WorldWideScience

Sample records for sites located upstream

  1. Cost-efficient remediation of an upstream oilfield battery site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebert, L.D. [Imperial Oil Resources Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada); Bedard, G.; Pouliot, M.; Soucy, F.; Faucher, C.; Corbin, R. [Biogenie Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    The soil at an oilfield battery site, located 18 kilometres (km) northwest of Devon, Alberta has been contaminated with crude oil and salt, following years of operation. Surrounding the site is flat farmland intended for future agricultural production. A remedial program aimed at complying with Tier I criteria of the Alberta Soil and Water Quality Guidelines for Hydrocarbons at Upstream Oil and Gas Facilities (ASWQG) of Alberta Environment, was developed and implemented. Characterization of the site was carried out in 1997 to delineate a salt plume, followed by a second sampling campaign in 1999, which all together revealed three impacted areas. A supplementary characterization was performed in 2001 by Biogenie in an effort to better determine the nature and level of petroleum contamination and more accurately evaluate the volume of contaminated soil. A three-dimensional Visualization software integrating a Kriging geostatistical model was used for this purpose. The results indicated that an estimated 8,800 cubic metres of contaminated soil would need to be excavated and treated. The next phase involved an evaluation of the various remedial options, which was accomplished using a biotreatability study. The remediation program selected involved the excavation of the contaminated soil and segregation of source material, the ex-situ Biopile treatment of the source material to meet Class II landfill criteria, and the ex-situ Biopile treatment of the contaminated soil followed by its use as backfill on site. The biotreatability study proved to be a strategic tool in the remediation effort. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  2. Premodelling of the importance of the location of the upstream hydraulic boundary of a regional flow model of the Laxemar-Simpevarp area. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmen, Johan G.

    2008-03-01

    The location of the westernmost hydraulic boundary of a regional groundwater flow model representing the Laxemar investigation area is of importance as the regional flow of groundwater is primarily from the west towards the sea (as given by the regional topography). If the westernmost boundary condition of a regional flow model is located to close to the investigation area, the regional flow model may underestimate the magnitude of the regional groundwater flow (at the investigation area), as well as overestimate breakthrough times of flow paths from the repository area, etc. Groundwater flows have been calculated by use of two mathematical (numerical) models: A very large groundwater flow model, much larger than the regional flow model used in the Laxemar site description version 1.2, and a smaller flow model that is of a comparable size to the regional model used in the site description. The models are identical except for the different horizontal extensions of the models; the large model extends to the west much further than the small model. The westernmost lateral boundary of the small model is a topographic water divide approx. 7 km from the central parts of the Laxemar investigation area, and the westernmost lateral boundary of the large model is a topographic water divide approx. 40 km from the central parts of the Laxemar investigation area. In the models the lateral boundaries are defined as no-flow boundaries. The objective of the study is to calculate and compare the groundwater flow properties at a tentative repository area at Laxemar; by use of a large flow model and a small flow model. The comparisons include the following three parameters: - Length of flow paths from the tentative repository area. - Advective breakthrough time for flow paths from the tentative repository area. - Magnitude of flow at the tentative repository area. The comparisons demonstrated the following considering the median values of the obtained distributions of flow paths

  3. NPL Site Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Priorities List (NPL) is a list published by EPA of Superfund sites. A site must be added to this list before remediation can begin under Superfund. The...

  4. VT Hospital Site Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This data layer contains point locations of all major community, regional, comprehensive health, and healthcare provider hospitals in the state of...

  5. Ebola virus RNA editing depends on the primary editing site sequence and an upstream secondary structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masfique Mehedi

    Full Text Available Ebolavirus (EBOV, the causative agent of a severe hemorrhagic fever and a biosafety level 4 pathogen, increases its genome coding capacity by producing multiple transcripts encoding for structural and nonstructural glycoproteins from a single gene. This is achieved through RNA editing, during which non-template adenosine residues are incorporated into the EBOV mRNAs at an editing site encoding for 7 adenosine residues. However, the mechanism of EBOV RNA editing is currently not understood. In this study, we report for the first time that minigenomes containing the glycoprotein gene editing site can undergo RNA editing, thereby eliminating the requirement for a biosafety level 4 laboratory to study EBOV RNA editing. Using a newly developed dual-reporter minigenome, we have characterized the mechanism of EBOV RNA editing, and have identified cis-acting sequences that are required for editing, located between 9 nt upstream and 9 nt downstream of the editing site. Moreover, we show that a secondary structure in the upstream cis-acting sequence plays an important role in RNA editing. EBOV RNA editing is glycoprotein gene-specific, as a stretch encoding for 7 adenosine residues located in the viral polymerase gene did not serve as an editing site, most likely due to an absence of the necessary cis-acting sequences. Finally, the EBOV protein VP30 was identified as a trans-acting factor for RNA editing, constituting a novel function for this protein. Overall, our results provide novel insights into the RNA editing mechanism of EBOV, further understanding of which might result in novel intervention strategies against this viral pathogen.

  6. Ebola virus RNA editing depends on the primary editing site sequence and an upstream secondary structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehedi, Masfique; Hoenen, Thomas; Robertson, Shelly; Ricklefs, Stacy; Dolan, Michael A; Taylor, Travis; Falzarano, Darryl; Ebihara, Hideki; Porcella, Stephen F; Feldmann, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    Ebolavirus (EBOV), the causative agent of a severe hemorrhagic fever and a biosafety level 4 pathogen, increases its genome coding capacity by producing multiple transcripts encoding for structural and nonstructural glycoproteins from a single gene. This is achieved through RNA editing, during which non-template adenosine residues are incorporated into the EBOV mRNAs at an editing site encoding for 7 adenosine residues. However, the mechanism of EBOV RNA editing is currently not understood. In this study, we report for the first time that minigenomes containing the glycoprotein gene editing site can undergo RNA editing, thereby eliminating the requirement for a biosafety level 4 laboratory to study EBOV RNA editing. Using a newly developed dual-reporter minigenome, we have characterized the mechanism of EBOV RNA editing, and have identified cis-acting sequences that are required for editing, located between 9 nt upstream and 9 nt downstream of the editing site. Moreover, we show that a secondary structure in the upstream cis-acting sequence plays an important role in RNA editing. EBOV RNA editing is glycoprotein gene-specific, as a stretch encoding for 7 adenosine residues located in the viral polymerase gene did not serve as an editing site, most likely due to an absence of the necessary cis-acting sequences. Finally, the EBOV protein VP30 was identified as a trans-acting factor for RNA editing, constituting a novel function for this protein. Overall, our results provide novel insights into the RNA editing mechanism of EBOV, further understanding of which might result in novel intervention strategies against this viral pathogen.

  7. Sites for locations of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcazar, M.; Huerta, M.; Lopez, A.

    2014-10-01

    A restriction on sites of nuclear energy is the history of seismic activity, in its magnitude (Richter) and intensity (Mercalli). This article delimits the areas of greatest magnitude and national seismic intensity, with restrictions of ground acceleration; the supplement areas with a low magnitude of seismic activity are shown. Potential sites for the location of these sites are introduced into a geographic information system. The set of geo-referenced data contains the location of the active volcanic manifestations; the historical record of earthquake epicenters, magnitudes and intensities; major geological faults; surface hydrology and water bodies; location of population density; protected areas; contour lines; the rock type or geology. The geographic information system allows entering normative criteria and environmental restrictions that correlate with geo-referenced data described above, forms both probable and exclusion areas for the installation of nuclear sites. (Author)

  8. Suspended sediments from upstream tributaries as the source of downstream river sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadchi, Arman; Olley, Jon

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the efficiency with which sediment eroded from different sources is transported to the catchment outlet is a key knowledge gap that is critical to our ability to accurately target and prioritise management actions to reduce sediment delivery. Sediment fingerprinting has proven to be an efficient approach to determine the sources of sediment. This study examines the suspended sediment sources from Emu Creek catchment, south eastern Queensland, Australia. In addition to collect suspended sediments from different sites of the streams after the confluence of tributaries and outlet of the catchment, time integrated suspended samples from upper tributaries were used as the source of sediment, instead of using hillslope and channel bank samples. Totally, 35 time-integrated samplers were used to compute the contribution of suspended sediments from different upstream waterways to the downstream sediment sites. Three size fractions of materials including fine sand (63-210 μm), silt (10-63 μm) and fine silt and clay (<10 μm) were used to find the effect of particle size on the contribution of upper sediments as the sources of sediment after river confluences. And then samples were analysed by ICP-MS and -OES to find 41 sediment fingerprints. According to the results of Student's T-distribution mixing model, small creeks in the middle and lower part of the catchment were major source in different size fractions, especially in silt (10-63 μm) samples. Gowrie Creek as covers southern-upstream part of the catchment was a major contributor at the outlet of the catchment in finest size fraction (<10 μm) Large differences between the contributions of suspended sediments from upper tributaries in different size fractions necessitate the selection of appropriate size fraction on sediment tracing in the catchment and also major effect of particle size on the movement and deposition of sediments.

  9. Mutation of Rubie, a novel long non-coding RNA located upstream of Bmp4, causes vestibular malformation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina A Roberts

    Full Text Available The vestibular apparatus of the vertebrate inner ear uses three fluid-filled semicircular canals to sense angular acceleration of the head. Malformation of these canals disrupts the sense of balance and frequently causes circling behavior in mice. The Epistatic circler (Ecl is a complex mutant derived from wildtype SWR/J and C57L/J mice. Ecl circling has been shown to result from the epistatic interaction of an SWR-derived locus on chromosome 14 and a C57L-derived locus on chromosome 4, but the causative genes have not been previously identified.We developed a mouse chromosome substitution strain (CSS-14 that carries an SWR/J chromosome 14 on a C57BL/10J genetic background and, like Ecl, exhibits circling behavior due to lateral semicircular canal malformation. We utilized CSS-14 to identify the chromosome 14 Ecl gene by positional cloning. Our candidate interval is located upstream of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4 and contains an inner ear-specific, long non-coding RNA that we have designated Rubie (RNA upstream of Bmp4 expressed in inner ear. Rubie is spliced and polyadenylated, and is expressed in developing semicircular canals. However, we discovered that the SWR/J allele of Rubie is disrupted by an intronic endogenous retrovirus that causes aberrant splicing and premature polyadenylation of the transcript. Rubie lies in the conserved gene desert upstream of Bmp4, within a region previously shown to be important for inner ear expression of Bmp4. We found that the expression patterns of Bmp4 and Rubie are nearly identical in developing inner ears.Based on these results and previous studies showing that Bmp4 is essential for proper vestibular development, we propose that Rubie is the gene mutated in Ecl mice, that it is involved in regulating inner ear expression of Bmp4, and that aberrant Bmp4 expression contributes to the Ecl phenotype.

  10. Location and activity specific site-management for military locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maring, L.; Hulst, M. van; Meuken, D.

    2009-01-01

    pace is limited in the Netherlands and military activities, that may cause nuisance or environmental hazards, should therefore be considered and evaluated during the use of military locations. The last few years TNO and Deltares have worked on a research program on environmental effects due to

  11. HIV/AIDS testing sites and locator services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The HIV Testing Sites & Care Services Locator is a first-of-its-kind, location-based search tool that allows you to search for testing services, housing...

  12. Functional groups of macro-benthos of selected sites of upstream of Hron River and Hnilec River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rufusova, A.

    2011-01-01

    The author used six functional groups of macro-benthos based on 'species traits', which are indicated with the Greek letters α to ζ. In the work authors applied this method to the macroinvertebrate communities of selected sites of upstream of the Hron River and the Hnilec River. The method appropriately captured increasing gradient of anthropogenic changes in the direction of the river continuum. Although the method was used for Slovak rivers for the first time, it seems to be promising for use in the future. (author)

  13. Magnetosheath plasma stability and ULF wave occurrence as a function of location in the magnetosheath and upstream bow shock parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucek, Jan; Escoubet, C. Philippe; Grison, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    We present the results of a statistical study of the distribution of mirror and Alfvén-ion cyclotron (AIC) waves in the magnetosheath together with plasma parameters important for the stability of ULF waves, specifically ion temperature anisotropy and ion beta. Magnetosheath crossings registered by Cluster spacecraft over the course of 2 years served as a basis for the statistics. For each observation we used bow shock, magnetopause, and magnetosheath flow models to identify the relative position of the spacecraft with respect to magnetosheath boundaries and local properties of the upstream shock crossing. A strong dependence of both plasma parameters and mirror/AIC wave occurrence on upstream ΘBn and MA is identified. We analyzed a joint dependence of the same parameters on ΘBn and fractional distance between shock and magnetopause, zenith angle, and length of the flow line. Finally, the occurrence of mirror and AIC modes was compared against the respective instability thresholds. We noted that AIC waves occurred nearly exclusively under mirror stable conditions. This is interpreted in terms of different characters of nonlinear saturation of the two modes.

  14. Regulation of CCL2 expression by an upstream TALE homeodomain protein-binding site that synergizes with the site created by the A-2578G SNP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Stephen H; Wright, Edward K; Gama, Lucio; Clements, Janice E

    2011-01-01

    CC Chemokine Ligand 2 (CCL2) is a potent chemoattractant produced by macrophages and activated astrocytes during periods of inflammation within the central nervous system. Increased CCL2 expression is correlated with disease progression and severity, as observed in pulmonary tuberculosis, HCV-related liver disease, and HIV-associated dementia. The CCL2 distal promoter contains an A/G polymorphism at position -2578 and the homozygous -2578 G/G genotype is associated with increased CCL2 production and inflammation. However, the mechanisms that contribute to the phenotypic differences in CCL2 expression are poorly understood. We previously demonstrated that the -2578 G polymorphism creates a TALE homeodomain protein binding site (TALE binding site) for PREP1/PBX2 transcription factors. In this study, we identified the presence of an additional TALE binding site 22 bp upstream of the site created by the -2578 G polymorphism and demonstrated the synergistic effects of the two sites on the activation of the CCL2 promoter. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, we demonstrated increased binding of the TALE proteins PREP1 and PBX2 to the -2578 G allele, and binding of IRF1 to both the A and G alleles. The presence of TALE binding sites that form inverted repeats within the -2578 G allele results in increased transcriptional activation of the CCL2 distal promoter while the presence of only the upstream TALE binding site within the -2578 A allele exerts repression of promoter activity.

  15. Sequence motif upstream of the Hendra virus fusion protein cleavage site is not sufficient to promote efficient proteolytic processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craft, Willie Warren; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2005-01-01

    The Hendra virus fusion (HeV F) protein is synthesized as a precursor, F 0 , and proteolytically cleaved into the mature F 1 and F 2 heterodimer, following an HDLVDGVK 109 motif. This cleavage event is required for fusogenic activity. To determine the amino acid requirements for processing of the HeV F protein, we constructed multiple mutants. Individual and simultaneous alanine substitutions of the eight residues immediately upstream of the cleavage site did not eliminate processing. A chimeric SV5 F protein in which the furin site was substituted for the VDGVK 109 motif of the HeV F protein was not processed but was expressed on the cell surface. Another chimeric SV5 F protein containing the HDLVDGVK 109 motif of the HeV F protein underwent partial cleavage. These data indicate that the upstream region can play a role in protease recognition, but is neither absolutely required nor sufficient for efficient processing of the HeV F protein

  16. Remediation options and treatment for Tebuthiuron at an upstream oil and gas site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, F. [EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Sterilants are strong herbicides that contain teburithion, a substance of concern in remediation and reclamation activities. Tebuthiuron has very high to low mobility in soils, and its sorption capacity increases in relation to clay and organic matter content. There is currently no soil benchmark for sterilants. Remedial options for tebuthiuron include adsorption with amendments, thermal desorption, and soil flushing with injected solutions. A recent pilot plant successfully used thermal desorption to treat soil contaminated with tebuthiuron and bromacil to below laboratory detection limits. Surface soils at the site were contaminated to a depth of 4 m. A temperature ramping study was performed to determine optimal treatment temperatures. A total of 15,136 tonnes of soil were treated and then used as backfill on-site. Water at the site was monitored and treated with charcoal filters. Hydrocarbon-contaminated soil at the site was also successfully treated using the thermal desorption process. tabs., figs.

  17. Characterization of dFOXO binding sites upstream of the Insulin Receptor P2 promoter across the Drosophila phylogeny.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorcas J Orengo

    Full Text Available The insulin/TOR signal transduction pathway plays a critical role in determining such important traits as body and organ size, metabolic homeostasis and life span. Although this pathway is highly conserved across the animal kingdom, the affected traits can exhibit important differences even between closely related species. Evolutionary studies of regulatory regions require the reliable identification of transcription factor binding sites. Here we have focused on the Insulin Receptor (InR expression from its P2 promoter in the Drosophila genus, which in D. melanogaster is up-regulated by hypophosphorylated Drosophila FOXO (dFOXO. We have finely characterized this transcription factor binding sites in vitro along the 1.3 kb region upstream of the InR P2 promoter in five Drosophila species. Moreover, we have tested the effect of mutations in the characterized dFOXO sites of D. melanogaster in transgenic flies. The number of experimentally established binding sites varies across the 1.3 kb region of any particular species, and their distribution also differs among species. In D. melanogaster, InR expression from P2 is differentially affected by dFOXO binding sites at the proximal and distal halves of the species 1.3 kb fragment. The observed uneven distribution of binding sites across this fragment might underlie their differential contribution to regulate InR transcription.

  18. A GIS approach for predicting prehistoric site locations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, J. A.; Wescott, K. L.

    1999-08-04

    Use of geographic information system (GIS)-based predictive mapping to locate areas of high potential for prehistoric archaeological sites is becoming increasingly popular among archaeologists. Knowledge of the environmental variables influencing activities of original inhabitants is used to produce GIS layers representing the spatial distribution of those variables. The GIS layers are then analyzed to identify locations where combinations of environmental variables match patterns observed at known prehistoric sites. Presented are the results of a study to locate high-potential areas for prehistoric sites in a largely unsurveyed area of 39,000 acres in the Upper Chesapeake Bay region, including details of the analysis process. The project used environmental data from over 500 known sites in other parts of the region and the results corresponded well with known sites in the study area.

  19. Environmental assessment overview, Reference repository location, Hanford site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a reference repository location at the Hanford Site in Washington as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The site is in the Columbia Plateau, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. To determine their suitability, the Hanford site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Hanford site is not disqualified under the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Hanford site as one of five sites suitable for characterization. 3 figs

  20. Location Distribution Optimization of Photographing Sites for Indoor Panorama Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Wu, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, X.; Xin, Z.; Liu, J.

    2017-09-01

    Generally, panoramas image modeling is costly and time-consuming because of photographing continuously to capture enough photos along the routes, especially in complicated indoor environment. Thus, difficulty follows for a wider applications of panoramic image modeling for business. It is indispensable to make a feasible arrangement of panorama sites locations because the locations influence the clarity, coverage and the amount of panoramic images under the condition of certain device. This paper is aim to propose a standard procedure to generate the specific location and total amount of panorama sites in indoor panoramas modeling. Firstly, establish the functional relationship between one panorama site and its objectives. Then, apply the relationship to panorama sites network. We propose the Distance Clarity function (FC and Fe) manifesting the mathematical relationship between panoramas and objectives distance or obstacle distance. The Distance Buffer function (FB) is modified from traditional buffer method to generate the coverage of panorama site. Secondly, transverse every point in possible area to locate possible panorama site, calculate the clarity and coverage synthetically. Finally select as little points as possible to satiate clarity requirement preferentially and then the coverage requirement. In the experiments, detailed parameters of camera lens are given. Still, more experiments parameters need trying out given that relationship between clarity and distance is device dependent. In short, through the function FC, Fe and FB, locations of panorama sites can be generated automatically and accurately.

  1. Paradox Basin site characterization report: preparation papers, Gibson Dome location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    This document contains Part C, Identification of Pertinent Issues, of the site characterization report. The site characterization report, preparation papers, includes a description of detailed field studies and efforts to collect data to resolve key geologic and environmental issues in the Gibson Dome location within the Paradox Basin Region of Utah

  2. Inactivation of human α-globin gene expression by a de novo deletion located upstream of the α-globin gene cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebhaber, S.A.; Weiss, I.; Cash, F.E.; Griese, E.U.; Horst, J.; Ayyub, H.; Higgs, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    Synthesis of normal human hemoglobin A, α 2 β 2 , is based upon balanced expression of genes in the α-globin gene cluster on chromosome 15 and the β-globin gene cluster on chromosome 11. Full levels of erythroid-specific activation of the β-globin cluster depend on sequences located at a considerable distance 5' to the β-globin gene, referred to as the locus-activating or dominant control region. The existence of an analogous element(s) upstream of the α-globin cluster has been suggested from observations on naturally occurring deletions and experimental studies. The authors have identified an individual with α-thalassemia in whom structurally normal α-globin genes have been inactivated in cis by a discrete de novo 35-kilobase deletion located ∼30 kilobases 5' from the α-globin gene cluster. They conclude that this deletion inactivates expression of the α-globin genes by removing one or more of the previously identified upstream regulatory sequences that are critical to expression of the α-globin genes

  3. Poliovirus surveillance by examining sewage specimens. Quantitative recovery of virus after introduction into sewerage at remote upstream location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovi, T; Stenvik, M; Partanen, H; Kangas, A

    2001-08-01

    In order to assess the feasibility of environmental poliovirus surveillance, known amounts of poliovirus type 1, strain Sabin, were flushed into the sewage network of Helsinki. Grab specimens collected at a remote downstream location and concentrated about a 100-fold revealed infectious poliovirus on four successive days in all three separate experiments. As for concentration, a simple two-phase separation method was found to be at least as useful as a several-fold more resource-demanding polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation method. Recovery of the introduced virus was remarkably high (more than 10%). Using the current system, it might be possible to detect poliovirus circulation in a population of 700,000 people by examining a single 400 ml sewage specimen, if 1 out of 10,000 inhabitants were excreting the virus. It is concluded that environmental surveillance is a sensitive approach to monitor silent poliovirus circulation in populations served by a sewage network.

  4. Environmental assessment: Reference repository location, Hanford site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a reference repository location at the Hanford Site in Washington as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The site is in the Columbia Plateau, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. To determine their suitability, the Hanford Site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Hanford site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The DOE has also found that it is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Hanford site as one of five sites suitable for characterization.

  5. Environmental assessment: Reference repository location, Hanford site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a reference repository location at the Hanford Site in Washington as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The site is in the Columbia Plateau, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. To determine their suitability, the Hanford site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Hanford site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The DOE has also found that is is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Hanford site as one of five sites available for characterization.

  6. Environmental assessment: Reference repository location, Hanford site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a reference repository location at the Hanford Site in Washington as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The site is in the Columbia Plateau, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. To determine their suitability, the Hanford Site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Hanford site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The DOE has also found that it is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Hanford site as one of five sites suitable for characterization

  7. Environmental assessment: Reference repository location, Hanford site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a reference repository location at the Hanford Site in Washington as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The site is in the Columbia Plateau, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. To determine their suitability, the Hanford site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Hanford site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The DOE has also found that is is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Hanford site as one of five sites available for characterization

  8. Different papillomaviruses have different repertoires of transcription factor binding sites: convergence and divergence in the upstream regulatory region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Ángel

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Papillomaviruses (PVs infect stratified squamous epithelia in warm-blooded vertebrates and have undergone a complex evolutionary process. The control of the expression of the early ORFs in PVs depends on the binding of cellular and viral transcription factors to the upstream regulatory region (URR of the virus. It is believed that there is a core of transcription factor binding sites (TFBS common to all PVs, with additional individual differences, although most of the available information focuses only on a handful of viruses. Results We have studied the URR of sixty-one PVs, covering twenty different hosts. We have predicted the TFBS present in the URR and analysed these results by principal component analysis and genetic algorithms. The number and nature of TFBS in the URR might be much broader than thus far described, and different PVs have different repertoires of TFBS. Conclusion There are common fingerprints in the URR in PVs that infect primates, although the ancestors of these viruses diverged a long time ago. Additionally, there are obvious differences between the URR of alpha and beta PVs, despite these PVs infect similar histological cell types in the same host, i.e. human. A thorough analysis of the TFBS in the URR might provide crucial information about the differential biology of cancer-associated PVs.

  9. Location and characterisation of pollution sites by principal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Location and characterisation of pollution sites by principal component analysis of trace contaminants in a slightly polluted seasonal river: a case study of the Arenales River (Salta, Argentina) ... Keywords: trace element contamination, water quality, principal component analysis, Arenales River, Salta, Argentina ...

  10. SOLUTION FOR ICHTHYOFAUNA MIGRATION UPSTREAM- DOWNSTREAM OF THE TWO SPILLWAYS LOCATED NEAR MANASTUR DAM ON THE SOMESUL MIC RIVER IN THE CLUJ NAPOCA CITY (ROMÂNIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan VOICU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal connectivity represent the way in which organisms move the energy and material exchanges located throughout the water. Fragmentation the longitudinal connectivity of watercourses caused by dams or other hydrotechnical constructions represent a major impact on sediment transport, hydrological regime, downstream moving and biota migration. The hydromorphological elements (river continuity, as well as chemical, biological, physicochemical elements characterize the ecological status of rivers.Migratory fish species: nase (Chondrostoma nasus - protected by Bern Convention - Appendix III and barbel (Barbus barbus - rare species, protected Habitats Directive (Annex V, annex 4A of Low nr.462 and Red List of RBDD are blocked but the Hydrotechnical constructions (discharge sills, dams etc located across the watercourse Somes Mic River. One of the important think of this system is the gravitational fall of water. This solution will lead to the restoration of the longitudinal connection of the Someşul Mic River in the Manastur neighborhood. România is part of the European Union and it has the obligation to implement the provisions of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, transposed into Romanian legislation by the Water Law 107/1996 as supplemented and amended (Act 310/2004. This engineering solution for fish fauna migration upstream – downstream of the spillways supports the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, transposed into Romanian legislation by the Water Law 107/1996 as supplemented and amended (Act 310/2004.

  11. Optimum MRS site location to minimize spent fuel transportation impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoskins, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    A range of spent fuel transportation system parameters are examined in terms of attributes important to minimizing transportation impacts as a basis for identifying geographic regions best suited for siting a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. Transportation system parameters within existing transport cask design and transportation mode capabilities were systematically analyzed. The optimum MRS location was found to be very sensitive to transportation system assumptions particularly with regard to the relative efficiencies of the reactor-to-MRS and MRS-to-repository components of the system. Moreover, dramatic improvements in the reactor-to-MRS component can be made through use of multiple cask shipment of the largest practical casks by dedicated train compared to the traditional single cask rail (70%) and truck (30%) shipments assumed the Department of Energy in their studies that defined the optimum MRS location in the vicinity of Tennessee. It is important to develop and utilize an efficient transportation system irrespective of whether or not an MRS is in the system. Assuming reasonably achievable efficiency in reactor-to-MRS spent fuel transportation and assigning equal probabilities to the three western sites selected for characterization of being the repository site, the optimum MRS location would be in the far-mid-western states. Based on various geographic criteria including barge access and location in a nuclear service area, the State of Tennessee ranks any place from 12th to the 25th at a penalty of about 30% over the minimum achievable impacts. While minimizing transportation impacts is an important factor, other criteria should also be considered in selecting an MRS site

  12. Conflict, location, and politics: Siting a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power and the management of high-level radioactive waste is examined with the goal of explaining the forces driving the formulation of the 1982 Nuclear Waste Policy Act and a subsequent decision to site a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The study draws upon geographic, political, economic, and organizational factors to examine the commitment to dispose of spent fuel in a geologic repository located in Nevada or in Utah, Texas, Mississippi, Louisiana, or at Hanford Washington. Special attention is given to the impact of location, science and technology on the definition of the nuclear waste problem and political agendas, public participation, and the power of the nuclear establishment. The study finds that the choice of a Yucca Mountain Nevada as the preferred site for a repository was based more on technological precedent and political-economic expediency than on the demonstrated superiority of that site's geology. Conflict over a repository location is interpreted as a symptom of more fundamental conflicts concerning: the credibility of nuclear science, the legitimacy of federal authority and administration, and the priorities of environmental protection and a nuclear economy

  13. Ultraviolet-fluorescent tattoo location of cutaneous biopsy site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Gary S; Gilchrest, Barbara A

    2012-03-01

    Cutaneous biopsies often heal with little or no scarring. Prior studies have shown an alarming percentage of patients who incorrectly identify biopsy sites at the time of surgery. To investigate the safety and utility of an ultraviolet (UV)-fluorescent tattoo for biopsy site identification. A preclinical proof of concept was established with skin culture. An UV-fluorescent tattoo was applied to discarded neonatal foreskin in culture medium. The stability of the tattooed skin was examined clinically and histologically. One patient with a recurrent basal cell carcinoma in a difficult-to-identify location underwent tattoo application at the time of biopsy to demarcate the site. The patient was monitored for tattoo reaction and referred for surgical excision. The cultured tissue exhibited stable UV fluorescence with daily washing. Tissue histology demonstrated tattoo particles lining the skin edge under fluorescent microscopy. The patient was reluctant to undergo another surgical procedure and instead returned to our clinic at 3 months and 17 months after the biopsy for management of other tumors. The patient had no symptoms of allergic reaction to the tattoo dye. The fluorescent tattoo remains invisible under visible light and visible only under Wood's light. The present study documents the utility of an UV-fluorescent tattoo to locate a biopsy site. © 2011 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Assessment of local GNSS baselines at co-location sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Pinzón, Iván; Rothacher, Markus

    2018-01-01

    As one of the major contributors to the realisation of the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS), the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are prone to suffer from irregularities and discontinuities in time series. While often associated with hardware/software changes and the influence of the local environment, these discrepancies constitute a major threat for ITRS realisations. Co-located GNSS at fundamental sites, with two or more available instruments, provide the opportunity to mitigate their influence while improving the accuracy of estimated positions by examining data breaks, local biases, deformations, time-dependent variations and the comparison of GNSS baselines with existing local tie measurements. With the use of co-located GNSS data from a subset sites of the International GNSS Service network, this paper discusses a global multi-year analysis with the aim of delivering homogeneous time series of coordinates to analyse system-specific error sources in the local baselines. Results based on the comparison of different GNSS-based solutions with the local survey ties show discrepancies of up to 10 mm despite GNSS coordinate repeatabilities at the sub-mm level. The discrepancies are especially large for the solutions using the ionosphere-free linear combination and estimating tropospheric zenith delays, thus corresponding to the processing strategy used for global solutions. Snow on the antennas causes further problems and seasonal variations of the station coordinates. These demonstrate the need for a permanent high-quality monitoring of the effects present in the short GNSS baselines at fundamental sites.

  15. 14 CFR 420.21 - Launch site location review-launch site boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Launch site location review-launch site boundary. 420.21 Section 420.21 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION... travels given a worst-case launch vehicle failure in the launch area. An applicant must clearly and...

  16. Site location and optical properties of Eu implanted sapphire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, C.; Wemans, A.; Maneira, M.J.P.; Kozanecki, A.; Silva, R.C. da; Alves, E.

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic colourless transparent (0 0 0 1) sapphire crystals were implanted at room temperature with 100 keV europium ions to fluences up to 1 x 10 16 cm -2 . Surface damage is observed at low fluences, as seen by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry under channelling conditions. Optical absorption measurements revealed a variety of structures, most probably related to F-type defects characteristic of implantation damage. Thermal treatments in air or in vacuum up to 1000 deg. C do not produce noticeable changes both in the matrix or the europium profiles. However, the complete recovery of the implantation damage and some redistribution of the europium ions is achieved after annealing at 1300 deg. C in air. Detailed lattice site location studies performed for various axial directions allowed to assess the damage recovery and the incorporation of the Eu ions into well defined crystallographic sites, possibly in an oxide phase also inferred from optical absorption measurements

  17. Exploiting protein flexibility to predict the location of allosteric sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panjkovich Alejandro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allostery is one of the most powerful and common ways of regulation of protein activity. However, for most allosteric proteins identified to date the mechanistic details of allosteric modulation are not yet well understood. Uncovering common mechanistic patterns underlying allostery would allow not only a better academic understanding of the phenomena, but it would also streamline the design of novel therapeutic solutions. This relatively unexplored therapeutic potential and the putative advantages of allosteric drugs over classical active-site inhibitors fuel the attention allosteric-drug research is receiving at present. A first step to harness the regulatory potential and versatility of allosteric sites, in the context of drug-discovery and design, would be to detect or predict their presence and location. In this article, we describe a simple computational approach, based on the effect allosteric ligands exert on protein flexibility upon binding, to predict the existence and position of allosteric sites on a given protein structure. Results By querying the literature and a recently available database of allosteric sites, we gathered 213 allosteric proteins with structural information that we further filtered into a non-redundant set of 91 proteins. We performed normal-mode analysis and observed significant changes in protein flexibility upon allosteric-ligand binding in 70% of the cases. These results agree with the current view that allosteric mechanisms are in many cases governed by changes in protein dynamics caused by ligand binding. Furthermore, we implemented an approach that achieves 65% positive predictive value in identifying allosteric sites within the set of predicted cavities of a protein (stricter parameters set, 0.22 sensitivity, by combining the current analysis on dynamics with previous results on structural conservation of allosteric sites. We also analyzed four biological examples in detail, revealing

  18. Numerical modelling of GPR electromagnetic fields for locating burial sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carcione José M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground-penetrating radar (GPR is commonly used for locating burial sites. In this article, we acquired radargrams at a site where a domestic pig cadaver was buried. The measurements were conducted with the ProEx System GPR manufactured by the Swedish company Mala Geoscience with an antenna of 500MHz. The event corresponding to the pig can be clearly seen in the measurements. In order to improve the interpretation, the electromagnetic field is compared to numerical simulations computed with the pseudo-spectral Fourier method. A geological model has been defined on the basis of assumed electromagnetic properties (permittivity, conductivity and magnetic permeability. The results, when compared with the GPR measurements, show a dissimilar amplitude behaviour, with a stronger reflection event from the bottom of the pit. We have therefore performed another simulation by decreasing the electrical conductivity of the body very close to that of air. The comparison improved, showing more reflections, which could be an indication that the body contains air or has been degraded to a certain extent that the electrical resistivity has greatly increased.

  19. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors: location of the ligand binding site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulme, E.; Wheatley, M.; Curtis, C.; Birdsall, N.

    1987-01-01

    The key to understanding the pharmacological specificity of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR's) is the location within the receptor sequence of the amino acid residues responsible for ligand binding. To approach this problem, they have purified mAChR's from rat brain to homogeneity by sequential ion-exchange chromatography, affinity chromatography and molecular weight fractionation. Following labelling of the binding site with an alkylating affinity label, 3 H-propylbenzilycholine mustard aziridinium ion ( 3 H-PrBCM), the mAChR was digested with a lysine-specific endoproteinase, and a ladder of peptides of increasing molecular weight, each containing the glycosylated N-terminus, isolated by chromatography on wheat-germ agglutinin sepharose. The pattern of labelling showed that a residue in the peptides containing transmembrane helices 2 and/or 3 of the mAChR was alkylated. The linkage was cleaved by 1 M hydroxylamine, showing that 3 H-PrBCM was attached to an acidic residue, whose properties strongly suggested it to be embedded in a hydrophobic intramembrane region of the mAChR. Examination of the cloned sequence of the mAChR reveals several candidate residues, the most likely of which is homologous to an aspartic acid residue thought to protonate the retinal Schiff's base in the congeneric protein rhodopsin

  20. Identification of a novel first exon in the human dystrophin gene and of a new promoter located more than 500 kb upstream of the nearest known promoter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagawa, H.; Nishio, H.; Takeshima, Y. [Kobe Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The dystrophin gene, which is muted in patients with Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies, is the largest known human gene. Five alternative promoters have been characterized until now. Here we show that a novel dystrophin isoform with a different first exon can be produced through transcription initiation at a previously-unidentified alternative promoter. The case study presented is that of patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy who had a deletion extending from 5{prime} end of the dystrophin gene to exon 2, including all promoters previously mapped in the 5{prime} part of the gene. Transcripts from lymphoblastoid cells were found to contain sequences corresponding to exon 3, indicating the presence of new promoter upstream of this exon. The nucleotide sequence of amplified cDNA corresponding to the 5{prime} end of the new transcript indicated that the 5{prime} end of exon 3 was extended by 9 codons, only the last (most 3{prime}) of which codes for methionine. The genomic nucleotide sequence upstream from the new exon, as determined using inverse polymerase chain reaction, revealed the presence of sequences similar to a TATA box, an octamer motif and an MEF-2 element. The identified promoter/exon did not map to intron 2, as might have been expected, but to a position more than 500 kb upstream of the most 5{prime} of the previously-identified promoters, thereby adding 500 kb to the dystrophin gene. The sequence of part of the new promoter region is very similar to that of certain medium reiteration frequency repetitive sequences. These findings may help us understand the molecular evolution of the dystrophin gene.

  1. Environmental impact of site location on macro- and microelements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human activities cause specific impact on the enveronment, which also could been monitored by mineral contents in the soil and in the plants. Two different caracteristic locations had been selected for the experiments: anthropogenic-Ada Huja contamineted industrial zone and non anthropogenic- Topcider park area.

  2. Characterisation of Radioactive Waste located at Shelter Industrial Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.D.; Billon, F.; Rudko, V.M.; Batiy, V.G.; Panasyuk, N.I.

    2001-04-01

    As a result of the accident at the unit 4 reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant on the 26 April 1986 there was widespread radioactive contamination of the surrounding area. The area immediately surrounding Unit 4, referred to as the Industrial Site, was very heavily contaminated with fuel and core debris ejected from the reactor. Immediate action was undertaken to reduce the local radiation hazard and mitigate the potential of secondary contamination of the environment. This action involved (a) the removal and collection of fuel fragments (b) removal of the top layer of soil around unit 4 and (c) preparation of a new surface over the Industrial Site. This new surface is referred to colloquially as the Techno-genic Layer. This report provides an overview of a project undertaken for DG-Environment of European Commission by a Consortium consisting of SGN (France) and AEA Technology (UK) working in collaboration with the Organisation, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine; the Interdisciplinary Scientific and Technical Centre Shelter''. The project consisted of 3 Phases and a total of 14 Tasks. The main purpose of Phase 1 was to review previous work and available information and data on the contamination of the Industrial Site, construction of the Techno-genic Layer, Buttress and Pioneer Walls. Phase 2 was directed at additional measurements being carried out on existing boreholes and core samples to improve and/or substantiate existing information and data. Estimation of likely radioactive waste arisings, recovery procedures and a generalised strategy with indicative costs for the management of the waste was also covered by Phase 2. In Phase 3 new boreholes (3 off) were drilled and subsequently investigated. The justification behind Phase 3 was the desire/need to obtain more reliable information on the so-called high-active waste buried in the Industrial Site. (author)

  3. Spectrometric study of the folding process of i-motif-forming DNA sequences upstream of the c-kit transcription initiation site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucek, Pavel; Gargallo, Raimundo; Kudrev, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    The c-kit oncogene shows a cytosine-rich DNA region upstream of the transcription initiation site which forms an i-motif structure at slightly acidic pH values (Bucek et al. ). In the present study, the pH-induced formation of i-motif - forming sequences 5'-CCC CTC CCT CGC GCC CGC CCG-3' (ckitC1, native), 5'-CCC TTC CCT TGT GCC CGC CCG-3' (ckitC2) and 5'-CCCTT CCC TTTTT CCC T CCC T-3' (ckitC3) was studied by spectroscopic techniques, such as UV molecular absorption and circular dichroism (CD), in tandem with two multivariate data analysis methods, the hard modelling-based matrix method and the soft modelling-based MCR-ALS approach. Use of the hard chemical modelling enabled us to propose the equilibrium model, which describes spectral changes as functions of solution acidity. Additionally, the intrinsic protonation constant, K in , and the cooperativity parameters, ω c , and ω a , were calculated from the fitting procedure of the coupled CD and molecular absorption spectra. In the case of ckitC2 and ckitC3, the hard model correctly reproduced the spectral variations observed experimentally. The results indicated that folding was accompanied by a cooperative process, i.e. the enhancement of protonated structure stability upon protonation. In contrast, unfolding was accompanied by an anticooperative process. Finally, folding of the native sequence, ckitC1, seemed to follow a more complex mechanism.

  4. 25 CFR 214.28 - Location of sites for mines and buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Location of sites for mines and buildings. 214.28 Section... and buildings. In event of disagreement between two or more mineral lessees regarding sites for the location of wells, mines, buildings, plants, etc., the same shall be determined by the superintendent after...

  5. 76 FR 64943 - Proposed Cercla Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; ACM Smelter and Refinery Site, Located...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... Settlement; ACM Smelter and Refinery Site, Located in Cascade County, MT AGENCY: Environmental Protection... projected future response costs concerning the ACM Smelter and Refinery NPL Site (Site), Operable Unit 1..., Helena, MT 59626. Mr. Sturn can be reached at (406) 457-5027. Comments should reference the ACM Smelter...

  6. Suppression of HPV-16 late L1 5′-splice site SD3632 by binding of hnRNP D proteins and hnRNP A2/B1 to upstream AUAGUA RNA motifs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoze; Johansson, Cecilia; Glahder, Jacob; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Schwartz, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) 5′-splice site SD3632 is used exclusively to produce late L1 mRNAs. We identified a 34-nt splicing inhibitory element located immediately upstream of HPV-16 late 5′-splice site SD3632. Two AUAGUA motifs located in these 34 nt inhibited SD3632. Two nucleotide substitutions in each of the HPV-16 specific AUAGUA motifs alleviated splicing inhibition and induced late L1 mRNA production from episomal forms of the HPV-16 genome in primary human keratinocytes. The AUAGUA motifs bind specifically not only to the heterogeneous nuclear RNP (hnRNP) D family of RNA-binding proteins including hnRNP D/AUF, hnRNP DL and hnRNP AB but also to hnRNP A2/B1. Knock-down of these proteins induced HPV-16 late L1 mRNA expression, and overexpression of hnRNP A2/B1, hnRNP AB, hnRNP DL and the two hnRNP D isoforms hnRNP D37 and hnRNP D40 further suppressed L1 mRNA expression. This inhibition may allow HPV-16 to hide from the immune system and establish long-term persistent infections with enhanced risk at progressing to cancer. There is an inverse correlation between expression of hnRNP D proteins and hnRNP A2/B1 and HPV-16 L1 production in the cervical epithelium, as well as in cervical cancer, supporting the conclusion that hnRNP D proteins and A2/B1 inhibit HPV-16 L1 mRNA production. PMID:24013563

  7. Draft environmental assessment: reference repository location, Hanford Site, Washington. Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 112)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a reference repository location at the Hanford Site in Washington as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the reference repository location at the Hanford Site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations are reported in this draft environmental assessment (EA), which is being issued for public review and comment. The DOE findings and determinations that are based on these evaluations are preliminary and subject to public review and comment. A final EA will be prepared after considering the comments received on the draft EA. The reference repository location at Hanford is located in the Columbia Plateau, one of five distinct geohydrologic settings that are being considered for the first repository. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this draft EA, the DOE has found that the reference repository location at Hanford is not disqualified under the guidelines. The DOE has also found that it is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is proposing to nominate the reference repository location at Hanford as one of five sites suitable for characterization. Furthermore, having performed a comparative evaluation of the five sites proposed for nomination, the DOE has determined that the reference repository location at Hanford is one of three sites preferred for site characterization

  8. Phyloscan: locating transcription-regulating binding sites in mixed aligned and unaligned sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Michael J; Newberg, Lee A

    2010-07-01

    The transcription of a gene from its DNA template into an mRNA molecule is the first, and most heavily regulated, step in gene expression. Especially in bacteria, regulation is typically achieved via the binding of a transcription factor (protein) or small RNA molecule to the chromosomal region upstream of a regulated gene. The protein or RNA molecule recognizes a short, approximately conserved sequence within a gene's promoter region and, by binding to it, either enhances or represses expression of the nearby gene. Since the sought-for motif (pattern) is short and accommodating to variation, computational approaches that scan for binding sites have trouble distinguishing functional sites from look-alikes. Many computational approaches are unable to find the majority of experimentally verified binding sites without also finding many false positives. Phyloscan overcomes this difficulty by exploiting two key features of functional binding sites: (i) these sites are typically more conserved evolutionarily than are non-functional DNA sequences; and (ii) these sites often occur two or more times in the promoter region of a regulated gene. The website is free and open to all users, and there is no login requirement. Address: (http://bayesweb.wadsworth.org/phyloscan/).

  9. Application of the maximal covering location problem to habitat reserve site selection: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanie A. Snyder; Robert G. Haight

    2016-01-01

    The Maximal Covering Location Problem (MCLP) is a classic model from the location science literature which has found wide application. One important application is to a fundamental problem in conservation biology, the Maximum Covering Species Problem (MCSP), which identifies land parcels to protect to maximize the number of species represented in the selected sites. We...

  10. Vertical view of Apollo 16 landing site located Descartes area lunar nearside

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    A vertical view of the Apollo 16 landing site located in the Descartes area lunar nearside. The overlay indicates the location of the proposed touchdown point for the Apollo 16 Lunar Module. Descartes is located west of the Sea of Nectar and southwest of the Sea of Tranquility. This photograph was taken with a 500mm lens camera from lunar orbit by the Apollo 14 crew.

  11. Facebook, Twitter Activities Sites, Location and Students' Interest in Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbo, J. N.; Ezenwaji, Ifeyinwa; Ajuziogu, Christiana U.

    2018-01-01

    This study was carried out to ascertain the influence of social networking sites activities (twitter and Facebook) on secondary school students' interest in learning It also considered the impact of these social networking sites activities on location of the students. Two research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. Mean and…

  12. Library Facility Siting and Location Handbook. The Greenwood Library Management Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Christine M.

    This handbook is a guide to the complex process of library facility siting and location. It includes relevant research and professionals' siting experiences, as well as actual case studies of closures, openings, mergers, and relocations of library facilities. While the bulk of the volume provides practical information, the work also presents an…

  13. Nuclear event time histories and computed site transfer functions for locations in the Los Angeles region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A.M.; Covington, P.A.; Park, R.B.; Borcherdt, R.D.; Perkins, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    This report presents a collection of Nevada Test Site (NTS) nuclear explosion recordings obtained at sites in the greater Los Angeles, Calif., region. The report includes ground velocity time histories, as well as, derived site transfer functions. These data have been collected as part of a study to evaluate the validity of using low-level ground motions to predict the frequency-dependent response of a site during an earthquake. For this study 19 nuclear events were recorded at 98 separate locations. Some of these sites have recorded more than one of the nuclear explosions, and, consequently, there are a total of 159, three-component station records. The location of all the recording sites are shown in figures 1–5, the station coordinates and abbreviations are given in table 1. The station addresses are listed in table 2, and the nuclear explosions that were recorded are listed in table 3. The recording sites were chosen on the basis of three criteria: (1) that the underlying geological conditions were representative of conditions over significant areas of the region, (2) that the site was the location of a strong-motion recording of the 1971 San Fernando earthquake, or (3) that more complete geographical coverage was required in that location.

  14. Vegetative changes in boreal peatlands along salinity gradients resulting from produced water spills : implications for the environmental assessment and remediation of upstream oil and gas sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bright, D.; Harris, C.; Meier, M. [AECOM Canada Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    In the province of Alberta, there are approximately 8,000 registered oil effluent and produced pipelines that have significant potential for ruptures and spills due to the highly corrosive nature of the emulsions and produced water they transport. Most releases occur in or adjacent to northern boreal wetlands. The first objective in spill response involves assessment and remediation for residuals, which involves handling and disposal of large volumes of salinized water. This presentation reported on a study that addressed the issues regarding the ecological features of semi-terrestrial and semi-aquatic components of boreal wetland environments as a basis for environmental protection at salt release sites. The fate of salt ions in such environments was examined along with the implications for secondary succession and ecological restoration. The study also examined the reasonable threshold concentration of salt ions in soils or water beyond which there is an inhibition to wetlands plants and bryophyte secondary succession; the reasonable threshold concentration of salt ions in water beyond which there may be adverse effects on invertebrates, vertebrates and other non-plant taxa; and species sensitivity distributions for floral and faunal assemblages found in boreal wetland habitats. The presentation summarized the 3 phases of a project that examined pipeline ruptures at 9 sites. Field methods and site sampling summaries were presented. It was difficult to locate study sites with residual salt contamination in surface media at concentrations above effects threshold for many species. It was concluded that the departures between surface and subsurface salinity indicates a smaller potential for effects on site vegetation. tabs., figs.

  15. Vegetative changes in boreal peatlands along salinity gradients resulting from produced water spills : implications for the environmental assessment and remediation of upstream oil and gas sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bright, D.; Harris, C.; Meier, M.

    2010-01-01

    In the province of Alberta, there are approximately 8,000 registered oil effluent and produced pipelines that have significant potential for ruptures and spills due to the highly corrosive nature of the emulsions and produced water they transport. Most releases occur in or adjacent to northern boreal wetlands. The first objective in spill response involves assessment and remediation for residuals, which involves handling and disposal of large volumes of salinized water. This presentation reported on a study that addressed the issues regarding the ecological features of semi-terrestrial and semi-aquatic components of boreal wetland environments as a basis for environmental protection at salt release sites. The fate of salt ions in such environments was examined along with the implications for secondary succession and ecological restoration. The study also examined the reasonable threshold concentration of salt ions in soils or water beyond which there is an inhibition to wetlands plants and bryophyte secondary succession; the reasonable threshold concentration of salt ions in water beyond which there may be adverse effects on invertebrates, vertebrates and other non-plant taxa; and species sensitivity distributions for floral and faunal assemblages found in boreal wetland habitats. The presentation summarized the 3 phases of a project that examined pipeline ruptures at 9 sites. Field methods and site sampling summaries were presented. It was difficult to locate study sites with residual salt contamination in surface media at concentrations above effects threshold for many species. It was concluded that the departures between surface and subsurface salinity indicates a smaller potential for effects on site vegetation. tabs., figs.

  16. Stratigraphic Profiles for Selected Hanford Site Seismometer Stations and Other Locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, George V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Stratigraphic profiles were constructed for eight selected Hanford Site seismometer stations, five Hanford Site facility reference locations, and seven regional three-component broadband seismometer stations. These profiles provide interpretations of the subsurface layers to support estimation of ground motions from past earthquakes, and the prediction of ground motions from future earthquakes. In most cases these profiles terminated at the top of the Wanapum Basalt, but at selected sites profiles were extended down to the top of the crystalline basement. The composite one-dimensional stratigraphic profiles were based primarily on previous interpretations from nearby boreholes, and in many cases the nearest deep borehole is located kilometers away.

  17. Sites for locations of nuclear reactors; Sitios para emplazamientos de reactores nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcazar, M.; Huerta, M.; Lopez, A., E-mail: miguel.balcazar@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    A restriction on sites of nuclear energy is the history of seismic activity, in its magnitude (Richter) and intensity (Mercalli). This article delimits the areas of greatest magnitude and national seismic intensity, with restrictions of ground acceleration; the supplement areas with a low magnitude of seismic activity are shown. Potential sites for the location of these sites are introduced into a geographic information system. The set of geo-referenced data contains the location of the active volcanic manifestations; the historical record of earthquake epicenters, magnitudes and intensities; major geological faults; surface hydrology and water bodies; location of population density; protected areas; contour lines; the rock type or geology. The geographic information system allows entering normative criteria and environmental restrictions that correlate with geo-referenced data described above, forms both probable and exclusion areas for the installation of nuclear sites. (Author)

  18. Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Nevada Test Site and off- site locations in the state of Nevada: Reader's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This Reader's Guide is designed to help you find information in the US Departments of Energy's Nevada Test Site Environmental Impact Statement (NTS EIS). This Guide is divided into four sections: an introduction to the NTS EIS, specific topics, number conversions and scientific notations and public reading room locations

  19. Finding erotic oases: locating the sites of men's same-sex anonymous sexual encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewksbury, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Because anonymous sexual relations between two men are widely considered deviant many men seeking such activities look to erotic oases-natural environments appropriated for covert, often furtive sexual purposes. Previous research on erotic oases has focused on characteristics of involved men and processes of locating, negotiating with, and consummating sexual relations with others. This study draws on one major Web site listing of "cruising places" in the United States to identify common locations for erotic oases. Results show that the most common locations identified as erotic oases by users are public parks, adult bookstores, health clubs, and college campuses. Locations most likely to be listed as believed to be under law enforcement surveillance are outdoor, high traffic locations. Based on these results existing research has only begun to examine the most common locations for this highly stigmatized, deviant behavior and subculture.

  20. Siting locally-unwanted facilities: What can be learnt from the location of Italian power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrone, Paola; Groppi, Angelamaria

    2012-01-01

    The reaction of communities to the development of energy facilities is based on the environmental impact of the investment, but it also reflects the ex-ante propensity of residents to engage in collective actions. In this work we have examined the requests of authorization of Italian power producers for new thermal plants with the purpose of testing the efficiency of market-based siting policies. The classical location factors, e.g., infrastructure availability, have been confirmed to play a role, and there is a weak evidence that authorization demands have targeted communities that suffer less environmental damage. However our findings have also revealed that power producers are likely to avoid potentially suitable sites if they host a highly activistic community. The paper also discusses some modifications concerning siting policies that could improve the alignment between community responses and the environmental costs of new energy facilities. - Highlights: ► We model location choices for polluting power plants by Italian producers in 1999–2006. ► The efficiency of market-based siting policies is tested (i.e., plants located where environmental damage is lower). ► More than environmental costs, voice factors prevailed on the location choices. ► We conclude that market-based siting policies does not ensure an efficient outcome. ► Developers and communities relationship may suffer from relevant transaction costs

  1. An evaluation of the accuracy of modeled and computed streamflow time-series data for the Ohio River at Hannibal Lock and Dam and at a location upstream from Sardis, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltun, G.F.

    2015-01-01

    Between July 2013 and June 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) made 10 streamflow measurements on the Ohio River about 1.5 miles (mi) downstream from the Hannibal Lock and Dam (near Hannibal, Ohio) and 11 streamflow measurements near the USGS Sardis gage (station number 03114306) located approximately 2.4 mi upstream from Sardis, Ohio. The measurement results were used to assess the accuracy of modeled or computed instantaneous streamflow time series created and supplied by the USGS, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), and National Weather Service (NWS) for the Ohio River at Hannibal Lock and Dam and (or) at the USGS streamgage. Hydraulic or hydrologic models were used to create the modeled time series; index-velocity methods or gate-opening ratings coupled with hydropower operation data were used to create the computed time series. The time step of the various instantaneous streamflow time series ranged from 15 minutes to 24 hours (once-daily values at 12:00 Coordinated Universal Time [UTC]). The 15-minute time-series data, computed by the USGS for the Sardis gage, also were downsampled to 1-hour and 24-hour time steps to permit more direct comparisons with other streamflow time series.

  2. Effects of Vegetation Structure on the Location of Lion Kill Sites in African Thicket.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew B Davies

    Full Text Available Predator-prey relationships are integral to ecosystem stability and functioning. These relationships are, however, difficult to maintain in protected areas where large predators are increasingly being reintroduced and confined. Where predators make kills has a profound influence on their role in ecosystems, but the relative importance of environmental variables in determining kill sites, and how these might vary across ecosystems is poorly known. We investigated kill sites for lions in South Africa's thicket biome, testing the importance of vegetation structure for kill site locations compared to other environmental variables. Kill sites were located over four years using GPS telemetry and compared to non-kill sites that had been occupied by lions, as well as to random sites within lion ranges. Measurements of 3D vegetation structure obtained from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR were used to calculate the visible area (viewshed around each site and, along with wind and moonlight data, used to compare kill sites between lion sexes, prey species and prey sexes. Viewshed area was the most important predictor of kill sites (sites in dense vegetation were twice as likely to be kill sites compared to open areas, followed by wind speed and, less so, moonlight. Kill sites for different prey species varied with vegetation structure, and male prey were killed when wind speeds were higher compared to female prey of the same species. Our results demonstrate that vegetation structure is an important component of predator-prey interactions, with varying effects across ecosystems. Such differences require consideration in terms of the ecological roles performed by predators, and in predator and prey conservation.

  3. Effects of Vegetation Structure on the Location of Lion Kill Sites in African Thicket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Andrew B; Tambling, Craig J; Kerley, Graham I H; Asner, Gregory P

    2016-01-01

    Predator-prey relationships are integral to ecosystem stability and functioning. These relationships are, however, difficult to maintain in protected areas where large predators are increasingly being reintroduced and confined. Where predators make kills has a profound influence on their role in ecosystems, but the relative importance of environmental variables in determining kill sites, and how these might vary across ecosystems is poorly known. We investigated kill sites for lions in South Africa's thicket biome, testing the importance of vegetation structure for kill site locations compared to other environmental variables. Kill sites were located over four years using GPS telemetry and compared to non-kill sites that had been occupied by lions, as well as to random sites within lion ranges. Measurements of 3D vegetation structure obtained from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) were used to calculate the visible area (viewshed) around each site and, along with wind and moonlight data, used to compare kill sites between lion sexes, prey species and prey sexes. Viewshed area was the most important predictor of kill sites (sites in dense vegetation were twice as likely to be kill sites compared to open areas), followed by wind speed and, less so, moonlight. Kill sites for different prey species varied with vegetation structure, and male prey were killed when wind speeds were higher compared to female prey of the same species. Our results demonstrate that vegetation structure is an important component of predator-prey interactions, with varying effects across ecosystems. Such differences require consideration in terms of the ecological roles performed by predators, and in predator and prey conservation.

  4. Location and nature of calcium-binding sites in salivary acidic proline-rich phosphoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennick, A.; McLaughlin, A.C.; Grey, A.A.; Madapallimattam, G.

    1981-01-01

    The location of the calcium-binding sites in the human acidic proline-rich proteins, salivary proteins A and C, was determined by equilibrium dialysis of the tryptic peptides with buffers containing 45 Ca. All the calcium-binding sites are located in the NH 2 -terminal tryptic peptide (TX peptide). The nature of the calcium binding sites in the TX peptide and native salivary proteins A and C, as well as dephosphorylated proteins was compared. Two types of sites can be distinguished in peptide TX. Type I sites have an apparent dissociation constant (K) of 38 μM and are responsible for the binding of 2.6 mol of Ca/mol of peptide. The corresponding figures for Type II sites are 780 μM and 5.3 mol of Ca/mol of peptide. In the native proteins, the amount of calcium bound at the type II sites decreases to 3.9 mol of Ca/mol of proteins A and C and K increases to 1100 μM. The amount of calcium bound at type I sites decreases to 1.5 mol/mol of protein A and 0.6 mol/mol of protein C, but there is no change in K. Dephosphorylation affects the calcium binding at both types of sites. The experiments indicate that the COOH-terminal parts of the native proteins affect the number and the nature of the protein calcium-binding sites. Proton and phosphorous NMR data demonstrate that β-COOH in aspartic acid, as well as phosphoserine, are part of the calcium-binding sites. The difference in calcium binding to salivary proteins A and C may be due at least partially to differences in the environment of one or more aspartic acids

  5. Water Quality Sampling Locations Along the Shoreline of the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Robert E.; Patton, Gregory W.

    2009-12-14

    As environmental monitoring evolved on the Hanford Site, several different conventions were used to name or describe location information for various sampling sites along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. These methods range from handwritten descriptions in field notebooks to the use of modern electronic surveying equipment, such as Global Positioning System receivers. These diverse methods resulted in inconsistent archiving of analytical results in various electronic databases and published reports because of multiple names being used for the same site and inaccurate position data. This document provides listings of sampling sites that are associated with groundwater and river water sampling. The report identifies names and locations for sites associated with sampling: (a) near-river groundwater using aquifer sampling tubes; (b) riverbank springs and springs areas; (c) pore water collected from riverbed sediment; and (d) Columbia River water. Included in the listings are historical names used for a particular site and the best available geographic coordinates for the site, as of 2009. In an effort to create more consistency in the descriptive names used for water quality sampling sites, a naming convention is proposed in this document. The convention assumes that a unique identifier is assigned to each site that is monitored and that this identifier serves electronic database management requirements. The descriptive name is assigned for the convenience of the subsequent data user. As the historical database is used more intensively, this document may be revised as a consequence of discovering potential errors and also because of a need to gain consensus on the proposed naming convention for some water quality monitoring sites.

  6. Tumour location within the breast: Does tumour site have prognostic ability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, Seth; Hueman, Matthew T; Costantino, Nick; Shriver, Craig D; Ellsworth, Rachel E

    2015-01-01

    Tumour location within the breast varies with the highest frequency in the upper outer quadrant (UOQ) and lowest frequency in the lower inner quadrant (LIQ). Whether tumour location is prognostic is unclear. To determine whether tumour location is prognostic, associations between tumour site and clinicopathological characteristics were evaluated. All patients enrolled in the Clinical Breast Care Project whose tumour site-UOQ, upper inner quadrant (UIQ), central, LIQ, lower outer quadrant (LOQ)-was determined by a single, dedicated breast pathologist were included in this study. Patients with multicentric disease (n = 122) or tumours spanning multiple quadrants (n = 381) were excluded from further analysis. Clinicopathological characteristics were analysed using chi-square tests for univariate analysis with multivariate analysis performed using principal components analysis (PCA) and multiple logistic regression. Significance was defined as P location, 30 had bilateral disease. Tumour location in the UOQ (51.5%) was significantly higher than in the UIQ (15.6%), LOQ (14.2%), central (10.6%), or LIQ (8.1%). Tumours in the central quadrant were significantly more likely to have higher tumour stage (P = 0.003) and size (P location as a prognostic factor revealed that although tumours in the central region are associated with less favourable outcome, these associations are not independent of location but rather driven by larger tumour size. Tumours in the central region are more difficult to detect mammographically, resulting in larger tumour size at diagnosis and thus less favourable prognosis. Together, these data demonstrate that tumour location is not an independent prognostic factor.

  7. Upstream cash cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper focuses on the effects of the slowdown in budgetary growth on the upstream business and offshore services. The dangers facing investors, the strong growth in energy demand, oil company priorities, the dip in profits of the oil companies, new field economics, the budgets for exploration and production, and the rig market outlook are discussed. (UK)

  8. Method for screening the Nevada Test Site and contiguous areas for nuclear waste repository locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinnock, S.; Fernandez, J.A.; Neal, J.T.; Stephens, H.P.; Hartway, B.L.; Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., NM)

    1982-01-01

    This paper outlines the general concepts of a technical method for systematic screening of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada, for potentially suitable nuclear waste repository locations. After a general discussion of the organization and the purpose of the current screening activity, the paper addresses the steps of the screening method. These steps include: hierarchically organizing technical objectives for repository performance (an objectives tree); identifying and mapping pertinent physical characteristics of a site and its setting (physical attributes); relating the physical conditions to the objectives (favorability curves); identifying alternative locations and numerically evaluating their relative merits; investigating the effects of subjective judgments on the evaluations (sensitivity analyses); documenting the assumptions, logic, and results of the method. 19 references, 10 figures

  9. Evaluation of new location of Isfahan′s sanitary landfill site with Oleckno method

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Salimi; Afshin Ebrahimi; Afsane Salimi

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The objective of present study was to evaluate the new location of Isfahan solid waste sanitary landfill using Geographical Information System (GIS) based on the Oleckno index method (OIM). Materials and Methods: This study was on the field- and library-based data collection and surveys of relevant data. Assessment parameters included average annual rainfall, soil type and ground water beneath and adjucent to the landfill site. To analyze data, ArcGIS version 9.3 was used. Resul...

  10. Lattice site location of electrical dopant impurities in group-III nitrides

    CERN Document Server

    Amorim, Lígia; Temst, Kristiaan; Wahl, Ulrich

    Dopants are impurities introduced in semiconductors in small quantities to tailor the material characteristics, the effects of which depend on the exact site the dopant occupies in the crystal lattice. The lattice location of impurities is, thus, crucial for the overall understanding of the semiconductor characteristics. In general, several techniques can be used to investigate the lattice site of an impurity, the most accurate and dedicated being emission channeling. However, a characteristic of this technique is that it requires the implantation of radioactive probes, usually created and accelerated in a radioactive ion beam facility. In some cases, emission channeling might however be the only technique capable to investigate the lattice sites occupied by the impurity atoms, provided an appropriate isotope for this technique can be used. For instance, the use of other methods such as Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, perturbed angular correlations, Mössbauer spectroscopy and extended X-ray absorptio...

  11. Upstream health law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, William M; McIlhattan, Kelley

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, entrepreneurs are aggressively developing new technologies and business models designed to improve individual and population health, not just to deliver specialized medical care. Consumers of these goods and services are not yet "patients"; they are simply people. As this sector of the health care industry expands, it is likely to require new forms of legal governance, which we term "upstream health law." © 2014 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  12. The Influence of Heritage Sites as Filming Locations on Tourists’ Decisions to Visit Sites and Their Perceptions of Them. Case Study: Game of Thrones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Bowyer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the authors’ master thesis and addresses the effects of World Heritage Sites and heritage sites which are used as filming locations on visitor perceptions of a site and their decision to visit a site. Film-induced tourism is becoming increasingly popular and it is important to assess its impacts on World Heritage Sites and heritage sites used as locations. The integration of the different aspects of heritage and filming at a site including elements and the communication between all the different parties involved are also addressed. The case study used is the popular television series Game of Thrones focusing on various locations in Northern Ireland and Dubrovnik, Croatia. The paper aims to provide a starting platform for future research on heritage sites used as filming locations and the possible impacts that this may have.

  13. A mathematical model of single target site location by Brownian movement in subcellular compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuthan, Hartmut

    2003-03-07

    The location of distinct sites is mandatory for many cellular processes. In the subcompartments of the cell nucleus, only very small numbers of diffusing macromolecules and specific target sites of some types may be present. In this case, we are faced with the Brownian movement of individual macromolecules and their "random search" for single/few specific target sites, rather than bulk-averaged diffusion and multiple sites. In this article, I consider the location of a distant central target site, e.g. a globular protein, by individual macromolecules executing unbiased (i.e. drift-free) random walks in a spherical compartment. For this walk-and-capture model, the closed-form analytic solution of the first passage time probability density function (p.d.f.) has been obtained as well as the first and second moment. In the limit of a large ratio of the radii of the spherical diffusion space and central target, well-known relations for the variance and the first two moments for the exponential p.d.f. were found to hold with high accuracy. These calculations reinforce earlier numerical results and Monte Carlo simulations. A major implication derivable from the model is that non-directed random movement is an effective means for locating single sites in submicron-sized compartments, even when the diffusion coefficients are comparatively small and the diffusing species are present in one copy only. These theoretical conclusions are underscored numerically for effective diffusion constants ranging from 0.5 to 10.0 microm(2) s(-1), which have been reported for a couple of nuclear proteins in their physiological environment. Spherical compartments of submicron size are, for example, the Cajal bodies (size: 0.1-1.0 microm), which are present in 1-5 copies in the cell nucleus. Within a small Cajal body of radius 0.1 microm a single diffusing protein molecule (with D=0.5 microm(2) s(-1)) would encounter a medium-sized protein of radius 2.5 nm within 1 s with a probability near

  14. ZFNGenome: A comprehensive resource for locating zinc finger nuclease target sites in model organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voytas Daniel F

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFNs have tremendous potential as tools to facilitate genomic modifications, such as precise gene knockouts or gene replacements by homologous recombination. ZFNs can be used to advance both basic research and clinical applications, including gene therapy. Recently, the ability to engineer ZFNs that target any desired genomic DNA sequence with high fidelity has improved significantly with the introduction of rapid, robust, and publicly available techniques for ZFN design such as the Oligomerized Pool ENgineering (OPEN method. The motivation for this study is to make resources for genome modifications using OPEN-generated ZFNs more accessible to researchers by creating a user-friendly interface that identifies and provides quality scores for all potential ZFN target sites in the complete genomes of several model organisms. Description ZFNGenome is a GBrowse-based tool for identifying and visualizing potential target sites for OPEN-generated ZFNs. ZFNGenome currently includes a total of more than 11.6 million potential ZFN target sites, mapped within the fully sequenced genomes of seven model organisms; S. cerevisiae, C. reinhardtii, A. thaliana, D. melanogaster, D. rerio, C. elegans, and H. sapiens and can be visualized within the flexible GBrowse environment. Additional model organisms will be included in future updates. ZFNGenome provides information about each potential ZFN target site, including its chromosomal location and position relative to transcription initiation site(s. Users can query ZFNGenome using several different criteria (e.g., gene ID, transcript ID, target site sequence. Tracks in ZFNGenome also provide "uniqueness" and ZiFOpT (Zinc Finger OPEN Targeter "confidence" scores that estimate the likelihood that a chosen ZFN target site will function in vivo. ZFNGenome is dynamically linked to ZiFDB, allowing users access to all available information about zinc finger reagents, such as the

  15. Procedures for the site location of an storage centre of medium and low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena G, P.; Garcia B, M.

    2001-01-01

    In order to establish the procedures for the location of a new and definitive storage center for medium and low level radioactive wastes which will be the place where confining, controlling and keeping those waste products of radioactive materials which were used in the hospitable centers, clinics and institutions (research and techniques development) as well as those obtained from industry. The site studies for nuclear facilities, require the participation of a several professionals with different specialities to be able to make use of competence in different disciplines. The result is the exclusion of unacceptable zones followed them by a pre-selection, a selection and a systematic comparison of those sites which are in the remaining zones considered as acceptable. (Author)

  16. About condition of soil ground at locations of the former Azgir nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmetov, E.Z.; Adymov, Zh.I.; Ermatov, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Soil condition after underground nuclear explosions at locations of the test sites is considered. The region is situated in the zone of northern deserts and characterized by prevalence of greyish-brown soils in conditions of sharply continental climate and presence of salt in soil-formative complex including tertiary clays, loess-like loam, loam sands and sands. There are small quantity of humus in such soil. During investigation of soil characteristics and ability of soil particles to form conglomerates, possessing of different properties, it is necessary to know both element and phase composition, determining, in the most extent, such physical and mechanical macro-characteristics as: density, stickiness, air and water penetrability, solubility, chemical resistance, granulometric set and others. Phase composition of soil samples can be, to a sufficient extent, determined by the X-ray diffractometry methods using ordinary X-ray experimental facilities. Phase composition of soil includes gypsum, quartz, calcium, potash feldspar hematite, kaolin, peach and mica in different quantities. Data on element composition of soil samples were obtained from the territory of technological locations of test site using the method of X-ray-fluorescent analysis. Granulometric composition of soil ground has been investigated using the methods of dry sieving and wet sieving for determination of radionuclide distribution in different fractions of soil particles. By the method of the dry sieving of soil ground samples there are taken place a sticking the small together of fine fractions and an adhesion of stuck-together particles to more large ones. Therefore, fine fractions cannot be separate completely at dry sieving. As distinct from the dry sieving an use of water jet in the sieving allows to overcome defects of the dry method and, by a sufficiently effective separation of granulometric fractions, to obtain more precise results of investigations of granulometric

  17. MPL-Net Measurements of Aerosol and Cloud Vertical Distributions at Co-Located AERONET Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, Ellsworth J.; Campbell, James R.; Berkoff, Timothy A.; Spinhirne, James D.; Tsay, Si-Chee; Holben, Brent; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In the early 1990s, the first small, eye-safe, and autonomous lidar system was developed, the Micropulse Lidar (MPL). The MPL acquires signal profiles of backscattered laser light from aerosols and clouds. The signals are analyzed to yield multiple layer heights, optical depths of each layer, average extinction-to-backscatter ratios for each layer, and profiles of extinction in each layer. In 2000, several MPL sites were organized into a coordinated network, called MPL-Net, by the Cloud and Aerosol Lidar Group at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) using funding provided by the NASA Earth Observing System. tn addition to the funding provided by NASA EOS, the NASA CERES Ground Validation Group supplied four MPL systems to the project, and the NASA TOMS group contributed their MPL for work at GSFC. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) also agreed to make their data available to the MPL-Net project for processing. In addition to the initial NASA and ARM operated sites, several other independent research groups have also expressed interest in joining the network using their own instruments. Finally, a limited amount of EOS funding was set aside to participate in various field experiments each year. The NASA Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) project also provides funds to deploy their MPL during ocean research cruises. All together, the MPL-Net project has participated in four major field experiments since 2000. Most MPL-Net sites and field experiment locations are also co-located with sunphotometers in the NASA Aerosol Robotic Network. (AERONET). Therefore, at these locations data is collected on both aerosol and cloud vertical structure as well as column optical depth and sky radiance. Real-time data products are now available from most MPL-Net sites. Our real-time products are generated at times of AERONET aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements. The AERONET AOD is used as input to our

  18. 77 FR 70449 - Medical Device User Fee and Modernization Act; Notice to Public of Web Site Location of Fiscal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the Web site location where the Agency will post two lists... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-1021] Medical Device User Fee and Modernization Act; Notice to Public of Web Site Location of Fiscal Year 2013...

  19. 78 FR 66746 - Medical Device User Fee and Modernization Act; Notice to Public of Web Site Location of Fiscal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) is announcing the Web site location where the Agency will... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-1021] Medical Device User Fee and Modernization Act; Notice to Public of Web Site Location of Fiscal Year 2014...

  20. 78 FR 21155 - Eastman Kodak Company, IPS-Dayton Location, Including On-site Leased Workers From Adecco, Dayton...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-81,387] Eastman Kodak Company, IPS--Dayton Location, Including On-site Leased Workers From Adecco, Dayton, Ohio; Notice of... and former workers of Eastman Kodak Company, IPS--Dayton Location, including on-site leased workers...

  1. Dopant site location in dual-implanted GaP using (111) planar channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, N.R.; Kao, C.T.; Lee, D.R.; Muse, J.; Swanson, M.L.; Venkatasubramanian, R.; Timmons, M.

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that dual implantation can efficiently introduce group IV dopant onto selected sub-lattice sites in III--V compound semiconductors, thus enhancing electrical activation. The authors have studied this phenomenon in GaP using Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) to determine the lattice location of Sn atoms. The authors used single crystals of GaP (100) which had been implanted at 400 degrees C with 120 Sn + following previously implanted 69 Ga + or 31 P + . Energies were selected for equivalent projected ranges, and all species were implanted with doses of 1 x 10 15 atoms/cm 2 . Asymmetry in the angular scan of the {111} planar channel was then used to determine the sub-lattice location of the implanted Sn. RBS results indicated that for all implants Sn atoms were substituting Ga and P sites equally. However, Hall effect measurements gave p type conduction for GaP implanted with Sn alone, while those with prior implants of Ga or P resulted in n-type conduction. RBS and Hall effect results are explained by a vacancy complex model

  2. Evaluation of new location of Isfahan′s sanitary landfill site with Oleckno method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Salimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The objective of present study was to evaluate the new location of Isfahan solid waste sanitary landfill using Geographical Information System (GIS based on the Oleckno index method (OIM. Materials and Methods: This study was on the field- and library-based data collection and surveys of relevant data. Assessment parameters included average annual rainfall, soil type and ground water beneath and adjucent to the landfill site. To analyze data, ArcGIS version 9.3 was used. Results: In 2010 the total rainfall in the landfill location was less than 150 mm/year. The soil type was clay loam, and the average distance from the floor of the landfill to the groundwater level was 3-9 meters. As calculated results showed that, the Oleckno index (OI score in the study area was 40. Conclusion: The new Isfahan′s sanitary solid waste landfill site had a good OI and the possibility of contamination of groundwater by leachate production based on this method also was low.

  3. Spatial patterns of serial murder: an analysis of disposal site location choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundrigan, S; Canter, D

    2001-01-01

    Although the murders committed by serial killers may not be considered rational, there is growing evidence that the locations in which they commit their crimes may be guided by an implicit, if limited rationality. The hypothesized logic of disposal site choice of serial killers led to predictions that (a) their criminal domains would be around their home base and relate to familiar travel distances, (b) they would have a size that was characteristic of each offender, (c) the distribution would be biased towards other non-criminal activities, and (d) the size of the domains would increase over time. Examination of the geographical distribution of the sites at which 126 US and 29 UK serial killers disposed of their victims' bodies supported all four hypotheses. It was found that rational choice and routine activity models of criminal behavior could explain the spatial choices of serial murderers. It was concluded that the locations at which serial killers dispose of their victims' bodies reflect the inherent logic of the choices that underlie their predatory activities. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. New sites of Australasian microtektites in the central Indian Ocean: Implications for the location and size of source crater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ShyamPrasad, M.; Mahale, V.P.; Kodagali, V.N.

    Fifteen new Australasian microtektite sites have been identified along a transect roughly N-S in the central Indian Ocean. These locations, in addition to the existing 46 sites, total to 61 microtektite sites in the oceans. We carried out regression...

  5. LHCb upstream tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    Artuso, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The detector for the LHCb upgrade is designed for 40MHz readout, allowing the experiment to run at an instantaneous luminosity of 2x10^33 cm$^2$s$^-1$. The upgrade of the tracker subsystem in front of the dipole magnet, the Upstream Tracker, is crucial for charged track reconstruction and fast trigger decisions based on a tracking algorithm involving also vertex detector information. The detector consists of 4 planes with a total area of about 8.5m$^2$, made of single sided silicon strip sensors read-out by a novel custom-made ASIC (SALT). Details on the performance of prototype sensors, front-end electronics, near-detector electronics and mechanical components are presented.

  6. Fragmentation by Dams Threatens Diadromous Fauna in Upstream Protected Areas - the Case of the La Amistad World Heritage Site (Costa Rica and Panama)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLarney, W.; Mafla Herrera, M.; Arias Moreno, A. M.; Snyder, M. N.

    2016-12-01

    Biological consequences of fragmenting rivers with dams are especially acute for migratory species, and even moreso for diadromes (animals obliged to travel between marine and fresh water environments in order to complete their life cycles). Diadromy is a worldwide phenomenon, occurring wherever fresh water rivers run to the sea. Worldwide, diadromous behavior has been described for > 300 species of fish in 37 families, as well as for all of the > 800 species of so-called "freshwater" shrimp in 4 families, plus a few crabs and snails. Diadromy is especially prevalent on islands and isthmuses, where rivers are necessarily short and development of primary freshwater fauna limited. One example is the Mesoamerican isthmus, extending from southern Mexico to the Panama/Colombia border. A 2006 study showed more than 300 high (> 15 m.) dams planned for this 8 country region. One example of the consequences emerges from Asociacion ANAI's biomonitoring work over 17 years in one part of Mesoamerica - the watersheds draining the Caribbean slope of the La Amistad World Heritage Site in Costa Rica and Panama. Our work has shown that over 80 % of fish and all of the shrimp in rivers above 100 m. altitude are diadromes. If all currently planned dams are built, we predict that 11 species of fish and shrimp will be extirpated from >90% of the World Heritage Site. Precedent exists in Puerto Rico, where damming has eliminated diadromous fish and all but a remnant of the shrimp from 25% of the island's watersheds. In La Amistad, the consequences, for biodiversity and fishery resources relied upon by neighboring indigenous ethnias are obvious. In Panama, protected area boundaries were drawn to avoid the issue of dams and reservoirs in national parks; our research shows the need for more comprehensive design criteria to prevent extirpations in protected areas.

  7. Selected stratigraphic data for drill holes located in Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site. Rev. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drellack, S.L. Jr.

    1997-02-01

    Stratigraphic data are presented in tabular form for 72 holes drilled in Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site, between 1950 and 1993. Three pairs of data presentations are included for each hole: depth to formation tops, formation thicknesses, and formation elevations are presented in both field (English) and metric units. Also included for each hole, where available, are various construction data (hole depth, hole diameter, surface location coordinates) and certain information of hydrogeologic significance (depth to water level, top of zeolitization). The event name is given for holes associated with a particular nuclear test. An extensive set of footnotes is included, which indicates data sources and provides other information. The body of the report describes the stratigraphic setting of Frenchman Flat, gives drill-hole naming conventions and database terminology, and provides other background and reference material

  8. Intrasite motions and monument instabilities at Medicina ITRF co-location site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarti, Pierguido; Abbondanza, Claudio; Legrand, Juliette; Bruyninx, Carine; Vittuari, Luca; Ray, Jim

    2013-03-01

    We process the total-station surveys performed at the ITRF co-location site Medicina (Northern Italy) over the decade (2001-2010) with the purpose of determining the extent of local intrasite motions and relating them to local geophysical processes, the geological setting and the design of the ground pillars. In addition, continuous observations acquired by two co-located GPS stations (MEDI and MSEL separated by ≈27 m) are analysed and their relative motion is cross-checked with the total-station results. The local ground control network extends over a small area (<100 × 100 m) but the results demonstrate significant anisotropic deformations with rates up to 1.6 mm a-1, primarily horizontal, a value comparable to intraplate tectonic deformations. The results derived from GPS and total-station observations are consistent and point to the presence of horizontal intrasite motions over very short distances possibly associated with varying environmental conditions in a very unfavourable local geological setting and unsuitable monument design, these latter being crucial aspects of the realization and maintenance of global permanent geodetic networks and the global terrestrial reference frame.

  9. Lattice site location and annealing behaviour of Ca and Sr implanted GaN

    CERN Document Server

    De Vries, Bart; Wahl, Ulrich; Correia, J G; Araújo, João Pedro; Lojkowski, W; Kolesnikov, D

    2006-01-01

    We report on the lattice location of ion-implanted Ca and Sr in thin films of single-crystalline wurtzite GaN. Using the emission channeling technique the angular distributions of $\\beta\\!^{-}$−particles emitted by the radioactive isotopes $^{45}$Ca(t$_{ 1/2}$=163.8 d) and $^{89}$Sr(t$_{ 1/2}$=50.53 d) were monitored with a position-sensitive detector following 60 keV room-temperature implantation. Our experiments give direct evidence that $\\sim$90% of Ca and > 60% of Sr atoms were occupying substitutional Ga sites with root mean square displacements of the order of 0.15–0.30 Å, i.e., larger than the expected thermal vibration amplitude of 0.074 Å. Annealing the Ca implanted samples at 1100–1350 °C in high-pressure N$_{2}$ atmosphere resulted in a better incorporation into the substitutional Ga site. The Sr implanted sample showed a small decrease in rms displacements for vacuum annealing up to 900 °C, while the substitutional fraction remained nearly constant. The annealing behavior of the rms disp...

  10. Location Capability and Site Characterization Installing a Borehole VBB Seismometer: the OGS Experience in Ferrara (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesaresi, D.; Barnaba, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Centre) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 19 very sensitive broad band and 17 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS CRS data centre in Udine. The southwestern edge of the OGS seismic network stands on the Po alluvial basin: earthquake localization and characterization in this area is affected by the presence of soft alluvial deposits. Following the ML=5.9 earthquake that struck the Emilia region around Ferrara in Northern Italy on May 20, 2012, a cooperation of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, OGS, the Comune di Ferrara and the University of Ferrara lead to the reinstallation of a previously existing very broad band (VBB) borehole seismic station in Ferrara and to the deployment of a temporary seismographic network consisting of eight portable seismological stations, to record the local earthquakes that occurred during the seismic sequence. The aim of the OGS intervention was on one hand to extend its real time seismic monitoring capabilities toward South-West, including Ferrara and its surroundings, and on the other hand to evaluate seismic site responses in the area. We will introduce details of the Ferrara VBB borehole station and the OGS temporary seismographic network configuration and installation. We will then illustrate the location capability performances, and finally we will shortly describe seismic site characterization with surface/borehole comparisons in terms of seismic noise, site amplification and resonance frequencies.

  11. The feasibility of using computer graphics in environmental evaluations : interim report, documenting historic site locations using computer graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    This report describes a method for locating historic site information using a computer graphics program. If adopted for use by the Virginia Department of Highways and Transportation, this method should significantly reduce the time now required to de...

  12. Use of Loran-C navigation system to accurately determine sampling site location in an above ground cooling reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockwood, R.E.; Blankinship, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental monitoring programs often require accurate determination of sampling site locations in aquatic environments. This is especially true when a open-quotes pictureclose quotes of high resolution is needed for observing a changing variable in a given area and location is assumed to be important to the distribution of that variable. Sample site location can be difficult if few visible land marks are available for reference on a large body of water. The use of navigational systems such as Global Positioning System (GPS) and its predecessor, Loran-C, provide an excellent method for sample site location. McFarland (1992) discusses the practicality of GPS for location determination. This article discusses the use of Loran-C in a sampling scheme implemented at the South Texas Project Electrical Generating Station (STPEGS), Wadsworth, Texas

  13. Site characterization plan overview: reference repository location, Hanford Site, Washington: Consultation draft: Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 113)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    As part of the process for siting the nation's first geologic repository for radioactive waste, the Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing a site characterization plan for the Hanford site in Benton County, Washington. As a step in the preparation of that plan, the DOE has provided, for information and review, a consultation draft of the plan to the State of Washington, the affected Indian Tribes - the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, the Nez Perce Indian Tribe, and the Yakima Indian Nation - and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The Hanford site is one of three sites that the DOE currently plans to characterize;the other sites are the Deaf Smith County site in Texas and the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. After site characterization has been completed and its results evaluated, the DOE will identify from among the three characterized sites the site that is preferred for the repository. The overview presented here consists of brief summaries of important topics covered in the consulation draft of the site characterization plan;it is not a substitute for the site characterization plan. The arrangement of the overview is similar to that of the plan itself, with breif descriptions of the dispoal system - the site, the repository, and the waste package - preceding the discussion of the characterization program to be carried out at the Hanford site. It is intended primarily for the management staff of organizations involved in the DOE's repository program or other persons who might wish to understand the general scope of the site-characterization program, the activities to be conducted, and the facilities to be constructed rather than the technical details of site characterization

  14. LHCb Upstream Tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    Gandini, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb upgrade requires replacing the silicon strip tracker between the vertex locator (VELO) and the magnet. A new design has been developed and tested based on the "stave" concept planned for the ATLAS upgrade.

  15. LHCb Upstream Tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    Gandini, P

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb upgrade requires replacing the silicon strip tracker between the vertex locator (VELO) and the magnet. A new design has been developed and tested based on the "stave" concept planned for the ATLAS upgrade

  16. Optimal Locations for Siting Wind Energy Projects: Technical Challenges, Economics, and Public Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Julian V.

    Increasing the percentage of wind power in the United States electricity generation mix would facilitate the transition towards a more sustainable, low-pollution, and environmentally-conscious electricity grid. However, this effort is not without cost. Wind power generation is time-variable and typically not synchronized with electricity demand (i.e., load). In addition, the highest-output wind resources are often located in remote locations, necessitating transmission investment between generation sites and load. Furthermore, negative public perceptions of wind projects could prevent widespread wind development, especially for projects close to densely-populated communities. The work presented in my dissertation seeks to understand where it's best to locate wind energy projects while considering these various factors. First, in Chapter 2, I examine whether energy storage technologies, such as grid-scale batteries, could help reduce the transmission upgrade costs incurred when siting wind projects in distant locations. For a case study of a hypothetical 200 MW wind project in North Dakota that delivers power to Illinois, I present an optimization model that estimates the optimal size of transmission and energy storage capacity that yields the lowest average cost of generation and transmission (/MWh). I find that for this application of storage to be economical, energy storage costs would have to be 100/kWh or lower, which is well below current costs for available technologies. I conclude that there are likely better ways to use energy storage than for accessing distant wind projects. Following from this work, in Chapter 3, I present an optimization model to estimate the economics of accessing high quality wind resources in remote areas to comply with renewable energy policy targets. I include temporal aspects of wind power (variability costs and correlation to market prices) as well as total wind power produced from different farms. I assess the goal of providing

  17. A method for locating potential tree-planting sites in urban areas: a case study of Los Angeles, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunxia Wua; Qingfu Xiaoa; Gregory E. McPherson

    2008-01-01

    A GIS-based method for locating potential tree-planting sites based on land cover data is introduced. Criteria were developed to identify locations that are spatially available for potential tree planting based on land cover, sufficient distance from impervious surfaces, a minimum amount of pervious surface, and no crown overlap with other trees. In an ArcGIS...

  18. Site Characterization of the Source Physics Experiment Phase II Location Using Seismic Reflection Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, E. A.; Snelson, C. M.; Chipman, V.; Emer, D. F.; White, R. L.; Emmitt, R.; Wright, A. A.; Drellack, S.; Huckins-Gang, H.; Mercadante, J.; Floyd, M.; McGowin, C.; Cothrun, C.; Bonal, N.

    2013-12-01

    An objective of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is to identify low-yield nuclear explosions from a regional distance. Low-yield nuclear explosions can often be difficult to discriminate among the clutter of natural and man-made explosive events (e.g., earthquakes and mine blasts). The SPE is broken into three phases. Phase I has provided the first of the physics-based data to test the empirical models that have been used to discriminate nuclear events. The Phase I series of tests were placed within a highly fractured granite body. The evolution of the project has led to development of Phase II, to be placed within the opposite end member of geology, an alluvium environment, thereby increasing the database of waveforms to build upon in the discrimination models. Both the granite and alluvium sites have hosted nearby nuclear tests, which provide comparisons for the chemical test data. Phase III of the SPE is yet to be determined. For Phase II of the experiment, characterization of the location is required to develop the geologic/geophysical models for the execution of the experiment. Criteria for the location are alluvium thickness of approximately 170 m and a water table below 170 m; minimal fracturing would be ideal. A P-wave mini-vibroseis survey was conducted at a potential site in alluvium to map out the subsurface geology. The seismic reflection profile consisted of 168 geophone stations, spaced 5 m apart. The mini-vibe was a 7,000-lb peak-force source, starting 57.5 m off the north end of the profile and ending 57.5 m past the southern-most geophone. The length of the profile was 835 m. The source points were placed every 5 m, equally spaced between geophones to reduce clipping. The vibroseis sweep was from 20 Hz down to 180 Hz over 8 seconds, and four sweeps were stacked at each shot location. The shot gathers show high signal-to-noise ratios with clear first arrivals across the entire spread and the suggestion of some shallow reflectors. The data were

  19. The -14010*C variant associated with lactase persistence is located between an Oct-1 and HNF1a binding site and increases lactase promoter activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tine G K; Liebert, Anke; Lewinsky, Rikke

    2011-01-01

    In most people worldwide intestinal lactase expression declines in childhood. In many others, particularly in Europeans, lactase expression persists into adult life. The lactase persistence phenotype is in Europe associated with the -13910*T single nucleotide variant located 13,910 bp upstream th...

  20. Geodetic monitoring (TLS of a steel transport trestle bridge located in an active mining exploitation site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skoczylas Arkadiusz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Underground mining exploitation causes, in general, irregular vertical and horizontal shifts in the superficial layer of the rock mass. In the case of construction objects seated on this layer, a deformation of the object’s foundation can be observed. This leads to additional loads and deformations. Identification of surface geometry changes in construction objects located within the premises of underground mining exploitation areas is an important task as far as safety of mining sites is concerned. Surveys targeting shifts and deformations in engineering objects preformed with the use of classic methods are of a selective nature and do not provide the full image of the phenomenon being the subject of the observation. This paper presents possibilities of terrestrial laser scanning technology application in the monitoring of engineering objects that allows for a complete spatial documentation of an object subjected to the influence of an active mining exploitation. This paper describes an observation of a 100 m section of a steel transport trestle bridge located on the premises of hard coal mine Lubelski Węgiel “Bogdanka” S.A. carried out in 2015. Measurements were carried out using a Z+F Imager 5010C scanner at an interval of 3.5 months. Changes in the structure’s geometry were determined by comparing the point clouds recorded during the two measurement periods. The results of the analyses showed shifts in the trestle bridge towards the exploited coal wall accompanied by object deformation. The obtained results indicate the possibility of of terrestrial laser scanning application in studying the aftereffects of underground mining exploitation on surface engineering objects.

  1. 76 FR 61367 - Medical Device User Fee and Modernization Act; Notice to Public of Web Site Location of Fiscal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    .... ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the Web site location where... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2007-N-0270; formerly Docket No. 2007N-0357] Medical Device User Fee and Modernization Act; Notice to Public of Web Site...

  2. A numerical study on the flow upstream of a wind turbine on complex terran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer Forsting, Alexander Raul; Bechmann, Andreas; Troldborg, Niels

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of a wind turbine with the upstream flow-field in complex and flat terrain is studied using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations with a two equation turbulence closure. The complex site modelled is Perdigao (Portugal), where a turbine is located on one of two parallel...... the wind turbine wake trajectory which in turn governs the orientation of the induction zone...

  3. Institutional Control Program: Long Term Care and Control of Decommissioned Mine/Mill Sites Located on Crown Land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, K.

    2014-01-01

    Institutional Control Program: • Establishes an endpoint for mining company activities on sites located on Crown land; • Establishes funding for the long-term care and control of the closed sites; • Company responsibilities for sites under the Environmental Management and Protection Act remain; • Establishes an Institutional Control Registry; • Establishes an Institutional Control Monitoring and Maintenance Fund and an Institutional Control Unforeseen Events Fund

  4. Radioecological characterization of a uranium mining site located in a semi-arid region in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Horst M.; Lamego Simoes Filho, F. Fernando; Perez, Valeska; Franklin, Mariza Ramalho; Gomiero, Luiz Alberto

    2006-01-01

    The work presents the radioecological characterization of the new Brazilian uranium mining and milling site located in a semi-arid region of the country. The process characterization demonstrated that in heap leach plants most of the 226 Ra remains in the leached ore. Despite the potential higher availability of radium isotopes in the soils of the studied region the lack of precipitation in that area reduces the leaching/mobilization of the radionuclides. High 226 Ra and 228 Ra concentrations were found in manioc while 21 Pb was significant in pasture. It was suggested that a range from 10 -3 to 10 -1 may conveniently encompass most of the transfer factors (TF) values for soil/plant systems (i.e. involving different cultures, different soils and natural radionuclides). Impacts due to aerial transportation of aerosols and radon generated in the mining were proved to be minimal and restricted to an area not greater than 15 km 2 . Finally, uranium complexation by carbonates was shown to be the main mechanism responding for the elevated radionuclide concentration in groundwater

  5. LHCb: LHCb Upstream Tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    Manning Jr, P; Stone, S

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb upgrade requires replacing the silicon strip tracker between the vertex locator and the magnet. A new design has been developed and tested based on the "stave" concept planned for the ATLAS upgrade. We will describe the new detector being constructed and show its improved performance in charged particle tracking and triggering.

  6. Identification of the unidentified deceased and locating next of kin: experience with a UID web site page, Fulton County, Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzlick, Randy

    2006-06-01

    Medical examiner and coroner offices may face difficulties in trying to achieve identification of deceased persons who are unidentified or in locating next of kin for deceased persons who have been identified. The Fulton County medical examiner (FCME) has an office web site which includes information about unidentified decedents and cases for which next of kin are being sought. Information about unidentified deceased and cases in need of next of kin has been posted on the FCME web site for 3 years and 1 year, respectively. FCME investigators and staff medical examiners were surveyed about the web site's usefulness for making identifications and locating next of kin. No cases were recalled in which the web site led to making an identification. Two cases were reported in which next of kin were located, and another case involved a missing person being ruled out as one of the decedents. The web site page is visited by agencies interested in missing and unidentified persons, and employees do find it useful for follow-up because information about all unidentified decedents is located and easily accessible, electronically, in a single location. Despite low yield in making identifications and locating next of kin, the UID web site is useful in some respects, and there is no compelling reason to discontinue its existence. It is proposed that UID pages on office web sites be divided into "hot" (less than 30 days, for example) and "warm" (31 days to 1 year, for example) cases and that cases older than a year be designated as "cold cases." It is conceivable that all unidentified deceased cases nationally could be placed on a single web site designed for such purposes, to remain in public access until identity is established and confirmed.

  7. Suspended-sediment loads, reservoir sediment trap efficiency, and upstream and downstream channel stability for Kanopolis and Tuttle Creek Lakes, Kansas, 2008-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2011-01-01

    Continuous streamflow and turbidity data collected from October 1, 2008, to September 30, 2010, at streamgage sites upstream and downstream from Kanopolis and Tuttle Creek Lakes, Kansas, were used to compute the total suspended-sediment load delivered to and released from each reservoir as well as the sediment trap efficiency for each reservoir. Ongoing sedimentation is decreasing the ability of the reservoirs to serve several purposes including flood control, water supply, and recreation. River channel stability upstream and downstream from the reservoirs was assessed using historical streamgage information. For Kanopolis Lake, the total 2-year inflow suspended-sediment load was computed to be 600 million pounds. Most of the suspended-sediment load was delivered during short-term, high-discharge periods. The total 2-year outflow suspended-sediment load was computed to be 31 million pounds. Sediment trap efficiency for the reservoir was estimated to be 95 percent. The mean annual suspended-sediment yield from the upstream basin was estimated to be 129,000 pounds per square mile per year. No pronounced changes in channel width were evident at five streamgage sites located upstream from the reservoir. At the Ellsworth streamgage site, located upstream from the reservoir, long-term channel-bed aggradation was followed by a period of stability. Current (2010) conditions at five streamgages located upstream from the reservoir were typified by channel-bed stability. At the Langley streamgage site, located immediately downstream from the reservoir, the channel bed degraded 6.15 feet from 1948 to 2010. For Tuttle Creek Lake, the total 2-year inflow suspended-sediment load was computed to be 13.3 billion pounds. Most of the suspended-sediment load was delivered during short-term, high-discharge periods. The total 2-year outflow suspended-sediment load was computed to be 327 million pounds. Sediment trap efficiency for the reservoir was estimated to be 98 percent. The mean

  8. Approaching hydrate and free gas distribution at the SUGAR-Site location in the Danube Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialas, Joerg; Dannowski, Anke; Zander, Timo; Klaeschen, Dirk; Klaucke, Ingo

    2017-04-01

    Gas hydrates did receive a lot of attention over the last decades when investigating their potential to serve as a possible source for Methane production. Among other world-wide programs the German SUGAR project sets out to investigate the entire chain from exploitation to production in Europe. Therefore research in the scope of the SUGAR project sets out to investigate a site in European EEZ for the detailed studies of hydrate and gas distribution in a permeable sediment matrix. Among others one aim of the project is to provide in situ samples of natural methane hydrate for further investigations by MEBO drilling. The Danube paleo-delta with its ancient canyon and levee systems was chosen as a possible candidate for hydrate formation within the available drilling range of 200 m below seafloor. In order to decide on the best drilling location cruise MSM34 (Bialas et al., 2014) of the German RV MARIA S MERIAN set out to acquire geophysical, geological and geochemical datasets for assessment of the hydrate content within the Danube paleo-delta, Black Sea. The Black Sea is well known for a significant gas content in the sedimentary column. Reports on observations of bottom simulating reflectors (BSR) by Popescu et al. (2007) and others indicate that free gas and hydrate occurrence can be expected within the ancient passive channel levee systems. A variety of inverted reflection events within the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) were observed within the drilling range of MEBO and chosen for further investigation. Here we report on combined seismic investigations of high-resolution 2D & 3D multichannel seismic (MCS) acquisition accompanied by four component Ocean-Bottom-Seismometer (OBS) observations. P- and converted S-wave arrivals within the OBS datasets were analysed to provide overall velocity depth models. Due to the limited length of profiles the majority of OBS events are caused by near vertical reflections. While P-wave events have a significant lateral

  9. pH-Modulated Watson-Crick duplex-quadruplex equilibria of guanine-rich and cytosine-rich DNA sequences 140 base pairs upstream of the c-kit transcription initiation site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucek, Pavel; Jaumot, Joaquim; Aviñó, Anna; Eritja, Ramon; Gargallo, Raimundo

    2009-11-23

    Guanine-rich regions of DNA are sequences capable of forming G-quadruplex structures. The formation of a G-quadruplex structure in a region 140 base pairs (bp) upstream of the c-kit transcription initiation site was recently proposed (Fernando et al., Biochemistry, 2006, 45, 7854). In the present study, the acid-base equilibria and the thermally induced unfolding of the structures formed by a guanine-rich region and by its complementary cytosine-rich strand in c-kit were studied by means of circular dichroism and molecular absorption spectroscopies. In addition, competition between the Watson-Crick duplex and the isolated structures was studied as a function of pH value and temperature. Multivariate data analysis methods based on both hard and soft modeling were used to allow accurate quantification of the various acid-base species present in the mixtures. Results showed that the G-quadruplex and i-motif coexist with the Watson-Crick duplex over the pH range from 3.0 to 6.5, approximately, under the experimental conditions tested in this study. At pH 7.0, the duplex is practically the only species present.

  10. The impact of an efficient collection sites location on the zoning phase in municipal solid waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghiani, Gianpaolo, E-mail: gianpaolo.ghiani@unisalento.it; Manni, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.manni@unisalento.it; Manni, Emanuele, E-mail: emanuele.manni@unisalento.it; Toraldo, Massimiliano, E-mail: massimiliano.toraldo@unisalento.it

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • We study the problems of locating collection areas and zoning the service territory in a municipal waste management system. • We investigate the impact that an efficient collection sites location has on the subsequent zoning phase. • On a real-world test case, we show that the proposed approach could allow achieving significant monetary savings. - Abstract: In this paper, we study two decisional problems arising when planning the collection of solid waste, namely the location of collection sites (together with bin allocation) and the zoning of the service territory, and we assess the potential impact that an efficient location has on the subsequent zoning phase. We first propose both an exact and a heuristic approach to locate the unsorted waste collection bins in a residential town, and to decide the capacities and characteristics of the bins to be located at each collection site. A peculiar aspect we consider is that of taking into account the compatibility between the different types of bins when allocating them to collection areas. Moreover, we propose a fast and effective heuristic approach to identify homogeneous zones that can be served by a single collection vehicle. Computational results on data related to a real-life instance show that an efficient location is fundamental in achieving consistent monetary savings, as well as a reduced environmental impact. These reductions are the result of one vehicle less needed to perform the waste collection operations, and an overall traveled distance reduced by about 25% on the average.

  11. Identification of sites within the Palo Duro Basin. Volume 1. Palo Duro Location A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This three-volume document narrows to two sites for continued investigations for potential nuclear waste repository sites in the Palo Duro Basin of the Texas Panhandle. Volume 1 narrows a site previously identified in Deaf Smith County, Texas; Volume 2 narrows a site previously identified in Swisher County, Texas; and Volume 3 contains responses to comments received regarding the drafts of Volumes 1 and 2 (BMI/ONWI-531). These volumes discuss the methodology and logic used as well as the results that narrowed these sites. Each of the 10 site performance criteria was divided into descriptors related to site performance characteristics. Each descriptor was evaluated by a systematic logic to determine if it could be used as a discriminator. Then more- and less-preferred areas for groups of discriminators were defined and composite maps were prepared and evaluated to identify the sites

  12. Identification of sites within the Palo Duro Basin. Volume 2. Palo Duro Location B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This three-volume document narrows to two sites for continued investigations for potential nuclear waste repository sites in the Palo Duro Basin of the Texas Panhandle. Volume 1 narrows a site previously identified in Deaf Smith County, Texas; Volume 2 narrows a site previously identified in Swisher County, Texas; and Volume 3 contains responses to comments received regarding the drafts of Volumes 1 and 2 (BMI/ONWI-531). These volumes discuss the methodology and logic used as well as the results that narrowed these sites. Each of the 10 site performance criteria was divided into descriptors related to site performance characteristics. Each descriptor was evaluated by a systematic logic to determine if it could be used as a discriminator. Then more- and less-preferred areas for groups of discriminators were defined and composite maps were prepared and evaluated to identify the sites

  13. Risks of Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes and Preterm Birth Post Fetoscopy Based on Location of Trocar Insertion Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmait, Ramen H; Chon, Andrew H; Korst, Lisa M; Llanes, Arlyn; Kontopoulos, Eftichia V; Quintero, Ruben A

    2018-07-01

     The objective of this study was to assess whether the location of the trocar insertion site for laser treatment of twin-twin transfusion syndrome was associated with preterm-premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and preterm birth (PTB).  In this study trocar location was documented in the operating room. Lower uterine segment (LUS) location was defined as any insertion location was defined as ≥5 cm horizontally from the midline. Patient characteristics were tested against three outcomes: PPROM ≤ 21 days postoperative, PTB location, controlling for potential risk factors.  A total of 743 patients were studied. Patients with LUS location were twice as likely as those with a more superior location to have PPROM ≤ 21 days (OR = 2.33, 1.12-4.83, p  = 0.0236). Patients with both a LUS and Lateral location were over six times more likely to have PPROM ≤ 21 days (OR = 6.66, 2.36-18.78, p  = 0.0003). Trocar insertion site was not associated with PTB.  We found that trocar insertion in the LUS, particularly the lateral LUS, was associated with an increased risk of PPROM. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. Final environmental impact statement for the Nevada Test Site and off-site locations in the State of Nevada. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This sitewide EIS evaluates the potential environmental impacts of four possible land-use alternatives being considered for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the Tonopah Test Range, and the formerly operated DOE sites in the state of Nevada: the Project Shoal Area, the Central Nevada Test Area, and portions of the Nellis Air Force Range Complex. Three additional sites in Nevada-Eldorado Valley, Dry Lake Valley, and Coyote Spring Valley-are evaluated for collocation of solar energy production facilities. The four alternatives include Continue Current Operations (No Action, continue to operate at the level maintained for the past 3 to 5 years); Discontinue Operations 1 (discontinue operations and interagency programs); Expanded Use (increased use of NTS and its resources to support defense and nondefense programs); and Alternate Use of Withdrawn Lands (discontinue all defense-related activities at NTS; continue waste management operations in support of NTS environmental restoration efforts; expand nondefense research). Environmental impacts were assessed for each alternative by analyzing, to the extent possible, the discrete and cumulative environmental impacts associated with Defense Waste Management, Environmental Restoration, Nondefense Research and Development, and Work for Others Programs. A framework for a Resource Management Plan is included as Volume 2 of this EIS and represents the development of an ecosystem based planning process closely integrated with the National Environmental Policy Act process. This EIS, among other things, analyzed the impacts of transportation of low level waste, and site characterization activities related to the Yucca Mountain Project but did not analyze the suitability of the site as a repository. This EIS does not analyze the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site as a repository as this is an action beyond the scope of the EIS. Volume 3 of this EIS contains the public comments and the responses to the comments

  15. Environmental status of algal mat sites located at the east coast of Saudi Arabia following the Gulf War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Thukair, A.

    1993-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques and ground truth verification were used to provide information on algal mat locations and damage intensity caused by the oil spill. Pre and post oil spill satellite images, ground truth assessment were compared for damage evaluation. Locations and sites status (heavily oiled, recovering, and no algal mats) were conveyed in maps. Recovered sites are found in Abu Ali and Tanajib areas. However, recovery seems to be slower in Abu Ali area as compared to Tanajib. Different types and formations of algal mats were found in both areas. This differentiation is more likely to be attributable to coastal topography and tide regimes

  16. Accumulations and sources of uranium, of its daughters and of metallic trace elements in wetlands located around old uranium mining sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuvier, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Uranium mining and uranium ore processing increase the environmental activity of U and Th decay products and trace elements, in particular in case of releases to the adjacent rivers. Contaminants accumulate then preferentially in sedimentation areas (such as ponds or lakes) or in wetlands (peat lands, marshes or riverbanks) located downstream to the mine. Wetlands - generally located at the head of watershed - are particularly sensitive to environmental changes and anthropogenic pressure. This poses a risk of release of contaminants from these accumulation areas. The objective of the present study is to propose an easily reproducible methodology - in particular for the orphan mining sites - to identify and characterize accumulation areas. This study also aims to improve our understanding of the mechanisms of accumulation and release, in these areas. This study was performed around the former mining site of Bertholene (France). Standing and mobile in situ gamma spectrometry is used to accurately locate the accumulation areas. Soils, sediments, vegetation, water and peat are also sampled upstream and downstream of the mine, in order to (a) characterize the activities and the disequilibria of the U-Th decay chains and the associated trace elements according to the scale of observation, (b) understand the mechanisms of accumulation and release and (c) identify the potential sources using geochemical proxies and isotopic analyses. The results obtained show that radionuclides are mainly accumulated in a flooding area located downstream the mine. Strong U-238 activities (≥ 20000 Bq.kg"-"1) and strong Ra-226/U-238 and Th-230/Ra-226 activity ratios are recorded, involving preferential inputs of U-238 and Th-230 during flooding events. Trace element contamination is low, except for Mn, Ba and S. Such contaminations are potentially explained by the geochemical composition of the uranium ore and by the past and current processes of ore and water mine. Sequential extractions

  17. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) pollination in California's Central Valley is limited by native bee nest site location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardiñas, Hillary S; Tom, Kathleen; Ponisio, Lauren Catherine; Rominger, Andrew; Kremen, Claire

    2016-03-01

    The delivery of ecosystem services by mobile organisms depends on the distribution of those organisms, which is, in turn, affected by resources at local and landscape scales. Pollinator-dependent crops rely on mobile animals like bees for crop production, and the spatial relationship between floral resources and nest location for these central-place foragers influences the delivery of pollination services. Current models that map pollination coverage in agricultural regions utilize landscape-level estimates of floral availability and nesting incidence inferred from expert opinion, rather than direct assessments. Foraging distance is often derived from proxies of bee body size, rather than direct measurements of foraging that account for behavioral responses to floral resource type and distribution. The lack of direct measurements of nesting incidence and foraging distances may lead to inaccurate mapping of pollination services. We examined the role of local-scale floral resource presence from hedgerow plantings on nest incidence of ground-nesting bees in field margins and within monoculture, conventionally managed sunflower fields in California's Central Valley. We tracked bee movement into fields using fluorescent powder. We then used these data to simulate the distribution of pollination services within a crop field. Contrary to expert opinion, we found that ground-nesting native bees nested both in fields and edges, though nesting rates declined with distance into field. Further, we detected no effect of field-margin floral enhancements on nesting. We found evidence of an exponential decay rate of bee movement into fields, indicating that foraging predominantly occurred in less than 1% of medium-sized bees' predicted typical foraging range. Although we found native bees nesting within agricultural fields, their restricted foraging movements likely centralize pollination near nest sites. Our data thus predict a heterogeneous distribution of pollination services

  18. Location, location, location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, S.P.; Goeree, J.K.; Ramer, R.

    1997-01-01

    We analyze the canonical location-then-price duopoly game with general log- concave consumer densities. A unique pure-strategy equilibrium to the two-stage game exists if the density is not "too asymmetric" and not "too concave." These criteria are satisfied by many commonly used densities.

  19. Upstream technology - onshore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wind, H.

    1998-01-01

    Ways in which the onshore petroleum industry can meet the challenges of technological development in the new century to allow the industry to operate in a sustainable fashion were discussed. Advances in the areas of emissions control, environment protection, production, process automation and in situ heavy oil production have been mentioned as the most important guarantors of sustainable development. Ongoing work to combat emissions includes: (1) electricity from flare gas, (2) flare performance, (3) waste gas injection, (4) zero gas emissions equipment for wells, and (5) enhanced coalbed methane recovery. From the vantage point of improving environmental performance, efforts to minimize surface disturbance, to treat drilling wastes, and to remediate sites with native plants have shown good results. Technology developments in production include: (1) downhole gas/water separation and downhole oil/water separation, (2) water coning control, and (3) pipelines. The most significant advances in automation are the increased use of SCADA monitoring systems and pump off controllers. The two most notable developments in the in situ heavy oil exploitation area are the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) process and its variant, the Vapex process. The most successful pilot to date has been the AOSTRA Underground Test Facility project in Athabasca. Cooperative research in numerical simulations, tomographic imaging, carbon dioxide, solvent and steam experiments and methane injection work have been cited as the most promising among the collaborative projects promoted by the Canadian Oilsands Network for Research and Development (CONRAD)

  20. Introduction to Envirocare of Utah's low activity radioactive waste disposal site located at Clive, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    Envirocare of Utah was licensed by the state of Utah on February 2, 1988, to become fully operational to receive low-activity radioactive waste at its disposal site near Clive, Utah. This paper discusses the organization of the firm, political support, acceptable materials, benefits of the operation, site characteristics, construction, health physics program, and environmental program

  1. Automated location detection of injection site for preclinical stereotactic neurosurgery procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaszadeh, Shiva; Wu, Hemmings C. H.

    2017-03-01

    Currently, during stereotactic neurosurgery procedures, the manual task of locating the proper area for needle insertion or implantation of electrode/cannula/optic fiber can be time consuming. The requirement of the task is to quickly and accurately find the location for insertion. In this study we investigate an automated method to locate the entry point of region of interest. This method leverages a digital image capture system, pattern recognition, and motorized stages. Template matching of known anatomical identifiable regions is used to find regions of interest (e.g. Bregma) in rodents. For our initial study, we tackle the problem of automatically detecting the entry point.

  2. Coal Mines, Reclamation Sites - Mine Drainage Treatment/Land Recycling Project Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Mine Drainage Treatment/Land Reclamation Locations are clean-up projects that are working to eliminate some form of abandoned mine. The following sub-facility types...

  3. 75 FR 28657 - Dell Products LP-Parmer North Location, a Subsidiary of Dell, Inc., Including On-Site Leased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Spherion Corporation; Round Rock, TX; Dell Products LP--Parmer North One; Austin, TX; Amended Certification... Products LP--Parmer North Location, a Subsidiary of Dell, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From... Act of 1974, as amended (``Act''), 19 U.S.C. 2273, the Department of Labor issued a Certification of...

  4. 78 FR 66778 - Eastman Kodak Company, IPS-Dayton Location, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco, Dayton...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-81,387] Eastman Kodak Company... workers of Eastman Kodak Company, IPS-Dayton Location, including on-site leased workers from Adecco, Dayton, Ohio (hereafter referred to as ``Eastman Kodak-IPS- Dayton''). On May 18, 2012, the Department...

  5. Location analysis and strontium-90 concentrations in deer antlers on the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiller, B L; Eberhardt, L E; Poston, T M

    1995-05-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine the levels of strontium-90 ({sup 90}Sr) in deer antlers collected from near previously active reactor sites and distant from the reactor sites along that portion of the Columbia River which borders the Hanford Site. A second objective was to analyze the movements and home-ranges of mule deer residing within these areas and determine to what extent this information contributes to the observed {sup 90}Sr concentrations. {sup 90}Sr is a long-lived radionuclide (29.1 year half life) produced by fission in irradiated fuel in plutonium production reactors on the Hanford Site. It is also a major component of atmospheric fallout from weapons testing. Concentrations of radionuclides found in the developed environment onsite do not pose a health concern to humans or various wildlife routinely monitored. However, elevated levels of radionuclides in found biota may indicate routes of exposure requiring attention.

  6. Location analysis and strontium-90 concentrations in deer antlers on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiller, B.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Poston, T.M.

    1995-05-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine the levels of strontium-90 ( 90 Sr) in deer antlers collected from near previously active reactor sites and distant from the reactor sites along that portion of the Columbia River which borders the Hanford Site. A second objective was to analyze the movements and home-ranges of mule deer residing within these areas and determine to what extent this information contributes to the observed 90 Sr concentrations. 90 Sr is a long-lived radionuclide (29.1 year half life) produced by fission in irradiated fuel in plutonium production reactors on the Hanford Site. It is also a major component of atmospheric fallout from weapons testing. Concentrations of radionuclides found in the developed environment onsite do not pose a health concern to humans or various wildlife routinely monitored. However, elevated levels of radionuclides in found biota may indicate routes of exposure requiring attention

  7. Upstream Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clay, C.H.

    1993-01-01

    Upstream salmon passage though a dam is discussed with respect to three main components: the fishway entrance, the fishway, and the exit. Design considerations and alternative types of components are presented. For fishway entrances, an important consideration is the positioning of the entrance as far upstream as the fish can swim with respect to obstacles. For powerhouses using water diverted from a river, the problem of leading fish past the powerhouse may be overcome by either installing a tailrace barrier or increasing the flow until the home stream odor is sufficient to attract fish. Swimming ability should be the first consideration in fishway design. Fishways with 50 cm drops per pool would be satisfactory in most cases. The problem of headwater fluctuation is overcome through careful fishway selection. Fish locks, hoists, and elevators are other alternatives to pool/weir fishways. The location for a fish exit must be decided on the basis of whether the fishway will be used only for upstream migrations. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  8. Seismic loads in modularized and unmodularized large pools located on hard or intermediate hard sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, R G [California Univ., Livermore (USA). Lawrence Livermore Lab.

    1977-12-01

    To augment the present capacity of pools for storing spent nuclear fuel elements, pools larger than those in current use are being planned. These pools may or may not be modularized into cells. Because of the large size of the pools, seismic loads are of significant interest. In particular, the effects of modularization and site hardness are of concern. The study presented in this paper reveals that modularization is generally unfavourable, because it creates the option of leaving one or more cells empty which in turn results in higher structural loads. The wall which separates a filled cell from an empty cell, or the wall which bears against earth on one side and faces an empty cell on the other, becomes very highly stressed. For the particular pool geometries examined, a hard site is generally preferred over an intermediate hard site in terms of structural loads.

  9. Tables of co-located geothermal-resource sites and BLM Wilderness Study Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, D.; Dorscher, M.

    1982-11-01

    Matched pairs of known geothermal wells and springs with BLM proposed Wilderness Study Areas (WSAs) were identified by inspection of WSA and Geothermal resource maps for the states of Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington and Wyoming. A total of 3952 matches, for geothermal sites within 25 miles of a WSA, were identified. Of these, only 71 (1.8%) of the geothermal sites are within one mile of a WSA, and only an additional 100 (2.5%) are within one to three miles. Approximately three-fourths of the matches are at distances greater than ten miles. Only 12 of the geothermal sites within one mile of a WSA have surface temperatures reported above 50/sup 0/C. It thus appears that the geothermal potential of WSAs overall is minimal, but that evaluation of geothermal resources should be considered in more detail for some areas prior to their designation as Wilderness.

  10. Male mate location behaviour and encounter sites in a community of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MADHU

    (c) Significant associations between mate location behaviours and landscape structures (landmarks and edges). Variables pairs. Kendall tau. P. Perch and Bare patch. 0.23. *. Perch and Track‡. –0.38. ***. Perch and Shrub edge‡. 0.39. ***. Perch and Wood edge. 0.22. *. Perch and Rock face‡. 0.63. ***. Perch and Stream ...

  11. Location of a new ice core site at Talos Dome (East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Tabacco

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of glaciology and palaeoclimate research, Talos Dome (72°48lS; 159°06lE, an ice dome on the East Antarctic plateau, represents the new selected site for a new deep ice core drilling. The increasing interest in this region is due to the fact that the ice accumulation is higher here than in other domes in East Antarctica. A new deep drilling in this site could give important information about the climate changes near the coast. Previous papers showed that the dome summit is situated above a sloped bedrock. A new position on a relatively flat bedrock 5-6 km far from here in the SE direction was defined as a possible new ice core site for an European (Italy, France, Swiss and United Kingdom drilling project named as TALDICE (TALos Dome Ice Core Project. This point, named as ID1 (159°11l00mE; 72°49l40mS, became the centre of the Radio Echo Sounding (RES flight plan during the 2003 Italian Antarctic expedition, with the aim of confirming the new drilling site choice. In this paper 2001 and 2003 RES data sets have been used to draw a better resolution of ice thickness, bottom morphology and internal layering of a restricted area around the dome. Based on the final results, point ID1 has been confirmed as the new coring site. Finally, the preliminary operations about the installation of the summer ice core camp (TALDICE at ID1 site carried out during the XX Italian Antarctic expedition (November 2004-December 2005 are briefly described.

  12. Selection of adequate site location during early stages of construction project management: A multi-criteria decision analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marović, Ivan; Hanak, Tomaš

    2017-10-01

    In the management of construction projects special attention should be given to the planning as the most important phase of decision-making process. Quality decision-making based on adequate and comprehensive collaboration of all involved stakeholders is crucial in project’s early stages. Fundamental reasons for existence of this problem arise from: specific conditions of construction industry (final products are inseparable from the location i.e. location has a strong influence of building design and its structural characteristics as well as technology which will be used during construction), investors’ desires and attitudes, and influence of socioeconomic and environment aspects. Considering all mentioned reasons one can conclude that selection of adequate construction site location for future investment is complex, low structured and multi-criteria problem. To take into account all the dimensions, the proposed model for selection of adequate site location is devised. The model is based on AHP (for designing the decision-making hierarchy) and PROMETHEE (for pairwise comparison of investment locations) methods. As a result of mixing basis feature of both methods, operational synergies can be achieved in multi-criteria decision analysis. Such gives the decision-maker a sense of assurance, knowing that if the procedure proposed by the presented model has been followed, it will lead to a rational decision, carefully and systematically thought out.

  13. Conversion of Hanford site well locations to Washington coordinate system of 1983, South Zone 1991 (WCS83S)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, R.A.; Tzemos, S.; Dietz, L.A.

    1993-12-01

    Past construction and survey practices have resulted in the use of multiple local coordinate systems for measuring and reporting the horizontal position of wells and other facilities and locations on the Hanford Site. This report describes the development of a coordinate transformation process and algorithm and its application to the conversion of the horizontal coordinates of Hanford site wells from the various local coordinate systems and datums to a single standard coordinate system, the Washington Coordinate system of 1983, South Zone 1991 (WCS83S). The coordinate transformation algorithm, implemented as a computer program called CTRANS, uses standard two-dimensional translation, rotation, and scaling transformation equations and can be applied to any set of horizontal point locations. For each point to be transformed, the coefficients of the transformation equations are calculated locally, using the coordinates of the three nearest registration points (points with known locations in both coordinate systems). The report contains a discussion of efforts to verify and validate both the software and the well location data, a description of the methods used to estimate transformation and registration point accuracy, instructions for using the computer program, and a summary of the Hanford well conversion results for each local coordinate system and datum. Also included are the results of using recent U.S. Army Corps of Engineers survey data to obtain estimated measures of location errors in wells for which the local coordinate data source is undocumented, unverified, and therefore of unknown accuracy

  14. Nuclear waste repository siting and locational conflict analysis: A contextual approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murauskas, G.T.

    1989-01-01

    This study develops and evaluates an alternative framework that is based on contextual variables. The premise is that differences in attitudes and perceptions regarding the local siting of nuclear wastes and differences in attitudes regarding siting decision-making procedures are influenced by local political, economic, and cultural variables. This framework articulates the nature of conflict in terms of the incongruence between the use-value individuals ascribe to their present situation and the anticipated exchange-value individuals associate with the local siting of a nuclear waste repository. In order to evaluate this conceptual framework a survey was conducted of residents in four communities representing distinct societal contexts: Richton, Mississippi; Peterborough, New Hampshire; Richland, Washington; and Antigo/Waupaca, Wisconsin. Data analyses indicate substantial differences in economic expectations associated with the local siting of a high-level nuclear waste repository and in perception regarding the impacts such a repository might have on the environment, local agriculture, personal health and safety, and the quality of life

  15. Evaluation of sites for the location of WEEE recycling plants in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiruga, Dolores; Walther, Grit; González-Benito, Javier; Spengler, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    As a consequence of new European legal regulations for treatment of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), recycling plants have to be installed in Spain. In this context, this contribution describes a method for ranking of Spanish municipalities according to their appropriateness for the installation of these plants. In order to rank the alternatives, the discrete multi-criteria decision method PROMETHEE (Preference Ranking Organisation METHod for Enrichment Evaluations), combined with a surveys of experts, is applied. As existing plants are located in North and East Spain, a significant concentration of top ranking municipalities can be observed in South and Central Spain. The method does not present an optimal structure of the future recycling system, but provides a selection of good alternatives for potential locations of recycling plants.

  16. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) pollination in California's Central Valley is limited by native bee nest site location

    OpenAIRE

    Sardiï as, HS; Tom, K; Ponisio, LC; Rominger, A; Kremen, C

    2016-01-01

    � 2016 by the Ecological Society of America. The delivery of ecosystem services by mobile organisms depends on the distribution of those organisms, which is, in turn, affected by resources at local and landscape scales. Pollinator-dependent crops rely on mobile animals like bees for crop production, and the spatial relationship between floral resources and nest location for these central-place foragers influences the delivery of pollination services. Current models that map pollination cove...

  17. On-Site Chiropractic Care as an Employee Benefit: A Single-Location Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minicozzi, Salvatore J; Russell, Brent S

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the role of on-site chiropractic care in one corporate environment. A part-time chiropractic practice that provides services to a single company on site, 1 day per week, is described. Most care is oriented toward "wellness," is paid for by the employer, and is limited only by the chiropractor's few weekly hours of on-site availability. With approval from the company, the authors conducted an absenteeism analysis after obtaining ethics approval and consent from employee-patients who received care between 2012 and 2014. Comparisons of absenteeism rates of the sample were compared with lost worktime rates from the US Bureau of Labor Statistics' Labor Force Statistics. Of 40 current employees, 35 used chiropractic services; 17 employee-patients met the inclusion criteria. The lost worktime rates of those using chiropractic services (0.72%, 0.55%, and 0.67%, for 2012, 2013, and 2014, respectively) were lower than corresponding rates from Labor Force Statistics (1.5%, 1.2%, and 1.1%). Absenteeism for the employee-patients was lower than equivalent national figures in this sample of workers. Though these results may or may not be related to the chiropractic care, these findings prompt further investigation into this relationship.

  18. Oceanographic studies off Beypore Port, west coast of India to locate a dredge dumping site

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.; Vethamony, P.; Babu, M.T.; Srinivas, K.; Thottam, T.J.

    with a frequency of occurrence of the order of 2%. 4.4. CURRENTS Measurements of currents were made at 3 locations as shown in Figure 6 using re- cording current meters manufactured by Aanderaa Instruments, Norway and details of these measurements... – Part I, Office of the Geodetic and Research Branch, Surveyor Gen. of India, Dehradun, 238 p. Arakawa, A.: 1966, ‘Computational design for a long term numerical integration of the equations of fluid motion: Two dimensional incompressible flow. Part I’, J...

  19. Real-time safety risk assessment based on a real-time location system for hydropower construction sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hanchen; Lin, Peng; Fan, Qixiang; Qiang, Maoshan

    2014-01-01

    The concern for workers' safety in construction industry is reflected in many studies focusing on static safety risk identification and assessment. However, studies on real-time safety risk assessment aimed at reducing uncertainty and supporting quick response are rare. A method for real-time safety risk assessment (RTSRA) to implement a dynamic evaluation of worker safety states on construction site has been proposed in this paper. The method provides construction managers who are in charge of safety with more abundant information to reduce the uncertainty of the site. A quantitative calculation formula, integrating the influence of static and dynamic hazards and that of safety supervisors, is established to link the safety risk of workers with the locations of on-site assets. By employing the hidden Markov model (HMM), the RTSRA provides a mechanism for processing location data provided by the real-time location system (RTLS) and analyzing the probability distributions of different states in terms of false positives and negatives. Simulation analysis demonstrated the logic of the proposed method and how it works. Application case shows that the proposed RTSRA is both feasible and effective in managing construction project safety concerns.

  20. Integrating smart-phone based momentary location tracking with fixed site air quality monitoring for personal exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jason G; Jerrett, Michael; Meng, Ying-Ying; Pickett, Melissa; Ritz, Beate

    2015-02-15

    Epidemiological studies investigating relationships between environmental exposures from air pollution and health typically use residential addresses as a single point for exposure, while environmental exposures in transit, at work, school or other locations are largely ignored. Personal exposure monitors measure individuals' exposures over time; however, current personal monitors are intrusive and cannot be operated at a large scale over an extended period of time (e.g., for a continuous three months) and can be very costly. In addition, spatial locations typically cannot be identified when only personal monitors are used. In this paper, we piloted a study that applied momentary location tracking services supplied by smart phones to identify an individual's location in space-time for three consecutive months (April 28 to July 28, 2013) using available Wi-Fi networks. Individual exposures in space-time to the traffic-related pollutants Nitrogen Oxides (NOX) were estimated by superimposing an annual mean NOX concentration surface modeled using the Land Use Regression (LUR) modeling technique. Individual's exposures were assigned to stationary (including home, work and other stationary locations) and in-transit (including commute and other travel) locations. For the individual, whose home/work addresses were known and the commute route was fixed, it was found that 95.3% of the time, the individual could be accurately identified in space-time. The ambient concentration estimated at the home location was 21.01 ppb. When indoor/outdoor infiltration, indoor sources of air pollution and time spent outdoors were taken into consideration, the individual's cumulative exposures were 28.59 ppb and 96.49 ppb, assuming a respective indoor/outdoor ratio of 1.33 and 5.00. Integrating momentary location tracking services with fixed-site field monitoring, plus indoor-outdoor air exchange calibration, makes exposure assessment of a very large population over an extended time period

  1. Ion Mobility Spectrometry-Hydrogen Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry of Anions: Part 2. Assessing Charge Site Location and Isotope Scrambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakinejad, Mahdiar; Ghassabi Kondalaji, Samaneh; Donohoe, Gregory C.; Valentine, Stephen J.

    2016-03-01

    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) coupled with gas-phase hydrogen deuterium exchange (HDX)-mass spectrometry (MS) and molecular dynamic simulations (MDS) has been used for structural investigation of anions produced by electrospraying a sample containing a synthetic peptide having the sequence KKDDDDDIIKIIK. In these experiments the potential of the analytical method for locating charge sites on ions as well as for utilizing collision-induced dissociation (CID) to reveal the degree of deuterium uptake within specific amino acid residues has been assessed. For diffuse (i.e., more elongated) [M - 2H]2- ions, decreased deuterium content along with MDS data suggest that the D4 and D6 residues are charge sites, whereas for the more diffuse [M - 3H]3- ions, the data suggest that the D4, D7, and the C-terminus are deprotonated. Fragmentation of mobility-selected, diffuse [M - 2H]2- ions to determine deuterium uptake at individual amino acid residues reveals a degree of deuterium retention at incorporation sites. Although the diffuse [M - 3H]3- ions may show more HD scrambling, it is not possible to clearly distinguish HD scrambling from the expected deuterium uptake based on a hydrogen accessibility model. The capability of the IMS-HDX-MS/MS approach to provide relevant details about ion structure is discussed. Additionally, the ability to extend the approach for locating protonation sites on positively-charged ions is presented.

  2. Zooplankton composition and diversity at different location along Kalpakkam coastal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Subhashree; Ponnusamy, K.; Verma, Amrata; Munilkumar, S.; Rajaram, S.; Lakra, W.S.; Pal, Asim K.; Sreedevi, K.R.

    2015-01-01

    Zooplanktons are the base of aquatic food web which constitutes the most vital biological component in an aquatic ecosystem. They form an important link in the food chain from primary to tertiary level leading to the production of fishery and are known to serve as a food for larger organisms such as bivalves, crustaceans and fish. The present study was aimed to assess the composition and diversity among the different species of zooplankton in Kalpakkam coastal sites within 30 kms around Madras Atomic Power Station. Samples were collected using plankton net (mesh size 63 μm, mouth area 20 inch dia) from stations which were fixed using the GPS coordinates. The results of the present studies showed maximum zoo planktonic diversity in station N15 i.e. 15 km away from MAPS (Madras Atomic Power Station), as compared to the other selected sampling stations. Regarding composition of zooplankton at different sites along the MAPS, it was found Copepods dominated among the zooplankton forming up to 60% of total species composition which indicate that copepod species are likely to be good indicators of water-mass influence and changes. (author)

  3. High DNA melting temperature predicts transcription start site location in human and mouse.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dineen, David G

    2009-12-01

    The accurate computational prediction of transcription start sites (TSS) in vertebrate genomes is a difficult problem. The physicochemical properties of DNA can be computed in various ways and a many combinations of DNA features have been tested in the past for use as predictors of transcription. We looked in detail at melting temperature, which measures the temperature, at which two strands of DNA separate, considering the cooperative nature of this process. We find that peaks in melting temperature correspond closely to experimentally determined transcription start sites in human and mouse chromosomes. Using melting temperature alone, and with simple thresholding, we can predict TSS with accuracy that is competitive with the most accurate state-of-the-art TSS prediction methods. Accuracy is measured using both experimentally and manually determined TSS. The method works especially well with CpG island containing promoters, but also works when CpG islands are absent. This result is clear evidence of the important role of the physical properties of DNA in the process of transcription. It also points to the importance for TSS prediction methods to include melting temperature as prior information.

  4. Towards a risk map of malaria for Sri Lanka: the importance of house location relative to vector breeding sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Der Hoek, Wim; Konradsen, Flemming; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H

    2003-01-01

    of house location relative to vector breeding sites for the occurrence of malaria in order to assess the usefulness of this parameter in future malaria risk maps. Such risk maps could be important tools for planning efficient malaria control measures. METHODS: In a group of seven villages in north central......BACKGROUND: In Sri Lanka, the major malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies breeds in pools formed in streams and river beds and it is likely that people living close to such breeding sites are at higher risk of malaria than people living further away. This study was done to quantify the importance...... Sri Lanka, malaria cases were compared with community controls for distance from house to breeding sites and a number of other variables, including type of housing construction and use of anti-mosquito measures. The presence of An. culicifacies in bedrooms was determined by indoor insecticide spray...

  5. Locations of the three primary binding sites for long-chain fatty acids on bovine serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, J.A.; Era, S.; Bhamidipati, S.P.; Reed, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    Binding of 13 C-enriched oleic acid to bovine serum albumin and to three large proteolytic fragments of albumin - two complementary fragments corresponding to the two halved of albumin and one fragment corresponding to the carboxyl-terminal domain - yielded unique patterns of NMR resonances (chemical shifts and relative intensities) that were used to identify the locations of binding of the first 5 mol of oleic acid to the multidomain albumin molecule. The first 3 mol of oleic acid added to intact albumin generated three distinct NMR resonances as a result of simultaneous binding of oleic acid to three heterogeneous sites (primary sites). This distribution suggests albumin to be a less symmetrical binding molecule than theoretical models predict. This work also demonstrates the power of NMR for the study of microenvironments of individual fatty acid binding sites in specific domain

  6. Surface wave site characterization at 27 locations near Boston, Massachusetts, including 2 strong-motion stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Eric M.; Carkin, Bradley A.; Baise, Laurie G.; Kayen, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    The geotechnical properties of the soils in and around Boston, Massachusetts, have been extensively studied. This is partly due to the importance of the Boston Blue Clay and the extent of landfill in the Boston area. Although New England is not a region that is typically associated with seismic hazards, there have been several historical earthquakes that have caused significant ground shaking (for example, see Street and Lacroix, 1979; Ebel, 1996; Ebel, 2006). The possibility of strong ground shaking, along with heightened vulnerability from unreinforced masonry buildings, motivates further investigation of seismic hazards throughout New England. Important studies that are pertinent to seismic hazards in New England include source-parameter studies (Somerville and others, 1987; Boore and others, 2010), wave-propagation studies (Frankel, 1991; Viegas and others, 2010), empirical ground-motion prediction equations (GMPE) for computing ground-motion intensity (Tavakoli and Pezeshk, 2005; Atkinson and Boore, 2006), site-response studies (Hayles and others, 2001; Ebel and Kim, 2006), and liquefaction studies (Brankman and Baise, 2008). The shear-wave velocity (VS) profiles collected for this report are pertinent to the GMPE, site response, and liquefaction aspects of seismic hazards in the greater Boston area. Besides the application of these data for the Boston region, the data may be applicable throughout New England, through correlations with geologic units (similar to Ebel and Kim, 2006) or correlations with topographic slope (Wald and Allen, 2007), because few VS measurements are available in stable tectonic regions.Ebel and Hart (2001) used felt earthquake reports to infer amplification patterns throughout the greater Boston region and noted spatial correspondence with the dominant period and amplification factors obtained from ambient noise (horizontal-to-vertical ratios) by Kummer (1998). Britton (2003) compiled geotechnical borings in the area and produced a

  7. Location sites for nuclear power plants and the public drinking water supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the Dutch RIWA- Working Group Nuclear Power Plants, of the possible effects of a nuclear-reactor melt-down accident upon the drinking-water supply in the Netherlands which is dependent on surface waters. The aim of this report is to contribute to the 're-consideration with regard to siting of nuclear power plants' of the Dutch government. In the case of a nuclear-reactor melt-down accident in the Netherlands or directly adjacent countries, surface waters destined for drinking-water production may be contaminated severely. The amount of contamination depends, among other things, upon the distance, wind direction, dry as well as wet deposition and the features of the place yielding drinking water. From calculations of contamination of surface waters in the case of open- supply build up it appears that the derived norm of the radionuclide cocktail may be exceeded for a period of weeks up to several months or even years. There are reasons to draw the same conclusion for supply build up in the dunes by means of surface infiltration in the dunes. A melt-down accident can cause very severe contamination. Also here it can be stated that, in the case of a calamity in the Netherlands or directly adjacent countries, a norm transgression may occur for weeks up to years. In view of the risks which nuclear power plants can hold for the drinking-water supply which depends upon surface-waters as basis element. Severe objections should be made with respect to the siting of nuclear power plants in the Netherlands unless the occurrence of melt-down accidents could be excluded. 11 refs.; 4 figs.; 7 tabs

  8. Risk assessment of soil-based exposures to plutonium at experimental sites located on the Nevada Test Site and adjoining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layton, D.W.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Bogen, K.T.; Straume, T.

    1993-06-01

    In the late 1950s and early 1960s, a series of tests was conducted at or near the Nevada Test Site to study issues involving plutonium-bearing devices. These tests resulted in the dispersal of about 5 TBq of 239,240 Pu on the surficial soils at the test locations. Access to the sites is strictly controlled; therefore, it does not constitute a threat to human health at the present time. However, because the residual 239 Pu decays slowly (half-life of 24,110 y), the sites could indeed represent a long-term hazard if they are not remediated and if institutional controls are lost. To investigate the magnitude of the potential health risks for this no-remediation case, we defined three basic exposure scenarios that could bring individuals in contact with 239,240 Pu at the sites: (1) a resident living in a subdivision located at a test site, (2) a resident farmer, and (3) a worker at a commercial facility. Our screening analyses indicated that doses to organs are dominated by the intemal deposition of Pu via the inhalation pathway, and thus our risk assessment focused on those factors that affect inhalation exposures and associated doses, including inhalation rates, activity patterns, tenure at a residence or occupation, indoor/outdoor air relationships, and resuspension outdoors. Cancer risks were calculated as a function of lifetime cumulative doses to the key target organs (i.e., bone surface, liver, and lungs) and risk factors for those organs. Uncertainties in the predicted cancer risks were analyzed using Monte-Carlo simulations of the probability distributions used to represent assessment parameters. The principal sources of uncertainty in the estimated risks were population mobility, the relationship between indoor and outdoor contaminant levels, and the dose and risk factors for bone, liver, and lung

  9. Risk assessment of soil-based exposures to plutonium at experimental sites located on the Nevada Test Site and adjoining areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, D.W.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Bogen, K.T.; Straume, T.

    1993-06-01

    In the late 1950s and early 1960s, a series of tests was conducted at or near the Nevada Test Site to study issues involving plutonium-bearing devices. These tests resulted in the dispersal of about 5 TBq of {sup 239,240}Pu on the surficial soils at the test locations. Access to the sites is strictly controlled; therefore, it does not constitute a threat to human health at the present time. However, because the residual {sup 239} Pu decays slowly (half-life of 24,110 y), the sites could indeed represent a long-term hazard if they are not remediated and if institutional controls are lost. To investigate the magnitude of the potential health risks for this no-remediation case, we defined three basic exposure scenarios that could bring individuals in contact with {sup 239,240}Pu at the sites: (1) a resident living in a subdivision located at a test site, (2) a resident farmer, and (3) a worker at a commercial facility. Our screening analyses indicated that doses to organs are dominated by the intemal deposition of Pu via the inhalation pathway, and thus our risk assessment focused on those factors that affect inhalation exposures and associated doses, including inhalation rates, activity patterns, tenure at a residence or occupation, indoor/outdoor air relationships, and resuspension outdoors. Cancer risks were calculated as a function of lifetime cumulative doses to the key target organs (i.e., bone surface, liver, and lungs) and risk factors for those organs. Uncertainties in the predicted cancer risks were analyzed using Monte-Carlo simulations of the probability distributions used to represent assessment parameters. The principal sources of uncertainty in the estimated risks were population mobility, the relationship between indoor and outdoor contaminant levels, and the dose and risk factors for bone, liver, and lung.

  10. Engineering study of 50 miscellaneous inactive underground radioactive waste tanks located at the Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    This engineering study addresses 50 inactive underground radioactive waste tanks. The tanks were formerly used for the following functions associated with plutonium and uranium separations and waste management activities in the 200 East and 200 West Areas of the Hanford Site: settling solids prior to disposal of supernatant in cribs and a reverse well; neutralizing acidic process wastes prior to crib disposal; receipt and processing of single-shell tank (SST) waste for uranium recovery operations; catch tanks to collect water that intruded into diversion boxes and transfer pipeline encasements and any leakage that occurred during waste transfer operations; and waste handling and process experimentation. Most of these tanks have not been in use for many years. Several projects have, been planned and implemented since the 1970's and through 1985 to remove waste and interim isolate or interim stabilize many of the tanks. Some tanks have been filled with grout within the past several years. Responsibility for final closure and/or remediation of these tanks is currently assigned to several programs including Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS), Environmental Restoration and Remedial Action (ERRA), and Decommissioning and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Closure (D ampersand RCP). Some are under facility landlord responsibility for maintenance and surveillance (i.e. Plutonium Uranium Extraction [PUREX]). However, most of the tanks are not currently included in any active monitoring or surveillance program

  11. An Experiment to Locate the Site of TeV Flaring in M87

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, D.E.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Massaro, F.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Cheung, C.C.; /Natl. Acad. Sci. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Horns, D.; Raue, M.; /Hamburg U.; Stawarz, L.; /JAXA, Sagamihara /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Wagner, S.; /Heidelberg Observ.; Colin, P.; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Mazin, D.; /Barcelona, IFAE; Wagner, R.; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Beilicke, M.; /McDonnell Ctr. Space Sci.; LeBohec, S.; Hui, M.; /Utah U.; Mukherjee, R.; /Barnard Coll.

    2012-05-18

    We describe a Chandra X-ray target-of-opportunity project designed to isolate the site of TeV flaring in the radio galaxy M87. To date, we have triggered the Chandra observations only once (2010 April) and by the time of the first of our nine observations, the TeV flare had ended. However, we found that the X-ray intensity of the unresolved nucleus was at an elevated level for our first observation. Of the more than 60 Chandra observations we have made of the M87 jet covering nine years, the nucleus was measured at a comparably high level only three times. Two of these occasions can be associated with TeV flaring, and at the time of the third event, there were no TeV monitoring activities. From the rapidity of the intensity drop of the nucleus, we infer that the size of the emitting region is of order a few light days x the unknown beaming factor; comparable to the same sort of estimate for the TeV emitting region. We also find evidence of spectral evolution in the X-ray band which seems consistent with radiative losses affecting the non-thermal population of the emitting electrons within the unresolved nucleus.

  12. Final environmental impact statement for the Nevada Test Site and off-site locations in the State of Nevada. American Indian Assessments. Volume 1, Appendix G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The Native American Resource Document is a summary of opinions expressed by the Consolidated Group of Tribes and Organizations (CGTO) regarding the Environmental Impact Statement for the Nevada Test Site and Other Off-Site Locations within the State of Nevada (NTS EIS). The document contains (a) general concerns regarding long-term impacts of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) operations on the NTS and (b) a synopsis of specific comments made by the American Indian Writers Subgroup (AIWS) for various chapters of the NTS EIS. The Native American Resource Document was produced in response to consultation required for the NTS EIS, in accordance with DOE Order 1230.2, American Indian Tribal Government Policy. The consultation focused specifically on four alternative management decisions concerning the future mission of the NTS and related off-site locations in Nevada. However, the present CGTO's response to this consultation is not limited to EIS alternatives, but also integrates relevant recommendations made by Indian people for previous DOE projects in which American Indians participated

  13. Metal levels in southern leopard frogs from the Savannah River Site: location and body compartment effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, J; Snodgrass, J

    2001-06-01

    Tadpoles have been proposed as useful bioindicators of environmental contamination; yet, recently it has been shown that metal levels vary in different body compartments of tadpoles. Metals levels are higher in the digestive tract of bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) tadpoles, which is usually not removed during such analysis. In this paper we examine the heavy metal levels in southern leopard frog (R. utricularia) tadpoles from several wetlands at the Savannah River Site and test the null hypotheses that (1) there are no differences in metal levels in different body compartments of the tadpoles, including the digestive tract; (2) there are no differences in heavy metal levels among different wetlands; and (3) there are no differences in the ratio of metals in the tail/body and in the digestive tract/body as a function of metal or developmental stage as indicated by body weight. Variations in heavy metal levels were explained by wetland and body compartment for all metals and by tadpole weight for selenium and manganese. In all cases, levels of metals were higher in the digestive tract than in the body or tail of tadpoles. Metal levels were highest in a wetland that had been remediated and lowest in a wetland that was never a pasture or remediated (i.e., was truly undisturbed). Although tadpoles are sometimes eaten by fish and other aquatic predators, leopard frogs usually avoid laying their eggs in ponds with such predators. However, avian predators will eat them. These data suggest that tadpoles can be used as bioindicators of differences in metal levels among wetlands and as indicators of potential exposure for higher-trophic-level organisms, but that to assess effects on the tadpoles themselves, digestive tracts should be removed before analysis. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  14. Accurate source location from waves scattered by surface topography: Applications to the Nevada and North Korean test sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y.; Wang, N.; Bao, X.; Flinders, A. F.

    2016-12-01

    Scattered waves generated near the source contains energy converted from the near-field waves to the far-field propagating waves, which can be used to achieve location accuracy beyond the diffraction limit. In this work, we apply a novel full-wave location method that combines a grid-search algorithm with the 3D Green's tensor database to locate the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) at the Nevada test site and the North Korean nuclear tests. We use the first arrivals (Pn/Pg) and their immediate codas, which are likely dominated by waves scattered at the surface topography near the source, to determine the source location. We investigate seismograms in the frequency of [1.0 2.0] Hz to reduce noises in the data and highlight topography scattered waves. High resolution topographic models constructed from 10 and 90 m grids are used for Nevada and North Korea, respectively. The reference velocity model is based on CRUST 1.0. We use the collocated-grid finite difference method on curvilinear grids to calculate the strain Green's tensor and obtain synthetic waveforms using source-receiver reciprocity. The `best' solution is found based on the least-square misfit between the observed and synthetic waveforms. To suppress random noises, an optimal weighting method for three-component seismograms is applied in misfit calculation. Our results show that the scattered waves are crucial in improving resolution and allow us to obtain accurate solutions with a small number of stations. Since the scattered waves depends on topography, which is known at the wavelengths of regional seismic waves, our approach yields absolute, instead of relative, source locations. We compare our solutions with those of USGS and other studies. Moreover, we use differential waveforms to locate pairs of the North Korea tests from years 2006, 2009, 2013 and 2016 to further reduce the effects of unmodeled heterogeneities and errors in the reference velocity model.

  15. Final environmental impact statement for the Nevada Test Site and off-site locations in the State of Nevada. Transportation study, Volume 1, Appendix I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This report has been prepared to address local transportation issues concerning current and potential operations at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), to document the results of the NTS transportation risk analysis, and to provide information and supporting documentation for the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the NTS and Off-Site Locations in the State of Nevada. Four alternatives are evaluated in the NTS EIS: Alternative 1, Continue Current Operations, (No Action); Alternative 2, Discontinue Operations; Alternative 3, Expanded Use; and Alternative 4, Alternate Use of Withdrawn Lands. The transportation risk analysis estimated the health risk from highway transportation of DOE-generated low-level waste, mixed waste, and defense-related nuclear materials for each of the four alternatives

  16. Location of the higher affinity copper site on human hemoglobin by the use of the spin label technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabak, M.; Louro, S.R.W.

    1983-11-01

    Addition of copper (II) ions to Cys β-93 maleimide spin-labelled human hemoglobin A produces a dramatic decrease in the amplitude of the spin-label ESR spectra. This effect was analyzed in the framework of Leigh's theory which permits interspin distances to be deduced from the effect of dipolar coupling on the ESR spectra and led to an estimate of 9A as the distance between the label and the higher affinity copper site. Taking into account the previous results which suggest that four nitrogen atoms coordinate with copper, and that the N terminal val β-1 and His β-2 residues are involved, the location of the higher affinity copper site is proposed to be at the β 1 β 2 interface of the hemoglobin molecule, involving the N terminal of one β subunit and the C terminal of the other. (Author) [pt

  17. On the location of the H+-extruding steps in site 2 of the mitochondrial electron transport chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, A; Galiazzo, F; Lehninger, A L

    1980-11-25

    The location of the H+-translocating reactions within energy-conserving Site 2 of the mitochondrial electron transport chain was evaluated from two sets of data. In the first, the H+/2e- ejection ratios and Ca2+/2e- uptake ratios were compared for electron flow from succinate dehydrogenase, whose active site is on the matrix side of the inner membrane and from glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase, whose active site is on the cytosolic side. In intact rat liver mitochondria both substrates yielded H+/2e- ejection ratios close to 4.0 and Ca2+/2e- uptake ratios close to 1.0 during antimycin-sensitive reduction of ferricyanide. With rat liver mitoplasts and ferricytochrome c as electron acceptor, both substrates again gave the same stoichiometric ratios. The second approach involved determination of the sidedness of H+ formation during electron flow from succinate to ferricyanide via bypass of the antimycin block of the cytochrome b.c1 complex provided by N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD), under conditions in which the TMPD-TMPD+ couple does not act as a membrane-penetrating protonophore. Electron flow in this system was inhibited by 2-then-oyltrifluoroacetone, indicating that TMPD probably accepts electrons from ubiquinol. The 2 H+ formed in this system were not delivered into the matrix but appeared directly in the medium in the absence of a protonophore. To accommodate the available evidence on Site 2 substrates, it is concluded that the substrate hydrogens are first transferred to ubiquinone, 2 H+ per 2e then appear in the medium by protolytic dehydrogenation of a species of ubiquinol or ubiquinol-protein having the appropriate sidedness (designated Site 2A), and the other 2 H+ are translocated from the matrix to the medium on passage of 2e- through the cytochrome b x c1 complex (designated Site 2B).

  18. Strategic Location and Territorial Integrity: The Role of Subsidiary Sites in the Classic Maya Kingdoms of the Upper Usumacinta Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Anaya Hernández

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The Upper Usumacinta region was the scene of an intense interaction between the different kingdoms of the Classic Maya Period. This interaction took the form of political and marriage alliances as well as warfare and is well attested in the inscribed monuments of the region, especially towards the Late Classic Period (c. AD 600-900. Through this interaction the Maya rulers would not only assert their claim to power but also ensure the boundaries of their kingdoms, with an eye to accruing a vaster domain. The definition of the political organisation and territorial extent of the Maya Lowland kingdoms is an issue that has attracted the attention of various scholars (Adams 1981; Adams and Jones 1981; Ball and Taschek 1991; Flannery 1972; Freidel 1981; Hammond 1974; 1981; Inomata and Aoyama 1996; Mathews 1988; 1991; Sanders 1981. Like these scholars, I have presented a model aimed at estimating the territorial extent of the kingdoms of the Upper Usumacinta region, taking into account the physical characteristics of the terrain (Anaya Hernández 2001. In this article I approach this issue again, focusing this time on the importance that the subsidiary centres located at strategic locations across the landscape had for the maintenance of the territorial integrity of the kingdoms of Pomoná and Piedras Negras. The political importance of these sites is reflected in the efforts that the kings of these polities went through to warrant the loyalty of the rulers of these secondary centres, as can be attested by the presence of a sculptured stela at the site of Panhalé, in the vicinity of Pomoná, and an inscribed wooden box found within the Redención del Campesino Valley that makes reference to a Piedras Negras ruler. To address this issue I took advantage of the capabilities that GIS offers to model movement across the physical setting in order to define the potential boundaries between the aforementioned kingdoms in the light of the available

  19. Upstream waves in Saturn's foreshock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavassano Cattaneo, M. B.; Cattaneo, P.; Moreno, G.; Lepping, R. P.

    1991-01-01

    An analysis based on plasma and magnetic-field data obtained from Voyager 1 during its Saturn encounter is reported. The plasma data provided every 96 sec and magnetic-field data averaged over 48 sec are utilized. The evidence of upstream waves at Saturn are detected. The waves have a period, in the spacecraft frame, of about 550 sec and a relative amplitude larger than 0.3, are left- and right-hand elliptically polarized, and propagate at about 30 deg with respect to the average magnetic field. The appearance of the waves is correlated with the spacecraft being magnetically connected to the bow shock.

  20. E-ELT Site Chosen - World's Biggest Eye on the Sky to be Located on Armazones, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    pollution and mining activities. Notes [1] The independent E-ELT Site Selection Advisory Committee (SSAC) has been analysing results from several possible sites worldwide in great detail. Similar efforts have been carried out by the Thirty-Meter Telescope (TMT) site selection team from the US. For the sake of efficiency, the sites pre-selected by the TMT team (all in North and South America) were not studied by the SSAC, as the TMT team shared their data with the SSAC. Two of the sites on the SSAC short list, including Armazones, were on the TMT list. [2] The full ESO Council Resolution reads as follow: Resolution of ESO Council on the Baseline Site for the E-ELT Recognising * the very clear recommendation from the Site Selection Advisory Committee that the E-ELT should be located on Cerro Armazones in Northern Chile * the considerable scientific synergy that would result between the E-ELT and future facilities in the Southern Hemisphere, most notably ALMA and SKA * the operational and scientific synergies with Paranal that would result and expressing its warmest appreciation for * the very generous offers from Spain and Chile to host the E-ELT * the very considerable contributions to the quality and depth of the discussion on the siting of the E-ELT made by Chile and Spain in the course of developing their offers; Council has concluded that the overriding driver for the decision on the location of the E-ELT should be the scientific quality of the site. The scientific qualities of Cerro Armazones and the positive impact that locating the E-ELT there will have on the future scientific leadership of ESO are sufficiently compelling to outweigh the very substantial offer made by Spain. Council has therefore resolved to approve the recommendation of the Director General to adopt Cerro Armazones in Chile as the baseline site for the E-ELT. Council noted that this decision is essential for the completion of the construction proposal for decision at a later date. More information

  1. The LHCb Upstream Tracker Project

    CERN Document Server

    Steinkamp, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb detector performs searches for New Physics in CP-violating observables and rare heavy-quark decays at the LHC. A comprehensive upgrade is planned for the long shutdown of the LHC in 2018/19. A goal of this upgrade is to abolish hardware triggers and read out the full detector at 40 MHz. This requires to replace the existing TT station upstream of the LHCb magnet by a new silicon micro-strip detector, the Upstream Tracker (UT). The UT will have a new front-end chip compatible with 40 MHz readout, silicon sensors with improved radiation hardness, finer readout granularity, and improved acceptance coverage at small polar angles. The outer region of each detection layer will be covered by p-in-n sensors with 10 cm long strips and a pitch of about 180 mum, while n-in-p sensors with half the pitch and strip length will be employed in the regions of highest particle density close to the beam pipe. The innermost sensors will have a circular cutout to optimize the forward acceptance. The front-end chip is bei...

  2. Final environmental impact statement for the Nevada Test Site and off-site locations in the State of Nevada. Framework for the resource management plan, Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to publicize how the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) proposes to develop and use a Resource Management Plan for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) so the public could comment on and assist in the following activities: (1) Developing the methods for creating and using the plan; (2) Identifying the values people place on manmade and natural resources found on the NTS; (3) Developing the goals the DOE/NV will use to guide the conservation and use of those resources; (4) Identifying the management actions needed to meet constraints and resource management goals; and (5) Incorporating the principles of ecosystem management into land and resource management on the NTS. This framework for the Resource Management Plan was developed in conjunction with the Environmental Impact Statement for the Nevada Test Site and off-site locations in the state of Nevada (NTS EIS) to take advantage of the extensive data collection and public participation activities associated with the National Environmental Policy Act. After public input was received during the comment period for the Draft NTS EIS, DOE/NV revised this description of the Resource Management Plan and published it with the NTS Final EIS. This revision includes the goals DOE/NV has developed for managing resources and land-use constraints. It also includes the final plans for developing the Resource Management Plan. These plans will guide DOE/NV as it develops a Resource Management Plan in the coming years

  3. Iron site location in Fe-diffused lithium niobate crystals by combined RBS-PIXE-NRA analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaltron, A. [University of Padova and CNISM, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Argiolas, N., E-mail: nicola.argiolas@unipd.it [University of Padova and CNISM, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); De Salvador, D.; Bazzan, M. [University of Padova and CNISM, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Ciampolillo, M.V.; Bacci, L.; Sada, C. [University of Padova and CNISM, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2012-03-15

    Iron diffused x-cut lithium niobate samples have been studied from a structural point of view by ion beam analysis techniques in channeling conditions. The aim of this work is to determine the most probable position of iron atoms after high temperature diffusion treatment in pure oxygen atmosphere and to verify their location after an additional full reducing annealing at low temperature. The results are compared with the bulk doping case that can be considered the final equilibrium state of the diffusion process. By comparing the iron signal with niobium and lithium counterparts in angular scans along proper crystallographic directions, we demonstrate that iron occupies in any case the lithium site or a very close position regardless of the reduction degree, just as in the case of bulk doped samples.

  4. Geographic information system-based healthcare waste management planning for treatment site location and optimal transportation routeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugasundaram, Jothiganesh; Soulalay, Vongdeuane; Chettiyappan, Visvanathan

    2012-06-01

    In Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), a growth of healthcare centres, and the environmental hazards and public health risks typically accompanying them, increased the need for healthcare waste (HCW) management planning. An effective planning of an HCW management system including components such as the treatment plant siting and an optimized routeing system for collection and transportation of waste is deemed important. National government offices at developing countries often lack the proper tools and methodologies because of the high costs usually associated with them. However, this study attempts to demonstrate the use of an inexpensive GIS modelling tool for healthcare waste management in the country. Two areas were designed for this study on HCW management, including: (a) locating centralized treatment plants and designing optimum travel routes for waste collection from nearby healthcare facilities; and (b) utilizing existing hospital incinerators and designing optimum routes for collecting waste from nearby healthcare facilities. Spatial analysis paved the way to understand the spatial distribution of healthcare wastes and to identify hotspots of higher waste generating locations. Optimal route models were designed for collecting and transporting HCW to treatment plants, which also highlights constraints in collecting and transporting waste for treatment and disposal. The proposed model can be used as a decision support tool for the efficient management of hospital wastes by government healthcare waste management authorities and hospitals.

  5. Systematic identification of fragile sites via genome-wide location analysis of γ-H2AX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilard, Rachel K.; Jacques, Pierre-Étienne; Laramée, Louise; Cheng, Benjamin; Galicia, Sarah; Bataille, Alain R.; Yeung, ManTek; Mendez, Megan; Bergeron, Maxime; Robert, François; Durocher, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorylation of histone H2AX is an early response to DNA damage in eukaryotes. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, DNA damage or replication fork stalling results in histone H2A phosphorylation to yield γ-H2A (yeast γ-H2AX) in a Mec1 (ATR)- and Tel1 (ATM)- dependent manner. Here, we describe the genome-wide location analysis of γ-H2A as a strategy to identify loci prone to engage the Mec1 and Tel1 pathways. Remarkably, γ-H2A enrichment overlaps with loci prone to replication fork stalling and is caused by the action of Mec1 and Tel1, indicating that these loci are prone to breakage. Moreover, about half the sites enriched for γ-H2A map to repressed protein-coding genes, and histone deacetylases are necessary for formation of γ-H2A at these loci. Finally, our work indicates that high resolution mapping of γ-H2AX is a fruitful route to map fragile sites in eukaryotic genomes. PMID:20139982

  6. Analysis of foundation type alternative and deep-excavation on candidate site location of Panjang Island, Serang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heri Syaeful; June Mellawati

    2013-01-01

    Panjang Island is one of the alternatives location which is being studied as NPP site candidate. Its soil surface dominated by sand and eggshell deposit to the depth of tens of meter, beside that also the interlayer of sand and clay to the depth of 120 m. Purpose of the research is to analyze the alternative of foundation type and simulation of deep-excavation during foundation construction especially related to the slope stability aspect. The methods includes data collection of the analysis result of soil/rock mechanical laboratory, measurement of shear wave velocity by PS logging method, and analysis of alternative foundation type and deep-excavation. The analysis result of foundation type that can be applied on Panjang Island candidate site is combination of raft and pile foundation. Rock with Vs > 400 m/s in depth of 44 meter could be made as base of raft foundation construction. In the bottom it connected to pile foundation which is constructed to base rock in the depth of 120 m in Vs > 900 m/s. The result of slope stability analysis on deep-excavation with slope height of 44 m, vertical angle, on normal condition yield safety factor of 0,184 and on the condition of seismic load 0,138. Simulation of anchor installation with spacing 1.25 m as much as 15 pieces yield safety factor higher than 1.0 m. (author)

  7. LONG-TERM STABILITY OF THE LOCAL GROUND CONTROL NETWORK AT THE CO-LOCATION SITE OF MEDICINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbondanza, C.; Sarti, P.; Legrand, J.

    2009-12-01

    ITRF combinations rely on the availability of accurate tie vectors linking reference points of space geodetic techniques. Co-located instruments are assumed to move consistently and no local relative motion is taken into account. Instabilities may degrade the quality of the co-location itself and perturb the result of ITRF combinations. This work aims to determine the stability of the local ground control network at Medicina (Italy) with independent surveying methods. The observatory hosts a co-location between a VLBI telescope and two GPS antennas, MEDI and MSEL. It is located in the Po Plain where thick layers of clays are the prevalent soil characteristics. Hence, provision of long term stability of geodetic monuments is a challenge and monitoring their stability is an issue. MEDI and the VLBI station regularly contribute to the determination of ITRF, while MSEL is part of the EUREF network. A set of five tie vectors observations linking the VLBI and MEDI reference points was acquired between 2001 and 2007. It is our main tool for performing local deformation analysis. Additionally, the GPS time series of MEDI and MSEL were used to cross check and confirm the local instability detected by terrestrial methods. To achieve a rigorous and reliable investigation of the local stability, multi-epoch terrestrial observations were homogeneously processed according to common parameterizations in a consistent reference frame. Similarly, continuous GPS observations from MEDI and MSEL were analysed according to the new EPN reprocessing strategy in order to monitor the short baseline between MEDI and MSEL; to spotlight any change in its length. Both approaches confirm differential motions at the site which can be related to monument instabilities originated by the particularly unfavourable local geological setting and the inapt design of the monuments foundation. The monuments move non homogeneously at rates reaching up to 1.6 mm/year, this value being comparable to intra

  8. Reservoir Sedimentation and Upstream Sediment Sources: Perspectives and Future Research Needs on Streambank and Gully Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, G. A.; Sheshukov, A.; Cruse, R.; Kolar, R. L.; Guertault, L.; Gesch, K. R.; Dutnell, R. C.

    2016-05-01

    The future reliance on water supply and flood control reservoirs across the globe will continue to expand, especially under a variable climate. As the inventory of new potential dam sites is shrinking, construction of additional reservoirs is less likely compared to simultaneous flow and sediment management in existing reservoirs. One aspect of this sediment management is related to the control of upstream sediment sources. However, key research questions remain regarding upstream sediment loading rates. Highlighted in this article are research needs relative to measuring and predicting sediment transport rates and loading due to streambank and gully erosion within a watershed. For example, additional instream sediment transport and reservoir sedimentation rate measurements are needed across a range of watershed conditions, reservoir sizes, and geographical locations. More research is needed to understand the intricate linkage between upland practices and instream response. A need still exists to clarify the benefit of restoration or stabilization of a small reach within a channel system or maturing gully on total watershed sediment load. We need to better understand the intricate interactions between hydrological and erosion processes to improve prediction, location, and timing of streambank erosion and failure and gully formation. Also, improved process-based measurement and prediction techniques are needed that balance data requirements regarding cohesive soil erodibility and stability as compared to simpler topographic indices for gullies or stream classification systems. Such techniques will allow the research community to address the benefit of various conservation and/or stabilization practices at targeted locations within watersheds.

  9. Buzz words in the upstream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, B.

    1998-01-01

    Examples of misleading or misunderstood 'buzz' words that are prevalent in modern upstream technology are illustrated. The terms underbalanced drilling, horizontal wells, and geo-steering, which were unheard of in the early 1980s, have become key 'buzz' words in modern exploitation terminology. The terms are not only misused, but the technologies themselves are frequently mis-applied as shown by the frequency of economic failures, or less than optimal technical successes which have occurred when these technologies have been employed. Two examples, 'horizontal drilling' and 'geosteering', are used to illustrate the point. With regard to horizontal drilling, many oil field professionals consider it as merely a more advanced method of directional drilling. This represents a serious, yet common, misconception. In truth, horizontal wells are not just an altered drilling process, but a fundamental change in exploitation technology. A more appropriate definition would be that a horizontal well is an enhanced oil recovery process, clearly implying a relationship to the exploitation benefit potential of horizontal wells. The other term, 'geo-steering' refers to defining, generating and monitoring a wellpath on geology rather than geometry. It, too, is frequently misused in the technical media. The term is also misrepresented by implying that it is applicable only to the horizontal section of a well, which in fact is far from the truth. To counter these misconceptions, the paper provides appropriate definitions for each of these terms, and defines the conditions under which the techniques themselves are most appropriately used. 7 figs

  10. Equipartition gamma-ray blazars and the location of the gamma-ray emission site in 3C 279

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermer, Charles D.; Cerruti, Matteo; Lott, Benoit; Boisson, Catherine; Zech, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Blazar spectral models generally have numerous unconstrained parameters, leading to ambiguous values for physical properties like Doppler factor δ D or fluid magnetic field B'. To help remedy this problem, a few modifications of the standard leptonic blazar jet scenario are considered. First, a log-parabola function for the electron distribution is used. Second, analytic expressions relating energy loss and kinematics to blazar luminosity and variability, written in terms of equipartition parameters, imply δ D , B', and the peak electron Lorentz factor γ pk ′ . The external radiation field in a blazar is approximated by Lyα radiation from the broad-line region (BLR) and ≈0.1 eV infrared radiation from a dusty torus. When used to model 3C 279 spectral energy distributions from 2008 and 2009 reported by Hayashida et al., we derive δ D ∼ 20-30, B' ∼ few G, and total (IR + BLR) external radiation field energy densities u ∼ 10 –2 -10 –3 erg cm –3 , implying an origin of the γ-ray emission site in 3C 279 at the outer edges of the BLR. This is consistent with the γ-ray emission site being located at a distance R ≲ Γ 2 ct var ∼ 0.1(Γ/30) 2 (t var /10 4 s) pc from the black hole powering 3C 279's jets, where t var is the variability timescale of the radiation in the source frame, and at farther distances for narrow-jet and magnetic-reconnection models. Excess ≳ 5 GeV γ-ray emission observed with Fermi LAT from 3C 279 challenges the model, opening the possibility of a second leptonic component or a hadronic origin of the emission. For low hadronic content, absolute jet powers of ≈10% of the Eddington luminosity are calculated.

  11. Numerical modeling of ground-water flow systems in the vicinity of the reference repository location, Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, P.; Beyeler, W.; Logsdon, M.; Coleman, N.; Brinster, K.

    1989-04-01

    This report documents south-central Washington State's Pasco Basin ground-water modeling studies. This work was done to support the NRC's review of hydrogeologic studies under the Department of Energy's (DOE) Basalt Waste Isolation Project. The report provides a brief overview of the geology, hydrology, and hydrochemistry of the Pasco Basin as a basis for the evaluation of previous conceptual and numerical ground-water flow models of the region. Numerical models were developed to test new conceptual models of the site and to provide a means of evaluating the Department of Energy's performance assessments and proposed hydrologic testing. Regional ground-water flow modeling of an area larger than the Pasco Basin revealed that current concepts on the existence and behavior of a hydrologic barrier west of the proposed repository location are inconsistent with available data. This modeling also demonstrated that the measured pattern of hydraulic heads cannot be produced with a model that (1) has uniform layer properties over the entire domain; (2) has zones of large conductivity associated with anticlinal structures; or (3) includes recharge from the industrial disposal ponds. Adequate representation of the measured hydraulic heads was obtained with a model that contained regions of larger hydraulic conductivity that corresponded to the presence of sedimentary interbeds. In addition, a detailed model of a region smaller than the Pasco Basin was constructed to provide the NRC staff with the ability to analyze proposed Department of Energy hydrologic tests. 62 refs., 145 figs., 18 tabs

  12. Anaerobic co-digestion plants for the revaluation of agricultural waste: Sustainable location sites from a GIS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamar, Cristina Alejandra; Rivera, Diego; Aguayo, Mauricio

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish sustainably feasible areas for the implementation of anaerobic co-digestion plants for agricultural wastes (cattle/swine slurries and cereal crop wastes). The methodology was based on the use of geographic information systems (GIS), the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and map algebra generated from hedges related to environmental, social and economic constraints. The GIS model obtained was applied to a region of Chile (Bío Bío Region) as a case study showing the energy potential (205 MW-h) of agricultural wastes (swine/cattle manures and cereal crop wastes) and thereby assessing its energy contribution (3.5%) at country level (Chile). From this model, it was possible to spatially identify the influence of each factor (environmental, economic and social) when defining suitable areas for the siting of anaerobic co-digestion plants. In conclusion, GIS-based models establish appropriate areas for the location of anaerobic co-digestion plants in the revaluation of agricultural waste from the production of energy through biogas production. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Xylem specific activation of 5’ upstream regulatory region of two NAC transcription factors (MusaVND6 and MusaVND7) in banana is regulated by SNBE-like sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Deposition of secondary cell wall in the xylem elements is controlled by a subgroup of NAC (NAM, ATAF, CUC) family, known as vascular-related NAC transcription factors (VNDs). In the present study, we analyzed the 5’ upstream regulatory region of two banana NAC transcription factors (MusaVND6 and MusaVND7) for tissue specific expression and presence of 19-bp secondary-wall NAC binding element (SNBE)-like motifs. Transgenic banana plants of Musa cultivar Rasthali harboring either PMusaVND7::GUS or PMusaVND6::GUS showed specific GUS (β-D-Glucuronidase) activity in cells of the xylem tissue. Approximately 1.2kb promoter region of either MusaVND6 or MusaVND7 showed presence of at least two SNBE-like motifs. This 1.2kb promoter region was retarded in a gel shift assay by three banana VND protein (VND1,VND2 and VND3). The banana VND1-VND3 could also retard the mobility of isolated SNBE-like motifs of MusaVND6 or MusaVND7 in a gel shift assay. Transcript levels of MusaVND6 and MusaVND7 were elevated in transgenic banana overexpressing either banana VND1, VND2 or VND3. Present study suggested a probable regulation of banana VND6 and VND7 expression through direct interaction of banana VND1- VND3 with SNBE-like motifs. Our study also indicated two promoter elements for possible utilization in cell wall modifications in plants especially banana, which is being recently considered as a potential biofuel crop. PMID:29438404

  14. Land Use and Land Cover - CEMETERY_SITES_IDNR_IN: Cemetery Site Locations in Indiana (Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Historic Preservation and Archaeology, 1:5,000, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — IDNR documentation states - “This dataset contains locations of cemetery sites in Indiana, regardless of age, number of graves, or size of the cemetery. Is it not...

  15. Equipartition gamma-ray blazars and the location of the gamma-ray emission site in 3C 279

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dermer, Charles D. [Code 7653, Space Science Division, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Cerruti, Matteo [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Lott, Benoit [Centre d' Études Nucléaires Bordeaux Gradignan, Université de Bordeaux, CNRS/IN2P3, UMR 5797, F-33175 Gradignan (France); Boisson, Catherine; Zech, Andreas, E-mail: charles.dermer@nrl.navy.mil, E-mail: matteo.cerruti@cfa.harvard.edu [Laboratoire Univers et THeories (LUTH), Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 5 Place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon Cedex (France)

    2014-02-20

    Blazar spectral models generally have numerous unconstrained parameters, leading to ambiguous values for physical properties like Doppler factor δ{sub D} or fluid magnetic field B'. To help remedy this problem, a few modifications of the standard leptonic blazar jet scenario are considered. First, a log-parabola function for the electron distribution is used. Second, analytic expressions relating energy loss and kinematics to blazar luminosity and variability, written in terms of equipartition parameters, imply δ{sub D}, B', and the peak electron Lorentz factor γ{sub pk}{sup ′}. The external radiation field in a blazar is approximated by Lyα radiation from the broad-line region (BLR) and ≈0.1 eV infrared radiation from a dusty torus. When used to model 3C 279 spectral energy distributions from 2008 and 2009 reported by Hayashida et al., we derive δ{sub D} ∼ 20-30, B' ∼ few G, and total (IR + BLR) external radiation field energy densities u ∼ 10{sup –2}-10{sup –3} erg cm{sup –3}, implying an origin of the γ-ray emission site in 3C 279 at the outer edges of the BLR. This is consistent with the γ-ray emission site being located at a distance R ≲ Γ{sup 2} ct {sub var} ∼ 0.1(Γ/30){sup 2}(t {sub var}/10{sup 4} s) pc from the black hole powering 3C 279's jets, where t {sub var} is the variability timescale of the radiation in the source frame, and at farther distances for narrow-jet and magnetic-reconnection models. Excess ≳ 5 GeV γ-ray emission observed with Fermi LAT from 3C 279 challenges the model, opening the possibility of a second leptonic component or a hadronic origin of the emission. For low hadronic content, absolute jet powers of ≈10% of the Eddington luminosity are calculated.

  16. Scenarios of radiological impacts in the long-term safety analysis of radioactive waste disposal at the Vector Site located in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rybalka, N.; Mykolaichuk, O. [State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Alekseeva, Z.; Kondratiev, S.; Nikolaev, E. [State Scientific and Technical Center for Nuclear and Radiation Safety, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2013-07-01

    In Ukraine, at the Vector site in the Chernobyl exclusion zone, it is planned to dispose of large amounts of radioactive wastes, including those of Chernobyl origin, containing transuranium elements. The paper analyzes the main possible scenarios of radiological impacts of the Vector site for a long-term period after expiration of its active administrative control taking into account location of the Vector site in the exclusion zone. In the paper, assessment of total activities that can be disposed of on site is demonstrated, based on non-exceeding of admissible radiological impacts. (orig.)

  17. Inlet effect induced ''upstream'' critical heat flux in smooth tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitto, J.B. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    An unusual form of ''upstream'' critical heat flux (CHF) has been observed and directly linked to the inlet flow pattern during an experimental study of high pressure (17 - 20 MPa) water flowing through a vertical 38.1 mm ID smooth bore tube with uniform axial and nonuniform circumferential heating. These upstream CHF data were characterized by temperature excursions which initially occurred at a relatively fixed axial location in the middle of the test section while the outlet and inlet heated lengths experienced no change. A rifled tube inlet flow conditioner could be substituted for a smooth tube section to generate the desired swirling inlet flow pattern. The upstream CHF data were found to match data from a uniformly heated smooth bore tube when the comparison was made using the peak local heat flux. The mechanism proposed to account for the upstream CHF observations involves the destructive interference between the decaying swirl flow and the secondary circumferential liquid flow field resulting from the one-sided heating

  18. Identification and characterization of a cluster of transcription start sites located in the E6 ORF of human papillomavirus type 16

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstierne, Maiken W; Vinther, Jeppe; Hansen, Christina N

    2003-01-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) is the prototype strain among the malignant types of HPV in the western world. The main promoter, P97, located in front of the E6 ORF, has been shown to control expression of the oncogenes E6 and E7. These oncogenes are expressed continuously in HPV-16......-transformed cells. In contrast to malignant HPV types, non-malignant HPV types have separate promoters driving the expression of E6 and E7. Experiments have shown that the translation of E7 is more efficient from monocistronic than bicistronic transcripts encoding both E6 and E7. Here, identification...... of a cluster of transcription start sites located in the E6 ORF of HPV-16 is presented. Transcripts from this region contain the E7 ORF as the first reading frame. The cluster consists of multiple transcription start sites located around nt 441. Additional transcription start sites were identified in a cluster...

  19. An archaeological predictive model for locating rock shelter sites in Hesse Germany) that contain both Final Palaeolithic archaeology and Laacher See tephra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Florian Rudolf; Hoggard, Christian Steven; Zernack, Anke Verena

    of foragers and the Late Glacial environment there. In contrast, in the medial zone in Hesse only a small number of surface scatters of lithic artefacts are known. No Late Glacial sites, particularly not rock shelter and cave locations, have been excavated in this region. Yet, it is precisely such locations...... of human impacts following the eruption, a dataset of c. 800 rock shelter locations throughout the state of Hesse was used to generate an archaeological predictive model (APM). The database was compiled in the early 1990 for the purpose of discovering new and well-stratified sites (Hofbauer, 1995......). In the project presented here, a landscape-archaeological approach in GIS was employed to estimate the correspondence of the local topography of rock shelter features with the topographic and cultural framework of known Late Palaeolithic sites. Typical parameters like rock shelter orientation and distance...

  20. Evaluation of geochemical properties used in area-to-location screening for a nuclear waste repository at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purson, J.D.

    1983-03-01

    The area-to-location screening of a potential site for a nuclear waste repository is dependent on geologic compatibility. Specifically, the geochemical properties of candidate locations are significant in the overall site evaluation. This report describes three geochemical factors or attributes and their application to an area-to-location screening of the southwestern quadrant of the Nevada Test Site and contiguous areas. These are only 3 of 31 attributes examined in the screening process. Geochemical and rock media considerations relevant to site screening include: (1) retardation by hydraulics - a study of ground-water movement through fractures vs a permeable matrix; (2) thermal stability of minerals - a measurement of undesirable mineral assemblages in the rock; and (3) retardation by sorption - an evaluation of the total sorptive capacity at a location, based on stratigraphy and lithology. Twelve potential host rocks situated in 20 locations are examined; 2 of these have consistently fewer favorable characteristics, and 6 others have generally fewer favorable characteristics than the 4 remaining rock units. The four units that appear most favorable by geochemical measures are the tuffaceous beds of Calico Hills, granite intrusives, the densely welded Topopah Spring tuff, and the Crater Flat Tuff at Yucca Mountain

  1. Are Business-Oriented Social Networking Web Sites Useful Resources for Locating Passive Jobseekers? Results of a Recent Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKay, Sam

    2009-01-01

    The assumption that members of business-oriented social networking Web sites are passive jobseekers has never been validated. The purpose of this study is to examine the accuracy of this assumption. The study concludes that this claim is questionable and that the majority of members registered at one major site, and possibly others, are currently…

  2. On the location, strength and accessibility of Brønsted acid sites in hierarchical ZSM-5 particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzoulaki, Despina; Jentys, Andreas; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Microporous and mesoporous (hierarchical) ZSM-5 samples, prepared by desilication, dealumination and templating with carbon nanoparticles have been characterized by adsorbing benzene, cyclohexane and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (mesitylene) to probe the location, the strength and the accessibility...

  3. rs2735383, located at a microRNA binding site in the 3'UTR of NBS1, is not associated with breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jingjing; Lončar, Ivona; Collée, J Margriet

    2016-01-01

    NBS1, also known as NBN, plays an important role in maintaining genomic stability. Interestingly, rs2735383 G > C, located in a microRNA binding site in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of NBS1, was shown to be associated with increased susceptibility to lung and colorectal cancer. However, the r...

  4. Technical and Economic Comparison MOB location versus Bergermeer Drilling Site. Justification of the Financial section in the Environmental Impact Report (MER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekker, W.; Azeem Khan, F.

    2009-09-01

    The Environmental Impact Report for the gas storage location Bergermeer has selected the MOB area (mobilization complex or storage site of the Dutch Ministry of Defense) in Bergen as the most environment-friendly alternative (MMA) for the well area. TAQA asked SGS to elaborate the technical and financial aspects of the MMA alternative and to compare them to the preferred alternative. [nl

  5. NIMBY, CLAMP, and the location of new nuclear-related facilities: U.S. national and 11 site-specific surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Michael R

    2009-09-01

    Public and political opposition have made finding locations for new nuclear power plants, waste management, and nuclear research and development facilities a challenge for the U.S. government and the nuclear industry. U.S. government-owned properties that already have nuclear-related activities and commercial nuclear power generating stations are logical locations. Several studies and utility applications to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission suggest that concentrating locations at major plants (CLAMP) has become an implicit siting policy. We surveyed 2,101 people who lived within 50 miles of 11 existing major nuclear sites and 600 who lived elsewhere in the United States. Thirty-four percent favored CLAMP for new nuclear power plants, 52% for waste management facilities, and 50% for new nuclear laboratories. College educated, relatively affluent male whites were the strongest CLAMP supporters. They disproportionately trusted those responsible for the facilities and were not worried about existing nuclear facilities or other local environmental issues. Notably, they were concerned about continuing coal use. Not surprisingly, CLAMP proponents tended to be familiar with their existing local nuclear site. In short, likely CLAMP sites have a large and politically powerful core group to support a CLAMP policy. The challenge to proponents of nuclear technologies will be to sustain this support and expand the base among those who clearly are less connected and receptive to new nearby sites.

  6. Correlation between particle multiplicity and location on virion RNA of the assembly initiation site for viruses of the tobacco mosaic virus group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, M; Meshi, T; Okada, Y; Otsuki, Y; Takebe, I

    1981-07-01

    The initiation site for reconstitution on genome RNA was determined by electron microscopic serology for a watermelon strain of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV-W), which is chemically and serologically related to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). The initiation site was located at the same position as that of the cowpea strain, a virus that produces short rods of encapsidated subgenomic messenger RNA for the coat protein (a two-component TMV), being about 320 nucleotides away from the 3' terminus, and hence within the coat protein cistron. Although CGMMV-W was until now believed to be a single-component TMV, the location of the initiation site indicated the presence of short rods containing coat protein messenger RNA in CGMMV-W-infected tissue, as in the case for the cowpea strain. We found such short rods in CGMMV-W-infected tissue. The results confirmed our previous hypothesis that the site of the initiation region for reconstitution determines the rod multiplicity of TMV. The finding of the second two-component TMV, CGMMV, indicates that the cowpea strain of TMV is not unique in being a two-component virus and that the location of the assembly initiation site on the genome RNA can be a criterion for grouping of viruses.

  7. Final environmental impact statement for the Nevada Test Site and off-site locations in the state of Nevada: Mitigation action plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    The DOE Notice of Availability for this environmental impact statement was published in the Federal Register on Friday, October 18, 1996 (61 FR 54437). The final environmental impact statement identifies potential adverse effects resulting from the four use alternatives evaluated and discusses measures that DOE considered for the mitigation of these potential adverse effects. The Secretary of Energy signed the Record of Decision on the management and operation of the Nevada Test Site and other DOE sites in the state of Nevada on December 9, 1996. These decisions will result in the continuation of the multipurpose, multi-program use of the Nevada Test Site, under which DOE will pursue a further diversification of interagency, private industry, and public-education uses while meeting its Defense Program, Waste Management, and Environmental Restoration mission requirements at the Nevada Test Site and other Nevada sites, including the Tonopah Test Range, the Project Shoal Site, the Central Nevada Test Area, and on the Nellis Air Force Range Complex. The Record of Decision also identifies specific mitigation actions beyond the routine day-to-day physical and administrative controls needed for implementation of the decisions. These specific mitigation actions are focused on the transportation of waste and on groundwater availability. This Mitigation Action Plan elaborates on these mitigation commitments

  8. Three-year summary report of biological monitoring at the Southwest Ocean dredged-material disposal site and additional locations off Grays Harbor, Washington, 1990--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antrim, L.D.; Shreffler, D.K.; Pearson, W.H.; Cullinan, V.I. [Battelle Marine Research Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1992-12-01

    The Grays Harbor Navigation Improvement Project was initiated to improve navigation by widening and deepening the federal channel at Grays Harbor. Dredged-material disposal sites were selected after an extensive review process that included inter-agency agreements, biological surveys, other laboratory and field studies, and preparation of environmental impact statements The Southwest Site, was designated to receive materials dredged during annual maintenance dredging as well as the initial construction phase of the project. The Southwest Site was located, and the disposal operations designed, primarily to avoid impacts to Dungeness crab. The Final Environmental Impact Statement Supplement for the project incorporated a Site Monitoring Plan in which a tiered approach to disposal site monitoring was recommended. Under Tier I of the Site Monitoring Plan, Dungeness crab densities are monitored to confirm that large aggregations of newly settled Dungeness crab have not moved onto the Southwest Site. Tier 2 entails an increased sampling effort to determine whether a change in disposal operations is needed. Four epibenthic surveys using beam trawls were conducted in 1990, 1991, and 1992 at the Southwest Site and North Reference area, where high crab concentrations were found in the spring of 1985. Survey results during these three years prompted no Tier 2 activities. Epibenthic surveys were also conducted at two nearshore sites where construction of sediment berms has been proposed. This work is summarized in an appendix to this report.

  9. Bridging the gap between tribal risk perceptions and scientific decision-making for uranium legacy sites located in Native American communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, C.; Waugh, W.; Glenn, E.; Chief, K.

    2017-12-01

    There are approximately 15,000 abandoned uranium mines (AUM) in the western United States, of which 500 AUMs are located in the Colorado Plateau Four-Corners region. Uranium mill tailings, referred to as legacy waste, compromise the largest volume of any category of radioactive waste in the nation. Today, the Department of Energy Legacy Management is responsible for long-term stewardship and maintenance of inactive uranium processing sites that have been remediated to prevent further migration and exposure of tailings to the environment and surrounding communities. In collaboration with the DOE-LM, I am investigating the impact of climate change and community adaptation on the long-term performance of disposal cell covers for uranium mill tailings located in Native American communities, as well as how these communities have adapted to and perceive these areas. I am interested in how abiotic engineered cell covers may be candidate sites for future conversion to vegetated evapotranspirative caps for arid to semi-arid climates. The objectives are to: 1) assess above-ground tissue of plants encroaching engineered cell covers for concentrations of uranium, radium, selenium, molybdenum, thorium, arsenic, lead, and manganese and compare them to control sites; 2) determine if above-cell plant tissue is accumulating to toxic levels that may create an exposure pathway, 3) identify climate scenarios for site locations and determine how short-and long-scale climate projections will influence spatial and temporal plant distribution for specific woody species; and 4) evaluate the risk perceptions of Hopi villages located five miles downstream of one site location. To date, risk perception and stakeholder outreach to the Hopi communities has been absent. This study will help inform how land use, water use, and sustenance practices may contribute to environmental health disparities for one of the few tribes that has maintained physical continuity within their ancestral homeland.

  10. A GIS based screening tool for locating and ranking of suitable stormwater harvesting sites in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamdar, P M; Cook, S; Sharma, A K; Corby, N; O'Connor, J; Perera, B J C

    2013-10-15

    There is the need to re-configure current urban water systems to achieve the objective of sustainable water sensitive cities. Stormwater represents a valuable alternative urban water source to reduce pressure on fresh water resources, and to mitigate the environmental impact of urban stormwater runoff. The selection of suitable urban stormwater harvesting sites is generally based on the judgement of water planners, who are faced with the challenge of considering multiple technical and socio-economic factors that influence the site suitability. To address this challenge, the present study developed a robust GIS based screening methodology for identifying potentially suitable stormwater harvesting sites in urban areas as a first pass for then more detailed investigation. The study initially evaluated suitability based on the match between harvestable runoff and demand through a concept of accumulated catchments. Drainage outlets of these accumulated catchments were considered as potential stormwater harvesting sites. These sites were screened and ranked under screening parameters namely demand, ratio of runoff to demand and weighted demand distance. The methodology described in this paper was successfully applied to a case study in Melbourne, Australia in collaboration with the local water utility. The methodology was found to be effective in supporting the selection of priority sites for stormwater harvesting schemes, as it provided the basis to identify, short-list and rank sites for further detailed investigation. The rapid identification of suitable sites for stormwater harvesting can assist planners in prioritising schemes in areas that will have the most impact on reducing potable water demand. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Random Tagging Genotyping by Sequencing (rtGBS, an Unbiased Approach to Locate Restriction Enzyme Sites across the Target Genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Hilario

    Full Text Available Genotyping by sequencing (GBS is a restriction enzyme based targeted approach developed to reduce the genome complexity and discover genetic markers when a priori sequence information is unavailable. Sufficient coverage at each locus is essential to distinguish heterozygous from homozygous sites accurately. The number of GBS samples able to be pooled in one sequencing lane is limited by the number of restriction sites present in the genome and the read depth required at each site per sample for accurate calling of single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Loci bias was observed using a slight modification of the Elshire et al.some restriction enzyme sites were represented in higher proportions while others were poorly represented or absent. This bias could be due to the quality of genomic DNA, the endonuclease and ligase reaction efficiency, the distance between restriction sites, the preferential amplification of small library restriction fragments, or bias towards cluster formation of small amplicons during the sequencing process. To overcome these issues, we have developed a GBS method based on randomly tagging genomic DNA (rtGBS. By randomly landing on the genome, we can, with less bias, find restriction sites that are far apart, and undetected by the standard GBS (stdGBS method. The study comprises two types of biological replicates: six different kiwifruit plants and two independent DNA extractions per plant; and three types of technical replicates: four samples of each DNA extraction, stdGBS vs. rtGBS methods, and two independent library amplifications, each sequenced in separate lanes. A statistically significant unbiased distribution of restriction fragment size by rtGBS showed that this method targeted 49% (39,145 of BamH I sites shared with the reference genome, compared to only 14% (11,513 by stdGBS.

  12. Final environmental impact statement for the Nevada Test Site and off-site locations in the State of Nevada. Volume 1, Appendices A-F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This sitewide EIS evaluates the potential environmental impacts of four possible land-use alternatives being considered for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the Tonopah Test Range, and the formerly operated DOE sites in the state of Nevada: the Project Shoal Area, the Central Nevada Test Area, and portions of the Nellis Air Force Range Complex. Three additional sites in Nevada-Eldorado Valley, Dry Lake Valley, and Coyote Spring Valley-are evaluated for collocation of solar energy production facilities. The four alternatives include Continue Current Operations (No Action, continue to operate at the level maintained for the past 3 to 5 years); Discontinue Operations 1 (discontinue operations and interagency programs); Expanded Use (increased use of NTS and its resources to support defense and nondefense programs); and Alternate Use of Withdrawn Lands (discontinue all defense-related activities at NTS; continue waste management operations in support of NTS environmental restoration efforts; expand nondefense research). Environmental impacts were assessed for each alternative by analyzing, to the extent possible, the discrete and cumulative environmental impacts associated with Defense Waste Management, Environmental Restoration, Nondefense Research and Development, and Work for Others Programs. A framework for a Resource Management Plan is included as Volume 2 of this EIS and represents the development of an ecosystem based planning process closely integrated with the National Environmental Policy Act process. This EIS, among other things, analyzed the impacts of transportation of low level waste, and site characterization activities related to the Yucca Mountain Project but did not analyze the suitability of the site as a repository. This EIS does not analyze the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site as a repository as this is an action beyond the scope of the EIS. Volume 3 of this EIS contains the public comments and the responses to the comments

  13. Final environmental impact statement for the Nevada Test Site and off-site locations in the State of Nevada. Volume 1, Chapters 1-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This sitewide EIS evaluates the potential environmental impacts of four possible land-use alternatives being considered for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the Tonopah Test Range, and the formerly operated DOE sites in the state of Nevada: the Project Shoal Area, the Central Nevada Test Area, and portions of the Nellis Air Force Range Complex. Three additional sites in Nevada-Eldorado Valley, Dry Lake Valley, and Coyote Spring Valley-are evaluated for collocation of solar energy production facilities. The four alternatives include Continue Current Operations (No Action, continue to operate at the level maintained for the past 3 to 5 years); Discontinue Operations 1 (discontinue operations and interagency programs); Expanded Use (increased use of NTS and its resources to support defense and nondefense programs); and Alternate Use of Withdrawn Lands (discontinue all defense-related activities at NTS; continue waste management operations in support of NTS environmental restoration efforts; expand nondefense research). Environmental impacts were assessed for each alternative by analyzing, to the extent possible, the discrete and cumulative environmental impacts associated with Defense Waste Management, Environmental Restoration, Nondefense Research and Development, and Work for Others Programs. A framework for a Resource Management Plan is included as Volume 2 of this EIS and represents the development of an ecosystem based planning process closely integrated with the National Environmental Policy Act process. This EIS, among other things, analyzed the impacts of transportation of low level waste, and site characterization activities related to the Yucca Mountain Project but did not analyze the suitability of the site as a repository. This EIS does not analyze the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site as a repository as this is an action beyond the scope of the EIS. Volume 3 of this EIS contains the public comments and the responses to the comments

  14. Use of CFD modeling for estimating spatial representativeness of urban air pollution monitoring sites and suitability of their locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago, J. L.; Martin, F.

    2015-01-01

    A methodology to estimate the spatial representativeness of air pollution monitoring sites is applied to two urban districts. This methodology is based on high resolution maps of air pollution computed by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling tools. Traffic-emitted NO 2 dispersion is simulated for several meteorological conditions taking into account the effect of the buildings on air flow and pollutant dispersion and using a steady state CFD-RANS approach. From these results, maps of average pollutant concentrations for January -May 2011 are computed as a combination of the simulated scenarios. Two urban districts of Madrid City were simulated. Spatial representativeness areas for 32 different sites within the same district (including the site of the operative air quality stations) have been estimated by computing the portion of the domains with average NO 2 concentration differing less than a 20% of the concentration at each candidate monitoring site. New parameters such as the ratio AR between the representativeness area and the whole domain area or the representativeness index (IR) has been proposed to discuss and compare the representativeness areas. Significant differences between the spatial representativeness of the candidate sites of both studied districts have been found. The sites of the Escuelas Aguirre district have generally smaller representativeness areas than those of the Plaza de Castilla. More stations are needed to cover the Escuelas Aguirre district than for the Plaza de Castilla one. The operative air quality station of the Escuelas Aguirre district is less representative than the station of the Plaza de Castilla district. The cause of these differences seems to be the differences in urban structure of both districts prompting different ventilation. (Author)

  15. Use of CFD modeling for estimating spatial representativeness of urban air pollution monitoring sites and suitability of their locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago, J. L.; Martin, F.

    2015-07-01

    A methodology to estimate the spatial representativeness of air pollution monitoring sites is applied to two urban districts. This methodology is based on high resolution maps of air pollution computed by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling tools. Traffic-emitted NO{sub 2} dispersion is simulated for several meteorological conditions taking into account the effect of the buildings on air flow and pollutant dispersion and using a steady state CFD-RANS approach. From these results, maps of average pollutant concentrations for January -May 2011 are computed as a combination of the simulated scenarios. Two urban districts of Madrid City were simulated. Spatial representativeness areas for 32 different sites within the same district (including the site of the operative air quality stations) have been estimated by computing the portion of the domains with average NO{sub 2} concentration differing less than a 20% of the concentration at each candidate monitoring site. New parameters such as the ratio AR between the representativeness area and the whole domain area or the representativeness index (IR) has been proposed to discuss and compare the representativeness areas. Significant differences between the spatial representativeness of the candidate sites of both studied districts have been found. The sites of the Escuelas Aguirre district have generally smaller representativeness areas than those of the Plaza de Castilla. More stations are needed to cover the Escuelas Aguirre district than for the Plaza de Castilla one. The operative air quality station of the Escuelas Aguirre district is less representative than the station of the Plaza de Castilla district. The cause of these differences seems to be the differences in urban structure of both districts prompting different ventilation. (Author)

  16. Use of CFD modeling for estimating spatial representativeness of urban air pollution monitoring sites and suitability of their locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago, J.L.; Martin, F.

    2015-07-01

    A methodology to estimate the spatial representativeness of air pollution monitoring sites is applied to two urban districts. This methodology is based on high resolution maps of air pollution computed by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling tools. Traffic-emitted NO2 dispersion is simulated for several meteorological conditions taking into account the effect of the buildings on air flow and pollutant dispersion and using a steady state CFD-RANS approach. From these results, maps of average pollutant concentrations for January–May 2011 are computed as a combination of the simulated scenarios. Two urban districts of Madrid City were simulated. Spatial representativeness areas for 32 different sites within the same district (including the site of the operative air quality stations) have been estimated by computing the portion of the domains with average NO2 concentration differing less than a 20% of the concentration at each candidate monitoring site. New parameters such as the ratio AR between the representativeness area and the whole domain area or the representativeness index (IR) has been proposed to discuss and compare the representativeness areas. Significant differences between the spatial representativeness of the candidate sites of both studied districts have been found. The sites of the Escuelas Aguirre district have generally smaller representativeness areas than those of the Plaza de Castilla. More stations are needed to cover the Escuelas Aguirre district than for the Plaza de Castilla one. The operative air quality station of the Escuelas Aguirre district is less representative than the station of the Plaza de Castilla district. The cause of these differences seems to be the differences in urban structure of both districts prompting different ventilation. (Author)

  17. Genetically encoded photocrosslinkers locate the high-affinity binding site of antidepressant drugs in the human serotonin transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rannversson, Hafsteinn; Andersen, Jacob; Hall, Lena Sørensen

    2016-01-01

    with p-azido-L-phenylalanine (azF) at selected positions in hSERT to map the binding site of imipramine, a prototypical tricyclic antidepressant, and vortioxetine, a novel multimodal antidepressant. We find that the two antidepressants crosslink with azF incorporated at different positions within...

  18. Upstream waves simultaneously observed by ISEE and UKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, C.T.; Luhmann, J.G.; Elphic, R.C.; Southwood, D.J.; Smith, M.F.; Johnstone, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements obtained in the solar wind by ISEE-2 and the United Kingdom Subsatellite (UKS) have been examined for observations of upstream waves. These data reveal that the waves in the foreshock region are enhanced at all frequencies from at least 0.003 Hz to 0.5 Hz. The wave spectra generally have a spectral peak, but this peak is usually broad and the peak frequency depends on the position of the spacecraft. Generally, the spectra seen at the two spacecraft are most similar at high frequencies and least similar at low frequencies. The geometry of the interaction is displayed in the plane containing the magnetic field, the solar wind velocity, and the spacecraft location. However, this coordinate system does not order all the observed wave properties. It does not clearly explain or order the handedness of the waves, or their direction of propagation. It is clear that the upstream region is inherently three-dimensional. The position-dependent nature of the upstream waves indicates that comparisons between ground-based measurements and in-situ observations must be undertaken with some caution

  19. The location of uranium in source rocks and sites of secondary deposition at the Needle's Eye natural analogue site, Dumfries and Galloway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basham, I.R.; Hyslop, E.K.; Milodowski, A.E.; Pearce, J.M.

    1989-08-01

    The British Geological Survey has been conducting a co-ordinated research programme at the natural analogue site of Needle's Eye at Southwick on the Solway coast in SW Scotland. This study of a naturally radioactive geochemical system has been carried out with the aim of improving our confidence in using predictive models of radionuclide migration in the geosphere. This report describes results of integrated mineralogical techniques which have been applied to the study of both the 'source-term' and sites of secondary accumulation of uranium. Pitchblende in a polymetallic-carbonate breccia vein exposed in ancient sea-cliffs is the main source of labile uranium although other uranium-bearing minerals present in the granodiorite and hornfelsed siltstone host-rocks present probable ancillary leachable sites. In keeping with the complex chemistry of the primary sulphide-rich mineralization, a large variety of secondary U minerals has been recorded among which arsenates and hydrous silicates appear to predominate. Uranium transported in groundwaters draining the cliffs has accumulated in organic-rich estuarine/intertidal mudflat sediments of Quaternary age. Charged particle track registration techniques have demonstrated convincingly the effectiveness of humidified organic matter in retarding uranium transport and, coupled with scanning electron microscopy, have indicated an important role of living plants and bacteria in uranium uptake and concentration. (author)

  20. The location of uranium in source rocks and sites of secondary deposition at the Needle's Eye natural analogue site, Dumfries and Galloway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basham, I.R.; Hyslop, E.K.; Milodowski, A.E.; Pearce, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    The British Geological Survey has been conducting a coordinated research programme at the natural analogue site of Needle's Eye at Southwick on the Solway coast in south-west Scotland. This study of a naturally radioactive geochemical system has been carried out with the aim of improving our confidence in using predictive models of radionuclide migration in the geosphere. This report describes results of integrated mineralogical techniques which have been applied to the study of both the source-term and sites of secondary accumulation of uranium. Pitchblende in a polymetallic-carbonate breccia vein exposed in ancient sea-cliffs is the main source of labile uranium although other uranium-bearing minerals present in the granodiorite and hornfelsed siltstone host-rocks present probable ancillary leachable sites. In keeping with the complex chemistry of the primary sulphide-rich mineralization, a large variety of secondary U minerals has been recorded among which arsenates and hydrous silicates appear to predominate. Uranium transported in groundwaters draining the cliffs has accumulated in organic-rich estuarine/intertidal mudflat sediments of Quaternary age. Charged particle track registration techniques have demonstrated convincingly the effectiveness of humified organic matter in retarding uranium transport and, coupled with scanning electron microscopy, have indicated the important role of living plants and bacteria in uranium uptake and concentration. Computer codes used: CHEMVAL; CHEMTARD 5 figs.; 64 plates; 37 refs

  1. Evaluation of Potential Locations for Siting Small Modular Reactors near Federal Energy Clusters to Support Federal Clean Energy Goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belles, Randy J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Omitaomu, Olufemi A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) technology was applied to analyze federal energy demand across the contiguous US. Several federal energy clusters were previously identified, including Hampton Roads, Virginia, which was subsequently studied in detail. This study provides an analysis of three additional diverse federal energy clusters. The analysis shows that there are potential sites in various federal energy clusters that could be evaluated further for placement of an integral pressurized-water reactor (iPWR) to support meeting federal clean energy goals.

  2. Study of Site Effect at Seismic Station Located in Undermined Area of Karviná Region (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lednická, Markéta; Kaláb, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 5 (2016), s. 1715-1730 ISSN 1895-7455 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-07027P Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : Karviná region * site effect * SSR * HVSR * mining induced seismicity Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 0.968, year: 2016 http://agp.igf.edu.pl/files/64/5/Lednicka-Kalab.pdf

  3. Cyclic and dynamic response of a bridge pier model located at the Volvi European test site in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manos, G.C.; Kourtides, V.; Soulis, V.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents results of the measured and predicted response of a bridge pier model-structures which has been erected at the Volvi-Greece European Test Site for Earthquake Engineering. The disadvantage at the Test Site is that one is unable to produce significant in-situ levels of ground motion, when desired, as can be generated by an earthquake simulator. However, one is having the advantage at the Test Site of realistic foundations conditions, which are present for model structures that are built there and are supported on the soft soil deposits in-situ. The current extension of the in-situ facility includes the possibility of subjecting large-scale model structures to low to medium intensity man-made dynamic excitations. At this point in time the model structures that are built at the test site include: a) A 6-story Reinforced Concrete building model with masonry in fills; b) A single bridge pier model, built for the purposes of the currently running Euro-Risk program, which is supported by the European Union. The variation of the dynamic characteristics of the 6-story 1/3 3-D frame model structure was measured over a period of ten years. So far, only one earthquake of moderate intensity has subjected the 6-story model structure to seismic loads and excited the permanent instrumentation system. The main objective of the recent tests, which are partially presented in this paper and involve the bridge pier model, is to include influences on the dynamic structural response arising from the flexible foundation support conditions. The bridge pier model was initially studied at the laboratory under cyclic horizontal loads that were applied simultaneously with vertical forces. Thus, the cyclic post-elastic behavior of this bridge pier model was recorded at the laboratory. Next, a series of low intensity excitations were performed at the test site over a period of two years. During this period, the pier model structure was in various configurations that included

  4. More Than Just a Spawning Location: Examining Fine Scale Space Use of Two Estuarine Fish Species at a Spawning Aggregation Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross E. Boucek

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Many species that provide productive marine fisheries form spawning aggregations. Aggregations are predictable both in time and space and constitute nearly all of the reproductive activity for these species. For species that spend weeks to months on spawning aggregation sites, individuals may need to rely on a forage base at or near the spawning site to balance the high energetic cost associated with reproduction. Here, we ask: do spawning fish with protracted spawning seasons use spawning aggregation sites more or less than adjacent foraging habitats? To answer our research question, we tracked 30 Snook (Centropomus undecimalis and 29 Spotted Seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus at a spawning site during the 2007 spawning season in Tampa Bay (FL, U.S. using acoustic telemetry. We quantified the amount of time both males and females of both species spent in various habitats with network analyses. Surprisingly, results from network analyses revealed that receivers with the highest edge densities for Snook and Seatrout occurred within the seagrass habitat, not the location of spawning. Likewise, we found that both Snook and Seatrout during the spawning season were using the seagrass habitat near the spawning site as much, or more than the location where spawning occurs. Our results show that if protected areas are formed based on only where spawning occurs, the reproductive stock will not be protected from fishing. Further, our results suggest that spawning aggregation sites and areas surrounding used by fishes, may have multiple ecological functions (i.e., larval dispersal and energy provisioning that may need to be considered in conservation actions. Our case study further supports hypotheses put forth in previous work that suggest we must consider more than just spawning sites in protected area development and ecological conservation.

  5. Identification of putative regulatory motifs in the upstream regions of co-expressed functional groups of genes in Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi NV

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regulation of gene expression in Plasmodium falciparum (Pf remains poorly understood. While over half the genes are estimated to be regulated at the transcriptional level, few regulatory motifs and transcription regulators have been found. Results The study seeks to identify putative regulatory motifs in the upstream regions of 13 functional groups of genes expressed in the intraerythrocytic developmental cycle of Pf. Three motif-discovery programs were used for the purpose, and motifs were searched for only on the gene coding strand. Four motifs – the 'G-rich', the 'C-rich', the 'TGTG' and the 'CACA' motifs – were identified, and zero to all four of these occur in the 13 sets of upstream regions. The 'CACA motif' was absent in functional groups expressed during the ring to early trophozoite transition. For functional groups expressed in each transition, the motifs tended to be similar. Upstream motifs in some functional groups showed 'positional conservation' by occurring at similar positions relative to the translational start site (TLS; this increases their significance as regulatory motifs. In the ribonucleotide synthesis, mitochondrial, proteasome and organellar translation machinery genes, G-rich, C-rich, CACA and TGTG motifs, respectively, occur with striking positional conservation. In the organellar translation machinery group, G-rich motifs occur close to the TLS. The same motifs were sometimes identified for multiple functional groups; differences in location and abundance of the motifs appear to ensure different modes of action. Conclusion The identification of positionally conserved over-represented upstream motifs throws light on putative regulatory elements for transcription in Pf.

  6. Defective distal regulatory element at the 5' upstream of rat prolactin gene of steroid-nonresponsive GH-subclone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V; Wong, D T; Pasion, S G; Biswas, D K

    1987-12-08

    The prolactin-nonproducing (PRL-) GH cell strains (rat pituitary tumor cells in culture). GH12C1 and F1BGH12C1, do not respond to steroid hormones estradiol or hydrocortisone (HC). However, the stimulatory effect of estradiol and the inhibitory effect of hydrocortisone on prolactin synthesis can be demonstrated in the prolactin-producing GH cell strain, GH4C1. In this investigation we have examined the 5' end flanking region of rat prolactin (rat PRL) gene of steroid-responsive, GH4C1 cells to identify the positive and negative regulatory elements and to verify the status of these elements in steroid-nonresponsive F1BGH12C1 cells. Results presented in this report demonstrate that the basel level expression of the co-transferred Neo gene (neomycin phosphoribosyl transferase) is modulated by the distal upstream regulatory elements of rat PRL gene in response to steroid hormones. The expression of adjacent Neo gene is inhibited by dexamethasone and is stimulated by estradiol in transfectants carrying distal regulatory elements (SRE) of steroid-responsive cells. These responses are not observed in transfectants with the rat PRL upstream sequences derived from steroid-nonresponsive cells. The basal level expression of the host cell alpha-2 tubulin gene is not affected by dexamethasone. We report here the identification of the distal steroid regulatory element (SRE) located between 3.8 and 7.8 kb upstream of the transcription initiation site of rat PRL gene. Both the positive and the negative effects of steroid hormones can be identified within this upstream sequence. This distal SRE appears to be nonfunctional in steroid-nonresponsive cells. Though the proximal SRE is functional, the defect in the distal SRE makes the GH substrain nonresponsive to steroid hormones. These results suggest that both the proximal and the distal SREs are essential for the mediation of action of steroid hormones in GH cells.

  7. Inventories and upstream gasoline price dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, Gerard H.

    This paper sheds new light on the asymmetric dynamics in upstream U.S. gasoline prices. The model is based on Pindyck's inventory model of commodity price dynamics. We show that asymmetry in gasoline price dynamics is caused by changes in the net marginal convenience yield: higher costs of marketing

  8. Russian upstream joint ventures logging progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Occidental Petroleum Corp. has begun exporting oil from Russia as part of an enhanced recovery joint venture in western Siberia. Oxy holds a 50% interest in the joint venture company, Vanyoganneft, and will market the oil. In other activity, two Canadian companies are marking progress with Russian upstream joint ventures

  9. Compilation and comparison of test-hole location surveys in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, M.M.

    1989-02-01

    Between 1976 and 1988, many surveys were performed related to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and its geologic and hydrologic test holes, which are part of the hydrogeologic-characterization program. Among these surveys were two First-Order, Class I vertical surveys, a satellite survey, and a number of township-range surveys. An overview of the basic function, history, and methodology of each survey type is provided in this report along with a review and comparison of the two major test-hole surveys. Elevation and location data for 96 test holes and 4 shafts are also included. The comparison of the satellite survey to the township-range surveys showed that the latter have the following advantages: their data are more complete; their elevation data are more accurate; and their techniques can be used for surveying new wells, keeping the data set consistent. Therefore, the final township-range surveys were selected as the best source of elevation and location data to use in the WIPP hydrology program. 17 refs., 5 figs., 10 tabs

  10. Upstream passage, spawning, and stock identification of fall chinook in the Snake River, 1992 and 1993. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankenship, H.L.; Mendel, G.W.

    1997-05-01

    This final report of the 3-year study summarizes activities and results for 1993. Study objectives were to: (1) determine the source of losses (or accounting errors) for adult chinook salmon between Ice Harbor Dam (IHR) and Lower Granite Dam (LGR), and upstream of LGR in the Snake River; (2) identify spawning locations upstream of LGR for calibration of aerial redd surveys, redd habitat mapping, carcass recovery for genetic stock profile analysis, and correction of estimated adult/redd ratios; and (3) estimate passage and migration times at Snake River. 200 fall chinook salmon were radio tagged and tracked with aerial, fixed-site, and ground mobile tracking. Fish were released upstream of IHR at Charbonneau Park (CHAR). 190 of the fish were tracked or relocated away from CHAR. 59 fish descended to below IHR without crossing Lower Monumental Dam (LMO). Another 128 salmon passed upstream of LMO without falling back at IHR. Only 80 salmon passed Little Goose Dam (LGO) without falling back at a downstream dam; 66 of these fish passed LGR. Many fish that fell back reascended the dams. A total of 72 salmon released at CHAR passed upstream of LGR, including fish that had fallen back and reascended a dam. Over 80 percent of the salmon that entered Lyons Ferry Hatchery each year had reached LGO before descending to the hatchery. Extensive wandering was documented between LMO and upstream of LGR before salmon entered Lyons Ferry Hatchery or the Tucannon River. In 1993, 41 salmon were found to be of hatchery origin when recovered. These fish entered Lyons Ferry Hatchery with similar movements to unmarked salmon. Each year a few salmon have remained near the hatchery without entering, which suggests the hatchery may have inadequate attraction flows. Fall chinook passed lower Snake River dams in 2-5 days each on average. Median travel times through LMO and LGO were 1.0-1.3 days each, which was slower than for spring chinook or steelhead in 1993. 5 refs., 21 figs., 20 tabs

  11. POSTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATIONS OF P53: UPSTREAM SIGNALING PATHWAYS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDERSON,C.W.APPELLA,E.

    2003-10-23

    The p53 tumor suppressor is a tetrameric transcription factor that is posttranslational modified at >20 different sites by phosphorylation, acetylation, or sumoylation in response to various cellular stress conditions. Specific posttranslational modifications, or groups of modifications, that result from the activation of different stress-induced signaling pathways are thought to modulate p53 activity to regulate cell fate by inducing cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, or cellular senescence. Here we review recent progress in characterizing the upstream signaling pathways whose activation in response to various genotoxic and non-genotoxic stresses result in p53 posttranslational modifications.

  12. Site selection - location of the repository for spent nuclear fuel; Platsval - lokalisering av slutfoervaret foer anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    This document describes the localization work and SKB's choice of site for the repository. Furthermore, SKB's basis and rationale for the decisions taken during the work are reported. The document is Appendix PV of applications under the Nuclear Activities Act and the Environmental Code to both build and operate an encapsulation plant adjacent to the central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel in Oskarshamn, and to construct and operate a disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark in Oesthammar municipality

  13. Using the Multi-Criteria AHP for the Optimal Selection of Site Location and Wastewater Collection System The Case Study of Varzeghan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan talebi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the use of multi-criteria decision making in waste management and selection of the site location and proper wastewater collection and processing system in Varzeqan Town. Moreover, the effect of the decision-making method employed on ranking the final alternatives will be evaluated. Different factors are involved in the selection of wastewater treatment construction sites. These factors, in turn, not only depend on the special location and time the decision is made but also have their own weights in the final decision. In this study, the environmental conditions in the study area are initially investigated to select one site from among five different alternatives proposed for the construction of the facility using the AHP method. Also, the AHP method is used to evaluate and select the suitable collection and treatment method from among the four non-conventional options including Septic Tank Effluent Gravity, Septic Tank Effluent Pressure, Vacuum Sewerage System, and Simplified Sewerage for this region based on the special geographical and geotechnical conditions. The results indicate that the barren lands between Varzeghan Town and Dizaj Safar Ali Village are the best site for constructing the treatment facility and that the simplified sewarge system is the best collection system for the region.

  14. BanII dimorphic site located in the third intron of the human apolipoprotein AI (APOA1) gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, R T; Kresnak, M T; Frossard, P M

    1988-02-11

    A 0.7kb fragment generated by AvaII digestion of pBL13AI, a 0.965kb full-length human apolipoprotein AI cDNA was cloned into the EcoRI site of pBR322. The apoAI cDNA was isolated from a lambdagt10 human fetal liver cDNA library. BanII (GPuGCPyC) (International Biotechnologies, Inc.) identifies two invariant bands at 1122bp and 417bp, and a single two-allele polymorphism with bands at either 274bp or 452bp. The human apolipoprotein AI-CIII-AIV gene complex has been localized on the long arm of chromosome 11 by Southern blot analysis of human-chinese hamster cell hybrids. Co-dominant segregation has been observed in two families (13 individuals). The BanII restriction map was constructed from DNA sequence data of the human apoAI gene. The 452bp fragment is generated by the loss of a BanII dimorphic site in the third intron of the apoAI gene, between the 178bp and the 274bp fragments.

  15. Analysis of local symmetry and impurity location of Cu2+ ions doped C8H11KO8 single crystal through EPR technique for site I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheela, K. Juliet; Subbulakshmi, N.; Subramanian, P.

    2018-04-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies have been investigated on Cu2+ ion incorporated into the single crystals of potassium succinate-succinic acid (KSSA) at room temperature. Two magnetically in-equivalent Cu2+ sites in the lattice are identified, among them site I has been reported. The spin Hamiltonian parameters are determined with the fitting of spectra to rhombic symmetry crystalline field. The co-ordination of the Cu2+ ion in this molecule is a distorted dodecahedron. From the calculated gxx, gyy, gzz and Axx, Ayy, Azz and their directional cosines values, location of site I impurity ion Cu2+ could be identified as a substituitional one. Also the ground state wave function of the impurity ion was found to be d2z.

  16. The Western Borderlands of the Bulgar Ulus of the Golden Horde (based on materials of sites located on the left bank of the lower Sura river area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gribov Nikolay N.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research of medieval settlements Kurmysh-4 and Murzitsyy-1, located on the left bank of the Sura river in Nizhny Novgorod oblast. The sites were discovered and surveyed in 2007-2009. These are large unfortified settlements, founded in the border area between the Russian lands and the Bulgar Ulus in the 14th century. According to written sources, the Lower Sura river area belonged to the Nizhny Novgorod princes at the time. The sites reveal a number of urban features, such as a large area, multiethnic population, traces of varied craft and trade activities. The data obtained during the preliminary investigation of these sites make it possible to add new features regarding the specificity of populating the Western borderlands of the Bulgar Ulus in the Golden Horde period.

  17. NcoI dimorphic site located 8kb 3' to the human apolipoprotein AIV (APOA4) gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, R T; Malloy, M J; Kane, J P; Frossard, P M

    1988-02-11

    pA4C3 a 0.5kb fragment from the 3' end of the human apolipoprotein AIV cDNA was isolated from a human intestine cDNA library and cloned into the EcoRI site of the plasmid pUC18. NcoI (CCATGG) (New England Biolabs) detects a single two-allele polymorphism with a band at either 18.6kb or at 12.6kb. The human apolipoprotein AI-CIII-AIV gene complex has been assigned to the long arm of chromosome 11 by Southern blot analysis of human-Chinese hamster cell hybrids. Co-dominant segregation was demonstrated in one family of six individuals.

  18. Economic Valuation of Cultural Heritage: Application to a museum located in the Alto Douro Wine Region– World Heritage Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Fonseca

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cultural assets are increasingly being considered in the policies of social and economic development of territories due to spillover effects. However, since cultural assets are not transacted in the market, their use value should be calculated using indirect methods of evaluation or non market techniques. In this paper, the travel cost method was chosen to estimate the curve of demand in the Museum of Lamego which constitutes an important cultural item of the Alto Douro Wine Region, classified by UNESCO in 2001, as a world heritage site – a living and evolving cultural landscape. The results of the application of the Poisson model confirm the expected, that is, the probability of visiting the museum is positively influenced by the educational level, female gender and negatively by the travel cost.

  19. Mesothelioma incidence in the neighbourhood of an asbestos-cement plant located in a national priority contaminated site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Fazzo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An epidemic of asbestos-related disease is ongoing in most industrialized countries, mainly attributable to past occupational exposure but partly due to environmental exposure. In this perspective, the incidence of pleural mesothelioma close to a former asbestos-cement plant in a national contaminated site was estimated. METHODS: The census-tracts interested by atmospheric dispersion of facilities in the contaminated site were identified. Two subareas with different estimated environmental asbestos impact were distinguished. An ecological study at micro-geographic level was performed. The standardized incidence ratios (SIR for study area and the two subareas, in comparison with region and municipality were computed. The standardized incidence rate ratio (IRR between the two subareas was computed. RESULTS: Mesothelioma incidence in the study area was increased: 46 cases were observed with respect to 22.23 expected (SIR: 2.02. The increase was confirmed in analysis considering only the subjects without an occupationally exposure to asbestos: 19 cases among men (SIR = 2.48; 95% CI: 1.49-3.88; 11 case among women (SIR = 1.34; 95% CI: 0.67-2.40. The IRR between the two subareas is less than one in overall population considering all age-classes and of 3 fold (IRR = 3.14, 95% CI: 0.65-9.17 in the age-classes below 55 years. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate an increased incidence of pleural mesothelioma in the neighbourhood of asbestos-cement plant, and a possible etiological contribution of asbestos environmental exposure in detected risks.

  20. Temporal migration patterns between natal locations of ruby-throated hummingbirds (Archilochus colubris) and their Gulf Coast stopover site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenzal, Theodore J; Contina, Andrea J; Kelly, Jeffrey F; Moore, Frank R

    2018-01-01

    Autumn latitudinal migrations generally exhibit one of two different temporal migration patterns: type 1 where southern populations migrate south before northern populations, or type 2 where northern populations overtake southern populations en route . The ruby-throated hummingbird ( Archilochus colubris ) is a species with an expansive breeding range, which allows opportunities to examine variation in the timing of migration. Our objective was to determine a relationship between natal origin of ruby-throated hummingbirds and arrival at a Gulf coast stopover site; and if so, what factors, such as differences in body size across the range as well as the cost of migration, might drive such a pattern. To carry out our objectives, we captured hummingbirds at a coastal stopover site during autumn migration, at which time we collected feathers from juveniles for analysis of hydrogen stable isotopes. Using the hydrogen stable isotope gradient of precipitation across North America and published hydrogen isotope values of feathers from populations of breeding ruby-throated hummingbirds, we assigned migrants to probable natal latitudes. Our results confirm that individuals from across the range (30-50° N) stopover along the Gulf of Mexico and there is a positive relationship between arrival day and latitude, suggesting a type 1 migration pattern. We also found no relationship between fuel load (proxy for migration cost) or fat-free body mass (proxy for body size) and natal latitude. Our results, coupled with previous work on the spatial migration patterns of hummingbirds, show a type 1 chain migration pattern. While the mechanisms we tested do not seem to influence the evolution of migratory patterns, other factors such as resource availability may play a prominent role in the evolution of this migration system.

  1. Monitoring upstream sinkhole development by detailed sonar profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigbey, S. [Acres International Ltd., Niagara Falls, ON (Canada)

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes the development and use of a simple sonar system that has been used by engineers for routine monitoring of small sinkholes on the upstream face of a distressed earth dam. Improper construction of the dam led to the development of several sinkholes measuring 10 to 20 m in diameter upstream from the dam which is founded on deep alluvial sands and gravels. The dam has a central core of silt and leakage varies between 200 and 500 l/s, depending on the water level of the reservoir. The main issues with the upstream blanket are: improper fill placement due to the inability to dewater the area properly; omission of a filter material between the blanket and the alluvium foundation; thin placement of fill and runnelling of the blanket prior to impoundment; and, short upstream extent of the blanket. A downstream weighting toe of material was placed to address the seepage and piping that developed immediately following impounding. Other incidents continued over the years, such as downstream sinkholes, slumping of the crest and repairs about 12 years after construction. An inverter filter was also constructed to better control the seepage. Simple bathymetric surveys conducted by sounding the bottom of the reservoir from the ice surface each winter revealed the presence of several large sinkholes. Although infilling programs were conducted, sinkholes redeveloped after each program. The bathymetric surveys were found to be limited in accuracy and repeatability. Therefore, it was not possible to monitor small developments on a yearly basis. A 3-dimensional seepage model was developed to reconcile some of the unexplained piezometric patterns and to better understand the seepage patterns. However, this was also unsuccessful on its own. A trial sonar survey was then undertaken in 2002 by a Vancouver-based sonar company using an Imagenix profiling sonar head. It was successful in locating a small, previously unknown sinkhole measuring a few metres in diameter at

  2. Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Nevada Test Site and off-site locations in the State of Nevada. Volume 1, Appendix I: Transportation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report has been prepared to address local issues concerning current and potential operations at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), to document the results of the NTS transportation risk analysis, and to provide information and supporting documentation for the NTS Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Stakeholders have identified transportation, health, and safety issues as their paramount concern. In response to these concerns, the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) solicited and received input from the public through public meetings and in meetings with federal, state, local, and tribal organizations; and commissioned a transportation risk analysis. The stakeholders and DOE went on to establish the Transportation Protocol Working Group and Big Group to further discuss transportation issues associated with NTS transportation activities. This study used two different models: ADROIT for Defense Program activities and a RADTRAN-like model for waste management activities. Because of national security concerns associated with special nuclear material, the DOE has developed ADROIT to assist in defining the potential risk associated with Defense Program transportation activities. RADTRAN is a computer model which analyzes data without exposing the steps taken to reach the end result. So the public could see every step in the process, a RADTRAN-like model was used. This model is composed of a combination of spreadsheet and FORTRAN codes, that can be used by the stakeholder on a personal computer. This model is available to the public upon request. A detailed discussion of the results of the model are contained in this Appendix

  3. The politics of technology and site location: impact of state interventionism on an Indian public sector firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Subramanian

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Can an industrial organisation simultaneously fulfil economic and social functions, that is to say successfully reconcile its own priorities of optimal resource utilisation and productive efficiency with the larger objectives of social justice defined for it by public authorities? This is the central question this paper whose compass is restricted to the 1980s asks, and seeks to answer on the basis of a study of locational and technology choices at a big public sector manufacturing firm, Indian Telephone Industries. It will show how decisions pertaining both to the implantation of new state-owned factories and the sourcing of technology were shaped not by an economic rationale but a political one where employment generation took precedence over all other considerations. This was a consequence, on the one hand, of the paradigm of state-initiated industrial development embraced by India after Independence in 1947 and which held out the promise of future prosperity for the population at large; on the other, of the mode of governance prevailing in public enterprises where state interventionism rhymed with the complete loss of autonomy for managements. The paper concludes by pointing out that however justified the redistributive goals allocated to public enterprises from the standpoint of improving living standards, they proved highly detrimental to their efficient working as well as onerous for the exchequer.

  4. The thyroxine-binding site of human apolipoprotein-A-I: Location in the N-terminal domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benvenga, S.; Cahnmann, H.J.; Robbins, J.

    1991-01-01

    We tested the ability of nine monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against human apolipoprotein-A-I (apoA-I), the 28.3-kDa major apoprotein of high density lipoproteins (HDL), to inhibit its photoaffinity labeling with [125I]T4. Two forms were evaluated: isolated lipid-free apoA-I (Sigma or Calbiochem) and lipid-complexed apoA-I [HDL2, (density, 1.063-1.125 g/ml) and HDL3 (density, 1.125-1.210 g/ml)]. After labeling with 0.5 nM [125I]T4 in the presence of MAb or normal mouse IgG, the products were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subsequent densitometric quantitation of radioactivity associated with the 28.3-kDa band. Group I MAbs, namely those having epitopes in the N-terminal portion of apoA-I, include MAb 16 (epitopes at residues 1-16), 4 and 14 (residues 1-86), and 18 (residues 98-105); group II includes MAbs 7,10, 15, and 17 (epitopes at residues 87-148); group III includes MAb 9 (residues 149-243). All group I MAbs inhibited [125I]T4 binding to isolated apoA-I with this order of potency: MAb 16 greater than MAb 14 greater than MAb 4 greater than MAb 18. In the case of lipid-associated apoA-I, the pattern of hierarchy was variable, presumably related to the known markedly polydisperse nature of HDL, but a constant feature, in contrast to the case of isolated apoA-I, was that MAb 4 was more potent than MAb 14. Group II MAbs gave less than 3% inhibition in both isolated and lipid-complexed apoA-I. Group III MAb 9 either failed to inhibit or gave 18-27% inhibition (one preparation each of HDL2 and HDL3). We conclude that the T4 site of apoA-I is in the N-terminal domain of apoA-I, closer to the epitope for MAb 16 than to that for MAb 18, and that conformational changes occurring when apoA-I is associated with lipids in the HDL particle alter the spatial relationship between some epitopes and the T4 site

  5. NIMBY or not? Exploring the relevance of location and the politics of voiced opinions in renewable energy siting controversies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horst, Dan van der

    2007-01-01

    Local protests against renewable energy facilities have added fuel to the debate about the so-called NIMBY (not in my back yard) effect. This paper identifies six 'variables' that can hamper the comparison between different public perception studies, and offers two broad conclusions. On aggregate, proximity does have strong influence on public attitudes to proposed projects, but the nature, strength and spatial scale of this effect may vary according to local context and 'value' of the land. Residents of stigmatised places are more likely to welcome facilities that are relatively 'green', while people who derive a more positive sense of identity from particular rural landscapes are likely to resist such potential developments, especially if they also live there. Secondly, the fear of being branded a NIMBY, and the positive ethics associated with the notion of renewable are both likely to 'colour' the responses of many interviewees. These aspects need to be clarified and accounted for in analyses of elicited responses, both quantitative and qualitative, if we are to improve our understanding of the social construction of individual attitudes in siting conflicts

  6. Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Nevada Test Site and off-site locations in the State of Nevada. Volume 1, Part B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This EIS identifies the impacts of past, current, and potential programs of the DOE/NV. Potential programs are included in one or more of the four alternatives and fall into three basic levels: (1) current activities, (2) planned projects, and (3) proposed projects. Current activities are those that are presently part of the normal operations of the NTS, the Tonopah test Range, portions of the NAFR Complex, and other areas considered in this EIS, such as the Area 5 Radioactive Waste management Site. Planned projects are those that are within the 5-year planning cycle and are likely to be implemented, such as the Solar Enterprise Zone. Proposed projects are outside the 5-year planning window, but have undergone sufficient conceptual development to allow a reasonable assessment. The most reliable data are clearly derived from ongoing activities. Planned projects would present somewhat less reliable data. Data for proposed projects would be the least reliable, but were determined to be essential to a full and open evaluation and disclosure of the potential effects of the alternatives. To provide an adequate analysis, conservative assumptions and parameter values were used to evaluate potential impacts of the less-defined activities. Implementation of any of the alternatives could result in a permanent commitment of resources such as groundwater, soil, biota, minerals, surface area, and subsurface geology and would represent an irreversible and irretrievable commitment of such resources. In addition to the National Environmental Policy Act requirement to identify the irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources, it is also the intent of the DOE to identify these same resources within the meaning of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act

  7. Contribution of the Surface and Down-Hole Seismic Networks to the Location of Earthquakes at the Soultz-sous-Forêts Geothermal Site (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnaert, X.; Gaucher, E.; Kohl, T.; Achauer, U.

    2018-03-01

    Seismicity induced in geo-reservoirs can be a valuable observation to image fractured reservoirs, to characterize hydrological properties, or to mitigate seismic hazard. However, this requires accurate location of the seismicity, which is nowadays an important seismological task in reservoir engineering. The earthquake location (determination of the hypocentres) depends on the model used to represent the medium in which the seismic waves propagate and on the seismic monitoring network. In this work, location uncertainties and location inaccuracies are modeled to investigate the impact of several parameters on the determination of the hypocentres: the picking uncertainty, the numerical precision of picked arrival times, a velocity perturbation and the seismic network configuration. The method is applied to the geothermal site of Soultz-sous-Forêts, which is located in the Upper Rhine Graben (France) and which was subject to detailed scientific investigations. We focus on a massive water injection performed in the year 2000 to enhance the productivity of the well GPK2 in the granitic basement, at approximately 5 km depth, and which induced more than 7000 earthquakes recorded by down-hole and surface seismic networks. We compare the location errors obtained from the joint or the separate use of the down-hole and surface networks. Besides the quantification of location uncertainties caused by picking uncertainties, the impact of the numerical precision of the picked arrival times as provided in a reference catalogue is investigated. The velocity model is also modified to mimic possible effects of a massive water injection and to evaluate its impact on earthquake hypocentres. It is shown that the use of the down-hole network in addition to the surface network provides smaller location uncertainties but can also lead to larger inaccuracies. Hence, location uncertainties would not be well representative of the location errors and interpretation of the seismicity

  8. Examining differences in types and location of recruitment venues for young males and females from urban neighborhoods: findings from a multi-site HIV prevention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutuape, Kate S; Ziff, Mauri; Auerswald, Colette; Castillo, Marné; McFadden, Antionette; Ellen, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Finding and accessing members of youth subpopulations, such as young men who have sex with men (YMSM) of color or young females of color, for behavioral or disease surveillance or study recruitment, pose particular challenges. Venue-based sampling strategies--which hinge on where individuals congregate or "hang out" rather than where they live--appear to be effective alternatives. Methods used to identify venues focus on engaging members of social networks to learn where targeted populations congregate. However, it is not always clear if and how these methods differ according to gender, whether the youth accessed at a venue are actually from neighborhoods in which the venues are found, and whether the location of venues relative to neighborhoods of residence is different for young men and young women. This study illustrates the gender differences in venue type and venue location where eligible youth study participants from high-risk neighborhoods could be accessed for HIV research across 15 research sites (sites). The findings indicate that the study's method led to identifying venues where one quarter or more of the youth were eligible study participants and from the high-risk neighborhoods. Sites targeting young women of color had a higher proportion of eligible study participants who were also from the high-risk neighborhoods than sites targeting YMSM. Clubs were most commonly identified by sites targeting YMSM as recruitment venues, whereas neighborhood-based service or commercial centers were more common venues for young women of color. This study reveals how venue-based recruitment strategies can be tailored and resources maximized by understanding the key differences in the types of venues preferred by males and females and by recognizing that female-preferred venues are more likely to be closer to home.

  9. Evaluation of wind potential for an optimum choice of wind turbine generator on the sites of Lomé, Accra, and Cotonou located in the gulf of Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akim Adekunlé SALAMI

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the characterization and assessment of wind energy potential in annual and monthly levels of the sites of Lomé, Accra and Cotonou located in the Gulf of Guinea, and the optimal characteristics of wind turbines to be installed on these sites. Studies of characterization and the wind potential of these sites from the wind speed data collected over a period of thirteen years at a height of 10 meters above the ground, show an annual average speed of 3.52 m/s for Lomé, 3.99 m/s for Cotonou and 4.16 m/s for Accra. These studies also showed that a monthly average speed exceeding 4 m/s was observed on the sites of Cotonou and Accra during the months of February, March, April, July, August and September and during the months of July, August and September on the site of Lomé. After a series of simulation conducted using the software named PotEol that we have developed in Scilab, we have retained that the wind turbines rated speeds of ~8 to 9 m/s at the sites of Lomé and Cotonou and ~ 9 to 10 m/s on the site of Accra would be the most appropriate speeds for optimal exploitation of electric energy from wind farms at a height of 50 m above the ground. Article History: Received May 26th 2016; Received in revised form August 24th 2016; Accepted August 30th 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Salami, A.A., Ajavon, A.S.A , Kodjo, M.K. and Bédja, K. (2016 Evaluation of Wind Potential for an Optimum Choice of Wind Turbine Generator on the Sites of Lomé, Accra, and Cotonou Located in the Gulf of Guinea. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(3, 211-223. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.3.211-223

  10. Programmatic implications of implementing the relational algebraic capacitated location (RACL algorithm outcomes on the allocation of laboratory sites, test volumes, platform distribution and space requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseem Cassim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: CD4 testing in South Africa is based on an integrated tiered service delivery model that matches testing demand with capacity. The National Health Laboratory Service has predominantly implemented laboratory-based CD4 testing. Coverage gaps, over-/under-capacitation and optimal placement of point-of-care (POC testing sites need investigation. Objectives: We assessed the impact of relational algebraic capacitated location (RACL algorithm outcomes on the allocation of laboratory and POC testing sites. Methods: The RACL algorithm was developed to allocate laboratories and POC sites to ensure coverage using a set coverage approach for a defined travel time (T. The algorithm was repeated for three scenarios (A: T = 4; B: T = 3; C: T = 2 hours. Drive times for a representative sample of health facility clusters were used to approximate T. Outcomes included allocation of testing sites, Euclidian distances and test volumes. Additional analysis included platform distribution and space requirement assessment. Scenarios were reported as fusion table maps. Results: Scenario A would offer a fully-centralised approach with 15 CD4 laboratories without any POC testing. A significant increase in volumes would result in a four-fold increase at busier laboratories. CD4 laboratories would increase to 41 in scenario B and 61 in scenario C. POC testing would be offered at two sites in scenario B and 20 sites in scenario C. Conclusion: The RACL algorithm provides an objective methodology to address coverage gaps through the allocation of CD4 laboratories and POC sites for a given T. The algorithm outcomes need to be assessed in the context of local conditions.

  11. Biodiesel byproduct bioconversion to rhamnolipids: Upstream aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar-Bryam, Ana Maria; Lovaglio, Roberta Barros; Contiero, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on two important aspects of the upstream process: the appropriate use of crude glycerol as a low-cost carbon source, and strain selection. The effect of different crude glycerol concentrations on rhamnolipid biosynthesis by two Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains (wild type LBI and mutant LBI 2A1) was studied. Finally, the synthesized rhamnolipids were characterized by mass spectrometry. When both strains were compared, 50 g/L was the most favorable concentration for both, but P...

  12. Anatomy of top 100 upstream players

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burk, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    A brief review is given of a recent survey of the top one hundred upstream oil and gas companies which file financial data with the US Securities and Exchange Commission. The analysis indicates the increasing globalisation of the industry with exploration and development spending increasing dramatically outside the US. To survive, companies must operate as efficient low cost finders and producers of oil and gas and anticipate and meet changing market demands quickly. (UK)

  13. Interferon-induced transcription of a gene encoding a 15-kDA protein depends on an upstream enhancer element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, N.; Evans, B.; Levy, D.; Fahey, D.; Knight, E. Jr.; Darnell, J.E. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    A human gene encoding an interferon-induced 15-kDa protein has been isolated from a genomic library. The gene appears to be single-copy and is composed of two exons, the first of which contains the ATG translation initiation codon. In vitro nuclear run-on assays showed that the transcription rate of the gene is stimulated after interferon treatment. To analyze transcriptional regulatory sequences, the authors constructed recombinant plasmids for use in transient transfection assays of HeLa cells. Constructs containing 115 nucleotides 5' to the transcription initiation site were found to be fully inducible by interferon. Assays of deletion mutants identified a critical element for interferon induction located between -115 and -96, just upstream of the CCAAT box. Moreover, a DNA fragment including this region can confer interferon inducibility on a heterologous promoter (thymidine kinase) when cloned in either orientation upstream of the gene or downstream of the gene. These are properties characteristic of an enhancer element that is active only after treatment with interferon. This regulatory sequence may be shared by a group of interferon-induced genes, since a very similar sequence is present within the functional region near the RNA start site of another interferon-induced gene

  14. Integrating Geographical Information Systems, Fuzzy Logic and Analytical Hierarchy Process in Modelling Optimum Sites for Locating Water Reservoirs. A Case Study of the Debub District in Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney G. Tsiko

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to model water reservoir site selection for a real world application in the administrative district of Debub, Eritrea. This is a region were scarcity of water is a fundamental problem. Erratic rainfall, drought and unfavourable hydro-geological characteristics exacerbates the region’s water supply. Consequently, the population of Debub is facing severe water shortages and building reservoirs has been promoted as a possible solution to meet the future demand of water supply. This was the most powerful motivation to identify candidate sites for locating water reservoirs. A number of conflicting qualitative and quantitative criteria exist for evaluating alternative sites. Decisions regarding criteria are often accompanied by ambiguities and vagueness. This makes fuzzy logic a more natural approach to this kind of Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA problems. This paper proposes a combined two-stage MCDA methodology. The first stage involved utilizing the most simplistic type of data aggregation techniques known as Boolean Intersection or logical AND to identify areas restricted by environmental and hydrological constraints and therefore excluded from further study. The second stage involved integrating fuzzy logic with the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP to identify optimum and back-up candidate water reservoir sites in the area designated for further study.

  15. Gastrointestinal stromal tumours of stomach: Robot-assisted excision with the da Vinci Surgical System regardless of size and location site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furbetta, Niccolo; Palmeri, Matteo; Guadagni, Simone; Di Franco, Gregorio; Gianardi, Desirée; Latteri, Saverio; Marciano, Emanuele; Moglia, Andrea; Cuschieri, Alfred; Di Candio, Giulio; Mosca, Franco; Morelli, Luca

    2018-03-23

    The role of minimally invasive surgery of gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) of the stomach remains uncertain especially for large and/or difficult located tumours. We are hereby presenting a single-centre series of robot-assisted resections using the da Vinci Surgical System (Si or Xi). Data of patients undergoing robot-assisted treatment of gastric GIST were retrieved from the prospectively collected institutional database and a retrospective analysis was performed. Patients were stratified according to size and location of the tumour. Difficult cases (DCs) were considered for size if tumour was> 50 mm and/or for location if the tumour was Type II, III or IV sec. Privette/Al-Thani classification. Between May 2010 and February 2017, 12 consecutive patients underwent robot-assisted treatment of GIST at our institution. DCs were 10/12 cases (83.3%), of which 6/10 (50%) for location, 2/10 (25%) for size and 2/10 (25%) for both. The da Vinci Si was used in 8 patients, of which 6 (75%) were DC, and the da Vinci Xi in 4, all of which (100%) were DC. In all patients, excision was by wedge resection. All lesions had microscopically negative resection margins. There was no conversion to open surgery, no tumour ruptures or spillage and no intraoperative complications. Our experience suggests a positive role of the robot da Vinci in getting gastric GIST removal with a conservative approach, regardless of size and location site. Comparative studies with a greater number of patients are necessary for a more robust assessment.

  16. Meeting the challenge : capturing the upstream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogle, E.W.

    1998-01-01

    The challenge facing the exploration and production sector of the petroleum industry to capture and hold onto the upstream was the main focus of this paper. The exploration and production (E and P) business was described as being highly complex, characterized by constant change and increasing competition. Some of the dynamic changes which have occurred in the Western Canada Basin (WCB) during the last five years and how they relate to the international playing field were reviewed. Significant changes to the production ranking profile as a result of acquisitions, and basin reserve endowment and maturity are the two major factors affecting current and future dynamics of upstream WCB E and P activity. Competitive pressures, contractor relationships, infrastructure access and controls, environmental issues are some of the other factors. Taking these factors into account, Talisman Energy Inc. has used its growth in the WCB to leverage its international activities, diversifying to less mature, but proven hydrocarbon basins. The company's international exploration strategy is designed to be adaptive and flexible and is guided by focus on a limited number of core areas with proven source rock and existing production, achievement of a set production level within a five-year time frame, ensuring strong relationships with host governments and partners, and selecting areas where a multiple of opportunity types are available. In general, for any upstream company it is important to recognize that the more predictable traditional order has given way to a market-driven environment where the rules change almost daily, and success depends on the ability to adapt to change.14 figs

  17. DOWNSTREAM ECOCIDE FROM UPSTREAM WATER PIRACY

    OpenAIRE

    Miah Muhammad Adel

    2012-01-01

    Upstream India and downstream Bangladesh share more than 50 international rivers. India has set up water diversion constructions in more than 50% of these rivers, the largest one being on the Bangladeshâs northwest upon the Ganges River, puts Bangladeshâs Gangetic ecosystem at stake. In some border rivers, India has set up groins on her side of river banks. Also, Indian side pumps Bangladesh river water stealthily from border-rivers. Further, India is constructing another dam and reservoir up...

  18. Canada's upstream petroleum industry : 1997 perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    A review of the trends and activities in the upstream petroleum industry during 1996 were presented, emphasizing the significance of the industry' contribution to Canada's economy. Among the areas included were highlights of Canada's hydrocarbon reserves, conventional production, frontier production, and non-conventional (oil sands) production. New market opportunities and activities in the pipeline transportation sector were also discussed. Environmental issues including health and safety received due attention. In this regard, the industry's efforts to work with government and other stakeholders to ensure that requirements for land use are balanced with the need to protect wilderness and wildlife habitat, received special mention. 16 figs

  19. Energy flow and greenhouse gas emissions in organic and conventional sweet cherry orchards located in or close to Natura 2000 sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litskas, Vassilios D.; Mamolos, Andreas P.; Kalburtji, Kiriaki L.; Tsatsarelis, Constantinos A.; Kiose-Kampasakali, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    An energy analysis in orchards is useful to deciding best management strategies. The objective of this study was to evaluate, by selecting organic and conventional sweet cherry orchards located in/or close to Natura 2000 sites (a) the energy flow between the two farming systems and (b) the effect of farming system to gas emissions (CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O). Twenty farms [(2-conventional and 2-organic) x 5-locations] were selected during 2003-2004. Means averaged over all locations for insecticides and fungicides application, fuel, insecticides, fungicides, non-renewable energy inputs, energy shoot outputs, energy fruit outputs, energy shoot + fruit outputs, fruit production, shoot efficiency, fruit efficiency, shoot + fruit efficiency, non-renewable energy efficiency, gas emissions were higher in conventional than in organic orchards, while fertilizer application, harvesting, fertilizers, labor, total energy inputs, renewable energy inputs, intensity and non-renewable energy consumption were higher in organic orchards. Means averaged over two farming systems for fertilizer, insecticide and fungicide application were higher in GRL2 and GRL5. The means averaged over two systems for transportation had the highest value in GRL4 and the lowest in GRL5. Finally, means averaged over two farming systems for labor had the highest value in GRL2. Non-renewable energy inputs as percent of total inputs were 82.63 and 52.42% in conventional and organic sweet cherry orchards respectively. The results show that organic farming systems could reduce non-renewable energy inputs and gas emissions in an efficient way in areas related to Natura 2000 sites.

  20. Conserved epitope on several human vitamin K-dependent proteins: location of the antigenic site and influence of metal ions on antibody binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, W.R.; Messier, T.; Howard, P.R.; Amiral, J.; Meyer, D.; Mann, K.G.

    1988-01-01

    A murine monoclonal antibody (designated H-11) produced by injecting mice with purified human protein C was found to bind several human vitamin K-dependent proteins. Using a solid-phase competitive radioimmunoassay with antibody immobilized onto microtiter plates, binding of 125 I-labeled protein C to the antibody was inhibited by increasing amounts of protein C, prothrombin, and Factors X and VII over a concentration range of 1 x 10 -8 to 1 x 10 -6 M. Chemical treatment of prothrombin with a variety of agents did not destroy the antigenic site recognized by the antibody as measured by immunoblotting of prothrombin or prothrombin derivative immobilized onto nitrocellulose. Immunoblotting of purified vitamin K-dependent polypeptides with the monoclonal antibody following sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and electrophoretic transfer to nitrocellulose indicated that the antigenic site was found on the light chains of protein C and Factor X. The exact location of the antigenic determinant for antibody H-11 was established using synthetic peptides. Comparison of protein sequences of bovine and human vitamin K-dependent proteins suggests that the sequence Phe-Leu-Glu-Glu-Xaa-Arg/Lys is required for antibody binding. Increasing concentrations of Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , or Mn 2+ partially inhibited binding of 125 I-protein C to the antibody in a solid-phase assay system with half-maximal binding observed at divalent metal ion concentrations of 2, 4, and 0.6 mM, respectively. The antigenic site thus recognized by monoclonal antibody H-11 is located at the amino-terminal region in the highly conserved γ-carboxyglutamic acid-containing domains of several, but not all, vitamin K-dependent proteins

  1. Increased fluoroquinolone resistance with time in Escherichia coli from >17,000 patients at a large county hospital as a function of culture site, age, sex, and location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamill Richard J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli infections are common and often treated with fluoroquinolones. Fluoroquinolone resistance is of worldwide importance and is monitored by national and international surveillance networks. In this study, we analyzed the effects of time, culture site, and patient age, sex, and location on fluoroquinolone resistance in E. coli clinical isolates. Methods To understand how patient factors and time influenced fluoroquinolone resistance and to determine how well data from surveillance networks predict trends at Ben Taub General Hospital in Houston, TX, we used Perl to parse and MySQL to house data from antibiograms (n ≅ 21,000 for E. coli isolated between 1999 to 2004 using Chi Square, Bonferroni, and Multiple Linear Regression methods. Results Fluoroquinolone resistance (i increased with time; (ii exceeded national averages by 2- to 4-fold; (iii was higher in males than females, largely because of urinary isolates from male outpatients; (iv increased with patient age; (v was 3% in pediatric patients; (vi was higher in hospitalized patients than outpatients; (vii was higher in sputum samples, particularly from inpatients, than all other culture sites, including blood and urine, regardless of patient location; and (viii was lowest in genital isolates than all other culture sites. Additionally, the data suggest that, with regard to susceptibility or resistance by the Dade Behring MicroScan system, a single fluoroquinolone suffices as a "surrogate marker" for all of the fluoroquinolone tested. Conclusion Large surveillance programs often did not predict E. coli fluoroquinolone resistance trends at a large, urban hospital with a largely indigent, ethnically diverse patient population or its affiliated community clinics.

  2. Biodiesel byproduct bioconversion to rhamnolipids: Upstream aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Bryam, Ana Maria; Lovaglio, Roberta Barros; Contiero, Jonas

    2017-06-01

    This study focused on two important aspects of the upstream process: the appropriate use of crude glycerol as a low-cost carbon source, and strain selection. The effect of different crude glycerol concentrations on rhamnolipid biosynthesis by two Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains (wild type LBI and mutant LBI 2A1) was studied. Finally, the synthesized rhamnolipids were characterized by mass spectrometry. When both strains were compared, 50 g/L was the most favorable concentration for both, but P. aeruginosa LBI 2A1 showed an increase in rhamnolipid production (2.55 g/L) of 192% over wild type (1.3 g/L). The higher rhamnolipid production could be related to a possible mechanism developed after the mutation process at high antibiotic concentrations. Mass spectrometry confirmed the glycolipid nature of the produced biosurfactant, and the homologue composition showed a wide mixture of mono and di-rhamnolipids. These results show that high glycerol concentrations can inhibit microbial metabolism, due to osmotic stress, leading to a better understanding of glycerol metabolism towards its optimization in fermentation media. Since P. aeruginosa LBI 2A1 showed higher conversion yields than P. aeruginosa LBI, the use of a mutant strain associated with a low cost carbon source might improve biosurfactant biosynthesis, therefore yielding an important upstream improvement.

  3. Biodiesel byproduct bioconversion to rhamnolipids: Upstream aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Salazar-Bryam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on two important aspects of the upstream process: the appropriate use of crude glycerol as a low-cost carbon source, and strain selection. The effect of different crude glycerol concentrations on rhamnolipid biosynthesis by two Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains (wild type LBI and mutant LBI 2A1 was studied. Finally, the synthesized rhamnolipids were characterized by mass spectrometry. When both strains were compared, 50 g/L was the most favorable concentration for both, but P. aeruginosa LBI 2A1 showed an increase in rhamnolipid production (2.55 g/L of 192% over wild type (1.3 g/L. The higher rhamnolipid production could be related to a possible mechanism developed after the mutation process at high antibiotic concentrations. Mass spectrometry confirmed the glycolipid nature of the produced biosurfactant, and the homologue composition showed a wide mixture of mono and di-rhamnolipids. These results show that high glycerol concentrations can inhibit microbial metabolism, due to osmotic stress, leading to a better understanding of glycerol metabolism towards its optimization in fermentation media. Since P. aeruginosa LBI 2A1 showed higher conversion yields than P. aeruginosa LBI, the use of a mutant strain associated with a low cost carbon source might improve biosurfactant biosynthesis, therefore yielding an important upstream improvement. Keywords: Biotechnology, Microbiology

  4. Statistical handbook for Canada's upstream petroleum industry: '96 updates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Statistical Handbook of CAPP is an annual compilation of useful information about the Canadian petroleum and natural gas industry. It has been published since 1955, and is a key source of upstream petroleum statistics. It presents a historical summary of the petroleum industry''s progress and provides detailed statistical information on the production and consumption of petroleum, petroleum products, natural gas and natural gas liquids, imports and exports, land sales, pipelines, reserves, drilling and refinery activities, and prices in Canada. The information, mostly in tabular form, is based on the latest available data (generally up to and including 1996). For the first time in 1997, the Handbook is also made available in CD-ROM format (EXCEL 5.0). Plans are also underway to publish the Handbook on a secure site on the Internet

  5. Characterization of upstream sequences of the LIM2 gene that bind developmentally regulated and lens-specific proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HSU Heng; Robert L. CHURCH

    2004-01-01

    During lens development, lens epithelial cells differentiate into fiber cells. To date, four major lens fiber cell intrinsic membrane proteins (MIP) ranging in size from 70 kD to 19 kD have been characterized. The second most abundant lens fiber cell intrinsic membrane protein is MP19. This protein probably is involved with lens cell communication and relates with cataractogenesis. The aim of this research is to characterize upstream sequences of the MP19 (also called LIM2) gene that bind developmentally regulated and lens-specific proteins. We have used the gel mobility assays and corresponding competition experiments to identify and characterize cis elements within approximately 500 bases of LIM2 upstream sequences. Our studies locate the positions of some cis elements, including a "CA" repeat, a methylation Hha I island, an FnuD II site, an Ap1 and an Ap2 consensus sequences, and identify some specific cis elements which relate to lens-specific transcription of LIM2. Our experiments also preliminarily identify trans factors which bind to specific cis elements of the LIM2 promoter and/or regulate transcription of LIM2. We conclude that developmental regulation and coordination of the MP 19 gene in ocular lens fiber cells is controlled by the presence of specific cis elements that bind regulatory trans factors that affect LIM2 gene expression. DNA methylation is one mechanism of controlling LIM2 gene expression during lens development.

  6. Identification of the first PAR1 deletion encompassing upstream SHOX enhancers in a family with idiopathic short stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-Sanz, Sara; Aza-Carmona, Miriam; Rodríguez-Estevez, Amaya; Rica-Etxebarria, Ixaso; Gracia, Ricardo; Campos-Barros, Angel; Heath, Karen E

    2012-01-01

    Short stature homeobox-containing gene, MIM 312865 (SHOX) is located within the pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1) of the sex chromosomes. Mutations in SHOX or its downstream transcriptional regulatory elements represent the underlying molecular defect in ~60% of Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) and ~5-15% of idiopathic short stature (ISS) patients. Recently, three novel enhancer elements have been identified upstream of SHOX but to date, no PAR1 deletions upstream of SHOX have been observed that only encompass these enhancers in LWD or ISS patients. We set out to search for genetic alterations of the upstream SHOX regulatory elements in 63 LWD and 100 ISS patients with no known alteration in SHOX or the downstream enhancer regions using a specifically designed MLPA assay, which covers the PAR1 upstream of SHOX. An upstream SHOX deletion was identified in an ISS proband and her affected father. The deletion was confirmed and delimited by array-CGH, to extend ~286 kb. The deletion included two of the upstream SHOX enhancers without affecting SHOX. The 13.3-year-old proband had proportionate short stature with normal GH and IGF-I levels. In conclusion, we have identified the first PAR1 deletion encompassing only the upstream SHOX transcription regulatory elements in a family with ISS. The loss of these elements may result in SHOX haploinsufficiency because of decreased SHOX transcription. Therefore, this upstream region should be included in the routine analysis of PAR1 in patients with LWD, LMD and ISS.

  7. Method and system for control of upstream flowfields of vehicle in supersonic or hypersonic atmospheric flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daso, Endwell O. (Inventor); Pritchett, II, Victor E. (Inventor); Wang, Ten-See (Inventor); Farr, Rebecca Ann (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The upstream flowfield of a vehicle traveling in supersonic or hypersonic atmospheric flight is actively controlled using attribute(s) experienced by the vehicle. Sensed attribute(s) include pressure along the vehicle's outer mold line, temperature along the vehicle's outer mold line, heat flux along the vehicle's outer mold line, and/or local acceleration response of the vehicle. A non-heated, non-plasma-producing gas is injected into an upstream flowfield of the vehicle from at least one surface location along the vehicle's outer mold line. The pressure of the gas so-injected is adjusted based on the attribute(s) so-sensed.

  8. Upstream from OPERA: extreme attention to detail

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Two weeks ago, at a seminar held at CERN, the OPERA collaboration revealed their astonishing observation: neutrinos might move faster than light. The finding is currently under scrutiny in the scientific community. While the result downstream at Gran Sasso speaks for itself, upstream at CERN things are no less intriguing, with high-tech GPS systems, novel techniques for accurately measuring the time, and unique ways keeping the initial particle beam stable. Take away one ingredient and the accuracy needed for the final measurement is spoiled.   Underground installations of the CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) project. First ingredient: a stable beam CERN produces neutrinos by sending a beam of protons to hit a target. The collisions produce a secondary beam, which mostly consists of pions and kaons that decay in flight within an evacuated tunnel. Their decay products are muons and muon-neutrinos. An absorber stops the pions and kaons that do not decay, while the resulting muons are absorb...

  9. Nutrient composition and physicochemical characteristics in the destination sites of migratory water birds: a case study at the selected locations of seashores and lakes in southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Augustine

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The biodiversity in aquatic systems are indirectly controlled by their nutrient dynamics. The abundance of phytoplanktons and zooplanktons depends on the availability of nutrients such as nitrates, phosphates and silicates since these are the building blocks for their further growth. The phytoplanktons act as prey for the next higher trophic level including various fishes and other small organisms. One of the factors that enchant the migratory birds at some particular locations is the availability of the species of organisms that they prey on. In this paper a preliminary analysis is done to explore the nutrient dynamics of selected tropical aquatic systems in order to correlate the arrival of migratory birds at those locations. Water samples are collected from coastal region of Aleppey, Purakkad and Koonthankulam Bird Sancturay. The latter two sites are the important destination of many migratory water birds including Pallus Gull, Heuglins Gull, Bar-headed goose, Comb Duck and Spot Billed Pelican. The samples are analyzed chemically to trace the nutrient compositions and the related chemical parameters such as temperature, pH, conductivity, primary productivity, chloride, salinity, turbidity, nitrate, phosphate, dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand. Remarkable differences are observed mainly in the composition of phosphate, organic matter content and salinity. Finally, an attempt has been done to correlate the biodiversity of these locations with the chemical parameters and the prevailing nutrient compositions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i1.9943 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(1 2014: 68-77

  10. Assessment of alternatives for long-term management of uranium ore residues and contaminated soils located at DOE's Niagara Falls Storage Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merry-Libby, P.

    1985-01-01

    About 11,000 m 3 of uranium ore residues and 180,000 m 3 of slightly contaminated soils (wastes) are consolidated within a diked containment area at the Niagara Falls Storage Site located about 30 km north of Buffalo, New York. The residues account for less than 6% of the total volume of contaminated materials but almost 99% of the radioactivity. The average radium-226 concentration in the residues is 67,000 pCi/g. The US Department of Energy is considering several alternatives for long-term management of the wastes and residues, including: improvement of the containment at NFSS, modification of the form of the residues, management of the residues separately from the wastes, management of the wastes and residues at another humid site (Oak Ridge, Tennessee) or an arid site (Hanford, Washington), and dispersal of the wastes in the ocean. Potential radiological risks associated with implementation of any of the alternatives are expected to be smaller than the nonradiological risks of occupational and transportation-related injuries and deaths. Dispersal of the slightly contaminated wastes in the ocean is not expected to result in any significant radiological risk to humans. The residues and wastes will remain hazardous for thousands of years. After controls cease, the radioactive materials will eventually be dispersed in the environment. Loss of the earthen covers over the buried materials is predicted to occur from several hundred to more than two million years, depending primarily on the use of the land surface. Groundwater will eventually be contaminated in all alternatives; however, the groundwater pathway is relatively insignificant with respect to radiological risks to the general population. 2 references, 2 figures, 6 tables

  11. Prefrontal rTMS for treating depression: location and intensity results from the OPT-TMS multi-site clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kevin A; Baig, Mirza; Ramsey, Dave; Lisanby, Sarah H; Avery, David; McDonald, William M; Li, Xingbao; Bernhardt, Elisabeth R; Haynor, David R; Holtzheimer, Paul E; Sackeim, Harold A; George, Mark S; Nahas, Ziad

    2013-03-01

    Motor cortex localization and motor threshold determination often guide Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) placement and intensity settings for non-motor brain stimulation. However, anatomic variability results in variability of placement and effective intensity. Post-study analysis of the OPT-TMS Study reviewed both the final positioning and the effective intensity of stimulation (accounting for relative prefrontal scalp-cortex distances). We acquired MRI scans of 185 patients in a multi-site trial of left prefrontal TMS for depression. Scans had marked motor sites (localized with TMS) and marked prefrontal sites (5 cm anterior of motor cortex by the "5 cm rule"). Based on a visual determination made before the first treatment, TMS therapy occurred either at the 5 cm location or was adjusted 1 cm forward. Stimulation intensity was 120% of resting motor threshold. The "5 cm rule" would have placed stimulation in premotor cortex for 9% of patients, which was reduced to 4% with adjustments. We did not find a statistically significant effect of positioning on remission, but no patients with premotor stimulation achieved remission (0/7). Effective stimulation ranged from 93 to 156% of motor threshold, and no seizures were induced across this range. Patients experienced remission with effective stimulation intensity ranging from 93 to 146% of motor threshold, and we did not find a significant effect of effective intensity on remission. Our data indicates that individualized positioning methods are useful to reduce variability in placement. Stimulation at 120% of motor threshold, unadjusted for scalp-cortex distances, appears safe for a broad range of patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of wind velocities in the upstream induction zone of a wind turbine using scanning continuous-wave lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simley, Eric; Angelou, Nikolas; Mikkelsen, Torben Krogh

    2016-01-01

    As a wind turbine generates power, induced velocities, lower than the freestream velocity, will be present upstream of the turbine due to perturbation of the flow by the rotor. In this study, the upstream induction zone of a 225kW horizontal axis Vestas V27 wind turbine located at the Danish...... Technical University’s Risø campus is investigated using a scanning Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) system. Three short-range continuous-wave “WindScanner” lidars are positioned in the field around the V27 turbine allowing detection of all three components of the wind velocity vectors within...... the induction zone. The time-averaged mean wind speeds at different locations in the upstream induction zone are measured by scanning a horizontal plane at hub height and a vertical plane centered at the middle of the rotor extending roughly 1.5 rotor diameters (D) upstream of the rotor. Turbulence statistics...

  13. Geology, Bedrock, Tabular data involving the location of design specifics for wells related to the Low-level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) Site Characterization., Published in 1998, North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Geology, Bedrock dataset current as of 1998. Tabular data involving the location of design specifics for wells related to the Low-level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) Site...

  14. Historic Sites and National Register of Historic Places - BRIDGES_HISTORIC_IDNR_IN: Historic Bridge Locations in Indiana (Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Historic Preservation and Archaeology, 1:5,000, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — IDNR documentation states - “This dataset contains point locations of historic bridges in Indiana. It includes buildings, districts, sites, structures and objects...

  15. Park Facilities, Boundaries were determined from parcel mapping lines & site specific items, such as shelter locations, were obtained by field GPS observation, Published in 2010, Not Applicable scale, Chippewa County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Park Facilities dataset current as of 2010. Boundaries were determined from parcel mapping lines & site specific items, such as shelter locations, were obtained...

  16. Coral record of variability in the upstream Kuroshio Current during 1953-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohua; Liu, Yi; Hsin, Yi-Chia; Liu, Weiguo; Shi, Zhengguo; Chiang, Hong-Wei; Shen, Chuan-Chou

    2017-08-01

    The Kuroshio Current (KC), one of the most important western boundary currents in the North Pacific Ocean, strongly affects regional hydroclimate in East Asia and upper ocean thermal structure. Limited by few on-site observations, the responses of the KC to regional and remote climate forcings are still poorly understood. Here we use monthly coral δ18O data to reconstruct a KC transport record with annual to interannual resolution for the interval 1953-2004. The field site is located in southern Taiwan on the western flank of the upstream KC. Increased (reduced) KC transport would generate strong (weak) upwelling, resulting in relatively high (low) local coral δ18O. The upstream KC transport and downstream transport, off Tatsukushi Bay, Japan, covary on interannual and decadal time scales. This suggests common forcings, such as meridional drift of the North Equatorial Current bifurcation, or zonal climatic oscillations in the Pacific. The intensities of KC transport off southeastern and northeastern Taiwan are in phase before 1990 and antiphase after 1990. This difference may be due to a poleward shift of the subtropical western boundary current as a response to global warming.Plain Language SummaryThe connection between climate and oceanic circulation has long been recognized, particularly with regard to western boundary currents such as the Gulf Stream and the Kuroshio Current (KC). These systems play a crucial role in transferring solar energy from the subtropical regions to the poles. As we begin to experience the impacts of global climate change, it is critical that we understand the affect global change has on variability leading to significant changes in the structure and heat transport of such currents. Current knowledge of the KC is limited to observations over individual 10 year periods or to paleorecords of very low resolution (one sample per roughly 1000 years). Neither data set allows for a detailed understanding of the natural variability of the KC

  17. The location and nature of general anesthetic binding sites on the active conformation of firefly luciferase; a time resolved photolabeling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivananthaperumal Shanmugasundararaj

    Full Text Available Firefly luciferase is one of the few soluble proteins that is acted upon by a wide variety of general anesthetics and alcohols; they inhibit the ATP-driven production of light. We have used time-resolved photolabeling to locate the binding sites of alcohols during the initial light output, some 200 ms after adding ATP. The photolabel 3-azioctanol inhibited the initial light output with an IC50 of 200 µM, close to its general anesthetic potency. Photoincorporation of [(3H]3-azioctanol into luciferase was saturable but weak. It was enhanced 200 ms after adding ATP but was negligible minutes later. Sequencing of tryptic digests by HPLC-MSMS revealed a similar conformation-dependence for photoincorporation of 3-azioctanol into Glu-313, a residue that lines the bottom of a deep cleft (vestibule whose outer end binds luciferin. An aromatic diazirine analog of benzyl alcohol with broader side chain reactivity reported two sites. First, it photolabeled two residues in the vestibule, Ser-286 and Ile-288, both of which are implicated with Glu-313 in the conformation change accompanying activation. Second, it photolabeled two residues that contact luciferin, Ser-316 and Ser-349. Thus, time resolved photolabeling supports two mechanisms of action. First, an allosteric one, in which anesthetics bind in the vestibule displacing water molecules that are thought to be involved in light output. Second, a competitive one, in which anesthetics bind isosterically with luciferin. This work provides structural evidence that supports the competitive and allosteric actions previously characterized by kinetic studies.

  18. Upstream petroleum industry flaring guide : review draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    The Alberta requirements and expectations for upstream petroleum flaring are presented. Flaring is associated with a wide range of energy activities including oil and gas well drilling and well completion operations. The guide incorporates the recommendations made to the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) in June 1998 by the multi-stakeholder Clean Air Strategic Alliance (CASA) on associated or solution gas flaring. Additional requirements which address flaring issues not covered in the CASA report are also included in this guide. The Guide requires a 15 per cent reduction in solution gas flare volume by the end of year 2000 from the 1996 baseline, and a 25 per cent reduction by the end of 2001. The Guide prescribes new flare performance requirements for all flares, within three years for existing solution gas flares, five years for flares at other existing permanent facilities. It sets personal consultation and public notification requirements for new and existing solution gas batteries, and new sulphur recovery requirements for facilities not covered by existing EUB regulations. The Guide also addresses the question of conflict resolution to deal with flaring concerns, the release of flaring and venting data, the proposed reduction of flare limits, progress towards minimizing requirements for electricity generators using otherwise flared gas, annual reporting to the EUB, and management framework review in 2001

  19. Developmental Origins, Epigenetics, and Equity: Moving Upstream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallack, Lawrence; Thornburg, Kent

    2016-05-01

    The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease and the related science of epigenetics redefines the meaning of what constitutes upstream approaches to significant social and public health problems. An increasingly frequent concept being expressed is "When it comes to your health, your zip code may be more important than your genetic code". Epigenetics explains how the environment-our zip code-literally gets under our skin, creates biological changes that increase our vulnerability for disease, and even children's prospects for social success, over their life course and into future generations. This science requires us to rethink where disease comes from and the best way to promote health. It identifies the most fundamental social equity issue in our society: that initial social and biological disadvantage, established even prior to birth, and linked to the social experience of prior generations, is made worse by adverse environments throughout the life course. But at the same time, it provides hope because it tells us that a concerted focus on using public policy to improve our social, physical, and economic environments can ultimately change our biology and the trajectory of health and social success into future generations.

  20. Properties of Arboreal Ant and Ground-Termite Nests in relation to Their Nesting Sites and Location in a Tropical-Derived Savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Echezona

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem engineers such as ants and termites play an important role in the fertility of tropical soils. Physicochemical analyses were thus carried out on some arboreal ant nests collected from mango (Mangifera indica, bush mango (Irvingia gabonensis, kola (Cola nitida, newbouldia plant (Newbouldia laevis, and oil bean plant (Pentaclethra macrophylla and on ground nest of termite, Odontotermes sudanensis Sjost. (Isoptera: Termitidae in Nigeria. Arboreal nests, particularly those of M. indica, were significantly richer in the chemical constituents sampled, compared to those of ground-termite nests or adjacent unaffected soils. Available water capacity of nests from M. indica (60.0% was significantly higher than those of other sites or locations sampled. While biogenic structures were sandy-loamy in texture, their corresponding adjacent soils were either sandy or sandy-loamy. Soils worked by ants and termites had greater proportions of silt-sized (17.9 versus 9.7 and clay-sized (19.2 versus 9.3 to the detriment of coarse-sized particles (51.2 versus 60.9 and fine-sand-sized particles (11.7 versus 20.1 relative to the adjacent soils. Generally, biogenic structures were about 348% richer in P than their corresponding adjacent soils; an attribute, which holds a strong promise in bioremediation and biofortification of soils especially during amendment.

  1. Ecological conditions of ponds situated on blast furnace slag deposits located in South Gare Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI), Teesside, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raper, E; Davies, S; Perkins, B; Lamb, H; Hermanson, M; Soares, A; Stephenson, T

    2015-06-01

    Slag, a by-product from the iron and steel industry, has a range of applications within construction and is used in wastewater treatment. Historically considered a waste material, little consideration was given to the environmental impacts of its disposal. South Gare (a Site of Special Scientific Interest) located at the mouth of the Tees estuary, UK, formed on slag deposits used to create a sea wall and make the land behind permanent. Over time, ponds formed in depressions with the water chemistry, being significantly impacted by the slag deposits. Calcium levels reached 504 mg/L, nitrate 49.0 mg/L and sulphate 1,698 mg/L. These levels were also reflected in the composition of the sediment. pH (5.10-9.90) and electrical conductivity (2,710-3,598 µS/cm) were variable but often notably high. Pb, Cu and Cd were not present within the water, whilst Zn ranged from 0.027 to 0.37 mg/L. Heavy metal levels were higher in surface sediments. Zinc was most dominant (174.3-1,310.2 mg/L) followed by Pb (9.9-431 mg/L), Cu (8.4-41.8 mg/L) and Cd (0.4-1.1 mg/L). A sediment core provided a historical overview of the ponds. The ponds were unfavourable for aquatic biodiversity and unsuitable for drinking water abstraction.

  2. Structural acceptance criteria for the evaulation of existing double-shell waste storage tanks located at the Hanford site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julyk, L.J.; Day, A.D.; Dyrness, A.D.; Moore, C.J.; Peterson, W.S.; Scott, M.A.; Shrivastava, H.P.; Sholman, J.S.; Watts, T.N.

    1995-09-01

    The structural acceptance criteria contained herein for the evaluation of existing underground double-shell waste storage tanks located at the Hanford Site is part of the Life Management/Aging Management Program of the Tank Waste Remediation System. The purpose of the overall life management program is to ensure that confinement of the waste is maintained over the required service life of the tanks. Characterization of the present condition of the tanks, understanding and characterization of potential degradation mechanisms, and development of tank structural acceptance criteria based on previous service and projected use are prerequisites to assessing tank integrity, to projecting the length of tank service, and to developing and applying prudent fixes or repairs. The criteria provided herein summarize the requirements for the analysis and structural qualification of the existing double-shell tanks for continued operation. Code reconciliation issues and material degradation under aging conditions are addressed. Although the criteria were developed for double-shell tanks, many of the provisions are equally applicable to single-shell tanks. However, the criteria do not apply to the evaluation of tank appurtenances and buried piping

  3. Final environmental impact statement for the Nevada test site and off-site locations in the State of Nevada. Public comment and response document, Volume 3, Part A comments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    On February 2, 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Nevada Test Site and Off-Site Locations in the State of Nevada (NTS EIS) for review by the state of Nevada, Indian tribes, local governments, other federal agencies, groups and organizations, and the general public. The formal comment period lasted 90 days, ending May 3, 1996. As part of the comment process, the DOE held public hearings in St. George, Utah, and in Pahrump, Reno, and Las Vegas, Nevada. Community Workshops were held in Caliente, Tonopah, Boulder City, and North Las Vegas, Nevada, in conjunction with the University of Nevada Las Vegas to discuss the Draft NTS EIS. Volume 3 of the Final NTS EIS contains 3 chapters. Chapter 1 summarizes the major issues raised by the public. Chapter 2 contains the full text of the public comments on the Draft NTS EIS received by the DOE; it includes public hearing transcripts, written comments, and comments received via a toll-free comment open-quotes hot line.close quotes Chapter 3 contains the DOE's responses to the public comments and describes how the comments were considered in the Final NTS EIS

  4. Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Nevada Test Site and off-site locations in the State of Nevada. Volume 1, Appendix G: American Indian comments for the Nevada Test Site Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a record of activities of the American Indian Writers Subgroup (AIWS) so they can communicate better with the tribes and Indian organizations they represent. This is a living document, which may be modified as long as the AIWS is working on the Nevada Test Site Environmental Impact Statement (NTS EIS). This document has been submitted to the Consolidated Group of Tribes and Organizations for review and comment. The Consolidated Group of Tribes and Organizations comments will be incorporated into the final version which will be sent to all Indian tribes and organizations represented by the Consolidated Group of Tribes and Organizations. This document is composed of the following sections: Section G.1 -- AIWS and Meeting Summaries; Section G.2 -- Writing Tasks; Section G.3 -- American Indian Comments for the NTS EIS; and Section G.4 -- References

  5. Translational profiling of B cells infected with the Epstein-Barr virus reveals 5' leader ribosome recruitment through upstream open reading frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencun, Maja; Klinke, Olaf; Hotz-Wagenblatt, Agnes; Klaus, Severina; Tsai, Ming-Han; Poirey, Remy; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques

    2018-04-06

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome encodes several hundred transcripts. We have used ribosome profiling to characterize viral translation in infected cells and map new translation initiation sites. We show here that EBV transcripts are translated with highly variable efficiency, owing to variable transcription and translation rates, variable ribosome recruitment to the leader region and coverage by monosomes versus polysomes. Some transcripts were hardly translated, others mainly carried monosomes, showed ribosome accumulation in leader regions and most likely represent non-coding RNAs. A similar process was visible for a subset of lytic genes including the key transactivators BZLF1 and BRLF1 in cells infected with weakly replicating EBV strains. This suggests that ribosome trapping, particularly in the leader region, represents a new checkpoint for the repression of lytic replication. We could identify 25 upstream open reading frames (uORFs) located upstream of coding transcripts that displayed 5' leader ribosome trapping, six of which were located in the leader region shared by many latent transcripts. These uORFs repressed viral translation and are likely to play an important role in the regulation of EBV translation.

  6. Influence of Upstream and Downstream Compressor Stators on Rotor Exit Flow Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L. Key

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements acquired at the rotor exit plane illuminate the interaction of the rotor with the upstream vane row and the downstream vane row. The relative phase of the upstream and downstream vane rows is adjusted using vane clocking so that the effect of the upstream propagating potential field from the downstream stator can be distinguished from the effects associated with the wakes shed from the upstream stator. Unsteady absolute flow angle information shows that the downstream potential field causes the absolute flow angle to increase in the vicinity of the downstream stator leading edge. The presence of Stator 1 wake is also detected at this measurement plane using unsteady total pressure data. The rotor wakes are measured at different circumferential locations across the vane passage, and the influence of Stator 1 wake on the suction side of the rotor wake is evident. Also, the influence of the downstream stator is detected on the pressure side of the rotor wake for a particular clocking configuration. Understanding the role of the surrounding vane rows on rotor wake development will lead to improved comparison between experimental data and results from computational models.

  7. Summary of investigations carried out prior to 19 October 1984 regarding the location of the Vaalputs radioactive waste disposal site for the burial of intermediate and low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambleton-Jones, B.B.

    1984-10-01

    A recommendation by a specialist study group that the State set in motion a program to locate a suitable site or sites for the storage/disposal of radioactive waste in South Africa was accepted in 1978. A site-selection program was therefore duly initiated and in February 1983 culminated in the purchase of three farms, Garing, Geelpan and Stofkloof, some 100 km south-southeast of the town of Springbok in the northwestern Cape. The site, known as Vaalputs, is about 10 000 ha in extent. Detailed geological, geophysical, geohydrological, geobotanical, geomorphological and environmental investigations have been completed, with emphasis on the Geelpan Block, previously recommended as being the most suitable area for a disposal site. The final site of 0,5 X 0,7 km has now been selected

  8. Geological nominations at UNESCO World Heritage, an upstream struggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive-Garcia, Cécile; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    Using my 10 years experience in setting up and defending a UNESCO world Heritage Geological nomination, this presentation aims to give a personal insight into this international process and the differential use of science, subjective perception (aesthetic and 'naturality'), and politics. At this point in the process, new protocols have been tested in order to improve the dialogue, accountability and transparency between the different stake-holders. These are, the State parties, the IUCN, the scientific community, and UNESCO itself. Our proposal is the Chaîne des Puys-Limagne fault ensemble, which combines tectonic, geomorphological evolution and volcanology. The project's essence is a conjunction of inseparable geological features and processes, set in the context of plate tectonics. This very unicit yof diverse forms and processes creates the value of the site. However, it is just this that has caused a problem, as the advisory body has a categorical approach of nominations that separates items to assess them in an unconnected manner.From the start we proposed a combined approach, where a property is seen in its entirety, and the constituent elements seen as interlinked elements reflecting the joint underlying phenomena. At this point, our project has received the first ever open review by an independent technical mission (jointly set up by IUCN, UNESCO and the State party). The subsequent report was broadly supportive of the project's approach and of the value of the ensemble of features. The UNESCO committee in 2016, re-referred the nomination, acknowledging the potential Outstanding Universal Value of the site and requesting the parties to continue the upstream process (e.g. collaborative work), notably on the recommendations and conclusions of the Independent Technical mission report. Meetings are continuing, and I shall provide you with the hot-off-the-press news as this ground breaking nomination progresses.

  9. Locative media

    CERN Document Server

    Wilken, Rowan

    2014-01-01

    Not only is locative media one of the fastest growing areas in digital technology, but questions of location and location-awareness are increasingly central to our contemporary engagements with online and mobile media, and indeed media and culture generally. This volume is a comprehensive account of the various location-based technologies, services, applications, and cultures, as media, with an aim to identify, inventory, explore, and critique their cultural, economic, political, social, and policy dimensions internationally. In particular, the collection is organized around the perception that the growth of locative media gives rise to a number of crucial questions concerning the areas of culture, economy, and policy.

  10. Impact of upstream industrial effluents on irrigation water quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of upstream industrial effluents on irrigation water quality, soils and ... Knowledge of irrigation water quality is critical to predicting, managing and reducing salt ... Presence of heavy metals in concentration higher than the recommended ...

  11. Location, location, location: Extracting location value from house prices

    OpenAIRE

    Kolbe, Jens; Schulz, Rainer; Wersing, Martin; Werwatz, Axel

    2012-01-01

    The price for a single-family house depends both on the characteristics of the building and on its location. We propose a novel semiparametric method to extract location values from house prices. After splitting house prices into building and land components, location values are estimated with adaptive weight smoothing. The adaptive estimator requires neither strong smoothness assumptions nor local symmetry. We apply the method to house transactions from Berlin, Germany. The estimated surface...

  12. A Physico-Chemical water quality and Microbial content Analysis in Upstream of Langat River, Selangor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Barzani Gasim; Nazirah Zakaria; Roslan Umar; Roslan Umar; Ahmad Dasuki Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Water quality study of the selected physico-chemical and microbial parameters of the Langat River were carried out to determine and classified their values. Sampling was carried out twice; first on 9 June 2011 and the second was on 22 February 2012. The sampling site consist of seven stations; five stations representing for Langat River branches while two stations are located in Langat River. The in-situ measurements are: dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, pH and temperature were performed using YSI 556 multiparameter, while the laboratory analysis were based on HACH and APHA methods. Result shows; temperature (23.4 - 27.7 degree Celsius), pH (5.07 to 6.15), EC (29.3 . 61.5 μS/ cm), TDS (19.7 - 47.0 mg/L), DO (3.68 - 5.72 mg/L), BOD (1.29 - 3.76 mg/L), COD (13.5 - 77.85 mg/L), TSS (9.5 - 86.5 mg/L), NH_3N (0.15 - 0.79 mg/L), NO_3 (0.8 - 4.9 mg/L), PO_4"3"- (0.15 - 0.7 mg/L), SO_4"2"- (0.5 - 12.5 mg/L) and biological parameters of faecal coliform (2.58 x 10"4 - 4.74 x 10"6 cfu/ 100 ml). Based on water quality index and the National Water Quality Standards classifications, they belong to the class I, II, III and V. One-way ANOVA for repeated measures and Pearson correlation test been used. The overall results showed the selected rivers in upstream of Langat River were classified as moderately polluted. (author)

  13. Electrical Resistivity Tomography and Ground Penetrating Radar for locating buried petrified wood sites: a case study in the natural monument of the Petrified Forest of Evros, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargemezis, George; Diamanti, Nectaria; Tsourlos, Panagiotis; Fikos, Ilias

    2014-05-01

    A geophysical survey was carried out in the Petrified Forest of Evros, the northernmost regional unit of Greece. This collection of petrified wood has an age of approximately 35 million years and it is the oldest in Greece (i.e., older than the well-known Petrified Forest of Lesvos island located in the North Aegean Sea and which is possibly the largest of the petrified forests worldwide). Protection, development and maintenance projects still need to be carried out at the area despite all fears regarding the forest's fate since many petrified logs remain exposed both in weather conditions - leading to erosion - and to the public. This survey was conducted as part of a more extensive framework regarding the development and protection of this natural monument. Geophysical surveying has been chosen as a non-destructive investigation method since the area of application is both a natural ecosystem and part of cultural heritage. Along with electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys have been carried out for investigating possible locations of buried fossilized tree trunks. The geoelectrical sections derived from ERT data in combination with the GPR profiles provided a broad view of the subsurface. Two and three dimensional subsurface geophysical images of the surveyed area have been constructed, pointing out probable locations of petrified logs. Regarding ERT, petrified trunks have been detected as high resistive bodies, while lower resistivity values were more related to the surrounding geological materials. GPR surveying has also indicated buried petrified log locations. As these two geophysical methods are affected in different ways by the subsurface conditions, the combined use of both techniques enhanced our ability to produce more reliable interpretations of the subsurface. After the completion of the geophysical investigations of this first stage, petrified trunks were revealed after a subsequent excavation at indicated

  14. The giant mottled eel, Anguilla marmorata, uses blue-shifted rod photoreceptors during upstream migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng-Yu; Fu, Wen-Chun; Wang, I-Li; Yan, Hong Young; Wang, Tzi-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Catadromous fishes migrate between ocean and freshwater during particular phases of their life cycle. The dramatic environmental changes shape their physiological features, e.g. visual sensitivity, olfactory ability, and salinity tolerance. Anguilla marmorata, a catadromous eel, migrates upstream on dark nights, following the lunar cycle. Such behavior may be correlated with ontogenetic changes in sensory systems. Therefore, this study was designed to identify changes in spectral sensitivity and opsin gene expression of A. marmorata during upstream migration. Microspectrophotometry analysis revealed that the tropical eel possesses a duplex retina with rod and cone photoreceptors. The λmax of rod cells are 493, 489, and 489 nm in glass, yellow, and wild eels, while those of cone cells are 508, and 517 nm in yellow, and wild eels, respectively. Unlike European and American eels, Asian eels exhibited a blue-shifted pattern of rod photoreceptors during upstream migration. Quantitative gene expression analyses of four cloned opsin genes (Rh1f, Rh1d, Rh2, and SWS2) revealed that Rh1f expression is dominant at all three stages, while Rh1d is expressed only in older yellow eel. Furthermore, sequence comparison and protein modeling studies implied that a blue shift in Rh1d opsin may be induced by two known (N83, S292) and four putative (S124, V189, V286, I290) tuning sites adjacent to the retinal binding sites. Finally, expression of blue-shifted Rh1d opsin resulted in a spectral shift in rod photoreceptors. Our observations indicate that the giant mottled eel is color-blind, and its blue-shifted scotopic vision may influence its upstream migration behavior and habitat choice.

  15. The giant mottled eel, Anguilla marmorata, uses blue-shifted rod photoreceptors during upstream migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Yu Wang

    Full Text Available Catadromous fishes migrate between ocean and freshwater during particular phases of their life cycle. The dramatic environmental changes shape their physiological features, e.g. visual sensitivity, olfactory ability, and salinity tolerance. Anguilla marmorata, a catadromous eel, migrates upstream on dark nights, following the lunar cycle. Such behavior may be correlated with ontogenetic changes in sensory systems. Therefore, this study was designed to identify changes in spectral sensitivity and opsin gene expression of A. marmorata during upstream migration. Microspectrophotometry analysis revealed that the tropical eel possesses a duplex retina with rod and cone photoreceptors. The λmax of rod cells are 493, 489, and 489 nm in glass, yellow, and wild eels, while those of cone cells are 508, and 517 nm in yellow, and wild eels, respectively. Unlike European and American eels, Asian eels exhibited a blue-shifted pattern of rod photoreceptors during upstream migration. Quantitative gene expression analyses of four cloned opsin genes (Rh1f, Rh1d, Rh2, and SWS2 revealed that Rh1f expression is dominant at all three stages, while Rh1d is expressed only in older yellow eel. Furthermore, sequence comparison and protein modeling studies implied that a blue shift in Rh1d opsin may be induced by two known (N83, S292 and four putative (S124, V189, V286, I290 tuning sites adjacent to the retinal binding sites. Finally, expression of blue-shifted Rh1d opsin resulted in a spectral shift in rod photoreceptors. Our observations indicate that the giant mottled eel is color-blind, and its blue-shifted scotopic vision may influence its upstream migration behavior and habitat choice.

  16. Library Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh locations including address, coordinates, phone number, square footage, and standard operating hours. The map below does not display...

  17. Site-specific deletions of chromosomally located DNA segments with the multimer resolution system of broad-host-range plasmid RP4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sternberg, Claus; Eberl, Leo; Sanchezromero, Juan M.

    1995-01-01

    The multimer resolution system (mrs) of the broad-host-range plasmid RP4 has been exploited to develop a general method that permits the precise excision of chromosomal segments in a variety of gram-negative bacteria. The procedure is based on the site-specific recombination between two directly ...

  18. Clustering in large networks does not promote upstream reciprocity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Masuda

    Full Text Available Upstream reciprocity (also called generalized reciprocity is a putative mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations with which players help others when they are helped by somebody else. It is a type of indirect reciprocity. Although upstream reciprocity is often observed in experiments, most theories suggest that it is operative only when players form short cycles such as triangles, implying a small population size, or when it is combined with other mechanisms that promote cooperation on their own. An expectation is that real social networks, which are known to be full of triangles and other short cycles, may accommodate upstream reciprocity. In this study, I extend the upstream reciprocity game proposed for a directed cycle by Boyd and Richerson to the case of general networks. The model is not evolutionary and concerns the conditions under which the unanimity of cooperative players is a Nash equilibrium. I show that an abundance of triangles or other short cycles in a network does little to promote upstream reciprocity. Cooperation is less likely for a larger population size even if triangles are abundant in the network. In addition, in contrast to the results for evolutionary social dilemma games on networks, scale-free networks lead to less cooperation than networks with a homogeneous degree distribution.

  19. Valuating Indonesian upstream oil management scenario through system dynamics modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketut Gunarta, I.; Putri, F. A.

    2018-04-01

    Under the existing regulation in Constitution Number 22 Year 2001 (UU No 22 Tahun 2001), Production Sharing Contract (PSC) continues to be the scenario in conducting oil and gas upstream mining activities as the previous regulation (UU No. 8 Tahun 1971). Because of the high costs and risks in upstream mining activities, the contractors are dominated by foreign companies, meanwhile National Oil Company (NOC) doesn’t act much. The domination of foreign contractor companies also warned Indonesia in several issues addressing to energy independence and energy security. Therefore, to achieve the goals of energy which is independence and security, there need to be a revision in upstream oil activities regulating scenario. The scenarios will be comparing the current scenario, which is PSC, with the “full concession” scenario for National Oil Company (NOC) in managing oil upstream mining activities. Both scenario will be modelled using System Dynamics methodology and assessed furthermore using financial valuation method of income approach. Under the 2 scenarios, the author will compare which scenario is better for upstream oil management in reaching the goals mentioned before and more profitable in financial aspect. From the simulation, it is gathered that concession scenario offers better option than PSC in reaching energy independence and energy security.

  20. Clustering in large networks does not promote upstream reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    Upstream reciprocity (also called generalized reciprocity) is a putative mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations with which players help others when they are helped by somebody else. It is a type of indirect reciprocity. Although upstream reciprocity is often observed in experiments, most theories suggest that it is operative only when players form short cycles such as triangles, implying a small population size, or when it is combined with other mechanisms that promote cooperation on their own. An expectation is that real social networks, which are known to be full of triangles and other short cycles, may accommodate upstream reciprocity. In this study, I extend the upstream reciprocity game proposed for a directed cycle by Boyd and Richerson to the case of general networks. The model is not evolutionary and concerns the conditions under which the unanimity of cooperative players is a Nash equilibrium. I show that an abundance of triangles or other short cycles in a network does little to promote upstream reciprocity. Cooperation is less likely for a larger population size even if triangles are abundant in the network. In addition, in contrast to the results for evolutionary social dilemma games on networks, scale-free networks lead to less cooperation than networks with a homogeneous degree distribution.

  1. Participation costs can suppress the evolution of upstream reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Jorge; Pestelacci, Enea; Berchtold, André; Tomassini, Marco

    2011-03-21

    Indirect reciprocity, one of the many mechanisms proposed to explain the evolution of cooperation, is the idea that altruistic actions can be rewarded by third parties. Upstream or generalized reciprocity is one type of indirect reciprocity in which individuals help someone if they have been helped by somebody else in the past. Although empirically found to be at work in humans, the evolution of upstream reciprocity is difficult to explain from a theoretical point of view. A recent model of upstream reciprocity, first proposed by Nowak and Roch (2007) and further analyzed by Iwagami and Masuda (2010), shows that while upstream reciprocity alone does not lead to the evolution of cooperation, it can act in tandem with mechanisms such as network reciprocity and increase the total level of cooperativity in the population. We argue, however, that Nowak and Roch's model systematically leads to non-uniform interaction rates, where more cooperative individuals take part in more games than less cooperative ones. As a result, the critical benefit-to-cost ratios derived under this model in previous studies are not invariant with respect to the addition of participation costs. We show that accounting for these costs can hinder and even suppress the evolution of upstream reciprocity, both for populations with non-random encounters and graph-structured populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Lost in Location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2009-01-01

    traversed. While becoming destination aware, the individual loses her location awareness. The article proposes that the reason people get lost when using sat-nav is due to a wrong location-performative paradigm. As an alternative, the article introduces and analyzes two performance-related examples...... that illustrate an alternative location-performative paradigm: Meredith Warner's Lost/Found knitting series and Etter and Schecht's Melodious Walkabout. In both examples, the artist's hand becomes the intermediary between alien and location. Thus, by exploring how wayfinding can be a poetically situated...... performance, the article examines how the growing locative media industry can learn from the location-aware performative strategies employed by artists who create situated and urban performances for the curious participant. The academic frames employed in the analysis draw on psychogeography, site...

  3. REGULATION OF CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND WATER USE IN A OZARK FOREST: PROPOSING A NEW STRATEGICALLY LOCATED AMERIFLUX TOWER SITE IN MISSOURI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallardy, Stephen G

    2013-04-19

    by June 14, 2004, the MOFLUX site was fully instrumented and data streams started to flow. A primary accomplished deliverable for the project period was the data streams of CO{sub 2} and water vapor fluxes and numerous meteorological variables (from which prepared datasets have been submitted to the AmeriFlux data archive for 2004-2006, Additionally, measurements of leaf biochemistry and physiology, biomass inventory, tree allometry, successional trends other variables were obtained.

  4. The economic benefits of vegetation in the upstream area of Ciliwung watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saridewi, T. R.; Nazaruddin

    2018-04-01

    Ciliwung watershed has strategic values since its entire downstream area is located in the Special Administrative Region of Jakarta (DKI Jakarta), the capital of Indonesia. This causes forest and farmland areas are converted into open areas or built-up areas. The existence of these areas provides enormous environmental and economic benefits. Economic benefit values are very important to be considered in developing a policy development plan, but they have not been calculated yet. This study aims to determine the economic benefits provided by trees and other vegetation anddevelops a development policy that takes into account simultaneously ecological and economic aspects. The study is conducted in the upstream Ciliwung watershed, by using land cover patterns in 1989, 2000, 2010 and 2014, and employs GIS and CITY green analysis. The results show that conversion of forest and farmland areas reduces the ability of Ciliwung upstream watershed to store water. Therefore, its ability to reduce the flow of surface has been decreased. This creates a decrease in the cost savings of annual stormwater, from US 15,175,721 in 1989 to US 13,317,469 in 2014. The Environmental Services Payment Policy (PES) for upstream community groups managing the watershed has been considered as a fairly effective policy.

  5. Human Resource Local Content in Ghana's Upstream Petroleum Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benin, Papa

    Enactment of Ghana's Petroleum (Local Content and Local Participation) Regulations, 2013 (L.I. 2204) was intended to regulate the percentage of local products, personnel, financing, and goods and services rendered within Ghana's upstream petroleum industry value chain. Five years after the inception of Ghana's upstream oil and gas industry, a gap is evident between the requirements of L.I. 2204 and professional practice. Drawing on Lewin's change theory, a cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the extent of differences between the prevailing human resource local content and the requirements of L.I. 2204 in Ghana's upstream petroleum industry. The extent to which training acquired by indigenous Ghanaians seeking jobs in Ghana's oil fields affects the prevalent local content in its upstream petroleum industry was also examined. Survey data were collected from 97 management, technical, and other staff in 2 multinational petroleum companies whose oil and gas development plans have been approved by the Petroleum Commission of Ghana. To answer the research questions and test their hypotheses, one-way ANOVA was performed with staff category (management, technical, and other) as the independent variable and prevalent local content as the dependent variable. Results indicated that prevailing local content in Ghana's upstream petroleum industry meets the requirements of L.I. 2204. Further, training acquired by indigenous Ghanaians seeking jobs in Ghana's oil fields affects the prevalent local content in its offshore petroleum industry. Findings may encourage leaders within multinational oil companies and the Petroleum Commission of Ghana to organize educational seminars that equip indigenous Ghanaians with specialized skills for working in Ghana's upstream petroleum industry.

  6. Gene Locater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anwar, Muhammad Zohaib; Sehar, Anoosha; Rehman, Inayat-Ur

    2012-01-01

    software's for calculating recombination frequency is mostly limited to the range and flexibility of this type of analysis. GENE LOCATER is a fully customizable program for calculating recombination frequency, written in JAVA. Through an easy-to-use interface, GENE LOCATOR allows users a high degree...... of flexibility in calculating genetic linkage and displaying linkage group. Among other features, this software enables user to identify linkage groups with output visualized graphically. The program calculates interference and coefficient of coincidence with elevated accuracy in sample datasets. AVAILABILITY...

  7. Exploring Social Learning through Upstream Engagement in Science and Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jonas Egmose

    This discussion paper deliberates on how the concept of social learning can be used for evaluating upstream engagement initiatives in science and technology.  The paper briefly introduces to the concept of upstream engagement and a concrete case, the UK Citizen Science for Sustainability project...... (SuScit), as an outset for discussing how the concept of social learning can be used for analysing and understanding relations between citizen participation, Science and research, and sustainability. A number of relevant research questions and methodological considerations are distilled...

  8. [US Geological Survey research in radioactive waste disposal, fiscal year 1979:] Department of Energy program for locating and characterizing disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, G.L.; Hoover, D.B.

    1982-01-01

    The objective was to locate and characterize rock masses at the NTS and in southern Nevada suitable to be host media for high-level radioactive wastes, to describe the areal and depth distribution and structural integrity of these rock masses, and to assess the potential for contaminant release by hydrologic transport or as a result of tectonic and (or) volcanic activity. From previous geologic work at NTS, the general geology is well known. Areas likely to have suitable host rocks and hydrologic conditions at depths appropriate for a repository are evaluated by detailed surface mapping, surface geophysical methods, exploratory drilling, and borehole geophysical techniques. Progress is reported. 5 refs., 1 fig

  9. The role of the ionosphere in coupling upstream ULF wave power into the dayside magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engebretson, M.J.; Cahill, L.J. Jr.; Arnoldy, R.L.; Anderson, B.J.; Rosenberg, T.J.; Carpenter, D.L.; Inan, U.S.; Eather, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    A series of recent studies of Pc 3 magnetic pulsations in the dayside outer magnetosphere has given new insights into the possible mechanisms of entry of ULF wave power into the magnetosphere from a bow shock related upstream source. In this paper, the authors first review many of these new observational results by presenting a comparison of data from two 10-hour intervals on successive days in April 1986 and then present a possible model for transmission of pulsation signals from the magnetosheath into the dayside magnetosphere. Simultaneous multi-instrument observations at South Pole Station, located below the cusp/cleft ionosphere near local noon, magnetic field observations by the AMPTE CCE satellite in the dayside outer magnetosphere, and upstream magnetic field observations by the IMP 8 satellite show clear interplanetary magnetic field field magnitude control of dayside resonant harmonic pulsations and band-limited very high latitude pulsations, as well as pulsation-modulated precipitation of what appear to be magnetosheath/boundary layer electrons. They believe that this modulated precipitation may be responsible for the propagation of upstream wave power in the Pc 3 frequency band into the high-latitude ionosphere, from whence it may be transported throughout the dayside outer magnetosphere by means of an ionospheric transistor. In this model, modulations in ionospheric conductivity caused by cusp/cleft precipitation cause varying ionospheric currents with frequency spectra determined by the upstream waves; these modulations will be superimposed on the Birkeland currents, which close via these ionospheric currents. Modulated region 2 Birkeland currents will in turn provide a narrow-band source of wave energy to a wide range of dayside local times in the outer magnetosphere

  10. How wireless remote technology reduces cost, boosts productivity and improves safety in upstream oil and gas operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wommack, K. [Viatran, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-09-15

    This article demonstrated how wireless communications can help oil and gas producers obtain the most current information on the status of their operations to help optimize operations and protect workers and equipment. Wireless communication can provide benefits at nearly every phase of upstream production. When combined with pressure, temperature, flow, level and other sensing devices, wireless communications provide an effective and economical way to deliver data on well or pipeline operations to site managers; optimize well-production, minimize workovers and prevent blowdowns at the wellhead; track oil and water production; measure differential pressure, line pressure and line temperature; and monitor the motorized choke and control valve position. Wireless technology offers significant savings through improved maintenance efficiency. With wireless systems in remote locations, there are seldom problems in the transmission path. Wireless technology makes it much easier and affordable to manage well operations from a safe distance. By eliminating the need for wires in a fracing operation, wireless can help fracing companies maintain a safe operating distance from their target wells, and move operations from well to well with ease. A wireless communication system for transmitting process data from field sensors to a field processing device consists of radio transmitters, a communications gateway and a user interface. The communications hub receives encrypted messages from the remote devices and transmits them to a flow computer, SCADA system, or Distributed Control System. Data is then transmitted to a central office. 1 fig.

  11. Upstream migration of Pacific lampreys in the John Day River, Oregon: Behavior, timing, and habitat use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, T. Craig; Bayer, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Adult Pacific lamprey migration and habitat preferences for over-winter holding and spawning, and larval rearing in tributaries to the Columbia River are not well understood. The John Day River is one such tributary where larval and adult stages of this species have been documented, and its free-flowing character provided the opportunity to study migration of Pacific lampreys unimpeded by passage constraints. Forty-two adult Pacific lampreys were captured in the John Day River near its mouth during their upstream migration. Pacific lampreys were surgically implanted with radio transmitters and released onsite, and tracked by fixed-site, aerial, and terrestrial telemetry methods for nearly one year. Adults moved upstream exclusively at night, with a mean rate of 11.1 ?? 6.3 km/day. They halted upstream migration by September, and held a single position for approximately six months in the lateral margins of riffles and glides, using boulders for cover. More than half of Pacific lampreys resumed migration in March before ending movement in early May. Pacific lampreys that resumed migration in spring completed a median of 87% of their upstream migration before over-winter holding. Upon completing migration. Pacific lampreys briefly held position before beginning downstream movement at the end of May. Though not directly observed, halting migration and movement downstream were likely the result of spawning and death. Gains in adult Pacific lamprey passage through the Columbia River hydrosystem and tributaries may be made by improvements that would expedite migration during spring and summer and increase the quantity and variety of cover and refuge opportunities. ?? 2005 by the Northwest Scientific Association. All rights reserved.

  12. The Laminin 511/521 Binding Site on the Lutheran Blood Group Glycoprotein is Located at theFlexible Junction of Ig Domains 2 and 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankelow, Tosti J.; Burton, Nicholas; Stedansdottir, Fanney O.; Spring, Frances A.; Parsons, Stephen F.; Pesersen, Jan S.; Oliveira, Cristiano L.P.; Lammie, Donna; Wess, Timothy; Mohandas, Narla; Chasis, Joel A.; Brady, R. Leo; Anstee, David J.

    2007-07-01

    The Lutheran blood group glycoprotein, first discovered on erythrocytes, is widely expressed in human tissues. It is a ligand for the {alpha}5 subunit of Laminin 511/521, an extracellular matrix protein. This interaction may contribute to vasocclusive events that are an important cause of morbidity in sickle cell disease. Using X-ray crystallography, small angle X-ray scattering and site directed mutagenesis we show that the extracellular region of Lutheran forms an extended structure with a distinctive bend between the second and third immunoglobulin-like domains. The linker between domains 2 and 3 appears to be flexible and is a critical determinant in maintaining an overall conformation for Lutheran that is capable of binding to Laminin. Mutagenesis studies indicate that Asp312 of Lutheran and the surrounding cluster of negatively charged residues in this linker region form the Laminin binding site. Unusually, receptor binding is therefore not a function of the domains expected to be furthermost from the plasma membrane. These studies imply that structural flexibility of Lutheran may be essential for its interaction with Laminin and present a novel opportunity for the development of therapeutics for sickle cell disease.

  13. Final environmental impact statement for the Nevada test site and off-site locations in the State of Nevada. Public comment and response document, Volume 3, Part B responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This sitewide EIS evaluates the potential environmental impacts of four possible land-use alternatives being considered for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the Tonopah Test Range, and the formerly operated DOE sites in the state of Nevada: the Project Shoal Area, the Central Nevada Test Area, and portions of the Nellis Air Force Range Complex. Three additional sites in Nevada-Eldorado Valley, Dry Lake Valley, and Coyote Spring Valley-are evaluated for collocation of solar energy production facilities. The four alternatives include Continue Current Operations (No Action, continue to operate at the level maintained for the past 3 to 5 years); Discontinue Operations 1 (discontinue operations and interagency programs); Expanded Use (increased use of NTS and its resources to support defense and nondefense programs); and Alternate Use of Withdrawn Lands (discontinue all defense-related activities at NTS; continue waste management operations in support of NTS environmental restoration efforts; expand nondefense research). Environmental impacts were assessed for each alternative by analyzing, to the extent possible, the discrete and cumulative environmental impacts associated with Defense Waste Management, Environmental Restoration, Nondefense Research and Development, and Work for Others Programs. A framework for a Resource Management Plan is included as Volume 2 of this EIS and represents the development of an ecosystem based planning process closely integrated with the National Environmental Policy Act process. This EIS, among other things, analyzed the impacts of transportation of low level waste, and site characterization activities related to the Yucca Mountain Project but did not analyze the suitability of the site as a repository. This EIS does not analyze the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site as a repository as this is an action beyond the scope of the EIS. Volume 3 of this EIS contains the public comments and the responses to the comments

  14. Sector report: Malaysia. Upstream oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report is one of a series designed to introduce British exporters to the opportunities offered by the Malaysian market in oil and natural gas. The report includes Malaysia's oil and gas reserves, production, exploration, major profits upstream, production sharing contracts, pipeline construction, operators in production, service sector, and Petronas. (UK)

  15. Collisionless shocks and upstream waves and particles: Introductory remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennel, C.F.

    1981-01-01

    We discuss more aspects of collisionless shock theory that might be pertinent to the problem of upstream waves and particles. It is hoped that our qualititive remarks may be a useful guide for the general reader as he goes through the detailed papers to come

  16. Characterization of upstream sequences from the 8S globulin gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-21

    Sep 21, 2011 ... added recombinant proteins and enzymes for industries. The upstream region ... cost, eukaryotic expression and no endogenous patho- gen pollution, thus it ... developmental process (Santino et al., 1997) which may deplete nutrient ... ideal bioreactors for economic production and storage of value-added ...

  17. Employee assistance programs in the upstream petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutcher, R.A.; Yip, R.Y.; Young, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper is a descriptive overview of Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) in the upstream Canadian petroleum industry. The authors review current EAP models within the occupational health setting and the Canadian health care context. This article also explores the challenging issues of EAP's emergent functions in workplace substance abuse programs, its changing role in organizational effectiveness and its professional identity

  18. Lattice site location of optical centers in GaN:Eu light emitting diode material grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy

    KAUST Repository

    Lorenz, K.; Alves, E.; Roqan, Iman S.; O’ Donnell, K. P.; Nishikawa, A.; Fujiwara, Y.; Boćkowski, M.

    2010-01-01

    Eu-doped GaN was grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy at temperatures from 900 to 1100 °C. Eu incorporation is influenced by temperature with the highest concentration found for growth at 1000 °C. In all samples, Eu is incorporated entirely on substitutional Ga sites with a slight displacement which is highest (∼0.2 Å) in the sample grown at 900 °C and mainly directed along the c-axis. The major optical Eu3+ centers are identical for in situdoped and ion-implanted samples after high temperature and pressure annealing. The dominant Eu3+luminescence lines are attributed to isolated, substitutional Eu.

  19. The heparin-binding site in tetranectin is located in the N-terminal region and binding does not involve the carbohydrate recognition domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorentsen, R H; Graversen, J H; Caterer, N R; Thogersen, H C; Etzerodt, M

    2000-04-01

    Tetranectin is a homotrimeric plasma and extracellular-matrix protein that binds plasminogen and complex sulphated polysaccharides including heparin. In terms of primary and tertiary structure, tetranectin is related to the collectin family of Ca(2+)-binding C-type lectins. Tetranectin is encoded in three exons. Exon 3 encodes the carbohydrate recognition domain, which binds to kringle 4 in plasminogen at low levels of Ca(2+). Exon 2 encodes an alpha-helix, which is necessary and sufficient to govern the trimerization of tetranectin by assembling into a triple-helical coiled-coil structural element. Here we show that the heparin-binding site in tetranectin resides not in the carbohydrate recognition domain but within the N-terminal region, comprising the 16 amino acid residues encoded by exon 1. In particular, the lysine residues in the decapeptide segment KPKKIVNAKK (tetranectin residues 6-15) are shown to be of primary importance in heparin binding.

  20. Lattice site location of optical centers in GaN:Eu light emitting diode material grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy

    KAUST Repository

    Lorenz, K.

    2010-09-16

    Eu-doped GaN was grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy at temperatures from 900 to 1100 °C. Eu incorporation is influenced by temperature with the highest concentration found for growth at 1000 °C. In all samples, Eu is incorporated entirely on substitutional Ga sites with a slight displacement which is highest (∼0.2 Å) in the sample grown at 900 °C and mainly directed along the c-axis. The major optical Eu3+ centers are identical for in situdoped and ion-implanted samples after high temperature and pressure annealing. The dominant Eu3+luminescence lines are attributed to isolated, substitutional Eu.

  1. Geophysical techniques in detection to river embankments - A case study: To locate sites of potential leaks using surface-wave and electrical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Liu, J.; Xu, S.; Xia, J.; ,

    2004-01-01

    Geophysical technologies are very effective in environmental, engineering and groundwater applications. Parameters of delineating nature of near-surface materials such as compressional-wave velocity, shear-wave velocity can be obtained using shallow seismic methods. Electric methods are primary approaches for investigating groundwater and detecting leakage. Both of methods are applied to detect embankment in hope of obtaining evidences of the strength and moisture inside the body. A technological experiment has done for detecting and discovering the hidden troubles in the embankment of Yangtze River, Songzi, Hubei, China in 2003. Surface-wave and DC multi-channel array resistivity sounding techniques were used to detect hidden trouble inside and under dike like pipe-seeps. This paper discusses the exploration strategy and the effect of geological characteristics. A practical approach of combining seismic and electric resistivity measurements was applied to locate potential pipe-seeps in embankment in the experiment. The method presents a potential leak factor based on the shear-wave velocity and the resistivity of the medium to evaluate anomalies. An anomaly found in a segment of embankment detected was verified, where occurred a pipe-seep during the 98' flooding.

  2. Decommissioning of the Dragon High Temperature Reactor (HTR) Located at the Former United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) Research Site at Winfrith - 13180

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Anthony A. [Research Sites Restoration Ltd, Winfrith, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    The Dragon Reactor was constructed at the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Winfrith in Dorset through the late 1950's and into the early 1960's. It was a High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTR) with helium gas coolant and graphite moderation. It operated as a fuel testing and demonstration reactor at up to 20 MW (Thermal) from 1964 until 1975, when international funding for this project was terminated. The fuel was removed from the core in 1976 and the reactor was put into Safestore. To meet the UK's Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) objective to 'drive hazard reduction' [1] it is necessary to decommission and remediate all the Research Sites Restoration Ltd (RSRL) facilities. This includes the Dragon Reactor where the activated core, pressure vessel and control rods and the contaminated primary circuit (including a {sup 90}Sr source) still remain. It is essential to remove these hazards at the appropriate time and return the area occupied by the reactor to a safe condition. (author)

  3. Behaviour of {sup 210}Po in fresh water ecosystem located in high rainfall area around proposed uranium mining site in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, S.K. [Environmental Radioactivity measurement Section, Health Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2014-07-01

    .03). Mean Gross alpha activity measured in 189 samples from nine locations varies from 45 - 114 mBq L{sup -1}. The maximum gross alpha radioactivity 114 mBq L{sup -1} was observed in surface water samples from phud Syngkai. The gross alpha activity concentrations for drinking water were exceeded beyond the recommended WHO guideline at two locations namely at Phud Syngkai and Nongtynger. The water samples from Mawthabah and Nongtynger contains highest concentration of {sup 210}Po having lowest Mn concentration whereas reverse pattern was observed at Wahkaji. The similar behavior was not observed for the Fe. The water samples of the prevailing physico-chemical condition supports increase in {sup 210}Po concentration with decrease in Mn concentration as Mn(IV) oxides adsorb or incorporate substantial amounts of {sup 210}Po. The maximum water radioactivity concentrations for gross alpha were 114 mBq L{sup -1} obtained in Phud Syngkai. The studied water was characterized by low dissolved oxygen and their acidic, slightly acidic nature. Low ionic concentration and high polonium concentration in the waters of the study areas comprised the most interesting feature of present observations. Water having minimum specific conductivity and Mn concentration shows highest {sup 210}Po concentration of 64 mBqL{sup -1}. The Mn concentration influences the presence of {sup 210}Po in water in comparison to Fe. (authors)

  4. A THEMIS Survey of Flux Ropes and Traveling Compression Regions: Location of the Near-Earth Reconnection Site During Solar Minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imber, S. M.; Slavin, J. A.; Auster, H. U.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2011-01-01

    A statistical study of flux ropes and traveling compression regions (TCRs) during the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) second tail season has been performed. A combined total of 135 flux ropes and TCRs in the range GSM X approx -14 to -31 R(sub E) were identified, many of these occurring in series of two or more events separated by a few tens of seconds. Those occurring within 10 min of each other were combined into aggregated reconnection events. For the purposes of this survey, these are most likely the products of reconnect ion occurring simultaneously at multiple, closely spaced x-lines as opposed to statistically independent episodes of reconnection. The 135 flux ropes and TCRs were grouped into 87 reconnection events; of these, 28 were moving tailward and 59 were moving Earthward. The average location of the near-Earth x-line determined from statistical analysis of these reconnection events is (X(sub GSM), Y*(sub GSM)) = (-30R(sub E), 5R(sub E)), where Y* includes a correction for the solar aberration angle. A strong east-west asymmetry is present in the tailward events, with >80% being observed at GSM Y* > O. Our results indicate that the Earthward flows are similarly asymmetric in the midtail region, becoming more symmetric inside - 18 R(sub E). Superposed epoch analyses indicate that the occurrence of reconnection closer to the Earth, i.e., X > -20 R(sub E), is associated with elevated solar wind velocity and enhanced negative interplanetary magnetic field B(sub z). Reconnection events taking place closer to the Earth are also far more effective in producing geomagnetic activity, judged by the AL index, than reconnection initiated beyond X approx -25 R(sub E).

  5. Effect of an upstream bulge configuration on film cooling with and without mist injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Li, Qianqian; Sundén, Bengt; Ma, Ting; Cui, Pei

    2017-12-01

    To meet the economic requirements of power output, the increased inlet temperature of modern gas turbines is above the melting point of the material. Therefore, high-efficient cooling technology is needed to protect the blades from the hot mainstream. In this study, film cooling was investigated in a simplified channel. A bulge located upstream of the film hole was numerically investigated by analysis of the film cooling effectiveness distribution downstream of the wall. The flow distribution in the plate channel is first presented. Comparing with a case without bulge, different cases with bulge heights of 0.1d, 0.3d and 0.5d were examined with blowing ratios of 0.5 and 1.0. Cases with 1% mist injection were also included in order to obtain better cooling performance. Results show that the bulge configuration located upstream the film hole makes the cooling film more uniform, and enhanceslateral cooling effectiveness. Unlike other cases, the configuration with a 0.3d-height bulge shows a good balance in improving the downstream and lateral cooling effectiveness. Compared with the case without mist at M = 0.5, the 0.3d-height bulge with 1% mist injection increases lateral average effectiveness by 559% at x/d = 55. In addition, a reduction of the thermal stress concentration can be obtained by increasing the height of the bulge configuration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. On-line soft sensing in upstream bioprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randek, Judit; Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik

    2018-02-01

    This review provides an overview and a critical discussion of novel possibilities of applying soft sensors for on-line monitoring and control of industrial bioprocesses. Focus is on bio-product formation in the upstream process but also the integration with other parts of the process is addressed. The term soft sensor is used for the combination of analytical hardware data (from sensors, analytical devices, instruments and actuators) with mathematical models that create new real-time information about the process. In particular, the review assesses these possibilities from an industrial perspective, including sensor performance, information value and production economy. The capabilities of existing analytical on-line techniques are scrutinized in view of their usefulness in soft sensor setups and in relation to typical needs in bioprocessing in general. The review concludes with specific recommendations for further development of soft sensors for the monitoring and control of upstream bioprocessing.

  7. Upstream-downstream cooperation approach in Guanting Reservoir watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi-Feng; Zhang, Wen-Guo

    2005-01-01

    A case study is introduced and discussed concerning water dispute of misuse and pollution between up- and down-stream parts. The relations between water usage and local industrial structures are analyzed. Results show it is important to change industrial structures of the target region along with controlling water pollution by technical and engineering methods. Three manners of upstream-downstream cooperation are presented and discussed based on the actual conditions of Guangting Reservoir watershed. Two typical scenarios are supposed and studied along with the local plan on water resources development. The best solution for this cooperation presents a good way to help the upstream developing in a new pattern of eco-economy.

  8. Torque fluctuations caused by upstream mean flow and turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, T. D.; Hancock, P. E.

    2014-12-01

    A series of studies are in progress investigating the effects of turbine-array-wake interactions for a range of atmospheric boundary layer states by means of the EnFlo meteorological wind tunnel. The small, three-blade model wind turbines drive 4-quadrant motor-generators. Only a single turbine in neutral flow is considered here. The motor-generator current can be measured with adequate sensitivity by means of a current sensor allowing the mean and fluctuating torque to be inferred. Spectra of torque fluctuations and streamwise velocity fluctuations ahead of the rotor, between 0.1 and 2 diameters, show that only the large-scale turbulent motions contribute significantly to the torque fluctuations. Time-lagged cross-correlation between upstream velocity and torque fluctuations are largest over the inner part of the blade. They also show the turbulence to be frozen in behaviour over the 2 diameters upstream of the turbine.

  9. Environmental regulatory framework for the upstream petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In order to provide its member companies with a useful reference document in environmental analysis and compliance, CAPP compiled a list of Canadian legislation, regulations and guidelines which relate to the upstream petroleum industry. Text of all federal, Alberta, British Columbia and Saskatchewan legislation, regulations, guidelines and related documents were provided. Pending legislation, regulations and government policy have been identified. Annual updates will be provided to all subscribers

  10. Entrepreneurial Leadership in Upstream Oil and Gas Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kalu, Mona Ukpai

    2015-01-01

    The study examined Entrepreneurial leadership in Upstream Oil and Gas industry and its ability to accelerate innovative energy technology development. The declining deliverability from existing reservoirs and ever increasing demand for energy to fuel growth in many parts of the world is driving oil and gas exploration into more difficult to access reservoirs like bituminous sands and shale gas. Accelerating new innovative technology development to access these new streams of profitable oil an...

  11. DENSITY FLUCTUATIONS UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM OF INTERPLANETARY SHOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitňa, A.; Šafránková, J.; Němeček, Z.; Goncharov, O.; Němec, F.; Přech, L. [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Chen, C. H. K. [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Zastenker, G. N., E-mail: jana.safrankova@mff.cuni.cz [Space Research Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, Profsoyuznaya ul. 84/32, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-01

    Interplanetary (IP) shocks as typical large-scale disturbances arising from processes such as stream–stream interactions or Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection (ICME) launching play a significant role in the energy redistribution, dissipation, particle heating, acceleration, etc. They can change the properties of the turbulent cascade on shorter scales. We focus on changes of the level and spectral properties of ion flux fluctuations upstream and downstream of fast forward oblique shocks. Although the fluctuation level increases by an order of magnitude across the shock, the spectral slope in the magnetohydrodynamic range is conserved. The frequency spectra upstream of IP shocks are the same as those in the solar wind (if not spoiled by foreshock waves). The spectral slopes downstream are roughly proportional to the corresponding slopes upstream, suggesting that the properties of the turbulent cascade are conserved across the shock; thus, the shock does not destroy the shape of the spectrum as turbulence passes through it. Frequency spectra downstream of IP shocks often exhibit “an exponential decay” in the ion kinetic range that was earlier reported at electron scales in the solar wind or at ion scales in the interstellar medium. We suggest that the exponential shape of ion flux spectra in this range is caused by stronger damping of the fluctuations in the downstream region.

  12. Final environmental impact statement for the Nevada test site and off-site locations in the State of Nevada. Human health risks and safety impacts study, Volume 1, Appendix H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    Proposed changes in the Nevada Test Site (NTS) operations, as well as the US Department of Energy (DOE) policy of reviewing sitewide National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents, have resulted in the need for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) Operations Office to prepare a new Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the NTS. This report has been prepared to assess the human health and safety impacts from operations expected to be carried out under each of the four alternatives defined in the NTS EIS. These alternatives are: Alternative 1, Continue Current Operations (No Action); Alternative 2, Discontinue Operations; Alternative 3, Expanded Use; and Alternative 4, Alternate Use of Withdrawn Lands

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in upstream riverine runoff of the Pearl River Delta, China: An assessment of regional input sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Kai; Liang Bo; Wang Jizhong; Guan Yufeng; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2012-01-01

    Water samples collected from upstream tributaries of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) and from locations within the PRD (South China) were analyzed for 27 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Average concentrations (aqueous plus particulate) of total 27 PAHs (Σ 27 PAH), 16 priority PAHs designated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) except naphthalene (Σ 15 PAH), and the seven carcinogenic PAHs (Σ 7 PAH) classified by the USEPA were 260 ± 410, 130 ± 310, and 15 ± 12 ng/L, respectively. Riverine PAHs were predominantly generated from coal and vegetation combustion, coke production, vehicle exhausts, and petroleum residues, accounting for 28%, 25%, 22% and 21%, respectively, on average. Upstream riverine fluxes of Σ 27 PAH and Σ 15 PAH amounted to 38.9 and 12.9 tons/year, respectively. The net contributions of Σ 27 PAH and Σ 15 PAH from sources within the PRD were estimated at 21.4 and 21.0 tons/year, respectively. - Highlights: ► Upstream PAH levels were lower than downstream PAHs and pose low ecological risk. ► Riverine PAHs are predominantly pyrogenic. ► Parent PAHs in Pearl River are mainly derived from within the PRD. ► The 15 priority PAHs were mainly generated within the Pearl River Delta. - The 15 priority PAHs are mainly generated within the PRD while the other 12 PAHs from upstream areas.

  14. Rearrangement of Upstream Sequences of the hTERT Gene During Cellular Immortalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuanjun; Wang, Shuwen; Popova, Evgenya Y.; Grigoryev, Sergei A.; Zhu, Jiyue

    2010-01-01

    Telomerase expression, resulting from transcriptional activation of the hTERT gene, allows cells to acquire indefinite proliferative potential during cellular immortalization and tumorigenesis. However, mechanisms of hTERT gene activation in many immortal cell lines and cancer cells are poorly understood. Here, we report our studies on hTERT activation using genetically related pairs of telomerase-negative (Tel−) and -positive (Tel+) fibroblast lines. First, whereas transiently transfected plasmid reporters did not recapitulate the endogenous hTERT promoter, the promoter in chromosomally integrated bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) reporters was activated in a subset of Tel+ cells, indicating that activation of the hTERT promoter required native chromatin context and/or distal regulatory elements. Second, the hTERT gene, located near the telomere of chromosome 5p, was translocated in all three Tel+ cell lines but not in their parental pre-crisis cells and Tel− immortal siblings. The breakage points were mapped to regions upstream of the hTERT promoter, indicating that the hTERT gene was the target of these chromosomal rearrangements. In two Tel+ cell lines, translocation of the endogenous hTERT gene appeared to be the major mechanism of its activation as the activity of hTERT promoter in many chromosomally integrated BAC reporters, with intact upstream and downstream neighboring loci, remained relatively low. Therefore, our results suggest that rearrangement of upstream sequences is an important new mechanism of hTERT promoter activation during cellular immortalization. The chromosomal rearrangements likely occurred during cellular crisis and facilitated by telomere dysfunction. Such translocations allowed the hTERT promoter to escape from the native condensed chromatin environment. PMID:19672873

  15. 125I-[Tyr0,D-Trp8]somatostatin-14 binding sites in the locus coeruleus of the rat are located on both ascending and descending projecting noradrenergic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epelbaum, J.; Bluet-Pajot, M.T.; Llorens-Cortes, C.; Kordon, C.; Mounier, F.; Senut, M.C.; Videau, C.

    1990-01-01

    Radioautographic determinations of 125I-[Tyr0,D-Trp8]somatostatin-14 (125I-SRIF) binding sites were performed on frozen serial sections of the locus coeruleus (LC) of control rats and of rats subjected to either bilateral microinjections of 6 hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the LC or unilateral microinjection into the ascending noradrenergic bundles. These experiments were performed in order to determine whether 125I-SRIF binding was localized to noradrenergic-containing cells and in which regions the cells which contain the binding sites are projecting. The extent of the lesions was assessed by measuring norepinephrine (NE) levels in the hippocampus (88% decrease as compared to sham-operated animals) for bilateral LC lesions and in the frontal cortex (87% reduction vs. contralateral side) for unilateral bundle lesions. In control rats, 125I-SRIF binding sites were restricted to the boundaries of the LC and followed closely the distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase-labeled cells. Three weeks after bilateral injections of 6-OHDA, 125I-SRIF binding decreased by 79% in all regions of the LC. In contrast, unilateral destruction of the ascending noradrenergic bundles resulted in a moderate decrease only in the middle part of the LC with a more important effect in the dorsal (55%) than in the ventral (24%) portion of the nucleus. These data demonstrate that: (1) most SRIF receptors in the LC are located in the vicinity of NE-containing cell bodies and (2) NE-containing cells bearing SRIF receptors project to the forebrain as well as to other terminal areas located more caudally in the brain. These data suggest a general role for SRIF in the control of the multiple functions of the LC

  16. Pooled genome wide association detects association upstream of FCRL3 with Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khong, Jwu Jin; Burdon, Kathryn P; Lu, Yi; Laurie, Kate; Leonardos, Lefta; Baird, Paul N; Sahebjada, Srujana; Walsh, John P; Gajdatsy, Adam; Ebeling, Peter R; Hamblin, Peter Shane; Wong, Rosemary; Forehan, Simon P; Fourlanos, Spiros; Roberts, Anthony P; Doogue, Matthew; Selva, Dinesh; Montgomery, Grant W; Macgregor, Stuart; Craig, Jamie E

    2016-11-18

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune thyroid disease of complex inheritance. Multiple genetic susceptibility loci are thought to be involved in Graves' disease and it is therefore likely that these can be identified by genome wide association studies. This study aimed to determine if a genome wide association study, using a pooling methodology, could detect genomic loci associated with Graves' disease. Nineteen of the top ranking single nucleotide polymorphisms including HLA-DQA1 and C6orf10, were clustered within the Major Histo-compatibility Complex region on chromosome 6p21, with rs1613056 reaching genome wide significance (p = 5 × 10 -8 ). Technical validation of top ranking non-Major Histo-compatablity complex single nucleotide polymorphisms with individual genotyping in the discovery cohort revealed four single nucleotide polymorphisms with p ≤ 10 -4 . Rs17676303 on chromosome 1q23.1, located upstream of FCRL3, showed evidence of association with Graves' disease across the discovery, replication and combined cohorts. A second single nucleotide polymorphism rs9644119 downstream of DPYSL2 showed some evidence of association supported by finding in the replication cohort that warrants further study. Pooled genome wide association study identified a genetic variant upstream of FCRL3 as a susceptibility locus for Graves' disease in addition to those identified in the Major Histo-compatibility Complex. A second locus downstream of DPYSL2 is potentially a novel genetic variant in Graves' disease that requires further confirmation.

  17. Research on Cavitation Regions of Upstream Pumping Mechanical Seal Based on Dynamic Mesh Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huilong Chen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the cavitation area of the Upstream Pumping Mechanical Seal, three-dimensional microgap inner flow field of the Upstream Pumping Mechanical Seal was simulated with multiphase flow cavitation model and dynamic mesh technique based on hydrodynamic lubrication theory. Furthermore, the simulated result was compared with the experimental data. The results show that the simulated result with the Zwart-Gerber-Belamri cavitation model was much closer to the experimental data. The area of cavitation inception mainly occurred at the concave side of the spiral groove and surrounding region without spiral grooves, which was nearly covered by the inner diameter to roots of grooves; in addition, the region near the surface of the stationary ring was primary cavitation location. The area of cavitation has little relationship with the medium pressure; however, it became larger following increasing rotating speed in the range of researched operating conditions. Moreover the boundary of cavitated area was transformed from smooth to rough, which occurred in similar film thickness. When cavitation number was decreasing, which was conducive to improving the lubrication performance of sealed auxiliary, it made the sealing stability decline.

  18. Coral-inferred Variability of Upstream Kuroshio Current from 1953-2004 AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Yi, L.; Shen, C. C.; Hsin, Y. C.

    2016-12-01

    The Kuroshio Current (KC), one of the most important western boundary currents in the North Pacific Ocean, strongly impacts regional climate in East Asia and upper-ocean thermal structure. However, the responses of KC to regional and remote climate forcing are poorly understood owing to lacking of long-term KC observations. Here, we present a sea surface temperature (SST) record from 1953 to 2004 AD derived from monthly skeletal δ18O data of a living coral Porites core, drilled in Nanwan, southern Taiwan (22°N, 121°E), located on the western front of the Upstream KC. The increased/reduced Kuroshio transport would generate stronger/weaker upwelling in Southern Taiwan, which can cause lower/higher SST. Agreement between dynamics of interannual coral δ18O and modern KC data shows that the regional coral δ18O can be used as a promising proxy for Upstream KC intensity. The KC-induced SST anomaly record reveals prominent interannual and decadal variability predominantly controlled by the bifurcation latitude of North Equatorial Current. We also find that the reconstructed KC intensity at east of Taiwan and south of Japan have nearly simultaneous interannual changes, suggesting the same dominant forcing(s) for the entire KC system. Additional work is needed to understand the KC system with respect to the interannual to decadal climate variability and the influences of global warming.

  19. Increased risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma among upstream petroleum workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkeleit, Jorunn; Riise, Trond; Bjørge, Tone; Moen, Bente E; Bråtveit, Magne; Christiani, David C

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate cancer risk, particularly oesophageal cancer, among male upstream petroleum workers offshore potentially exposed to various carcinogenic agents. Methods Using the Norwegian Registry of Employers and Employees, 24 765 male offshore workers registered from 1981 to 2003 was compared with 283 002 male referents from the general working population matched by age and community of residence. The historical cohort was linked to the Cancer Registry of Norway and the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry. Results Male offshore workers had excess risk of oesophageal cancer (RR 2.6, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.8) compared with the reference population. Only the adenocarcinoma type had a significantly increased risk (RR 2.7, 95% CI 1.0 to 7.0), mainly because of an increased risk among upstream operators (RR 4.3, 95% CI 1.3 to 14.5). Upstream operators did not have significant excess of respiratory system or colon cancer or mortality from any other lifestyle-related diseases investigated. Conclusion We found a fourfold excess risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma among male workers assumed to have had the most extensive contact with crude oil. Due to the small number of cases, and a lack of detailed data on occupational exposure and lifestyle factors associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma, the results must be interpreted with caution. Nevertheless, given the low risk of lifestyle-related cancers and causes of death in this working group, the results add to the observations in other low-powered studies on oesophageal cancer, further suggesting that factors related to the petroleum stream or carcinogenic agents used in the production process might be associated with risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. PMID:19858535

  20. Effects of human activities on rivers located in protected areas of the Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Luisa Kuhlmann

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study evaluated the impacts of anthropogenic activities upstream of conservation areas on the Paraibuna river and its implications for freshwater biodiversity. METHODS: The study was carried out in two units, Cunha and Santa Virginia, of the Serra do Mar State Park (SP, located in the Atlantic Rain Forest. Five sampling sites were defined, four along the Paraibuna river and one in the Ipiranga river, the latter fully inserted into the protected area. Physical, chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicological data were obtained from surface water as well as aquatic macroinvertebrates. RESULTS: The results showed that the waters of the Paraibuna river have low anthropogenic interference. However, conductivity, turbidity, coliforms, iron, total phosphorus and nitrate showed a gradient improving its water quality from upstream to downstream, indicating the existence of erosion and introduction of organic debris in the basin. The BMWP index, varying from 58 to 190, also showed the good condition of the river to aquatic biota, with predominant Excellent quality diagnosis. The values of this index and the richness index (S outlined a similar gradient but with the lowest values recorded in P3. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the upstream activities alter the natural condition of the Paraibuna river and its biota and that the protected areas provides environmental services reducing these impacts. The ideal situation in order to ensure the conservation of the freshwater biota of the Paraibuna river would be the incorporation of parts of the upstream area into the protected area and convert occupied areas into Sustainable Use Area, that guarantee the adoption of sustainable techniques to the existing land uses and the application of aquatic life protection indicators for monitoring the water quality of the river.

  1. Electromagnetic ion beam instability upstream of the earth's bow shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, S.P.; Gosling, J.T.; Forslund, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    The linear theory of the electromagnetic ion beam instability for arbitrary angles of propagation has been studied. The parameters considered in the theory are typical of the solar wind upstream of the earth's bow shock when a 'reflected' proton beam is present. Maximum growth occurs for propagation parallel to the ambient field B, but this instability also displays significant growth at wave-vectors oblique to B, Oblique, unstable modes seem to be the likely source of the compressive magnetic fluctuations recently observed in conjunction with 'diffuse' ion population. An energetic ion beam does not directly give rise to linear growth of either ion acoustic or whistler mode instabilities

  2. Multiple upstream modules regulate zebrafish myf5 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng Chih-Wei

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myf5 is one member of the basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors, and it functions as a myogenic factor that is important for the specification and differentiation of muscle cells. The expression of myf5 is somite- and stage-dependent during embryogenesis through a delicate regulation. However, this complex regulatory mechanism of myf5 is not clearly understood. Results We isolated a 156-kb bacterial artificial chromosome clone that includes an upstream 80-kb region and a downstream 70-kb region of zebrafish myf5 and generated a transgenic line carrying this 156-kb segment fused to a green fluorescent protein (GFP reporter gene. We find strong GFP expression in the most rostral somite and in the presomitic mesoderm during segmentation stages, similar to endogenous myf5 expression. Later, the GFP signals persist in caudal somites near the tail bud but are down-regulated in the older, rostral somites. During the pharyngula period, we detect GFP signals in pectoral fin buds, dorsal rostral myotomes, hypaxial myotomes, and inferior oblique and superior oblique muscles, a pattern that also corresponds well with endogenous myf5 transcripts. To characterize the specific upstream cis-elements that regulate this complex and dynamic expression pattern, we also generated several transgenic lines that harbor various lengths within the upstream 80-kb segment. We find that (1 the -80 kb/-9977 segment contains a fin and cranial muscle element and a notochord repressor; (2 the -9977/-6213 segment contains a strong repressive element that does not include the notochord-specific repressor; (3 the -6212/-2938 segment contains tissue-specific elements for bone and spinal cord; (4 the -2937/-291 segment contains an eye enhancer, and the -2937/-2457 segment is required for notochord and myocyte expression; and (5 the -290/-1 segment is responsible for basal transcription in somites and the presomitic mesoderm. Conclusion We suggest

  3. Regulatory motifs for CREB-binding protein and Nfe2l2 transcription factors in the upstream enhancer of the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Jong S; Kozak, Leslie P

    2002-09-13

    Thermogenesis against cold exposure in mammals occurs in brown adipose tissue (BAT) through mitochondrial uncoupling protein (UCP1). Expression of the Ucp1 gene is unique in brown adipocytes and is regulated tightly. The 5'-flanking region of the mouse Ucp1 gene contains cis-acting elements including PPRE, TRE, and four half-site cAMP-responsive elements (CRE) with BAT-specific enhancer elements. In the course of analyzing how these half-site CREs are involved in Ucp1 expression, we found that a DNA regulatory element for NF-E2 overlaps CRE2. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and competition assays with the CRE2 element indicates that nuclear proteins from BAT, inguinal fat, and retroperitoneal fat tissue interact with the CRE2 motif (CGTCA) in a specific manner. A supershift assay using an antibody against the CRE-binding protein (CREB) shows specific affinity to the complex from CRE2 and nuclear extract of BAT. Additionally, Western blot analysis for phospho-CREB/ATF1 shows an increase in phosphorylation of CREB/ATF1 in HIB-1B cells after norepinephrine treatment. Transient transfection assay using luciferase reporter constructs also indicates that the two half-site CREs are involved in transcriptional regulation of Ucp1 in response to norepinephrine and cAMP. We also show that a second DNA regulatory element for NF-E2 is located upstream of the CRE2 region. This element, which is found in a similar location in the 5'-flanking region of the human and rodent Ucp1 genes, shows specific binding to rat and human NF-E2 by electrophoretic mobility shift assay with nuclear extracts from brown fat. Co-transfections with an Nfe2l2 expression vector and a luciferase reporter construct of the Ucp1 enhancer region provide additional evidence that Nfe2l2 is involved in the regulation of Ucp1 by cAMP-mediated signaling.

  4. Upstream oil and gas. Subsector no. 7: Oil and gas exploration and development 1995 to 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-01

    Prepared by the Alberta Human Resources and Employment, this report provides a summary of the lost-time injuries and disease descriptions of workers injured while employed in the upstream oil and gas industries in Alberta during the period 1995 to 1999. The report includes the characteristics of the injured worker and the risk of injury to workers in the industries in Alberta, as well as the cost of injuries and revenue by means of total premiums paid by the employers. The occupational fatalities that were accepted by the Workers Compensation Board and investigated by the Occupational Health and Safety were summarized in the report along with a brief description of the injuries. The aim was to provide information concerning health and safety issues to government, employers, workers, and health and safety officers in the industries in Alberta about health and safety issues. The focus was placed on the oil and gas exploration and development sub-sector. Defined as all upstream oil field activities of employers which generate revenue from the production and sale of crude oil and/or natural gas, the sub-sector comprises major integrated oil and gas companies and small independent producers. In those cases where the owner/producer operates its own upstream production/processing facilities, they form an integral part of this sub-section. In addition, oil and gas marketing firms are included. Oil/gas well, well head equipment; flow lines/gathering systems tied into field processing facilities; battery sites/compressors stations; crude oil separators and natural gas dehydrators/treaters; natural gas/sulfur processing plants; heavy oil projects including steam generation; and other enhanced recovery methods are all included in the sub-sector. The other sub-sectors in the upstream oil and gas industries are: exploration, oilfield maintenance and construction, well servicing with service rigs and power swivels, drilling of oil and gas wells, oilfield downhole and other

  5. Research on the resurrection evolution mechanism of Gendakan ancient landslide in the upstream on Lancang River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    H, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Gendakan ancient landslide is located on the West bank of the upstream on Lancang River and about 4 km downstream from the Gushui hydropower station dam site. The ancient landslide is 850 m long and 700 m wide, the drill cores show that the maximum thickness of the landslide body is 107 m, with a mean thickness of approximately 80 m. Thus, the overall volume is about 3000×104m3. At present, the landslide has obvious deformation and failure signs, the leading edge is collapsing step by step. Once the landslide is unstable, it will affect the construction and operation of the Gushui hydropower station. In this paper, the development characteristics of the landslide accumulation body and the characteristics of the resurrection deformation are summarized in detail from the regional geological environment of the Gandakan landslide accumulation body. The three-dimensional geological model is established to analyze the stress and strain, displacement change and deformation failure characteristics and further evaluate its resurrection evolution trend , Combined with the developmental characteristics of the typical rock mass in the nearshore slope of the engineering area, analyzes the process of the resurrection and evolution of the rooted landslide accumulation. The FLAC-3D finite difference software was used to analyze the shear strain increment, displacement and plastic zone of the landslide accumulation body under natural conditions and rainfall conditions. The results show: the Gendakan landslide is stable in the natural state, and its deformation and failure are mainly caused by the tensile and shearing of the surface, under the rainfall condition, the local deformation and failure of the landslide accumulation body is obvious and the resurrection deformation Intensified. The resurrection evolutionary process of Gendakan ancient landslide includes three steps below. 1) The landslide body trailing edge creep cracking, leading edge shear deformation. 2) Sliding

  6. ISEE/IMP Observations of simultaneous upstream ion events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchel, D.G.; Roelof, E.C.; Sanderson, T.R.; Reinhard, R.; Wenzel, K.

    1983-01-01

    Propagation of upstream energetic (50--200 keV) ions is analyzed in sixteen events observed simulataneously by solid state detectors on ISEE 3 at approx.200 R/sub E/ and on IMP 8 at approx.35 R/sub E/ from the earth. Conclusions are based on comparisons of the pitch angle distributions observed at the two spacecraft and transformed into the solar wind frame. They are beamlike at ISEE 3 and are confined to the outward hemisphere. When IMP 8 is furtherest from the bow shock, they are also usually beamlike, or hemispheric. However, when IMP 8 is closer to the bow shock, pancakelike distributions are observed. This systematic variation in the IMP 8 pitch angle distributions delimits a scattering region l< or approx. =14 R/sub E/ upstream of the earth's bow shock (l measured along the interplanetary magnetic field) that dominates ion propagation, influences the global distribution of fluxes in the foreshock, and may play a role in acceleration of the ions. When IMP 8 is beyond lapprox.15 R/sub E/, the propagation appears to be essentially scatter-free between IMP 8 and ISEE 3; this is deduced from the absence of earthward fluxes at IMP 8 as well as the tendency for the spin-averaged fluxes to be comparable at the two spacecraft

  7. EMMPRIN, an upstream regulator of MMPs, in CNS biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Deepak Kumar; Hahn, Jennifer Nancy; Yong, V Wee

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are engaged in pathologies associated with infections, tumors, autoimmune disorders and neurological dysfunctions. With the identification of an upstream regulator of MMPs, EMMPRIN (Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, CD147), it is relevant to address if EMMPRIN plays a role in the pathology of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. This would enable the possibility of a more upstream and effective therapeutic target. Indeed, conditions including gliomas, Alzheimer's disease (AD), multiple sclerosis (MS), and other insults such as hypoxia/ischemia show elevated levels of EMMPRIN which correlate with MMP production. In contrast, given EMMPRIN's role in CNS homeostasis with respect to regulation of monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) and interactions with adhesion molecules including integrins, we need to consider that EMMPRIN may also serve important regulatory or protective functions. This review summarizes the current understanding of EMMPRIN's involvement in CNS homeostasis, its possible roles in escalating or reducing neural injury, and the mechanisms of EMMPRIN including and apart from MMP induction. Copyright © 2015 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. ULF Waves Upstream from Planetary Bow Shocks: Application to the Interball-Tail Observations at the Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trotignon, J.G.; Rauch, J.L.; Klimov, S.; Nozdrachev, M.; Romanov, S.; Savin, S.; Skalsky, A.; Blecki, J.; Juchniewicz, J.; Amata, E.

    1999-01-01

    One of the outstanding problems in solar system plasma physics is the morphology of planetary and cometary foreshocks. A large variety of electron and ion velocity distribution functions, as well as electrostatic and electromagnetic waves phenomena, are indeed currently observed in these regions located upstream from, and magnetically connected to, bow shocks. Foreshocks being complex and highly dynamic, it is not easy to get a comprehensive description of them. Nevertheless, simple geometrical considerations can be of help to order foreshock structures. In light of the great number of results obtained in planetary foreshocks, which are briefly reviewed, we present an ongoing study of the upstream waves observed by the INTERBALL-TAIL magnetometers in the Ultra Low Frequency range. (author)

  9. Sequence-specific 1H NMR assignments, secondary structure, and location of the calcium binding site in the first epidermal growth factor like domain of blood coagulation factor IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, L.H.; Cheng, H.; Sweeney, W.V.; Pardi, A.; Tam, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Factor IX is a blood clotting protein that contains three regions, including a γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) domain, two tandemly connected epidermal growth factor like (EGF-like) domains, and a serine protease region. The protein exhibits a high-affinity calcium binding site in the first EGF0like domain, in addition to calcium binding in the Gla domain. The first EGF-like domain, factor IX (45-87), has been synthesized. Sequence-specific resonance assignment of the peptide has been made by using 2D NMR techniques, and its secondary structure has been determined. The protein is found to have two antiparallel β-sheets, and preliminary distance geometry calculations indicate that the protein has two domains, separated by Trp 28 , with the overall structure being similar to that of EGF. An NMR investigation of the calcium-bound first EGF-like domain indicates the presence and location of a calcium binding site involving residues on both strands of one of the β-sheets as well as the N-terminal region of the peptide. These results suggest that calcium binding in the first EGF-like domain could induce long-range (possibly interdomain) conformational changes in factor IX, rather than causing structural alterations in the EGF-like domain itself

  10. Upstream magnetospheric ion flux tube within a magnetic cloud: Wind/STICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Arik; Liemohn, Michael W.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

    2003-03-01

    We present a case study of a remarkable upstream O+ and N+ ion outflow event. We present observational evidence for spatially structured outflow of these Low Charge State Heavy Ions (LCSHIs) of magnetospheric origin along a small reconnected field line region within the framework of a magnetic cloud of an ICME. From the particles' in situ 3D distribution function we conclude that in this case the interaction of the outflow with the bow shock is small. We conclude further that the gyrophases of outflowing ions at the reconnection point are randomly distributed. This leads to the formation of a flux tube with a specific geometry. In particular, the outflow reveals spatial dispersion and non-gyrotropy. This result has implications for the size of the dayside reconnection site.

  11. Site decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicker, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    Among the several DOE sites that have been radiologically decontaminated under the auspices of the Nevada Operations Office are three whose physical characteristics are unique. These are the Tatum Dome Test Site (TDTS) near Hattiesburg, Mississippi; a location of mountainous terrain (Pahute Mesa) on the Nevada Test Site; and the GNOME site near Carlsbad, New Mexico. In each case the contamination, the terrain, and the climate conditions were different. This presentation includes a brief description of each site, the methods used to perform radiological surveys, the logistics required to support the decontamination (including health physics and sample analysis), and the specific techniques used to reduce or remove the contamination

  12. OGJ group weathered tough times upstream and downstream in 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggs, J.B.; Price, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    With an upstream sector hit by low oil and gas prices and downstream operations squeezed by weak petroleum demand, 1991, was a tough year for the group of 22 major integrated U.S. companies Oil and Gas Journal tracks. This paper reports that the brief respite caused by the oil price spike in second half 1990 ended abruptly early in first half 1991, and it turned into a year of buckling down for most companies. They shed non-core assets, implemented strategic restructuring moves, and reduced staff. Although low prices slowed overall drilling activity for the group, oil and gas production increased slightly, and most companies reported reserves gains. Recession in the U.S. and Europe depressed demand for the group's fined products enough to pinch downstream earnings even as buoyant Asia-Pacific demand helped jack up world product sales

  13. SAP and life-cycle management in the upstream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, B.

    1997-01-01

    Business relationships today depend more than ever on changing alliances and partnerships to leverage risk in a commodity market. SAP is a fully integrated, enterprise-wide software system that uses business processes tightly integrated around a common data model to facilitate these business relationships across the oil and gas supply chain. The SAP modules contain the business processes that are needed to handle the logistics and operations maintenance for operating an oil or gas field. Each industry has unique business-process requirements that the core SAP application set may not cover. In the oil and gas business, there are unique financial requirements in the upstream for working in joint ventures. In the downstream business segment, handling bulk hydrocarbons requires additional functionality

  14. Shape and shear guide sperm cells spiraling upstream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantsler, Vasily; Dunkel, Jorn; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2014-11-01

    A major puzzle in biology is how mammalian sperm determine and maintain the correct swimming direction during the various phases of the sexual reproduction process. Currently debated mechanisms for sperm long range travel vary from peristaltic pumping to temperature sensing (thermotaxis) and direct response to fluid flow (rheotaxis), but little is known quantitatively about their relative importance. Here, we report the first quantitative experimental study of mammalian sperm rheotaxis. Using microfluidic devices, we investigate systematically the swimming behavior of human and bull sperm over a wide range of physiologically relevant shear rates and viscosities. Our measurements show that the interplay of fluid shear, steric surface-interactions and chirality of the flagellar beat leads to a stable upstream spiraling motion of sperm cells, thus providing a generic and robust rectification mechanism to support mammalian fertilization. To rationalize these findings, we identify a minimal mathematical model that is capable of describing quantitatively the experimental observations.

  15. Interaction of Energetic Particles with Discontinuities Upstream of Strong Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkov, Mikhail; Diamond, Patrick

    2008-11-01

    Acceleration of particles in strong astrophysical shocks is known to be accompanied and promoted by a number of instabilities which are driven by the particles themselves. One of them is an acoustic (also known as Drury's) instability driven by the pressure gradient of accelerated particles upstream. The generated sound waves naturally steepen into shocks thus forming a shocktrain. Similar magnetoacoustic or Alfven type structures may be driven by pick-up ions, for example. We consider the solutions of kinetic equation for accelerated particles within the shocktrain. The accelerated particles are assumed to be coupled to the flow by an intensive pitch-angle scattering on the self-generated Alfven waves. The implications for acceleration and confinement of cosmic rays in this shock environment will be discussed.

  16. From Worker Health To Citizen Health: Moving Upstream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Martin-Jose

    2014-01-01

    New rapid growth economies, urbanization, health systems crises and “big data” are causing fundamental changes in social structures and systems including health. These forces for change have significant consequences for occupational and environmental medicine and will challenge the specialty to think beyond workers and workplaces as the principal locus of innovation for health and performance. These trends are placing great emphasis on upstream strategies for addressing the complex systems dynamics of the social determinants of health. The need to engage systems in communities for healthier workforces is a shift in orientation from worker and workplace centric to citizen and community centric. This change for occupational and environmental medicine requires extending systems approaches in the workplace to communities which are systems of systems and which require different skills, data, tools and partnerships. PMID:24284749

  17. Upstream Disaster Management to Support People Experiencing Homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundareswaran, Madura; Ghazzawi, Andrea; O'Sullivan, Tracey L

    2015-08-18

    The unique context of day-to-day living for people who are chronically homeless or living with housing insecurity puts them at high risk during community disasters. The impacts of extreme events, such as flooding, storms, riots, and other sources of community disruption, underscore the importance of preparedness efforts and fostering community resilience. This study is part of larger initiative focused on enhancing resilience and preparedness among high risk populations. The purpose of this study was to explore critical issues and strategies to promote resilience and disaster preparedness among people who are homeless in Canada. A sample of interviews (n=21) from key informants across Canada was analyzed to explore existing programs and supports for homeless populations. The data was selected from a larger sample of (n=43) interviews focused on programs and supports for people who are at heightened risk for negative impacts during disasters. Qualitative content analysis was used to extract emergent themes and develop a model of multi-level collaboration to support disaster resilience among people who are homeless. The results indicate there is a need for more upstream continuity planning, collaboration and communication between the emergency management sector and community service organizations that support people who are homeless. Prioritization and investment in the social determinants of health and community supports is necessary to promote resilience among this high-risk population. The findings from this study highlight the importance of acknowledging community support organizations as assets in disaster preparedness. Day-to-day resilience is an ongoing theme for people who are chronically homeless or living with housing insecurity. Upstream investment to build adaptive capacity and collaborate with community organizations is an important strategy to enhance community resilience.

  18. Explosion Clad for Upstream Oil and Gas Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banker, John G.; Massarello, Jack; Pauly, Stephane

    2011-01-01

    Today's upstream oil and gas facilities frequently involve the combination of high pressures, high temperatures, and highly corrosive environments, requiring equipment that is thick wall, corrosion resistant, and cost effective. When significant concentrations of CO2 and/or H2S and/or chlorides are present, corrosion resistant alloys (CRA) can become the material of choice for separator equipment, piping, related components, and line pipe. They can provide reliable resistance to both corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement. For these applications, the more commonly used CRA's are 316L, 317L and duplex stainless steels, alloy 825 and alloy 625, dependent upon the application and the severity of the environment. Titanium is also an exceptional choice from the technical perspective, but is less commonly used except for heat exchangers. Explosion clad offers significant savings by providing a relatively thin corrosion resistant alloy on the surface metallurgically bonded to a thick, lower cost, steel substrate for the pressure containment. Developed and industrialized in the 1960's the explosion cladding technology can be used for cladding the more commonly used nickel based and stainless steel CRA's as well as titanium. It has many years of proven experience as a reliable and highly robust clad manufacturing process. The unique cold welding characteristics of explosion cladding reduce problems of alloy sensitization and dissimilar metal incompatibility. Explosion clad materials have been used extensively in both upstream and downstream oil, gas and petrochemical facilities for well over 40 years. The explosion clad equipment has demonstrated excellent resistance to corrosion, embrittlement and disbonding. Factors critical to insure reliable clad manufacture and equipment design and fabrication are addressed.

  19. Explosion Clad for Upstream Oil and Gas Equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banker, John G.; Massarello, Jack; Pauly, Stephane

    2011-01-01

    Today's upstream oil and gas facilities frequently involve the combination of high pressures, high temperatures, and highly corrosive environments, requiring equipment that is thick wall, corrosion resistant, and cost effective. When significant concentrations of CO 2 and/or H 2 S and/or chlorides are present, corrosion resistant alloys (CRA) can become the material of choice for separator equipment, piping, related components, and line pipe. They can provide reliable resistance to both corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement. For these applications, the more commonly used CRA's are 316L, 317L and duplex stainless steels, alloy 825 and alloy 625, dependent upon the application and the severity of the environment. Titanium is also an exceptional choice from the technical perspective, but is less commonly used except for heat exchangers. Explosion clad offers significant savings by providing a relatively thin corrosion resistant alloy on the surface metallurgically bonded to a thick, lower cost, steel substrate for the pressure containment. Developed and industrialized in the 1960's the explosion cladding technology can be used for cladding the more commonly used nickel based and stainless steel CRA's as well as titanium. It has many years of proven experience as a reliable and highly robust clad manufacturing process. The unique cold welding characteristics of explosion cladding reduce problems of alloy sensitization and dissimilar metal incompatibility. Explosion clad materials have been used extensively in both upstream and downstream oil, gas and petrochemical facilities for well over 40 years. The explosion clad equipment has demonstrated excellent resistance to corrosion, embrittlement and disbonding. Factors critical to insure reliable clad manufacture and equipment design and fabrication are addressed.

  20. Upstream particles observed in the earth's foreshock region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastman, T.E.; Anderson, R.R.; Frank, L.A.; Parks, G.K.

    1981-01-01

    On the basis of primarily an extensive study of fully three-dimensional plasma data, we describe the interrelationships of the upstream particles and plasma waves observed in the earth's foreshock region. The University of Iowa LEPEDEAs detect ions and electrons from 1 eV to 45 keV over all except approx.2% of the unit sphere. Comparisons are made with high time resolution particle data obtained by the University of California (Berkeley) instruments and plasma wave data collected by the University of Iowa plasma wave instruments on the two ISEE spacecraft. The presence of ion beams or dispersed ion distributions is found to be a sufficient condition for the presence of electrostatic and electromagnetic wave emissions. Detailed correlations of ions with plasma waves down to a tenth of an ion gyroperiod indicate that ion acoustic emission is enhanced when increased anisotropies and gyrophase organization are observed. Time aliasing effects limit the interpretation of velocity distributions taken within the foreshock region. High time resolution correlations between the different instruments, however, demonstrate that time variations of a single isotropic or anisotropic distribution cannot produce the dispersed ion distributions. Detailed analysis of high time resolution data reveals that the upstream particles undergo significant spatial and temporal variations including gyrophase organization. Gyrophase organization comprises groups of ion clusters each one of which includes ions with similar pitch angles that gyrate together about a common guiding center. On the basis of our high time resolution analysis of three-dimensional plasma data combined with magnetic field and plasma wave data, we conclude that (1) ions observed in the foreshock region display gyrophase organization produced by ion clusters with a spatial scale <1 R/sub g/, and (2) dispersed ion distributions are produced primarily by direct sources at or near the bow shock

  1. Ocean Disposal Site Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is responsible for managing all designated ocean disposal sites. Surveys are conducted to identify appropriate locations for ocean disposal sites and to monitor the impacts of regulated dumping at the disposal sites.

  2. Comparison of accelerated ion populations observed upstream of the bow shocks at Venus and Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yamauchi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Foreshock ions are compared between Venus and Mars at energies of 0.6~20 keV using the same ion instrument, the Ion Mass Analyser, on board both Venus Express and Mars Express. Venus Express often observes accelerated protons (2~6 times the solar wind energy that travel away from the Venus bow shock when the spacecraft location is magnetically connected to the bow shock. The observed ions have a large field-aligned velocity compared to the perpendicular velocity in the solar wind frame, and are similar to the field-aligned beams and intermediate gyrating component of the foreshock ions in the terrestrial upstream region. Mars Express does not observe similar foreshock ions as does Venus Express, indicating that the Martian foreshock does not possess the intermediate gyrating component in the upstream region on the dayside of the planet. Instead, two types of gyrating protons in the solar wind frame are observed very close to the Martian quasi-perpendicular bow shock within a proton gyroradius distance. The first type is observed only within the region which is about 400 km from the bow shock and flows tailward nearly along the bow shock with a similar velocity as the solar wind. The second type is observed up to about 700 km from the bow shock and has a bundled structure in the energy domain. A traversal on 12 July 2005, in which the energy-bunching came from bundling in the magnetic field direction, is further examined. The observed velocities of the latter population are consistent with multiple specular reflections of the solar wind at the bow shock, and the ions after the second reflection have a field-aligned velocity larger than that of the de Hoffman-Teller velocity frame, i.e., their guiding center has moved toward interplanetary space out from the bow shock. To account for the observed peculiarity of the Martian upstream region, finite gyroradius effects of the solar wind protons compared to the radius of the bow shock curvature and

  3. Experimental investigation on the wake interference among wind turbines sited in atmospheric boundary layer winds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W. Tian; A. Ozbay; X. D. Wang; H.Hu

    2017-01-01

    We examined experimentally the effects of incom-ing surface wind on the turbine wake and the wake interfer-ence among upstream and downstream wind turbines sited in atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) winds. The experi-ment was conducted in a large-scale ABL wind tunnel with scaled wind turbine models mounted in different incom-ing surface winds simulating the ABL winds over typical offshore/onshore wind farms. Power outputs and dynamic loadings acting on the turbine models and the wake flow char-acteristics behind the turbine models were quantified. The results revealed that the incoming surface winds significantly affect the turbine wake characteristics and wake interference between the upstream and downstream turbines. The velocity deficits in the turbine wakes recover faster in the incoming surface winds with relatively high turbulence levels. Varia-tions of the power outputs and dynamic wind loadings acting on the downstream turbines sited in the wakes of upstream turbines are correlated well with the turbine wakes charac-teristics. At the same downstream locations, the downstream turbines have higher power outputs and experience greater static and fatigue loadings in the inflow with relatively high turbulence level, suggesting a smaller effect of wake inter-ference for the turbines sited in onshore wind farms.

  4. Upstream movements of Atlantic Salmon in the Lower Penobscot River, Maine following two dam removals and fish passage modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, Lisa K.; Maynard, George A.; Zydlewski, Joseph D.

    2016-01-01

    The Penobscot River Restoration Project (PRRP), to be completed in 2016, involved an extensive plan of dam removal, increases in hydroelectric capacity, and fish passage modifications to increase habitat access for diadromous species. As part of the PRRP, Great Works and Veazie dams were removed, making Milford Dam the first impediment to federally endangered Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar. Upstream habitat access for Atlantic Salmon is dependent upon successful and timely passage at Milford Dam because nearly all suitable spawning habitat is located upstream. In 2014 and 2015, a total of 73 adult salmon were radio-tagged to track their upstream movements through the Penobscot River to assess potential delays at (1) the dam remnants, (2) the confluence of the Stillwater Branch and the main stem of the Penobscot River below the impassable Orono Dam, and (3) the Milford Dam fish lift (installed in 2014). Movement rates through the dam remnants and the Stillwater confluence were comparable to open river reaches. Passage efficiency of the fish lift was high in both years (95% and 100%). However, fish experienced long delays at Milford Dam, with approximately one-third of fish taking more than a week to pass in each year, well below the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission passage standard of 95% within 48 h. Telemetry indicates most fish locate the fishway entrance within 5 h of arrival and were observed at the entrance at all hours of the day. These data indicate that overall transit times through the lower river were comparable to reported movement rates prior to changes to the Penobscot River due to the substantial delays seen at Milford Dam. The results of this study show that while adult Atlantic Salmon locate the new fish lift entrance quickly, passage of these fish was significantly delayed under 2014–2015 operations.

  5. Factors affecting food chain transfer of mercury in the vicinity of the Nyanza site, Sudbury River, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, T.A.; May, T.W.; Finlayson, R.T.; Mierzykowski, S.E.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of the Nyanza Chemical Waste Dump Superfund Site on the Sudbury River, Massachusetts, was assessed by analysis of sediment, fish prey organisms, and predator fish from four locations in the river system. Whitehall Reservoir is an impoundment upstream of the site, and Reservoir #2 is an impoundment downstream of the site. Cedar Street is a flowing reach upstream of the site, and Sherman Bridge is a flowing reach downstream of the site. Collections of material for analysis were made three times, in May, July, and October. Sediment was analyzed for acid-volatile sulfide (AVS), simultaneously-extracted (SEM) metals (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Sb, Zn), and total recoverable Hg. The dominant predatory fish species collected at all sites, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), was analyzed for the same suite of metals as sediment. Analysis of stomach contents of bass identified small fish (yellow perch Perca flavescens, bluegill Lepomis macrochirus, and pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus), crayfish, and dragonfly larvae as the dominant prey organisms. Samples of the prey were collected from the same locations and at the same times as predator fish, and were analyzed for total and methyl mercury. Results of AVS and SEM analyses indicated that sediments were not toxic to aquatic invertebrates at any site. The SEM concentrations of As, Cd, and Cr were significantly higher at Reservoir #2 than at the reference sites, and SEM As and Cd were significantly higher at Sherman Bridge than at Cedar St. Sediment total Hg was elevated only at Reservoir #2. Hg was higher at site-influenced locations in all fish species except brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus). Cd was higher in bluegill, black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), and brown bullhead, and Cr was higher in largemouth bass fillet samples but not in whole-body samples. There were no seasonal differences in sediment or prey organism metals, but some metals in some fish species did vary over time in an inconsistent manner

  6. Automation and control trends in the upstream sector of the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plucenio, Agustinho; Pagano, Daniel J. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos da ANP em Automacao, Controle e Instrumentacao para a Industria do Petroleo e Gas, PRH-34

    2004-07-01

    The need to continuously improve the aspects of Health, Safety and Environment to operators, installation's security, optimization of oil reservoir recovery in wells operating with different artificial lift methods, subject to different secondary recovery techniques, has motivated the development of technologies in the automation and control for the upstream sector of the oil industry. While the application of control and automation techniques is well established in the downstream sector of the oil industry that is not the case in the downstream sector. One tendency in this sector is the utilization of control via Field bus Networks. This technology uses equipment that communicate with each other in a two wire digital network and can be programmed to execute function blocks algorithms designed to perform a designed control strategy. The most noticeable benefits are the improvements in the process performance and the equipment reusability and interoperability. Proprietary solutions can be replaced by systems composed of equipment supplied by different manufacturers connected in the same network. These equipment operate according to a strategy designed by automation and control engineers under the supervision of professionals working in computer terminals located in different company departments. Other gains are a better understanding about the industry processes, application of optimization techniques, fault detection, equipment maintenance follow-up, and improved operators working conditions and workers qualification. Other tendencies are: permanent well monitoring. Either with installation of down hole sensors based on fiber grating sensors or surface sensors using embedded electronic processors. Developments of instrumentation technology for low cost multiphase flow measurements. Application of control techniques for flow regime control and optimization of reservoir recovery through better identification, optimization and Model Based Predictive Control

  7. Analysis of Runoff due to The Change in Land Use at The Watershed of Upstream Ciliwung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Indriastuti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change has triggered extreme climate such as rising temperature, high rainfall intensity, rising sea water level, drought, and others (Thuc, 2014. Challenges of sustainable development are increases in various disasters, climate change and global crisis such as land use change, soil quality degradation, limited water and mineral, environmental pollution, and decreasing in biodiversity. The cause of flooding in Jakarta is due to the overflow of Ciliwung River. The changes of land use greatly affect Ciliwung River flow. Land degradation in upstream of Ciliwung watershed (Puncak area has triggered new problem, annual flooding, especially in downstream area. The change of surface which cannot accommodate water, increasing runoff, moreover, the change of land condition which easily saturated, greatly affected the runoff conditions in Ciliwung watershed. This research using HEC-HMS software in order to know how the land uses changes and rainfall intensity affected the runoff. By using land use maps in 2000, 2005, 2010, and rainfall data in 5 (five rainfall station near location from 1996 to 2013, it can be known how the runoff changes. Parameter calibration is done with measured discharge in Katulampa weir for each occurrence. The parameter value used in simulation later is the real value approach. Simulation by HEC HMS using CN of Spatial Planning in Ciliwung upstream area and rainfall 25 years return period gives that the highest discharge is 226.25 m3/second and water level reaches to 317 cm. If included into the alert in Katulampa weir, then the condition faces to Alert 1 for during ±6 hours.

  8. Differences in sedge fen vegetation upstream and downstream from a managed impoundment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Kurt P.; Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposed the restoration of wetlands impacted by a series of drainage ditches and pools located in an extensive undeveloped peatland in the Seney National Wildlife Refuge, Michigan. This study examined the nature and extent of degradation to the Marsh Creek wetlands caused by alteration of natural hydrology by a water-storage pool (C-3 Pool) that intersects the Marsh Creek channel. We tested the hypothesis that a reduction in moderate-intensity disturbance associated with natural water-level fluctuations below the C-3 dike contributed to lower species richness, reduced floristic quality and a larger tree and shrub component than vegetation upstream from the pool. Wetland plant communities were sampled quantitatively and analyzed for species richness, floristic quality and physiognomy. Aerial photographs, GIS databases and GPS data contributed to the characterization and analysis of the Marsh Creek wetlands. Results showed that there was lower species richness in vegetated areas downstream from the pool, but not the anticipated growth in shrubs. Wetland vegetation upstream and downstream from the pool had similar floristic quality, except for a greater number of weedy taxa above the pool. Seepage through the pool dike and localized ground-water discharge created conditions very similar to those observed around beaver dams in Marsh Creek. In essence, the dike containing the C-3 Pool affected hydrology and wetland plant communities in a manner similar to an enormous beaver dam, except that it did not allow seasonal flooding episodes to occur. Management actions to release water from the pool into the original Marsh Creek channel at certain times and in certain amounts that mimic the natural flow regime would be expected to promote greater plant species richness and minimize the negative impacts of the dike.

  9. Suspension, abandonment, decontamination, and surface land reclamation of upstream oil and gas facilities : informational letter IL 98-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This release of the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) is intended to clarify the jurisdictional roles of Alberta Environmental Protection (AEP) and the EUB with regard to their respective responsibilities for the regulation of the suspension, abandonment, decontamination and surface land reclamation of active and inactive upstream oil and gas facilities. The EUB, AEP and industrial operators all have separate roles and responsibilities when active and inactive upstream facilities are suspended or reclaimed. In the future, industry operators will have more interaction with the AEP during the decontamination of a site, while the EUB will concentrate on pollution prevention and abandonment of non-economic facilities. All oilfield waste generated from suspension, abandonment, decontamination, and surface land reclamation of an active or inactive upstream oil and gas facility will fall under the jurisdiction of the EUB. Contaminated soils, sludges, and waters that are physically removed as a result of decontamination activities are considered to be oilfield wastes. The regulatory responsibility between the AEP and the EUB remains unchanged for the reclamation process of on-lease and off-lease spills, releases or pipeline breaks. Industry operators are no longer allowed to discharge any produced liquid to earthen pits or ponds and are encouraged to reclaim existing ones. 3 figs

  10. Functional promoter upstream p53 regulatory sequence of IGFBP3 that is silenced by tumor specific methylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanafusa, Tadashi; Shinji, Toshiyuki; Shiraha, Hidenori; Nouso, Kazuhiro; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Yumoto, Eichiro; Ono, Toshiro; Koide, Norio

    2005-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 functions as a carrier of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in circulation and a mediator of the growth suppression signal in cells. There are two reported p53 regulatory regions in the IGFBP3 gene; one upstream of the promoter and one intronic. We previously reported a hot spot of promoter hypermethylation of IGFBP-3 in human hepatocellular carcinomas and derivative cell lines. As the hot spot locates at the putative upstream p53 consensus sequences, these p53 consensus sequences are really functional is a question to be answered. In this study, we examined the p53 consensus sequences upstream of the IGFBP-3 promoter for the p53 induced expression of IGFBP-3. Deletion, mutagenesis, and methylation constructs of IGFBP-3 promoter were assessed in the human hepatoblastoma cell line HepG2 for promoter activity. Deletions and mutations of these sequences completely abolished the expression of IGFBP-3 in the presence of p53 overexpression. In vitro methylation of these p53 consensus sequences also suppressed IGFBP-3 expression. In contrast, the expression of IGFBP-3 was not affected in the absence of p53 overexpression. Further, we observed by electrophoresis mobility shift assay that p53 binding to the promoter region was diminished when methylated. From these observations, we conclude that four out of eleven p53 consensus sequences upstream of the IGFBP-3 promoter are essential for the p53 induced expression of IGFBP-3, and hypermethylation of these sequences selectively suppresses p53 induced IGFBP-3 expression in HepG2 cells

  11. Folate deficiency facilitates recruitment of upstream binding factor to hot spots of DNA double-strand breaks of rRNA genes and promotes its transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiu; Li, Caihua; Song, Xiaozhen; Wu, Lihua; Jiang, Qian; Qiu, Zhiyong; Cao, Haiyan; Yu, Kaihui; Wan, Chunlei; Li, Jianting; Yang, Feng; Huang, Zebing; Niu, Bo; Jiang, Zhengwen; Zhang, Ting

    2017-03-17

    The biogenesis of ribosomes in vivo is an essential process for cellular functions. Transcription of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes is the rate-limiting step in ribosome biogenesis controlled by environmental conditions. Here, we investigated the role of folate antagonist on changes of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) landscape in mouse embryonic stem cells. A significant DSB enhancement was detected in the genome of these cells and a large majority of these DSBs were found in rRNA genes. Furthermore, spontaneous DSBs in cells under folate deficiency conditions were located exclusively within the rRNA gene units, representing a H3K4me1 hallmark. Enrichment H3K4me1 at the hot spots of DSB regions enhanced the recruitment of upstream binding factor (UBF) to rRNA genes, resulting in the increment of rRNA genes transcription. Supplement of folate resulted in a restored UBF binding across DNA breakage sites of rRNA genes, and normal rRNA gene transcription. In samples from neural tube defects (NTDs) with low folate level, up-regulation of rRNA gene transcription was observed, along with aberrant UBF level. Our results present a new view by which alterations in folate levels affects DNA breakage through epigenetic control leading to the regulation of rRNA gene transcription during the early stage of development. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Annual and seasonal variations In the gamma activities in Sava river sediments upstream and downstream of NPP Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stipe, Lulic

    2006-01-01

    Results of the five years monitoring of artificial and natural occurring radionuclides in the Sava river sediments are presented. Measurements were conducted as a part of the regular Krsko Nuclear Power Plant radioactivity control and the independent supervisions of the input of radionuclides into larger environment (immission). In order to estimate seasonal variations samples were taken from seven locations (one upstream and five downstream of the Krsko NPP) during four sampling period (seasonal) in each year. Selected radionuclides in the sediment fraction less than 0.5 mm were determined with gamma spectrometer equipped with BE3830 model High Purity Ge detector with 30% relative efficiency. (authors)

  13. Annual and seasonal variations In the gamma activities in Sava river sediments upstream and downstream of NPP Krsko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stipe, Lulic [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Lab. for radioecology, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2006-07-01

    Results of the five years monitoring of artificial and natural occurring radionuclides in the Sava river sediments are presented. Measurements were conducted as a part of the regular Krsko Nuclear Power Plant radioactivity control and the independent supervisions of the input of radionuclides into larger environment (immission). In order to estimate seasonal variations samples were taken from seven locations (one upstream and five downstream of the Krsko NPP) during four sampling period (seasonal) in each year. Selected radionuclides in the sediment fractiess than 0.5 mm were determined with gamma spectrometer equipped with BE3830 model High Purity Ge detector with 30% relative efficiency. (authors)

  14. How will climate change policy affect upstream oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyndman, R.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation outlined the status of climate change policies in Canada and Alberta for large industry with particular reference to the effect that the policies may have on upstream oil and gas. Global climate change and energy use was outlined along with what actions that should be taken to secure energy supplies and stabilize greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. An economic model projection of global carbon dioxide emissions without the Kyoto agreement was presented. Global action on climate change will likely include greater efforts in energy efficiency to slow the growth in demand for energy. However, demand for oil and gas is still likely to increase in the next few decades due to a growing population worldwide. The author emphasized that developing countries should not forgo economic growth to avoid higher energy use. It was argued that Canadian climate change policies are out of line with the global climate change effort because they focus on short-term reductions rather than developing technologies. The policies also divert investment to competing suppliers that do not impose GHG costs, with no global GHG benefit. The author described why Alberta climate change policy rejects the Kyoto target. Natural Resource Canada's approach to large industrial emitters was also discussed along with a proposed policy framework by the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) for long term certainty. 2 tabs., 12 figs

  15. Atmospheric emissions from the upstream oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, B.G.S.

    1994-01-01

    The results are presented of a study set up to determine the nature and levels of atmospheric emissions resulting from United Kingdom oil and gas exploration and production activities. The study was commissioned by the UK Offshore Operators Association. Emissions by the upstream oil and gas industry of common pollutants, such as carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrous oxide, and ozone depletion chemicals were shown in each case to be less than 1% of total UK emissions. Greenhouse gas emissions in the industry arise mainly from production operations with a small but significant contribution from onshore activities. Carbon dioxide is the major component followed in descending order by nitrogen oxides, methane and volatile organic compounds. In 1991, these emissions formed 3.2%, 4.6%, 2.9% and 2.8% of the UK totals respectively; overall this represented only about 3% of UK global warming emissions. The evidence of this study illustrates that the industry, which produces 67% of the UK's primary energy, is successfully managing its operations in an environmentally responsible way. (3 figures, 3 tables) (UK)

  16. Conserved upstream open reading frames in higher plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schultz Carolyn J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upstream open reading frames (uORFs can down-regulate the translation of the main open reading frame (mORF through two broad mechanisms: ribosomal stalling and reducing reinitiation efficiency. In distantly related plants, such as rice and Arabidopsis, it has been found that conserved uORFs are rare in these transcriptomes with approximately 100 loci. It is unclear how prevalent conserved uORFs are in closely related plants. Results We used a homology-based approach to identify conserved uORFs in five cereals (monocots that could potentially regulate translation. Our approach used a modified reciprocal best hit method to identify putative orthologous sequences that were then analysed by a comparative R-nomics program called uORFSCAN to find conserved uORFs. Conclusion This research identified new genes that may be controlled at the level of translation by conserved uORFs. We report that conserved uORFs are rare (

  17. Superfund Site Information - Site Sampling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes Superfund site-specific sampling information including location of samples, types of samples, and analytical chemistry characteristics of...

  18. "Upstream Thinking": the catchment management approach of a water provider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand-Clement, E.; Ross, M.; Smith, D.; Anderson, K.; Luscombe, D.; Le Feuvre, N.; Brazier, R. E.

    2012-04-01

    Human activities have large impacts on water quality and provision. Water companies throughout the UK are faced with the consequences of poor land management and need to find appropriate solutions to decreasing water quality. This is particularly true in the South West of England, where 93% of the drinking water is sourced from rivers and reservoirs: large areas of drained peatlands (i.e. Exmoor and Dartmoor National Parks) are responsible for a significant input of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) discolouring the water, whilst poorly managed farming activities can lead to diffuse pollution. Alongside the direct environmental implications, poor water quality is partly increasing water treatment costs and will drive significant future investment in additional water treatment, with further repercussions on customers. This highlights the need for water companies throughout the UK, and further afield, to be more involved in catchment management. "Upstream Thinking" is South West Water's (SWW) approach to catchment management, where working with stakeholders to improve water quality upstream aims to avoid increasingly costly solutions downstream. This approach has led the company to invest in two major areas of work: (1) The Farmland programme where problematic farm management practices and potential solutions are identified, typically 40% of the required investment is then offered in exchange for a legal undertaking to maintain the new farm assets in good condition for 25 years; (2) The Mires programme which involves heavy investment in peatland restoration through the blocking of open ditches in order to improve water storage and quality in the long term. From these two projects, it has been clear that stakeholder involvement of groups such as local farmers, the Westcountry Rivers Trust, the Exmoor National Park Authority, the Environment Agency, Natural England and the Exmoor Society is essential, first because it draws in catchment improvement expertise which is not

  19. Oman: Current status, upstream and export developments, investment opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeet, I.

    1994-01-01

    Oil production in Oman has consistently increased since 1980 to reach its current level of ca 800,000 bbl/d. Reserves total ca 5 billion bbl and gas reserves are over 20 trillion ft 3 , of which a third is being dedicated for export. The main operator is Petroleum Development Oman (PDO), which is 60% owned by the Omani government. Some production areas are taken up by other companies under production sharing contracts. Gas is used for local industrial purposes and a third of gas reserves are being dedicated to a liquefied natural gas export scheme planned to be on-stream by 2000. The government has been seeking foreign investment and increasing private-sector participation, an example being a Belgian-Omani consortium to construct a 100-MW gas-fired power station. However, opportunities for investing in the upstream oil/gas sector are limited since most prospective areas have already been taken up. The economic, political, and social problems which may affect future investment are discussed. Oman is essentially a one-resource economy and declines in oil prices have led to widening government deficits. Social expectations created by the oil-financed welfare state make it difficult for government expenditures to be cut back. There is lack of public debate in the state-controlled media and no public participation in policy and decision making. There is a perception of widening corruption in government and a nascent movement toward a more rigid Islamic view of society. Controls are needed to maintain a reasonable balance between oil revenues and public expenditures, while pressures from an increasingly literate and numerous population will demand changes to the traditional autocratic system of government. 5 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Predicting functional upstream open reading frames in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiansson Erik

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some upstream open reading frames (uORFs regulate gene expression (i.e., they are functional and can play key roles in keeping organisms healthy. However, how uORFs are involved in gene regulation is not yet fully understood. In order to get a complete view of how uORFs are involved in gene regulation, it is expected that a large number of experimentally verified functional uORFs are needed. Unfortunately, wet-experiments to verify that uORFs are functional are expensive. Results In this paper, a new computational approach to predicting functional uORFs in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is presented. Our approach is based on inductive logic programming and makes use of a novel combination of knowledge about biological conservation, Gene Ontology annotations and genes' responses to different conditions. Our method results in a set of simple and informative hypotheses with an estimated sensitivity of 76%. The hypotheses predict 301 further genes to have 398 novel functional uORFs. Three (RPC11, TPK1, and FOL1 of these 301 genes have been hypothesised, following wet-experiments, by a related study to have functional uORFs. A comparison with another related study suggests that eleven of the predicted functional uORFs from genes LDB17, HEM3, CIN8, BCK2, PMC1, FAS1, APP1, ACC1, CKA2, SUR1, and ATH1 are strong candidates for wet-lab experimental studies. Conclusions Learning based prediction of functional uORFs can be done with a high sensitivity. The predictions made in this study can serve as a list of candidates for subsequent wet-lab verification and might help to elucidate the regulatory roles of uORFs.

  1. Innovation and performance: The case of the upstream petroleum sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, A. C. Jai

    This thesis investigates innovation in the upstream crude oil and natural gas sector, a strategic part of the Canadian economy and a vital industry for North American energy trade and security. Significant interest exists in understanding innovation in this sector from a private and public policy perspective. Interest in the sector has intensified recently due to concerns about world oil supply, Canada's oil sands development, and the potential that Canada may become an "energy superpower." The study examines the factors that drive companies involved in exploration, development, and production in the upstream petroleum sector to innovate and the impact of their innovation activities through major technologies on their performance. The thesis focuses on process innovation, which involves the adoption of new or significantly improved production processes, and is distinct from product innovation, which is based on the development and commercialization of a product with improved product characteristics to deliver new services to the consumer. The thesis provides a comprehensive review of the literature and develops an investigative model framework to examine the drivers of innovation and the impact of innovation on performance in the upstream petroleum sector. The research employs a survey questionnaire that was developed to obtain data and information, which was missing in the literature or not publicly available to test key relationships of innovation and performance indicators. In addition to the survey questionnaire, a number of knowledgeable experts in the industry were also interviewed. A total of 68 respondents completed the survey questionnaire, accounting for 40 percent of the firms in the industry. This percentage goes up to over 50 percent when account is taken of extremely small firms who could not fill out the survey. Further, the 68 respondents account for most of the industry revenues, production, and employment. The respondents include most of the key

  2. Ames Laboratory Site Environmental Report, Calendar year 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The summarized data and conclusions from the Ames Laboratory environmental monitoring program are presented in this Annual Site Environmental Report. Pollution awareness and waste minimization programs and plans implemented in 1990 are continuing to date. Ames Laboratory (AL) is responsible for a small chemical burial site, located on ISU property. The site was used for the disposal of chemical and metal slags from thorium and uranium production. Samples of water from existing test wells, and upstream and downstream sites on the nearby Squaw Creek, have not detected migration of the buried materials off site. Surface, hand auger and deep boring soil samples have been collected from the site. The analytical results are pending, Six new monitoring wells have been installed and sampled. Analytical results are pending. Ames Laboratory is responsible for an area contaminated by diesel fuel that leaked from an underground storage tank (UST) in 1970. The tank was removed that year. Soil borings and groundwater have been analyzed for contamination and a preliminary assessment written. Nine small inactive waste sites have been identified for characterization. The NEPA review for this work resulted in a CX determination. The work plans were approved by AL and CH. A subcontractor has surveyed and sampled the sites. Analytical results are pending

  3. Localização de áreas de monitoramento telemétrico em ambientes aquáticos da Amazônia Location of telemetric monitoring sites in Amazon floodplain lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bergier Tavares de Lima

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho demonstra a aplicabilidade de imagens de sensoriamento remoto e de métodos de processamento de imagens digitais para definição de locais adequados à instalação de sistemas telemétricos de monitoramento de variáveis ambientais em sistemas aquáticos, localizados em regiões de difícil acesso. A técnica consiste essencialmente da aplicação de operações Booleanas entre mapas da pluma do Rio Amazonas e de zonas inundadas do Lago de Curuai em diferentes etapas do ciclo hidrológico. A localização exata para o sistema de monitoramento telemétrico será vital para o desenvolvimento de modelos de troca de gases traço entre a planície de inundação Amazônica e a atmosfera.The present work illustrates the application of remote sensing and image processing methods to define appropriate sites for installing buoy moored telemetric systems at the surface of Amazon floodplain lakes for long-term limnologic-micrometeorologic monitoring. The technique consists essentially of Boolean operations over Amazon plume maps and historic inundation of the Curuai Lake at distinct stages of the hydrologic cycle. The precise location for the long-term monitoring is vital to the development of models concerning air-water trace gas exchange in the Amazon floodplains.

  4. Analysis of key thresholds leading to upstream dependencies in global transboundary water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munia, Hafsa Ahmed; Guillaume, Joseph; Kummu, Matti; Mirumachi, Naho; Wada, Yoshihide

    2017-04-01

    Transboundary water bodies supply 60% of global fresh water flow and are home to about 1/3 of the world's population; creating hydrological, social and economic interdependencies between countries. Trade-offs between water users are delimited by certain thresholds, that, when crossed, result in changes in system behavior, often related to undesirable impacts. A wide variety of thresholds are potentially related to water availability and scarcity. Scarcity can occur because of the country's own water use, and that is potentially intensified by upstream water use. In general, increased water scarcity escalates the reliance on shared water resources, which increases interdependencies between riparian states. In this paper the upstream dependencies of global transboundary river basins are examined at the scale of sub-basin areas. We aim to assess how upstream water withdrawals cause changes in the scarcity categories, such that crossing thresholds is interpreted in terms of downstream dependency on upstream water availability. The thresholds are defined for different types of water availability on which a sub-basin relies: - reliable local runoff (available even in a dry year), - less reliable local water (available in the wet year), - reliable dry year inflows from possible upstream area, and - less reliable wet year inflows from upstream. Possible upstream withdrawals reduce available water downstream, influencing the latter two water availabilities. Upstream dependencies have then been categorized by comparing a sub-basin's scarcity category across different water availability types. When population (or water consumption) grows, the sub-basin satisfies its needs using less reliable water. Thus, the factors affecting the type of water availability being used are different not only for each type of dependency category, but also possibly for every sub- basin. Our results show that, in the case of stress (impacts from high use of water), in 104 (12%) sub- basins out of

  5. [Characteristics of mercury pollution in soil and atmosphere in Songhua River upstream Jia-pi-gou gold mining area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang; Wang, Ning; Wang, Yuan; Liu, Te; Ai, Jian-Chao

    2012-09-01

    In the studied area of Jia-pi-gou at the upstream area of Songhua River, algamation process has been applied as a dominant method to extract gold for more than one hundred and eighty years, resulting in severe mercury environmental pollution. The total mercury contents in the atmosphere and soil have been determined by mercury analyzer (Zeeman RA915+) and cold atomic absorption spectrophotometry (GB/T 17136-1997), respectively. To study the pollution characteristics of mercury in the soil and atmosphere, the mercury flux at the interface between the soil and the atmosphere of 4 sampling sites Lao-jin-chang, Er-dao-gou, Er-dao-cha and community of Jia-pi-gou have been determined with the method of dynamic flux chamber. Furthermore, linear regression analyses on the total mercury contents between soil and atmosphere have been carried out and the correlation coefficient of mercury exchange flux between soil and atmosphere and meteorological factors has been studied. The results are as follows: (1) The mean value of mercury content in the atmosphere is (71.08 +/- 38.22) ng x m(-3). (2) The mean value of mercury content in the soil is (0.913 1 +/- 0.040 8) mg x kg(-1); it shows remarkably positive correlation between the mercury contents in soil and in the atmosphere. (3) The mercury exchange flux between soil and atmosphere in different locations are Lao-jin-chang [(129.13 +/- 496.07) ng (m2 x h)(-1)], Er-dao-gou [(98.64 +/- 43.96) ng x (m2 x h)(-1)], Er-dao-cha [(23.17 +/- 171.23) ng x (m2 x h)(-1)], and community of Jia-pi-gou [(7.12 +/- 46.33) ng x (m2 x h)(-1)]. (4) Solar radiation is the major influential factor in the mercury exchange flux between the soil and atmosphere in Lao-jin-chang, Er-dao-cha and community of Jia-pi-gou. Solar radiation, air temperature and soil temperature jointly influence the process of the mercury exchange flux between the soil and atmosphere in Er-dao-gou. Under the disturbance of terrain, three noticeably distinctive trend features

  6. Recharge-area nuclear waste repository in southeastern Sweden. Demonstration of hydrogeologic siting concepts and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provost, A.M.; Voss, C.I.

    2001-11-01

    Nuclear waste repositories located in regional ground-water recharge ('upstream') areas may provide the safety advantage that potentially released radionuclides would have long travel time and path length, and large path volume, within the bedrock before reaching the biosphere. Nuclear waste repositories located in ground-water discharge ('downstream') areas likely have much shorter travel time and path length and smaller path volume. Because most coastal areas are near the primary discharge areas for regional ground-water flow, coastal repositories may have a lower hydrogeologic safety margin than 'upstream' repositories located inland. Advantageous recharge-area sites may be located through careful use of regional three-dimensional, variable-density, ground-water modeling. Because of normal limitations of site-characterization programs in heterogeneous bedrock environments, the hydrogeologic structure and properties of the bedrock will generally remain unknown at the spatial scales required for the model analysis, and a number of alternative bedrock descriptions are equally likely. Model simulations need to be carried out for the full range of possible descriptions. The favorable sites are those that perform well for all of the modeled bedrock descriptions. Structural heterogeneities in the bedrock and local undulations in water-table topography, at a scale finer than considered by a given model, also may cause some locations in favored inland areas to have very short flow paths (of only hundreds of meters) and short travel times, compromising the long times and paths (of many kilometers) predicted by the analysis for these sites. However, in the absence of more detailed modeling, the favored upstream sites offer a greater chance of achieving long times and paths than do downstream discharge areas, where times and paths are expected to be short regardless of the level of detail included in the model. As an example of this siting approach, potential repository

  7. 7 CFR 1924.106 - Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Location. 1924.106 Section 1924.106 Agriculture... CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR Planning and Performing Site Development Work § 1924.106 Location. (a) General. It is... will not finance development on locations that adversely affect properties which are listed or are...

  8. Deletions Involving Long-Range Conserved Nongenic Sequences Upstream and Downstream of FOXL2 as a Novel Disease-Causing Mechanism in Blepharophimosis Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Beysen, D.; Raes, J.; Leroy, B. P.; Lucassen, A.; Yates, J. R. W.; Clayton-Smith, J.; Ilyina, H.; Brooks, S. Sklower; Christin-Maitre, S.; Fellous, M.; Fryns, J. P.; Kim, J. R.; Lapunzina, P.; Lemyre, E.; Meire, F.

    2005-01-01

    The expression of a gene requires not only a normal coding sequence but also intact regulatory regions, which can be located at large distances from the target genes, as demonstrated for an increasing number of developmental genes. In previous mutation studies of the role of FOXL2 in blepharophimosis syndrome (BPES), we identified intragenic mutations in 70% of our patients. Three translocation breakpoints upstream of FOXL2 in patients with BPES suggested a position effect. Here, we identifie...

  9. Ames Laboratory Site Environmental Report, Calendar year 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathison, L.

    1991-01-01

    The summarized data and conclusions from the Ames Laboratory environmental monitoring program are presented in this Annual Site Environmental Report. This program is a working requirement of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5484.1, ''Environmental Protection, Safety, and Health Protection Information Reporting Requirements'' and Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental Protection Program.'' Ames Laboratory is located on the campus of Iowa State University (ISU) and occupies several buildings owned by the DOE. The Laboratory also leases space in ISU-owned buildings. Laboratory research activities involve less than ten percent of the total chemical use and one percent of the radioisotope use on the ISU campus. Ames Laboratory is responsible for a small chemical burial site, located on ISU property. The site was used for the disposal of chemical and metal slags from thorium and uranium production. Samples of water from existing test wells and upstream and downstream sites on the nearby Squaw Creek show no detectable migration of the contents of the burial site. A Site Assessment plan submitted to the State of Iowa Department of Natural Resources (DNR) was approved. A Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study work plan has been completed for additional studies at the site. This has been reviewed and approved by the DOE Chicago Field Office and the DNR. A National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) review of the site resulted in a categorical exclusion finding which has been approved by the DOE. Ames Laboratory has an area contaminated by diesel fuel at the location of a storage tank which was removed in 1970. Soil corings and groundwater have been analyzed for contamination and an assessment written. Pollution awareness and waste minimization programs and plans were implemented in 1990. Included in this effort was the implementation of a waste white paper and green computer paper recycling program

  10. A semiquantitative theory for the 2fp radiation observed upstream from the earth's bow shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairns, I.H.

    1988-01-01

    A semiquantitative theory for the 2f p radiation observed upstream from the Earth's bow shock is presented: the radiation is produced by the process L + L → T + S, proceeding as two sequential three-wave steps L → L' + S and L + L' → T, in the foreshock where nonthermal L and S waves are observed. (Here L, S, and T denote Langmuir, ion acoustic, and transverse electromagnetic waves, respectively.) This theory is consistent with all the available wave data, including the characteristics and levels of a class of low-frequency waves identified as S wave products of the process L → L' + S, and the brightness temperature and bandwidth of the 2f p radiation. Indeed the theory could account for higher 2f p brightness temperatures if required. Predictions of the theory suitable for observational testing include (1) the existence of two 2f p sources, one to each wing of the foreshock, (2) the spatial location of the source regions, and (3) the characteristics and levels of the product L' and S waves in the source regions. The radiation should (4) have intrinsic bandwidths of the order of 1 kHz or less, (5) be less than 0.1% circularly polarized, and (6) have a limiting brightness temperature equal to the effective temperature T L of the L waves producing the radiation

  11. Numerical Analyses of Earthquake Induced Liquefaction and Deformation Behaviour of an Upstream Tailings Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Auchar Zardari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Much of the seismic activity of northern Sweden consists of micro-earthquakes occurring near postglacial faults. However, larger magnitude earthquakes do occur in Sweden, and earthquake statistics indicate that a magnitude 5 event is likely to occur once every century. This paper presents dynamic analyses of the effects of larger earthquakes on an upstream tailings dam at the Aitik copper mine in northern Sweden. The analyses were performed to evaluate the potential for liquefaction and to assess stability of the dam under two specific earthquakes: a commonly occurring magnitude 3.6 event and a more extreme earthquake of magnitude 5.8. The dynamic analyses were carried out with the finite element program PLAXIS using a recently implemented constitutive model called UBCSAND. The results indicate that the magnitude 5.8 earthquake would likely induce liquefaction in a limited zone located below the ground surface near the embankment dikes. It is interpreted that stability of the dam may not be affected due to the limited extent of the liquefied zone. Both types of earthquakes are predicted to induce tolerable magnitudes of displacements. The results of the postseismic slope stability analysis, performed for a state after a seismic event, suggest that the dam is stable during both the earthquakes.

  12. A Location Privacy Aware Friend Locator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siksnys, Laurynas; Thomsen, Jeppe Rishede; Saltenis, Simonas

    2009-01-01

    to trade their location privacy for quality of service, limiting the attractiveness of the services. The challenge is to develop a communication-efficient solution such that (i) it detects proximity between a user and the user’s friends, (ii) any other party is not allowed to infer the location of the user...

  13. Genome-Wide Search for Translated Upstream Open Reading Frames in Arabidopsis Thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qiwen; Merchante, Catharina; Stepanova, Anna N; Alonso, Jose M; Heber, Steffen

    2016-03-01

    Upstream open reading frames (uORFs) are open reading frames that occur within the 5' UTR of an mRNA. uORFs have been found in many organisms. They play an important role in gene regulation, cell development, and in various metabolic processes. It is believed that translated uORFs reduce the translational efficiency of the main coding region. However, only few uORFs are experimentally characterized. In this paper, we use ribosome footprinting together with a semi-supervised approach based on stacking classification models to identify translated uORFs in Arabidopsis thaliana. Our approach identified 5360 potentially translated uORFs in 2051 genes. GO terms enriched in genes with translated uORFs include catalytic activity, binding, transferase activity, phosphotransferase activity, kinase activity, and transcription regulator activity. The reported uORFs occur with a higher frequency in multi-isoform genes, and some uORFs are affected by alternative transcript start sites or alternative splicing events. Association rule mining revealed sequence features associated with the translation status of the uORFs. We hypothesize that uORF translation is a complex process that might be regulated by multiple factors. The identified uORFs are available online at:https://www.dropbox.com/sh/zdutupedxafhly8/AABFsdNR5zDfiozB7B4igFcja?dl=0. This paper is the extended version of our research presented at ISBRA 2015.

  14. Specific Increase of Protein Levels by Enhancing Translation Using Antisense Oligonucleotides Targeting Upstream Open Frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xue-Hai; Shen, Wen; Crooke, Stanley T

    2017-01-01

    A number of diseases are caused by low levels of key proteins; therefore, increasing the amount of specific proteins in human bodies is of therapeutic interest. Protein expression is downregulated by some structural or sequence elements present in the 5' UTR of mRNAs, such as upstream open reading frames (uORF). Translation initiation from uORF(s) reduces translation from the downstream primary ORF encoding the main protein product in the same mRNA, leading to a less efficient protein expression. Therefore, it is possible to use antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to specifically inhibit translation of the uORF by base-pairing with the uAUG region of the mRNA, redirecting translation machinery to initiate from the primary AUG site. Here we review the recent findings that translation of specific mRNAs can be enhanced using ASOs targeting uORF regions. Appropriately designed and optimized ASOs are highly specific, and they act in a sequence- and position-dependent manner, with very minor off-target effects. Protein levels can be increased using this approach in different types of human and mouse cells, and, importantly, also in mice. Since uORFs are present in around half of human mRNAs, the uORF-targeting ASOs may thus have valuable potential as research tools and as therapeutics to increase the levels of proteins for a variety of genes.

  15. Investigation of the Impact of the Upstream Induction Zone on LIDAR Measurement Accuracy for Wind Turbine Control Applications using Large-Eddy Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simley, Eric; Pao, Lucy Y; Gebraad, Pieter; Churchfield, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Several sources of error exist in lidar measurements for feedforward control of wind turbines including the ability to detect only radial velocities, spatial averaging, and wind evolution. This paper investigates another potential source of error: the upstream induction zone. The induction zone can directly affect lidar measurements and presents an opportunity for further decorrelation between upstream wind and the wind that interacts with the rotor. The impact of the induction zone is investigated using the combined CFD and aeroelastic code SOWFA. Lidar measurements are simulated upstream of a 5 MW turbine rotor and the true wind disturbances are found using a wind speed estimator and turbine outputs. Lidar performance in the absence of an induction zone is determined by simulating lidar measurements and the turbine response using the aeroelastic code FAST with wind inputs taken far upstream of the original turbine location in the SOWFA wind field. Results indicate that while measurement quality strongly depends on the amount of wind evolution, the induction zone has little effect. However, the optimal lidar preview distance and circular scan radius change slightly due to the presence of the induction zone

  16. An upstream open reading frame modulates ebola virus polymerase translation and virus replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed S Shabman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebolaviruses, highly lethal zoonotic pathogens, possess longer genomes than most other non-segmented negative-strand RNA viruses due in part to long 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs present in the seven viral transcriptional units. To date, specific functions have not been assigned to these UTRs. With reporter assays, we demonstrated that the Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV 5'-UTRs lack internal ribosomal entry site function. However, the 5'-UTRs do differentially regulate cap-dependent translation when placed upstream of a GFP reporter gene. Most dramatically, the 5'-UTR derived from the viral polymerase (L mRNA strongly suppressed translation of GFP compared to a β-actin 5'-UTR. The L 5'-UTR is one of four viral genes to possess upstream AUGs (uAUGs, and ablation of each uAUG enhanced translation of the primary ORF (pORF, most dramatically in the case of the L 5'-UTR. The L uAUG was sufficient to initiate translation, is surrounded by a "weak" Kozak sequence and suppressed pORF translation in a position-dependent manner. Under conditions where eIF2α was phosphorylated, the presence of the uORF maintained translation of the L pORF, indicating that the uORF modulates L translation in response to cellular stress. To directly address the role of the L uAUG in virus replication, a recombinant EBOV was generated in which the L uAUG was mutated to UCG. Strikingly, mutating two nucleotides outside of previously-defined protein coding and cis-acting regulatory sequences attenuated virus growth to titers 10-100-fold lower than a wild-type virus in Vero and A549 cells. The mutant virus also exhibited decreased viral RNA synthesis as early as 6 hours post-infection and enhanced sensitivity to the stress inducer thapsigargin. Cumulatively, these data identify novel mechanisms by which EBOV regulates its polymerase expression, demonstrate their relevance to virus replication and identify a potential therapeutic target.

  17. Instantaneous fluctuation velocity and skewness distributions upstream of transition onset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernon, D.; Walsh, E.J.; McEligot, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    The development of streamwise orientated disturbances through the boundary layer thickness prior to transition onset for zero-pressure gradient boundary layer flow under the influence %Tu = 4.2 is presented. The analysis concentrates on the development of the maximum positive and negative of the fluctuation velocity in order to gain further insight into the transition process. The average location of the peak negative fluctuation velocity over a range of Reynolds numbers was measured in the upper portion of the boundary layer at y/δ ∼ 0.6, whereas the location of the peak positive value was measured at y/δ ∼ 0.3. The disturbance magnitude of the negative fluctuation velocity increased beyond that of the positive as transition onset approached. The distribution and disturbance magnitude of the maximum positive and negative fluctuation velocities indicate that the initiation of transition may occur on the low-speed components of the flow that are lifted up to the upper region of the boundary layer. This is in qualitative agreement with recent direct numerical simulations on the breakdown of the flow on the lifted low-speed streaks near the boundary layer edge. The results presented in this investigation also demonstrate the increased physical insight gained by examining the distributions of the maximum positive and negative of the streamwise fluctuation velocity component associated with the low- and high-speed streaks, compared to time-averaged values, in determining what structures cause the breakdown to turbulence

  18. Permian Basin location recommendation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    Candidate study areas are screened from the Palo Duro and Dalhart Basin areas using data obtained from studies to date and criteria and specifications that consider: rock geometry; rock characteristics; human intrusion potential; surface characteristics; and environmental and socioeconomic conditions. Two preferred locations are recommended from among these areas for additional characterization to identify potential National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) salt repository sites. One location, in northeastern Deaf Smith County and southeastern Oldham County, is underlain by two salt units that meet the adopted screening specifications. The other location, in northcentral Swisher County, is underlain by one salt unit that meets the adopted screening specifications. Both locations have several favorable features, relative to surrounding areas, and no obviously undesirable characteristics. Both lie wholly on the Southern High Plains surface, are in relatively sparsely populated areas, contain no unique land use conflicts, and comprise large enough geographic areas to provide flexibility in site selection. Data gathered to date indicate that these locations contain salt units sufficient in thickness and in depth for the safe construction and operation of the underground facilities under consideration. 93 references, 34 figures, 6 tables

  19. Onderzoek Location Based Marketing: Mobile = location = effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gisbergen, M.S. van; Huhn, A.E.; Khan, V.J.; Ketelaar, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    Onderzoekers van de NHTV (Internationaa Hoger Onderwijs Breda, Radboud Universiteit, DVJ Insights en Popai Benelux lieten consumenten in een virtuele supermarkt advertenties via de smartphone ontvangen wanneer men langs het geadverteerde product liep. De uitkomsten laten zien dat 'location based

  20. Site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, C.W.

    1983-07-01

    The conditions and criteria for selecting a site for a nuclear weapons test at the Nevada Test Site are summarized. Factors considered are: (1) scheduling of drill rigs, (2) scheduling of site preparation (dirt work, auger hole, surface casing, cementing), (3) schedule of event (when are drill hole data needed), (4) depth range of proposed W.P., (5) geologic structure (faults, Pz contact, etc.), (6) stratigraphy (alluvium, location of Grouse Canyon Tuff, etc.), (7) material properties (particularly montmorillonite and CO 2 content), (8) water table depth, (9) potential drilling problems (caving), (10) adjacent collapse craters and chimneys, (11) adjacent expended but uncollapsed sites, (12) adjacent post-shot or other small diameter holes, (13) adjacent stockpile emplacement holes, (14) adjacent planned events (including LANL), (15) projected needs of Test Program for various DOB's and operational separations, and (16) optimal use of NTS real estate

  1. Technology strategy in the upstream petroleum supply chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bret-Rouzaut, N.; Thom, M.

    2005-03-01

    This study focuses on technology activities in the upstream oil and gas industry. Data from the period 1984 to 2002 is studied for evidence. The objectives are to describe technology strategies within this sector and to develop an understanding of how technology-related tasks and the control of technology are distributed throughout the supply chain. Frameworks for decision-making around technology strategy are presented. Firms that operate internationally and with the widest range of technological capabilities (so technology strategy is not modified strongly by any specialisation) are studied. These firms are large, private international oil companies and large integrated service and supply companies. Technology has different and distinct capabilities; it is a response to growth opportunities, it is a way to lower costs and it can lower the risks of certain business activities. Firms engage in Research and Development (R and D) to provide new technology. However, R and D is risky due to its typically long payback period and during this time many changes to forecasts and unforeseen paths may arise. These unforeseen circumstances provide unexpected benefits or expenses. In the context of this report, technology is defined as something that gives the user competitive advantage. Evidence points to having access to technology as a source of competitive advantage but oil companies and their suppliers have very different competitive objectives and strategies around technology. The former compete over the acquisition, exploration and production of crude oil and natural gas; competition is based on having some lead-time and/or cost advantage in terms of integrating the best technologies into any project. The later compete for the supply of products and services; competition is based on their technology content, quality and price. The international oil companies (IOCs), who are the traditional big spenders on technology, have reduced their technological activities

  2. Upstream vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers for fault monitoring and localization in WDM passive optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Elaine; Zhao, Xiaoxue; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J.

    2008-04-01

    As wavelength division multiplexed passive optical networks (WDM-PONs) are expected to be first deployed to transport high capacity services to business customers, real-time knowledge of fiber/device faults and the location of such faults will be a necessity to guarantee reliability. Nonetheless, the added benefit of implementing fault monitoring capability should only incur minimal cost associated with upgrades to the network. In this work, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a fault monitoring and localization scheme based on a highly-sensitive and potentially low-cost monitor in conjunction with vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). The VCSELs are used as upstream transmitters in the WDM-PON. The proposed scheme benefits from the high reflectivity of the top distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) mirror of optical injection-locked (OIL) VCSELs to reflect monitoring channels back to the central office for monitoring. Characterization of the fault monitor demonstrates high sensitivity, low bandwidth requirements, and potentially low output power. The added advantage of the proposed fault monitoring scheme incurs only a 0.5 dB penalty on the upstream transmissions on the existing infrastructure.

  3. Radon impact at a remediated uranium mine site in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimori, Yuu

    2011-01-01

    This paper mainly illustrates the radon impact of the closed uranium mine site remediated in 2007. The site remediated is the waste rock site located on the steep slope of a hill about 1.5 km upstream from a residential area along a main ravine. Major remedial action was to cover these waste rock yards with weathering granite soil. The radon flux density after remediation was intended to be 0.1 Bqm -2 s -1 in consideration with the natural background level around Ningyo-toge because there is no value of radon flux density regulated in Japan. Our action decreased the radon concentration in the site to natural background level, approximately from 10 to 40 Bqm -3 , although relatively high concentration in excess of 100 Bqm -3 was observed before remediation. On the other hand, our action did not decrease the radon concentrations around the site in general. This fact proved that the limited source such as waste rocks affected the radon concentrations at neighboring area only. The similar tendencies were also observed in other environmental data such as radon progeny concentrations. In conclusion, these findings proved that our remedial action was successful against radon. This fact will lead to more reasonable action plans for other closed mine sites. (author)

  4. Energetic particle diffusion coefficients upstream of quasi-parallel interplanetary shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, L. C.; Mason, G. M.; Gloeckler, G.; Ipavich, F. M.

    1989-01-01

    The properties of about 30 to 130-keV/e protons and alpha particles upstream of six quasi-parallel interplanetary shocks that passed by the ISEE 3 spacecraft during 1978-1979 were analyzed, and the values for the upstream energegic particle diffusion coefficient, kappa, in these six events were deduced for a number of energies and upstream positions. These observations were compared with predictions of Lee's (1983) theory of shock acceleration. It was found that the observations verified the prediction of the A/Q dependence (where A and Q are the particle atomic mass and ionization state, respectively) of kappa for alpha and proton particles upstream of the quasi-parallel shocks.

  5. Low power consumption O-band VCSEL sources for upstream channels in PON systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental validation of a low power optical network unit employing vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers as upstream sources for passive optical networks with an increased power budget, enabling even larger splitting ratios....

  6. A recommended approach to the National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) for the upstream oil and gas industry : 2002 : CAC emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-04-01

    The National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) is a database of annual releases to air, water, land and off-site transfers of 273 specified pollutants. Environment Canada requires that the NPRI be reported annually. Criteria Air Contaminants (CAC) had to be reported for the first time in 2002. Air pollutants that contribute to the formation of ground level ozone and smog are included in the definition of CAC, along with any eye or respiratory irritants to both humans and animals. The substances of special interest to the petroleum industry are: oxides of nitrogen, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, total particulate matter, and particulate matters. This guide is intended to provide member companies of Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP), operating upstream oil and gas facilities, with readily available data to determine the amount of CAC emissions released from their processes and equipment. Companies using these guidelines will be able to compare the performance of various upstream oil and gas companies more readily because the data is consistent. The scope of the project was described in section 1, and the sources of CAC emissions were identified in section 2. The reporting threshold was discussed in section 3. Data required for collection was outlined in section 4. Section 5 outlines how CAC emission quantities are determined. Calculation examples were provided in section 6 and definitions provided in section 7. 11 tabs., 1 fig

  7. Effect of Number of Various-Type Acid Sites Located on 20 % Co/ZrO2 • SiO2 Sample Surface on Parameters of Catalytic Process in Synthesis of High-Octane Motor Fuel Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Nesenchouk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers an effect of ZrO2 content in 20%Co/xZrO2∙(100 – xSiO2 (x = 0, 10, 15, 25, 30, 40 and 100 mass percent catalyst carriers on their catalytic properties. Temperature programmed desorption of NH3 has made it possible to determine relations between their acid and catalytic properties. The paper reveals the TPD spectrum is the result of 4 overlapping peaks originating during NH3 desorption from the respective groups of acid sites. Total acidity of samples and contribution of separate acid site groups into the given acidity have been have been determined in the paper. The paper contains graphical dependences of a various-type acid site number on  content of zirconium oxide in the carrier. Correlations between change in various-type acid site number and catalytic process parameters (CO conversion, C5+ hydrocarbon output and  C5+ isoparaffin output have been found in the paper. The paper shows that the highest values of CO conversion and C5+ hydrocarbon output correspond to maximum number of acid sites, and that number accounts for a peak of desorbed ammonia at Tmax = 122 °C, while the lowest isoparaffin output corresponds to minimum number of acid sites, which characterizes a peak of desorbed ammonia at Tmax = 224–257 °C. 

  8. Site Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahedi, Haseebullah

    2016-01-01

    different practices in the construction phase. The research is based on an ethnographic study of a case in Denmark. The empirical data were collected through direct observations and semi-structured interviews with site managers, contract managers, foremen and craftsmen. Findings revealed...... that the construction phase comprises several communities and practices, leading to various uses of the drawings. The results indicated that the craftsmen used drawings to position themselves in the correct location, and that the site managers and contract managers used them as management tools and legal documents...

  9. Upstream petroleum industry glycol dehydrator benzene emissions status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    The population of dehydrators referred to are located in the Western Sedimentary Basin in northeast British Columbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan, and includes units installed at wellsites, compressor stations, gas plants, central crude oil treating facilities, and reservoir or salt cavern gas storage facilities. Benzene emissions from the still column vent on glycol dehydrators occur as a result of glycol's strong affinity for aromatic hydrocarbons, including benzene. A study was carried out to: 1) develop a list of oil and gas companies operating in Canada, 2) develop an equipment and benzene emissions inventory of glycol dehydrators, 3) develop a database in Microsoft Access format to gather and maintain inventory and emission data, 4) evaluate and validate at least 10% of the reported data, 5) develop a list of companies that manufacture dehydrators and incinerators to determine how many new dehydrators were sold for use in Canada in 1998, and 6) prepare a report summarizing findings and recommendations. The companies included in the survey were the oil and gas companies identified by the Nickels' Oil and Gas Index and others provided by CAPP, CGA, and SEPAC. The project was carried out to gather glycol dehydrator equipment and still column vent benzene emissions information. 8 refs

  10. Review of Investigations on Site Selection for Nuclear Power Plants in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malbasa, N.

    2008-01-01

    A review of site investigation for nuclear facilities in the Republic of Croatia that had been performed from 1964, when investigation started for the first nuclear power plant, to 1994 when the activities were stopped, is presented therein. Brief results of the main investigation were presented including the Tanja site on the Danube upstream of Vukovar. It is the best of all the investigated locations for nuclear power plant in Croatia. The review of results for site selection of low and intermediate level of radioactive waste disposal is also given. The position of nuclear power plants in the strategic documents of the Republic of Croatia was analysed. It is concluded that the status of nuclear facilities in the main strategic documents must be improved because the energy future in Croatia - as almost in all European countries - could hardly be successful without any further development of nuclear energy.(author)

  11. Review of Investigations on Site Selection for Nuclear Power Plants in Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malbasa, N [Ekonerg, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2008-07-01

    A review of site investigation for nuclear facilities in the Republic of Croatia that had been performed from 1964, when investigation started for the first nuclear power plant, to 1994 when the activities were stopped, is presented therein. Brief results of the main investigation were presented including the Tanja site on the Danube upstream of Vukovar. It is the best of all the investigated locations for nuclear power plant in Croatia. The review of results for site selection of low and intermediate level of radioactive waste disposal is also given. The position of nuclear power plants in the strategic documents of the Republic of Croatia was analysed. It is concluded that the status of nuclear facilities in the main strategic documents must be improved because the energy future in Croatia - as almost in all European countries - could hardly be successful without any further development of nuclear energy.(author)

  12. Comprehensive Characterization a Tidal Energy Site (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polagye, B. L.; Thomson, J. M.; Bassett, C. S.; Epler, J.; Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center

    2010-12-01

    -existing ambient noise levels and the transmission loss (or practical spreading) at frequencies of interest. Recording hydrophones deployed on the seabed are used to quantify ambient noise, but are contaminated by self-noise during periods of strong currents. An empirical estimate of transmission loss is obtained from a source of opportunity - a passenger ferry which operates for more than twelve hours each day. By comparing recorded sound pressure levels against the location of the passenger ferry and other vessels (logged by an AIS receiver), the empirical transmission loss and source level for the ferry are obtained. Measurements of current velocity and underwater noise can apply routine oceanographic instruments and techniques. More unique measurements will be more challenging, such as high resolution sampling of current structure upstream and downstream of an operating device tens of meters off the seabed. Innovative approaches are required for cost effective characterization of tidal energy sites and monitoring of operating projects.

  13. Transcription of human 7S K DNA in vitro and in vivo is exclusively controlled by an upstream promoter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinert, H.; Benecke, B.J.

    1988-02-25

    The authors have analyzed the transcription of a recently isolated human 7S K RNA gene in vitro and in vivo. In contrast to hitherto characterized class III genes (genes transcribed by RNA polymerase III), the coding sequence of this gene is not required for faithful and efficient transcription by RNA polymerase III. In fact, a procaryotic vector DNA sequence was efficiently transcribed by RNA polymerase III under the control of the 7S K RNA gene upstream sequence in vitro and in vivo. S/sub 1/-nuclease protection analyses confirmed that the 7S K 5'flanking sequence was sufficient for accurate transcription initiation. These data demonstrate that 7S K DNA represents a novel class III gene, the promoter elements of which are located outside the coding sequence.

  14. Location | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research campus is located 50 miles northwest of Washington, D.C., and 50 miles west of Baltimore, Maryland, in Frederick, Maryland. Satellite locations include leased and government facilities extending s

  15. Appraising manufacturing location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2002-01-01

    International location of manufacturing activities is an issue for managers of manufacturing companies as well as public policy makers. For managers, the issue is relevant because international locations offer opportunities for lowering costs due to productivity improvements. For governments the

  16. Law Enforcement Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Law Enforcement Locations in Kansas Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law enforcement agencies "are...

  17. Effects of mountain agriculture on nutrient cycling at upstream watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T.-C.; Shaner, P. L.; Wang, L.-J.; Shih, Y.-T.; Wang, C.-P.; Huang, G.-H.; Huang, J.-C.

    2015-05-01

    The expansion of agriculture to rugged mountains can exacerbate negative impacts of agriculture activities on ecosystem function. In this study, we monitored streamwater chemistry of four watersheds with varying proportions of agricultural lands (0.4, 3, 17, 22%) and rainfall chemistry of two of the four watersheds at Feitsui Reservoir Watershed in northern Taiwan to examine the effects of agriculture on watershed nutrient cycling. We found that the greater the proportions of agricultural lands, the higher the ion concentrations, which is evident for fertilizer-associated ions (NO3-, K+) but not for ions that are rich in soils (SO42-, Ca2+, Mg2+), suggesting that agriculture enriched fertilizer-associated nutrients in streamwater. The watershed with the highest proportion of agricultural lands had higher concentrations of ions in rainfall and lower nutrient retention capacity (i.e. higher output-input ratio of ions) compared to the relatively pristine watershed, suggesting that agriculture can influence atmospheric deposition of nutrients and a system's ability to retain nutrients. Furthermore, we found that a forested watershed downstream of agricultural activities can dilute the concentrations of fertilizer-associated ions (NO3-, K+) in streamwater by more than 70%, indicating that specific landscape configurations help mitigate nutrient enrichment to aquatic systems. We estimated that agricultural lands at our study site contributed approximately 400 kg ha-1 yr-1 of NO3-N and 260 kg ha-1 yr-1 of PO4-P output via streamwater, an order of magnitude greater than previously reported around the globe and can only be matched by areas under intense fertilizer use. Furthermore, we re-constructed watershed nutrient fluxes to show that excessive leaching of N and P, and additional loss of N to the atmosphere via volatilization and denitrification, can occur under intense fertilizer use. In summary, this study demonstrated the pervasive impacts of agriculture activities

  18. Two DNA sites for MelR in the same orientation are sufficient for optimal MelR-dependent

    OpenAIRE

    Elrobh, M.; Webster, C.; Samarasinghe, S.; Durose, D.; Busby, S.

    2012-01-01

    The Escherichia coli melR gene encodes the MelR transcription factor that controls melibiose utilization. Expression of melR is autoregulated by MelR, which represses the melR promoter by binding to a target that overlaps the transcript start. Here, we show that MelR-dependent repression of the melR promoter can be enhanced by the presence of a second single DNA site for MelR located up to 250 base pairs upstream. Parallels with AraC-dependent repression at the araC–araBAD regulatory region a...

  19. Smartphones as locative media

    CERN Document Server

    Frith, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Smartphone adoption has surpassed 50% of the population in more than 15 countries, and there are now more than one million mobile applications people can download to their phones. Many of these applications take advantage of smartphones as locative media, which is what allows smartphones to be located in physical space. Applications that take advantage of people's location are called location-based services, and they are the focus of this book. Smartphones as locative media raise important questions about how we understand the complicated relationship between the Internet and physical space

  20. Water Stress in Global Transboundary River Basins: Significance of Upstream Water Use on Downstream Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munia, H.; Guillaume, J. H. A.; Mirumachi, N.; Porkka,M.; Wada, Yoshihide; Kummu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growing population and water demand have increased pressure on water resources in various parts of the globe, including many transboundary river basins. While the impacts of upstream water use on downstream water availability have been analyzed in many of these international river basins, this has not been systematically done at the global scale using coherent and comparable datasets. In this study, we aim to assess the change in downstream water stress due to upstream water use in the world's transboundary river basins. Water stress was first calculated considering only local water use of each sub-basin based on country-basin mesh, then compared with the situation when upstream water use was subtracted from downstream water availability. Wefound that water stress was generally already high when considering only local water use, affecting 0.95-1.44 billion people or 33%-51% of the population in transboundary river basins. After accounting for upstream water use, stress level increased by at least 1 percentage-point for 30-65 sub-basins, affecting 0.29-1.13 billion people. Altogether 288 out of 298 middle-stream and downstream sub-basin areas experienced some change in stress level. Further, we assessed whether there is a link between increased water stress due to upstream water use and the number of conflictive and cooperative events in the transboundary river basins, as captured by two prominent databases. No direct relationship was found. This supports the argument that conflicts and cooperation events originate from a combination of different drivers, among which upstream-induced water stress may play a role. Our findings contribute to better understanding of upstream-downstream dynamics in water stress to help address water allocation problems.

  1. Fate and transport of cyanobacteria and associated toxins and taste-and-odor compounds from upstream reservoir releases in the Kansas River, Kansas, September and October 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jennifer L.; Ziegler, Andrew C.; Loving, Brian L.; Loftin, Keith A.

    2012-01-01

    Milford Lake, was the only Kansas River tributary with detectable microcystin concentrations throughout the study period, and concentrations exceeded 1 microgram per liter for most of September 2011. Microcystin was detected periodically in other tributaries, but concentrations were low (less than 0.3 micrograms per liter). In contrast, the taste-and-odor compounds geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) were detected in all tributaries located immediately downstream from reservoirs and total concentrations generally exceeded the human detection threshold (5 to 10 nanograms per liter) from September through mid-October. Microcystin, geosmin, and MIB were not detected in the Smoky Hill River upstream from the confluence with the Republican River that forms the Kansas River. Within a week after initial reservoir releases, microcystin, geosmin, and MIB were detected throughout a 173-mile reach of the Kansas River; these compounds remained detectable throughout the reach until mid-October. Losses to groundwater when streamflows in the Kansas River were increasing indicate the potential for reservoir releases to affect groundwater quality as well as surface-water quality. Total microcystin concentrations in the Kansas River generally were highest within about 24 miles of the confluence of the Smoky Hill and Republican Rivers, and decreased downstream; concentrations exceeded 1 microgram per liter in the Kansas River upstream from Topeka during the first 2 weeks of September. Patterns in microcystin occurrence and concentration at Kansas River tributary and main-stem sites indicate that Milford Lake was the source of microcystin in the Kansas River; however, the source of taste-and-odor compounds was not as evident, possibly because multiple tributaries contributed taste-and-odor compounds to the Kansas River. Microcystin and taste-and-odor compounds co-occurred in 56 percent of samples collected, indicating co-occurrence was common. Despite frequent co-occurrence, the spatial and

  2. Region 9 NPL Sites (Superfund Sites 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    NPL site POINT locations for the US EPA Region 9. NPL (National Priorities List) sites are hazardous waste sites that are eligible for extensive long-term cleanup under the Superfund program. Eligibility is determined by a scoring method called Hazard Ranking System. Sites with high scores are listed on the NPL. The majority of the locations are derived from polygon centroids of digitized site boundaries. The remaining locations were generated from address geocoding and digitizing. Area covered by this data set include Arizona, California, Nevada, Hawaii, Guam, American Samoa, Northern Marianas and Trust Territories. Attributes include NPL status codes, NPL industry type codes and environmental indicators. Related table, NPL_Contaminants contains information about contaminated media types and chemicals. This is a one-to-many relate and can be related to the feature class using the relationship classes under the Feature Data Set ENVIRO_CONTAMINANT.

  3. Upstream pressure variations associated with the bow shock and their effects on the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairfield, D.H.; Baumjohann, W.; Paschmann, G.; Luehr, H.; Sibeck, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic field enhancements and depressions on the time scales of minutes were frequently observed simultaneously by the AMPTE CCE, GOES 5, and GOES 6 spacecraft in the subsolar magnetosphere. The source of these perturbations has been detected in the high time resolution AMPTE IRM measurements of the kinetic pressure of the solar wind upstream of the bow shock. It is argued that these upstream pressure variations are not inherent in the solar wind but rather are associated with the bow shock. This conclusion follows from the facts that (1) the upstream field strength and the density associated with the perturbations are highly correlated with each other whereas these quantities tend to be anticorrelated in the undisturbed solar wind, and (2) the upstream perturbations occur within the foreshock or at its boundary. The results imply a mode of interaction between the solar wind and the magnetosphere whereby density changes produced in the foreshock subsequently convect through the bow shock and impinge on the magnetosphere. Also velocity decreases deep within the foreshock sometimes reach many tens of kilometers per second and may be associated with further pressure variations as a changing interplanetary field direction changes the foreshock geometry. Upstream pressure perturbations should create significant effects on the magnetopause and at the foot of nearby field lines that lead to the polar cusp ionosphere

  4. Moving Upstream in U.S. Hospital Care Toward Investments in Population Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begun, James W; Potthoff, Sandra

    The root causes for most health outcomes are often collectively referred to as the social determinants of health. Hospitals and health systems now must decide how much to "move upstream," or invest in programs that directly affect the social determinants of health. Moving upstream in healthcare delivery requires an acceptance of responsibility for the health of populations. We examine responses of 950 nonfederal, general hospitals in the United States to the 2015 American Hospital Association Population Health Survey to identify characteristics that distinguish those hospitals that are most aligned with population health and most engaged in addressing social determinants of health. Those "upstream" hospitals are significantly more likely to be large, not-for-profit, metropolitan, teaching-affiliated, and members of systems. Internally, the more upstream hospitals are more likely to organize their population health activities with strong executive-level involvement, full-time-equivalent support, and coordination at the system level.The characteristics differentiating hospitals strongly involved in population health and upstream activity are not unlike those characteristics associated with diffusion of many innovations in hospitals. These hospitals may be the early adopters in a diffusion process that will eventually include most hospitals or, at least, most not-for-profit hospitals. Alternatively, the population health and social determinants movements could be transient or could be limited to a small portion of hospitals such as those identified here, with distinctive patient populations, missions, and resources.

  5. Spatial distribution of upstream magnetospheric ≥50 keV ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Anagnostopoulos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We present for the first time a statistical study of \\geq50 keV ion events of a magnetospheric origin upstream from Earth's bow shock. The statistical analysis of the 50-220 keV ion events observed by the IMP-8 spacecraft shows: (1 a dawn-dusk asymmetry in ion distributions, with most events and lower intensities upstream from the quasi-parallel pre-dawn side (4 LT-6 LT of the bow shock, (2 highest ion fluxes upstream from the nose/dusk side of the bow shock under an almost radial interplanetary magnetic field (IMF configuration, and (3 a positive correlation of the ion intensities with the solar wind speed and the index of geomagnetic index Kp, with an average solar wind speed as high as 620 km s-1 and values of the index Kp > 2. The statistical results are consistent with (1 preferential leakage of ~50 keV magnetospheric ions from the dusk magnetopause, (2 nearly scatter free motion of ~50 keV ions within the magnetosheath, and (3 final escape of magnetospheric ions from the quasi-parallel dawn side of the bow shock. An additional statistical analysis of higher energy (290-500 keV upstream ion events also shows a dawn-dusk asymmetry in the occurrence frequency of these events, with the occurrence frequency ranging between ~16%-~34% in the upstream region.Key words. Interplanetary physics (energetic particles; planetary bow shocks

  6. Spatial distribution of upstream magnetospheric ≥50 keV ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kaliabetsos

    Full Text Available We present for the first time a statistical study of geq50 keV ion events of a magnetospheric origin upstream from Earth's bow shock. The statistical analysis of the 50-220 keV ion events observed by the IMP-8 spacecraft shows: (1 a dawn-dusk asymmetry in ion distributions, with most events and lower intensities upstream from the quasi-parallel pre-dawn side (4 LT-6 LT of the bow shock, (2 highest ion fluxes upstream from the nose/dusk side of the bow shock under an almost radial interplanetary magnetic field (IMF configuration, and (3 a positive correlation of the ion intensities with the solar wind speed and the index of geomagnetic index Kp, with an average solar wind speed as high as 620 km s-1 and values of the index Kp > 2. The statistical results are consistent with (1 preferential leakage of ~50 keV magnetospheric ions from the dusk magnetopause, (2 nearly scatter free motion of ~50 keV ions within the magnetosheath, and (3 final escape of magnetospheric ions from the quasi-parallel dawn side of the bow shock. An additional statistical analysis of higher energy (290-500 keV upstream ion events also shows a dawn-dusk asymmetry in the occurrence frequency of these events, with the occurrence frequency ranging between ~16%-~34% in the upstream region.Key words. Interplanetary physics (energetic particles; planetary bow shocks

  7. A comparative study of radiofrequency emission from roof top mobile phone base station antennas and tower mobile phone base antennas located at some selected cell sites in Accra, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atakpa, K. G.

    2014-07-01

    RF radiation exposure from antennas mounted on rooftop mobile phone base stations have become a serious issue in recent years due to the rapidly developing technologies in wireless telecommunication. The heightening numbers of base station and their closeness to the general public has led to possible health concerns as a result of exposure to RF radiations. The primary objective of this study was to assess the level of RF radiation emitted from roof top mobile phone base station antennas and compare the measured results with the guidelines set by International Commission on Non-ionization Radiation. The maximum and minimum average power density measured from the rooftop sites inside buildings were 2.46xI0 -2 and 1.68x10 -3 W/m 2 respectively whereas that for outside buildings at the same rooftop site was also 7.44x 10 -5 and 3.35x 10 -3 W/m 2 respectively. Public exposure quotient also ranged between 3.74x10 -10 to 1.31x10 -07 inside buildings whilst that for outside varied between 7.44x 10 -10 to 1.65x 10 -06 . Occupational exposure quotient inside buildings varied between 1.66x 10 -11 to 2.11 x 10 -09 whereas that for outside ranged from 3.31x10 -09 to 3.30x10 -07 all at the rooftop site. The results obtained for a typical tower base station also indicated that the maximum and minimum average power density was 4.57x10 -1 W/m 2 and 7.13x10 -3 W/m 2 respectively. The public exposure quotient varied between 1.58x10 -09 to 1.01x10 -07 whilst that for occupational exposure quotient ranged between 3.17x10 -10 to 2.03x10 -08 . The values of power densities levels inside buildings at rooftop sites are low compared to that of tower sites. This could be due to high attenuation caused by thick concrete walls and ceilings. The results obtained were found to be in compliance with ICNIRP and FCC guidance levels of 4.5 W/m 2 and 6 W/m 2 respectively. (au)

  8. Internet Geo-Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    INTERNET GEO-LOCATION DUKE UNIVERSITY DECEMBER 2017 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED STINFO COPY AIR...REPORT TYPE FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) MAY 2014 – MAY 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE INTERNET GEO-LOCATION 5a. CONTRACT...of SpeedTest servers that are used by end users to measure the speed of their Internet connection. The servers log the IP address and the location

  9. Smart Location Database - Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Smart Location Database (SLD) summarizes over 80 demographic, built environment, transit service, and destination accessibility attributes for every census block...

  10. Smart Location Database - Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Smart Location Database (SLD) summarizes over 80 demographic, built environment, transit service, and destination accessibility attributes for every census block...

  11. Characterization of sediment transport upstream and downstream from Lake Emory on the Little Tennessee River near Franklin, North Carolina, 2014–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Brad A.; Hazell, William F.; Oblinger, Carolyn J.

    2017-09-06

    Federal, State, and local agencies and organizations have expressed concerns regarding the detrimental effects of excessive sediment transport on aquatic resources and endangered species populations in the upper Little Tennessee River and some of its tributaries. In addition, the storage volume of Lake Emory, which is necessary for flood control and power generation, has been depleted by sediment deposition. To help address these concerns, a 2-year study was conducted in the upper Little Tennessee River Basin to characterize the ambient suspended-sediment concentrations and suspended-sediment loads upstream and downstream from Lake Emory in Franklin, North Carolina. The study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Duke Energy. Suspended-sediment samples were collected periodically, and time series of stage and turbidity data were measured from December 2013 to January 2016 upstream and downstream from Lake Emory. The stage data were used to compute time-series streamflow. Suspended-sediment samples, along with time-series streamflow and turbidity data, were used to develop regression models that were used to estimate time-series suspended-sediment concentrations for the 2014 and 2015 calendar years. These concentrations, along with streamflow data, were used to compute suspended-sediment loads. Selected suspended-sediment samples were collected for analysis of particle-size distribution, with emphasis on high-flow events. Bed-load samples were also collected upstream from Lake Emory.The estimated annual suspended-sediment loads (yields) for the upstream site for the 2014 and 2015 calendar years were 27,000 short tons (92 short tons per square mile) and 63,300 short tons (215 short tons per square mile), respectively. The annual suspended-sediment loads (yields) for the downstream site for 2014 and 2015 were 24,200 short tons (75 short tons per square mile) and 94,300 short tons (292 short tons per square mile), respectively. Overall, the

  12. Radium-226 in the food chain near the site of a French uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourcade, N.; Marple, M.L.; Zettwoog, P.

    1982-01-01

    As part of a study of the final radiological state of a French uranium mine, the links of milk, vegetable and fish food chains were analysed for radium-226. The site chosen is located in low mountains where the radioactivity transfer vector is the water of a deeply embanked river. The mining of this site (10,000 tonnes of uranium) has now been completed, after a period of 20 years. Ore treatment residues have been stored on site in an artificial ten-hectare basin constructed behind a dam erected across the river valley. Analyses have shown great differences in concentration between the different soils and samples of animal food, the higher values being those of samples taken in the immediate vicinity of the water in zones easily flooded. Nevertheless, no major variation in concentration in milk has been noted. On the whole, the vegetables downstream show the same concentration as upstream. In the flesh of fish the concentration downstream is approximately ten times higher than upstream. This suggests that it is possible to observe radioactivity anomalies in the immediate surroundings by analysing the physical and biological media for radium-226. However, the food chains are only partly affected (milk, in which the concentration is lower than in some commercialized waters in the region, and also fish) and the incorporation levels are lower than the annual limits recommended for the public. (author)

  13. High Sensitivity TSS Prediction: Estimates of Locations Where TSS Cannot Occur

    KAUST Repository

    Schaefer, Ulf

    2013-10-10

    Background Although transcription in mammalian genomes can initiate from various genomic positions (e.g., 3′UTR, coding exons, etc.), most locations on genomes are not prone to transcription initiation. It is of practical and theoretical interest to be able to estimate such collections of non-TSS locations (NTLs). The identification of large portions of NTLs can contribute to better focusing the search for TSS locations and thus contribute to promoter and gene finding. It can help in the assessment of 5′ completeness of expressed sequences, contribute to more successful experimental designs, as well as more accurate gene annotation. Methodology Using comprehensive collections of Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE) and other transcript data from mouse and human genomes, we developed a methodology that allows us, by performing computational TSS prediction with very high sensitivity, to annotate, with a high accuracy in a strand specific manner, locations of mammalian genomes that are highly unlikely to harbor transcription start sites (TSSs). The properties of the immediate genomic neighborhood of 98,682 accurately determined mouse and 113,814 human TSSs are used to determine features that distinguish genomic transcription initiation locations from those that are not likely to initiate transcription. In our algorithm we utilize various constraining properties of features identified in the upstream and downstream regions around TSSs, as well as statistical analyses of these surrounding regions. Conclusions Our analysis of human chromosomes 4, 21 and 22 estimates ~46%, ~41% and ~27% of these chromosomes, respectively, as being NTLs. This suggests that on average more than 40% of the human genome can be expected to be highly unlikely to initiate transcription. Our method represents the first one that utilizes high-sensitivity TSS prediction to identify, with high accuracy, large portions of mammalian genomes as NTLs. The server with our algorithm implemented is

  14. Strategic human resources study of the upstream petroleum industry : the decade ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-10-01

    This report presents the results of a 10 month study of the human resources issues in Canada's upstream petroleum industry. The study identifies workforce demographics, skills, and supply and demand. It also discusses the impact of technology and other key challenges facing human resources issues. The upstream petroleum industry includes exploration and production, service industries, pipeline transmission, natural gas processing, and heavy oil and bitumen extracting and upgrading. The study defined four regions in Canada: Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, the oil sands, the north, and the east coast. The main influences on the management practices within the upstream petroleum industry are: globalization; cyclical economic conditions; operational excellence business models; government regulatory requirements; stakeholder expectations for involvement; technological advances; changing demographics, and workplace skills. The study also presented suggestions for changes in best practices to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of product and service delivery. refs., tabs., figs

  15. Ion acceleration at the earth's bow shock: A review of observations in the upstream region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosling, J.T.; Asbridge, J.R.; Bame, S.J.; Feldman, W.C.

    1979-01-01

    Positive ions are accelerated at or near the earth's bow shock and propagate into the upstream region. Two distinctly different population of these ions, distinguished by their greatly different spectral and angular widths, can be identified there. The type of ion population observed in the upstream region is strongly correlated with the presence or absence of long-period compresive waves in the solar wind. Very few ions are accelerated in the vicinity of the shock to energies much above about 100 keV. It is not yet clear whether the most energetic ions (i.e. those near 100 keV) are accelerated at the shock or in the broad disturbed region upstream from the shock. In either case stochastic acceleration by turbulent electrostatic fields seems to be the most viable candidate for the acceleration of the most energetic particles

  16. Wake flow behaviour behind a smaller cylinder oscillating in the wake of an upstream stationary cylinder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yangyang; Sun, Zhilin [Ocean College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Tan, Danielle S [Maritime Research Centre, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Yu, Dingyong [College of Engineering, Ocean University of China, 266100 (China); Tan, Soon Keat, E-mail: yygao@zju.edu.cn [Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2014-04-01

    The flow patterns around a cylinder oscillating freely in the wake of a larger cylinder upstream were investigated using the particle image velocimetry technique. The upstream cylinder was fixed at both ends while the downstream smaller cylinder was held by springs such that it was free to oscillate in the transverse direction. The flow patterns, amplitudes of oscillation and vortex shedding frequencies were compared with those of a single cylinder. In the presence of the upstream cylinder, the three parameters characterizing the oscillation response of the smaller cylinder—amplitude of oscillation, vortex shedding frequency and Reynolds stresses—were greatly reduced. While their magnitude increased with gap ratio, these three parameters were still smaller than the corresponding magnitudes for a single oscillating cylinder. The peak values of turbulence statistics such as Reynolds shear stress and normal stress behind the oscillating downstream cylinder were similarly reduced, and increased with gap ratios. (paper)

  17. Observations of two distinct populations of bow shock ions in the upstream solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosling, J.T.; Asbridge, J.; Bame, S.J.; Paschmann, G.; Sckopke, N.

    1978-01-01

    Observations upstream of the earth's bow shock with the LASL/MPI fast plasma experiments on ISEE 1 and 2 reveal the presence of two distinct and mutually exclusive populations of low energy (< or approx. =40keV) ions apparently accelerated at the bow shock. The first of these, the ''reflected'' population, is characterized by 1) sharply peaked spectra seldom extending much above approx. 10 keV/ion and 2) relatively collimated flow coming from the direction of the shock. On the other hand, the ''diffuse'' ions are distinguished by relatively flat energy spectra above approx. 10 keV and broad angular distributions. They are by far the most commonly observed upstream ion event. A close causal association is suggested between the diffuse ion population in the upstream solar wind and energetic plasma ions observed within the magnetosheath

  18. Ion acceleration at the earth's bow shock: a review of observations in the upstream region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosling, J.T.; Asbridge, J.R.; Bame, S.J.; Feldman, W.C.

    1979-01-01

    Positive ions are accelerated at or near the earth's bow shock and propagate into the upstream region. Two distinctly different populations of these ions, distinguished by their greatly different spectral and angular widths, can be identified there. The type of ion population observed in the upstream region is strongly correlated with the presence or absence of long-period compressive waves in the solar wind. Very few ions are accelerated in the vicinity of the shock to energies much above about 100 keV. It is not yet clear whether the most energetic ions (i.e., those near 100 keV) are accelerated at the shock or in broad disturbed region upstream from the shock. In either case stochastic acceleration by turbulent electrostatic fields seems to be the most viable candidate for the acceleration of the most energetic particles

  19. A rare case of 46, XX SRY-negative male with approximately 74-kb duplication in a region upstream of SOX9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Bing; Ji, Xing; Xing, Ya; Chen, Ying-Wei; Tao, Jiong

    2013-12-01

    The 46, XX male disorder of sex development (DSD) is a rare genetic condition. Here, we report the case of a 46, XX SRY-negative male with complete masculinization. The coding region and exon/intron boundaries of the DAX1, SOX9 and RSPO1 genes were sequenced, and no mutations were detected. Using whole genome array analysis and real-time PCR, we identified a approximately 74-kb duplication in a region approximately 510-584 kb upstream of SOX9 (chr17:69,533,305-69,606,825, hg19). Combined with the results of previous studies, the minimum critical region associated with gonadal development is a 67-kb region located 584-517 kb upstream of SOX9. The amplification of this region might lead to SOX9 overexpression, causing female-to-male sex reversal. Gonadal-specific enhancers in the region upstream of SOX9 may activate the SOX9 expression through long-range regulation, thus triggering testicular differentiation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Willingness of upstream and downstream resource managers to engage in compensation schemes for environmental services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapika Sangkapitux

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Providing compensation for agricultural conservation practices adopted by upstream farmers is still an alien concept in the Thai political context. The governance of common-pool natural resources, such as forest and water, has traditionally been under the control of powerful government line agencies, while the contribution of local communities to natural resource conservation have been hardly recognized by policy-makers. Drawing on a case study in Mae Sa watershed, Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand, this paper discusses the potential of developing compensation schemes in a socio-political context where upland farmers – mostly belonging to ethnic minority groups – tend to be considered a threat to the natural resource base rather than providers of environmental services. Based on data obtained from 371 households in the upstream communities and 151 households in the downstream communities of the watershed, upstream resource managers’ willingness to accept compensation for the conservation measures and downstream resource managers’ willingness to pay for water resource improvements were estimated through the use of choice experiments. Results from the study suggest that downstream resource managers would be willing to provide on average nearly 1% of their annual income for a substantial improvement of the quantity and quality of water resources, which could be achieved by compensating upstream farmers’ change of their agricultural systems towards more environment-friendly practices. Both willingness to pay of downstream respondents and willingness of upstream resource managers to accept compensation were positively correlated with age, education, participation in environmental conservation activities and previous experiences with droughts and/or erosion. The paper concludes that there is a clear potential for establishing compensation schemes for provision of environmental services in northern Thai watersheds. The important policy

  1. Green facility location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velázquez Martínez, J.C.; Fransoo, J.C.; Bouchery, Y.; Corbett, C.J.; Fransoo, J.C.; Tan, T.

    2017-01-01

    Transportation is one of the main contributing factors of global carbon emissions, and thus, when dealing with facility location models in a distribution context, transportation emissions may be substantially higher than the emissions due to production or storage. Because facility location models

  2. Industrial location and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Brakman (Steven); J.H. Garretsen (Harry); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe interaction between the extent of location advantages and the intensity of firm competition relative to the size of the market jointly determines the location of industrial activity. Technology, factor endowments, geography, and scale economies are influential for determining

  3. Delayed effects of low level acute irradiation and chronic environmental radioactive contamination on DNA lymphocytes of people living in Dolon, a settlement located in the vicinity of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (Kazakhstan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenal, C.; Legue, F.; Nourgalieva, K. [UMR CNRS 6553 ' Ecobio' , Equipe Radiations Environnement Adaptation. Universite de RENNES 1, Campus de Beaulieu, Bat 14, RENNES Cedex F 35042 (France)

    2006-10-01

    During 42 years several hundred nuclear tests were performed by the former USSR at the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS, Kazakhstan), of which more than 100 were done in the atmosphere. We report here the late genetic damage of external exposure to radiation and environmental radioactive contamination in people living in Dolon, a small settlement situated in the vicinity of the STS. The comet assay was applied on DNA lymphocytes of 20 exposed women and 32 non-exposed women living at 500 km from the STS. We observed a statistically significant difference between the exposed and control groups for mean tail moment (MTM) and DNA% in the tail. The mean values of all comet assay parameters (MTM, DNA% in the tail and score) were higher in the group of women born before 1949 as compared to those born after 1950, which could reflect an effect of external irradiation in 1949 due to the most contaminating explosion. These results suggest that people exposed 50 years ago to relatively small doses of external irradiation and/or still living in an environment contaminated by small amounts of long life radionuclides, still present DNA damage which is in agreement with other cytogenetical studies performed at the same site, on the same population. (author)

  4. Delayed effects of low level acute irradiation and chronic environmental radioactive contamination on DNA lymphocytes of people living in Dolon, a settlement located in the vicinity of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (Kazakhstan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenal, C.; Legue, F.; Nourgalieva, K.

    2006-01-01

    During 42 years several hundred nuclear tests were performed by the former USSR at the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS, Kazakhstan), of which more than 100 were done in the atmosphere. We report here the late genetic damage of external exposure to radiation and environmental radioactive contamination in people living in Dolon, a small settlement situated in the vicinity of the STS. The comet assay was applied on DNA lymphocytes of 20 exposed women and 32 non-exposed women living at 500 km from the STS. We observed a statistically significant difference between the exposed and control groups for mean tail moment (MTM) and DNA% in the tail. The mean values of all comet assay parameters (MTM, DNA% in the tail and score) were higher in the group of women born before 1949 as compared to those born after 1950, which could reflect an effect of external irradiation in 1949 due to the most contaminating explosion. These results suggest that people exposed 50 years ago to relatively small doses of external irradiation and/or still living in an environment contaminated by small amounts of long life radionuclides, still present DNA damage which is in agreement with other cytogenetical studies performed at the same site, on the same population

  5. The Location of Digital Ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana M. Walker

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative researchers interested in digitally-located social and cultural practices have struggled with ways in which to design studies that can account for the digital aspect of cultural practices while also taking into account that those digital practices do not exist as separate (or separable in terms of our research from other social and cultural practices. As such, one of the primary and ongoing challenges facing internet-based ethnographic research is the question of how to construct the location of a project when the sites, technologically-mediated practices, and people we study exist and flow through a wider information ecology that is neither fixed nor can easily be located as “online” or “offline.” This is as much a methodological challenge as a theoretical one. If one accepts that a rigid distinction between online and offline makes little theoretical sense, then drawing a methodological line between online and offline only reifies such a dualism. While there is a developing body of internet-related ethnographic literature which is attempting to take into account the fluid nature of our information ecology (e.g. Burrell, 2009, Leander and McKim, 2003, Hine, 2007, we continue to operate on shifting ground. This article uses the case of my own work on city-specific discussion forums in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to highlight the complexities of locating digital ethnographic work and also argue for the necessity of accounting for both movement and placed-ness.

  6. MICROGRIDS: THE AGRIA TEST LOCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Krkoleva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the pilot Microgrid in Macedonia, developed within the framework of the MOREMICROGRIDS (EU EP6 projecet, contract No. SES6-019864 project. This Microgrid is the first of its kind being developed in the Western Balkan region and serves as pilot site for introduction and examination of the Microgrids concept in non European Union conditions. The test network consists of a part of the low voltage grid, located on a pig farm. The main electricity source for the Microgrid is a small biogas plant, which uses the biogas produced by a waste water treatment process. The paper addresses the Microgrid design, development of test scenarios and test results from the pilot location.

  7. Analysis of an upstream weighted collocation approximation to the transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, A.; Pinder, G.F.

    1981-01-01

    The numerical behavior of a modified orthogonal collocation method, as applied to the transport equations, can be examined through the use of a Fourier series analysis. The necessity of such a study becomes apparent in the analysis of several techniques which emulate classical upstream weighting schemes. These techniques are employed in orthogonal collocation and other numerical methods as a means of handling parabolic partial differential equations with significant first-order terms. Divergent behavior can be shown to exist in one upstream weighting method applied to orthogonal collocation

  8. A scheme for regulating toxic substances to water quality of Chamsil upstream water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kang Suk; Kim, Jee Hoon [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    This study asserts to reflect a concept of toxicity thoroughly in the present water quality concept. It presents an appropriate solution to control toxic substances flowing into the Chamsil upstream water system. Although a regulation of toxic substances into major rivers in Korea other than Han river is also required urgently, it will be studied in future. It is expected that this study on Chamsil upstream would be a cornerstone for establishing a national regulation policy of toxic substances into water system. 28 refs., 1 fig., 36 tabs.

  9. The WW domain protein Kibra acts upstream of Hippo in Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumgartner, Roland; Poernbacher, Ingrid; Buser, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    inactivating the transcriptional coactivator Yorkie is well established, much less is known about the upstream events that regulate Hippo signaling activity. The FERM domain proteins Expanded and Merlin appear to represent two different signaling branches that feed into the Hippo pathway. Signaling...... by the atypical cadherin Fat may act via Expanded, but how Merlin is regulated has remained elusive. Here, we show that the WW domain protein Kibra is a Hippo signaling component upstream of Hippo and Merlin. Kibra acts synergistically with Expanded, and it physically interacts with Merlin. Thus, Kibra...

  10. Anthropogenic Phosphorus Inputs to a River Basin and Their Impacts on Phosphorus Fluxes Along Its Upstream-Downstream Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wangshou; Swaney, Dennis P.; Hong, Bongghi; Howarth, Robert W.

    2017-12-01

    The increasing trend in riverine phosphorus (P) loads resulting from anthropogenic inputs has gained wide attention because of the well-known role of P in eutrophication. So far, however, there is still limited scientific understanding of anthropogenic P inputs and their impacts on riverine flux in river reaches along the upstream-to-downstream continuum. Here we investigated P budgets in a series of nested watersheds draining into Hongze Lake of China and developed an empirical function to describe the relationship between anthropogenic inputs and riverine P fluxes. Our results indicated that there are obvious gradients regarding P budgets in response to changes in human activities. Fertilizer application and food and feed P import was always the dominant source of P inputs in all sections, followed by nonfood P. Further interpretation using the model revealed the processes of P loading to the lake. About 2%-9% of anthropogenic P inputs are transported from the various sections into the corresponding tributaries of the river systems, depending upon local precipitation rates. Of this amount, around 41%-95% is delivered to the main stem of the Huai River after in-stream attenuation in its tributaries. Ultimately, 55%-86% of the P loads delivered to different locations of the main stem are transported into the receiving lake of the downstream, due to additional losses in the main stem. An integrated P management strategy that considers the gradients of P loss along the upstream-to-downstream continuum is required to assess and optimize P management to protect the region's freshwater resource.

  11. The glnAntrBC operon of Herbaspirillum seropedicae is transcribed by two oppositely regulated promoters upstream of glnA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Stefan; Souza, Emanuel M; Yates, Marshall G; Persuhn, Darlene C; Steffens, M Berenice R; Chubatsu, Leda S; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Rigo, Liu U

    2007-01-01

    Herbaspirillum seropedicae is an endophytic bacterium that fixes nitrogen under microaerophilic conditions. The putative promoter sequences glnAp1 (sigma70-dependent) and glnAp2 (sigma54), and two NtrC-binding sites were identified upstream from the glnA, ntrB and ntrC genes of this microorganism. To study their transcriptional regulation, we used lacZ fusions to the H. seropedicae glnA gene, and the glnA-ntrB and ntrB-ntrC intergenic regions. Expression of glnA was up-regulated under low ammonium, but no transcription activity was detected from the intergenic regions under any condition tested, suggesting that glnA, ntrB and ntrC are co-transcribed from the promoters upstream of glnA. Ammonium regulation was lost in the ntrC mutant strain. A point mutation was introduced in the conserved -25/-24 dinucleotide (GG-->TT) of the putative sigma54-dependent promoter (glnAp2). Contrary to the wild-type promoter, glnA expression with the mutant glnAp2 promoter was repressed in the wild-type strain under low ammonium levels, but this repression was abolished in an ntrC background. Together our results indicate that the H. seropedicae glnAntrBC operon is regulated from two functional promoters upstream from glnA, which are oppositely regulated by the NtrC protein.

  12. Identification of putative regulatory upstream ORFs in the yeast genome using heuristics and evolutionary conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilsland Elizabeth

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The translational efficiency of an mRNA can be modulated by upstream open reading frames (uORFs present in certain genes. A uORF can attenuate translation of the main ORF by interfering with translational reinitiation at the main start codon. uORFs also occur by chance in the genome, in which case they do not have a regulatory role. Since the sequence determinants for functional uORFs are not understood, it is difficult to discriminate functional from spurious uORFs by sequence analysis. Results We have used comparative genomics to identify novel uORFs in yeast with a high likelihood of having a translational regulatory role. We examined uORFs, previously shown to play a role in regulation of translation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for evolutionary conservation within seven Saccharomyces species. Inspection of the set of conserved uORFs yielded the following three characteristics useful for discrimination of functional from spurious uORFs: a length between 4 and 6 codons, a distance from the start of the main ORF between 50 and 150 nucleotides, and finally a lack of overlap with, and clear separation from, neighbouring uORFs. These derived rules are inherently associated with uORFs with properties similar to the GCN4 locus, and may not detect most uORFs of other types. uORFs with high scores based on these rules showed a much higher evolutionary conservation than randomly selected uORFs. In a genome-wide scan in S. cerevisiae, we found 34 conserved uORFs from 32 genes that we predict to be functional; subsequent analysis showed the majority of these to be located within transcripts. A total of 252 genes were found containing conserved uORFs with properties indicative of a functional role; all but 7 are novel. Functional content analysis of this set identified an overrepresentation of genes involved in transcriptional control and development. Conclusion Evolutionary conservation of uORFs in yeasts can be traced up to 100

  13. A functional SNP upstream of the ADRB2 gene is associated with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li JX

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Jin-Xiu Li,1,2,* Wei-Ping Fu,3,* Jing Zhang,4 Xiao-Hua Zhang,1,2 Chang Sun,1,5 Lu-Ming Dai,3 Li Zhong,1,5,6 Li Yu,1,2 Ya-Ping Zhang1,7 1State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-Resource in Yunnan, 2Key Laboratory for Animal Genetic Diversity and Evolution of High Education in Yunnan Province, School of Life Sciences, Yunnan University, 3Department of Respiratory Critical Care Medicine, 4Department of Thoracic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming, 5College of Life Sciences, 6Provincial Demonstration Center for Experimental Biology Education, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an, 7State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, and Yunnan Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Domestic Animals, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Previous studies have suggested that β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2 is associated with COPD. However, the role of genetic polymorphisms in ADRB2 on COPD has not been evaluated yet. Methods: In this study, SNaPshot genotyping, luciferase assay, chromatin immunoprecipitation and real-time polymerase chain reaction were adopted to investigate the association between ADRB2 genetic polymorphisms and COPD, comprehensively. Results: One single nucleotide polymorphism (rs12654778, located upstream of ADRB2, showed a significant association with COPD by the logistic regression analysis after adjusting for age, sex and smoking history (p=0.04 in 200 COPD patients and 222 controls from southwest Chinese population. Furthermore, the luciferase assay indicated that rs12654778-A allele reduced the relative promoter activity by ~26% compared with rs12654778-G allele (p=0.0034. The chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that rs12654778 modulated the binding affinity of transcription factor neurofibromin 1. In addition, a significantly reduced expression of ADRB

  14. Effects of a Guide Field on the Larmor Electric Field and Upstream Electron Temperature Anisotropy in Collisionless Asymmetric Magnetic Reconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ek-In, Surapat; Ruffolo, David [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Malakit, Kittipat [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Techonology, Thammasat University, Pathum Thani (Thailand); Shay, Michael A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Cassak, Paul A., E-mail: kmalakit@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2017-08-20

    We perform the first study of the properties of the Larmor electric field (LEF) in collisionless asymmetric magnetic reconnection in the presence of an out-of-plane (guide) magnetic field for different sets of representative upstream parameters at Earth’s dayside magnetopause with an ion temperature greater than the electron temperature (the ion-to-electron temperature ratio fixed at 2) using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. We show that the LEF does persist in the presence of a guide field. We study how the LEF thickness and strength change as a function of guide field and the magnetospheric temperature and reconnecting magnetic field strength. We find that the thickness of the LEF structure decreases, while its magnitude increases when a guide field is added to the reconnecting magnetic field. The added guide field makes the Larmor radius smaller, so the scaling with the magnetospheric ion Larmor radius is similar to that reported for the case without a guide field. Note, however, that the physics causing the LEF is not well understood, so future work in other parameter regimes is needed to fully predict the LEF for arbitrary conditions. We also find that a previously reported upstream electron temperature anisotropy arises in the vicinity of the LEF region both with and without a guide field. We argue that the generation of the anisotropy is linked to the existence of the LEF. The LEF can be used in combination with the electron temperature anisotropy as a signature to effectively identify dayside reconnection sites in observations.

  15. Effects of a Guide Field on the Larmor Electric Field and Upstream Electron Temperature Anisotropy in Collisionless Asymmetric Magnetic Reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ek-In, Surapat; Ruffolo, David; Malakit, Kittipat; Shay, Michael A.; Cassak, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    We perform the first study of the properties of the Larmor electric field (LEF) in collisionless asymmetric magnetic reconnection in the presence of an out-of-plane (guide) magnetic field for different sets of representative upstream parameters at Earth’s dayside magnetopause with an ion temperature greater than the electron temperature (the ion-to-electron temperature ratio fixed at 2) using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. We show that the LEF does persist in the presence of a guide field. We study how the LEF thickness and strength change as a function of guide field and the magnetospheric temperature and reconnecting magnetic field strength. We find that the thickness of the LEF structure decreases, while its magnitude increases when a guide field is added to the reconnecting magnetic field. The added guide field makes the Larmor radius smaller, so the scaling with the magnetospheric ion Larmor radius is similar to that reported for the case without a guide field. Note, however, that the physics causing the LEF is not well understood, so future work in other parameter regimes is needed to fully predict the LEF for arbitrary conditions. We also find that a previously reported upstream electron temperature anisotropy arises in the vicinity of the LEF region both with and without a guide field. We argue that the generation of the anisotropy is linked to the existence of the LEF. The LEF can be used in combination with the electron temperature anisotropy as a signature to effectively identify dayside reconnection sites in observations.

  16. Allegheny County Dam Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the point locations of dams in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  17. Smart Location Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Smart Location Database, Access to Jobs and Workers via Transit, and National Walkability Index tools can help assess indicators related to the built environment, transit accessibility, and walkability.

  18. OAS :: Our Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    the Human Resources of the OAS, including its organizational structure, each organizational unit's contract and travel control measure reports, the applicable procurement rules and regulations, and the Charter Organizational Charts Organizational List Authorities Our Locations Contact Us Telephone: +1 (202

  19. SGA Project Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The stream geomorphic assessment is a physical assessment competed by geomorphologists to determine the condition and sensitivity of a stream. The SGA locations...

  20. Waste Recovery Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Locations where City residents are encouraged to drop off and dispose or recycle of unwanted materials. Information provided is subject to change. Please call ahead...

  1. Global Volcano Locations Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC maintains a database of over 1,500 volcano locations obtained from the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program, Volcanoes of the World publication. The...

  2. USAID Activity Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID Activities dataset is a snapshot of activities supported by USAID including their geographical locations within countries at the time of the snapshot. The...

  3. Uranium Location Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A GIS compiled locational database in Microsoft Access of ~15,000 mines with uranium occurrence or production, primarily in the western United States. The metadata...

  4. Location-based Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas; Christensen, Knud

    on the market. However, CPM is primarily an activity based method that takes the activity as the unit of focus and there is criticism raised, specifically in the case of construction projects, on the method for deficient management of construction work and continuous flow of resources. To seek solutions...... to the identified limitations of the CPM method, an alternative planning and scheduling methodology that includes locations is tested. Location-based Scheduling (LBS) implies a shift in focus, from primarily the activities to the flow of work through the various locations of the project, i.e. the building. LBS uses...... the graphical presentation technique of Line-of-balance, which is adapted for planning and management of work-flows that facilitates resources to perform their work without interruptions caused by other resources working with other activities in the same location. As such, LBS and Lean Construction share...

  5. AFRICOM: Does Location Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Decision Model,” 242-244. 26 Susan Hesse Owen & Mark S. Daskin , “Strategic Facility Location: A Review,” European Journal of Operational Research...Susan Hesse & Mark S. Daskin . “Strategic Facility Location: A Review,” European Journal of Operational Research 111 (1998), 423-447. Paye-Layeleh...ES) N/ A 10. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and

  6. PROMoter uPstream Transcripts share characteristics with mRNAs and are produced upstream of all three major types of mammalian promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preker, Pascal; Almvig, Kristina; Christensen, Marianne S

    2011-01-01

    RNAs, PROMPTs are largely nuclear and rapidly turned over by the RNA exosome. PROMPT-transcribing DNA is occupied by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) complexes with serine 2 phosphorylated C-terminal domains (CTDs), mimicking that of the associated genic region. Thus, the inefficient elongation capacity of PROMPT...... transcription cannot solely be assigned to poor CTD phosphorylation. Conditions that reduce gene transcription increase RNAPII occupancy of the upstream PROMPT region, suggesting that they reside in a common transcription compartment. Surprisingly, gene promoters that are actively transcribed by RNAPI...

  7. Enhancer elements upstream of the SHOX gene are active in the developing limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Claudia; Bangs, Fiona; Signolet, Jason; Decker, Eva; Tickle, Cheryll; Rappold, Gudrun

    2010-05-01

    Léri-Weill Dyschondrosteosis (LWD) is a dominant skeletal disorder characterized by short stature and distinct bone anomalies. SHOX gene mutations and deletions of regulatory elements downstream of SHOX resulting in haploinsufficiency have been found in patients with LWD. SHOX encodes a homeodomain transcription factor and is known to be expressed in the developing limb. We have now analyzed the regulatory significance of the region upstream of the SHOX gene. By comparative genomic analyses, we identified several conserved non-coding elements, which subsequently were tested in an in ovo enhancer assay in both chicken limb bud and cornea, where SHOX is also expressed. In this assay, we found three enhancers to be active in the developing chicken limb, but none were functional in the developing cornea. A screening of 60 LWD patients with an intact SHOX coding and downstream region did not yield any deletion of the upstream enhancer region. Thus, we speculate that SHOX upstream deletions occur at a lower frequency because of the structural organization of this genomic region and/or that SHOX upstream deletions may cause a phenotype that differs from the one observed in LWD.

  8. Canadian upstream oil and gas industry profitability: Historical review and future perspectives [with executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The profitability of the Canadian upstream oil and gas industry is examined by analyzing return on equity and return on capital invested. By all measures and interpretations, the upstream industry has been unprofitable since the mid-1980s; returns generated are far below the industry's own historical cost of capital, and are inadequate relative to other sectors of the Canadian economy and to international oil and gas companies. This poor profitability is attributed to such factors as: overly optimistic price forecasts and healthy cash flows generated in the early 1980s, which led to excess capital spending; poor returns on capital reflective of the physical limitations of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin; high capital and operating costs; and a high royalty burden imposed by provincial governments. The consequences of low profitability include inadequate returns to equity investors, a drop in spending on upstream services such as drilling and exploration, a reduced ability of the industry to generate employment, and an adverse effect on the economy of Alberta. Forecasts indicate that the upstream sector is extremely vulnerable to a scenario of relatively flat prices due to high and increasing operating costs and depletion charges, and the significant royalty payments that still are in effect. Little scope is foreseen for industry profitability to return to acceptable levels over the first half of the 1990s. Reduced royalties have the potential to make a significant contribution to improved profitability. 52 figs., 40 tabs

  9. Multispacecraft observations of energetic ions upstream and downstream of the bow shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholer, M.; Mobius, E.; Kistler, L.M.; Klecker, B.; Ipavich, F.M.; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park)

    1989-01-01

    We present simultaneous measurements of energetic protons and alpha particles inside and outside of the magnetopause, immediately upstream, and downstream as well as further upstream of the bow shock. A comparison between the intensity at the bow shock and further upstream results in an e-folding distance at 30 keV of similar to 6.2 R/sub E/. After transformation of the angular distribution into the solar wind frame a diffusion coefficeint of κ/sub parallel/similar to 3 R/sub E/ is obtained from the anisotropy and the intensity gradient. Immediately downstream of the bow shock the anisotropy in the shock frame is directed toward the magnetopause. After transformation into the plasma rest frame the distribution is isotropic. The intensity in the magnetosheath just outside the magnetopause is smaller than the intensity behind the bow shock. Thus, in the magnetosheath there is no gradient or streaming in the upstream direction. The spectra, intensities, and relative abundances in the magnetosheath and inside the magnetosphere are totally different. These observations are consistent with first order Fermi acceleration at the bow shock and subsequent downstream convection, and exclude a magnetospheric source for these particles. Copyright American Geophysical Union 1989

  10. Water stress in global transboundary river basins : Significance of upstream water use on downstream stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munia, H.; Guillaume, J. H A; Mirumachi, N.; Porkka, M.; Wada, Y.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341387819; Kummu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growing population and water demand have increased pressure on water resources in various parts of the globe, including many transboundary river basins. While the impacts of upstream water use on downstream water availability have been analysed in many of these international river basins, this has

  11. Restructuring: new relationships between the oil companies and the upstream oil firms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreau, S.

    2001-11-01

    Since the 1986 oil shock, international oil companies have focused on their base competencies, concentrating on activities viewed as their core businesses and steadily increasing the number of tasks to be subcontracted to the upstream oil and gas service sector. The upstream oil and gas service companies had to be restructured to face this new challenge. The strategies they launched at the end of the 80's were varied. Some firms became largely integrated (Schlumberger, Baker Hughes, Halliburton) whereas other firms chose to broaden their range of services. However generally, they opted for external investment which led to an important wave of mergers and acquisitions. The first part characterizes the upstream oil and gas sector by introducing the main oil and gas service firms and their recent strategic evolution. This concludes with both an economic valuation and a typology of attempted growth strategies. To illustrate this, a matrix has been created to characterise the dynamic paths of the oil and gas service firms. The purpose of the second part is to consider the economic theories related to industrial strategies. The strategies of innovation, market protection, vertical integration and diversification have been studied to illustrate the main conclusion which is that the aim of all these strategies was to change the relationships between the oil companies and the upstream oil and gas service firms. (author)

  12. INDIRECT UPSTREAM EFFECTS OF DAMS: CONSEQUENCES OF MIGRATORY CONSUMER EXTIRPATION IN PUERTO RICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    EFFIE A. GREATHOUSE; CATHERINE M. PRINGLE; WILLIAM H. MCDOWELL; JEFF G. HOLMQUIST

    2006-01-01

    Large dams degrade the integrity of a wide variety of ecosystems, yet direct downstream effects of dams have received the most attention from ecosystem managers and researchers. We investigated indirect upstream effects of dams resulting from decimation of migratory freshwater shrimp and fish populations in Puerto Rico, USA, in both high- and low-gradient streams. In...

  13. The upstream escape of energized solar wind protons from the bow shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenstadt, E.W.

    1975-01-01

    Recently, there have been some systematic observations of backstreaming protons at the Earth's bow shock with parallel velocity components and total energies much too high to be associated with the usual long-period upstream waves or to be produced by Sonnerup's simple reflection process (Lin et al., 1974), and these protons (30-100keV) were attributed to some unknown acceleration mechanism in the upstream region. The observations of Lof et al. involved protons in high pitch angle, and, although their reasons for favoring an upstream acceleration were quite different, it may seem intuitive that high pitch angle particles would have difficulty escaping the shock, especially at large field-normal angles. Such an inference would superficially support the notion of energization outside the bow shock. It seems worthwhile therefore to examine the extent to which the geometry of individual particle motion alone might select among reflected particles those that can escape upstream and those that cannot. In this paper the geometry of escape is described and some simple numerical examples are worked out for a few special cases. It is found that protons with rather high energies and pitch angles can escape the shock at only marginally quasi-parallel field orientations (i.e., thetasub(nB) approximately 50 0 ), even if they have quite moderate speeds parallel to B. (Auth.)

  14. Effects on the upstream flood inundation caused from the operation of Chao Phraya Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutham Visutimeteegorn

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available During the flooding events, the operation of Chao Phraya Dam to control downstream water discharge is one of the causes of the inundation occuring over the upstream area. The purposes of this research are to study the effects of the operation of Chao Phraya Dam upon the upstream flood inundation and to find out the new measures of the flood mitigation in the upstream areas of Chao Phraya Dam by using a hydrodynamic model. The results show that Manning's n in the Chao Phraya River and its tributaries is 0.030-0.035 in the main channels and 0.050-0.070 in the flood plain areas. The backwater due to the operation of the Chao Praya dam affects as far as 110 kilometers upstream. New methods of water diversion can mitigate the flood inundation without the effect on the floating rice fields. The construction of reservoirs in the Upper Sakaekang River Basin and the Upper Yom River Basin will mitigate the flood not only in their own basins but also in the Lower Chao Phraya River Basin. The coordinated operation of the Chao Phraya Dam, the regulators and the upper basin reservoirs will efficiently mitigate the flood inundation.

  15. Deletion of SNURF/SNRPN U1B and U1B* upstream exons in a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RESEARCH ARTICLE. Deletion of SNURF/SNRPN U1B and U1B* upstream exons in a child ... whereby genes are expressed in a parent-of-origin dependent manner. One of the ... lity, neurodevelopmental delay, features of attention deficit hyperactivity .... Received 16 December 2015; accepted 8 January 2016. Unedited ...

  16. ENHANCING THE ROLE OF STAKEHOLDERS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF UPSTREAM CILIWUNG WATERSHED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iis Alviya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Stakeholders have a ver y important role interm of the management of upstream watershed. Thus, the common understanding on the existence and role of stakeholders is an important factor in order to achieve good governance of watershed management, leading to the attainment of environmental, social and economic benefits. This paper aims to analyse the role, interests, and cooperation among stakeholders and its relationship with the condition of upper Ciliwung watershed. Stakeholder analysis was used in this study to identify stakeholders, to categorize them, and to investigate the relationship between stakeholders. The analysis showed the lack of cooperation among stakeholders both between key stakeholders with primar y stakeholders. This resulted in lack of communities' understanding on the benefits and the importance of conservation activities in the upstream Ciliwung watershed. Meanwhile, the cooperation between key stakeholders and supporting stakeholders, especially the providers of funds, was relatively better/stronger. This can be seen from a better management of inter-agency cooperation in the upstream Ciliwung watershed, although the effort was tend to be project-oriented. Therefore, communication forum need to be established, to taking role for synchronizing , collaborating and coordinating stakeholders' efforts, so that the management programs of upstream Ciliwung watershed can be integrated.

  17. Implications of Upstream Flow Availability for Watershed Surface Water Supply Across the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai Duan; Ge Sun; Peter V. Caldwell; Steven G. McNulty; Yang Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Although it is well established that the availability of upstream flow (AUF) affects downstream water supply, its significance has not been rigorously categorized and quantified at fine resolutions. This study aims to fill this gap by providing a nationwide inventory of AUF and local water resource, and assessing their roles in securing water supply across the 2,099 8-...

  18. Sodium Pick-Up Ion Observations in the Solar Wind Upstream of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, J. M.; Raines, J. M.; Slavin, J. A.; Regoli, L. R.; Murphy, N.

    2018-05-01

    We present the first observations of sodium pick-up ions upstream of Mercury’s magnetosphere. From these observations we infer properties of Mercury’s sodium exosphere and implications for the solar wind interaction with Mercury’s magnetosphere.

  19. Coordination in the upstream supply chain of the Dutch railway sector : a research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlicher, L.P.J.; Slikker, M.; van Houtum, G.J.J.A.N.; Pombo, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a research agenda which identifies three research directions for the upstream supply chain of the Dutch railway sector. The first research direction focusses on coordination of spare parts with criticality differences and related allocations of potential cost savings

  20. Research on performance of upstream pumping mechanical seal with different deep spiral groove

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Q; Chen, H L; Liu, T; Liu, Y H; Liu, Z B; Liu, D H

    2012-01-01

    As one new type of mechanical seal, Upstream Pumping Mechanical Seal has been widely used in fluid machinery. In this paper, structure of spiral groove is innovatively optimized to improve performance of Upstream Pumping Mechanical Seal with Spiral Groove: keeping the dam zone and the weir zone not changed, changing the bottom shape of spiral groove only, substituting different deep spiral groove for equal deep spiral groove. The simulation on Upstream Pumping Mechanical Seal with different deep spiral grooves is done using FVM method. According to calculation, the performances of opening force and pressure distribution on seals face are obtained. Five types of spiral grooves are analyzed, namely equal deep spiral groove, circumferential convergent ladder-like different deep spiral groove, circumferential divergent ladder-like different deep spiral groove, radial convergent ladder-like different deep spiral groove and radial divergent ladder-like different deep spiral groove. This paper works on twenty-five working conditions. The results indicate the performances of circumferential divergent 2-ladder different deep spiral groove are better than the others, with more opening force and better stabilization, while with the same leakage. The outcome provides theoretical support for application of Upstream Pumping Mechanical Seal with circumferential convergent ladder-like different deep spiral groove.

  1. Research on performance of upstream pumping mechanical seal with different deep spiral groove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q.; Chen, H. L.; Liu, T.; Liu, Y. H.; Liu, Z. B.; Liu, D. H.

    2012-11-01

    As one new type of mechanical seal, Upstream Pumping Mechanical Seal has been widely used in fluid machinery. In this paper, structure of spiral groove is innovatively optimized to improve performance of Upstream Pumping Mechanical Seal with Spiral Groove: keeping the dam zone and the weir zone not changed, changing the bottom shape of spiral groove only, substituting different deep spiral groove for equal deep spiral groove. The simulation on Upstream Pumping Mechanical Seal with different deep spiral grooves is done using FVM method. According to calculation, the performances of opening force and pressure distribution on seals face are obtained. Five types of spiral grooves are analyzed, namely equal deep spiral groove, circumferential convergent ladder-like different deep spiral groove, circumferential divergent ladder-like different deep spiral groove, radial convergent ladder-like different deep spiral groove and radial divergent ladder-like different deep spiral groove. This paper works on twenty-five working conditions. The results indicate the performances of circumferential divergent 2-ladder different deep spiral groove are better than the others, with more opening force and better stabilization, while with the same leakage. The outcome provides theoretical support for application of Upstream Pumping Mechanical Seal with circumferential convergent ladder-like different deep spiral groove.

  2. Upstream pumping of radial lip seals by tangentially deforming, rough seal surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bavel, van P.G.M.; Ruijl, T.A.M.; Leeuwen, van H.J.; Muijderman, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper aims at a theoretical explanation of the following two experimental observations of radial lip seals: fluid film formation and upstream pumping action. The origins of these observations are still poorly understood. A hydrodynamic analysis is presented for the fully flooded contact zone of

  3. Exploring Patterns of Upstream Internationalization: The Role of Home-region ‘Stickiness’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Muller (Allan); R.J.M. van Tulder (Rob)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractRecent work has emphasized the importance of regional strategies downstream, adding new depth to the debate on ‘globalization’. This paper adds to the debate by exploring the regional dimension upstream for a sample of Triad-based Fortune 500 firms. We find support for our hypothesis

  4. On English Locative Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Brůhová

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses English sentences with thematic locative subjects. These subjects were detected as translation counterparts of Czech sentenceinitial locative adverbials realized by prepositional phrases with the prepositions do (into, na (on, v/ve (in, z/ze (from complemented by a noun. In the corresponding English structure, the initial scene-setting adverbial is reflected in the thematic subject, which results in the locative semantics of the subject. The sentences are analysed from syntactic, semantic and FSP aspects. From the syntactic point of view, we found five syntactic patterns of the English sentences with a locative subject (SV, SVA, SVO, SVpassA and SVCs that correspond to Czech sentences with initial locative adverbials. On the FSP level the paper studies the potential of the sentences to implement the Presentation or Quality Scale. Since it is the “semantic content of the verb that actuates the presentation semantics of the sentence” (Duškova, 2015a: 260, major attention is paid to the syntactic-semantic structure of the verb. The analysis of the semantics of the English sentences results in the identification of two semantic classes of verbs which co-occur with the English locative subject.

  5. Upstream ORF affects MYCN translation depending on exon 1b alternative splicing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besançon, Roger; Puisieux, Alain; Valsesia-Wittmann, Sandrine; Locher, Clara; Delloye-Bourgeois, Céline; Furhman, Lydie; Tutrone, Giovani; Bertrand, Christophe; Jallas, Anne-Catherine; Garin, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    The MYCN gene is transcribed into two major mRNAs: one full-length (MYCN) and one exon 1b-spliced (MYCN Δ1b ) mRNA. But nothing is known about their respective ability to translate the MYCN protein. Plasmids were prepared to enable translation from the upstream (uORF) and major ORF of the two MYCN transcripts. Translation was studied after transfection in neuroblastoma SH-EP cell line. Impact of the upstream AUG on translation was evaluated after directed mutagenesis. Functional study with the two MYCN mRNAs was conducted by a cell viability assay. Existence of a new protein encoded by the MYCN Δ1b uORF was explored by designing a rabbit polyclonal antibody against a specific epitope of this protein. Both are translated, but higher levels of protein were seen with MYCN Δ1b mRNA. An upstream ORF was shown to have positive cis-regulatory activity on translation from MYCN but not from MYCN Δ1b mRNA. In transfected SH-EP neuroblastoma cells, high MYCN dosage obtained with MYCN Δ1b mRNA translation induces an antiapoptotic effect after serum deprivation that was not observed with low MYCN expression obtained with MYCN mRNA. Here, we showed that MYCNOT: MYCN Overlap Transcript, a new protein of unknown function is translated from the upstream AUG of MYCN Δ1b mRNA. Existence of upstream ORF in MYCN transcripts leads to a new level of MYCN regulation. The resulting MYCN dosage has a weak but significant anti-apoptotic activity after intrinsic apoptosis induction

  6. Upstream structural management measures for an urban area flooding in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyurek, Z.; Bozoğlu, B.; Sürer, S.; Mumcu, H.

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, flooding has become an increasing concern across many parts of the world of both the general public and their governments. The climate change inducing more intense rainfall events occurring in short period of time lead flooding in rural and urban areas. In this study the flood modelling in an urbanized area, namely Samsun-Terme in Blacksea region of Turkey is performed. MIKE21 with flexible grid is used in 2-dimensional shallow water flow modelling. 1 × 1000-1 scaled maps with the buildings for the urbanized area and 1 × 5000-1 scaled maps for the rural parts are used to obtain DTM needed in the flood modelling. The bathymetry of the river is obtained from additional surveys. The main river passing through the urbanized area has a capacity of 500 m3 s-1 according to the design discharge obtained by simple ungauged discharge estimation depending on catchment area only. The upstream structural base precautions against flooding are modelled. The effect of four main upstream catchments on the flooding in the downstream urban area are modelled as different scenarios. It is observed that if the flow from the upstream catchments can be retarded through a detention pond constructed in one of the upstream catchments, estimated Q100 flood can be conveyed by the river without overtopping from the river channel. The operation of the upstream detention ponds and the scenarios to convey Q500 without causing flooding are also presented. Structural management measures to address changes in flood characteristics in water management planning are discussed.

  7. Geographic Location of a Computer Node Examining a Time-to-Location Algorithm and Multiple Autonomous System Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sorgaard, Duane

    2004-01-01

    .... A time-to-location algorithm can successfully resolve a geographic location of a computer node using only latency information from known sites and mathematically calculating the Euclidean distance...

  8. Expert Locator: Immunologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tour guide — the Mayor — can help you find what you need. Site Credits Designed by: Built by: menu JMF Headquarters Our Story ... SPIRIT ® Analyzer Tool Internet Café Social Hub Vicki's Voice ...

  9. Effects of secondary structure on pre-mRNA splicing: hairpins sequestering the 5' but not the 3' splice site inhibit intron processing in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H X; Goodall, G J; Kole, R; Filipowicz, W

    1995-01-16

    We have performed a systematic study of the effect of artificial hairpins on pre-mRNA splicing in protoplasts of a dicot plant, Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. Hairpins with a potential to form 18 or 24 bp stems strongly inhibit splicing when they sequester the 5' splice site or are placed in the middle of short introns. However, similar 24 bp hairpins sequestering the 3' splice site do not prevent this site from being used as an acceptor. Utilization of the stem-located 3' site requires that the base of the stem is separated from the upstream 5' splice site by a minimum of approximately 45 nucleotides and that another 'helper' 3' splice site is present downstream of the stem. The results indicate that the spliceosome or factors associated with it may have a potential to unfold secondary structure present in the downstream portion of the intron, prior to or at the step of the 3' splice site selection. The finding that the helper 3' site is required for utilization of the stem-located acceptor confirms and extends previous observations, obtained with HeLa cell in vitro splicing systems, indicating that the 3' splice site may be recognized at least twice during spliceosome assembly.

  10. Tier 2 guidelines and remediation of Tebuthiuron on a native prairie site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessie, K.; Harckham, N.; Dance, T. [EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Burk, A. [EnCana Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Stephenson, G. [Stantec Consulting, Guelph, ON (Canada); Corbet, B. [Access Analytical Laboratories Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-10-01

    Tebuthiuron is a sterilant used to control vegetation at upstream and midstream petroleum sites. This article discussed the remediation processes used to reclaim a native prairie site contaminated with tebuthiuron. The site was located within a dry mixed grass natural area. A literature review was conducted to establish soil eco-contact guidelines specific to tebuthiuron. A site-specific ecotoxicity assessment was then conducted using a liquid chromatograph to detect tebuthiuron limits in the contaminated soils. A soil sampling technique was used to delineate the affected areas at the site. Site soils were spiked with various concentrations of tebuthiuron ranging from 0.00003 mg/kg to 3000 mg/kg. Test species included a Folsomia candida, an earthworm, and 4 plant species. The study showed that the invertebrate species were less sensitive to tebuthiuron than the plant species. A groundwater assessment showed that tebuthiuron levels exceeded Tier 1 groundwater remediation guidelines. A multilayer hydro-geological model showed that remediation guidelines were orders of magnitude greater than Tier 1 groundwater remediation. A thermal desorption technique was used to remediate the site. 7 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Upstream oil and gas industry options paper : report of the upstream oil and gas working group of the Industry Issues Table to the National Climate Change Secretariat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) has coordinated the efforts of the upstream oil and natural gas industry to draft a foundation paper to provide data on industry greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and actions. This paper is a technical piece targeted at government officials and stakeholders involved in the National Climate Change Secretariat process. The paper also outlines the context for considering policies aimed at reducing oil and gas industry emissions on climate change. The 6 key messages that CAPP wanted to emphasize in this paper were: (1) Canada's situation is very different from that of the U.S. and most other industrial countries, (2) GHG emissions are primarily an end-use consumption issue, (3) the climate change issue and the Kyoto Protocol present a major uncertainty that could undermine Canadian oil and natural gas development opportunities, (4) Canada should not be penalised by its growth of oil and natural gas resources, (5) the ability to reduce emissions by changing production technology is limited because large reductions in Canadian upstream emissions would only mean a shift of production to other countries which would not help to reduce global emissions, and (6) Canada should focus on promoting cost-effective action, research and development and international flexibility, and ensure that recognition is given to those companies that reduce emissions. tabs., figs

  12. Jet Car Track Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located in Lakehurst, New Jersey, the Jet Car Track Site supports jet cars with J57 engines and has a maximum jet car thrust of 42,000 pounds with a maximum speed of...

  13. General minisum circle location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Körner, Mark; Brimberg, Jack; Juel, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    In our paper we approximate a set of given points by a general circle. More precisely, we consider the problem of locating and scaling the unit ball of some given norm k1 with respect to xed points on the plane such that the sum of weighted distances between the circle and the xed points is minim......In our paper we approximate a set of given points by a general circle. More precisely, we consider the problem of locating and scaling the unit ball of some given norm k1 with respect to xed points on the plane such that the sum of weighted distances between the circle and the xed points...

  14. Location-based games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine

    In this dissertation, it is explored which prerequisites are necessary in location-based games (LBGs) to make meaningful the meeting between players and spatiality with an emphasis on physical locations. Throughout the dissertation, it has been shown that LBGs affect players’ perception of and be...... possible. The practical contribution is my creation of the LBG Visions of Sara. People continue to play this game in Odense more than two years after its launch, and DJEEO uses it as a showcase, enabling the company to sell similar LBGs....

  15. Runway Arrested Landing Site (RALS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Runway Arrested Landing Site includes an underground complex located on a Mod 2, Mod 3, and Mod 3+ arresting gear and are located under the runway and accurately...

  16. Permitted water pollution discharges and population cancer and non-cancer mortality: toxicity weights and upstream discharge effects in US rural-urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendryx, Michael; Conley, Jamison; Fedorko, Evan; Luo, Juhua; Armistead, Matthew

    2012-04-02

    The study conducts statistical and spatial analyses to investigate amounts and types of permitted surface water pollution discharges in relation to population mortality rates for cancer and non-cancer causes nationwide and by urban-rural setting. Data from the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) were used to measure the location, type, and quantity of a selected set of 38 discharge chemicals for 10,395 facilities across the contiguous US. Exposures were refined by weighting amounts of chemical discharges by their estimated toxicity to human health, and by estimating the discharges that occur not only in a local county, but area-weighted discharges occurring upstream in the same watershed. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) mortality files were used to measure age-adjusted population mortality rates for cancer, kidney disease, and total non-cancer causes. Analysis included multiple linear regressions to adjust for population health risk covariates. Spatial analyses were conducted by applying geographically weighted regression to examine the geographic relationships between releases and mortality. Greater non-carcinogenic chemical discharge quantities were associated with significantly higher non-cancer mortality rates, regardless of toxicity weighting or upstream discharge weighting. Cancer mortality was higher in association with carcinogenic discharges only after applying toxicity weights. Kidney disease mortality was related to higher non-carcinogenic discharges only when both applying toxicity weights and including upstream discharges. Effects for kidney mortality and total non-cancer mortality were stronger in rural areas than urban areas. Spatial results show correlations between non-carcinogenic discharges and cancer mortality for much of the contiguous United States, suggesting that chemicals not currently recognized as carcinogens may contribute to cancer mortality risk. The geographically weighted

  17. Permitted water pollution discharges and population cancer and non-cancer mortality: toxicity weights and upstream discharge effects in US rural-urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendryx Michael

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study conducts statistical and spatial analyses to investigate amounts and types of permitted surface water pollution discharges in relation to population mortality rates for cancer and non-cancer causes nationwide and by urban-rural setting. Data from the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR were used to measure the location, type, and quantity of a selected set of 38 discharge chemicals for 10,395 facilities across the contiguous US. Exposures were refined by weighting amounts of chemical discharges by their estimated toxicity to human health, and by estimating the discharges that occur not only in a local county, but area-weighted discharges occurring upstream in the same watershed. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC mortality files were used to measure age-adjusted population mortality rates for cancer, kidney disease, and total non-cancer causes. Analysis included multiple linear regressions to adjust for population health risk covariates. Spatial analyses were conducted by applying geographically weighted regression to examine the geographic relationships between releases and mortality. Results Greater non-carcinogenic chemical discharge quantities were associated with significantly higher non-cancer mortality rates, regardless of toxicity weighting or upstream discharge weighting. Cancer mortality was higher in association with carcinogenic discharges only after applying toxicity weights. Kidney disease mortality was related to higher non-carcinogenic discharges only when both applying toxicity weights and including upstream discharges. Effects for kidney mortality and total non-cancer mortality were stronger in rural areas than urban areas. Spatial results show correlations between non-carcinogenic discharges and cancer mortality for much of the contiguous United States, suggesting that chemicals not currently recognized as carcinogens may contribute to cancer

  18. A Tourist-like MITE insertion in the upstream region of the BnFLC.A10 gene is associated with vernalization requirement in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Jinna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. has spring and winter genotypes adapted to different growing seasons. Winter genotypes do not flower before the onset of winter, thus leading to a longer vegetative growth period that promotes the accumulation and allocation of more resources to seed production. The development of winter genotypes enabled the rapeseed to spread rapidly from southern to northern Europe and other temperate regions of the world. The molecular basis underlying the evolutionary transition from spring- to winter- type rapeseed is not known, however, and needs to be elucidated. Results We fine-mapped the spring environment specific quantitative trait locus (QTL for flowering time, qFT10-4,in a doubled haploid (DH mapping population of rapeseed derived from a cross between Tapidor (winter-type and Ningyou7 (semi-winter and delimited the qFT10-4 to an 80-kb region on chromosome A10 of B. napus. The BnFLC.A10 gene, an ortholog of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC in Arabidopsis, was cloned from the QTL. We identified 12 polymorphic sites between BnFLC.A10 parental alleles of the TN-DH population in the upstream region and in intron 1. Expression of both BnFLC.A10 alleles decreased during vernalization, but decreased more slowly in the winter parent Tapidor. Haplotyping and association analysis showed that one of the polymorphic sites upstream of BnFLC.A10 is strongly associated with the vernalization requirement of rapeseed (r2 = 0.93, χ2 = 0.50. This polymorphic site is derived from a Tourist-like miniature inverted-repeat transposable element (MITE insertion/deletion in the upstream region of BnFLC.A10. The MITE sequence was not present in the BnFLC.A10 gene in spring-type rapeseed, nor in ancestral ‘A’ genome species B. rapa genotypes. Our results suggest that the insertion may have occurred in winter rapeseed after B. napus speciation. Conclusions Our findings strongly suggest that (i BnFLC.A10 is the gene underlying qFT10

  19. A Tourist-like MITE insertion in the upstream region of the BnFLC.A10 gene is associated with vernalization requirement in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jinna; Long, Yan; Raman, Harsh; Zou, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Jing; Dai, Shutao; Xiao, Qinqin; Li, Cong; Fan, Longjiang; Liu, Bin; Meng, Jinling

    2012-12-15

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) has spring and winter genotypes adapted to different growing seasons. Winter genotypes do not flower before the onset of winter, thus leading to a longer vegetative growth period that promotes the accumulation and allocation of more resources to seed production. The development of winter genotypes enabled the rapeseed to spread rapidly from southern to northern Europe and other temperate regions of the world. The molecular basis underlying the evolutionary transition from spring- to winter- type rapeseed is not known, however, and needs to be elucidated. We fine-mapped the spring environment specific quantitative trait locus (QTL) for flowering time, qFT10-4,in a doubled haploid (DH) mapping population of rapeseed derived from a cross between Tapidor (winter-type) and Ningyou7 (semi-winter) and delimited the qFT10-4 to an 80-kb region on chromosome A10 of B. napus. The BnFLC.A10 gene, an ortholog of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) in Arabidopsis, was cloned from the QTL. We identified 12 polymorphic sites between BnFLC.A10 parental alleles of the TN-DH population in the upstream region and in intron 1. Expression of both BnFLC.A10 alleles decreased during vernalization, but decreased more slowly in the winter parent Tapidor. Haplotyping and association analysis showed that one of the polymorphic sites upstream of BnFLC.A10 is strongly associated with the vernalization requirement of rapeseed (r2 = 0.93, χ2 = 0.50). This polymorphic site is derived from a Tourist-like miniature inverted-repeat transposable element (MITE) insertion/deletion in the upstream region of BnFLC.A10. The MITE sequence was not present in the BnFLC.A10 gene in spring-type rapeseed, nor in ancestral 'A' genome species B. rapa genotypes. Our results suggest that the insertion may have occurred in winter rapeseed after B. napus speciation. Our findings strongly suggest that (i) BnFLC.A10 is the gene underlying qFT10-4, the QTL for phenotypic diversity of flowering time in

  20. Distribution of CpG Motifs in Upstream Gene Domains in a Reef Coral and Sea Anemone: Implications for Epigenetics in Cnidarians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam G Marsh

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are under assault from stressors including global warming, ocean acidification, and urbanization. Knowing how these factors impact the future fate of reefs requires delineating stress responses across ecological, organismal and cellular scales. Recent advances in coral reef biology have integrated molecular processes with ecological fitness and have identified putative suites of temperature acclimation genes in a Scleractinian coral Acropora hyacinthus. We wondered what unique characteristics of these genes determined their coordinate expression in response to temperature acclimation, and whether or not other corals and cnidarians would likewise possess these features. Here, we focus on cytosine methylation as an epigenetic DNA modification that is responsive to environmental stressors. We identify common conserved patterns of cytosine-guanosine dinucleotide (CpG motif frequencies in upstream promoter domains of different functional gene groups in two cnidarian genomes: a coral (Acropora digitifera and an anemone (Nematostella vectensis. Our analyses show that CpG motif frequencies are prominent in the promoter domains of functional genes associated with environmental adaptation, particularly those identified in A. hyacinthus. Densities of CpG sites in upstream promoter domains near the transcriptional start site (TSS are 1.38x higher than genomic background levels upstream of -2000 bp from the TSS. The increase in CpG usage suggests selection to allow for DNA methylation events to occur more frequently within 1 kb of the TSS. In addition, observed shifts in CpG densities among functional groups of genes suggests a potential role for epigenetic DNA methylation within promoter domains to impact functional gene expression responses in A. digitifera and N. vectensis. Identifying promoter epigenetic sequence motifs among genes within specific functional groups establishes an approach to describe integrated cellular responses to

  1. Distribution of CpG Motifs in Upstream Gene Domains in a Reef Coral and Sea Anemone: Implications for Epigenetics in Cnidarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Adam G; Hoadley, Kenneth D; Warner, Mark E

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs are under assault from stressors including global warming, ocean acidification, and urbanization. Knowing how these factors impact the future fate of reefs requires delineating stress responses across ecological, organismal and cellular scales. Recent advances in coral reef biology have integrated molecular processes with ecological fitness and have identified putative suites of temperature acclimation genes in a Scleractinian coral Acropora hyacinthus. We wondered what unique characteristics of these genes determined their coordinate expression in response to temperature acclimation, and whether or not other corals and cnidarians would likewise possess these features. Here, we focus on cytosine methylation as an epigenetic DNA modification that is responsive to environmental stressors. We identify common conserved patterns of cytosine-guanosine dinucleotide (CpG) motif frequencies in upstream promoter domains of different functional gene groups in two cnidarian genomes: a coral (Acropora digitifera) and an anemone (Nematostella vectensis). Our analyses show that CpG motif frequencies are prominent in the promoter domains of functional genes associated with environmental adaptation, particularly those identified in A. hyacinthus. Densities of CpG sites in upstream promoter domains near the transcriptional start site (TSS) are 1.38x higher than genomic background levels upstream of -2000 bp from the TSS. The increase in CpG usage suggests selection to allow for DNA methylation events to occur more frequently within 1 kb of the TSS. In addition, observed shifts in CpG densities among functional groups of genes suggests a potential role for epigenetic DNA methylation within promoter domains to impact functional gene expression responses in A. digitifera and N. vectensis. Identifying promoter epigenetic sequence motifs among genes within specific functional groups establishes an approach to describe integrated cellular responses to environmental stress in

  2. Comparative CFD study of the effect of the presence of downstream turbines on upstream ones using a rotational speed control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breton, S-P; Nilsson, K; Ivanell, S; Olivares-Espinosa, H; Masson, C; Dufresne, L

    2014-01-01

    The effect of a downstream turbine on the production of a turbine located upstream of the latter is studied in this work. This is done through the use of two CFD simulation codes, namely OpenFOAM and EllipSys3D, which solve the Navier-Stokes equations in their incompressible form using a finite volume approach. In both EllipSys3D and OpenFoam, the LES (Large Eddy Simulation) technique is used for modelling turbulence. The wind turbine rotors are modelled as actuator disks whose loading is determined through the use of tabulated airfoil data by applying the blade-element method. A generator torque controller is used in both simulation methods to ensure that the simulated turbines adapt, in terms of rotational velocity, to the inflow conditions they are submited to. Results from both simulation codes, although they differ slightly, show that the downstream turbine affects the upstream one when the spacing between the turbines is small. This is also suggested to be the case looking at measurements performed at the Lillgrund offshore wind farm, whose turbines are located unusually close to each other. However, for distances used in today's typical wind farms, this effect is shown by our calculations not to be significant

  3. The Czech Locative Chameleon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarald Taraldsen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We show that under certain circumstances, the Czech locative prepositions (LOC show up as directional prepositions (DIR and vice versa, (under different circumstances the Czech DIR PPs show up as LOC. We argue that such a chameleon life of the PPs is structurally dependent.

  4. Immigrants' location preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    This paper exploits a spatial dispersal policy for refugee immigrants to estimate the importance of local and regional factors for refugees' location preferences. The main results of a mixed proportional hazard competing risks model are that placed refugees react to high regional unemployment...

  5. Tracking, say, SKYPE Locations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Tracking, say, SKYPE Locations. Real Time Communication: Peer-to-Peer (P2P). Datagram flows between the two conversing partners; Exposes the IP addresses of all the participants to one another. If A knows B's VoIP ID, she can establish a call with Bob & obtain his current ...

  6. RFID Location Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zi Min

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of social services, people’s living standards improve further requirements, there is an urgent need for a way to adapt to the complex situation of the new positioning technology. In recent years, RFID technology have a wide range of applications in all aspects of life and production, such as logistics tracking, car alarm, security and other items. The use of RFID technology to locate, it is a new direction in the eyes of the various research institutions and scholars. RFID positioning technology system stability, the error is small and low-cost advantages of its location algorithm is the focus of this study.This article analyzes the layers of RFID technology targeting methods and algorithms. First, RFID common several basic methods are introduced; Secondly, higher accuracy to political network location method; Finally, LANDMARC algorithm will be described. Through this it can be seen that advanced and efficient algorithms play an important role in increasing RFID positioning accuracy aspects.Finally, the algorithm of RFID location technology are summarized, pointing out the deficiencies in the algorithm, and put forward a follow-up study of the requirements, the vision of a better future RFID positioning technology.

  7. Spatiotemporal AED Location Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, Timothy C.Y.; Sun, Christopher L.F.; Demirtas, Derya; Morrison, Laurie J.; Brooks, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mathematical optimization can be used to plan future AED placement to maximize out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) coverage. Many public access AEDs are placed in locations without 24/7 access. AED coverage can be overestimated unless temporal availability is considered. Objective: To

  8. Location of New Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backman, Mikaela; Karlsson, Charlie

    2017-01-01

    characteristics, such as the commuting experience. Our results show that commuting influences the firm location choice. The probability of establishing a firm in the work municipality increases if the entrepreneur is a commuter, holding constant the type of region and unobservable and observable individual...

  9. UST/LUST Site Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset contains all Underground Storage Tank (UST) site information. It includes details such as property location, acreage, identification and characterization,...

  10. Water quality and the composition of fish and macroinvertebrate communities in the Devils and Pecos Rivers within and upstream from the Amistad National Recreation Area, Texas, 2005-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moring, J. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the water quality and status of fish and macroinvertebrate communities, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service and Amistad National Recreation Area, completed a reconnaissance-level survey of the water quality and fish and macroinvertebrate communities in the Devils and Pecos Rivers in and upstream from the Amistad National Recreation Area in southwest Texas during 2005–7. Water-quality conditions during the spring and summer months of 2005 in the Devils and Pecos Rivers were assessed at locations just upstream from the Amistad National Recreation Area, and the composition of fish and macroinvertebrate communities were assessed during 2006 and 2007 in and upstream from the Amistad National Recreation Area and Amistad Reservoir. Water-quality samples were collected at one site on both the Devils and Pecos Rivers. Fish and macroinvertebrates were collected at the water-quality sampling site on each river and at three additional sites on each river. The water-quality constituents of primary concern were total dissolved solids, chloride, sulfate, ammonia plus organic nitrogen, nitrate plus nitrite, orthophosphate, phosphorus, selenium, and selected pesticides. During the spring and summer of 2005, the concentrations of total dissolved solids ranged from 208 to 232 milligrams per liter (mg/L) in samples from the Devils River compared to 1,460 to 2,390 mg/L in samples from the Pecos River. Total dissolved solid concentrations measured in samples collected from the Devils River and Pecos River did not exceed the proposed State of Texas water-quality standard applicable for the segments of each river where samples were collected. During the spring and summer of 2005, chloride concentrations measured in samples collected in 2005 from the Devils River ranged from 11.6 to 12.9 mg/L, compared to chloride concentrations measured in samples collected from the Pecos River, which ranged from 519 to 879 mg

  11. Estimation of Rivers Dissolved Solids TDS by Soft Computing (Case Study: Upstream of Boukan Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zaman Zad Ghavidel

    2017-01-01

    layer with five inputs, one hidden and output layer with three and two neurons for Anyan and Safakhaneh hydrometer stations, respectively. Similar ANN, ANFIS-SC5 model had the best performance. It is clear that the ANFIS with 0/4 and 0/7 radii value has the highest R and the lowest RMSE for Anyan and Safakhaneh hydrometer stations, respectively. Various GEP models have been developed using the input combinations similar ANN and ANFIS models. Comparing the GEP5 estimations with the measured data for the test stage demonstrates a high generalization capacity of the model, with relatively low error and high correlation. From the scatter plots it is obviously seen that the GEP5 predictions are closer to the corresponding measured TDS than other models. As seen from the best straight line equations (assume the equation as y=ax in the scatter plots that the a coefficient for GEP5 is closer to 1 than other models. In addition to previous operation, Gene expression programming offered mathematical relationships in the stations of Anyan and Safakhane with the correlation coefficients, respectively 0.962 , 0.971 and with Root-mean-square errors, respectively 12.82 , 29.08 in order to predict dissolved solids (TDS in the rivers located at upstream of the dam. The obtained results showed the efficiency of the applied models in simulating the nonlinear behavior of TDS variations in terms of performance indices. Overall, the GEP model outperformed the other models. For all of applied models, the best result was obtained by application of input combination (5 including HCO3, Ca, Na, Q and Mg. The results are also tested by using t test for verifying the robustness of the models at 95% significance level. Comparison results indicated that the poorest model in TDS simulation was ANN especially in test period. The observed relationship between residuals and model computed TDS values shows complete independence and random distribution. It is further supported by the respective

  12. Wind Predictions Upstream Wind Turbines from a LiDAR Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Le Clainche

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a new method to predict the wind velocity upstream a horizontal axis wind turbine from a set of light detection and ranging (LiDAR measurements. The method uses higher order dynamic mode decomposition (HODMD to construct a reduced order model (ROM that can be extrapolated in space. LiDAR measurements have been carried out upstream a wind turbine at six different planes perpendicular to the wind turbine axis. This new HODMD-based ROM predicts with high accuracy the wind velocity during a timespan of 24 h in a plane of measurements that is more than 225 m far away from the wind turbine. Moreover, the technique introduced is general and obtained with an almost negligible computational cost. This fact makes it possible to extend its application to both vertical axis wind turbines and real-time operation.

  13. Independents in European Gas Markets after liberalisation - downstream integration of upstream oil and gas companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eikeland, Per Ove

    2005-01-01

    A central objective of gas market liberalisation in Europe in the 1990s was to increase competition by opening end-use markets for independent suppliers. Upstream oil and gas companies in Europe reacted to this opportunity by announcing strategies to integrate forward in European gas markets. By late 2004, however, upstream companies still recorded generally weak downstream strategy implementation in Europe. The article concludes that this general implementation gap should be explained by political failure in EU member states to abolish gas market barriers to entry for independents. Variation between companies in degree of implementation should be explained by variation in conditions in the companies' home markets / wider business spheres and internal company factors. (Author)

  14. Technological acceleration and organizational transformations in the upstream oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isabelle, M.

    2000-12-01

    The upstream oil and gas industry experienced a dramatic technological acceleration in the early 1970's. The relationships between the agents in this industry have themselves undergone deep changes since that date. This thesis shows that a tight link exists between the technological acceleration and the organizational transformations in the upstream oil and gas industry. In a first part, it focuses on the economic theory's developments concerning industrial organization. In a second part, it applies these developments to three types of relations: those between the owner-states of hydrocarbon resources and the international petroleum companies; those between the international petroleum companies and their subcontractors; and finally those between the international petroleum companies themselves. (author)

  15. Essential roles of caspases and their upstream regulators in rotenone-induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Jihjong; Huang, M.-S.; Yang, I-C.; Lai, T.-C.; Wang, J.-L.; Pang, V.F.; Hsiao, M.; Kuo, M.Y.P.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, we examined whether caspases and their upstream regulators are involved in rotenone-induced cytotoxicity. Rotenone significantly inhibited the proliferation of oral cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner compared to normal oral mucosal fibroblasts. Flow cytometric analysis of DNA content showed that rotenone treatment induced apoptosis following G2/M arrest. Western blotting showed activation of both the caspase-8 and caspase-9 pathways, which differed from previous studies conducted in other cell types. Furthermore, p53 protein and its downstream pro-apoptotic target, Bax, were induced in SAS cells after treatment with rotenone. Rotenone-induced apoptosis was inhibited by antioxidants (glutathione, N-acetylcysteine, and tiron). In conclusion, our results demonstrate significant involvement of caspases and their upstream regulators in rotenone-induced cytotoxicity

  16. An upstream activation element exerting differential transcriptional activation on an archaeal promoter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Nan; Xia, Qiu; Chen, Zhengjun

    2009-01-01

    S gene encoding an arabinose binding protein was characterized using an Sulfolobus islandicus reporter gene system. The minimal active araS promoter (P(araS)) was found to be 59 nucleotides long and harboured four promoter elements: an ara-box, an upstream transcription factor B-responsive element (BRE......), a TATA-box and a proximal promoter element, each of which contained important nucleotides that either greatly decreased or completely abolished promoter activity upon mutagenesis. The basal araS promoter was virtually inactive due to intrinsically weak BRE element, and the upstream activating sequence...... (UAS) ara-box activated the basal promoter by recruiting transcription factor B to its BRE. While this UAS ensured a general expression from an inactive or weak basal promoter in the presence of other tested carbon resources, it exhibited a strong arabinose-responsive transcriptional activation. To our...

  17. Measurements of energy spectra of fast electrons from PF-1000 in the upstream and downstream directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwiatkowski, R.; Czaus, K.; Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Malinowski, K.; Zebrowski, J. [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Sadowski, M.J. [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Karpinski, L.; Paduch, M.; Scholz, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IPPLM), 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Kubes, P. [Czech Technical University (CVUT), 166-27 Prague, (Czech Republic)

    2011-07-01

    The paper describes measurements of energy spectra of electrons emitted in the upstream direction along the symmetry-axis of the PF-1000 facility, operated with the deuterium filling at 21 kV, 290 kJ. The measurements were performed with a magnetic analyzer. The same analyzer was used to measure also electron beams emitted in along the symmetry-axis in the downstream direction. The recorded spectra showed that the electron-beams emitted in the upstream direction have energies in the range from about 40 keV to about 800 keV, while those in the downstream direction have energies in the range from about 60 keV to about 200 keV. These spectra confirm that in the PF (Plasma Focus) plasma column there appear strong local fields accelerating charged particles in different directions. This document is composed of a paper and a poster. (authors)

  18. The Giant Mottled Eel, Anguilla marmorata, Uses Blue-Shifted Rod Photoreceptors during Upstream Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Feng-Yu; Fu, Wen-Chun; Wang, I-Li; Yan, Hong Young; Wang, Tzi-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Catadromous fishes migrate between ocean and freshwater during particular phases of their life cycle. The dramatic environmental changes shape their physiological features, e.g. visual sensitivity, olfactory ability, and salinity tolerance. Anguilla marmorata, a catadromous eel, migrates upstream on dark nights, following the lunar cycle. Such behavior may be correlated with ontogenetic changes in sensory systems. Therefore, this study was designed to identify changes in spectral sensitivity ...

  19. MESSENGER Magnetic Field Observations of Upstream Ultra-Low Frequency Waves at Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, G.; Chi, P. J.; Boardsen, S.; Blanco-Cano, X.; Anderosn, B. J.; Korth, H.

    2012-01-01

    The region upstream from a planetary bow shock is a natural plasma laboratory containing a variety of wave particle phenomena. The study of foreshocks other than the Earth's is important for extending our understanding of collisionless shocks and foreshock physics since the bow shock strength varies with heliocentric distance from the Sun, and the sizes of the bow shocks are different at different planets. The Mercury's bow shock is unique in our solar system as it is produced by low Mach number solar wind blowing over a small magnetized body with a predominately radial interplanetary magnetic field. Previous observations of Mercury upstream ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves came exclusively from two Mercury flybys of Mariner 10. The MESSENGER orbiter data enable us to study of upstream waves in the Mercury's foreshock in depth. This paper reports an overview of upstream ULF waves in the Mercury's foreshock using high-time resolution magnetic field data, 20 samples per second, from the MESSENGER spacecraft. The most common foreshock waves have frequencies near 2 Hz, with properties similar to the I-Hz waves in the Earth's foreshock. They are present in both the flyby data and in every orbit of the orbital data we have surveyed. The most common wave phenomenon in the Earth's foreshock is the large-amplitude 30-s waves, but similar waves at Mercury have frequencies at near 0.1 Hz and occur only sporadically with short durations (a few wave cycles). Superposed on the "30-s" waves, there are spectral peaks at near 0.6 Hz, not reported previously in Mariner 10 data. We will discuss wave properties and their occurrence characteristics in this paper.

  20. Frequency effects of upstream wake and blade interaction on the unsteady boundary layer flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dong Jin; Bae, Sang Su

    2002-01-01

    Effects of the reduced frequency of upstream wake on downstream unsteady boundary layer flow were simulated by using a Navier-Stokes code. The Navier-Stokes code is based on an unstructured finite volume method and uses a low Reynolds number turbulence model to close the momentum equations. The geometry used in this paper is the MIT flapping foil experimental set-up and the reduced frequency of the upstream wake is varied in the range of 0.91 to 10.86 to study its effect on the unsteady boundary layer flow. Numerical solutions show that they can be divided into two categories. One is so called the low frequency solution, and behaves quite similar to a Stokes layer. Its characteristics is found to be quite similar to those due to either a temporal or spatial wave. The low frequency solutions are observed clearly when reduced frequency is smaller than 3.26. The other one is the high frequency solution. It is observed for the reduced frequency larger than 7.24. It shows a sudden shift of the phase angle of the unsteady velocity around the edge of the boundary layer. The shift of phase angle is about 180 degree, and leads to separation of the boundary layer flow from corresponding outer flow. The high frequency solution shows the characteristics of a temporal wave whose wave length is half of the upstream frequency. This characteristics of the high frequency solution is found to be caused by the strong interaction between unsteady vortices. This strong interaction also leads to destroy of the upstream wake stripe inside the viscous sublayer as well as the buffer layer