required to understand and reduce the burden of intimate violence, and that interventions may need to be crafted for specific geographical contexts. © 2013 National Rural Health Association.

  18. Sustainable Urban Fringes - Connecting Urban and Rural : Final report of the SURF project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de T.J.N.M. (Theo); Haccoû, H.A. (Huib); Leslie, A. (Allison); Lier, G. (Goos); Littlewood, S. (Stephan); Oldejans, R. (Rolf); Thomas, K. (Kevin); Vries, de B.J. (Bauke); Watt, E. (Emma); Wishardt, M. (Michelle)

    2012-01-01

    What happens at the urban edge and the SURF aspiration to influence it? Projects in the urban fringe Urban fringe governance Integrated policy guidelines and approaches towards urban fringe planning and management The future management of the urban fringe

  19. Factors influencing dyspepsia-related consultation: differences between a rural and an urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadeva, S; Yadav, H; Everett, S M; Goh, K-L

    2011-09-01

    Dyspepsia is a common, chronic condition but medical consultation rates for symptoms remain variable. We aimed to examine two populations with varied health-care provision to determine predictive factors for dyspepsia-related consultation. A cross-sectional, population-based study in both an urban and a rural community within a single Asian country was conducted. Details on dyspepsia-related consultation rates over a fixed period and independent factors influencing them were identified. A total of 4039/5370 (75.2%) adults from representative rural and urban areas in this country agreed to participate in the study. Although mean ages of respondents were similar (40.4years), the demographics of both populations varied in terms of gender (62.7% female, rural vs 55.7% female, urban, Prural vs 70.5% urban, P=0.002), ethnicity, (79% Malay rural vs 45.3% Malays urban, Prural vs 47.3% urban, Prural compared to urban adults (41.4%vs 28.7%, Purban compared to rural dyspepsia sufferers (n=157 vs n=35, Prural population (OR 3.14, 95% CI=1.65-6.0), low quality of life (OR 1.90, 95% CI=1.17-3.10), and self-medication (OR 0.40, 95% CI=0.25-0.62) were found to independently predict dyspepsia-related consultation. Dyspepsia-related consultation varied significantly between urban and rural communities. Factors within the rural population, self-medication practices, and a low quality of life independently influenced dyspepsia-related consultation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Riparian rehabilitation planning in an urban-rural gradient: Integrating social needs and ecological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida-Johnson, Bárbara; Zuleta, Gustavo A

    2017-09-01

    In the present context of global change and search for sustainability, we detected a gap between restoration and society: local communities are usually only considered as threats or disturbances when planning for restoration. To bridge this gap, we propose a landscape design framework for planning riparian rehabilitation in an urban-rural gradient. A spatial multi-criteria analysis was used to assess the priority of riversides by considering two rehabilitation objectives simultaneously-socio-environmental and ecological-and two sets of criteria were designed according to these objectives. The assessment made it possible to identify 17 priority sites for riparian rehabilitation that were associated with different conditions along the gradient. The double goal setting enabled a dual consideration of citizens, both as beneficiaries and potential impacts to rehabilitation, and the criteria selected incorporated the multi-dimensional nature of the environment. This approach can potentially be adapted and implemented in any other anthropic-natural interface throughout the world.

  1. Mapping the availability and accessibility of healthy food in rural and urban New Zealand--Te Wai o Rona: Diabetes Prevention Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Williams, Margaret; Rush, Elaine; Crook, Nic; Forouhi, Nita G; Simmons, David

    2010-07-01

    Uptake of advice for lifestyle change for obesity and diabetes prevention requires access to affordable 'healthy' foods (high in fibre/low in sugar and fat). The present study aimed to examine the availability and accessibility of 'healthy' foods in rural and urban New Zealand. We identified and visited ('mapped') 1230 food outlets (473 urban, 757 rural) across the Waikato/Lakes areas (162 census areas within twelve regions) in New Zealand, where the Te Wai O Rona: Diabetes Prevention Strategy was underway. At each site, we assessed the availability of 'healthy' foods (e.g. wholemeal bread) and compared their cost with those of comparable 'regular' foods (e.g. white bread). Healthy foods were generally more available in urban than rural areas. In both urban and rural areas, 'healthy' foods were more expensive than 'regular' foods after adjusting for the population and income level of each area. For instance, there was an increasing price difference across bread, meat, poultry, with the highest difference for sugar substitutes. The weekly family cost of a 'healthy' food basket (without sugar) was 29.1% more expensive than the 'regular' basket ($NZ 176.72 v. $NZ 136.84). The difference between the 'healthy' and 'regular' basket was greater in urban ($NZ 49.18) than rural areas ($NZ 36.27) in adjusted analysis. 'Healthy' foods were more expensive than 'regular' choices in both urban and rural areas. Although urban areas had higher availability of 'healthy' foods, the cost of changing to a healthy diet in urban areas was also greater. Improvement in the food environment is needed to support people in adopting healthy food choices.

  2. An Analysis of the Determinants of Rural to Urban Migration Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of rural to urban migration is a relatively old and ubiquitous phenomenon globally. However, in recent years, it has become a cause of concern at the global, regional and national levels. The unprecedented levels of urbanization characteristic to most developing countries have resulted in the movement of ...

  3. Development and the Urban and Rural Geography of Mexican Emigration to the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Erin R.; Villarreal, Andres

    2011-01-01

    Past research on international migration from Mexico to the United States uses geographically-limited data and analyzes emigrant-sending communities in isolation. Theories supported by this research may not explain urban emigration, and this research does not consider connections between rural and urban Mexico. In this study we use national data…

  4. The Urban West and the Rural Rest: Framing in Dutch Regional Planing in the 1950s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molema, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on the case of Dutch regional planning in the 1950s to investigate how ‘urban space’ and ‘rural space’ have traditionally been perceived as opposing concepts. During this decade, politicians, planners and policy-makers constructed an image of an overdeveloped, urban, industrial

  5. [Rural-urban migration in Tucuman: its impact on the deterioration of the environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusa, A T

    1994-01-01

    The author looks at rural-urban migration in Latin America as a whole, and in Argentina and the province of Tucuman in particular. She describes the negative effect this migration has had on the Argentine city of San Miguel de Tucuman, in that it has given rise to the growth of urban poverty and slum areas. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  6. Rural-urban migration and effects on agricultural labour supply in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analyzed the effects of rural-urban migration on agricultural labour supply in Imo State, Nigeria. Primary data were collected from labourers who converge at specific locations in the three urban centres of Owerri, Orlu and Okigwe. Also agricultural labourers from six communities chosen from the three agricultural ...

  7. Districts on the Edge: The Impact of Urban Sprawl on a Rural Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Paul

    1988-01-01

    Portrays the controversy surrounding schools and education in a rural community experiencing both an influx of urban and suburban newcomers and the effects of urban sprawl. Reports on surveys of student educational attitudes, household information, and outside activities, and on interviews with teachers, school administrators, and residents.…

  8. Modelo de Alfabetizacion: A Poblacion Urbana y Rural. Documento General (Literacy Model: Urban and Rural Populations. General Document).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instituto Nacional para la Educacion de los Adultos, Mexico City (Mexico).

    This document describes literacy models for urban and rural populations in Mexico. It contains four sections. The first two sections (generalizations about the population and considerations about the teaching of adults) discuss the environment that creates illiterate adults and also describe some of the conditions under which learning takes place…

  9. Sanitation challenges of the poor in urban and rural settings: Case studies of Bengaluru City and rural North Karnataka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seshaiah, Manasi; Nagesh, Latha; Ramesh, Hemalatha

    2017-01-01

    Bengaluru city faces severe challenges in providing sanitation infrastructure for the urban poor. Similarly, we have villages in North Karnataka that encounter problems of toilet access and related challenges. This paper addresses concerns both in city and rural contexts. We surveyed 400 respondents

  10. Levels of five metals in male hair from urban and rural areas of Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ming-Jing; Wei, Shi-Qiang; Sun, Yu-Xin; Yang, Ting; Li, Qi; Wang, Deng-Xiang

    2016-11-01

    Heavy metals were measured by flame atomic absorption in male hair from residents in urban and rural areas in Chongqing. The median values of the Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were 2.90, 23.9, 9.31, 39.3 and 203 μg/g in urban areas and 0.84, 13.4, 5.56, 14.5 and 169 μg/g in rural area, respectively. The levels of Cd, Ni and Pb both in urban and rural areas lie at the high end of the worldwide figures. The differences in heavy metal distribution pattern indicated that there were more sources of Cd and Pb in urban areas. The levels of Cd were increasing along with the growth of age except for the aged people in urban areas, and no significant relationship was observed between the levels of the heavy metal and the age. It is noticed that the hair of smokers exhibited more heavy metal levels than that of non-smokers both in urban and rural areas. In addition, the hair metal levels of the smokers and non-smokers in urban areas were significantly higher than those in rural area, respectively. Significant pairwise correlations (p urban areas, indicating the elements in these two areas might originate from different sources. The elevated levels of Cd, Pb and Ni implied that the residents both in urban and rural areas might be at high risk of toxic metal exposure, especially for the children.

  11. Sustainable Impact of Landfill Siting towards Urban Planning in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin Tey, Jia; Goh, Kai Chen; Ern Ang, Peniel Soon

    2017-10-01

    Landfill is one of the most common, widely used waste management technique in Malaysia. The ever increasing of solid waste has made the role of landfill become prominent despite the negative impacts that caused by the landfill is unavoidable. The public and government regulations are getting more aware with the negative impacts that could be brought by the landfill towards the community. It led to the cultural shift to integrate the concept of sustainability into the planning of siting a landfill in an urban area. However, current urban planning tends to emphasize more on the environmental aspect instead of social and economic aspects. This is due to the existing planning guidelines and stakeholder’s understandings are more on the environmental aspect. This led to the needs of incorporating the concept of sustainability into the urban planning. Thus, this paper focuses on the industry stakeholders view on the negative impacts that will cause by the landfill towards the urban planning. The industry stakeholders are those who are related to the decision-making in the selection of a landfill site in the government department. The scope of the study is within the country of Malaysia. This study was conducted through the semi-structured interviews with a total of fifteen industry stakeholders to obtain their perspective on the issues of impacts of siting a landfill in the urban area. The data obtained was analysed using the software, QSR NVivo version 10. Results indicate that landfill bought significant sustainability-related impacts towards landfill siting in urban planning. The negative impacts stated by the respondents are categorized under all three sustainable aspects such as environmental, social and economic. Among the results are such as the pollution, such as the generation of leachate, the objection in siting a landfill site against by the public, and the negotiating and getting money contribution from local authorities. The results produced can be served

  12. Gaseous pollutants on rural and urban nursery schools in Northern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, R A O; Branco, P T B S; Alvim-Ferraz, M C M; Martins, F G; Sousa, S I V

    2016-01-01

    Indoor air quality in nursery schools is different from other schools and this has been largely ignored, particularly in rural areas. Urban and rural nursery schools have different environmental characteristics whose knowledge needs improvement. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate continuously the concentrations of CO2, CO, NO2, O3, CH2O and total VOC in three rural nursery schools and one urban, being the only one comparing urban and rural nurseries with continuous measurements, thus considering occupation and non-occupation periods. Regarding CO2, urban nursery recorded higher concentrations (739-2328 mg m(-3)) than rural nurseries (653-1078 mg m(-3)). The influence of outdoor air was the main source of CO, NO2 and O3 indoor concentrations. CO and NO2 concentrations were higher in the urban nursery and O3 concentrations were higher in rural ones. CH2O and TVOC concentrations seemed to be related to internal sources, such as furniture and flooring finishing and cleaning products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Urban-Rural Gradient In Asthma: A Population-Based Study in Northern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Timm

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The early life environment appears to have a persistent impact on asthma risk. We hypothesize that environmental factors related to rural life mediate lower asthma prevalence in rural populations, and aimed to investigate an urban-rural gradient, assessed by place of upbringing, for asthma. The population-based Respiratory Health In Northern Europe (RHINE study includes subjects from Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Iceland and Estonia born 1945–1973. The present analysis encompasses questionnaire data on 11,123 RHINE subjects. Six categories of place of upbringing were defined: farm with livestock, farm without livestock, village in rural area, small town, city suburb and inner city. The association of place of upbringing with asthma onset was analysed with Cox regression adjusted for relevant confounders. Subjects growing up on livestock farms had less asthma (8% than subjects growing up in inner cities (11% (hazard ratio 0.72 95% CI 0.57–0.91, and a significant urban-rural gradient was observed across six urbanisation levels (p = 0.02. An urban-rural gradient was only evident among women, smokers and for late-onset asthma. Analyses on wheeze and place of upbringing revealed similar results. In conclusion, this study suggests a protective effect of livestock farm upbringing on asthma development and an urban-rural gradient in a Northern European population.

  14. Recommendations to bridge rural/urban drug-use(r) research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukefeld, C G; Edwards, R W

    1999-01-01

    This article presents recommendations developed by a group of United States drug-use(r) researchers interested in rural and urban research and practice who met in Lexington, Kentucky, in October 1996. Overall, there was consensus about the importance of better understanding the urban/rural drug and alcohol use/dependency continuum. It was emphasized that drug and alcohol use/dependency are chronic and relapsing disorders. Definitions of rural and urban are most important, and different definitions may be associated with factors that are masked by population density. Specific recommendations are presented in the following areas: Rural Factors, Epidemiology, HIV/AIDS, Treatment and Other Services, Migration, Youth, Protective Factors, Systems Perspective, Measurement, Confidentiality, Criminal Justice, Research, Policy Research, Economic Factors, Service Providers, and Managed Care.

  15. Schools at the Rural-Urban Boundary – Blurring the Divide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick-Will, Julia; Logan, John R.

    2018-01-01

    Schools mirror the communities in which they are located. Research on school inequality across the rural-urban spectrum tends to focus on the contrast between urban, suburban, and rural schools and glosses over the variation within these areas as well as the similarities between them. To address this gap and provide a richer description of the spatial distribution of educational inequality, we examine the school composition, achievement, and resources of all U.S. elementary schools in 2010–2011. We apply standard census definitions of what areas fall within central cities, the remainder of metropolitan regions, and in rural America. We then apply spatially explicit methods to reveal blurred boundaries and gradual gradients rather than sharp breaks at the edges of these zones. The results show high levels of variation within the suburbs and substantial commonality between rural and urban areas. PMID:29430017

  16. Frac Sand Mines Are Preferentially Sited in Unzoned Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Shifting markets can cause unexpected, stochastic changes in rural landscapes that may take local communities by surprise. Preferential siting of new industrial facilities in poor areas or in areas with few regulatory restrictions can have implications for environmental sustainability, human health, and social justice. This study focuses on frac sand mining—the mining of high-quality silica sand used in hydraulic fracturing processes for gas and oil extraction. Frac sand mining gained prominence in the 2000s in the upper midwestern United States where nonmetallic mining is regulated primarily by local zoning. I asked whether frac sand mines were more commonly sited in rural townships without formal zoning regulations or planning processes than in those that undertook zoning and planning before the frac sand boom. I also asked if mine prevalence was correlated with socioeconomic differences across townships. After creating a probability surface to map areas most suitable for frac sand mine occurrence, I developed neutral landscape models from which to compare actual mine distributions in zoned and unzoned areas at three different spatial extents. Mines were significantly clustered in unzoned jurisdictions at the statewide level and in 7 of the 8 counties with at least three frac sand mines and some unzoned land. Subsequent regression analyses showed mine prevalence to be uncorrelated with land value, tax rate, or per capita income, but correlated with remoteness and zoning. The predicted mine count in unzoned townships was over two times higher than that in zoned townships. However, the county with the most mines by far was under a county zoning ordinance, perhaps indicating industry preferences for locations with clear, homogenous rules over patchwork regulation. Rural communities can use the case of frac sand mining as motivation to discuss and plan for sudden land-use predicaments, rather than wait to grapple with unfamiliar legal processes during a period of

  17. Comparision of health needs of older people between affected rural and urban areas after the 2005 Kashmir, Pakistan earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Emily Y Y; Griffiths, Sian

    2009-01-01

    On 08 October 2005, an earthquake measuring 7.6 on the Richter scale, struck Pakistan's autonomous state of Kashmir and part of Indian-administrated Kashmir.The official death toll in Pakistan was 79,000, and nearly 1,400 in Kashmir. This study reports the findings of a three-week health needs assessment to understand the needs of rural, older people postearthquake. This study was conducted in February 2006 in the Neelum Valley of Kashmir, Pakistan, four months after the earthquake. During emergency relief, the vulnerability and health needs of older people in rural settings are different than are those in of urban areas. A comparative, descriptive study was performed using health information to compare the differences between rural and urban health needs and the utilization of services of older people after the earthquake. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect information regarding demographic background, medical and drug history, self-reported health status, healthcare access and utilization, and social/financial concerns. Clinical records were reviewed and physical indicators for older patients also were collected on-site. The health profile, access to health care, service availability, and prevalence of non-communicable diseases differ between urban and rural settings. The greatest gap in health services at all sites was that non-communicable disease management was inadequate during non-acute, post-earthquake medical care. Health service utilization varied by gender, as in conservative rural areas, older, traditional women were less likely to receive medical services while older men were less likely to access psychological services in all sites. This is the first study to compare the post-earthquake healthcare needs of older people in urban and rural settings. Findings highlight specific health needs and issues related to long-term, chronic disease management. Given the global pattern of aging of the population, it is important to strengthen the

  18. Primary health care for hypertension by nurses in rural and urban sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kengne, Andre P; Awah, Paschal K; Fezeu, Leopold L; Sobngwi, Eugene; Mbanya, Jean-Claude

    2009-10-01

    To implement a nurse-led protocol for the care of hypertension, 5 clinics were established in Yaounde (urban) and Bafut (rural) in Cameroon. International guidelines were adapted and 10 nurses were trained. The initial cohort of patients was referred from a field survey. The program proceeded for 26 months and 454 patients (45% urban) were registered in the clinics. Relative to urban participants, rural participants were more often women (59% vs 45%, P=.002) and less likely to have diabetes (7.2% vs 41.2%, Purban participants and nondiabetics. Nurse-led clinics are effective for improving hypertension care in these settings and require implementation and validation through controlled trials.

  19. Access to dental care services for Medicaid children: variations by urban/rural categories in Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byck, Gayle R; Walton, Surrey M; Cooksey, Judith A

    2002-01-01

    Poor oral health status and limited access to dental care have been recognized as problems for children from Medicaid and low-income families. However, little is known about dental access for Medicaid-enrolled children in rural areas. This study examines differences between rural and urban counties in dental utilization rates of Illinois children enrolled in either Medicaid or the Children's Health Insurance Program. How the overall dentist supply, the dentist Medicaid participation rate, and county level sociodemographic factors relate to Medicaid dental utilization are examined. Illinois counties were aggregated into four urban/rural categories. Descriptive analysis showed lower utilization rates in the rural categories (25 and 27%) compared with the metropolitan categories (35 and 31%). Rural areas had a substantially lower supply of dentists, and consequently a lower supply of dentists participating in Medicaid, despite the substantially higher Medicaid participation rate of dentists in the rural categories (45 and 51%) than in the metropolitan categories (22 and 32%). However, regression results indicated no significant relationship between the rate of utilization of Medicaid-enrolled children and rural status after controlling for several dental supply and population factors. The most important factors relating to Medicaid-enrolled children's dental utilization, regardless of urban or rural status, were the proportion of children enrolled in Medicaid and the participating dentist to population ratio. Without the high participation rate of dentists in rural areas, access to oral health care for rural children enrolled in Medicaid would have been worse. Policy makers should focus on maintaining high rural dentist participation rates as well as addressing future supply problems that may exacerbate difficulties with access in rural areas.

  20. Chilling out in "Cosmopolitan Country": Urban/Rural Hybridity and the Construction of Daylesford as a "Lesbian and Gay Rural Idyll"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman-Murray, Andrew; Waitt, Gordon; Gibson, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This paper advances scholarship on "lesbian and gay rural idylls". A growing literature examines how "lesbian and gay rural idylls" are not only produced in opposition to the urban, but are themselves urban constructs. We extend these contentions by exploring the processes of idyllisation suffusing lesbian and gay festival…

  1. Urban Growth and Rural Transition in China Based on DMSP/OLS Nighttime Light Data

    OpenAIRE

    Minghong Tan

    2015-01-01

    Nighttime light (NTL) images provide uniform, consistent, and valuable data sources. Based on four reference regions, the NTL imagery of China was fully intercalibrated during the period 1992–2012. Using lit areas and the intensity of NTL imagery, this study synthetically analyzed the urbanization process and rural transition in China. The results showed that, over the whole country, the pixel numbers of urban areas increased by 173% from 1992 to 2012. During the 2000s, urban areas expanded m...

  2. Towards integrating rural vernacular settlements in urban regions: a study of Algarve, Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Miguel Reimão; Batista, Desidério

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the vernacular settlements that often exist in the fringes of urban centres and their adaptations and absorptions within the expansions of the urban regions. In many parts of the world, the processes of urban expansions that began with the industrial revolution often led to the integration of rural settlements previously located in the outer rings of cities through adaptations that naturally took place at that time. In the recent decades however, this has become more arb...

  3. Implications of rural-urban migration for conservation of the Atlantic Forest and urban growth in Misiones, Argentina (1970-2030).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Andrea E; Grau, Héctor R; Aide, T Mitchell

    2011-05-01

    Global trends of increasing rural-urban migration and population urbanization could provide opportunities for nature conservation, particularly in regions where deforestation is driven by subsistence agriculture. We analyzed the role of rural population as a driver of deforestation and its contribution to urban population growth from 1970 to the present in the Atlantic Forest of Argentina, a global conservation priority. We created future land-use-cover scenarios based on human demographic parameters and the relationship between rural population and land-cover change between 1970 and 2006. In 2006, native forest covered 50% of the province, but by 2030 all scenarios predicted a decrease that ranged from 18 to 39% forest cover. Between 1970 and 2001, rural migrants represented 20% of urban population growth and are expected to represent less than 10% by 2030. This modeling approach shows how rural-urban migration and land-use planning can favor nature conservation with little impact on urban areas.

  4. AWARENESS OF REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH IN ADOLESCENT GIRLS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN RURAL AND URBAN BACKGROUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunvanti Meena

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Reproductive health is an essential part of the life of each and every individual. Our adolescents particularly rural girls have poor reproductive health awareness, which leads them easy prey to disasters i.e. teenage pregnancy and STDs. OBJECTIVES To evaluate and compare the reproductive health awareness of rural and urban adolescent school girls. METHODS Total 1400 adolescent school girls (700 from rural and 700 urban girls studying in 6th to 12th class were included in the study. Awareness was assessed by a questionnaire. RESULTS Only a few girls were aware about age of onset of adolescence. Term puberty was heard by 444 urban and 306 rural girls. Awareness about changes of adolescence was more for urban girls. Awareness regarding menstruation as activation of reproductive system was more in urban girls. About half girls of both background were aware regarding normal duration of menses. Only a few girls were aware about part of menstruation during which a woman has greatest chances of getting pregnant. Awareness regarding contraception and symptoms of sexual diseases was more in urban girls. Awareness regarding modes of spread of HIV was more in rural girls. CONCLUSION Awareness regarding contraceptive, menstruation, and changes of adolescence is very poor, so special attention is required for these aspects such as including these topics in educational system and there is also need to maintain and increase awareness regarding HIV/AIDS. The health system of India should bridge this huge gap of unmet need of adolescent reproductive health.

  5. Two Aspects of the Rural-Urban Divide and Educational Stratification in China: A Trajectory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lingxin; Hu, Alfred; Lo, Jamie

    2014-08-01

    Contextualized in China's social change of the past half-century, this paper develops the notion of dichotomous inequality to conceptualize the two aspects of China's rural-urban divide in educational inequality-the household registration system ( hukou ) assigns people to a top-bottom hierarchy, and the rural-urban schooling system institutionalizes unequal resource distribution and diverse school mission. Based on this conceptualization, we formulate a Chinese version of the maximally maintained inequality (MMI) hypothesis. We capitalize on individual educational history data from the China General Social Survey (CGSS) 2008 and conduct a trajectory analysis using the generalized mixture modeling to estimate the differential effects of the two aspects of rural-urban divide on educational inequality in China. Findings indicate that (1) the sorting mechanism of the rural hukou places rural- hukou people in the very bottom of educational stratification, (2) the penalty of attending rural pre-tertiary school increases with educational stages, and (3) there is a cumulative disadvantage of rural hukou and rural school. Overall, our findings attest to the Chinese-version MMI and the behind principle of inequality reproduction.

  6. Differences in prevalence of prescription opiate misuse among rural and urban probationers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Jennifer R; Oser, Carrie B; Leukefeld, Carl G; Webster, J Matthew; Martin, Steven S; O'Connell, Daniel J; Surratt, Hilary L; Inciardi, James A

    2007-01-01

    We compared the prevalence of prescription opiate misuse among 2 cohorts of felony probationers (N = 1525). Multiple logistic regression was utilized to determine the independent correlates of prescription opiate misuse among rural (n = 782) and urban (n = 743) probationers participating in an HIV-intervention study. After adjustment for differences in demographic and drug use characteristics, rural participants were almost five times more likely than their urban counterparts to have misused prescription opiates. The prevalence of prescription opiate misuse was significantly higher among the rural probationers; however, given the paucity of illicit opiates and relatively recent emergence of prescription opiates in rural areas, rural substance abuse treatment may be ill-prepared to treat prescription opiate misuse.

  7. Disparities in obesity among rural and urban residents in a health disparate region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jennie L; You, Wen; Zoellner, Jamie M

    2014-10-08

    The burden of obesity and obesity-related conditions is not borne equally and disparities in prevalence are well documented for low-income, minority and rural adults in the United States. The current literature on rural versus urban disparities is largely derived from national surveillance data which may not reflect regional nuances. There is little practical research that supports the reality of local service providers such as county health departments that may serve both urban and rural residents in a given area. Conducted through a community-academic partnership, the primary aim of this study is to quantify the current levels of obesity (BMI), fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and physical activity (PA) in a predominately rural health disparate region. Secondary aims are to determine if a gradient exists within the region in which rural residents have poorer outcomes on these indicators compared to urban residents. Conducted as part of a larger ongoing community-based participatory research (CBPR) initiative, data were gathered through a random digit dial telephone survey using previously validated measures (n = 784). Linear, logistic and quantile regression models are used to determine if residency (i.e. rural, urban) predicts outcomes of FV intake, PA and BMI. The majority (72%) of respondents were overweight (BMI = 29 ± 6 kg/m2), with 29% being obese. Only 9% of residents met recommendations for FV intake and 38% met recommendations for PA. Statistically significant gradients between urban and rural and race exist at the upper end of the BMI distribution. In other words, the severity of obesity is worse among black compared to white and for urban residents compared to rural residents. These results will be used by the community-academic partnership to guide the development of culturally relevant and sustainable interventions to increase PA, increase FV intake and reduce obesity within this health disparate region. In particular, local stakeholders may wish to

  8. Injury morbidity in an urban and a rural area in Tanzania: an epidemiological survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setel Philip

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injuries are becoming a major health problem in developing countries. Few population based studies have been carried out in African countries. We examined the pattern of nonfatal injuries and associated risk factors in an urban and rural setting of Tanzania. Methods A population-based household survey was conducted in 2002. Participants were selected by cluster sampling. A total of 8,188 urban and 7,035 rural residents of all ages participated in the survey. All injuries reported among all household members in the year preceding the interview and resulting in one or more days of restricted activity were included in the analyis. Results A total of 206 (2.5% and 303 (4.3% persons reported to have been injured in the urban and rural area respectively. Although the overall incidence was higher in the rural area, the incidence of major injuries (≥ 30 disability days was similar in both areas. Males were at a higher risk of having an injury than females. Rural residents were more likely to experience injuries due to falls (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1 – 2.3 and cuts (OR = 4.3; 95% CI = 3.0 – 6.2 but had a lower risk of transport injuries. The most common causes of injury in the urban area were transport injuries and falls. In the rural area, cuts and stabs, of which two thirds were related to agriculture, formed the most common cause. Age was an important risk factor for certain types of injuries. Poverty levels were not significantly associated with experiencing a nonfatal injury. Conclusion The patterns of injury differ in urban and rural areas partly as a reflection of livelihoods and infrastructure. Rural residents are at a higher overall injury risk than urban residents. This may be important in the development of injury prevention strategies.

  9. Community Stroke Rehabilitation: How Do Rural Residents Fare Compared With Their Urban Counterparts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Laura; McIntyre, Amanda; Janzen, Shannon; Richardson, Marina; Meyer, Matthew; Ure, David; Teasell, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Rural living has been demonstrated to have an effect on a person's overall health status, and rural residing individuals often have decreased access to health and specialized rehabilitation services. The aim of this study was to determine if there are differences in recovery from stroke between urban and rural-dwelling stroke survivors accessing an in-home, community-based, interdisciplinary, stroke rehabilitation program. Data from a cohort of 1222 stroke survivors receiving care from the Community Stroke Rehabilitation Teams between January 2009 and June 2013 was analyzed. This program delivers stroke rehabilitation care directly in a person's home and community. Functional and psychosocial outcomes were evaluated at baseline, discharge, and six -month follow-up. A series of multiple linear regression analyses was performed to determine if rural versus urban status was a significant predictor of discharge and 6-month health outcomes. The mean age of the rural cohort was 68.8 (±13.1) years (53.6% male), and the urban cohort was 68.4 (±13.0) years (44.8% male). A total of 278 (35.4%) individuals were classified as living in a rural area using the Rurality Index for Ontario. In multivariate linear regression analysis, no significant differences on the Functional Independence Measure, the Stroke Impact Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, or the Reintegration to Normal Living Index were found between urban and rural cohorts. When provided with access to a home-based, specialized stroke rehabilitation program, rural dwelling stroke survivors make and maintain functional gains comparable to their urban-living counterparts.

  10. Unmet supportive care needs of haematological cancer survivors: rural versus urban residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzelepis, Flora; Paul, Christine L; Sanson-Fisher, Robert W; Campbell, H Sharon; Bradstock, Kenneth; Carey, Mariko L; Williamson, Anna

    2018-03-10

    Due to fewer cancer services in rural locations, rural survivors may have unique unmet needs compared to urban survivors. This study compared among rural and urban haematological cancer survivors the most common "high/very high" unmet supportive care needs and the unmet need scores for five domains (information, financial concerns, access and continuity of care, relationships and emotional health). Survivors' socio-demographics, rurality, cancer history and psychological factors associated with each unmet need domain were also explored. A total of 1511 haematological cancer survivors were recruited from five Australian state cancer registries and 1417 (1145 urban, 272 rural) allowed extraction of their residential postcode from registry records. A questionnaire that contained the Survivor Unmet Needs Survey was mailed to survivors. Dealing with feeling tired was the most common "high/very high" unmet need for rural (15.2%) and urban (15.5%) survivors. The emotional health domain had the highest mean unmet need score for rural and urban survivors. Rurality was associated with a decreased unmet emotional health domain score whereas travelling for more than 1 h to treatment was associated with increased unmet financial concerns and unmet access and continuity of care. Depression, anxiety and stress were associated with increased unmet need scores for all five domains. Unmet need domain scores generally did not differ by rurality. Travelling for more than 1 h to treatment was associated with increased unmet need scores on two domains. Telemedicine and increased financial assistance with travel and accommodation may help those travelling long distances for treatment.

  11. Language development in rural and urban Russian-speaking children with and without developmental language disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornilov, Sergey A; Lebedeva, Tatiana V; Zhukova, Marina A; Prikhoda, Natalia A; Korotaeva, Irina V; Koposov, Roman A; Hart, Lesley; Reich, Jodi; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2016-02-01

    Using a newly developed Assessment of the Development of Russian Language (ORRIA), we investigated differences in language development between rural vs. urban Russian-speaking children (n = 100 with a mean age of 6.75) subdivided into groups with and without developmental language disorders. Using classical test theory and item response theory approaches, we found that while ORRIA displayed overall satisfactory psychometric properties, several of its items showed differential item functioning favoring rural children, and several others favoring urban children. After the removal of these items, rural children significantly underperformed on ORRIA compared to urban children. The urbanization factor did not significantly interact with language group. We discuss the latter finding in the context of the multiple additive risk factors for language development and emphasize the need for future studies of the mechanisms that underlie these influences and the implications of these findings for our understanding of the etiological architecture of children's language development.

  12. The mycorrhizal status and colonization of 26 tree species growing in urban and rural environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainard, Luke D; Klironomos, John N; Gordon, Andrew M

    2011-02-01

    Urban environments are highly disturbed and fragmented ecosystems that commonly have lower mycorrhizal fungal species richness and diversity compared to rural or natural ecosystems. In this study, we assessed whether the mycorrhizal status and colonization of trees are influenced by the overall environment (rural vs. urban) they are growing in. Soil cores were collected from the rhizosphere of trees growing in urban and rural environments around southern Ontario. Roots were extracted from the soil cores to determine whether the trees were colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, ectomycorrhizal fungi, or both, and to quantify the percent colonization of each type of mycorrhizal fungi. All 26 tree species were colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and seven tree species were dually colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal fungi. Overall, arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal fungal colonization was significantly (p mycorrhizal fungal colonization; more research is needed to determine whether inoculating urban trees with mycorrhizal fungi would increase colonization levels and growth of the trees.

  13. Characteristics of Pesticide Poisoning in Rural and Urban Settings in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bastian; Ssemugabo, Charles; Nabankema, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Pesticide poisoning is a significant burden on health care systems in many low-income countries. This study evaluates cases of registered pesticide poisonings treated in selected rural (N = 101) and urban (N = 212) health facilities in Uganda from January 2010 to August 2016. In the urban setting......, pesticides were the most prevalent single poison responsible for intoxications (N = 212 [28.8%]). Self-harm constituted a significantly higher proportion of the total number of poisonings in urban (63.3%) compared with rural areas (25.6%) where unintentional poisonings prevailed. Men were older than women.......0% of the poisonings. Urban hospitals provided a more intensive treatment and had registered fever complications than rural health care settings. To minimize self-harm with pesticides, a restriction of pesticide availability as shown to be effective in other low-income countries is recommended. Training of health care...

  14. Quality of life in patients with sickle cell disease in Jamaica: rural-urban differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnani, Monika R; Reid, Marvin E; Ali, Susanna B; Lipps, Garth; Williams-Green, Pauline

    2008-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) refers to people's ability to function in the ordinary tasks of living. It moves beyond direct manifestations of illness to the patient's personal morbidity. These assessments are an important aspect of chronic disease management. Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a chronic and potentially, quite a debilitating disease. The disease is severe and may result in significant morbidity, as well as a shortened life span. It is the most common genetic disorder seen in Jamaica and impacts on physical, psychological, social and occupational wellbeing. Jamaica is a developing country where support systems that exist for patients with SCD are sparse. Health related QOL has been shown to be poorer in people living in the rural areas as compared with urban populations. Utilization of comprehensive sickle cells disease services has also been shown to be lower for individuals with the disease living in rural areas than for those living in urban areas. As there are rural-urban differences in Jamaica's health services, it is hypothesized that there may be rural-urban differences in the experiences of the disease and the QOL of these patients in these subgroups. The SF 36 v2 (Short Form 36) questionnaire has been validated for use in the Jamaican SCD population. This validated questionnaire was interviewer-administered to 166 patients presenting to an urban clinic for routine health maintenance visits and to 90 patients presenting to the rural clinics for routine visits. Socio-demographic information was also collected on these two groups. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to study predictors of QOL in these two sub-populations. The study received ethical approval from the University of the West Indies/University Hospital of the West Indies Ethics Committee. There were no significant differences in the measured socio-demographic characteristics of the rural and urban patients. Living in rural areas compared with urban areas (p <0.001), being

  15. Differences in health care seeking behaviour between rural and urban communities in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoeven, Marinka; Kruger, Annamarie; Greeff, Minrie

    2012-06-12

    The aim of this study was to explore possible differences in health care seeking behaviour among a rural and urban African population. A cross sectional design was followed using the infrastructure of the PURE-SA study. Four rural and urban Setswana communities which represented different strata of urbanisation in the North West Province, South Africa, were selected. Structured interviews were held with 206 participants. Data on general demographic and socio-economic characteristics, health status, beliefs about health and (access to) health care was collected. The results clearly illustrated differences in socio-economic characteristics, health status, beliefs about health, and health care utilisation. In general, inhabitants of urban communities rated their health significantly better than rural participants. Although most urban and rural participants consider their access to health care as sufficient, they still experienced difficulties in receiving the requested care. The difference in employment rate between urban and rural communities in this study indicated that participants of urban communities were more likely to be employed. Consequently, participants from rural communities had a significantly lower available weekly budget, not only for health care itself, but also for transport to the health care facility. Urban participants were more than 5 times more likely to prefer a medical doctor in private practice (OR:5.29, 95% CI 2.83-988). Recommendations are formulated for infrastructure investments in rural communities, quality of health care and its perception, improvement of household socio-economical status and further research on the consequences of delay in health care seeking behaviour.

  16. Urban-rural disparity in utilization of preventive care services in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Li, Ningxiu; Liu, Chaojie; Ren, Xiaohui; Liu, Danping; Gao, Bo; Liu, Yuanyuan

    2016-09-01