WorldWideScience

Sample records for sites environment surveillance

  1. Surveillance of Site A and Plot M, Report for 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golchert, N. W.

    2010-04-21

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for Calendar Year 2009 are presented. Based on the results of the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site, a determination was made that a surveillance program be established. The characterization study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand-pumped picnic wells. The current surveillance program began in 1980 and consists of sample collection and analysis of surface and subsurface water. The results of the analyses are used to monitor the migration pathway of hydrogen-3 contaminated water from the burial ground (Plot M) to the hand-pumped picnic wells and monitor for the presence of radioactive materials in the environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red Gate Woods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Hydrogen-3 continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site, using the picnic area, or living in the vicinity.

  2. Surveillance of Site A and Plot M report for 2010.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golchert, N. W. (ESQ)

    2011-05-31

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for Calendar Year 2010 are presented. Based on the results of the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site, a determination was made that a surveillance program be established. The characterization study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand-pumped picnic wells. The current surveillance program began in 1980 and consists of sample collection and analysis of surface and subsurface water. The results of the analyses are used to monitor the migration pathway of hydrogen-3 contaminated water from the burial ground (Plot M) to the hand-pumped picnic wells and monitor for the presence of radioactive materials in the environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red Gate Woods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Hydrogen-3 continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site, using the picnic area, or living in the vicinity.

  3. 2003 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Nevada Test Site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  4. [Surveillance results of paragonimiasis endemic in regular surveillance sites in Sichuan Province from 2011 to 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Lu, Ding; Xu, Liang; Zhong, Bo

    2015-08-01

    To understand the endemic situation and impact factors of paragonimiasis in Sichuan Province, so as to provide the evidence for its control work. Four administrative villages from Xuanhan County, Kaijiang County, Pengzhou City and Yucheng District of Ya'an City were selected as regular surveillance sites. In the surveillance sites, ELISA was applied to test the infection situation of residents, questionnaire surveys were performed simultaneously; and water crabs were collected to detect the metacercariae of Paragonimus. From 2011 to 2013, totally 3 666 residents were tested by serum test and 104 of them were positive with a positive rate of 2.8%. Totally 3 671 residents underwent the questionnaire survey and 24.8% of them had heard about paragonimiasis, 36.3% had eaten undercooked water crabs, 56.4% had played with water crabs, and 84.6% had drunk stream water. Totally 2 463 water crabs were dissected, and metacercariae of Paragonimus were found in 620 of them with the infection rate of 25.2% and infectiosity of 4.53 per crab, respectively. The endemic situation of paragonimiasis in natural environments is serious in Sichuan Province. The residents in endemic area practice unhealthy diet behavior, and there is an urgent risk of the breakout of paragonimiasis.

  5. Evaluation of two surveillance methods for surgical site infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Haji Abdolbaghi

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgical wound infection surveillance is an important facet of hospital infection control processes. There are several surveillance methods for surgical site infections. The objective of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of two different surgical site infection surveillance methods. Methods: In this prospective cross sectional study 3020 undergoing surgey in general surgical wards of Imam Khomeini hospital were included. Surveillance methods consisted of review of medical records for postoperative fever and review of nursing daily note for prescription of antibiotics postoperatively and during patient’s discharge. Review of patient’s history and daily records and interview with patient’s surgeon and the head-nurse of the ward considered as a gold standard for surveillance. Results: The postoperative antibiotic consumption especially when considering its duration is a proper method for surgical wound infection surveillance. Accomplishments of a prospective study with postdischarge follow up until 30 days after surgery is recommended. Conclusion: The result of this study showed that postoperative antibiotic surveillance method specially with consideration of the antibiotic usage duration is a proper method for surgical site infection surveillance in general surgery wards. Accomplishments of a prospective study with post discharge follow up until 30 days after surgery is recommended.

  6. Long-term surveillance plan for the Estes Gulch disposal site near Rifle, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Estes Gulch disposal site near Rifle, Colorado. This LSTP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the Estes Gulch disposal site performs as designed and is cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed for custody and long-term care, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires the DOE to submit such a site-specific LTSP.

  7. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule for Calendar Year 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2005-01-19

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs. This document contains the calendar year 2005 schedules for the routine and non-routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project.

  8. Active prospective surveillance study with post-discharge surveillance of surgical site infections in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, José; Guichon, Céline; Isnard, Margaux; So, Saphy; Chan, Sophors; Couraud, Sébastien; Duong, Bunn

    2015-01-01

    Barriers to the implementation of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for surgical site infection (SSI) surveillance have been described in resource-limited settings. This study aimed to estimate the SSI incidence rate in a Cambodian hospital and to compare different modalities of SSI surveillance. We performed an active prospective study with post-discharge surveillance. During the hospital stay, trained surveyors collected the CDC criteria to identify SSI by direct examination of the surgical site. After discharge, a card was given to each included patient to be presented to all practitioners examining the surgical site. Among 167 patients, direct examination of the surgical site identified a cumulative incidence rate of 14 infections per 100 patients. An independent review of medical charts presented a sensitivity of 16%. The sensitivity of the purulent drainage criterion to detect SSIs was 83%. After hospital discharge, 87% of the patients provided follow-up data, and nine purulent drainages were reported by a practitioner (cumulative incidence rate: 20%). Overall, the incidence rate was dependent on the surveillance modalities. The review of medical charts to identify SSIs during hospitalization was not effective; the use of a follow-up card with phone calls for post-discharge surveillance was effective. Copyright © 2014 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An Autonomous Mobile Robotic System for Surveillance of Indoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Di Paola

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of intelligent surveillance systems is an active research area. In this context, mobile and multi-functional robots are generally adopted as means to reduce the environment structuring and the number of devices needed to cover a given area. Nevertheless, the number of different sensors mounted on the robot, and the number of complex tasks related to exploration, monitoring, and surveillance make the design of the overall system extremely challenging. In this paper, we present our autonomous mobile robot for surveillance of indoor environments. We propose a system able to handle autonomously general-purpose tasks and complex surveillance issues simultaneously. It is shown that the proposed robotic surveillance scheme successfully addresses a number of basic problems related to environment mapping, localization and autonomous navigation, as well as surveillance tasks, like scene processing to detect abandoned or removed objects and people detection and following. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated through experimental tests using a multisensor platform equipped with a monocular camera, a laser scanner, and an RFID device. Real world applications of the proposed system include surveillance of wide areas (e.g. airports and museums and buildings, and monitoring of safety equipment.

  10. An Autonomous Mobile Robotic System for Surveillance of Indoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Di Paola

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of intelligent surveillance systems is an active research area. In this context, mobile and multi-functional robots are generally adopted as means to reduce the environment structuring and the number of devices needed to cover a given area. Nevertheless, the number of different sensors mounted on the robot, and the number of complex tasks related to exploration, monitoring, and surveillance make the design of the overall system extremely challenging. In this paper, we present our autonomous mobile robot for surveillance of indoor environments. We propose a system able to handle autonomously general-purpose tasks and complex surveillance issues simultaneously. It is shown that the proposed robotic surveillance scheme successfully addresses a number of basic problems related to environment mapping, localization and autonomous navigation, as well as surveillance tasks, like scene processing to detect abandoned or removed objects and people detection and following. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated through experimental tests using a multisensor platform equipped with a monocular camera, a laser scanner, and an RFID device. Real world applications of the proposed system include surveillance of wide areas (e.g. airports and museums and buildings, and monitoring of safety equipment.

  11. Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreie, Ken [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Grand Junction, CO (United States); Findlay, Rick [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States)

    2016-06-08

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) prepared this Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan (LTSMP) for the Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site (the Gnome site). The Gnome site is approximately 25 miles east of Carlsbad in Eddy County, New Mexico (Figure 1). The site was the location of a 3-kiloton-yield underground nuclear test and radioisotope groundwater tracer test. The tests resulted in residual contamination and post-detonation features that require long-term oversight. Long-term responsibility for the site was transferred from the DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office to LM on October 1, 2006. Responsibilities include surveillance, monitoring, and maintenance of institutional controls (ICs) as part of the long-term stewardship of the site. Long-term stewardship is designed to ensure protection of human health and the environment.

  12. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Data Report for Calendar Year 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2009-08-11

    Environmental surveillance on and around the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, which is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy. The environmental surveillance data collected for this report provide a historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels attributable to natural causes, worldwide fallout, and Hanford Site operations. Data were also collected to monitor several chemicals and metals in Columbia River water, sediment, and wildlife. These data are included in this appendix. This report is the first of two appendices that support "Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2008" (PNNL-18427), which describes the Hanford Site mission and activities, general environmental features, radiological and chemical releases from operations, status of compliance with environmental regulations, status of programs to accomplish compliance, Hanford Site cleanup and remediation efforts, and environmental monitoring activities and results.

  13. 1995 annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. A number of DOE sites participate in the Epidemiologic Surveillance Program. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Hanford Site from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at Hanford and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out. The information in the main body of the report provides a descriptive analysis of the data collected from the site, and the appendices provides additional detail. The report also contains an expanded Glossary and an Explanation of Diagnostic Categories which gives examples of health conditions in each of the diagnostic categories.

  14. Guidance for implementing the long-term surveillance program for UMTRA Project Title I Disposal Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    This guidance document has two purposes: it provides guidance for writing site-specific long-term surveillance plans (LTSP) and it describes site surveillance, monitoring, and long-term care techniques for Title I disposal sites of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC Section 7901 et seq.). Long-term care includes monitoring, maintenance, and emergency measures needed to protect public health and safety and the environment after remedial action is completed. This document applies to the UMTRCA-designated Title I disposal sites. The requirements for long-term care of the Title I sites and the contents of the LTSPs are provided in U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations (10 CFR Section 40.27) provided in Attachment 1.

  15. Managing Maritime Environment Surveillance And Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and supervising operational activities cum events within the confines of any given maritime environment. It is one aspect of search and rescue strategy that requires commissioning of group of persons to monitor and supervise operational activities that happens in the port area and beyond the accepted 200 nautical miles ...

  16. Surveillance and epidemiology of surgical site infections after cardiothoracic surgery in The Netherlands, 2002-2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manniën, Judith; Wille, Jan C.; Kloek, Jaap J.; van Benthem, Birgit H. B.

    2011-01-01

    Surgical site infections after cardiothoracic surgery substantially increase the risk for illness, mortality, and costs. Surveillance of surgical site infections might assist in the prevention of these infections. This study describes the Dutch surveillance methods and results of data collected

  17. Annual report for Hanford Site: Epidemiologic surveillance - 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Epidemiologic surveillance at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences due to illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. Data are collected by coordinators at each site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and analyses are carried out. Rates of absences and rates of diagnoses associated with absences are analyzed by occupational and other relevant variables. They may be compared with the disease experience of different groups within the DOE work force and with populations that do not work for DOE to identify disease patterns or clusters that may be associated with work activities.This report provides the final summary for the Hanford Reservation.

  18. 1997 Savannah River Site annual epidemiologic surveillance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-06-01

    This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from Savannah River Site from January 1, 1997 through December 31, 1997. The data were collected by a coordinator at Savannah River Site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and preliminary data analyses were carried out. The analyses were interpreted and the final report prepared by the DOE Office of Epidemiologic Studies. The information in this report provides highlights of the data analyses conducted on the 1997 data collected from Savannah River Site. The main sections of the report include: work force characteristics; absences due to injury or illness lasting 5 or more consecutive workdays; workplace illnesses, injuries, and deaths that were reportable to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (''OSHA-recordable'' events); and disabilities and deaths among current workers. The 199 7 report includes a section on time trends that provides comparative information on the health of the work force from 1994 through 1997.

  19. 1996 Savannah River Site annual epidemiologic surveillance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-03-01

    This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from Savannah River Site from January 1, 1996 through December 31, 1996. The data were collected by a coordinator at Savannah River Site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and preliminary data analyses were carried out. The analyses were interpreted and the final report prepared by the DOE Office of Epidemiologic Studies. The information in this report provides highlights of the data analyses conducted on the 1996 data collected from Savannah River Site. The main sections of the report include: work force characteristics; absences due to injury or illness lasting 5 or more consecutive workdays; workplace illnesses, injuries, and deaths that were reportable to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (''OSHA-recordable'' events); and disabilities and deaths among current workers. The 1996 report includes a new section on time trends that provides comparative information on the health of the work force from 1994 through 1996.

  20. Hanford Site environmental surveillance data report for calendar year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1997-09-01

    Environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site collects data that provides a historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels attributable to natural causes, worldwide fallout, and Hanford operations. Data are also collected to monitor several chemicals and metals in Columbia River water and sediment. In addition, Hanford Site wildlife samples were also collected for metals analysis. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory publishes an annual environmental report for the Hanford Site each calendar year. The Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1996 describes the site mission and activities, general environmental features, radiological and chemical releases from operations, status of compliance with environmental regulations, status of programs to accomplish compliance, and environmental monitoring activities and results. The report includes a summary of offsite and onsite environmental monitoring data collected during 1996 by PNNL`s Environmental Monitoring Program. Appendix A of that report contains data summaries created from river monitoring and sediment data. This volume contains the actual raw data used to create the summaries. The data volume also includes Hanford Site drinking water radiological data.

  1. Epidemiologic surveillance. Annual report for Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Epidemiologic surveillance at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences due to illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. In this annual report, the 1994 morbidity data for the Savannah River Site (SRS) are summarized. These analyses focus on absences of 5 or more consecutive workdays occurring among workers aged 16-75 years. They are arranged in five sets of tables that present: (1) the distribution of the labor force by occupational category and salary status; (2) the absences per person, diagnoses per absences, and diagnosis rates for the whole work force; (3) diagnosis rates by type of disease or injury; (4) diagnosis rates by occupational category; and (5) relative risks for specific types of disease or injury by occupational category.

  2. Site transition framework for long-term surveillance and maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-04-01

    This document provides a framework for all U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and sites where DOE may have anticipated long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTSM) responsibilities. It is a tool to help facilitate a smooth transition from remediation to LTSM, providing a systematic process for affected parties to utilize in analyzing the baseline to understand and manage the actions from EM mission completion through a site’s transition into LTSM. The framework is not meant to provide an exhaustive list of the specific requirement and information that are needed. Sites will have unique considerations that may not be adequately addressed by this tool, and it is anticipated that a team comprised of the transferring and receiving organization will use judgment in utilizing this augmenting with other DOE guidance. However the framework should be followed to the extent possible at each site; and adapted to accommodate unique site-specific requirements, needs, and documents. Since the objective of the tool is facilitate better understanding of the conditions of the site and the actions required for transfer, the transition team utilizing the checklist is expected to consult with management of both the receiving and transferring organization to verify that major concerns are addressed. Ideally, this framework should be used as early in the remediation process as possible. Subsequent applications of the Site Transition Framework (STF) to the site should be conducted periodically and used to verify that all appropriate steps have been or will be taken to close-out the site and that actions by both organization are identified to transfer the site to LTSM. The requirements are provided herein.

  3. Hanford Site environmental surveillance data report for calendar year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1996-07-01

    Environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site collects data that provides a historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels attributable to natural causes, worldwide fallout, and Hanford operations. Data are also collected to monitor several chemicals and metals in Columbia River Water and Sediment. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory publishes an annual environmental report for the Hanford Site each calendar year. The Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1995 describes the Site mission and activities, general environmental features, radiological and chemical releases from operations, status of compliance with environmental regulations, status of programs to accomplish compliance, and environmental monitoring activities and results. The report includes a summary of offsite and onsite environmental monitoring data collected during 1995 by PNNL`s Environmental Monitoring Program. Appendix A of that report contains data summaries created from raw surface, river monitoring data, and chemical air data. This volume contains the actual raw data used to create the summaries. The data volume also includes Hanford Site drinking water radiological data.

  4. Miniaturized spectral imaging for environment surveillance based on UAV platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuyang; Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Yunhao; Wang, Tianhe; Zhao, Anna; Zhou, Tao; Jia, Xiaodong

    2017-10-01

    Spectral imaging is a technique which enables the ability of detecting the target by un-contact measurement with both imaging and spectral feature in every pixel inside the image. In this way, spectral imaging device is able to collect more detailed information than traditional RGB camera and hence classify the objects into a more precise category. Environment surveillance is a vital step in the environment protection in the terms of advance warning, pollution area measurement, pollution identification, emergency response and response effectiveness evaluation. In this case, a measurement with a large surveillance area and the capacity of recognizing the target object will be preferred in this application especially for the country with large land area such as China. In this paper, a solution based on the miniaturized spectral imaging system is proposed and the practical experiment has been performed. The result shows that the proposed system is able to be installed in a small UAV and work in an altitude up to 1.7 km.

  5. Rotavirus Surveillance at a WHO-Coordinated Invasive Bacterial Disease Surveillance Site in Bangladesh: A Feasibility Study to Integrate Two Surveillance Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, ASM Nawshad Uddin; Arumugam, Rajesh; Marzan, Mahfuza; Saha, Shampa; Arifeen, Shams El; Baqui, Abdullah H.; Black, Robert E.; Kang, Gagandeep; Saha, Samir Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) currently coordinates rotavirus diarrhea and invasive bacterial disease (IBD) surveillance at 178 sentinel sites in 60 countries. However, only 78 sites participate in both surveillance systems using a common sentinel site. Here, we explored the feasibility of extending a WHO-IBD surveillance platform to generate data on the burden of rotaviral diarrhea and its epidemiological characteristics to prepare the countries to measure the impact of rotaviral vaccine. A six-month (July to December, 2012) surveillance, managed by IBD team, collected stool samples and clinical data from under-five children with acute watery diarrhea at an IBD sentinel site. Samples were tested for rotavirus antigen by ELISA and genotyped by PCR at the regional reference laboratory (RRL). Specimens were collected from 79% (n = 297) of eligible cases (n = 375); 100% of which were tested for rotavirus by ELISA and 54% (159/297) of them were positive. At RRL, all the cases were confirmed by PCR and genotyped (99%; 158/159). The typing results revealed the predominance of G12 (40%; 64/159) genotype, followed by G1 (31%; 50/159) and G9 (19%; 31/159). All in all, this exploratory surveillance collected the desired demographic and epidemiological data and achieved almost all the benchmark indicators of WHO, starting from enrollment number to quality assurance through a number of case detection, collection, and testing of specimens and genotyping of strains at RRL. The success of this WHO-IBD site in achieving these benchmark indicators of WHO can be used by WHO as a proof-of-concept for considering integration of rotavirus surveillance with WHO-IBD platforms, specifically in countries with well performing IBD site and no ongoing rotavirus surveillance. PMID:27096958

  6. Literacies for Surveillance: Social Network Sites and Background Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Jackson Young

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In September 2013, civilian contractor Aaron Alexis entered the Washington Navy Yard and murdered twelve people before being fatally shot by police. This incident, together with an incident three months earlier involving Edward Snowden, caused the U.S. government to critically examine their background investigation (BI process; because both Snowden and Alexis had supposedly slipped through the cracks of their investigations, there must be some flaw in the BI procedure. The U.S. Committee on Oversight and Reform concluded that rules forbidding “background checkers from looking at the Internet or social media when performing checks” was one of the main factors contributing to defective BIs (Report, 2014. Since the report’s release, the Director of National Intelligence has been debating and trialing whether information from the Internet should be used to form a data double for BIs (Kopp, 2014; Rockwell, 2014. Using this conversation as a discussion catalyst, I argue that due to the nature of the data double, if the United States were to adopt the use of social networking sites (SNSs for security clearance purposes, neglecting to take into account basic principles of SNSs into the process of BIs may lead to misinformation and unfavorable adjudication. Ultimately, being literate about the social practices involved in SNSs and surveillance would benefit not only investigators, but anyone, including academics, looking at individuals in online spaces.

  7. Neisseria gonorrhoeae Antimicrobial Susceptibility Surveillance - The Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project, 27 Sites, United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkcaldy, Robert D; Harvey, Alesia; Papp, John R; Del Rio, Carlos; Soge, Olusegun O; Holmes, King K; Hook, Edward W; Kubin, Grace; Riedel, Stefan; Zenilman, Jonathan; Pettus, Kevin; Sanders, Tremeka; Sharpe, Samera; Torrone, Elizabeth

    2016-07-15

    Gonorrhea is the second most commonly reported notifiable disease in the United States; 350,062 gonorrhea cases were reported in 2014. Sexually transmitted infections caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae are a cause of pelvic inflammatory disease in women, which can lead to serious reproductive complications including tubal infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. Prevention of sequelae and of transmission to sexual partners relies largely on prompt detection and effective antimicrobial treatment. However, treatment has been compromised by the absence of routine antimicrobial susceptibility testing in clinical care and evolution of antimicrobial resistance to the antibiotics used to treat gonorrhea. 2014. The Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP) was established in 1986 as a sentinel surveillance system to monitor trends in antimicrobial susceptibilities of N. gonorrhoeae strains in the United States. Each month, N. gonorrhoeae isolates are collected from up to the first 25 men with gonococcal urethritis attending each of the participating sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics at 27 sites. The number of participating sites has varied over time (21-30 per year). Selected demographic and clinical data are abstracted from medical records. Isolates are tested for antimicrobial susceptibility using agar dilution at one of five regional laboratories. A total of 5,093 isolates were collected in 2014. Of these, 25.3% were resistant to tetracycline, 19.2% to ciprofloxacin, and 16.2% to penicillin (plasmid-based, chromosomal, or both). Reduced azithromycin susceptibility (Azi-RS) (defined as minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] ≥2.0 µg/mL) increased from 0.6% in 2013 to 2.5% in 2014. The increase occurred in all geographic regions, but was greatest in the Midwest, and among all categories of sex of sex partners (men who have sex with men [MSM], men who have sex with men and women [MSMW], and men who have sex with women [MSW]). No Azi-RS isolates

  8. Long-term surveillance plan for the Rifle, Colorado, Disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Estes Gulch disposal site in Garfield County, Colorado. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal Sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites, will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Estes Gulch disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Estes Gulch site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP.

  9. A benchmark too far: findings from a national survey of surgical site infection surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Tanner, Judith; Padley, Wendy; Kiernan, Martin; Leaper, David; Norrie, Peter; Baggott, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Background The national surgical site infection (SSI) surveillance service in England collates and publishes SSI rates that are used for benchmarking and to identify the prevalence of SSIs. However, research studies using high-quality SSI surveillance report rates that are much higher than those published by the national surveillance service. This variance questions the validity of data collected through the national service. Aim To audit SSI definitions and data collection methods ...

  10. 2004 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised October 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-24

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program for 2004 for the Hanford site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  11. Surveillance of working conditions and the work environment: development of a national hazard surveillance tool in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Rebbecca; Feyer, Anne-Marie; Firth, Hilda; Cunningham, Chris; Paul, Charlotte

    2010-02-01

    Changes to work and the impact of these changes on worker health and safety have been significant. A core surveillance data set is needed to understand the impact of working conditions and work environments. Yet, there is little harmony amongst international surveys and a critical lack of guidance identifying the best directions for surveillance efforts. This paper describes the establishment of an instrument suitable for use as a hazard surveillance tool for New Zealand workers. An iterative process of critical review was undertaken to create a dimensional framework and select specific measures from existing instruments. Pilot testing to ascertain participant acceptability of the questions was undertaken. The final questionnaire includes measures of socio-demographic characteristics, occupational history, work organisation, physicochemical, ergonomic and psychosocial hazards. Outcome measures were also included. A robust New Zealand hazard surveillance questionnaire comprehensively covering the key measures of work organisation and work environments that impact upon worker health and safety outcomes was developed. Recommended measures of work organisation, work environment and health outcomes that should be captured in work environment surveillance are made.

  12. 2008 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  13. 2007 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-07-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  14. 2010 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-10-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  15. 2007 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  16. 2008 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-10-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  17. 2006 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. 2006 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-04-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  19. 2010 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-09-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  20. 2009 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  1. 2006 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-08-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  2. 2007 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-05-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  3. Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Coeckelbergh, Mark; Matzner, Tobias

    Studying surveillance involves raising questions about the very nature of concepts such as information, technology, identity, space and power. Besides the maybe all too obvious ethical issues often discussed with regard to surveillance, there are several other angles and approaches that we should...... like to encourage. Therefore, our panel will focus on the philosophical, yet non-ethical issues of surveillance in order to stimulate an intense debate with the audience on the ethical implications of our enquiries. We also hope to provide a broader and deeper understanding of surveillance....

  4. Radioiodine in the Savannah River Site environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantelo, M.V.; Bauer, L.R.; Marter, W.L.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Zeigler, C.C.

    1993-01-15

    Radioiodine, which is the collective term for all radioactive isotopes of the element iodine, is formed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) principally as a by-product of nuclear reactor operations. Part of the radioiodine is released to the environment during reactor and reprocessing operations at the site. The purpose of this report is to provide an introduction to radioiodine production and disposition, its status in the environment, and the radiation dose and health risks as a consequence of its release to the environment around the Savannah River Plant. A rigorous dose reconstruction study is to be completed by thee Center for Disease Control during the 1990s.

  5. Assessing the online social environment for surveillance of obesity prevalence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumi Chunara

    Full Text Available Understanding the social environmental around obesity has been limited by available data. One promising approach used to bridge similar gaps elsewhere is to use passively generated digital data.This article explores the relationship between online social environment via web-based social networks and population obesity prevalence.We performed a cross-sectional study using linear regression and cross validation to measure the relationship and predictive performance of user interests on the online social network Facebook to obesity prevalence in metros across the United States of America (USA and neighborhoods within New York City (NYC. The outcomes, proportion of obese and/or overweight population in USA metros and NYC neighborhoods, were obtained via the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance and NYC EpiQuery systems. Predictors were geographically specific proportion of users with activity-related and sedentary-related interests on Facebook.Higher proportion of the population with activity-related interests on Facebook was associated with a significant 12.0% (95% Confidence Interval (CI 11.9 to 12.1 lower predicted prevalence of obese and/or overweight people across USA metros and 7.2% (95% CI: 6.8 to 7.7 across NYC neighborhoods. Conversely, greater proportion of the population with interest in television was associated with higher prevalence of obese and/or overweight people of 3.9% (95% CI: 3.7 to 4.0 (USA and 27.5% (95% CI: 27.1 to 27.9, significant (NYC. For activity-interests and national obesity outcomes, the average root mean square prediction error from 10-fold cross validation was comparable to the average root mean square error of a model developed using the entire data set.Activity-related interests across the USA and sedentary-related interests across NYC were significantly associated with obesity prevalence. Further research is needed to understand how the online social environment relates to

  6. Surveillance mission planning for UAVs in GPS-denied urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengfei, Wang

    In this thesis, the issues involved in the mission planning of UAVs for city surveillance have been studied. In this thesis, the research includes two major parts. Firstly, a mission planning system is developed that generates mission plans for a group of fixed-wing UAVs with on-board gimballed cameras to provide continuous surveillance over an urban area. Secondly, the problem of perching location selection (as part of perch-and-stare surveillance mission) for rotary-wing UAVs in a GPS-denied environment is studied. In this kind of mission, a UAV is dispatched to perch on a roof of a building to keep surveillance on a given target. The proposed algorithms to UAV surveillance mission planning (fixed-wing and rotary-wing) have been implemented and tested. It represents an important step towards achieving autonomous planning in UAV surveillance missions.

  7. Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat disposal site, Mexican Hat, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This plan describes the long-term surveillance activities for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site at Mexican Hat, Utah. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material (RRM). This LTSPC documents the land ownership interests and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be accomplished.

  8. Thermoluminescent Dosimeter Use for Environmental Surveillance at the Hanford Site, 1971–2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, Ernest J.; Poston, Ted M.; Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2010-03-01

    This report describes the use of thermo luminescent dosimeters for environmental surveillance of external radiation on and around the Hanford Site for the period of 1970 to 2005. It addresses changes in the technology and associated quality control and assurance used in this work and summarizes the results of the 35 year period of external radiation surveillance. The appendices to this report provide trend plots for each location that comprised the shoreline, onsite, perimeter, and offsite sample design.

  9. 2003 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised October 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-24

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for the Hanford site. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. The prpogram is part of DOE's commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers and includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers.

  10. 2004 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised October 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-24

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2004 for the Hanford site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  11. 2003 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-05

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Savannah River Site. DOE is commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The report monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  12. Long-term Surveillance Plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Falls City disposal site, Falls City, Texas, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  13. Long-term surveillance plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Falls City disposal site, Falls City, Texas, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. DOE will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  14. Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat Disposal Site, Mexican Hat, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    This plan describes the long-term surveillance activities for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site at Mexican Hat, Utah. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material (RRM). This LTSP (based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program), documents the land ownership interests and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be accomplished.

  15. Smart Platforms Surveillance System to Enhance Communication in Disaster Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Satea Hikmat Alnajjar; Fareq Malek; Zainab Nazar Khalil Wafi

    2013-01-01

    The modern communications technology is a positive case for disaster risk reduction, since they to it provides critical information to realize risk assessment. In this study, we present an innovativetechnique is characterized by an aerial platform as a robust method to monitor disaster area. Traffic Surveillance System (TSS), based on Detection and Early Warning (DEW) units, is used to monitor theroads in preventing accidents at the same time finding what causes the accidents. This is done by...

  16. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Data Report for Calendar Year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2001-09-27

    This data report contains the actual raw data used to create tables and summaries in the Hanford Site Environmental Report 2000. This report also includes data from special sampling studies performed in 2000.

  17. Long-term surveillance plan for the Tuba City, Arizona disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site at Tuba City, Arizona, describes the site surveillance activities. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM) (10 CFR {section}40.27).

  18. Data Quality Objectives Summary Report Supporting Radiological Air Surveillance Monitoring for the INL Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haney, Thomas Jay [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report documents the Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) developed for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site ambient air surveillance program. The development of the DQOs was based on the seven-step process recommended “for systematic planning to generate performance and acceptance criteria for collecting environmental data” (EPA 2006). The process helped to determine the type, quantity, and quality of data needed to meet current regulatory requirements and to follow U.S. Department of Energy guidance for environmental surveillance air monitoring design. It also considered the current air monitoring program that has existed at INL Site since the 1950s. The development of the DQOs involved the application of the atmospheric dispersion model CALPUFF to identify likely contamination dispersion patterns at and around the INL Site using site-specific meteorological data. Model simulations were used to quantitatively assess the probable frequency of detection of airborne radionuclides released by INL Site facilities using existing and proposed air monitors.

  19. Surveillance of terrestrial and aquatic environment of the Chinon nuclear power plant. Year 2002-2003; Surveillance de l'environnement terrestre et aquatique de la centrale de Chinon. Annee 2002-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    We find dosage of gamma emitters radionuclides of samples collected in the environment of the Chinon nuclear power plant for 2002 and 2003, these results are presented in two tables: concentrations in gamma emitter radionuclides of samples collected in the terrestrial environment (soils) and aquatic environment (sediments) of the site of Chinon in june 2002 in the frame of the annual surveillance, the second table concerns the concentrations in gamma emitter radionuclides of samples collected in the terrestrial environment (soils and lichens) of the site of Chinon in may 2003 in the frame of the annual surveillance. We find also the dosage of free tritium in the water of the Loire river for 2002 and 2003, upstream and downstream to the power plant of Chinon. (N.C.)

  20. Characterization of the Hanford Site and environs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. (ed.)

    1991-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to site, construct, and operate a new production reactor (NPR) intended to produce materials for the US nuclear weapons program. The DOE has determined that this proposed action constitutes an action that may significantly affect the quality of the human environment; therefore, the DOE is preparing an environmental impact statement (EIS) to assess the potential impacts of the proposed action and reasonable alternatives on the human and natural environment. The NPR-EIS is being prepared in accordance with Section 102(2)(C) of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as implemented in regulations (40 CFR 1500--1508) promulgated by the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ). Information on the potentially affected environment at the Hanford Site and its environs was provided to ANL by PNL in various submissions during CY-1989, and some of that information was consolidated into this report, which is considered to be supporting documentation for the NPR-EIS. 93 refs., 35 figs., 46 tabs.

  1. Long-term surveillance plan for the Collins Ranch disposal site, Lakeview, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Collins Ranch disposal site, Lakeview, Oregon, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal cell. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  2. Environmental surveillance report for the Nevada Test Site (January 1980-December 1980)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scoggins, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    Results are presented for the environmental surveillance program at the Nevada Test Site as conducted by the Department of Energy (DOE) onsite radiological safety contractor from January 1980 through December 1980. The results and evaluations of measurements of radioactivity in air and water, and of direct gamma radiation exposure rates are presented. Relevancy to DOE concentration guides (CG'S) is established.

  3. A benchmark too far: findings from a national survey of surgical site infection surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J; Padley, W; Kiernan, M; Leaper, D; Norrie, P; Baggott, R

    2013-02-01

    The national surgical site infection (SSI) surveillance service in England collates and publishes SSI rates that are used for benchmarking and to identify the prevalence of SSIs. However, research studies using high-quality SSI surveillance report rates that are much higher than those published by the national surveillance service. This variance questions the validity of data collected through the national service. To audit SSI definitions and data collection methods used by hospital trusts in England. All 156 hospital trusts in England were sent questionnaires that focused on aspects of SSI definitions and data collection methods. Completed questionnaires were received from 106 hospital trusts. There were considerable differences in data collection methods and data quality that caused wide variation in reported SSI rates. For example, the SSI rate for knee replacement surgery was 4.1% for trusts that used high-quality postdischarge surveillance (PDS) and 1.5% for trusts that used low-quality PDS. Contrary to national protocols and definitions, 10% of trusts did not provide data on superficial infections, 15% of trusts did not use the recommended SSI definition, and 8% of trusts used inpatient data alone. Thirty trusts did not submit a complete set of their data to the national surveillance service. Unsubmitted data included non-mandatory data, PDS data and continuous data. The national surveillance service underestimates the prevalence of SSIs and is not appropriate for benchmarking. Hospitals that conduct high-quality SSI surveillance will be penalized within the current surveillance service. Copyright © 2012 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Data Report for Calendar Year 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2006-09-28

    This data report contains the actual raw data used to create the tables and summaries in the Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2005. In addition to providing raw data collected during routine sampling efforts in 2005, this data report also includes Columbia River shoreline spring data collected by the PNNL Groundwater Performance Assessment Project, and data from collaborative studies performed by the PNNL during 2005 under partial support by the SESP. Some analytical results were not received in time to include in this report or changes may have occurred to the data following publication.

  5. Social networking sites in romantic relationships: attachment, uncertainty, and partner surveillance on facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jesse; Warber, Katie M

    2014-01-01

    Social networking sites serve as both a source of information and a source of tension between romantic partners. Previous studies have investigated the use of Facebook for monitoring former and current romantic partners, but why certain individuals engage in this behavior has not been fully explained. College students (N=328) participated in an online survey that examined two potential explanatory variables for interpersonal electronic surveillance (IES) of romantic partners: attachment style and relational uncertainty. Attachment style predicted both uncertainty and IES, with preoccupieds and fearfuls reporting the highest levels. Uncertainty did not predict IES, however. Future directions for research on romantic relationships and online surveillance are explored.

  6. Cesium in the Savannah River Site environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, W.H.; Bauer, L.R.; Evans, A.G.; Geary, L.A.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Pinder, J.E.; Strom, R.N.

    1992-03-01

    Cesium in the Savannah River Site Environment is published as a part of the Radiological Assessment Program (RAP). It is the fourth in a series of eight documents on individual radioisotopes released to the environment as a result of Savannah River Site (SRS) operations. The earlier documents describe the environmental consequences of tritium, iodine, and uranium. Documents on plutonium, strontium, carbon, and technetium will be published in the future. These are dynamic documents and current plans call for revising and updating each one on a two-year schedule.Radiocesium exists in the environment as a result of above-ground nuclear weapons tests, the Chernobyl accident, the destruction of satellite Cosmos 954, small releases from reactors and reprocessing plants, and the operation of industrial, medical, and educational facilities. Radiocesium has been produced at SRS during the operation of five production reactors. Several hundred curies of {sup 137}Cs was released into streams in the late 50s and 60s from leaking fuel elements. Smaller quantities were released from the fuel reprocessing operations. About 1400 Ci of {sup 137}Cs was released to seepage basins where it was tightly bound by clay in the soil. A much smaller quantity, about four Ci. was released to the atmosphere. Radiocesium concentration and mechanisms for atmospheric, surface water, and groundwater have been extensively studied by Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and ecological mechanisms have been studied by Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL). The overall radiological impact of SRS releases on the offsite maximum individual can be characterized by total doses of 033 mrem (atmospheric) and 60 mrem (liquid), compared with a dose of 12,960 mrem from non-SRS sources during the same period of time. Isotope {sup 137}Cs releases have resulted in a negligible risk to the environment and the population it supports.

  7. Cesium in the Savannah River Site environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, W.H.; Bauer, L.R.; Evans, A.G.; Geary, L.A.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Pinder, J.E.; Strom, R.N.

    1992-03-01

    Cesium in the Savannah River Site Environment is published as a part of the Radiological Assessment Program (RAP). It is the fourth in a series of eight documents on individual radioisotopes released to the environment as a result of Savannah River Site (SRS) operations. The earlier documents describe the environmental consequences of tritium, iodine, and uranium. Documents on plutonium, strontium, carbon, and technetium will be published in the future. These are dynamic documents and current plans call for revising and updating each one on a two-year schedule.Radiocesium exists in the environment as a result of above-ground nuclear weapons tests, the Chernobyl accident, the destruction of satellite Cosmos 954, small releases from reactors and reprocessing plants, and the operation of industrial, medical, and educational facilities. Radiocesium has been produced at SRS during the operation of five production reactors. Several hundred curies of [sup 137]Cs was released into streams in the late 50s and 60s from leaking fuel elements. Smaller quantities were released from the fuel reprocessing operations. About 1400 Ci of [sup 137]Cs was released to seepage basins where it was tightly bound by clay in the soil. A much smaller quantity, about four Ci. was released to the atmosphere. Radiocesium concentration and mechanisms for atmospheric, surface water, and groundwater have been extensively studied by Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and ecological mechanisms have been studied by Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL). The overall radiological impact of SRS releases on the offsite maximum individual can be characterized by total doses of 033 mrem (atmospheric) and 60 mrem (liquid), compared with a dose of 12,960 mrem from non-SRS sources during the same period of time. Isotope [sup 137]Cs releases have resulted in a negligible risk to the environment and the population it supports.

  8. Long-term surveillance plan for the Lowman, Idaho, disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Lowman, Idaho, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Lowman disposal cell. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This preliminary final LTSP is being submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a requirement for issuance of a general license for custody and long-term care for the disposal site. The general license requires that the disposal cell be cared for in accordance with the provisions of this LTSP. The LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe, and describes, in detail, how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out through the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program. The Lowman, Idaho, LTSP is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program, (DOE, 1992).

  9. Surveillance of post-caesarean surgical site infections in a hospital with limited resources, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srun, Sok; Sinath, Yin; Seng, An Thoun; Chea, Meas; Borin, Mony; Nhem, Somary; Daniel, Amanda; Chea, Nora; Asgari, Nima; Rachline, Anne; Reed, Za; Hoff, Rodney; Cavailler, Philippe; Goyet, Sophie

    2013-08-15

    In Cambodia, we implemented a pilot surveillance of superficial surgical site infections (SSSI) following caesarean deliveries (CD) in a provincial hospital, to estimate their incidence, describe their clinical management, and determine their causative pathogens. Between October 2010 and February 2011, all women admitted for CD were included in the surveillance. Their clinical condition was monitored for a post-operative period of 30 days, including two assessments performed by surgeons. Cases were clinically diagnosed by surgeons, with bacterial cultures performed. Of the 222 patients admitted for CD, 176 (79.3%) were monitored for 30 days. Of these, 11 were diagnosed with a SSSI, giving an incidence rate of 6.25% (95% CI 3.2-10.9). Four of the cases (36.4%) were detected after hospital discharge. Length of hospitalization was significantly longer for the SSSI cases. All 222 patients were prescribed antibiotics. Ampicillin was administered intravenously to 98.6% of them, with subsequent oral amoxicillin given to 82.9%. Three of six pus samples collected were positive on culture: two with Staphylococcus aureus and one with Staphylococcus lugdunensis. One S.aureus was methicillin resistant (MRSA). The other was clindamycin and erythromycin resistant. Surveillance of health-care associated infections in a setting with limited resources is challenging but feasible. Effective post-discharge surveillance was essential for the estimation of the incidence rate of SSSI following caesarean deliveries. This surveillance led to a peer-review of medical practices.

  10. Cholera Incidence and Mortality in Sub-Saharan African Sites during Multi-country Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvageot, Delphine; Njanpop-Lafourcade, Berthe-Marie; Akilimali, Laurent; Anne, Jean-Claude; Bidjada, Pawou; Bompangue, Didier; Bwire, Godfrey; Coulibaly, Daouda; Dengo-Baloi, Liliana; Dosso, Mireille; Orach, Christopher Garimoi; Inguane, Dorteia; Kagirita, Atek; Kacou-N'Douba, Adele; Keita, Sakoba; Kere Banla, Abiba; Kouame, Yao Jean-Pierre; Landoh, Dadja Essoya; Langa, Jose Paulo; Makumbi, Issa; Miwanda, Berthe; Malimbo, Muggaga; Mutombo, Guy; Mutombo, Annie; NGuetta, Emilienne Niamke; Saliou, Mamadou; Sarr, Veronique; Senga, Raphael Kakongo; Sory, Fode; Sema, Cynthia; Tante, Ouyi Valentin; Gessner, Bradford D; Mengel, Martin A

    2016-05-01

    Cholera burden in Africa remains unknown, often because of weak national surveillance systems. We analyzed data from the African Cholera Surveillance Network (www.africhol.org). During June 2011-December 2013, we conducted enhanced surveillance in seven zones and four outbreak sites in Togo, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Guinea, Uganda, Mozambique and Cote d'Ivoire. All health facilities treating cholera cases were included. Cholera incidences were calculated using culture-confirmed cholera cases and culture-confirmed cholera cases corrected for lack of culture testing usually due to overwhelmed health systems and imperfect test sensitivity. Of 13,377 reported suspected cases, 34% occurred in Conakry, Guinea, 47% in Goma, DRC, and 19% in the remaining sites. From 0-40% of suspected cases were aged under five years and from 0.3-86% had rice water stools. Within surveillance zones, 0-37% of suspected cases had confirmed cholera compared to 27-38% during outbreaks. Annual confirmed incidence per 10,000 population was cholera incidence, age distribution, clinical presentation, culture confirmation, and testing frequency. These results can help guide preventive activities, including vaccine use.

  11. Multipath Exploitation in an Urban Environment using a MIMO Surveillance Radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deiana, D.; Kossen, A.S.; Rossum, W.L. van

    2010-01-01

    Surveillance in an urban environment under all atmospheric conditions and situations can be performed by means of radars. The multipath created by buildings and moving targets can be exploited, for example in order to increase SNR. In this paper we present the initial results of the measurements of

  12. Tritium in the Savannah River Site environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Bauer, L.R.; Hayes, D.W.; Marter, W.L.; Zeigler, C.C.; Stephenson, D.E.; Hoel, D.D.; Hamby, D.M.

    1991-05-01

    Tritium is released to the environment from many of the operations at the Savannah River Site. The releases from each facility to the atmosphere and to the soil and streams, both from normal operations and inadvertent releases, over the period of operation from the early 1950s through 1988 are presented. The fate of the tritium released is evaluated through environmental monitoring, special studies, and modeling. It is concluded that approximately 91% of the tritium remaining after decay is now in the oceans. A dose and risk assessment to the population around the site is presented. It is concluded that about 0.6 fatal cancers may be associated with the tritium released during all the years of operation to the population of about 625,000. This same population (based on the overall US cancer statistics) is expected to experience about 105,000 cancer fatalities from all types of cancer. Therefore, it is considered unlikely that a relationship between any of the cancer deaths occurring in this population and releases of tritium from the SRS will be found.

  13. Cholera Incidence and Mortality in Sub-Saharan African Sites during Multi-country Surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Sauvageot

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cholera burden in Africa remains unknown, often because of weak national surveillance systems. We analyzed data from the African Cholera Surveillance Network (www.africhol.org.During June 2011-December 2013, we conducted enhanced surveillance in seven zones and four outbreak sites in Togo, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, Guinea, Uganda, Mozambique and Cote d'Ivoire. All health facilities treating cholera cases were included. Cholera incidences were calculated using culture-confirmed cholera cases and culture-confirmed cholera cases corrected for lack of culture testing usually due to overwhelmed health systems and imperfect test sensitivity. Of 13,377 reported suspected cases, 34% occurred in Conakry, Guinea, 47% in Goma, DRC, and 19% in the remaining sites. From 0-40% of suspected cases were aged under five years and from 0.3-86% had rice water stools. Within surveillance zones, 0-37% of suspected cases had confirmed cholera compared to 27-38% during outbreaks. Annual confirmed incidence per 10,000 population was <0.5 in surveillance zones, except Goma where it was 4.6. Goma and Conakry had corrected incidences of 20.2 and 5.8 respectively, while the other zones a median of 0.3. During outbreaks, corrected incidence varied from 2.6 to 13.0. Case fatality ratios ranged from 0-10% (median, 1% by country.Across different African epidemiological contexts, substantial variation occurred in cholera incidence, age distribution, clinical presentation, culture confirmation, and testing frequency. These results can help guide preventive activities, including vaccine use.

  14. Long-term surveillance plan for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Ambrosia Lake disposal site in McKinley County, New Mexico, describes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the disposal site. The DOE will carry out this program to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials.

  15. Long-term surveillance plan for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Ambrosia Lake disposal site in McKinley County, New Mexico, describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the disposal site. The DOE will carry out this program to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials.

  16. Brookhaven National Laboratory 2008 Site Environment Report Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookhaven National Laboratory

    2009-10-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) prepares an annual Site Environmental Report (SER) in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting of the U.S. Department of Energy. The report is written to inform the public, regulators, employees, and other stakeholders of the Laboratory's environmental performance during the calendar year in review. Volume I of the SER summarizes environmental data; environmental management performance; compliance with applicable DOE, federal, state, and local regulations; and performance in restoration and surveillance monitoring programs. BNL has prepared annual SERs since 1971 and has documented nearly all of its environmental history since the Laboratory's inception in 1947. Volume II of the SER, the Groundwater Status Report, also is prepared annually to report on the status of and evaluate the performance of groundwater treatment systems at the Laboratory. Volume II includes detailed technical summaries of groundwater data and its interpretation, and is intended for internal BNL users, regulators, and other technically oriented stakeholders. A brief summary of the information contained in Volume II is included in this volume in Chapter 7, Groundwater Protection. Both reports are available in print and as downloadable files on the BNL web page at http://www.bnl.gov/ewms/ser/. An electronic version on compact disc is distributed with each printed report. In addition, a summary of Volume I is prepared each year to provide a general overview of the report, and is distributed with a compact disc containing the full report.

  17. National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project Sites, 1984-1992, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set reports information regarding the nominal sampling locations for the National Status and Trends Benthic Surveillance Project sites. One record is...

  18. Sentinel site community surveillance of mortality and nutritional status in southwestern Central African Republic, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleo Grazia M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During 2010, a community-based, sentinel site prospective surveillance system measured mortality, acute malnutrition prevalence, and the coverage of a Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF intervention in four sous-préfectures of Lobaye prefecture in southwestern Central African Republic. We describe this surveillance system and its evaluation. Methods Within 24 randomly selected sentinel sites, home visitors performed a census, weekly demographic surveillance of births, deaths, and in- or out-migration, and weekly anthropometry on a sample of children. We evaluated the system through various methods including capture-recapture analysis and repeat census. Results The system included 18,081 people at baseline. Over 32 weeks, the crude death rate was 1.0 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.8-1.2 deaths per 10,000 person-days (35 deaths per 1,000 person-years, with higher values during the rainy season. The under-5 death rate was approximately double. The prevalence of severe acute malnutrition (SAM was 3.0% (95% CI: 2.3-4.0, almost half featuring kwashiorkor signs. The coverage of SAM treatment was 29.1%. The system detected >90% of deaths, and >90% of death reports appeared valid. However, demographic surveillance yielded discrepancies with the census and an implausible rate of population growth, while the predictive value of SAM classification was around 60%. Discussion We found evidence of a chronic health crisis in this remote region. MSF's intervention coverage improved progressively. Mortality data appeared valid, but inaccuracies in population denominators and anthropometric measurements were noted. Similar systems could be implemented in other remote settings and acute emergencies, but with certain technical improvements.

  19. Exploring immersive environments to aid urban intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, Jason; Venero, Peter; Adkins, Donald; Lampke, Sarah; MtCastle, Timothy

    2015-05-01

    Intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) operations in urban environments can be challenging due in part to the physical proximity and height of the buildings which can cause occlusions of sensors. A potential avenue to overcome the problems presented by the urban environment could be the exploitation of immersive environments. An immersive environment would increase an analyst's situation awareness to correctly select and position sensors for intelligence gathering. In completing a sensor management task, the operator must perform three basic actions: navigate through the environment, select sensors in the environment, and manipulate those selected sensors. The goal of this experiment was to investigate the impact that different fields of view (FOV) and different control devices had on those operator actions. While the FOV did not show a significant impact, significant differences were seen between the two control devices tested.

  20. Malaria mortality in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH health and demographic surveillance system sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kim Streatfield

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria continues to be a major cause of infectious disease mortality in tropical regions. However, deaths from malaria are most often not individually documented, and as a result overall understanding of malaria epidemiology is inadequate. INDEPTH Network members maintain population surveillance in Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites across Africa and Asia, in which individual deaths are followed up with verbal autopsies. Objective: To present patterns of malaria mortality determined by verbal autopsy from INDEPTH sites across Africa and Asia, comparing these findings with other relevant information on malaria in the same regions. Design: From a database covering 111,910 deaths over 12,204,043 person-years in 22 sites, in which verbal autopsy data were handled according to the WHO 2012 standard and processed using the InterVA-4 model, over 6,000 deaths were attributed to malaria. The overall period covered was 1992–2012, but two-thirds of the observations related to 2006–2012. These deaths were analysed by site, time period, age group and sex to investigate epidemiological differences in malaria mortality. Results: Rates of malaria mortality varied by 1:10,000 across the sites, with generally low rates in Asia (one site recording no malaria deaths over 0.5 million person-years and some of the highest rates in West Africa (Nouna, Burkina Faso: 2.47 per 1,000 person-years. Childhood malaria mortality rates were strongly correlated with Malaria Atlas Project estimates of Plasmodium falciparum parasite rates for the same locations. Adult malaria mortality rates, while lower than corresponding childhood rates, were strongly correlated with childhood rates at the site level. Conclusions: The wide variations observed in malaria mortality, which were nevertheless consistent with various other estimates, suggest that population-based registration of deaths using verbal autopsy is a useful approach to understanding the

  1. Visibility Analysis of Domestic Satellites on Proposed Ground Sites for Optical Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hyun Jo1

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to analyze the satellite visibility at the randomly established ground sites, to determine the five optimal ground sites to perform the optical surveillance and tracking of domestic satellites, and to verify the acquisition of the optical observation time sufficient to maintain the precise ephemeris at optimal ground sites that have been already determined. In order to accomplish these objectives, we analyzed the visibility for sun-synchronous orbit satellites, low earth orbit satellites, middle earth orbit satellites and domestic satellites as well as the continuous visibility along with the fictitious satellite ground track, and calculate the effective visibility. For the analysis, we carried out a series of repetitive process using the satellite tool kit simulation software developed by Analytical Graphics Incorporated. The lighting states of the penumbra and direct sun were set as the key constraints of the optical observation. The minimum of the observation satellite elevation angle was set to be 20 degree, whereas the maximum of the sun elevation angle was set to be -10 degree which is within the range of the nautical twilight. To select the candidates for the optimal optical observation, the entire globe was divided into 84 sectors in a constant interval, the visibility characteristics of the individual sectors were analyzed, and 17 ground sites were arbitrarily selected and analyzed further. Finally, five optimal ground sites (Khurel Togoot Observatory, Assy-Turgen Observatory, Tubitak National Observatory, Bisdee Tier Optical Astronomy Observatory, and South Africa Astronomical Observatory were determined. The total observation period was decided as one year. To examine the seasonal variation, the simulation was performed for the period of three days or less with respect to spring, summer, fall and winter. In conclusion, we decided the optimal ground sites to perform the optical surveillance and tracking

  2. Surgical site infection surveillance in orthopedic patients in the Military Medical Academy, Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starčević Srđan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Active surveillance is an important component of surgical site infection (SSI reduction strategy. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare SSI surveillance data in orthopedic patients in the Military Medical Academy (MMA, Belgrade. Methods. A 4-year prospective cohort study was performed to identify the incidence rate and risk factors for SSI in orthopedic patients in the MMA, Belgrade. We collected data regarding patients characteristics, health care and microorganisms isolated in SSI. The National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (NNIS risk index was subsequently calculated for each patient. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria were used for the diagnosis of SSI. Results. Assessment of 3,867 patients after different orthopedic operations revealed SSI in 109 patients. The overall incidence rate of SSI was 2.8% with the decrease from 4.6% in 2007 to 1.6% in 2010. Using NNIS risk index for surgical procedures there were: 53.7% (2,077 patients with risk 0 - the incidence rate of 1.4%; 38.9% (1,506 patients with risk 1 - the incidence rate of 3.1%; 7.3% (281 patients with risk 2 - the incidence rate of 11.7%; 0.1% (3 patients with risk 3 - without infection within the risk. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified 6 independent risk factors associated with SSI: contaminated or dirty wounds, smoking, preoperative infection, NNIS risk index, body mass index and the length of hospital stay. Conclusion. The results of our study are valuable confirmation of relations between risk factors and SSI in orthopedic patients. A decreasing incidence rate of SSI (from 4.6% to 1.6% during a 4-year active surveillance approved its implementation as an important component of SSI reduction strategy.

  3. Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Amchitka, Alaska, Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-09-01

    This Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan describes how the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) intends to fulfill its mission to maintain protection of human health and the environment at the Amchitka, Alaska, Site1. Three underground nuclear tests were conducted on Amchitka Island. The U.S. Department of Defense, in conjunction with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), conducted the first nuclear test (Long Shot) to provide data that would improve the United States' capability of detecting underground nuclear explosions. The second nuclear test (Milrow) was a weapons-related test conducted by AEC as a means to study the feasibility of detonating a much larger device. The final nuclear test (Cannikin), the largest United States underground test, was a weapons-related test. Surface disturbances associated with these tests have been remediated. However, radioactivity remains deep below the surface, contained in and around the test cavities, for which no feasible remediation technology has been identified. In 2006, the groundwater model (Hassan et al. 2002) was updated using 2005 data collected by the Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation. Model simulation results indicate there is no breakthrough or seepage of radionuclides into the marine environment within 2,000 years. The Amchitka conceptual model is reasonable; the flow and transport simulation is based on the best available information and data. The simulation results are a quantitative prediction supported by the best available science and technology. This Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan is an additional step intended for the protection of human health and the environment. This plan may be modified from time to time in the future consistent with the mission to protect human health

  4. Initiating a participatory action research process in the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wariri, Oghenebrume; D'Ambruoso, Lucia; Twine, Rhian; Ngobeni, Sizzy; van der Merwe, Maria; Spies, Barry; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen; Wagner, Ryan G; Byass, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Despite progressive health policy, disease burdens in South Africa remain patterned by deeply entrenched social inequalities. Accounting for the relationships between context, health and risk can provide important information for equitable service delivery. The aims of the research were to initiate a participatory research process with communities in a low income setting and produce evidence of practical relevance. We initiated a participatory action research (PAR) process in the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance site (HDSS) in rural north-east South Africa. Three village-based discussion groups were convened and consulted about conditions to examine, one of which was under-5 mortality. A series of discussions followed in which routine HDSS data were presented and participants' subjective perspectives were elicited and systematized into collective forms of knowledge using ranking, diagramming and participatory photography. The process concluded with a priority setting exercise. Visual and narrative data were thematically analyzed to complement the participants' analysis. A range of social and structural root causes of under-5 mortality were identified: poverty, unemployment, inadequate housing, unsafe environments and shortages of clean water. Despite these constraints, single mothers were often viewed as negligent. A series of mid-level contributory factors in clinics were also identified: overcrowding, poor staffing, delays in treatment and shortages of medications. In a similar sense, pronounced blame and negativity were directed toward clinic nurses in spite of the systems constraints identified. Actions to address these issues were prioritized as: expanding clinics, improving accountability and responsiveness of health workers, improving employment, providing clean water, and expanding community engagement for health promotion. We initiated a PAR process to gain local knowledge and prioritize actions. The process was acceptable to those

  5. Post-Caesarean Section Surgical Site Infection Surveillance Using an Online Database and Mobile Phone Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Eliana; McIsaac, Corrine; MacDougall, Bhreagh; Wilson, Douglas; Kohr, Rosemary

    2017-08-01

    Obstetric surgical site infections (SSIs) are common and expensive to the health care system but remain under reported given shorter postoperative hospital stays and suboptimal post-discharge surveillance systems. SSIs, for the purpose of this paper, are defined according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (1999) as infection incurring within 30 days of the operative procedure (in this case, Caesarean section [CS]). Demonstrate the feasibility of real-life use of a patient driven SSIs post-discharge surveillance system consisting of an online database and mobile phone technology (surgical mobile app - how2trak) among women undergoing CS in a Canadian urban centre. Estimate the rate of SSIs and associated predisposing factors. Prospective cohort of consecutive women delivering by CS at one urban Canadian hospital. Using surgical mobile app-how2trak-predetermined demographics, comorbidities, procedure characteristics, and self-reported symptoms and signs of infection were collected and linked to patients' incision self-portraits (photos) on postpartum days 3, 7, 10, and 30. A total of 105 patients were enrolled over a 5-month period. Mean age was 31 years, 13% were diabetic, and most were at low risk of surgical complications. Forty-six percent of surgeries were emergency CSs, and 104/105 received antibiotic prophylaxis. Forty-five percent of patients (47/105) submitted at least one photo, and among those, one surgical site infection was detected by photo appearance and self-reported symptoms by postpartum day 10. The majority of patients whom uploaded photos did so multiple times and 43% of them submitted photos up to day 30. Patients with either a diagnosis of diabetes or self-reported Asian ethnicity were less likely to submit photos. Post-discharge surveillance for CS-related SSIs using surgical mobile app how2trak is feasible and deserves further study in the post-discharge setting. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Determinants of site of tuberculosis disease: An analysis of European surveillance data from 2003 to 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Sotgiu

    Full Text Available We explored host-related factors associated with the site of tuberculosis (TB disease using variables routinely collected by the 31 EU/EEA countries for national surveillance.Logistic regression models were fitted to case-based surveillance data reported to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control for TB cases notified from 2003 to 2014. Missing data on HIV infection and on susceptibility to isoniazid and rifampicin for many patients precluded the inclusion of these variables in the analysis. Records from Finland, Lithuania, Spain and the United Kingdom were excluded for lack of exact details of disease localisation; other records without one or more variable (e.g. previous treatment history, geographical origin or who had mixed pulmonary and extrapulmonary disease or more than one form of extrapulmonary disease were also removed (total exclusion = 38% of 913,637 notifications.564,916 TB cases reported by 27 EU/EEA countries had exclusive pulmonary (PTB; 83% or extrapulmonary (EPTB; 17% disease. EPTB was associated with age 3.7, and age <15 years with lymphatic (aOR: 17.96 and central nervous system disease (aOR: 11.41.Awareness of host-related determinants of site of TB is useful for diagnosis. The predilection for EPTB among patients originating from countries outside Europe may reflect strain preferences for disease localization, geographic/ethnic differences in disease manifestation and other factors, like HIV.

  7. A quantitative method for groundwater surveillance monitoring network design at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, P.D.

    1993-12-01

    As part of the Environmental Surveillance Program at the Hanford Site, mandated by the US Department of Energy, hundreds of groundwater wells are sampled each year, with each sample typically analyzed for a variety of constituents. The groundwater sampling program must satisfy several broad objectives. These objectives include an integrated assessment of the condition of groundwater and the identification and quantification of existing, emerging, or potential groundwater problems. Several quantitative network desip objectives are proposed and a mathematical optimization model is developed from these objectives. The model attempts to find minimum cost network alternatives that maximize the amount of information generated by the network. Information is measured both by the rats of change with respect to time of the contaminant concentration and the uncertainty in contaminant concentration. In an application to tritium monitoring at the Hanford Site, both information measures were derived from historical data using time series analysis.

  8. [Interpreting Historic Sites & the Built Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellis, Ken, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    This issue focuses on the interpretation of built environments, from Washington Irving's 19th century home in Tarrytown, New York, to structures in contemporary Chicago. Barbara Carson, Margaret Piatt, and Renee Friedman discuss the interpretation of interior and exterior spaces and explain how to teach history with objects instead of teaching the…

  9. Autonomous Navigation of a Surveillance Robot in Harsh Outdoor Road Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youjin Shin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the autonomous navigation problem of a mobile robot in outdoor road environments. The target application is surveillance in petroleum storage bases. Although there have been remarkable technological achievements recently in the area of outdoor navigation, robotic systems are still expensive due to a large number of high cost sensors. This paper proposes the reliable extraction algorithm of traversable regions using a single onboard Laser Range Finder (LRF in outdoor road environments. The traversable regions are derived from the classifications of the road surfaces, curbs, and obstacles. The proposed scheme was experimentally tested in success. Since there are many potential applications that require autonomous service robots to move in semistructured road environments, the proposed scheme can be widely used as a low-cost practical solution.

  10. Site Environmental Report for 2006. Volume I, Environment, Health, and Safety Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-09-30

    Each year, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory prepares an integrated report on its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting.1 The Site Environmental Report for 2006 summarizes Berkeley Lab’s environmental management performance, presents environmental monitoring results, and describes significant programs for calendar year 2006. (Throughout this report, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is referred to as “Berkeley Lab,” “the Laboratory,” “Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,” and “LBNL.”) The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I is organized into an executive summary followed by six chapters that contain an overview of the Laboratory, a discussion of the Laboratory’s environmental management system, the status of environmental programs, and summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities. Volume II contains individual data results from surveillance and monitoring activities.

  11. Long-term surveillance plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The need for ground water monitoring at the Falls City disposal site was evaluated in accordance with NRC regulations and guidelines established by the DOE in Guidance for Implementing the Long-term Surveillance Program for UMTRA Project Title 1 Disposal Sites (DOE, 1996). Based on evaluation of site characterization data, it has been determined that a program to monitor ground water for demonstration of disposal cell performance based on a set of concentration limits is not appropriate because ground water in the uppermost aquifer is of limited use, and a narrative supplemental standard has been applied to the site that does not include numerical concentration limits or a point of compliance. The limited use designation is based on the fact that ground water in the uppermost aquifer is not currently or potentially a source of drinking water in the area because it contains widespread ambient contamination that cannot be cleaned up using methods reasonably employed by public water supply systems. Background ground water quality varies by orders of magnitude since the aquifer is in an area of redistribution of uranium mineralization derived from ore bodies. The DOE plans to perform post-closure ground water monitoring in the uppermost aquifer as a best management practice (BMP) as requested by the state of Texas.

  12. Determinants of site of tuberculosis disease: An analysis of European surveillance data from 2003 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotgiu, Giovanni; Falzon, Dennis; Hollo, Vahur; Lefebvre, Nicolas; Dadu, Andrei

    2017-01-01

    Background We explored host-related factors associated with the site of tuberculosis (TB) disease using variables routinely collected by the 31 EU/EEA countries for national surveillance. Methods Logistic regression models were fitted to case-based surveillance data reported to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control for TB cases notified from 2003 to 2014. Missing data on HIV infection and on susceptibility to isoniazid and rifampicin for many patients precluded the inclusion of these variables in the analysis. Records from Finland, Lithuania, Spain and the United Kingdom were excluded for lack of exact details of disease localisation; other records without one or more variable (e.g. previous treatment history, geographical origin) or who had mixed pulmonary and extrapulmonary disease or more than one form of extrapulmonary disease were also removed (total exclusion = 38% of 913,637 notifications). Results 564,916 TB cases reported by 27 EU/EEA countries had exclusive pulmonary (PTB; 83%) or extrapulmonary (EPTB; 17%) disease. EPTB was associated with age 3.7), and age EPTB among patients originating from countries outside Europe may reflect strain preferences for disease localization, geographic/ethnic differences in disease manifestation and other factors, like HIV. PMID:29155819

  13. [Selection of sentinel sites for death surveillance, using cluster or unequal probability sampling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Heng-li; Xu, Yong-yong; Guo, Ling-xia; Tan, Zhi-jun; Liu, Dan-hong; Rao, Ke-qin

    2010-04-01

    To compare the sampling errors from cluster or unequal probability sampling designs and to adopt the unequal probability sampling method to be used for death surveillance. Taking 107 areas from the county level in Shaanxi province as the sampling frame, a set of samples are drawn by equal probability cluster sampling and unequal probability designs methodologies. Sampling error and effect of each design are estimated according to their complex sample plans. Both the sampling errors depend on the sampling plan and the errors of equal probability in stratified cluster sampling appears to be less than simple cluster sampling. The design effects of unequal probability stratified cluster sampling, such as piPS design, are slightly lower than those of equal probability stratified cluster sampling, but the unequal probability stratified cluster sampling can cover a wider scope of monitoring population. Results from the analysis of sampling data can not be conducted without consideration of the sampling plan when the sampling frame is finite and a given sampling plan and parameters, such as sampling proportion and population weights, are assigned in advance. Unequal probability cluster sampling designs seems to be more appropriate in selecting the national death surveillance sites since more available monitoring data can be obtained and having more weight in estimating the mortality for the whole province or the municipality to be selected.

  14. Multi-site cholera surveillance within the African Cholera Surveillance Network shows endemicity in Mozambique, 2011-2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Semá Baltazar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mozambique suffers recurrent annual cholera outbreaks especially during the rainy season between October to March. The African Cholera Surveillance Network (Africhol was implemented in Mozambique in 2011 to generate accurate detailed surveillance data to support appropriate interventions for cholera control and prevention in the country.Africhol was implemented in enhanced surveillance zones located in the provinces of Sofala (Beira, Zambézia (District Mocuba, and Cabo Delgado (Pemba City. Data were also analyzed from the three outbreak areas that experienced the greatest number of cases during the time period under observation (in the districts of Cuamba, Montepuez, and Nampula. Rectal swabs were collected from suspected cases for identification of Vibrio cholerae, as well as clinical, behavioral, and socio-demographic variables. We analyzed factors associated with confirmed, hospitalized, and fatal cholera using multivariate logistic regression models. A total of 1,863 suspected cases and 23 deaths (case fatality ratio (CFR, 1.2% were reported from October 2011 to December 2015. Among these suspected cases, 52.2% were tested of which 23.5% were positive for Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa. Risk factors independently associated with the occurrence of confirmed cholera were living in Nampula city district, the year 2014, human immunodeficiency virus infection, and the primary water source for drinking.Cholera was endemic in Mozambique during the study period with a high CFR and identifiable risk factors. The study reinforces the importance of continued cholera surveillance, including a strong laboratory component. The results enhanced our understanding of the need to target priority areas and at-risk populations for interventions including oral cholera vaccine (OCV use, and assess the impact of prevention and control strategies. Our data were instrumental in informing integrated prevention and control efforts during major cholera outbreaks in recent

  15. Multi-site cholera surveillance within the African Cholera Surveillance Network shows endemicity in Mozambique, 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semá Baltazar, Cynthia; Langa, José Paulo; Dengo Baloi, Liliana; Wood, Richard; Ouedraogo, Issaka; Njanpop-Lafourcade, Berthe-Marie; Inguane, Dorteia; Elias Chitio, Jucunu; Mhlanga, Themba; Gujral, Lorna; D Gessner, Bradford; Munier, Aline; A Mengel, Martin

    2017-10-01

    Mozambique suffers recurrent annual cholera outbreaks especially during the rainy season between October to March. The African Cholera Surveillance Network (Africhol) was implemented in Mozambique in 2011 to generate accurate detailed surveillance data to support appropriate interventions for cholera control and prevention in the country. Africhol was implemented in enhanced surveillance zones located in the provinces of Sofala (Beira), Zambézia (District Mocuba), and Cabo Delgado (Pemba City). Data were also analyzed from the three outbreak areas that experienced the greatest number of cases during the time period under observation (in the districts of Cuamba, Montepuez, and Nampula). Rectal swabs were collected from suspected cases for identification of Vibrio cholerae, as well as clinical, behavioral, and socio-demographic variables. We analyzed factors associated with confirmed, hospitalized, and fatal cholera using multivariate logistic regression models. A total of 1,863 suspected cases and 23 deaths (case fatality ratio (CFR), 1.2%) were reported from October 2011 to December 2015. Among these suspected cases, 52.2% were tested of which 23.5% were positive for Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa. Risk factors independently associated with the occurrence of confirmed cholera were living in Nampula city district, the year 2014, human immunodeficiency virus infection, and the primary water source for drinking. Cholera was endemic in Mozambique during the study period with a high CFR and identifiable risk factors. The study reinforces the importance of continued cholera surveillance, including a strong laboratory component. The results enhanced our understanding of the need to target priority areas and at-risk populations for interventions including oral cholera vaccine (OCV) use, and assess the impact of prevention and control strategies. Our data were instrumental in informing integrated prevention and control efforts during major cholera outbreaks in recent years.

  16. Multi-site cholera surveillance within the African Cholera Surveillance Network shows endemicity in Mozambique, 2011–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langa, José Paulo; Dengo Baloi, Liliana; Wood, Richard; Ouedraogo, Issaka; Njanpop-Lafourcade, Berthe-Marie; Inguane, Dorteia; Elias Chitio, Jucunu; Mhlanga, Themba; Gujral, Lorna; D. Gessner, Bradford; Munier, Aline; A. Mengel, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Background Mozambique suffers recurrent annual cholera outbreaks especially during the rainy season between October to March. The African Cholera Surveillance Network (Africhol) was implemented in Mozambique in 2011 to generate accurate detailed surveillance data to support appropriate interventions for cholera control and prevention in the country. Methodology/Principal findings Africhol was implemented in enhanced surveillance zones located in the provinces of Sofala (Beira), Zambézia (District Mocuba), and Cabo Delgado (Pemba City). Data were also analyzed from the three outbreak areas that experienced the greatest number of cases during the time period under observation (in the districts of Cuamba, Montepuez, and Nampula). Rectal swabs were collected from suspected cases for identification of Vibrio cholerae, as well as clinical, behavioral, and socio-demographic variables. We analyzed factors associated with confirmed, hospitalized, and fatal cholera using multivariate logistic regression models. A total of 1,863 suspected cases and 23 deaths (case fatality ratio (CFR), 1.2%) were reported from October 2011 to December 2015. Among these suspected cases, 52.2% were tested of which 23.5% were positive for Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa. Risk factors independently associated with the occurrence of confirmed cholera were living in Nampula city district, the year 2014, human immunodeficiency virus infection, and the primary water source for drinking. Conclusions/Significance Cholera was endemic in Mozambique during the study period with a high CFR and identifiable risk factors. The study reinforces the importance of continued cholera surveillance, including a strong laboratory component. The results enhanced our understanding of the need to target priority areas and at-risk populations for interventions including oral cholera vaccine (OCV) use, and assess the impact of prevention and control strategies. Our data were instrumental in informing integrated prevention and

  17. Uranium in the Savannah River Site environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, A.G.; Bauer, L.R.; Haselow, J.S.; Hayes, D.W.; Martin, H.L.; McDowell, W.L.; Pickett, J.B.

    1992-12-09

    The purpose of this report is to consolidate the history of environmental uranium studies conducted by SRS and to describe the status of uranium in the environment. The report is intended to be a living document'' that will be updated periodically. This draft issue, February 1992, documents studies that occurred from 1954 to 1989. Data in this report are taken primarily from annual and semiannual environmental reports for SRS. Semiannual reports were published from 1954 through 1962. Annual reports have been published since 1963. Occasionally unpublished data are included in this report for completeness.

  18. Uranium in the Savannah River Site environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, A.G.; Bauer, L.R.; Haselow, J.S.; Hayes, D.W.; Martin, H.L.; McDowell, W.L.; Pickett, J.B.

    1992-12-09

    The purpose of this report is to consolidate the history of environmental uranium studies conducted by SRS and to describe the status of uranium in the environment. The report is intended to be a ``living document`` that will be updated periodically. This draft issue, February 1992, documents studies that occurred from 1954 to 1989. Data in this report are taken primarily from annual and semiannual environmental reports for SRS. Semiannual reports were published from 1954 through 1962. Annual reports have been published since 1963. Occasionally unpublished data are included in this report for completeness.

  19. Establishing a health demographic surveillance site in Bhaktapur district, Nepal: initial experiences and findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background A health demographic surveillance system (HDSS) provides longitudinal data regarding health and demography in countries with coverage error and poor quality data on vital registration systems due to lack of public awareness, inadequate legal basis and limited use of data in health planning. The health system in Nepal, a low-income country, does not focus primarily on health registration, and does not conduct regular health data collection. This study aimed to initiate and establish the first HDSS in Nepal. Results We conducted a baseline survey in Jhaukhel and Duwakot, two villages in Bhaktapur district. The study surveyed 2,712 households comprising a total population of 13,669. The sex ratio in the study area was 101 males per 100 females and the average household size was 5. The crude birth and death rates were 9.7 and 3.9/1,000 population/year, respectively. About 11% of births occurred at home, and we found no mortality in infants and children less than 5 years of age. Various health problems were found commonly and some of them include respiratory problems (41.9%); headache, vertigo and dizziness (16.7%); bone and joint pain (14.4%); gastrointestinal problems (13.9%); heart disease, including hypertension (8.8%); accidents and injuries (2.9%); and diabetes mellitus (2.6%). The prevalence of non-communicable disease (NCD) was 4.3% (95% CI: 3.83; 4.86) among individuals older than 30 years. Age-adjusted odds ratios showed that risk factors, such as sex, ethnic group, occupation and education, associated with NCD. Conclusion Our baseline survey demonstrated that it is possible to collect accurate and reliable data in a village setting in Nepal, and this study successfully established an HDSS site. We determined that both maternal and child health are better in the surveillance site compared to the entire country. Risk factors associated with NCDs dominated morbidity and mortality patterns. PMID:22950751

  20. Warehouse site selection in an international environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastjan ŠKERLIČ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The changed conditions in the automotive industry as the market and the production are moving from west to east, both at global and at European level, require constant adjustment from Slovenian companies. The companies strive to remain close to their customers and suppliers, as only by maintaining a high quality and streamlined supply chain, their existence within the demanding automotive industry is guaranteed in the long term. Choosing the right location for a warehouse in an international environment is therefore one of the most important strategic decisions that takes into account a number of interrelated factors such as transport networks, transport infrastructure, trade flows and the total cost. This paper aims to explore the important aspects of selecting a location for a warehouse and to identify potential international strategic locations, which could have a significant impact on the future operations of Slovenian companies in the global automotive industry.

  1. Surface Environmental Surveillance Procedures Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RW Hanf; TM Poston

    2000-09-20

    Environmental surveillance data are used in assessing the impact of current and past site operations on human health and the environment, demonstrating compliance with applicable local, state, and federal environmental regulations, and verifying the adequacy of containment and effluent controls. SESP sampling schedules are reviewed, revised, and published each calendar year in the Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule. Environmental samples are collected by SESP staff in accordance with the approved sample collection procedures documented in this manual.

  2. Radioactivity surveillance data for the environment around Ningyo Toge Works (1998)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Radioactivity level of the environment around Ningyo Toge Works and the ruins of uranium mine has been periodically determined for the purpose of keeping the favorable natural environment. Periodical measurements for plutonium levels around the Works and the control site are also carried out as the use of recycled uranium. As the measuring sites, ten sites in the Works and 22 sites outside were chosen. Various samples from the air, land water, soil plants, etc. were periodically collected 1-4 times per year for analyzing radioisotopes and fluorine and the data were all reported to Okayama prefectural office. The special gamma-ray dose level and the levels of {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra in airborne dusts, river water, river sediments and paddy soil were lower than the respective desired levels. (J.P.N.)

  3. Establishing a health demographic surveillance site in Bhaktapur district, Nepal: initial experiences and findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryal Umesh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A health demographic surveillance system (HDSS provides longitudinal data regarding health and demography in countries with coverage error and poor quality data on vital registration systems due to lack of public awareness, inadequate legal basis and limited use of data in health planning. The health system in Nepal, a low-income country, does not focus primarily on health registration, and does not conduct regular health data collection. This study aimed to initiate and establish the first HDSS in Nepal. Results We conducted a baseline survey in Jhaukhel and Duwakot, two villages in Bhaktapur district. The study surveyed 2,712 households comprising a total population of 13,669. The sex ratio in the study area was 101 males per 100 females and the average household size was 5. The crude birth and death rates were 9.7 and 3.9/1,000 population/year, respectively. About 11% of births occurred at home, and we found no mortality in infants and children less than 5 years of age. Various health problems were found commonly and some of them include respiratory problems (41.9%; headache, vertigo and dizziness (16.7%; bone and joint pain (14.4%; gastrointestinal problems (13.9%; heart disease, including hypertension (8.8%; accidents and injuries (2.9%; and diabetes mellitus (2.6%. The prevalence of non-communicable disease (NCD was 4.3% (95% CI: 3.83; 4.86 among individuals older than 30 years. Age-adjusted odds ratios showed that risk factors, such as sex, ethnic group, occupation and education, associated with NCD. Conclusion Our baseline survey demonstrated that it is possible to collect accurate and reliable data in a village setting in Nepal, and this study successfully established an HDSS site. We determined that both maternal and child health are better in the surveillance site compared to the entire country. Risk factors associated with NCDs dominated morbidity and mortality patterns.

  4. Multi-Instance Learning Models for Automated Support of Analysts in Simulated Surveillance Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birisan, Mihnea; Beling, Peter

    2011-01-01

    New generations of surveillance drones are being outfitted with numerous high definition cameras. The rapid proliferation of fielded sensors and supporting capacity for processing and displaying data will translate into ever more capable platforms, but with increased capability comes increased complexity and scale that may diminish the usefulness of such platforms to human operators. We investigate methods for alleviating strain on analysts by automatically retrieving content specific to their current task using a machine learning technique known as Multi-Instance Learning (MIL). We use MIL to create a real time model of the analysts' task and subsequently use the model to dynamically retrieve relevant content. This paper presents results from a pilot experiment in which a computer agent is assigned analyst tasks such as identifying caravanning vehicles in a simulated vehicle traffic environment. We compare agent performance between MIL aided trials and unaided trials.

  5. Five-year decreased incidence of surgical site infections following gastrectomy and prosthetic joint replacement surgery through active surveillance by the Korean Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H J; Adiyani, L; Sung, J; Choi, J Y; Kim, H B; Kim, Y K; Kwak, Y G; Yoo, H; Lee, Sang-Oh; Han, S H; Kim, S R; Kim, T H; Lee, H M; Chun, H K; Kim, J-S; Yoo, J D; Koo, H-S; Cho, E H; Lee, K W

    2016-08-01

    Surveillance of healthcare-associated infection has been associated with a reduction in surgical site infection (SSI). To evaluate the Korean Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System (KONIS) in order to assess its effects on SSI since it was introduced. SSI data after gastrectomy, total hip arthroplasty (THA), and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) between 2008 and 2012 were analysed. The pooled incidence of SSI was calculated for each year; the same analyses were also conducted from hospitals that had participated in KONIS for at least three consecutive years. Standardized SSI rates for each year were calculated by adjusting for SSI risk factors. SSI trends were analysed using the Cochran-Armitage test. The SSI rate following gastrectomy was 3.12% (522/16,918). There was a significant trend of decreased crude SSI rates over five years. This trend was also evident in analysis of hospitals that had participated for more than three years. The SSI rate for THA was 2.05% (157/7656), which decreased significantly from 2008 to 2012. The risk factors for SSI after THA included the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance risk index, trauma, reoperation, and age (60-69 years). The SSI rate for TKA was 1.90% (152/7648), which also decreased significantly during a period of five years. However, the risk-adjusted analysis of SSI did not show a significant decrease for all surgical procedures. The SSI incidence of gastrectomy and prosthetic joint replacement declined over five years as a result of active surveillance by KONIS. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Muestras y representatividad en vigilancia epidemiologica mediante sitios centinelas Sampling and representativeness in epidemiological surveillance using sentinel sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Samaja

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available El artículo sostiene que las exigencias técnicas del muestreo para la vigilancia epidemiológica, exigen una revisión profunda de importantes conceptos de la Teoría de la Salud. En particular, es necesario hacer énfasis en las condiciones de vida, y, más específicamente, en los ambientes o contextos en que se desarrollan los procesos reproductivos de la vida social. Pero ambos campos temáticos exigen potenciar el acceso a datos más ricos que los que aportan las fuentes tradicionales. Este enfoque de la "vigilancia epidemiológica" exige una revisión de los tipos de muestras, y esto implica revisar las interpretaciones dominantes sobre los fundamentos lógicos de las inferencias a partir de muestras. Se torna necesario dejar atrás las muestras estadísticas (aún las estratificadas y promover procedimientos del tipo de los "sitios centinelas". Esta técnica, aplicada originariamente en sociedades con sistemas estadísticos deficitarios, puede desarrollarse para constituirse en un complemento substancial del monitoreo de condiciones de vida incluso en sociedades con buenos sistemas de información. El artículo propone transformar el concepto de "sitio centinela" incorporandole el requisito de la "representatividad cualitativa" mediante muestreos finalísticos sustentados en tipologías previas de las unidades espacio-poblacionales.This article maintains that technical issues for sampling in epidemiological surveillance require a profound review of important concepts from health theory. It is particularly neccessary to emphasize living conditions and more specifically the environments or contexts in which reproductive processes of social life take place. However, both fields require access to more complete data than those produced by traditional sources. Such an approach to epidemiological surveillance requires a review of sampling types, and this implies a new look at prevailing interpretations concerning the logical basis for

  7. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: School Nutrition Environment and Body Mass Index in Primary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trudy M.A. Wijnhoven

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schools are important settings for the promotion of a healthy diet and sufficient physical activity and thus overweight prevention. Objective: To assess differences in school nutrition environment and body mass index (BMI in primary schools between and within 12 European countries. Methods: Data from the World Health Organization (WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI were used (1831 and 2045 schools in 2007/2008 and 2009/2010, respectively. School personnel provided information on 18 school environmental characteristics on nutrition and physical activity. A school nutrition environment score was calculated using five nutrition-related characteristics whereby higher scores correspond to higher support for a healthy school nutrition environment. Trained field workers measured children’s weight and height; BMI-for-age (BMI/A Z-scores were computed using the 2007 WHO growth reference and, for each school, the mean of the children’s BMI/A Z-scores was calculated. Results: Large between-country differences were found in the availability of food items on the premises (e.g., fresh fruit could be obtained in 12%-95% of schools and school nutrition environment scores (range: 0.30-0.93. Low-score countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania graded less than three characteristics as supportive. High-score (≥0.70 countries were Ireland, Malta, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia and Sweden. The combined absence of cold drinks containing sugar, sweet snacks and salted snacks were more observed in high-score countries than in low-score countries. Largest within-country school nutrition environment scores were found in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania. All country-level BMI/A Z-scores were positive (range: 0.20-1.02, indicating higher BMI values than the 2007 WHO growth reference. With the exception of Norway and Sweden, a country-specific association between the

  8. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: School nutrition environment and body mass index in primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnhoven, Trudy M A; van Raaij, Joop M A; Sjöberg, Agneta; Eldin, Nazih; Yngve, Agneta; Kunešová, Marie; Starc, Gregor; Rito, Ana I; Duleva, Vesselka; Hassapidou, Maria; Martos, Eva; Pudule, Iveta; Petrauskiene, Ausra; Sant'Angelo, Victoria Farrugia; Hovengen, Ragnhild; Breda, João

    2014-10-30

    Schools are important settings for the promotion of a healthy diet and sufficient physical activity and thus overweight prevention. To assess differences in school nutrition environment and body mass index (BMI) in primary schools between and within 12 European countries. Data from the World Health Organization (WHO) European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) were used (1831 and 2045 schools in 2007/2008 and 2009/2010, respectively). School personnel provided information on 18 school environmental characteristics on nutrition and physical activity. A school nutrition environment score was calculated using five nutrition-related characteristics whereby higher scores correspond to higher support for a healthy school nutrition environment. Trained field workers measured children's weight and height; BMI-for-age (BMI/A) Z-scores were computed using the 2007 WHO growth reference and, for each school, the mean of the children's BMI/A Z-scores was calculated. Large between-country differences were found in the availability of food items on the premises (e.g., fresh fruit could be obtained in 12%-95% of schools) and school nutrition environment scores (range: 0.30-0.93). Low-score countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania) graded less than three characteristics as supportive. High-score (≥0.70) countries were Ireland, Malta, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia and Sweden. The combined absence of cold drinks containing sugar, sweet snacks and salted snacks were more observed in high-score countries than in low-score countries. Largest within-country school nutrition environment scores were found in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania. All country-level BMI/A Z-scores were positive (range: 0.20-1.02), indicating higher BMI values than the 2007 WHO growth reference. With the exception of Norway and Sweden, a country-specific association between the school nutrition environment score and the school BMI/A Z

  9. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: School Nutrition Environment and Body Mass Index in Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnhoven, Trudy M.A.; van Raaij, Joop M.A.; Sjöberg, Agneta; Eldin, Nazih; Yngve, Agneta; Kunešová, Marie; Starc, Gregor; Rito, Ana I.; Duleva, Vesselka; Hassapidou, Maria; Martos, Éva; Pudule, Iveta; Petrauskiene, Ausra; Farrugia Sant’Angelo, Victoria; Hovengen, Ragnhild; Breda, João

    2014-01-01

    Background: Schools are important settings for the promotion of a healthy diet and sufficient physical activity and thus overweight prevention. Objective: To assess differences in school nutrition environment and body mass index (BMI) in primary schools between and within 12 European countries. Methods: Data from the World Health Organization (WHO) European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) were used (1831 and 2045 schools in 2007/2008 and 2009/2010, respectively). School personnel provided information on 18 school environmental characteristics on nutrition and physical activity. A school nutrition environment score was calculated using five nutrition-related characteristics whereby higher scores correspond to higher support for a healthy school nutrition environment. Trained field workers measured children’s weight and height; BMI-for-age (BMI/A) Z-scores were computed using the 2007 WHO growth reference and, for each school, the mean of the children’s BMI/A Z-scores was calculated. Results: Large between-country differences were found in the availability of food items on the premises (e.g., fresh fruit could be obtained in 12%−95% of schools) and school nutrition environment scores (range: 0.30−0.93). Low-score countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania) graded less than three characteristics as supportive. High-score (≥0.70) countries were Ireland, Malta, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia and Sweden. The combined absence of cold drinks containing sugar, sweet snacks and salted snacks were more observed in high-score countries than in low-score countries. Largest within-country school nutrition environment scores were found in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania. All country-level BMI/A Z-scores were positive (range: 0.20−1.02), indicating higher BMI values than the 2007 WHO growth reference. With the exception of Norway and Sweden, a country-specific association between the school

  10. Prevalence of disability and associated factors in Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System site, northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chala, Mulugeta Bayisa; Mekonnen, Solomon; Andargie, Gashaw; Kebede, Yigzaw; Yitayal, Mezgebu; Alemu, Kassahun; Awoke, Tadesse; Wubeshet, Mamo; Azmeraw, Temesgen; Birku, Melkamu; Tariku, Amare; Gebeyehu, Abebaw; Shimeka, Alemayehu; Gizaw, Zemichael

    2017-10-02

    Despite the high burden of disability in Ethiopia, little is known about it, particularly in the study area. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with disability at Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site, northwest Ethiopia. A population-based study was conducted from October to December 2014 at Dabat HDSS site. A total of 67,395 people were included in the study. The multivariable binary logistic regression analysis was employed to identify factors associated with disability. The Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) with a 95% Confidence Interval (CI) was estimated to show the strength of association. A p-value of disability giving a prevalence rate of 1.82%, of which, about 39% was related to a vision disability. The high odds of disability were observed among the elderly (≥50 years) [AOR: 4.49; 95% CI: 1.95, 10.33], severely food in-secured [AOR: 2.11; 95% CI: 1.59, 2.80], and separated marital status [AOR: 7.52; 95% CI: 1.18, 47.84]. While having a paid job [AOR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.77], being in the richest quintile [AOR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.75], and high engagement in work-related physical activities [AOR: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.49] were inversely associated with the disability. Disability is a major public health problem, and the burden is noticeable in the study area. Vision disability is the highest of all disabilities. Thus, efforts must be made on educating the public about disability and injury prevention. Measures that reduce disability should target the elderly, the poorer and the unemployed segment of the population.

  11. Nuclear Power Plant environment`s surveillance by satellite remote sensing and in-situ monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria

    The main environmental issues affecting the broad acceptability of nuclear power plant are the emission of radioactive materials, the generation of radioactive waste, and the potential for nuclear accidents. All nuclear fission reactors, regardless of design, location, operator or regulator, have the potential to undergo catastrophic accidents involving loss of control of the reactor core, failure of safety systems and subsequent widespread fallout of hazardous fission products. Risk is the mathematical product of probability and consequences, so lowprobability and high-consequence accidents, by definition, have a high risk. NPP environment surveillance is a very important task in frame of risk assessment. Satellite remote sensing data had been applied for dosimeter levels first time for Chernobyl NPP accident in 1986. Just for a normal functioning of a nuclear power plant, multitemporal and multispectral satellite data in complementarily with field data are very useful tools for NPP environment surveillance and risk assessment. Satellite remote sensing is used as an important technology to help environmental research to support research analysis of spatio-temporal dynamics of environmental features nearby nuclear facilities. Digital processing techniques applied to several LANDSAT, MODIS and QuickBird data in synergy with in-situ data are used to assess the extent and magnitude of radiation and non-radiation effects on the water, near field soil, vegetation and air. As a test case the methodology was applied for for Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Cernavoda, Romania. Thermal discharge from nuclear reactors cooling is dissipated as waste heat in Danube-Black -Sea Canal and Danube River. Water temperatures captured in thermal IR imagery are correlated with meteorological parameters. If during the winter thermal plume is localized to an area of a few km of NPP, the temperature difference between the plume and non-plume areas being about 1.5 oC, during summer and fall , is

  12. Mold contamination in a controlled hospital environment: a 3-year surveillance in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caggiano, Giuseppina; Napoli, Christian; Coretti, Caterina; Lovero, Grazia; Scarafile, Giancarlo; De Giglio, Osvalda; Montagna, Maria Teresa

    2014-11-15

    Environmental monitoring of airborne filamentous fungi is necessary to reduce fungal concentrations in operating theaters and in controlled environments, and to prevent infections. The present study reports results of a surveillance of filamentous fungi carried out on samples from air and surfaces in operating theaters and controlled environments in an Italian university hospital. Sampling was performed between January 2010 and December 2012 in 32 operating theaters and five departments with high-risk patients. Indoor air specimens were sampled using a microbiological air sampler; Rodac contact plates were used for surface sampling. Fungal isolates were identified at the level of genera and species. Sixty-one samples (61/465; 13.1%) were positive for molds, with 18 from controlled environments (18/81; 22.2%) and 43 (43/384; 11.2%) from operating theaters. The highest air fungal load (AFL, colony-forming units per cubic meter [CFU/m(3)]) was recorded in the ophthalmology operating theater, while the pediatric onco-hematology ward had the highest AFL among the wards (47 CFU/m(3)). The most common fungi identified from culture of air specimens were Aspergillus spp. (91.8%), Penicillium spp., (6%) and Paecilomyces spp. (1.5%). During the study period, a statistically significant increase in CFU over time was recorded in air-controlled environments (p = 0.043), while the increase in AFL in operating theaters was not statistically significant (p = 0.145). Molds were found in 29.1% of samples obtained from surfaces. Aspergillus fumigatus was the most commonly isolated (68.5%). Our findings will form the basis for action aimed at improving the air and surface quality of these special wards. The lack of any genetic analysis prevented any correlation of fungal environmental contamination with onset of fungal infection, an analysis that will be undertaken in a prospective study in patients admitted to the same hospital.

  13. Assessment of Noble Gases in the Savannah River Site Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, W.H.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1995-04-01

    A series of documents has been published that assesses the impact of various radionuclides released to the environment by Savannah River Site operations. The quantity released, the disposition of the radionuclides in the environment, and the dose to offsite individuals has been presented for carbon, cesium, iodine, plutonium, strontium, technetium, tritium, and uranium. An assessment of the impact of non-radioactive mercury also has been published.

  14. Application of the Integrated Site and Environment Data Management System for LILW Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Hoon; Lee, Eun Yong; Kim, Chang Lak [Nuclear Engineering and Technology Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    During the last five years, Site Information and Total Environmental data management System(SITES) has been developed. SITES is an integrated program for overall data acquisition, environmental monitoring, and safety analysis. SITES is composed of three main modules, such as site database system (SECURE), safety assessment system (SAINT) and environmental monitoring system (SUDAL). In general, for the safe management of radioactive waste repository, the information of site environment should be collected and managed systematically from the initial site survey. For this, SECURE module manages its data for the site characterization, environmental information, and radioactive environmental information etc. The purpose of SAINT module is to apply and analyze the data from SECURE. SUDAL is developed for environmental monitoring of the radioactive waste repository. Separately, it is ready to open to the public for offering partial information.

  15. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule for Calendar Year 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2006-01-27

    This document contains the calendar year 2006 schedules for the routine and non-routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sample types, and analyses to be performed. In some cases, samples are scheduled on a rotating basis and may not be collected in 2006 in which case the anticipated year for collection is provided. The project document package (PDP) for Surface Environmental Surveillance contains the milestone control log for the issuing of CY06 Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule WBS 4.2.3.21.3.03, milestone: RL00430306 (4830106-12).

  16. Survey of radiological contaminants in the near-shore environment at the Hanford Site 100-N Area reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Verst, S.P.; Albin, C.L. [Washington State Dept. of Health, Olympia, WA (United States); Patton, G.W.; Blanton, M.L.; Poston, T.M.; Cooper, A.T.; Antonio, E.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Past operations at the Hanford Site 100-N Area reactor resulted in the release of radiological contaminants to the soil column, local groundwater, and ultimately to the near-shore environment of the Columbia River. In September 1997, the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH) and the Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) initiated a special study of the near-shore vicinity at the Hanford Site`s retired 100-N Area reactor. Environmental samples were collected and analyzed for radiological contaminants ({sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, and gamma/ emitters), with both the WDOH and SESP analyzing a portion of the samples. Samples of river water, sediment, riverbank springs, periphyton, milfoil, flying insects, clam shells, and reed canary grass were collected. External exposure rates were also measured for the near-shore environment in the vicinity of the 100-N Area. In addition, samples were collected at background locations above Vernita Bridge.

  17. 2010 Nevada National Security Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-07-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. Surface-water surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldi, K.A.; Dirkes, R.L.; Blanton, M.L.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the Surface water on and near the Hanford Site is monitored to determine the potential effects of Hanford operations. Surface water at Hanford includes the Columbia River, riverbank springs, ponds located on the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Columbia River sediments are also included in this discussion. Tables 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 summarize the sampling locations, sample types, sampling frequencies, and sample analyses included in surface-water surveillance activities during 1994. Sample locations are also identified in Figure 5.3.1. This section describes the surveillance effort and summarizes the results for these aquatic environments. Detailed analytical results are reported by Bisping (1995).

  19. Prevention of infection in patients with chronic kidney disease part III: surveillance and auditing in a renal care environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlon, Sheila; Redmond, Avril; McCann, Margaret; Einarsdottir, Hildur

    2011-09-01

    This third paper, in a three-part CE series on the preventions of infection in patients with chronic kidney disease, focuses on surveillance and auditing of healthcare-associated infections within the renal care environment. The last decade has seen an increased awareness of the threat to patient safety from healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) and the emergence of multi-drug resistance organisms. Effective HCAI prevention strategies include adequate governance structures, access to expert advice, adherence to standard and transmission-based precautions, minimising the use of invasive medical devices, and surveillance. Surveillance data can be collected using outcome (e.g. infection) and/or process (e.g. hand hygiene compliance audit) measures. Establishing a surveillance programme requires: commitment from senior management and the multidisciplinary team, prompt feedback of the data to clinical managers resulting in action been taken if necessary, to address specific areas of concern. While many renal units have access to infection prevention and control expertise to assist in the development of such a programme, units without such expertise should also have a surveillance programme in place. © 2011 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  20. Differences in the active site environment of Aspergillus ficuum phytases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, A H; Sethumadhavan, K

    1998-02-13

    While Aspergillus ficuum phytaseA (phyA) was rapidly inactivated by 1,2-cyclohexanedione and phenylglyoxal, both specific modifiers of arginine, phytaseB (phyB) showed a markedly different behavior. First, phyB was totally insensitive to 1,2-cyclohexanedione even in the presence of 0.2 M guanidinium hydrochloride; second, the enzyme showed a great deal of resistance to inactivation by phenylglyoxal. Taken together, these results indicate that the chemical environment of the active site of phyB is very different from that of the active site of phyA. Despite sequence similarities of the active site region in these two proteins, their differential behavior to arginine modifiers indicates that other parts of the protein play a role in the active site formation. We expected some differences in the structure since the proteins have dissimilar kinetic parameters and pH optima.

  1. Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Hanford Site, in Richland, Washington. The assessment, which was conducted from May 11 through May 22, 1992, included a selective-review of the ES&H management systems and programs of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices the DOE Richland Field Office, and the site contractors. The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy`s continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the Hanford Site ES&H Progress Assessment is to provide the Secretary with an independent assessment of the adequacy and effectiveness of the DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to address ES&H problems and requirements. They are not intended to be comprehensive compliance assessments of ES&H activities. The point of reference for assessing programs at the Hanford Site was, for the most part, the Tiger Team Assessment of the Hanford Site, which was conducted from May 21 through July 18, 1990. A summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management is included.

  2. The evaluation of MRSA surveillance cultures by the number and combinations of anatomical sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grmek Kosnik Irena

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The identification of patients infected and/or colonised by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is necessary for the timely introduction of measures for infection control. We compared the diagnostic efficacy of combinations of MRSA surveillance swabs routinely taken by health institutions in the country.

  3. Prospective nationwide surveillance of surgical site infections after gastric surgery and risk factor analysis in the Korean Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (KONIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eu Suk; Kim, Hong Bin; Song, Kyoung-Ho; Kim, Young Keun; Kim, Hyung-Ho; Jin, Hye Young; Jeong, Sun Young; Sung, Joohon; Cho, Yong Kyun; Lee, Yeong-Seon; Oh, Hee-Bok; Kim, Eui-Chong; Kim, June Myung; Choi, Tae Yeol; Choi, Hee Jung; Kim, Hyo Youl

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the risk factors for surgical site infection (SSI) after gastric surgery in patients in Korea. A nationwide prospective multicenter study. Twenty university-affiliated hospitals in Korea. The Korean Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (KONIS), a Web-based system, was developed. Patients in 20 Korean hospitals from 2007 to 2009 were prospectively monitored for SSI for up to 30 days after gastric surgery. Demographic data, hospital characteristics, and potential perioperative risk factors were collected and analyzed, using multivariate logistic regression models. Of the 4,238 case patients monitored, 64.9% (2,752) were male, and mean age (± SD) was 58.8 (± 12.3) years. The SSI rates were 2.92, 6.45, and 10.87 per 100 operations for the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance system risk index categories of 0, 1, and 2 or 3, respectively. The majority (69.4%) of the SSIs observed were organ or space SSIs. The most frequently isolated microorganisms were Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Male sex (odds ratio [OR], 1.67 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-2.58]), increased operation time (1.20 [1.07-1.34] per 1-hour increase), reoperation (7.27 [3.68-14.38]), combined multiple procedures (1.79 [1.13-2.83]), prophylactic administration of the first antibiotic dose after skin incision (3.00 [1.09-8.23]), and prolonged duration (≥7 days) of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP; 2.70 [1.26-5.64]) were independently associated with increased risk of SSI. Male sex, inappropriate SAP, and operation-related variables are independent risk factors for SSI after gastric surgery.

  4. Environmental and ground-water surveillance at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirkes, R.L.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-06-01

    Environmental and ground-water surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding region is conducted to demonstrate compliance with environmental regulations, confirm adherence to DOE environmental protection policies, support DOE environmental management decisions, and provide information to the public. Environmental surveillance encompasses sampling and analyzing for potential radiological and nonradiological chemical contaminants on and off the Hanford Site. Emphasis is placed on surveillance of exposure pathways and chemical constituents that pose the greatest risk to human health and the environment.

  5. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule for Calendar Year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2011-01-21

    This document contains the calendar year 2011 schedule for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project and the Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sampling frequencies, sample types, and analyses to be performed. In some cases, samples are scheduled on a rotating basis. If a sample will not be collected in 2011, the anticipated year for collection is provided. Maps showing approximate sampling locations are included for media scheduled for collection in 2011.

  6. Site Environmental Report for 2004. Volume 1, Environment, Health, and Safety Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-09-30

    Each year, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory prepares an integrated report on its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting.1 The Site Environmental Report for 2004 summarizes Berkeley Lab’s environmental management performance, presents environmental monitoring results, and describes significant programs for calendar year 2004. (Throughout this report, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is referred to as “Berkeley Lab,” “the Laboratory,” “Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,” and “LBNL.”) The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I contains an overview of the Laboratory, the status of environmental programs, and summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities. Volume II contains individual data results from these activities. This year, the Site Environmental Report was distributed by releasing it on the Web from the Berkeley Lab Environmental Services Group (ESG) home page, which is located at http://www.lbl.gov/ehs/esg/. Many of the documents cited in this report also are accessible from the ESG Web page. CD and printed copies of this Site Environmental Report are available upon request.

  7. Performance of statistical process control methods for regional surgical site infection surveillance: a 10-year multicentre pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Arthur W; Haridy, Salah; Salem, Joseph; Ilieş, Iulian; Ergai, Awatef O; Samareh, Aven; Andrianas, Nicholas; Benneyan, James C; Sexton, Daniel J; Anderson, Deverick J

    2017-11-24

    Traditional strategies for surveillance of surgical site infections (SSI) have multiple limitations, including delayed and incomplete outbreak detection. Statistical process control (SPC) methods address these deficiencies by combining longitudinal analysis with graphical presentation of data. We performed a pilot study within a large network of community hospitals to evaluate performance of SPC methods for detecting SSI outbreaks. We applied conventional Shewhart and exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) SPC charts to 10 previously investigated SSI outbreaks that occurred from 2003 to 2013. We compared the results of SPC surveillance to the results of traditional SSI surveillance methods. Then, we analysed the performance of modified SPC charts constructed with different outbreak detection rules, EWMA smoothing factors and baseline SSI rate calculations. Conventional Shewhart and EWMA SPC charts both detected 8 of the 10 SSI outbreaks analysed, in each case prior to the date of traditional detection. Among detected outbreaks, conventional Shewhart chart detection occurred a median of 12 months prior to outbreak onset and 22 months prior to traditional detection. Conventional EWMA chart detection occurred a median of 7 months prior to outbreak onset and 14 months prior to traditional detection. Modified Shewhart and EWMA charts additionally detected several outbreaks earlier than conventional SPC charts. Shewhart and SPC charts had low false-positive rates when used to analyse separate control hospital SSI data. Our findings illustrate the potential usefulness and feasibility of real-time SPC surveillance of SSI to rapidly identify outbreaks and improve patient safety. Further study is needed to optimise SPC chart selection and calculation, statistical outbreak detection rules and the process for reacting to signals of potential outbreaks. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights

  8. Assessment of tritium in the Savannah River Site environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, W.H.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Bauer, L.R. [and others

    1993-10-01

    This report is the first revision to a series of reports on radionuclides inn the SRS environment. Tritium was chosen as the first radionuclide in the series because the calculations used to assess the dose to the offsite population from SRS releases indicate that the dose due to tritium, through of small consequence, is one of the most important the radionuclides. This was recognized early in the site operation, and extensive measurements of tritium in the atmosphere, surface water, and ground water exist due to the effort of the Environmental Monitoring Section. In addition, research into the transport and fate of tritium in the environment has been supported at the SRS by both the local Department of Energy (DOE) Office and DOE`s Office of Health and Environmental Research.

  9. [Surveillance on pesticides: quantification of use and prediction of impact on health, work and the environment for Brazilian municipalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignati, Wanderlei; Oliveira, Noemi Pereira; da Silva, Ageo Mário Cândido

    2014-12-01

    This paper analyzes the quantity, type and toxicity of pesticides used per hectare in the State of Mato Grosso as a surveillance strategy for the health of workers, the population in general and the environment, and to serve as a surveillance indicator for Brazilian cities. Brazil cultivated 95 million hectares in 2012, and Mato Grosso was the major consumer of pesticides. In this research, the database of the Agriculture and Livestock Defense Institute was consulted, as it records the prescribed agronomic data and place of use in sales invoices. The results reveal the average consumption of pesticides per hectare per crop: 12 liters for soy; 6 liters for corn; 4.8 liters for sugarcane; and 24 liters for cotton. The toxicological types and classes of pesticides used per hectare per crop were also monitored. Using a matrix of agricultural production and pesticide consumption, it was also found that certain health problems are correlated with the major producing regions. Based on pesticide consumption, agricultural production and pesticide toxicity it is possible to ascertain health problems in Brazilian cities and establish prevention and surveillance strategies for the workers, the environment and the populations exposed to pesticides.

  10. Extending Wireless Broadband Network Architectures with Home Gateways, Localization, and Physical Environment Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelling Kristoffersen, Kåre; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Chen, Jianjun

    2005-01-01

    is initially demonstrated in a 52 DECT base station installation covering four office buildings of total 4500 m2 . Finally the paper proposes the application of a commercial off-the-shelf wireless broadband network as a sensor network, without any additional hardware, for physical intrusion detection of e...... on the network. Then the extension of a DECT network into determining the location of DECT terminals, aiming at the design of a location based system is described. The location method is based on the received signal strength measurements in the DECT clients communication with the base stations. The localization.......g. an indoor site. It is demonstrated how it can be used for detecting door opening and person passing, in an environment of 243 m2 with three rooms and a corridor, using three low cost access points....

  11. National surveillance of surgical site infections after coronary artery bypass grafting in Norway: incidence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Thale Cathrine; Kjørstad, Knut E; Akselsen, Per Espen; Seim, Bjørn Edvard; Løwer, Hege Line; Stenvik, Maryann Nesset; Sorknes, Nina Kristine; Eriksen, Hanne-Merete

    2011-12-01

    A mandatory national surveillance system for surgical site infections (SSIs) following certain surgical procedures, including coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), was introduced in Norway in 2005. The objectives of this study were to measure national baseline incidence rates of SSIs after CABG, describe the characteristics of the patients and procedures, and identify possible risk factors for infection. In 2005-2009, all hospitals that performed CABG were invited to assess all patients undergoing CABG surgery in 3-month periods for SSIs. The hospitals evaluated infection status at discharge and 30 days after surgery by sending post-discharge questionnaires to all patients. We calculated incidence proportions and risk ratios for different risk factors. We applied the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (NNIS) risk index to the data. In total, 2440 patients were included. Altogether, 124 sternal and 217 harvest site infections were registered, giving incidence proportions of 5.1% and 8.9%, respectively. Over 95% of infections occurred post-discharge from the hospital. No risk factors were identified. Incidence did not significantly increase with higher NNIS risk index; however, 93% of the patients fell into the same risk category. We have provided a baseline rate for SSIs after CABG procedures in Norway. The results show the importance of post-hospital discharge follow-up. The NNIS risk index did not adequately stratify CABG patients. We recommend that more potential risk variables should be included in the surveillance, such as the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE), height, weight, and diabetes. Copyright © 2011 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of strontium in the Savannah River Site environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, W.H.; Evans, A.G.; Geary, L.A.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Strom, R.N.

    1992-12-31

    This document on strontium is published as a part of the Radiological Assessment Program (RAP). It is the sixth in a series of eight documents on individual radioisotopes released to the environment as a result of SRS (Savannah River Site) operations. Strontium exists in the environment as a result of above-ground nuclear weapons tests, the Chernobyl accident, the destruction of satellite Cosmos 954, small releases from reactors and reprocessing plants, and the operation of industrial, medical, and educational facilities. Strontium has been produced at SRS during the operation of 5 production reactors. About 300 curies of radiostrontium were released into streams in the late 50s and 60s, primarily from leaking fuel elements in reactor storage basins. Smaller quantities were released from the fuel reprocessing operations. About 400 Ci were released to seepage basins. A much smaller quantity, about 2 Ci, was released to the atmosphere. The overall radiological impact of SRS releases on the offsite maximum individual can be characterized by total doses of 6.2 mrem (atmospheric) and 1.4 mrem (liquid), compared with a dose of 12,960 mrem from non-SRS sources during the same period of time. Radiostrontium releases have resulted in a negligible risk to the environment and the population it supports.

  13. An Analysis of the Policy Environment Surrounding Noncommunicable Diseases Risk Factor Surveillance in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Mamka Anyona

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kenya is a developing country in sub-Saharan Africa, facing a triple disease burden, with an increase in non-communicable diseases (NCDs; uncontained infectious diseases; coupled with significant morbidity and mortality from environmental causes such as droughts and flooding. The limelight has been on infectious diseases, leaving few resources for NCDs. As NCDs start to gain attention, it is becoming apparent that essential information on their epidemiology and risk factor trends—key in evidence-based decision-making—is lacking. As a consequence, policies have long relied on information derived from unreliable data sources such as vital registries and facility-level data, and unrepresentative data from small-scale clinical and academic research. This study analyzed the health policy aspects of NCD risk factor surveillance in Kenya, describing barriers to the successful design and implementation of an NCD risk factor surveillance system, and suggests a strategy best suited for the Kenyan situation. A review of policy documents and publications was augmented by a field-study consisting of interviews of key informants identified as stakeholders. Findings were analyzed using the Walt and Gilson policy analysis triangle. Findings attest that no population baseline NCD burden or risk factor data was available, with a failed WHO STEPs survey in 2005, to be undertaken in 2013. Despite the continued mention of NCD surveillance and the highlighting of its importance in various policy documents, a related strategy is yet to be established. Hurdles ranged from a lack of political attention for NCDs and competing public interests, to the lack of an evidence-based decision making culture and the impact of aid dependency of health programs. Progress in recognition of NCDs was noted and the international community and civil society's contribution to these achievements documented. While a positive outlook on the future of NCD surveillance were encountered

  14. Tritium in the Savannah River Site environment. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Bauer, L.R.; Hayes, D.W.; Marter, W.L.; Zeigler, C.C.; Stephenson, D.E.; Hoel, D.D.; Hamby, D.M.

    1991-05-01

    Tritium is released to the environment from many of the operations at the Savannah River Site. The releases from each facility to the atmosphere and to the soil and streams, both from normal operations and inadvertent releases, over the period of operation from the early 1950s through 1988 are presented. The fate of the tritium released is evaluated through environmental monitoring, special studies, and modeling. It is concluded that approximately 91% of the tritium remaining after decay is now in the oceans. A dose and risk assessment to the population around the site is presented. It is concluded that about 0.6 fatal cancers may be associated with the tritium released during all the years of operation to the population of about 625,000. This same population (based on the overall US cancer statistics) is expected to experience about 105,000 cancer fatalities from all types of cancer. Therefore, it is considered unlikely that a relationship between any of the cancer deaths occurring in this population and releases of tritium from the SRS will be found.

  15. Cause-specific childhood mortality in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH health and demographic surveillance system sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streatfield, P. Kim; Khan, Wasif A.; Bhuiya, Abbas; Hanifi, Syed M.A.; Alam, Nurul; Ouattara, Mamadou; Sanou, Aboubakary; Sié, Ali; Lankoandé, Bruno; Soura, Abdramane B.; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Jaeger, Fabienne; Ngoran, Eliezer K.; Utzinger, Juerg; Abreha, Loko; Melaku, Yohannes A.; Weldearegawi, Berhe; Ansah, Akosua; Hodgson, Abraham; Oduro, Abraham; Welaga, Paul; Gyapong, Margaret; Narh, Clement T.; Narh-Bana, Solomon A.; Kant, Shashi; Misra, Puneet; Rai, Sanjay K.; Bauni, Evasius; Mochamah, George; Ndila, Carolyne; Williams, Thomas N.; Hamel, Mary J.; Ngulukyo, Emmanuel; Odhiambo, Frank O.; Sewe, Maquins; Beguy, Donatien; Ezeh, Alex; Oti, Samuel; Diallo, Aldiouma; Douillot, Laetitia; Sokhna, Cheikh; Delaunay, Valérie; Collinson, Mark A.; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W.; Kahn, Kathleen; Herbst, Kobus; Mossong, Joël; Chuc, Nguyen T.K.; Bangha, Martin; Sankoh, Osman A.; Byass, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood mortality, particularly in the first 5 years of life, is a major global concern and the target of Millennium Development Goal 4. Although the majority of childhood deaths occur in Africa and Asia, these are also the regions where such deaths are least likely to be registered. The INDEPTH Network works to alleviate this problem by collating detailed individual data from defined Health and Demographic Surveillance sites. By registering deaths and carrying out verbal autopsies to determine cause of death across many such sites, using standardised methods, the Network seeks to generate population-based mortality statistics that are not otherwise available. Objective To present a description of cause-specific mortality rates and fractions over the first 15 years of life as documented by INDEPTH Network sites in sub-Saharan Africa and south-east Asia. Design All childhood deaths at INDEPTH sites are routinely registered and followed up with verbal autopsy (VA) interviews. For this study, VA archives were transformed into the WHO 2012 VA standard format and processed using the InterVA-4 model to assign cause of death. Routine surveillance data also provided person-time denominators for mortality rates. Cause-specific mortality rates and cause-specific mortality fractions are presented according to WHO 2012 VA cause groups for neonatal, infant, 1–4 year and 5–14 year age groups. Results A total of 28,751 childhood deaths were documented during 4,387,824 person-years over 18 sites. Infant mortality ranged from 11 to 78 per 1,000 live births, with under-5 mortality from 15 to 152 per 1,000 live births. Sites in Vietnam and Kenya accounted for the lowest and highest mortality rates reported. Conclusions Many children continue to die from relatively preventable causes, particularly in areas with high rates of malaria and HIV/AIDS. Neonatal mortality persists at relatively high, and perhaps sometimes under-documented, rates. External causes of death are

  16. Cause-specific childhood mortality in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH health and demographic surveillance system sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kim Streatfield

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood mortality, particularly in the first 5 years of life, is a major global concern and the target of Millennium Development Goal 4. Although the majority of childhood deaths occur in Africa and Asia, these are also the regions where such deaths are least likely to be registered. The INDEPTH Network works to alleviate this problem by collating detailed individual data from defined Health and Demographic Surveillance sites. By registering deaths and carrying out verbal autopsies to determine cause of death across many such sites, using standardised methods, the Network seeks to generate population-based mortality statistics that are not otherwise available. Objective: To present a description of cause-specific mortality rates and fractions over the first 15 years of life as documented by INDEPTH Network sites in sub-Saharan Africa and south-east Asia. Design: All childhood deaths at INDEPTH sites are routinely registered and followed up with verbal autopsy (VA interviews. For this study, VA archives were transformed into the WHO 2012 VA standard format and processed using the InterVA-4 model to assign cause of death. Routine surveillance data also provided person-time denominators for mortality rates. Cause-specific mortality rates and cause-specific mortality fractions are presented according to WHO 2012 VA cause groups for neonatal, infant, 1–4 year and 5–14 year age groups. Results: A total of 28,751 childhood deaths were documented during 4,387,824 person-years over 18 sites. Infant mortality ranged from 11 to 78 per 1,000 live births, with under-5 mortality from 15 to 152 per 1,000 live births. Sites in Vietnam and Kenya accounted for the lowest and highest mortality rates reported. Conclusions: Many children continue to die from relatively preventable causes, particularly in areas with high rates of malaria and HIV/AIDS. Neonatal mortality persists at relatively high, and perhaps sometimes under-documented, rates

  17. Waterborne Release Monitoring and Surveillance Programs at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-03-26

    This report documents the liquid release environmental compliance programs currently in place at the Savannah river Site (SRS). Included are descriptions of stream monitoring programs, which measure chemical parameters and radionuclides in site streams and the Savannah river and test representative biological communities within the streams for chemical and radiological uptake. This report also explains the field sampling and analytical capabilities that are available at SRS during both normal and emergency conditions.

  18. Serotype-Specific Changes in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease after Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Introduction: A Pooled Analysis of Multiple Surveillance Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feikin, Daniel R.; Kagucia, Eunice W.; Loo, Jennifer D.; Link-Gelles, Ruth; Puhan, Milo A.; Cherian, Thomas; Levine, Orin S.; Whitney, Cynthia G.; O’Brien, Katherine L.; Moore, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Vaccine-serotype (VT) invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) rates declined substantially following introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) into national immunization programs. Increases in non-vaccine-serotype (NVT) IPD rates occurred in some sites, presumably representing serotype replacement. We used a standardized approach to describe serotype-specific IPD changes among multiple sites after PCV7 introduction. Methods and Findings Of 32 IPD surveillance datasets received, we identified 21 eligible databases with rate data ≥2 years before and ≥1 year after PCV7 introduction. Expected annual rates of IPD absent PCV7 introduction were estimated by extrapolation using either Poisson regression modeling of pre-PCV7 rates or averaging pre-PCV7 rates. To estimate whether changes in rates had occurred following PCV7 introduction, we calculated site specific rate ratios by dividing observed by expected IPD rates for each post-PCV7 year. We calculated summary rate ratios (RRs) using random effects meta-analysis. For children <5 years old, overall IPD decreased by year 1 post-PCV7 (RR 0·55, 95% CI 0·46–0·65) and remained relatively stable through year 7 (RR 0·49, 95% CI 0·35–0·68). Point estimates for VT IPD decreased annually through year 7 (RR 0·03, 95% CI 0·01–0·10), while NVT IPD increased (year 7 RR 2·81, 95% CI 2·12–3·71). Among adults, decreases in overall IPD also occurred but were smaller and more variable by site than among children. At year 7 after introduction, significant reductions were observed (18–49 year-olds [RR 0·52, 95% CI 0·29–0·91], 50–64 year-olds [RR 0·84, 95% CI 0·77–0·93], and ≥65 year-olds [RR 0·74, 95% CI 0·58–0·95]). Conclusions Consistent and significant decreases in both overall and VT IPD in children occurred quickly and were sustained for 7 years after PCV7 introduction, supporting use of PCVs. Increases in NVT IPD occurred in most sites, with variable magnitude

  19. Serotype-specific changes in invasive pneumococcal disease after pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction: a pooled analysis of multiple surveillance sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Feikin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vaccine-serotype (VT invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD rates declined substantially following introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7 into national immunization programs. Increases in non-vaccine-serotype (NVT IPD rates occurred in some sites, presumably representing serotype replacement. We used a standardized approach to describe serotype-specific IPD changes among multiple sites after PCV7 introduction. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Of 32 IPD surveillance datasets received, we identified 21 eligible databases with rate data ≥ 2 years before and ≥ 1 year after PCV7 introduction. Expected annual rates of IPD absent PCV7 introduction were estimated by extrapolation using either Poisson regression modeling of pre-PCV7 rates or averaging pre-PCV7 rates. To estimate whether changes in rates had occurred following PCV7 introduction, we calculated site specific rate ratios by dividing observed by expected IPD rates for each post-PCV7 year. We calculated summary rate ratios (RRs using random effects meta-analysis. For children <5 years old, overall IPD decreased by year 1 post-PCV7 (RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.46-0.65 and remained relatively stable through year 7 (RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.35-0.68. Point estimates for VT IPD decreased annually through year 7 (RR 0.03, 95% CI 0.01-0.10, while NVT IPD increased (year 7 RR 2.81, 95% CI 2.12-3.71. Among adults, decreases in overall IPD also occurred but were smaller and more variable by site than among children. At year 7 after introduction, significant reductions were observed (18-49 year-olds [RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.29-0.91], 50-64 year-olds [RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.77-0.93], and ≥ 65 year-olds [RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.58-0.95]. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent and significant decreases in both overall and VT IPD in children occurred quickly and were sustained for 7 years after PCV7 introduction, supporting use of PCVs. Increases in NVT IPD occurred in most sites, with variable magnitude. These findings may not

  20. Robust vehicle detection under various environments to realize road traffic flow surveillance using an infrared thermal camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yoichiro; Misumi, Masato; Nakamiya, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    To realize road traffic flow surveillance under various environments which contain poor visibility conditions, we have already proposed two vehicle detection methods using thermal images taken with an infrared thermal camera. The first method uses pattern recognition for the windshields and their surroundings to detect vehicles. However, the first method decreases the vehicle detection accuracy in winter season. To maintain high vehicle detection accuracy in all seasons, we developed the second method. The second method uses tires' thermal energy reflection areas on a road as the detection targets. The second method did not achieve high detection accuracy for vehicles on left-hand and right-hand lanes except for two center-lanes. Therefore, we have developed a new method based on the second method to increase the vehicle detection accuracy. This paper proposes the new method and shows that the detection accuracy for vehicles on all lanes is 92.1%. Therefore, by combining the first method and the new method, high vehicle detection accuracies are maintained under various environments, and road traffic flow surveillance can be realized.

  1. Directional R-Loop Formation by the CRISPR-Cas Surveillance Complex Cascade Provides Efficient Off-Target Site Rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Rutkauskas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available CRISPR-Cas systems provide bacteria and archaea with adaptive immunity against foreign nucleic acids. In type I CRISPR-Cas systems, invading DNA is detected by a large ribonucleoprotein surveillance complex called Cascade. The crRNA component of Cascade is used to recognize target sites in foreign DNA (protospacers by formation of an R-loop driven by base-pairing complementarity. Using single-molecule supercoiling experiments with near base-pair resolution, we probe here the mechanism of R-loop formation and detect short-lived R-loop intermediates on off-target sites bearing single mismatches. We show that R-loops propagate directionally starting from the protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM. Upon reaching a mismatch, R-loop propagation stalls and collapses in a length-dependent manner. This unambiguously demonstrates that directional zipping of the R-loop accomplishes efficient target recognition by rapidly rejecting binding to off-target sites with PAM-proximal mutations. R-loops that reach the protospacer end become locked to license DNA degradation by the auxiliary Cas3 nuclease/helicase without further target verification.

  2. Radioactive contamination in the marine environment. Report no. 3 from the national surveillance programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brungot, A.L.; Foeyn, L.; Caroll, J.L.; Kolstad, A.K.; Brown, J.; Rudjord, A.L.; Boee, B.; Hellstroem, T

    1999-07-01

    The data collected as part of the National Surveillance Programme indicate that radioactivity in the water surrounding Norway remains at low levels. In fish and shrimps, {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations are approximately 1.2 Bq/kg or less. {sup 137}Cs levels in the water surrounding Norway have decreased significantly since their peak concentrations detected around 1980. However, in recent years the variation in radiocesium concentration in the sea water can largely be explained by variations in the water exchange with the Baltic Sea. The influence of Chernobyl fallout on the concentrations of these radionuclides is clearly seen. The levels decrease with increasing distance away from the Baltic Sea. Other radionuclides, i.e. {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 60}Co and {sup 241}Am were found in low concentrations only. The reprocessing plant at Sellafield in United Kingdom began operating a new waste treatment in 1994. This has resulted in changes in the composition of radionuclides being discharged into the sea as waste. As a result, the concentration of {sup 99}Tc in the waters surrounding Norway has increased in recent years and the highest levels of radioactivity detected in marine biota during the surveillance program were for {sup 99}Tc in lobster. The increase in {sup 99}Tc is also clearly observed in seaweed.

  3. A Spatially Explicit Method for Prioritizing AIS Surveillance Site Selection in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choosing where to sample for aquatic invasive species (AIS) is a daunting challenge in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Management resources are finite hence it is important that monitoring efforts concentrate on those sites with the highest risk of introduction based on transparent c...

  4. Mosquito-borne Arbovirus Surveillance at Selected Sites in Diverse Ecological Zones of Kenya 2007 -- 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    for testing. Cell culture inoculation All mosquito pool supernatants were screened for viruses by cell culture inoculation in Vero cells (monkey...a monolayer of Vero cell cultures in growth medium (Minimum Essential Medium (MEM) with Earles salts, with 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS), 2...species, pooled by species, collection date and site and screened for arboviruses by isolation in cell culture and/or RT-PCR screening and sequencing

  5. Young adult and middle age mortality in Butajira demographic surveillance site, Ethiopia: lifestyle, gender and household economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantahun, Mesganaw; Berhane, Yemane; Högberg, Ulf; Wall, Stig; Byass, Peter

    2008-07-31

    Public health research characterising the course of life through the middle age in developing societies is scarce. The aim of this study is to explore patterns of adult (15-64 years) mortality in an Ethiopian population over time, by gender, urban or rural lifestyle, causes of death and in relation to household economic status and decision-making. The study was conducted in Butajira Demographic Surveillance Site (DSS) in south-central Ethiopia among adults 15-64 years old. Cohort analysis of surveillance data was conducted for the years 1987-2004 complemented by a prospective case-referent (case control) study over two years. Rate ratios were computed to assess the relationships between mortality and background variables using a Poisson regression model. In the case-referent component, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were used to assess the effect of certain risk factors that were not included in the surveillance system. A total of 367,940 person years were observed in a period of 18 years, in which 2860 deaths occurred. One hundred sixty two cases and 486 matched for age, sex and place of residence controls were included in the case referent (case control) study. Only a modest downward trend in adult mortality was seen over the 18 year period. Rural lifestyle carried a significant survival disadvantage [mortality rate ratio 1.62 (95% CI 1.44 to 1.82), adjusted for gender, period and age group], while the overall effects of gender were negligible. Communicable disease mortality was appreciably higher in rural areas [rate ratio 2.05 (95% CI 1.73 to 2.44), adjusted for gender, age group and period]. Higher mortality was associated with a lack of literacy in a household, poor economic status and lack of women's decision making. A complex pattern of adult mortality prevails, still influenced by war, famine and communicable diseases. Individual factors such as a lack of education, low economic status and social disadvantage all contribute to increased risks of

  6. Young adult and middle age mortality in Butajira demographic surveillance site, Ethiopia: lifestyle, gender and household economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Högberg Ulf

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health research characterising the course of life through the middle age in developing societies is scarce. The aim of this study is to explore patterns of adult (15–64 years mortality in an Ethiopian population over time, by gender, urban or rural lifestyle, causes of death and in relation to household economic status and decision-making. Methods The study was conducted in Butajira Demographic Surveillance Site (DSS in south-central Ethiopia among adults 15–64 years old. Cohort analysis of surveillance data was conducted for the years 1987–2004 complemented by a prospective case-referent (case control study over two years. Rate ratios were computed to assess the relationships between mortality and background variables using a Poisson regression model. In the case-referent component, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals were used to assess the effect of certain risk factors that were not included in the surveillance system. Results A total of 367 940 person years were observed in a period of 18 years, in which 2 860 deaths occurred. One hundred sixty two cases and 486 matched for age, sex and place of residence controls were included in the case referent (case control study. Only a modest downward trend in adult mortality was seen over the 18 year period. Rural lifestyle carried a significant survival disadvantage [mortality rate ratio 1.62 (95% CI 1.44 to 1.82, adjusted for gender, period and age group], while the overall effects of gender were negligible. Communicable disease mortality was appreciably higher in rural areas [rate ratio 2.05 (95% CI 1.73 to 2.44, adjusted for gender, age group and period]. Higher mortality was associated with a lack of literacy in a household, poor economic status and lack of women's decision making. Conclusion A complex pattern of adult mortality prevails, still influenced by war, famine and communicable diseases. Individual factors such as a lack of education, low economic

  7. Burden of premature mortality in rural Vietnam from 1999 – 2003: analyses from a Demographic Surveillance Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Do

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessing the burden of disease contributes towards evidence-based allocation of limited health resources. However, such measures are not yet commonly available in Vietnam. Taking advantage of the FilaBavi Demographic Surveillance Site (FilaBavi DSS in Vietnam, this study aimed to establish the feasibility of applying the Years of Life Lost (YLL technique in the context of a defined DSS, and to estimate the importance of the principal causes of premature mortality in a rural area of Vietnam between 1999 and 2003. Methods Global Burden of Disease methods were applied. Causes of death were ascertained by verbal autopsy. Results In five years, 1,240 deaths occurred and for 1,220 cases cause of death information from verbal autopsy was available. Life expectancy at birth was 71.0 (95% confidence interval 69.9–72.1 in males and 80.9 (79.9–81.9 in females. The discounted, but not age weighted YLL per 1,000 population was 85 and 55 for males and females, respectively. The leading causes of YLL and death counts were cardiovascular diseases, malignant neoplasms, unintentional injuries, and neonatal causes. Males contributed 54% of total deaths and 59% of YLL. Males experienced higher YLL than women across all causes. Filabavi mortality estimates are considerably lower than 2002 WHO country estimates for Vietnam. Also the FilaBavi cause distribution varies considerably from the WHO result. Conclusion The combination of localised demographic surveillance, verbal autopsy and the application of YLL methods enable new insights into the magnitude and importance of significant public health issues in settings where evidence for planning is otherwise scarce. Local mortality data vary considerably from the WHO model-based estimates.

  8. Surveillance Angels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of sensor networks has been proposed for military surveillance and environmental monitoring applications. Those systems are composed of a heterogeneous set of sensors to observe the environment. In centralised systems the observed data will be conveyed to the control room to process the

  9. Cause-specific mortality in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH health and demographic surveillance system sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kim Streatfield

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Because most deaths in Africa and Asia are not well documented, estimates of mortality are often made using scanty data. The INDEPTH Network works to alleviate this problem by collating detailed individual data from defined Health and Demographic Surveillance sites. By registering all deaths over time and carrying out verbal autopsies to determine cause of death across many such sites, using standardised methods, the Network seeks to generate population-based mortality statistics that are not otherwise available. Objective: To build a large standardised mortality database from African and Asian sites, detailing the relevant methods, and use it to describe cause-specific mortality patterns. Design: Individual demographic and verbal autopsy (VA data from 22 INDEPTH sites were collated into a standardised database. The INDEPTH 2013 population was used for standardisation. The WHO 2012 VA standard and the InterVA-4 model were used for assigning cause of death. Results: A total of 111,910 deaths occurring over 12,204,043 person-years (accumulated between 1992 and 2012 were registered across the 22 sites, and for 98,429 of these deaths (88.0% verbal autopsies were successfully completed. There was considerable variation in all-cause mortality between sites, with most of the differences being accounted for by variations in infectious causes as a proportion of all deaths. Conclusions: This dataset documents individual deaths across Africa and Asia in a standardised way, and on an unprecedented scale. While INDEPTH sites are not constructed to constitute a representative sample, and VA may not be the ideal method of determining cause of death, nevertheless these findings represent detailed mortality patterns for parts of the world that are severely under-served in terms of measuring mortality. Further papers explore details of mortality patterns among children and specifically for NCDs, external causes, pregnancy-related mortality, malaria

  10. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunbar, J.B.

    1993-05-01

    This technical report presents the age-adjusted total, and race and sex specific geographic patterns of cancer mortality for South Carolina (SC) counties utilizing the 1953--1987 average annual age-adjusted mortality rates (AAMRs). The mortality information was obtained from the State Cancer Control Map and Data Program produced by the National Cancer Institute , Centers for Disease Control and the American Cancer Society. The AAMRs for selected primary sites are classified as significantly different or not significantly different from the corresponding United States and SC mortality rates. Categories for classification of the rates are determined using 95% confidence intervals. Geographic patterns of significantly high county AAMRs are identified and discussed. Individual county rates are not emphasized. The terminology, mortality rates used throughout this report pertains to the 1953--1987 AAMRS.

  11. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunbar, J.B.

    1993-05-01

    This technical report presents the age-adjusted total, and race and sex specific geographic patterns of cancer mortality for South Carolina (SC) counties utilizing the 1953--1987 average annual age-adjusted mortality rates (AAMRs). The mortality information was obtained from the State Cancer Control Map and Data Program produced by the National Cancer Institute , Centers for Disease Control and the American Cancer Society. The AAMRs for selected primary sites are classified as significantly different or not significantly different from the corresponding United States and SC mortality rates. Categories for classification of the rates are determined using 95% confidence intervals. Geographic patterns of significantly high county AAMRs are identified and discussed. Individual county rates are not emphasized. The terminology, mortality rates used throughout this report pertains to the 1953--1987 AAMRS.

  12. Remote sensing supported surveillance and characterization of tailings behavior at a gold mine site, Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauhala, Anssi; Tuomela, Anne; Rossi, Pekka M.; Davids, Corine

    2017-04-01

    The management of vast amounts of tailings produced is one of the key issues in mining operations. The effective and economic disposal of the waste requires knowledge concerning both basic physical properties of the tailings as well as more complex aspects such as consolidation behavior. The behavior of tailings in itself is a very complex issue that can be affected by flocculation, sedimentation, consolidation, segregation, deposition, freeze-thaw, and desiccation phenomena. The utilization of remote sensing in an impoundment-scale monitoring of tailings could benefit the management of tailings, and improve our knowledge on tailings behavior. In order to gain better knowledge of tailings behavior in cold climate, we have utilized both modern remote sensing techniques and more traditional in situ and laboratory measurements in characterizing thickened gold tailings behavior at a Finnish gold mine site, where the production has been halted due to low gold prices. The remote sensing measurements consisted of elevation datasets collected from unmanned aerial vehicles during summers 2015 and 2016, and a further campaign is planned for the summer 2017. The ongoing traditional measurements include for example particle-size distribution, frost heave, frost depth, water retention, temperature profile, and rheological measurements. Initial results from the remote sensing indicated larger than expected settlements on parts of the tailings impoundment, and also highlighted some of the complexities related to data processing. The interpretation of the results and characterization of the behavior is in this case complicated by possible freeze-thaw effects and potential settlement of the impoundment bottom structure consisting of natural peat. Experiments with remote sensing and unmanned aerial vehicles indicate that they could offer potential benefits in frequent mine site monitoring, but there is a need towards more robust and streamlined data acquisition and processing. The

  13. Multiparametric surveillance of conservation measures at subterranean rock-art sites: case of Altamira cave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Anton, E.; Cuezva, S.; Fernandez-Cortes, A.; Sanchez-Moral, S.; Canaveras, J. C.

    2012-04-01

    Altamira cave (North of Spain) contains one of the most worldwide important representations of Palaeolithic art. Changes introduced in the cave environment due to the numerous conditioning projects and massive amounts of visitors in the past led in severe disruptions on the pattern of energy-matter exchange with the external atmosphere. Once the Altamira Cave was definitely closed to visitors in 2002, several conservation actions were progressively carried out with the aim to reinforce the isolation of the main cave emplacement with rock art (Polychrome Hall) and, therefore, limiting the dispersion of microorganisms and the supply of nutrients by airflow, water condensation on rock surfaces or seepage water. Main preservation measure was the installation of new access doors equipped with a thermal insulation system. Multi-annual instrumental monitoring of the atmosphere-soil-cave system has allowed us to control the degree of environmental recovery of cave environment and its trend towards the equilibrium and quasi-natural conditions. The monitoring program was focused on the main microclimatic parameters (air temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide, radon, air velocity, among others) in several profiles from floor to ceiling along the main rooms of the cave. Since the entrance system was modified in 2008 several changes in cave environment have been registered. Absolute annual values of temperature, velocity of air and their annual ranges variation have progressively been reduced. Observed 222Rn and CO2 convective short period fluctuations have been reduced, mainly during the winter season. The beginning of the degassing period in the cave has been delayed. Differences between inner and outer zones of the cavity have increased reaching the maximum value during the summer season (period of greater connexion with outside environment). For instance: in Polychrome Hall the range temperature falls from 1.41oC in 2007-2008 to 1.28oC in 2010-2011; in Crossing Hall

  14. A Detailed Protocol to Enable Safe-Handling, Preemptive Detection, and Systematic Surveillance of Rat-Vectored Pathogens in the Urban Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Michael H; Sarno, Ronald J; Deutsch, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    We detail a five-stage protocol to address physical barriers and experimental limitations that have hindered routine pathogen monitoring of wild rats in urban settings. New York City potentially harbors from 2 to 32 million rats among its 8-million people. However, at a time, when people are most vulnerable to disease from over-crowdedness brought on by increased urbanization of society, the difficulty of studying wild rats has led to a paucity of ecological and epidemiological research. Challenges of safely handling animals and the difficulties of identifying individual animals and the emergence of their respective pathogen loads (timing of infection) have impeded progress. We previously reported a method using radio frequency identification paired with load cell and camera traps to enable the identification of individual animals and subsequent monitoring of the animals' weights (an indicator of health). However, efficient pathogen surveillance requires repeated captures of the same individual in order to isolate and document the emergence of new pathogens, or variations in pathogen load, over time. Most of these barriers are now addressed in our protocol, which is aided by the use of a mobile, outdoor laboratory, followed by incorporation of pheromone-based lures to attract individuals back to active sensors, within a camera trap. This approach allows for the assessment of individual animal health, behaviors under camera, and changing pathogen loads and weights in most urban environments (e.g., financial district, docks, sewers, and residential). Five phases are described and presented: (1) site selection and urban trapping, (2) anesthetization, (3) serological and ectoparasite collection, (4) microchip implantation, and (5) retrapping and luring animals back to active remote sensors. In order to fulfill the unmet call for preemptive pathogen surveillance, public health officials and researchers may wish to adapt, or modify, similar protocols to ensure early

  15. A detailed protocol to enable safe-handling, preemptive detection, and systematic surveillance of rat-vectored pathogens in the urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H Parsons

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We detail a five-stage protocol to address physical barriers and experimental limitations that have hindered routine pathogen monitoring of wild rats in urban settings. New York City potentially harbors from 2 to 32 million rats among its 8 million people. However, at a time when people are most vulnerable to disease from over-crowdedness brought on by increased urbanization of society, the difficulty of studying wild rats has led to a paucity of ecological and epidemiological research. Challenges of safely handling animals and the difficulties of identifying individual animals and the emergence of their respective pathogen loads (timing of infection, has impeded progress. We previously reported a method using radio frequency identification (RFID paired with load-cell and camera-traps to enable the identification of individual animals and subsequent monitoring of the animals’ weights (an indicator of health. However, efficient pathogen surveillance requires repeated captures of the same individual in order to isolate and document the emergence of new pathogens, or variations in pathogen load, over time. Most of these barriers are now addressed in our protocol, which is aided by the use of a mobile, outdoor laboratory, followed by incorporation of pheromone-based lures to attract individuals back to active sensors within a camera-trap. This approach allows for the assessment of individual animal health, behaviors under camera, and changing pathogen loads and weights in most urban environments (e.g., financial district, docks, sewers, residential. Five phases are described and presented: 1 site selection and urban trapping; 2 anesthetization; 3 serological and ectoparasite collection; 4 microchip implantation; and 5 re-trapping and luring animals back to active remote sensors. In order to fulfill the unmet call for preemptive pathogen surveillance, public health officials and researchers may wish to adapt, or modify, similar protocols to ensure

  16. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  17. Surveillance of hearing loss among older construction and trade workers at Department of Energy nuclear sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dement, John; Ringen, Knut; Welch, Laura; Bingham, Eula; Quinn, Patricia

    2005-11-01

    Medical screening programs at three Departments of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons facilities (Hanford Nuclear Reservation, Oak Ridge, and the Savannah River Site) have included audiometric testing since approximately 1996. This report summarizes hearing evaluations through March 31, 2003. Occupational examinations included a medical history, limited physical examination, and tests for medical effects from specific hazards, including audiometric testing. Hearing thresholds by frequency for DOE workers were compared to age-standardized thresholds among an external comparison population of industrial workers with noise exposures construction trade work and self-reported noise exposure, while controlling for potential confounders such as age, race, sex, smoking, elevated serum cholesterol, hypertension, solvent exposures, and recreational noise exposures. Hearing thresholds among DOE workers were much higher than observed in a comparison population of industrial workers with low noise exposures. Overall, 59.7% of workers examined were found to have material hearing impairment by NIOSH criteria. Age, duration of construction work, smoking, and self-reported noise exposure increased the risk of hearing loss. The risk of material hearing impairment was significantly elevated for construction trade workers compared to the external comparison population (odds-ratio = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.3-2.1) and increased with the duration of trade work. These medical screening programs confirm worker concerns about risks for hearing loss and the need for hearing conservation programs for construction workers, with emphasis on the prevention of noise exposures.

  18. Situation 2002: release monitoring and surveillance of environment of Cea centers; Bilan 2002: controle des rejets et surveillance de l'environnement des centres CEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This publication renders an account of the situation of the releases of liquid and gaseous radioactive effluents, for the year 2002, as well as the radioactivity levels measured in the vicinity of Cea centers through the systematic surveillance of atmosphere, waters, vegetation and milk. An analysis on five years allows to follow their evolution. (N.C.)

  19. Surveillance of Avian H7N9 Virus in Various Environments of Zhejiang Province, China before and after Live Poultry Markets Were Closed in 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Shelan; Mao, Haiyan; Yu, Zhao; Chen, Enfu; Chai, Chengliang

    2015-01-01

    To date, there have been a total of 637 laboratory-confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus across mainland China, with 28% (179/637) of these reported in Zhejiang Province. Surveillance of avian H7N9 virus was conducted to investigate environmental contamination during H7N9 outbreaks. We sought to evaluate the prevalence of H7N9 in the environment, and the effects of poultry market closures on the incidence of human H7N9 cases. We collected 6740 environmental samples from 751 sampling sites across 11 cities of Zhejiang Province (China) between January 2013 and March 2014. The presence of H7N9 was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, with prevalence compared between sites and over time. The relationship between environmental contamination and human cases of H7N9 infection were analyzed using Spearman's ranked correlation coefficient. Of the 6740 samples, 10.09% (680/6740) were H7N9-positive. The virus was found to circulate seasonally, and peaked during the spring and winter of 2013-2014. The prevalence of the virus decreased from the north to the southeast of the province, coinciding with the geographical distribution of human H7N9 cases. Compared with other sampling sites, live poultry markets (LPMs) had the highest prevalence of H7N9 virus at 13.94% (667/4784). Of the various sample types analyzed, virus prevalence was highest for chopping board swabs at 15.49% (110/710). The prevalence of the virus in the environment positively correlated with the incidence of human H7N9 cases (r2 = 0.498; P < 0.01). Cities with a higher incidence of human H7N9 cases also had a higher prevalence of H7N9 among samples and at sampling sites. Following the closure of LPMs at the end of January 2014, the prevalence of H7N9 decreased from 19.18% (487/2539) to 6.92% (79/1141). This corresponded with a decrease in the number of human H7N9 cases reported. The prevalence of H7N9 virus in environmental samples oscillated seasonally

  20. Leveraging social networking sites for disease surveillance and public sensing: the case of the 2013 avian influenza A(H7N9 outbreak in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Xuxiao Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We conducted in-depth analysis on the use of a popular Chinese social networking and microblogging site, Sina Weibo, to monitor an avian influenza A(H7N9 outbreak in China and to assess the value of social networking sites in the surveillance of disease outbreaks that occur overseas. Two data sets were employed for our analysis: a line listing of confirmed cases obtained from conventional public health information channels and case information from Weibo posts. Our findings showed that the level of activity on Weibo corresponded with the number of new cases reported. In addition, the reporting of new cases on Weibo was significantly faster than those of conventional reporting sites and non-local news media. A qualitative review of the functions of Weibo also revealed that Weibo enabled timely monitoring of other outbreak-relevant information, provided access to additional crowd-sourced epidemiological information and was leveraged by the local government as an interactive platform for risk communication and monitoring public sentiment on the policy response. Our analysis demonstrated the potential for social networking sites to be used by public health agencies to enhance traditional communicable disease surveillance systems for the global surveillance of overseas public health threats. Social networking sites also can be used by governments for calibration of response policies and measures and for risk communication.

  1. Leveraging social networking sites for disease surveillance and public sensing: the case of the 2013 avian influenza A(H7N9) outbreak in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Emma Xuxiao; Yang, Yinping; Di Shang, Richard; Simons, Joseph John Pyne; Quek, Boon Kiat; Yin, Xiao Feng; See, Wanhan; Oh, Olivia Seen Huey; Nandar, Khine Sein Tun; Ling, Vivienne Ruo Yun; Chan, Pei Pei; Wang, Zhaoxia; Goh, Rick Siow Mong; James, Lyn; Tey, Jeannie Su Hui

    2015-01-01

    We conducted in-depth analysis on the use of a popular Chinese social networking and microblogging site, Sina Weibo, to monitor an avian influenza A(H7N9) outbreak in China and to assess the value of social networking sites in the surveillance of disease outbreaks that occur overseas. Two data sets were employed for our analysis: a line listing of confirmed cases obtained from conventional public health information channels and case information from Weibo posts. Our findings showed that the level of activity on Weibo corresponded with the number of new cases reported. In addition, the reporting of new cases on Weibo was significantly faster than those of conventional reporting sites and non-local news media. A qualitative review of the functions of Weibo also revealed that Weibo enabled timely monitoring of other outbreak-relevant information, provided access to additional crowd-sourced epidemiological information and was leveraged by the local government as an interactive platform for risk communication and monitoring public sentiment on the policy response. Our analysis demonstrated the potential for social networking sites to be used by public health agencies to enhance traditional communicable disease surveillance systems for the global surveillance of overseas public health threats. Social networking sites also can be used by governments for calibration of response policies and measures and for risk communication.

  2. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: School Nutrition Environment and Body Mass Index in Primary Schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, T.M.A.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Sjöberg, A.; Eldin, N.; Yngve, A.; Kunesova, M.; Stare, G.; Rito, A.I.; Duleva, V.; Hassapidou, M.; Martos, E.; Pudule, I.; Petrauskiene, A.; Farrugia Sant Angelo, V.; Hovengen, R.; Breda, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Schools are important settings for the promotion of a healthy diet and sufficient physical activity and thus overweight prevention. Objective: To assess differences in school nutrition environment and body mass index (BMI) in primary schools between and within 12 European countries.

  3. Assessment of Radionuclides in the Savannah River Site Environment Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, W.H.

    1999-01-26

    This document summarizes the impact of radionuclide releases from Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities from 1954 through 1996. The radionuclides reported here are those whose release resulted in the highest dose to people living near SRS.

  4. Annual Site Environment Report Summary Pamphlet, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-01-01

    Sandia collects environmental data to determine and report the impact of existing SNL/NM operations on the environment. Sandia’s environmental programs include air and water quality, environmental monitoring and surveillance, and activities associated with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Sandia’s objective is to maintain compliance with federal, state, and local requirements, and to affect the corporate culture so that environmental compliance practices continue to be an integral part of operations.

  5. Using spatio-temporal surveillance data to test the infectious environment of children before type 1 diabetes diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougnères, Pierre; Le Fur, Sophie; Valtat, Sophie; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Lathrop, Mark; Valleron, Alain-Jacques

    2017-01-01

    The "hygiene hypothesis" postulates that reduced exposure to infections favours the development of autoimmunity and childhood type 1 diabetes (T1D). But on the other side, viruses, notably enteroviruses, are suspected to trigger T1D. The assessment of the possible relationships between infections and T1D still defies the classical tools of epidemiology. We report the methods and results of a geographical approach that maps the addresses of patients to a communicable diseases surveillance database. We mapped the addresses of patients at birth, infancy and T1D diagnosis to the weekly estimates of the regional incidences of 5 frequent communicable diseases routinely collected since 1984 by the French Sentinel network. The pre-diagnostic infectious environment of 3548 patients with T1D diagnosed between 0.5 and 15 years was compared to those of 100 series of age-matched "virtual controls" drawn randomly on the map. Associations were classified as "suggestive" (summer diarrhea, SD, and varicella, V) when penvironment as defined by the Sentinel database. Two SNPs, rs116624278 and rs77232854, showed significant interaction with exposure to V between 1 and 3 years of life. The infectious associations found should be taken as possible markers of patients' environment, not as direct causative factors of T1D. They require replication in other populations. The increasing public availability of geographical environmental databases will expand the present approach to map thousands of environmental factors to the lifeline of patients affected by various diseases.

  6. Real-time surveillance system for marine environment based on HLIF LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babichenko, Sergey; Sobolev, Innokenti; Aleksejev, Valeri; Sõro, Oliver

    2017-10-01

    The operational monitoring of the risk areas of marine environment requires cost-effective solutions. One of the options is the use of sensor networks based on fixed installations and moving platforms (coastal boats, supply-, cargo-, and passenger vessels). Such network allows to gather environmental data in time and space with direct links to operational activities in the controlled area for further environmental risk assessment. Among many remote sensing techniques the LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) based on Light Induced Fluorescence (LIF) is the tool of direct assessment of water quality variations caused by chemical pollution, colored dissolved organic matter, and phytoplankton composition. The Hyperspectral LIF (HLIF) LiDAR acquires comprehensive LIF spectra and analyses them by spectral pattern recognition technique to detect and classify the substances in water remotely. Combined use of HLIF LiDARs with Real-Time Data Management System (RTDMS) provides the economically effective solution for the regular monitoring in the controlled area. OCEAN VISUALS in cooperation with LDI INNOVATION has developed Oil in Water Locator (OWL™) with RTDMS (OWL MAP™) based on HLIF LiDAR technique. This is a novel technical solution for monitoring of marine environment providing continuous unattended operations. OWL™ has been extensively tested on board of various vessels in the North Sea, Norwegian Sea, Barents Sea, Baltic Sea and Caribbean Sea. This paper describes the technology features, the results of its operational use in 2014-2017, and outlook for the technology development.

  7. Late Quaternary environments of the Waco Mammoth site, Texas USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordt, Lee; Bongino, John; Forman, Steven; Esker, Don; Benedict, Anita

    2015-11-01

    The Waco Mammoth Site (WMS) in central Texas contains the remains of the largest mammoth herd (Mammuthus columbi) in North America that died in a single catastrophic event. Most mammoths at the site died on a gravel bar of the ancient Bosque River adjacent to a collapsing tributary wall. However, the timing and cause of death of the 26 mammoths documented to date are controversial. The objectives of this research are to: describe and interpret the alluvial stratigraphy and infer the cause of death, employ optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating to determine the timing of death, and analyze stable C isotopes of pedogenic carbonate to infer local plant communities, dietary habits, and summer temperatures. Dating of quartz from seven sediment samples by OSL places the death event to a weighted mean of 66.8 ± 5.0 ka. The site is coeval with Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 4, consistent with our reconstructed mean July temperatures 4°C cooler than today based on a buried soil isotopic transfer function. Our buried soil isotopic interpretation of a dominance of C3 plants is contrary to previous studies of mammoth tooth enamel at the site suggesting a dietary preference for warm season grasses (C4).

  8. Site environmental programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, J.W.; Hanf, R.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the site environmental programs. Effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance programs monitor for impacts from operations in several areas. The first area consists of the point of possible release into the environment. The second area consists of possible contamination adjacent to DOE facilities, and the third area is the general environment both on and off the site.

  9. Educational Scenarios with Smartphones in Cultural Heritage Sites and Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styliaras, Georgios; Koukopoulos, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    The needs of everyday life for communication and interactivity anywhere and at anytime have led to the tremendous development of mobile devices and applications. Nowadays, we want to have access to enhanced services with high quality at indoor and outdoor environments. Smartphone is a clever new media that supports interactivity and communication…

  10. Is hospital information system relevant to detect surgical site infection? Findings from a prospective surveillance study in posterior instrumented spinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boetto, J; Chan-Seng, E; Lonjon, G; Pech, J; Lotthé, A; Lonjon, N

    2015-11-01

    Spinal instrumentation has a high rate of surgical site infection (SSI), but results greatly vary depending on surveillance methodology, surgical procedures, or quality of follow-up. Our aim was to study true incidence of SSI in spinal surgery by significant data collection, and to compare it with the results obtained through the hospital information system. This work is a single center prospective cohort study that included all patients consecutively operated on for spinal instrumentation by posterior approach over a six-month period regardless the etiology. For all patients, a "high definition" prospective method of surveillance was performed by the infection control (IC) department during at least 12 months after surgery. Results were then compared with findings from automatic surveillance though the hospital information system (HIS). One hundred and fifty-four patients were included. We found no hardly difference between "high definition" and automatic surveillance through the HIS, even if HIS tended to under-estimate the infection rate: rate of surgical site infection was 2.60% and gross SSI incidence rate via the hospital information system was 1.95%. Smoking and alcohol consumption were significantly related to a SSI. Our SSI rates to reflect the true incidence of infectious complications in posterior instrumented adult spinal surgery in our hospital and these results were consistent with the lower levels of published infection rate. In-house surveillance by surgeons only is insufficiently sensitive. Further studies with more patients and a longer inclusion time are needed to conclude if SSI case detection through the HIS could be a relevant and effective alternative method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Environmental surveillance of the Oak Ridge Reservation and surrounding environs during 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-04-01

    Routine monitoring and sampling for radiation, radioactive materials, and chemical substances on and off the Oak Ridge Reservation are used to document compliance with appropriate standards, identify undesirable trends, provide information for the public, and contribute to general environmental knowledge. Regional stations located at distances of up to 140 km (90 miles) from the ORR provide a basis for determining conditions beyond the range of potential influence of the three Oak Ridge installations. Stations within the Reservation, around the perimeters and within each plant site, and in residential and community areas document conditions in areas occupied and visited by the public and potentially affected by the Oak Ridge operations. In all, during 1985 some 115,000 analyses of environmental samples were completed as part of the Reservation-wide and regional monitoring program. Included were approxiately 61,000 air, 41,000 surface water, 8090 groundwater, 2400 wastewater, 80 fish, 231 soil, 132 grass, 36 pine needle, 360 sediment, and 80 external gamma analyses.

  12. Community and Social Network Sites as Technology Enhanced Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Christiansen, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the affordance of the Danish social networking site Mingler.dk for peer-to-peer learning and development. With inspiration from different theoretical frameworks, the authors argue how learning and development in such social online systems can be conceptualised and analysed....... Theoretically the paper defines development in accordance with Vygotsky's concept of the zone of proximal development, and learning in accordance with Wenger's concept of communities of practice. The authors suggest analysing the learning and development taking place on Mingler.dk by using these concepts...... supplemented by the notion of horizontal learning adopted from Engestrm and Wenger. Their analysis shows how horizontal learning happens by crossing boundaries between several sites of engagement, and how the actors' multiple membership enables the community members to draw on a vast amount of resources from...

  13. Incidence and Trends of Infections with Pathogens Transmitted Commonly Through Food and the Effect of Increasing Use of Culture-Independent Diagnostic Tests on Surveillance - Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 10 U.S. Sites, 2013-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Ellyn P; Cieslak, Paul R; Cronquist, Alicia B; Dunn, John; Lathrop, Sarah; Rabatsky-Ehr, Therese; Ryan, Patricia; Smith, Kirk; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; Vugia, Duc J; Zansky, Shelley; Holt, Kristin G; Wolpert, Beverly J; Lynch, Michael; Tauxe, Robert; Geissler, Aimee L

    2017-04-21

    Foodborne diseases represent a substantial public health concern in the United States. CDC's Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) monitors cases reported from 10 U.S. sites* of laboratory-diagnosed infections caused by nine enteric pathogens commonly transmitted through food. This report describes preliminary surveillance data for 2016 on the nine pathogens and changes in incidences compared with 2013-2015. In 2016, FoodNet identified 24,029 infections, 5,512 hospitalizations, and 98 deaths caused by these pathogens. The use of culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) by clinical laboratories to detect enteric pathogens has been steadily increasing since FoodNet began surveying clinical laboratories in 2010 (1). CIDTs complicate the interpretation of FoodNet surveillance data because pathogen detection could be affected by changes in health care provider behaviors or laboratory testing practices (2). Health care providers might be more likely to order CIDTs because these tests are quicker and easier to use than traditional culture methods, a circumstance that could increase pathogen detection (3). Similarly, pathogen detection could also be increasing as clinical laboratories adopt DNA-based syndromic panels, which include pathogens not often included in routine stool culture (4,5). In addition, CIDTs do not yield isolates, which public health officials rely on to distinguish pathogen subtypes, determine antimicrobial resistance, monitor trends, and detect outbreaks. To obtain isolates for infections identified by CIDTs, laboratories must perform reflex culture † ; if clinical laboratories do not, the burden of culturing falls to state public health laboratories, which might not be able to absorb that burden as the adoption of these tests increases (2). Strategies are needed to preserve access to bacterial isolates for further characterization and to determine the effect of changing trends in testing practices on surveillance.

  14. Master schedule for CY-1980 Hanford Environmental Surveillance Routine Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumer, P.J.; Houston, J.R.; Eddy, P.A.

    1979-12-01

    The current schedule of data collection for the routine environmental surveillance program at the Hanford Site is presented. The enviromental surveillance program objectives are to evaluate the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in Manual Chapter 0513, and to monitor Hanford operations for compliance with applicable environmental criteria given in Manual Chapter 0524 and Washington State Water Quality Standards. Data are reported on the following topics: air; Columbia River; sanitary water; surface water; ground water; foodstuffs; wildlife; soil and vegetation; external radiation measurement; portable instrument surveys; and surveillance of waste disposal sites;

  15. Environment: the dismantling of polluted sites; Environnement: le demantelement des sites pollues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blond, O

    2002-07-01

    This document presents many papers on the environmental impacts of land reclamation of polluted industrial and nuclear sites. The french situation is discussed in terms of cost, ability of the sector enterprises and robots, necessary aids. (A.L.B)

  16. Effects of neighboring sequence environment in predicting cleavage sites of signal peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yizhou; Wen, Zhining; Zhou, Cuisong; Tan, Fuyuan; Li, Menglong

    2008-09-01

    Signal peptide has a pivotal role in the translocation of secretory protein. Some models have been designed to predict its cleavage site. It is reported that the cleavage site has relationship with the neighboring sequence environment, i.e., hydrophobic core h-region, and the specific patterns in c-region. In some studies, this finding does facilitate the prediction of cleavage site. However, in these models, sequence environment information is merely taken account of as model inputs and no detailed investigation into its effect on the prediction of cleavage site has been made. In this work, we analyze the constraint on cleave site placed by the hydrophobic core of signal peptide and then use it to improve the performance of the signal peptide cleavage site prediction. Our model is designed as follows: firstly, a sliding window is used to scan sample and artificial neural network (ANN) is employed to give cleavage site/non-cleavage site scores. Then, based on an estimated hydrophobic h-region a correcting function is proposed to improve the prediction result, in which the sequence environment is taken into account. A trend of cleavage site is indicated by our analysis for each position, which is consistent with experimental findings. Through this correcting step, the improvement of prediction accuracy is over 7%. It therefore demonstrates the neighboring sequence environment is helpful for determination of cleavage site. Program written in Matlab can be downloaded from http://www.scucic.cn/combined model/source code.html.

  17. Uterine prolapse and its impact on quality of life in the Jhaukhel–Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site, Bhaktapur, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binjwala Shrestha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Uterine prolapse (UP is a reproductive health problem and public health issue in low-income countries including Nepal. Objective: We aimed to identify the contributing factors and stages of UP and its impact on quality of life in the Jhaukhel–Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site of Bhaktapur, Nepal. Design: Our three-phase study used descriptive cross-sectional analysis to assess quality of life and stages of UP and case–control analysis to identify contributing factors. First, a household survey explored the prevalence of self-reported UP (Phase 1. Second, we used a standardized tool in a 5-day screening camp to determine quality of life among UP-affected women (Phase 2. Finally, a 1-month community survey traced self-reported cases from Phase 1 (Phase 3. To validate UP diagnoses, we reviewed participants’ clinical records, and we used screening camp records to trace women without UP. Results: Among 48 affected women in Phase 1, 32 had Stage II UP and 16 had either Stage I or Stage III UP. Compared with Stage I women (4.62%, almost all women with Stage III UP reported reduced quality of life. Decreased quality of life correlated significantly with Stages I–III. Self-reported UP prevalence (8.7% included all treated and non-treated cases. In Phase 3, 277 of 402 respondents reported being affected by UP and 125 were unaffected. The odds of having UP were threefold higher among illiterate women compared with literate women (OR=3.02, 95% CI 1.76–5.17, 50% lower among women from nuclear families compared with extended families (OR=0.56, 95% CI 0.35–0.90 and lower among women with 1–2 parity compared to >5 parity (OR=0.33, 95% CI 0.14–0.75. Conclusions: The stages of UP correlated with quality of life resulting from varied perceptions regarding physical health, emotional stress, and social limitation. Parity, education, age, and family type associated with UP. Our results suggest the importance of developing

  18. Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site, Nepal: 2012 follow-up survey and use of skilled birth attendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choulagai, Bishnu P; Aryal, Umesh Raj; Shrestha, Binjwala; Vaidya, Abhinav; Onta, Sharad; Petzold, Max; Krettek, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of disease burden in Nepal are based on cross-sectional studies that provide inadequate epidemiological information to support public health decisions. This study compares the health and demographic indicators at the end of 2012 in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS) with the baseline conducted at the end of 2010. We also report on the use of skilled birth attendants (SBAs) and associated factors in the JD-HDSS at the follow-up point. We used a structured questionnaire to survey 3,505 households in the JD-HDSS, Bhaktapur, Nepal. To investigate the use of SBAs, we interviewed 434 women who had delivered a baby within the prior 2 years. We compared demographic and health indicators at baseline and follow-up and assessed the association of SBA services with background variables. Due to rising in-migration, the total population and number of households in the JD-HDSS increased (13,669 and 2,712 in 2010 vs. 16,918 and 3,505 in 2012). Self-reported morbidity decreased (11.1% vs. 7.1%, respectively), whereas accidents and injuries increased (2.9% vs. 6.5% of overall morbidity, respectively). At follow-up, the proportion of institutional delivery (93.1%) exceeded the national average (36%). Women who accessed antenatal care and used transport (e.g. bus, taxi, motorcycle) to reach a health facility were more likely to access institutional delivery. High in-migration increased the total population and number of households in the JD-HDSS, a peri-urban area where most health indicators exceed the national average. Major morbidity conditions (respiratory diseases, fever, gastrointestinal problems, and bone and joint problems) remain unchanged. Further investigation of reasons for increased proportion of accidents and injuries are recommended for their timely prevention. More than 90% of our respondents received adequate antenatal care and used institutional delivery, but only 13.2% accessed adequate postnatal care. Availability of

  19. Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site, Nepal: 2012 follow-up survey and use of skilled birth attendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishnu P. Choulagai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Estimates of disease burden in Nepal are based on cross-sectional studies that provide inadequate epidemiological information to support public health decisions. This study compares the health and demographic indicators at the end of 2012 in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS with the baseline conducted at the end of 2010. We also report on the use of skilled birth attendants (SBAs and associated factors in the JD-HDSS at the follow-up point. Design: We used a structured questionnaire to survey 3,505 households in the JD-HDSS, Bhaktapur, Nepal. To investigate the use of SBAs, we interviewed 434 women who had delivered a baby within the prior 2 years. We compared demographic and health indicators at baseline and follow-up and assessed the association of SBA services with background variables. Results: Due to rising in-migration, the total population and number of households in the JD-HDSS increased (13,669 and 2,712 in 2010 vs. 16,918 and 3,505 in 2012. Self-reported morbidity decreased (11.1% vs. 7.1%, respectively, whereas accidents and injuries increased (2.9% vs. 6.5% of overall morbidity, respectively. At follow-up, the proportion of institutional delivery (93.1% exceeded the national average (36%. Women who accessed antenatal care and used transport (e.g. bus, taxi, motorcycle to reach a health facility were more likely to access institutional delivery. Conclusions: High in-migration increased the total population and number of households in the JD-HDSS, a peri-urban area where most health indicators exceed the national average. Major morbidity conditions (respiratory diseases, fever, gastrointestinal problems, and bone and joint problems remain unchanged. Further investigation of reasons for increased proportion of accidents and injuries are recommended for their timely prevention. More than 90% of our respondents received adequate antenatal care and used institutional delivery, but only 13

  20. Mining Surveillance and Maintenance Dollars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MARTINEZ, R.

    2000-02-01

    Accelerating site cleanup to reduce facility risks to the workers, the public and the environment during a time of declining federal budgets represents a significant technical and economic challenge to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Operations Offices and their respective contractors. A significant portion of a facility's recurring annual expenses are associated with routine, long-term surveillance and maintenance (S&M) activities. However, ongoing S&M activities do nothing to reduce risks and basically spend money that could be reallocated towards facility deactivation. This paper discusses the background around DOE efforts to reduce surveillance and maintenance costs, one approach used to perform cost reviews, lessons learned from field implementation and what assistance is available to assist DOE sites in performing these evaluations.

  1. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)(a) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1997 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. In addition, Section 3.0, Biota, also reflects a rotating collection schedule identifying the year a specific sample is scheduled for collection. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The sampling methods will be the same as those described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan, US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, DOE/RL91-50, Rev. 1, US Department of Energy, Richland, Washington.

  2. Assessment of mercury in the Savannah River Site environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvartek, E.J.; Carlton, W.H.; Denham, M.; Eldridge, L.; Newman, M.C.

    1994-09-01

    Mercury has been valued by humans for several millennia. Its principal ore, cinnabar, was mined for its distinctive reddish-gold color and high density. Mercury and its salts were used as medicines and aphrodisiacs. At SRS, mercury originated from one of the following: as a processing aid in aluminum dissolution and chloride precipitation; as part of the tritium facilities` gas handling system; from experimental, laboratory, or process support facilities; and as a waste from site operations. Mercury is also found in Par Pond and some SRS streams as the result of discharges from a mercury-cell-type chlor-alkali plant near the city of Augusta, GA. Reactor cooling water, drawn from the Savannah River, transported mercury onto the SRS. Approximately 80,000 kg of mercury is contained in the high level waste tanks and 10,000 kg is located in the SWDF. Additional quantities are located in the various seepage basins. In 1992, 617 wells were monitored for mercury contamination, with 47 indicating contamination in excess of the 0.002-ppm EPA Primary Drinking Water Standard. More than 20 Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) reports and publications pertinent to mercury (Hg) have been generated during the last two decades. They are divided into three groupings: SRS-specific studies, basic studies of bioaccumulation, and basic studies of effect. Many studies have taken place at Par Pond and Upper Three Runs Creek. Mercury has been detected in wells monitoring the groundwater beneath SRS, but not in water supply wells in excess of the Primary Drinking Water Limit of 0.002 ppm. There has been no significant release of mercury from SRS to the Savannah River. While releases to air are likely, based on process knowledge, modeling of the releases indicates concentrations that are well below the SCDHEC ambient standard.

  3. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  4. On-site radiated emissions measurements in Semi-reverberant environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt-Ardatjew, R.A.; Lundgren, Urban; Fernandez-Romero, Sergio; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Radiated emission tests are generally performed in either free space, reflection-free environments, such as an open area test site or semi- or full-anechoic chambers, or in reverberation chambers. This paper describes measurements in semireflecting environments such as an office, a workshop of a

  5. Infection with Pathogens Transmitted Commonly Through Food and the Effect of Increasing Use of Culture-Independent Diagnostic Tests on Surveillance--Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 10 U.S. Sites, 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jennifer Y; Henao, Olga L; Griffin, Patricia M; Vugia, Duc J; Cronquist, Alicia B; Hurd, Sharon; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; Ryan, Patricia; Smith, Kirk; Lathrop, Sarah; Zansky, Shelley; Cieslak, Paul R; Dunn, John; Holt, Kristin G; Wolpert, Beverly J; Patrick, Mary E

    2016-04-15

    To evaluate progress toward prevention of enteric and foodborne illnesses in the United States, the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) monitors the incidence of laboratory-confirmed infections caused by nine pathogens transmitted commonly through food in 10 U.S. sites. This report summarizes preliminary 2015 data and describes trends since 2012. In 2015, FoodNet reported 20,107 confirmed cases (defined as culture-confirmed bacterial infections and laboratory-confirmed parasitic infections), 4,531 hospitalizations, and 77 deaths. FoodNet also received reports of 3,112 positive culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) without culture-confirmation, a number that has markedly increased since 2012. Diagnostic testing practices for enteric pathogens are rapidly moving away from culture-based methods. The continued shift from culture-based methods to CIDTs that do not produce the isolates needed to distinguish between strains and subtypes affects the interpretation of public health surveillance data and ability to monitor progress toward prevention efforts. Expanded case definitions and strategies for obtaining bacterial isolates are crucial during this transition period.

  6. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom self-report in adults in Kenya and its associated risk factors, an analysis from a household survey in a demographic surveillance site

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, R; Othieno, C.; Ongeri, L.; Ogutu, B; Sifuna, P; Mboroki, J.; Omollo, R

    2015-01-01

    Background. There have been no household surveys of adult attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Kenya, and only one in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods. Data on ADHD was used from a household survey of mental disorders and their associated risk factors conducted in Maseno area (population 70?805), near Lake Victoria in Kenya, using a demographic surveillance site as the sample frame, as part of a wider survey of mental health, malaria and immunity A total of 1190 households were s...

  7. Evaluation of a methodology for a collaborative multiple source surveillance network for autism spectrum disorders--Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 14 sites, United States, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Pettygrove, Sydney; Daniels, Julie; Miller, Lisa; Nicholas, Joyce; Baio, Jon; Schieve, Laura; Kirby, Russell S; Washington, Anita; Brocksen, Sally; Rahbar, Hossein; Rice, Catherine

    2007-02-09

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) encompass a spectrum of conditions, including autistic disorder; pervasive developmental disorders, not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS); and Asperger disorder. Impairments associated with ASDs can range from mild to severe. In 2000, in response to increasing public heath concern regarding ASDs, CDC established the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network. The primary objective of this ongoing surveillance system is to track the prevalence and characteristics of ASDs in the United States. ADDM data are useful to understand the prevalence of ASDs and have implications for improved identification, health and education service planning, and intervention for children with ASDs. Because complete, valid, timely, and representative prevalence estimates are essential to inform public health responses to ASDs, evaluating the effectiveness and efficiency of the ADDM methodology is needed to determine how well these methods meet the network's objective. 2002. The ADDM Network is a multiple-source, population-based, active system for monitoring ASDs and other developmental disabilities. In 2002, data were collected from 14 collaborative sites. This report describes an evaluation conducted using guidelines established by CDC for evaluating public health surveillance systems and is based on examination of the following characteristics of the ADDM Network surveillance system: simplicity, flexibility, data quality, acceptability, representativeness, sensitivity, predictive value positive (PVP), timeliness, stability, data confidentiality and security, and sources of variability. Using multiple sources for case ascertainment strengthens the system's representativeness, sensitivity, and flexibility, and the clinician review process aims to bolster PVP. Sensitivity and PVP are difficult to measure, but the ADDM methodology provides the best possible estimate currently available of prevalence of ASDs without conducting complete

  8. Does surgical site infection after Caesarean section in Polish hospitals reflect high-quality patient care or poor postdischarge surveillance? Results from a 3-year multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Różańska, Anna; Jarynowski, Andrzej; Kopeć-Godlewska, Katarzyna; Wójkowska-Mach, Jadwiga; Misiewska-Kaczur, Agnieszka; Lech, Marzena; Rozwadowska, Małgorzata; Karwacka, Marlena; Liberda, Joanna; Domańska, Joanna

    2018-01-01

    Caesarean sections (CSs) are associated with a high infection risk. Surgical site infection (SSI) incidence is among the markers of effectiveness of infection prevention efforts. The aim of this study was to analyze risk factors for SSI, incidence, and microbiology in patients who underwent CS. The study was conducted during 2013-2015 using active infection surveillance in 5 Polish hospitals according to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control surveillance network known as HAI-Net. For each procedure, the following data were registered: age, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, procedure time, elective or emergency procedure, use of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis, microbiology, the treatment used, and other information. SSI incidence was 0.5% and significant differences were noted among hospitals (between 0.1% and 1.8%), for different American Society of Anesthesiologists scales (between 0.2% and 4.8%) and different values of standardized SSI risk index (between 0.0% and 0.8%). In 3.1% of procedures, with no antibiotic prophylaxis, SSI risk was significantly higher. Deep infections dominated: 61.5% with superficial infections in only approximately 30% of cases and 2.6% of infections were detected postdischarge without readmissions. Results showed high incidence of SSI in Poland without perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis, and secondly, ineffective surveillance according to CS status, considering outpatient obstetric care. Without postdischarge surveillance, it is not possible to recognize the epidemiologic situation, and further, to set priorities and needs when it comes to infection prophylaxis, especially because such low incidence may indicate no need for improvement in infection control. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Immediate supervision of the coastal site at the La Hague centre; Surveillance immediate du site marin du Centre de La Hague

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheidhauer, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, La Hague (France)

    1968-07-01

    The disposal into the sea of the residual waters from a plant processing irradiated fuels means that a very close watch has to be kept on the corresponding coastal zone. The material organisation of such a supervision, and the sampling techniques, are described. These latter concern: flora, fauna, sediments and sea-water. Results obtained using various analytical and routine measurement methods are presented. (author) [French] L'elimination des eaux residuaires, d'un Centre de traitement de combustibles irradies, en mer, a pour consequence une surveillance particuliere de la zone cotiere correspondant a ces rejets. L'organisation materielle de cette surveillance et les techniques de prelevements sont decrites. Elles interessent la flore, la faune, les sediments et les eaux marines. Diverses methodes d'analyses et de mesures de routine ont fourni des resultats qui sont egalement exposes. (auteur)

  10. Internet and Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in the age of the internet; civil watch-surveillance on social networking sites; and networked interactive surveillance in transnational space. This book is a result of a research action launched by the intergovernmental network COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology)....... institutions have a growing interest in accessing this personal data. Here, contributors explore this changing landscape by addressing topics such as commercial data collection by advertising, consumer sites and interactive media; self-disclosure in the social web; surveillance of file-sharers; privacy...

  11. Master schedule for CY-1981 Hanford environmental surveillance routine program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumer, P.J.; Sula, M.J.; Eddy, P.A.

    1980-12-01

    The current schedule of data collection for the routine environmental surveillance program at the Hanford Site is provided. Questions about specific entries should be referred to the authors since modifications to the schedule are made during the year and special areas of study, usually of short duration, are not scheduled. The environmental surveillance program objectives are to evaluate the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in Manual Chapter 0513, and to monitor Hanford operations for compliance with applicable environmental criteria given in Manual Chapter 0524 and Washington State Water Quality Standards. Air quality data obtained in a separate program are also reported. The collection schedule for potable water is shown but it is not part of the routine environmental surveillance program. Schedules are presented for the following subjects: air, Columbia River, sanitary water, surface water, ground water, foodstuffs, wildlife, soil and vegetation, external radiation measurement, portable instrument surveys, and surveillance of waste disposal sites. (JGB)

  12. Non-compliance with recommendations for the practice of antibiotic prophylaxis and risk of surgical site infection: results of a multilevel analysis from the INCISO Surveillance Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miliani, Katiuska; L'Hériteau, François; Astagneau, Pascal

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine which surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) practices alter surgical site infection (SSI) risk. Data were collected during a 7 year surveillance period (2001-07) from volunteer surgery wards participating in the INCISO Surveillance Network in Northern France. Main SAP practices, i.e. antibiotic choice, timing of first dose and total SAP duration, were evaluated and compliance checked based on French recommendations. The study focused on selected procedures in digestive, orthopaedic, gynaecological and cardiovascular surgery, for which standard SAP is recommended. Multilevel logistic regression analysis (a two-level random effect model) was carried out to identify SAP-, patient- and procedure-specific factors associated with SSI. Of 8029 patients who underwent the selected surgeries, 91.3% received SAP and 2.5% developed SSI. Among those receiving SAP, 83.3% received appropriate antibiotic agents and 76.6% had an optimal timing of administration. SAP duration was considered to be appropriate in 35.0%, too long (SAP unnecessarily prolonged) in 45.2% and too short (lack of intra-operative redosing when recommended) in 19.8%. In the multivariate analysis, a too-short SAP duration remained the only inappropriate practice associated with higher SSI risk (odds ratio = 1.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.14-2.81), after adjustment for surgery procedure group, the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System risk index, age and infection risk variability among hospitals. No significant relationships were observed between SSI and the other SAP parameters. A too-short SAP duration was the most important SAP malpractice associated with an increased risk of SSI. Information directed at practitioners should be reinforced based on standard recommendations.

  13. Reliability and validity of using telephone calls for post-discharge surveillance of surgical site infection following caesarean section at a tertiary hospital in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boniface Nguhuni

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgical site infection (SSI is a common post-operative complication causing significant morbidity and mortality. Many SSI occur after discharge from hospital. Post-discharge SSI surveillance in low and middle income countries needs to be improved. Methodology We conducted an observational cohort study in Dodoma, Tanzania to examine the sensitivity and specificity of telephone calls to detect SSI after discharge from hospital in comparison to a gold standard of clinician review. Women undergoing caesarean section were enrolled and followed up for 30 days. Women providing a telephone number were interviewed using a structured questionnaire at approximately days 5, 12 and 28 post-surgery. Women were then invited for out-patient review by a clinician blinded to the findings of telephone interview. Results A total of 374 women were enrolled and an overall SSI rate of 12% (n = 45 was observed. Three hundred and sixteen (84% women provided a telephone number, of which 202 had at least one telephone interview followed by a clinical review within 48 h, generating a total of 484 paired observations. From the clinical reviews, 25 SSI were diagnosed, of which telephone interview had correctly identified 18 infections; telephone calls did not incorrectly identify SSI in any patients. The overall sensitivity and specificity of telephone interviews as compared to clinician evaluation was 72 and 100%, respectively. Conclusion The use of telephone interview as a diagnostic tool for post-discharge surveillance of SSI had moderate sensitivity and high specificity in Tanzania. Telephone-based detection may be a useful method for SSI surveillance in low-income settings with high penetration of mobile telephones.

  14. Surveillance Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    What does it mean to live in a world full of surveillance? In this documentary film, we take a look at everyday life in Denmark and how surveillance technologies and practices influence our norms and social behaviour....

  15. Military surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Dean

    2012-01-01

    Military surveillance offers a crucial entry point into the study of surveillance. Historically, the importance of military organizations in state formation meant that many techniques of surveillance that would later migrate into the civilian sphere would bear the imprint of military origins. Moreover, military campaigns were instrumental in developing forms of discipline, communication and surveillance that were to have far-reaching implications for whole societies. Thus, both technologicall...

  16. Serotype-Specific Changes in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease after Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Introduction: A Pooled Analysis of Multiple Surveillance Sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feikin, Daniel R.; Kagucia, Eunice W.; Loo, Jennifer D.; Link-Gelles, Ruth; Puhan, Milo A.; Cherian, Thomas; Levine, Orin S.; Whitney, Cynthia G.; O'Brien, Katherine L.; Moore, Matthew R.; Adegbola, Claire A.; Agocs, Mary; Ampofo, Krow; Andrews, Nick; Barton, Theresa; Benito, Javier; Broome, Claire V.; Bruce, Michael G.; Bulkow, Lisa R.; Byington, Carrie L.; Camou, Teresa; Cook, Heather; Cotter, Suzanne; Dagan, Ron; de Wals, Philippe; Deceuninck, Geneviève; Denham, Barbara; Edwards, Giles; Eskola, Juhani; Fitzgerald, Margaret; Galanakis, Emmanouil; Garcia-Gabarrot, Gabriela; Garcia-Garcia, Juan J.; Gene, Amadeu; Gomez, Borja; Heffernan, Helen; Hennessy, Thomas W.; Heuberger, Sigrid; Hilty, Markus; Ingels, Helene; Jayasinghe, Sanjay; Kellner, James D.; Klein, Nicola P.; Kormann-Klement, Andrea; Kozakova, Jana; Krause, Vicki; Kriz, Paula; Lambertsen, Lotte; Lepoutre, Agnès; Lipsitch, Marc; Lopez-Vega, Mariana; Lovgren, Marguerite; Maraki, Sofia; Mason, Edward O.; McIntyre, Peter B.; Menzies, Robert; Messina, Allison; Miller, Elizabeth; Mintegi, Santiago; Motlova, Jitka; Moulton, Lawrence H.; Mühlemann, Kathrin; Muñoz-Almagro, Carmen; Murdoch, David R.; Park, Daniel E.; Reingold, Arthur L.; Sa-Leao, Raquel; Sanyal, Abanti; Smith, Peter G.; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; Techasaensiri, Chonnamet; Thompson, Richard E.; Thoon, Koh C.; Tyrrell, Gregory J.; Valentiner-Branth, Palle; van der Ende, Arie; Vanderkooi, Otto G.; van der Linden, Mark P. G.; Varon, Emmanuelle; Verhaegen, Jan; Vestrheim, Didrik F.; Vickers, Imelda; von Gottberg, Anne; von Kries, Rüdiger; Waight, Pauline; Weatherholtz, Robert; Weiss, Susanne; Yee, Arnold; Zaidi, Anita K. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Vaccine-serotype (VT) invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) rates declined substantially following introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) into national immunization programs. Increases in non-vaccineserotype (NVT) IPD rates occurred in some sites, presumably

  17. Incidence and trends of infection with pathogens transmitted commonly through food--Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 10 U.S. sites, 2006-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crim, Stacy M; Iwamoto, Martha; Huang, Jennifer Y; Griffin, Patricia M; Gilliss, Debra; Cronquist, Alicia B; Cartter, Matthew; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; Blythe, David; Smith, Kirk; Lathrop, Sarah; Zansky, Shelley; Cieslak, Paul R; Dunn, John; Holt, Kristin G; Lance, Susan; Tauxe, Robert; Henao, Olga L

    2014-04-18

    Foodborne disease continues to be an important problem in the United States. Most illnesses are preventable. To evaluate progress toward prevention, the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) monitors the incidence of laboratory-confirmed infections caused by nine pathogens transmitted commonly through food in 10 U.S. sites, covering approximately 15% of the U.S. population. This report summarizes preliminary 2013 data and describes trends since 2006. In 2013, a total of 19,056 infections, 4,200 hospitalizations, and 80 deaths were reported. For most infections, incidence was well above national Healthy People 2020 incidence targets and highest among children aged Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA). FoodNet provides federal and state public health and regulatory agencies as well as the food industry with important information needed to determine if regulations, guidelines, and safety practices applied across the farm-to-table continuum are working.

  18. Progress towards Millennium Development Goal 1 in northern rural Nicaragua: findings from a health and demographic surveillance site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Wilton; Blandón, Elmer Zelaya; Persson, Lars-Åke; Peña, Rodolfo; Källestål, Carina

    2012-08-15

    Millennium Development Goal 1 encourages local initiatives for the eradication of extreme poverty. However, monitoring is indispensable to insure that actions performed at higher policy levels attain success. Poverty in rural areas in low- and middle-income countries remains chronic. Nevertheless, a rural area (Cuatro Santos) in northern Nicaragua has made substantial progress toward poverty eradication by 2015. We examined the level of poverty there and described interventions aimed at reducing it. Household data collected from a Health and Demographic Surveillance System was used to analyze poverty and the transition out of it, as well as background information on family members. In the follow-up, information about specific interventions (i.e., installation of piped drinking water, latrines, access to microcredit, home gardening, and technical education) linked them to the demographic data. A propensity score was used to measure the association between the interventions and the resulting transition from poverty. Between 2004 and 2009, poverty was reduced as a number of interventions increased. Although microcredit was inequitably distributed across the population, combined with home gardening and technical training, it resulted in significant poverty reduction in this rural area. Sustainable interventions reduced poverty in the rural areas studied by about one-third.

  19. Oskarshamn site investigation. Programme for further investigations of bedrock, soil, water and environment in Laxemar subarea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-03-15

    SKB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co), has been conducting a site investigation at Simpevarp and Laxemar in Oskarshamn for siting of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. An equivalent investigation is being conducted in Forsmark in Ohmmeter's. The initial part of the site investigations had been completed for the both of the subareas Simpevarp and Laxemar in the autumn of 2004. Based on the results of these investigations, SKB preliminarily prioritized the Laxemar subarea for further investigations. A programme was presented for the first stage of the complete site investigation in the Laxemar subarea, along with the main features of the remainder of the site investigation. The programme included investigations up until the summer of 2005 and was particularly aimed at obtaining answers to several vital questions so that the subsequent investigations could be focused on the rock areas judged to be most suitable for a final repository. These investigations have now been completed. This report presents the programme for the remainder of the site investigation. The points of departure are the general goals for the Deep Repository Project during the site investigation phase, analyses and evaluations of data from completed investigations, and the needs for additional data to be able to evaluate the site as a siting alternative for the final repository. The account mainly covers the investigations on the site. All other work - analyses, site descriptive modelling, facility design, safety assessments and studies and assessments of consequences for the environment, human health and society - are only mentioned to the extent necessary in order to place the investigations in their context. The direction of the site investigation in Oskarshamn and the investigation programme presented in this report is based on SKB's preliminary decision to prioritize the Laxemar subarea for further investigations. A final decision on the direction of the site

  20. Multiple antibiotic resistance indexing of coliforms to identify high risk contamination sites in aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitanand, M P; Kadam, T A; Gyananath, G; Totewad, N D; Balhal, D K

    2010-06-01

    Bacteriological analysis of the water samples collected from upstream, midstream and downstream points along the bank of the river revealed high populations of Escherichia coli, Citrobacter freundii, Citrobacter diversus, Enterobacter aerogens and Klebsiella species. All these isolates were screened against eight antibiotics to determine the prevalence of multiple antibiotic resistance among isolates at different sites of the river. The study revealed that multiple antibiotic resistance was prominently seen in coliforms at downstream sites (Average multiple antibiotic resistance index, MAR Index = 0.43) while it was low in coliforms at upstream sites (MAR Index = 0.15). These differences in MAR indices provide a method for distinguishing high risk contamination sites in aquatic environment.

  1. Global Research Initiative in Alpine Environments: A New GLORIA Site in Southwestern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, M. E.; Pullman, T. Y.; Mitman, G. G.

    2007-12-01

    Global climate change is expected to have pronounced effects on the alpine environments and thus the alpine plants of western North America. Predicted responses include an upward migration of treelines, altered species compositions, changes in the percentage of land covered by vegetation, and a change in the phenology of alpine plants. To determine the effects of climate change on the alpine flora of southwestern Montana, we are installing a GLORIA (Global Research Initiative in Alpine Environments) site in order to monitor temperature, species composition, and percent cover of vascular plants, lichens, and mosses along an ascending altitudinal gradient. We are including lichens and mosses because of their importance as ecological indicator species. The abundance and spatial distribution of lichens and mosses provides essential baseline data for long-term monitoring of local and global impacts on the environment. Mt. Fleecer (9250 ft.), which is west of the continental divide and semi-isolated from other peaks in the Anaconda-Pintlar Range, is currently the most likely location for the southwestern Montana GLORIA site. Mt. Fleecer is accessible because it does not have the steep and hazardous glaciated talus cirques that characterize many of the neighboring, higher peaks. However, if an accessible and suitable higher summit is found, then it will be included as the highest summit in the GLORIA site. Interesting species at Mt. Fleecer include the whitebark pine, Pinus albicaulis, which is a keystone species in high mountain ecosystems of the western United States and Canada, the green gentian, Frasera speciosa, and the shooting star, Dodecatheon pulchellum. Data from this site will become part of a global network of GLORIA sites with which we will assess changes in alpine flora. Information gained from this GLORIA site can also be used as a link between studies of alpine climate change and related investigations on the timing of snowmelt and its influence on

  2. Natural Environment Corrosion Testing at the Kennedy Space Center Beachside Atmospheric Corrosion Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.

    2017-01-01

    This presentation will provide an overview of how NASA has been conducting corrosion testing in the Natural Marine Environment at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, U.S. The following questions will be addressed: What factors should be considered when selecting and constructing a test site? What are the attributes of a good test site? Is more severe always better? What environmental parameters should be monitored? How frequently? What factors should be considered when designing test specimens? Are current test standards sufficient? How do diurnal, annual and other fluctuations in corrosivity influence tests? How are test results interpreted? Can they be quantified?

  3. HIV/AIDS-related mortality in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH health and demographic surveillance system sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streatfield, P Kim; Khan, Wasif A; Bhuiya, Abbas; Hanifi, Syed M A; Alam, Nurul; Millogo, Ourohiré; Sié, Ali; Zabré, Pascal; Rossier, Clementine; Soura, Abdramane B; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Kone, Siaka; Ngoran, Eliezer K; Utzinger, Juerg; Abera, Semaw F; Melaku, Yohannes A; Weldearegawi, Berhe; Gomez, Pierre; Jasseh, Momodou; Ansah, Patrick; Azongo, Daniel; Kondayire, Felix; Oduro, Abraham; Amu, Alberta; Gyapong, Margaret; Kwarteng, Odette; Kant, Shashi; Pandav, Chandrakant S; Rai, Sanjay K; Juvekar, Sanjay; Muralidharan, Veena; Wahab, Abdul; Wilopo, Siswanto; Bauni, Evasius; Mochamah, George; Ndila, Carolyne; Williams, Thomas N; Khagayi, Sammy; Laserson, Kayla F; Nyaguara, Amek; Van Eijk, Anna M; Ezeh, Alex; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Wamukoya, Marylene; Chihana, Menard; Crampin, Amelia; Price, Alison; Delaunay, Valérie; Diallo, Aldiouma; Douillot, Laetitia; Sokhna, Cheikh; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Mee, Paul; Tollman, Stephen M; Herbst, Kobus; Mossong, Joël; Chuc, Nguyen T K; Arthur, Samuelina S; Sankoh, Osman A; Byass, Peter

    2014-01-01

    As the HIV/AIDS pandemic has evolved over recent decades, Africa has been the most affected region, even though a large proportion of HIV/AIDS deaths have not been documented at the individual level. Systematic application of verbal autopsy (VA) methods in defined populations provides an opportunity to assess the mortality burden of the pandemic from individual data. To present standardised comparisons of HIV/AIDS-related mortality at sites across Africa and Asia, including closely related causes of death such as pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and pneumonia. Deaths related to HIV/AIDS were extracted from individual demographic and VA data from 22 INDEPTH sites across Africa and Asia. VA data were standardised to WHO 2012 standard causes of death assigned using the InterVA-4 model. Between-site comparisons of mortality rates were standardised using the INDEPTH 2013 standard population. The dataset covered a total of 10,773 deaths attributed to HIV/AIDS, observed over 12,204,043 person-years. HIV/AIDS-related mortality fractions and mortality rates varied widely across Africa and Asia, with highest burdens in eastern and southern Africa, and lowest burdens in Asia. There was evidence of rapidly declining rates at the sites with the heaviest burdens. HIV/AIDS mortality was also strongly related to PTB mortality. On a country basis, there were strong similarities between HIV/AIDS mortality rates at INDEPTH sites and those derived from modelled estimates. Measuring HIV/AIDS-related mortality continues to be a challenging issue, all the more so as anti-retroviral treatment programmes alleviate mortality risks. The congruence between these results and other estimates adds plausibility to both approaches. These data, covering some of the highest mortality observed during the pandemic, will be an important baseline for understanding the future decline of HIV/AIDS.

  4. A New GLORIA (Global Research Initiative in Alpine Environments Site in Southwestern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, M. E.; Warden, J. E.; Apple, C. J.; Pullman, T. Y.; Gallagher, J. H.

    2008-12-01

    Global climate change is predicted to have a major impact on the alpine environments and plants of western North America. Alpine plant species and treelines may migrate upwards due to warmer temperatures. Species composition, vegetation cover, and the phenology of photosynthesis, flowering, pollination, and seed dispersal may change. The Global Research Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA) is a network of alpine sites established with the goal of understanding the interactions between climate change and alpine plants. The Continental Divide traverses Southwestern Montana, where the flora contains representative species from both sides of the divide. In the summer of 2008, we established a GLORIA site in southwestern Montana east of the Continental Divide with the objective of determining whether the temperature changes at the site, and if so, how temperature changes influence alpine plants. We are monitoring soil temperature along with species composition and percent cover of alpine plants at four sub-summits along an ascending altitudinal gradient. We placed the treeline, lower alpine, and upper alpine sites on Mt. Fleecer (45°49'36.06"N, 112°48'08.18"W, 2886.2 m (9469 ft)) and the highest sub-summit on Keokirk Mountain, (45°35'37.94"N, 112°57'03.89"W, 2987.3 m (9801 ft)) in the Pioneer Range. Interesting species on these mountains include Lewisia pygmaea, the Pygmy Bitterroot, Silene acaulis, the Moss Campion, Eritrichium nanum, the Alpine Forget-Me-Not, Lloydia serotina, the Alpine Lily, and Pinus albicaulis, the Whitebark Pine. This new site will remain in place indefinitely. Baseline and subsequent data from this site will be linked with the global network of GLORIA sites with which we will assess changes in alpine flora.

  5. Master schedule for CY-1982 Hanford environmental surveillance routine program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumer, P.J.; Sula, M.J.; Eddy, P.A.

    1981-12-01

    This report provides the current schedule of data collection for the routine environmental surveillance program at the Hanford Site. The environmental surveillance program objectives are to evaluate and report the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5484.1. The routine sampling schedule provided does not include samples which are planned to be collected during FY-1982 in support of special studies or for quality control purposes. In addition, the routine program outlined in this schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operations, program requirements, or unusual sample results. Sampling schedules are presented for the following: air; Columbia River; sanitary water; surface water; ground water; foodstuffs; wildlife; soil and vegetation; external radiation measurements; portable instrument surveys; and surveillance of waste disposal sites. (ATT)

  6. US Department of Energy Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. The assessment, which was conducted from July 20 through August 4, 1992, included a selective review of the ES&H management systems and progress of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices; the DOE Nevada Field Office (NV); and the site contractors. The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy`s continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. This report presents a summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management.

  7. A Survey of Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) Management and Safety Climate in Construction Sites

    OpenAIRE

    A. Mobaraki; R. Mirzaei; H. Ansari

    2017-01-01

    The principles of health, safety and environment (HSE) in different development activities, including construction, are constantly gaining in significance. This study aims to evaluate the condition of HSE management and safety climate in construction sites. In this descriptive-analytic study, 111 male employees are randomly selected. To determine HSE condition and management and safety climate condition, the NOSACQ questionnaire was used. The collected data are analyzed using SPSS. Based on d...

  8. Causes of death in two rural demographic surveillance sites in Bangladesh, 2004–2010: automated coding of verbal autopsies using InterVA-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Alam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Population-based information on causes of death (CoD by age, sex, and area is critical for countries with limited resources to identify and address key public health issues. This study analysed the demographic surveillance and verbal autopsy (VA data to estimate age- and sex-specific mortality rates and cause-specific mortality fractions in two well-defined rural populations within the demographic surveillance system in Abhoynagar and Mirsarai subdistricts, located in different climatic zones. Design: During 2004–2010, the sample demographic surveillance system registered 1,384 deaths in Abhoynagar and 1,847 deaths in Mirsarai. Trained interviewers interviewed the main caretaker of the deceased with standard VA questionnaires to record signs and symptoms of diseases or conditions that led to death and health care experiences before death. The computer-automated InterVA-4 method was used to analyse VAs to determine probable CoD. Results: Age- and sex-specific death rates revealed a higher neonatal mortality rate in Abhoynagar than Mirsarai, and death rates and sex ratios of male to female death rates were higher in the ages after infancy. Communicable diseases (CDs accounted for 16.7% of all deaths in Abhoynagar and 21.2% in Mirsarai – the difference was due mostly to more deaths from acute respiratory infections, pneumonia, and tuberculosis in Mirsarai. Non-communicable diseases (NCDs accounted for 56.2 and 55.3% of deaths in each subdistrict, respectively, with leading causes being stroke (16.5–19.3%, neoplasms (13.2% each, cardiac diseases (8.9–11.6%, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (5.1–6.3%, diseases of the digestive system (3.1–4.1%, and diabetes (2.8–3.5%, together accounting for 49.2–51.2% points of the NCD deaths in the two subdistricts. Injury and other external causes accounted for another 7.5–7.7% deaths, with self-harm being higher among females in Abhoynagar. Conclusions: The computer

  9. Vigilância Sanitária: uma proposta de análise dos contextos locais Sanitary Surveillance: a proposal for analyzing local environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Franke Piovesan

    2005-03-01

    , whose proposal involves the identification of local and regional sanitary and epidemiological priorities for ANVISA to pass on financial resources. The research involved visits to municipalities to collect data and information. Results were analyzed in the light of both restricting and facilitating forces related to the delivery of Sanitary Surveillance Services, in terms of structure, work processes, management, political context and financial resources. The study explicitly revealed the deficient interaction between the work of the Sanitary Surveillance authorities researched and the environment where they operate, and identified important restrictive factors for local sanitary control. This article presents the driving ideas of the research, the results from the analysis, as well as the proposed approach for the recognition and systematization of indispensable information for Sanitary Surveillance planning.

  10. Obsolete pesticide storage sites and their POP release into the environment--an Armenian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorská, A; Sír, M; Honzajková, Z; Komprda, J; Cupr, P; Petrlík, J; Anakhasyan, E; Simonyan, L; Kubal, M

    2012-07-01

    Organochlorinated pesticides were widely applied in Armenia until the 1980s, like in all former Soviet Union republics. Subsequently, the problem of areas contaminated by organochlorinated pesticides emerged. Environmental, waste and food samples at one pesticide burial site (Nubarashen) and three former pesticide storage sites (Jrarat, Echmiadzin and Masis) were taken and analysed on the content of organochlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls. Gradient sampling and diffusivity-based calculations provided information on the contamination release from the hot spots on a local scale. A risk analysis based on samples of locally produced food items characterised the impact of storage sites on the health of nearby residents. All four sites were found to be seriously contaminated. High pesticide levels and soil and air contamination gradients of several orders of magnitude were confirmed outside the fence of the Nubarashen burial site, confirming pesticide release. A storage in Jrarat, which was completely demolished in 1996 and contained numerous damaged bags with pure pesticides until 2011, was found to have polluted surrounding soils by wind dispersion of pesticide powders and air by significant evaporation of lindane and β-endosulfan during this period. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane-contaminated eggs, sampled from hens roaming freely in the immediate surroundings of the Echmiadzin storage site, revealed a significant health risk for egg consumers above 1E-5. Although small in size and previously almost unknown to the public, storage sites like Echmiadzin, Masis and Jrarat were found to stock considerable amounts of obsolete pesticides and have a significant negative influence on the environment and human health. Multi-stakeholder cooperation proved to be successful in identifying such sites suspected to be significant sources of persistent organic pollutants.

  11. Assessment of plutonium in the Savannah River Site environment. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, W.H.; Evans, A.G.; Geary, L.A.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Pinder, J.E.; Strom, R.N.

    1992-12-31

    Plutonium in the Savannah River Site Environment is published as a part of the Radiological Assessment Program (RAP). It is the fifth in a series of eight documents on individual radioisotopes released to the environment as a result of Savannah River Site (SRS) operations. These are living documents, each to be revised and updated on a two-year schedule. This document describes the sources of plutonium in the environment, its release from SRS, environmental transport and ecological concentration of plutonium, and the radiological impact of SRS releases to the environment. Plutonium exists in the environment as a result of above-ground nuclear weapons tests, the Chernobyl accident, the destruction of satellite SNAP 9-A, plane crashes involving nuclear weapons, and small releases from reactors and reprocessing plants. Plutonium has been produced at SRS during the operation of five production reactors and released in small quantities during the processing of fuel and targets in chemical separations facilities. Approximately 0.6 Ci of plutonium was released into streams and about 12 Ci was released to seepage basins, where it was tightly bound by clay in the soil. A smaller quantity, about 3.8 Ci, was released to the atmosphere. Virtually all releases have occurred in F- and H-Area separation facilities. Plutonium concentration and transport mechanisms for the atmosphere, surface water, and ground water releases have been extensively studied by Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and ecological mechanisms have been studied by Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL). The overall radiological impact of SRS releases to the offsite maximum individual can be characterized by a total dose of 15 mrem (atmospheric) and 0.18 mrem (liquid), compared with the dose of 12,960 mrem from non-SRS sources during the same period of time (1954--1989). Plutonium releases from SRS facilities have resulted in a negligible impact to the environment and the population it supports.

  12. Internet and Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in the age of the internet; civil watch-surveillance on social networking sites; and networked interactive surveillance in transnational space. This book is a result of a research action launched by the intergovernmental network COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology).......The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged...

  13. Introduction to surveillance studies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    Introduction & OverviewIntroduction Brief History of Surveillance Technologies & TechniquesOptical SurveillanceAerial Surveillance Audio Surveillance Radio-Wave SurveillanceGlobal Positioning Systems Sensors Computers & the Internet Data Cards Biochemical Surveillance Animal Surveillance Biometrics Genetics Practical ConsiderationsPrevalence of Surveillance Effectiveness of Surveillance Freedom & Privacy IssuesConstitutional Freedoms Privacy Safeguards & Intrusions ResourcesReferences Glossary Index

  14. Prehistoric Human Adaptation to Tibetan Plateau Environment indicated by 151 site in the Qinghai Lake Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongju; Dong, Guanghui; Wang, Qianqian; Ren, Xiaoyan; Chen, Fahu

    2017-04-01

    Current study indicates that Northeastern Tibetan Plateau (NETP) is one of the first widely occupied places by prehistory people on the Tibetan Plateau, which makes NETP very important to understand the human history on the plateau and human adaptation to high elevation environment. Hence, 151 site, a paleo- to Epi-Paleolithic site in the Qinghai Lake basin on NETP, is chosen to excavate. Thousands pieces of animal bones, hundreds pieces of stone artifacts and several possible hearths were unearthed and obtained during two excavation seasons. Carefully redating of the site shows that it was first occupied shortly around 15 ka BP, then reoccupied from 9000-6000 a BP more intensely. Preliminary study of the site suggest that the first appearance of human in Qinghai Lake basin is closely related to the amelioration of the Last Deglaciation and the prevalence of microlithic technology in North China, which may enlighten the study of early human migration on to whole plateau; however, the latter more intense human occupation in 151 site is not only closely related to the warm and stable early-mid Holocene climate but also provoked by early millet agriculture in neighbor low-elevation Loess plateau.

  15. Predictors of bisexual behaviour among MSM attending intervention sites may help in prevention interventions for this bridge to the heterosexual epidemic in India: data from HIV sentinel surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheela Godbole

    Full Text Available Indian cultural tradition demanding marriage, many MSM howsoever they self-identify are likely to be married or have sex with women. To consolidate India's HIV prevention gains, it is important to understand and address the interaction between the MSM and heterosexual epidemics in India and create specific interventions for bisexual MSM. The challenge is to identify and intervene this hard to reach population. Data from HIV Sentinel Surveillance 2011 among MSM in four Indian states were analyzed to assess predictors and prevalence of bisexual behaviour in MSM.Between March-May 2011, 4682 men (15-49 years who had anal/oral sex with a male partner in the past month, attending intervention sites and consenting for an un-linked anonymous survey answered an 11- item questionnaire and provided blood for HIV test by finger stick at 19 designated surveillance sites.Of 4682 MSM tested overall, 5% were illiterate, 51% reported only receptive anal intercourse, 21% only penetrative and 28% both. 36% MSM had ever received money for sex. Overall 6.8% were HIV infected. 44% MSM were bisexual in the last six months. On multivariate analysis, 'being bisexual' was found to be independently associated with 'older age': 26-30 years [AOR = 3.1, 95% CI(2.7, 3.7], >30 years [AOR = 6.5, 95% CI(5.5, 7.7]; 'reporting penetrative behaviour alone' with other men [AOR = 5.8, 95% CI(4.8, 7.0, p<0.01] and 'reporting both penetrative and receptive behaviour' [AOR = 2.7, 95% CI(2.3, 3.1 p<0.01]. Those who both paid and received money for sex [AOR = 0.49, 95% CI (0.38, 0.62] were significantly less likely to be bisexual.A substantial proportion of men receiving services from Targeted Intervention programs are bisexual and the easy opportunity for intervention in this setting should be capitalised upon. Focusing on older MSM, as well as MSM who show penetrative behaviour with other men, could help in reaching this population.

  16. Spatially explicit bioaccumulation modeling in aquatic environments: Results from 2 demonstration sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stackelberg, Katherine; Williams, Marc A; Clough, Jonathan; Johnson, Mark S

    2017-11-01

    Bioaccumulation models quantify the relationship between sediment and water exposure concentrations and resulting tissue levels of chemicals in aquatic organisms and represent a key link in the suite of tools used to support decision making at contaminated sediment sites. Predicted concentrations in the aquatic food web provide exposure estimates for human health and ecological risk assessments, which, in turn, provide risk-based frameworks for evaluating potential remedial activities and other management alternatives based on the fish consumption pathway. Despite the widespread use of bioaccumulation models to support remedial decision making, concerns remain about the predictive power of these models. A review of the available literature finds the increased mathematical complexity of typical bioaccumulation model applications is not matched by the deterministic exposure concentrations used to drive the models. We tested a spatially explicit exposure model (FishRand) at 2 nominally contaminated sites and compared results to estimates of bioaccumulation based on conventional, nonspatial techniques, and monitoring data. Differences in predicted fish tissue concentrations across applications were evident, although these demonstration sites were only mildly contaminated and would not warrant management actions on the basis of fish consumption. Nonetheless, predicted tissue concentrations based on the spatially explicit exposure characterization consistently outperformed conventional, nonspatial techniques across a variety of model performance metrics. These results demonstrate the improved predictive power as well as greater flexibility in evaluating the impacts of food web exposure and fish foraging behavior in a heterogeneous exposure environment. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:1023-1037. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  17. Residents’ Environmental Conservation Behaviors at Tourist Sites: Broadening the Norm Activation Framework by Adopting Environment Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuling Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the factors that affect residents’ environmental conservation behaviors help in managing the environment of tourist sites. This research provides an integrative understanding of how residents near tourist sites form their environmental conservation behaviors by merging the norm-activation model and cognitive-affective model into one theoretical framework. Results of the structural analysis from a sample of 642 residents showed that this study’s proposed composite model includes a satisfactory level of predictive power for environmental conservation behaviors. The findings identify the following two dimensions of awareness of environmental consequences as having a key role in predicting environmental conservation behaviors: (1 awareness of positive consequences of environmental protection; and (2 awareness of disaster consequences. Results also show that environment attachment and personal norms about environmentalism played a mediating role between awareness of environmental consequences and environmental conservation behaviors, and that personal norms about environmentalism were the most powerful factor in predicting behaviors. Several practical implications were derived from the research findings that can contribute to environment management policy both within and outside the field of tourism, mostly notably: (1 how the effective promotion of these factors can encourage environmental conservation behaviors for residents; and (2 how governments can develop and implement environmental management measures to improve locals’ awareness of positive consequences of environmental protection.

  18. Drivers of community assembly in tropical forest restoration sites: role of local environment, landscape, and space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audino, Lívia D; Murphy, Stephen J; Zambaldi, Ludimila; Louzada, Julio; Comita, Liza S

    2017-09-01

    There is increasing recognition that community assembly theory can offer valuable insights for ecological restoration. We studied community assembly processes following tropical forest restoration efforts, using dung beetles (Scarabaeinae) as a focal taxon to investigate taxonomic and functional patterns of biodiversity recovery. We evaluated the relative importance of the local environment (i.e., canopy cover, understory cover, tree basal area, and soil texture), landscape context (i.e., habitat patch proximity and availability and percentage of surrounding area classified as natural forest or Eucalyptus spp. plantation), and space (i.e., spatial proximity of the study areas to estimate dispersal limitation or unmeasured spatially structured processes) on dung beetle species and functional trait composition across a gradient of 15 restoration sites in Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We also assessed which factors were the primary determinants in the establishment of individual dung beetle functional groups, classified according to size, food relocation habit, diet, and period of flight activity. Both species and functional trait composition were most strongly influenced by the local environment, indicating that assembly was predominantly driven by niche-based processes. Most of the variation explained by space was co-explained by local environment and landscape context, ruling out a strong influence of dispersal limitation and random colonization on assembly following restoration. In addition, nearly all of the variance explained by landscape context was co-explained by local environment, suggesting that arrival and establishment at a site depends on both local and landscape-scale environmental factors. Despite strong evidence for niche-based assembly, a large amount of variation remained unexplained in all models, suggesting that stochastic processes and/or unmeasured environmental variables also play an important role. The relative importance of local environment

  19. Surveillance Pleasures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    and leisure have not been studied with the same intensity as e.g. policing, civil liberties and social sorting. This paper offers a study of trends in surveillance pleasures, i.e. watching and eavesdropping in popular culture. My focus is the existential aspects and ethical dilemmas of surveillance...

  20. A Survey of Health, Safety and Environment (HSE Management and Safety Climate in Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mobaraki

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The principles of health, safety and environment (HSE in different development activities, including construction, are constantly gaining in significance. This study aims to evaluate the condition of HSE management and safety climate in construction sites. In this descriptive-analytic study, 111 male employees are randomly selected. To determine HSE condition and management and safety climate condition, the NOSACQ questionnaire was used. The collected data are analyzed using SPSS. Based on data analysis a significant relationship between the mean scores of safety climate, job groups and HSE management system with job groups, education and experience (P<0.05 was found. The study results show that HSE management and safety climate in sites are relatively acceptable, that the perception of safety had no special association with age, work experience, education and that the creation of a safety climate depends on the people high in the hierarchy.

  1. The Methodology of Interactive Parametric Modelling of Construction Site Facilities in BIM Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlovská Mária

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Information technology is becoming a strong tool in different industries, including construction. The recent trend of buildings designing is leading up to creation of the most comprehensive virtual building model (Building Information Model in order to solve all the problems relating to the project as early as in the designing phase. Building information modelling is a new way of approaching to the design of building projects documentation. Currently, the building site layout as a part of the building design documents has a very little support in the BIM environment. Recently, the research of designing the construction process conditions has centred on improvement of general practice in planning and on new approaches to construction site layout planning. The state of art in field of designing the construction process conditions indicated an unexplored problem related to connection of knowledge system with construction site facilities (CSF layout through interactive modelling. The goal of the paper is to present the methodology for execution of 3D construction site facility allocation model (3D CSF-IAM, based on principles of parametric and interactive modelling.

  2. Surveillance of surgical site infections by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and strain characterization in Tanzanian hospitals does not provide proof for a role of hospital water plumbing systems in transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moremi, Nyambura; Claus, Heike; Vogel, Ulrich; Mshana, Stephen E

    2017-01-01

    The role of hospital water systems in the development of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) surgical site infections (SSIs) in low-income countries is barely studied. This study characterized P. aeruginosa isolates from patients and water in order to establish possible epidemiological links. Between December 2014 and September 2015, rectal and wound swabs, and water samples were collected in the frame of active surveillance for SSIs in the two Tanzanian hospitals. Typing of P. aeruginosa was done by multi-locus sequence typing. Of 930 enrolled patients, 536 were followed up, of whom 78 (14.6%, 95% CI; 11.6-17.5) developed SSIs. P. aeruginosa was found in eight (14%) of 57 investigated wounds. Of the 43 water sampling points, 29 were positive for P. aeruginosa. However, epidemiological links to wound infections were not confirmed. The P. aeruginosa carriage rate on admission was 0.9% (8/930). Of the 363 patients re-screened upon discharge, four (1.1%) possibly acquired P. aeruginosa during hospitalization. Wound infections of the three of the eight P. aeruginosa SSIs were caused by a strain of the same sequence type (ST) as the one from intestinal carriage. Isolates from patients were more resistant to antibiotics than water isolates. The P. aeruginosa SSI rate was low. There was no evidence for transmission from tap water. Not all P. aeruginosa SSI were proven to be endogenous, pointing to other routes of transmission.

  3. Site Characterization for the MBCE/DIRT II Battlefield Environment Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    study was performed by Messrs. Carlos Lebron , Billy Helmuth, and Douglas Rockett under the tech- nical supervision of Mr. James B. Mason, Project...LEVEL;!;v *-" MISCELLANEOUS PAPER EL-81-B SITE CHARACTERIZATION FOR THE 00 MBCE/DIRT I! BATTLEFIELD ENVIRONMENT TESTS n by n James B. Mason and...GRANT NUMBER(e) James B./Mason Katherine S.gLong / 4S 1.a- -0 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS ,0. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK U. S. Army

  4. Mineral formation on metallic copper in a `future repository site environment`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amcoff, Oe.; Holenyi, K.

    1996-04-01

    Since reducing conditions are expected much effort has been concentrated on Cu-sulfides and CuFe-sulfides. However, oxidizing conditions are also discussed. A list of copper minerals are included. It is concluded that mineral formation and mineral transitions on the copper canister surface will be governed by kinetics and metastabilities rather than by stability relations. The sulfides formed are less likely to form a passivating layer, and the rate of sulfide growth will probably be governed by the rate of transport of reacting species to the canister surface. A series of tests are recommended, in an environment resembling the initial repository site conditions. 82 refs, 8 figs.

  5. Removal of bacterial cells, antibiotic resistance genes and integrase genes by on-site hospital wastewater treatment plants: surveillance of treated hospital effluent quality

    KAUST Repository

    Timraz, Kenda Hussain Hassan

    2016-12-15

    This study aims to evaluate the removal efficiency of microbial contaminants, including total cell counts, antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB), antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs, e.g. tetO, tetZ, sul1 and sul2) and integrase genes (e.g. intl1 and intl2), by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) operated on-site of two hospitals (i.e., SH WWTP and IH WWTP). Both SH and IH WWTPs utilize the conventional activated sludge process but differences in the removal efficiencies were observed. Over the 2 week sampling period, IH WWTP outperformed SH WWTP, and achieved an approximate 0.388 to 2.49-log log removal values (LRVs) for total cell counts compared to the 0.010 to 0.162-log removal in SH WWTP. Although ARB were present in the hospital influent, the treatment process of both hospitals effectively removed ARB from most of the effluent samples. In instances where ARB were recovered in the effluent, none of the viable isolates were identified to be opportunistic pathogenic species based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. However, sul1 and intl1 genes remained detectable at up to 105 copies per mL or 8 x 10(-1) copies per 16S rRNA gene in the treated effluent, with an LRV of less than 1.2. When the treated effluent is discharged from hospital WWTPs into the public sewer for further treatment as per requirement in many countries, the detected amount of ARGs and integrase genes in the hospital effluent can become a potential source of horizontal gene dissemination in the municipal WWTP. Proper on-site wastewater treatment and surveillance of the effluent quality for emerging contaminants are therefore highly recommended.

  6. Public involvement in environmental surveillance at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanf, R.W. Jr.; Patton, G.W.; Woodruff, R.K.; Poston, T.M.

    1994-08-01

    Environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site began during the mid-1940s following the construction and start-up of the nation`s first plutonium production reactor. Over the past approximately 45 years, surveillance operations on and off the Site have continued, with virtually all sampling being conducted by Hanford Site workers. Recently, the US Department of Energy Richland Operations Office directed that public involvement in Hanford environmental surveillance operations be initiated. Accordingly, three special radiological air monitoring stations were constructed offsite, near hanford`s perimeter. Each station is managed and operated by two local school teaches. These three stations are the beginning of a community-operated environmental surveillance program that will ultimately involve the public in most surveillance operations around the Site. The program was designed to stimulate interest in Hanford environmental surveillance operations, and to help the public better understand surveillance results. The program has also been used to enhance educational opportunities at local schools.

  7. Savannah River Site environmental report for 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, M.W.; Karapatakis, L.K.; Mamatey, A.R. [eds.

    1994-08-01

    Savannah River Site (SRS) conducts effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance to ensure the safety of the public and the well-being of the environment. DOE Order 5400,1, ``General Environmental Protection Program,`` requires the submission of an environmental report that documents the impact of facility operations on the environment and on public health. SRS has had an extensive environmental surveillance program in place since 1951 (before site startup). At that time, data generated by the on-site surveillance program were reported in site documents. Beginning in 1959, data from off-site environmental monitoring activities were presented in reports issued for public dissemination. Separate reporting of SRS`s on- and off-site environmental monitoring activities continued until 1985, when data from both surveillance programs were merged into a single public document. The Savannah River Site Environmental Report for 1993 is an overview of effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance activities conducted on and in the vicinity of SRS from January 1 through December 31, 1993. For complete program descriptions, consult the ``SRS Environmental Monitoring Plan`` (WSRC-3Ql-2-1000). It documents the rationale and design criteria for the monitoring program, the frequency of monitoring and analysis, the specific analytical and sampling procedures, and the quality assurance requirements.

  8. Multi-site evaluation of IKONOS data for classification of tropical coral reef environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrefouet, S.; Kramer, Philip; Torres-Pulliza, D.; Joyce, K.E.; Hochberg, E.J.; Garza-Perez, R.; Mumby, P.J.; Riegl, Bernhard; Yamano, H.; White, W.H.; Zubia, M.; Brock, J.C.; Phinn, S.R.; Naseer, A.; Hatcher, B.G.; Muller-Karger, F. E.

    2003-01-01

    Ten IKONOS images of different coral reef sites distributed around the world were processed to assess the potential of 4-m resolution multispectral data for coral reef habitat mapping. Complexity of reef environments, established by field observation, ranged from 3 to 15 classes of benthic habitats containing various combinations of sediments, carbonate pavement, seagrass, algae, and corals in different geomorphologic zones (forereef, lagoon, patch reef, reef flats). Processing included corrections for sea surface roughness and bathymetry, unsupervised or supervised classification, and accuracy assessment based on ground-truth data. IKONOS classification results were compared with classified Landsat 7 imagery for simple to moderate complexity of reef habitats (5-11 classes). For both sensors, overall accuracies of the classifications show a general linear trend of decreasing accuracy with increasing habitat complexity. The IKONOS sensor performed better, with a 15-20% improvement in accuracy compared to Landsat. For IKONOS, overall accuracy was 77% for 4-5 classes, 71% for 7-8 classes, 65% in 9-11 classes, and 53% for more than 13 classes. The Landsat classification accuracy was systematically lower, with an average of 56% for 5-10 classes. Within this general trend, inter-site comparisons and specificities demonstrate the benefits of different approaches. Pre-segmentation of the different geomorphologic zones and depth correction provided different advantages in different environments. Our results help guide scientists and managers in applying IKONOS-class data for coral reef mapping applications. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Processing of radon time series in underground environments: Implications for volcanic surveillance in the island of Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinas, Ronaldo [Department of Soil Sciences and Geology, Faculty of Biology, Universidad de La Laguna, Av. Astrofisico Fransicso Sanchez s/n, 38206 Tenerife (Spain); Eff-Darwich, Antonio [Department of Soil Sciences and Geology, Faculty of Biology, Universidad de La Laguna, Av. Astrofisico Fransicso Sanchez s/n, 38206 Tenerife (Spain)]. E-mail: adarwich@ull.es; Soler, Vicente [Volcanological Station of the Canary Islands, IPNA-CSIC, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Martin-Luis, Maria C. [Department of Soil Sciences and Geology, Faculty of Biology, Universidad de La Laguna, Av. Astrofisico Fransicso Sanchez s/n, 38206 Tenerife (Spain); Quesada, Maria L. [Department of Soil Sciences and Geology, Faculty of Biology, Universidad de La Laguna, Av. Astrofisico Fransicso Sanchez s/n, 38206 Tenerife (Spain); Nuez, Julio de la [Department of Soil Sciences and Geology, Faculty of Biology, Universidad de La Laguna, Av. Astrofisico Fransicso Sanchez s/n, 38206 Tenerife (Spain)

    2007-01-15

    The analysis of temporal and spatial variations in the flux of soil gases across the soil-air interface is a useful tool to study geo-dynamical processes associated with volcanic and/or seismic activity. However, many of these variations are induced by external variables, such as temperature, barometric pressure, rainfall and other meteorological variables. In an attempt to filter out non-endogenous variations in the emissions of gases, the optimal choice of the monitoring sites with numerical filtering techniques based on multi-variate and frequency domain analysis of the time series for gaseous emissions were combined, in the case of radon ({sup 222}Rn). Monitoring sites are located in underground galleries in the volcanic island of Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. Since the effect of wind, rainfall and temperature variations are very small inside galleries, a first natural filtering process of external parameters in the emissions of gases was achieved. This new approach has been successfully tested and as a result, the background level for radon emissions at various locations has been defined, by which correlations between gaseous emissions and the volcanic and/or seismic activity could be carried out.

  10. Active surveillance of the aquatic environment for potential prediction, prevention and spread of water borne disease: the cholera paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, A.; Colwell, R.

    2011-12-01

    Based on results of ecological and epidemiological studies, occurrence and spread of certain diseases are more fully understood. Cholera is a major waterborne disease, that is relatively easily treatable and clearly preventable, yet tens of thousands die each year worldwide. A dose dependent disease, the infectious dose can vary from 103-106, depending on health status of the victim. Historically, cholera has been shown to spread from person to person. Furthermore, the disease is caused predominantly via ingestion of contaminated water and most of the outbreaks that have been recorded worldwide originated in a coastal region. Using appropriate detection methods, Vibrio cholerae can be isolated from samples collected from ponds, rivers, estuaries, and coastal waters globally. The populations of V. cholerae may vary in numbers during different seasons of the year. It is important to have a clear understanding of the distribution of the causative agent in the environment as such information can assist public health officials in taking action to prevent outbreaks of cholera. Thus an effective monitoring program is critical, particularly in light of climate change with temperature extremes more likely to be occurring. Based on a predictive model and results of ground truth data, temperature has been found to be a factor in the increase of V. cholerae in the environment. Correlation was observed with occurrence of cholera and both temperature and salinity. More recent research indicates additional factors need to be considered in predicting cholera epidemics, including the hydrology and disease dynamics.

  11. CLIPZ: a database and analysis environment for experimentally determined binding sites of RNA-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorshid, Mohsen; Rodak, Christoph; Zavolan, Mihaela

    2011-01-01

    The stability, localization and translation rate of mRNAs are regulated by a multitude of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that find their targets directly or with the help of guide RNAs. Among the experimental methods for mapping RBP binding sites, cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) coupled with deep sequencing provides transcriptome-wide coverage as well as high resolution. However, partly due to their vast volume, the data that were so far generated in CLIP experiments have not been put in a form that enables fast and interactive exploration of binding sites. To address this need, we have developed the CLIPZ database and analysis environment. Binding site data for RBPs such as Argonaute 1-4, Insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 1-3, TNRC6 proteins A-C, Pumilio 2, Quaking and Polypyrimidine tract binding protein can be visualized at the level of the genome and of individual transcripts. Individual users can upload their own sequence data sets while being able to limit the access to these data to specific users, and analyses of the public and private data sets can be performed interactively. CLIPZ, available at http://www.clipz.unibas.ch, aims to provide an open access repository of information for post-transcriptional regulatory elements.

  12. Molecular environment of the phencyclidine binding site in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, A.L.; Wang, H.H. (Department of Biology, University of California, Santa Cruz (United States))

    1991-06-01

    Phencyclidine is a highly specific noncompetitive inhibitor of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. In a novel approach to study this site, a spin-labeled analogue of phencyclidine, 4-phenyl-4-(1-piperidinyl)-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinoxyl (PPT) was synthesized. The binding of PPT inhibits 86Rb flux (IC50 = 6.6 microM), and (3H)phencyclidine binding to both resting and desensitized acetylcholine receptor (IC50 = 17 microM and 0.22 microM, respectively). From an indirect Hill plot of the inhibition of (3H)phencyclidine binding by PPT, a Hill coefficient of approximately one was obtained in the presence of carbamylcholine and 0.8 in alpha-bungarotoxin-treated preparations. Taken together, these results indicate that PPT mimics phencyclidine in its ability to bind to the noncompetitive inhibitor site and is functionally active in blocking ion flux across the acetylcholine receptor channel. Analysis of the electron spin resonance signal of the bound PPT suggests that the environment surrounding the probe within the ion channel is hydrophobic, with a hydrophobicity parameter of 1.09. A dielectric constant for the binding site was estimated to be in the range of 2-3 units.

  13. ERATOSTHENES: excellence research Centre for Earth surveillance and space-based monitoring of the environment, the EXCELSIOR Horizon 2020 teaming project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.; Kontoes, Haris; Schreier, Gunter; Ansmann, Albert; Komodromos, George; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Mamouri, Rodanthi; Michaelides, Silas; Nisantzi, Argyro; Papoutsa, Christiana; Neocleous, Kyriacos; Mettas, Christodoulos; Tzouvaras, Marios; Evagorou, Evagoras; Christofe, Andreas; Melillos, George; Papoutsis, Ioannis

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the strategy and vision to upgrade the existing ERATOSTHENES Research Centre (ERC) established within the Cyprus University of Technology (CUT) into a sustainable, viable and autonomous Centre of Excellence (CoE) for Earth Surveillance and Space-Based Monitoring of the Environment, which will provide the highest quality of related services on the National, European and International levels. EXCELSIOR is a Horizon 2020 Teaming project which addresses a specific challenge defined by the work program, namely, the reduction of substantial disparities in the European Union by supporting research and innovation activities and systems in low performing countries. It also aims at establishing long-term and strategic partnerships between the Teaming partners, thus reducing internal research and innovation disparities within European Research and Innovation landscape. The proposed CoE envisions the upgrading of the existing ERC into an inspiring environment for conducting basic and applied research and innovation in the areas of the integrated use of remote sensing and space-based techniques for monitoring the environment. Environment has been recognized by the Smart Specialization Strategy of Cyprus as the first horizontal priority for future growth of the island. The foreseen upgrade will regard the expansion of this vision to systematic monitoring of the environment using Earth Observation, space and ground based integrated technologies. Such an approach will lead to the systematic monitoring of all three domains of the Environment (Air, Land, Water). Five partners have united to upgrade the existing ERC into a CoE, with the common vision to become a world-class innovation, research and education centre, actively contributing to the European Research Area (ERA). More specifically, the Teaming project is a team effort between the Cyprus University of Technology (CUT, acting as the coordinator), the German Aerospace Centre (DLR), the

  14. Health inequalities among older men and women in Africa and Asia: evidence from eight Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites in the INDEPTH WHO-SAGE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawi Ng

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Declining rates of fertility and mortality are driving demographic transition in all regions of the world, leading to global population ageing and consequently changing patterns of global morbidity and mortality. Understanding sex-related health differences, recognising groups at risk of poor health and identifying determinants of poor health are therefore very important for both improving health trajectories and planning for the health needs of ageing populations. Objectives: To determine the extent to which demographic and socio-economic factors impact upon measures of health in older populations in Africa and Asia; to examine sex differences in health and further explain how these differences can be attributed to demographic and socio-economic determinants. Methods : A total of 46,269 individuals aged 50 years and over in eight Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS sites within the INDEPTH Network were studied during 2006–2007 using an abbreviated version of the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE Wave I instrument. The survey data were then linked to longitudinal HDSS background information. A health score was calculated based on self-reported health derived from eight health domains. Multivariable regression and post-regression decomposition provide ways of measuring and explaining the health score gap between men and women. Results: Older men have better self-reported health than older women. Differences in household socio-economic levels, age, education levels, marital status and living arrangements explained from about 82% and 71% of the gaps in health score observed between men and women in South Africa and Kenya, respectively, to almost nothing in Bangladesh. Different health domains contributed differently to the overall health scores for men and women in each country. Conclusion: This study confirmed the existence of sex differences in self-reported health in low- and middle-income countries

  15. Internet and Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in this context. With such platforms comes the massive provision and storage of personal data that are systematically evaluated, marketed, and used for targeting users with advertising. In a world of global economic competition, economic crisis, and fear of terrorism after 9/11, both corporations and state...... in the age of the internet; civil watch-surveillance on social networking sites; and networked interactive surveillance in transnational space. This book is a result of a research action launched by the intergovernmental network COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology)....

  16. Summary 1998. Releases control and environment monitoring for the CEA Centers; Bilan 1998. Controle des rejets et surveillance de l'environnement des centres CEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    In the framework of its environmental policy, the CEA aims at reduce as weak as possible, in regards to the technological and economic needs, its activities impacts on the people and the environment. This paper contributes to the public information on the radioactive gaseous and liquid releases during the year 1998. It presents data on the releases and the radioactivity levels around the CEA sites and gathers the associated regulation and monitoring methods. (A.L.B.)

  17. Thiolactomycin inhibits D-aspartate oxidase: a novel approach to probing the active site environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katane, Masumi; Saitoh, Yasuaki; Hanai, Toshihiko; Sekine, Masae; Furuchi, Takemitsu; Koyama, Nobuhiro; Nakagome, Izumi; Tomoda, Hiroshi; Hirono, Shuichi; Homma, Hiroshi

    2010-10-01

    D-Aspartate oxidase (DDO) and D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) are flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-containing flavoproteins that catalyze the oxidative deamination of D-amino acids. While several functionally and structurally important amino acid residues have been identified in the DAO protein, little is known about the structure-function relationships of DDO. In the search for a potent DDO inhibitor as a novel tool for investigating its structure-function relationships, a large number of biologically active compounds of microbial origin were screened for their ability to inhibit the enzymatic activity of mouse DDO. We discovered several compounds that inhibited the activity of mouse DDO, and one of the compounds identified, thiolactomycin (TLM), was then characterized and evaluated as a novel DDO inhibitor. TLM reversibly inhibited the activity of mouse DDO with a mixed type of inhibition more efficiently than meso-tartrate and malonate, known competitive inhibitors of mammalian DDOs. The selectivity of TLM was investigated using various DDOs and DAOs, and it was found that TLM inhibits not only DDO, but also DAO. Further experiments with apoenzymes of DDO and DAO revealed that TLM is most likely to inhibit the activities of DDO and DAO by competition with both the substrate and the coenzyme, FAD. Structural models of mouse DDO/TLM complexes supported this finding. The binding mode of TLM to DDO was validated further by site-directed mutagenesis of an active site residue, Arg-237. Collectively, our findings show that TLM is a novel, active site-directed DDO inhibitor that will be useful for elucidating the molecular details of the active site environment of DDO. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Interaction of mining activities and aquatic environment: A review from Greek mine sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileiou, Eleni; Kallioras, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In Greece a significant amount of mineral and ore deposits have been recorded accompanied by large industrial interest and a long mining history. Today many active and/or abandoned mine sites are scattered within the country; while mining activities take place in different sites for exploiting various deposits (clay, limestone, slate, gypsum, kaolin, mixed sulphide ores (lead, zinc, olivine, pozzolan, quartz lignite, nickel, magnesite, aluminum, bauxite, gold, marbles etc). The most prominent recent ones are: (i) the lignite exploitation that is extended in the area of Ptolemais (Western Macedonia) and Megalopolis (Central Peloponnese); and (ii) the major bauxite deposits located in central Greece within the Parnassos-Ghiona geotectonic zone and on Euboea Island. In the latter area, significant ores of magnesite were exploited and mixed sulphide ores. Centuries of intensive mining exploitation and metallurgical treatment of lead-silver deposits in Greece, have also resulted in significant abandoned sites, such as the one in Lavrion. Mining activities in Lavrio, were initiated in ancient times and continued until the 1980s, resulting in the production of significant waste stockpiles deposited in the area, crucial for the local water resources. Ιn many mining sites, environmental pressures are also recorded after the mine closure to the aquatic environment, as the surface waters flow through waste dump areas and contaminated soils. This paper aims to the geospatial visualization of the mining activities in Greece, in connection to their negative (surface- and/or ground-water pollution; overpumping due to extensive dewatering practices) or positive (enhanced groundwater recharge; pit lakes, improvement of water budget in the catchment scale) impacts on local water resources.

  19. Ability to predict the development of surgical site infection in cardiac surgery using the Australian Clinical Risk Index versus the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance-derived Risk Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuerola-Tejerina, A; Bustamante, E; Tamayo, E; Mestres, C A; Bustamante-Munguira, J

    2017-06-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) is a major infectious complication that increases mortality, morbidity, and healthcare costs. There are scores attempting to classify patients for calculating SSI risk. Our objectives were to validate the Australian Clinical Risk Index (ACRI) in a European population after cardiac surgery, comparing it against the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance-derived risk index (NNIS) and analyzing the predictive power of ACRI for SSI in valvular patients. All the patients that who underwent cardiac surgery in a tertiary university hospital between 2011 and 2015 were analyzed. The patients were divided into valvular and coronary groups, excluding mixed patients. The ACRI score was validated in both groups and its ability to predict SSI was compared to the NNIS risk index. We analyzed 1,657 procedures. In the valvular patient group (n: 1119), a correlation between the ACRI score and SSI development (p < 0.05) was found; there was no such correlation with the NNIS index. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.64 (confidence interval [CI] 95%, 0.5-0.7) for ACRI and 0.62 (95% CI, 0.5-0.7) for NNIS. In the coronary group (n: 281), there was a correlation between ACRI and SSI but no between NNIS and SSI. The ACRI AUC was 0.70 (95% CI, 0.5-0.8) and the NNIS AUC was 0.60 (95% CI, 0.4-0.7). The ACRI score has insufficient predictive power, although it predicts SSI development better than the NNIS index, fundamentally in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Further studies analyzing determining factors are needed.

  20. Physical activity level and its sociodemographic correlates in a peri-urban Nepalese population: a cross-sectional study from the Jhaukhel-Duwakot health demographic surveillance site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Abhinav; Krettek, Alexandra

    2014-03-14

    Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular and other noncommunicable diseases in high-, low- and middle-income countries. Nepal, a low-income country in South Asia, is undergoing an epidemiological transition. Although the reported national prevalence of physical inactivity is relatively low, studies in urban and peri-urban localities have always shown higher prevalence. Therefore, this study aimed to measure physical activity in three domains-work, travel and leisure-in a peri-urban community and assess its variations across different sociodemographic correlates. Adult participants (n=640) from six randomly selected wards of the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS) near Kathmandu responded to the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. To determine total physical activity, we calculated the metabolic equivalent of task in minutes/week for each domain and combined the results. Respondents were categorized into high, moderate or low physical activity. We also calculated the odds ratio for low physical activity in various sociodemographic variables and self-reported cardiometabolic states. The urbanizing JD-HDSS community showed a high prevalence of low physical activity (43.3%; 95% CI 39.4-47.1). Work-related activity contributed most to total physical activity. Furthermore, women and housewives and older, more educated and self-or government-employed respondents showed a greater prevalence of physical inactivity. Respondents with hypertension, diabetes or overweight/obesity reported less physical activity than individuals without those conditions. Only 5% of respondents identified physical inactivity as a cardiovascular risk factor. Our findings reveal a high burden of physical inactivity in a peri-urban community of Nepal. Improving the level of physical activity involves sensitizing people to its importance through appropriate multi-sector strategies that provide encouragement across all sociodemographic groups.

  1. Understanding and living with glaucoma and non-communicable diseases like hypertension and diabetes in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site: a qualitative study from Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Shakya-Vaidya

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG is one of the most common causes of irreversible blindness. A possible association between POAG and non-communicable diseases such as hypertension and diabetes suggests that the incidence of POAG may increase. People with POAG in Nepal usually present late to hospital and have poor knowledge of glaucoma. Objectives: Anticipating a knowledge gap regarding these diseases, this study aimed to explore the knowledge of POAG, hypertension, and diabetes in the community and barriers to health care. Design: We conducted this qualitative study in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS, a peri-urban community near Kathmandu, a capital city of Nepal. To study how disease influences knowledge, we conducted focus group discussions separately for men and women with and without pre-existing POAG, hypertension, and diabetes. Data were analyzed using the framework analysis approach. Results: Although people suffering from POAG, hypertension, and/or diabetes exhibited adequate knowledge of hypertension and diabetes, they lacked in-depth knowledge of POAG. People believed mostly in internal health locus of control. Perception of disease consequences and impact of disease on daily life was influenced by pre-existing POAG, hypertension, and/or diabetes but only in men. Gender disparity was observed regarding health literacy, health perception, and health barriers, which put women in a more difficult situation to tackle their health. We also revealed a gap between knowledge, attitude, and practice of health among women and healthy men. Conclusion: Although people in JD-HDSS exhibited adequate knowledge regarding hypertension and diabetes, they lacked in-depth knowledge about POAG. This study demonstrated gender difference in health literacy and access to health care, making women more vulnerable towards disease. We also demonstrated a gap between knowledge, attitude, and practice of health

  2. Site environmental report for 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, R.C.

    1997-08-01

    To help verify effective protection of public safety and preservation of the environment, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL)/California maintains an extensive, ongoing environmental monitoring program. This program monitors all significant airborne and liquid effluents and the environment at the SNL/California site perimeter. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) performs off-site environmental monitoring for both sites. These monitoring efforts ensure that emission controls are effective in preventing contamination of the environment. As part of SNL/California`s Environmental Monitoring Program, an environmental surveillance system measures the possible presence of radioactive and hazardous materials in ambient air, surface water, groundwater, sewage, soil, vegetation, and locally produced food-stuffs. The program also includes an extensive environmental dosimetry program, which measures external radiation levels around the Livermore site and nearby vicinity. Each year, the results of the Environmental Monitoring Program are published in this report, the Site Environmental Report. This executive summary focuses on impacts to the environment and estimated radiation doses to the public from site emissions. Chapter 3, {open_quotes}Compliance Summary,{close_quotes} reviews the site`s various environmental protection activities and compliance status, with applicable environmental regulations. The effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance results for 1996 show that SNL/California operations had no harmful effects on the environment or the public. 37 figs., 12 tabs.

  3. Internet and Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged in this co......The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged...... in the age of the internet; civil watch-surveillance on social networking sites; and networked interactive surveillance in transnational space. This book is a result of a research action launched by the intergovernmental network COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology)....

  4. Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Argonne Illinois Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This report documents the results of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Argonne Illinois Site (AIS), near Chicago, Illinois, conducted from October 25 through November 9, 1993. During the Progress Assessment, activities included a selective review of the ES&H management systems and programs with principal focus on the DOE Office of Energy Research (ER); CH, which includes the Argonne Area Office; the University of Chicago; and the contractor`s organization responsible for operation of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of DOE`s continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the AIS ES&H Progress Assessment was to provide the Secretary of Energy, senior DOE managers, and contractor management with concise independent information on the following: change in culture and attitude related to ES&H activities; progress and effectiveness of the ES&H corrective actions resulting from the previous Tiger Team Assessment; adequacy and effectiveness of the ES&H self-assessment process of the DOE line organizations, the site management, and the operating contractor; and effectiveness of DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to effectively address ES&H problems and new ES&H initiatives.

  5. Waterflood surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghauri, W.K.

    1976-01-01

    Surveillance, in order for it to be effective, should be implemented through an organization with adequate staffing and technology. Engineering and field operations organizations should be complementary, providing for specific lines of communications, and yet at the same time encouraging informal personal exchanges between both groups. Surveillance of a waterflood project requires constant cooperation between the 2 groups in order to collect, document, and analyze an immense quantity of data, and to conduct an efficient operation. As is customary in many oil-field operations, project well reviews are held periodically to determine if the wells are performing satisfactorily. The periodic well review is an integral part of flood surveillance and is a highly practical method of (1) keeping ahead of a waterflood project, instead of continually putting out brush fires, and (2) bringing together the expertise of the engineering, field operations, and well analysis groups in an action-oriented session. Surveillance techniques and procedures are described, but the author states that there is no cookbook technique for flood surveillance. It is laborious, detailed work, and oftentimes, with little glamour. Its rewards are evident in successful project performance, prevention of loss of anticipated reserves, and addition of reserves not forseen previously.

  6. Optimum Operating Room Environment for the Prevention of Surgical Site Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Sara; Luo, James N; Gilbert, Jack; Zaborina, Olga; Alverdy, John C

    Surgical site infections (SSI), whether they be incisional or deep, can entail major morbidity and death to patients and additional cost to the healthcare system. A significant amount of effort has gone into optimizing the surgical patient and the operating room environment to reduce SSI. Relevant guidelines and literature were reviewed. The modern practice of surgical antisepsis involves the employment of strict sterile techniques inside the operating room. Extensive guidelines are available regarding the proper operating room antisepsis as well as pre-operative preparation. The use of pre-operative antimicrobial prophylaxis has become increasingly prevalent, which also presents the challenge of opportunistic and nosocomial infections. Ongoing investigative efforts have brought about a greater appreciation of the surgical patient's endogenous microflora, use of non-bactericidal small molecules, and pre-operative microbial screening. Systematic protocols exist for optimizing the surgical sterility of the operating room to prevent SSIs. Ongoing research efforts aim to improve the precision of peri-operative antisepsis measures and personalize these measures to tailor the patient's unique microbial environment.

  7. Site Environmental Report for 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, R.C.

    1999-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is committed to conducting its operations in an environmentally safe and sound manner. It is mandatory that activities at SNL/California comply with all applicable environmental statutes, regulations, and standards. Moreover, SNL/California continuously strives to reduce risks to employees, the public, and the environment to the lowest levels reasonably possible. To help verify effective protection of public safety and preservation of the environment, SNL/California maintains an extensive, ongoing environmental monitoring program. This program monitors all significant effluents and the environment at the SNL/California site perimeter. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) performs off-site external radiation monitoring for both sites. These monitoring efforts ensure that emission controls are effective in preventing contamination of the environment. As part of SNL/California's Environmental Monitoring Program, an environmental surveillance system measures the possible presence of hazardous materials in groundwater, stormwater, and sewage. The program also includes an extensive environmental dosimetry program, which measures external radiation levels around the Livermore site and nearby vicinity. Each year, the results of the Environmental Monitoring Program are published in this report, the Site Environmental Report. This executive summary focuses on impacts to the environment. Chapter 3, ''Compliance Summary,'' reviews the site's various environmental protection activities and compliance status with applicable environmental regulations. The effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance results for 1998 show that SNL/California operations had no harmful effects on the environment or the public.

  8. Perceptions by medical students of their educational environment for obstetrics and gynaecology in metropolitan and rural teaching sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Dianne F; Jacques, Angela; Denz-Penhey, Harriet; Puddey, Ian; Newnham, John P

    2009-12-01

    Medical student education in Western Australia is expanding to secondary level metropolitan hospitals and rural sites to accommodate workforce demands and increasing medical student numbers. To determine if students' perceptions of the teaching environment for obstetrics and gynaecology differ between tertiary, secondary level metropolitan hospitals and rural sites, and to determine if students' perceptions of their learning environment are associated with improved academic performance. An evaluation was conducted of medical students' perceptions of their learning environment during an obstetrics and gynaecology program at a variety of sites across metropolitan and rural Western Australia. The evaluation was based on the Dundee Ready Education Environmental Measure (DREEM) questionnaire. There were no significant differences in students' perceptions of their learning environment between the tertiary hospital, combined programs involving a tertiary and secondary metropolitan hospital, rural sites with a population of more than 25,000 and rural sites with a population less than 25,000 people. Perceptions were similar in male and female students. The overall mean score for all perceptions of the learning environment in obstetrics and gynaecology were in the range considered to be favorable. Higher scores of perceptions of the learning environment were associated positively with the measures of academic achievement in the clinical, but not written, examination. Medical students' perceptions of their learning environment in obstetrics and gynaecology were not influenced by the geographical site of delivery or their gender but were positively related to higher academic achievement. Providing appropriate academic and clinical support systems have been put in place the education of medical students can be extended outside major hospitals and into outer metropolitan and rural communities without any apparent reduction in perceptions of the quality of their learning

  9. Internet and Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged in this co......The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged...... institutions have a growing interest in accessing this personal data. Here, contributors explore this changing landscape by addressing topics such as commercial data collection by advertising, consumer sites and interactive media; self-disclosure in the social web; surveillance of file-sharers; privacy...... in the age of the internet; civil watch-surveillance on social networking sites; and networked interactive surveillance in transnational space. This book is a result of a research action launched by the intergovernmental network COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology)....

  10. Characterizing the Catalytic Potential of Deinococcus, Arthrobacter and other Robust Bacteria in Contaminated Subsurface Environments of the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, Michael J.

    2005-06-01

    Natural selection in highly radioactive waste sites may yield bacteria with favorable bioremediating characteristics. However, until recently the microbial ecology of such environments has remained unexplored because of the high costs and technical complexities associated with extracting and characterizing samples from such sites. We have examined the bacterial ecology within radioactive sediments from a high-level nuclear waste plume in the vadose zone on the DOE?s Hanford Site in south-central Washington state (Fredrickson et al, 2004). Manganese-dependent, radiation resistant bacteria have been isolated from this contaminated site including the highly Mn-dependent Deinococcus and Arthrobacter spp.

  11. Distribution of cause of death in rural Bangladesh during 2003-2010: evidence from two rural areas within Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Nurul; Chowdhury, Hafizur R; Ahmed, Ali; Rahman, Mahfuzur; Streatfield, P Kim

    2014-12-01

    Objective This study used the InterVA-4 computerised model to assign probable cause of death (CoD) to verbal autopsies (VAs) generated from two rural areas, with a difference in health service provision, within the Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance site (HDSS). This study aimed to compare CoD by gender, as well as discussing possible factors which could influence differences in the distribution of CoD between the two areas. Design Data for this study came from the Matlab the HDSS maintained by the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b) since 1966. In late 1977, icddr,b divided HDSS and implemented a high-quality maternal, newborn and child health and family planning (MNCH-FP) services project in one half, called the icddr,b service area (SA), in addition to the usual public and private MNCH-FP services that serve the other half, called the government SA. HDSS field workers registered 12,144 deaths during 2003-2010, and trained interviewers obtained VA for 98.9% of them. The probabilistic model InterVA-4 probabilistic model (version 4.02) was used to derive probable CoD from VA symptoms. Cause-specific mortality rates and fractions were compared across gender and areas. Appropriate statistical tests were applied for significance testing. Results Mortality rates due to neonatal causes and communicable diseases (CDs) were lower in the icddr,b SA than in the government SA, where mortality rates due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) were lower. Cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs) due to CDs (23.2% versus 18.8%) and neonatal causes (7.4% versus 6%) were higher in the government SA, whereas CSMFs due to NCDs were higher (58.2% versus 50.7%) in the icddr,b SA. The rank-order of CSMFs by age group showed marked variations, the largest category being acute respiratory infection/pneumonia in infancy, injury in 1-4 and 5-14 years, neoplasms in 15-49 and 50-64 years, and stroke in 65+ years. Conclusions Automated InterVA-4

  12. Distribution of cause of death in rural Bangladesh during 2003-2010: evidence from two rural areas within Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Nurul; Chowdhury, Hafizur R; Ahmed, Ali; Rahman, Mahfuzur; Streatfield, P Kim

    2014-01-01

    This study used the InterVA-4 computerised model to assign probable cause of death (CoD) to verbal autopsies (VAs) generated from two rural areas, with a difference in health service provision, within the Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance site (HDSS). This study aimed to compare CoD by gender, as well as discussing possible factors which could influence differences in the distribution of CoD between the two areas. Data for this study came from the Matlab the HDSS maintained by the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b) since 1966. In late 1977, icddr,b divided HDSS and implemented a high-quality maternal, newborn and child health and family planning (MNCH-FP) services project in one half, called the icddr,b service area (SA), in addition to the usual public and private MNCH-FP services that serve the other half, called the government SA. HDSS field workers registered 12,144 deaths during 2003-2010, and trained interviewers obtained VA for 98.9% of them. The probabilistic model InterVA-4 probabilistic model (version 4.02) was used to derive probable CoD from VA symptoms. Cause-specific mortality rates and fractions were compared across gender and areas. Appropriate statistical tests were applied for significance testing. Mortality rates due to neonatal causes and communicable diseases (CDs) were lower in the icddr,b SA than in the government SA, where mortality rates due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) were lower. Cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs) due to CDs (23.2% versus 18.8%) and neonatal causes (7.4% versus 6%) were higher in the government SA, whereas CSMFs due to NCDs were higher (58.2% versus 50.7%) in the icddr,b SA. The rank-order of CSMFs by age group showed marked variations, the largest category being acute respiratory infection/pneumonia in infancy, injury in 1-4 and 5-14 years, neoplasms in 15-49 and 50-64 years, and stroke in 65+ years. Automated InterVA-4 coding of VA to determine probable Co

  13. Distribution of cause of death in rural Bangladesh during 2003–2010: evidence from two rural areas within Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Nurul; Chowdhury, Hafizur R.; Ahmed, Ali; Rahman, Mahfuzur; Streatfield, P. Kim

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study used the InterVA-4 computerised model to assign probable cause of death (CoD) to verbal autopsies (VAs) generated from two rural areas, with a difference in health service provision, within the Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance site (HDSS). This study aimed to compare CoD by gender, as well as discussing possible factors which could influence differences in the distribution of CoD between the two areas. Design Data for this study came from the Matlab the HDSS maintained by the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b) since 1966. In late 1977, icddr,b divided HDSS and implemented a high-quality maternal, newborn and child health and family planning (MNCH-FP) services project in one half, called the icddr,b service area (SA), in addition to the usual public and private MNCH-FP services that serve the other half, called the government SA. HDSS field workers registered 12,144 deaths during 2003–2010, and trained interviewers obtained VA for 98.9% of them. The probabilistic model InterVA-4 probabilistic model (version 4.02) was used to derive probable CoD from VA symptoms. Cause-specific mortality rates and fractions were compared across gender and areas. Appropriate statistical tests were applied for significance testing. Results Mortality rates due to neonatal causes and communicable diseases (CDs) were lower in the icddr,b SA than in the government SA, where mortality rates due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) were lower. Cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs) due to CDs (23.2% versus 18.8%) and neonatal causes (7.4% versus 6%) were higher in the government SA, whereas CSMFs due to NCDs were higher (58.2% versus 50.7%) in the icddr,b SA. The rank-order of CSMFs by age group showed marked variations, the largest category being acute respiratory infection/pneumonia in infancy, injury in 1–4 and 5–14 years, neoplasms in 15–49 and 50–64 years, and stroke in 65+ years. Conclusions Automated

  14. Distribution of cause of death in rural Bangladesh during 2003–2010: evidence from two rural areas within Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Alam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study used the InterVA-4 computerised model to assign probable cause of death (CoD to verbal autopsies (VAs generated from two rural areas, with a difference in health service provision, within the Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance site (HDSS. This study aimed to compare CoD by gender, as well as discussing possible factors which could influence differences in the distribution of CoD between the two areas. Design: Data for this study came from the Matlab the HDSS maintained by the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b since 1966. In late 1977, icddr,b divided HDSS and implemented a high-quality maternal, newborn and child health and family planning (MNCH-FP services project in one half, called the icddr,b service area (SA, in addition to the usual public and private MNCH-FP services that serve the other half, called the government SA. HDSS field workers registered 12,144 deaths during 2003–2010, and trained interviewers obtained VA for 98.9% of them. The probabilistic model InterVA-4 probabilistic model (version 4.02 was used to derive probable CoD from VA symptoms. Cause-specific mortality rates and fractions were compared across gender and areas. Appropriate statistical tests were applied for significance testing. Results: Mortality rates due to neonatal causes and communicable diseases (CDs were lower in the icddr,b SA than in the government SA, where mortality rates due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs were lower. Cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs due to CDs (23.2% versus 18.8% and neonatal causes (7.4% versus 6% were higher in the government SA, whereas CSMFs due to NCDs were higher (58.2% versus 50.7% in the icddr,b SA. The rank-order of CSMFs by age group showed marked variations, the largest category being acute respiratory infection/pneumonia in infancy, injury in 1–4 and 5–14 years, neoplasms in 15–49 and 50–64 years, and stroke in 65+ years. Conclusions

  15. The politics of surveillance policy: UK regulatory dynamics after Snowden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Hintz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The revelations by NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden have illustrated the scale and extent of digital surveillance carried out by different security and intelligence agencies. The publications have led to a variety of concerns, public debate, and some diplomatic fallout regarding the legality of the surveillance, the extent of state interference in civic life, and the protection of civil rights in the context of security. Debates about the policy environment of surveillance emerged quickly after the leaks began, but actual policy change is only starting. In the UK, a draft law (Investigatory Powers Bill has been proposed and is currently discussed. In this paper, we will trace the forces and dynamics that have shaped this particular policy response. Addressing surveillance policy as a site of struggle between different social forces and drawing on different fields across communication policy research, we suggest eight dynamics that, often in conflicting ways, have shaped the regulatory framework of surveillance policy in the UK since the Snowden leaks. These include the governmental context; national and international norms; court rulings; civil society advocacy; technical standards; private sector interventions; media coverage; and public opinion. We investigate how state surveillance has been met with criticism by parts of the technology industry and civil society, and that policy change was required as a result of legal challenges, review commissions and normative interventions. However a combination of specific government compositions, the strong role of security agendas and discourses, media justification and a muted reaction by the public have hindered a more fundamental review of surveillance practices so far and have moved policy debate towards the expansion, rather than the restriction, of surveillance in the aftermath of Snowden.

  16. Health science students and their learning environment: a comparison of perceptions of on-site, remote-site, and traditional classroom students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elison-Bowers, P; Snelson, Chareen; Casa de Calvo, Mario; Thompson, Heather

    2008-02-05

    This study compared the responses of on-site, remote-site, and traditional classroom students on measures of student/teacher interaction, course structure, physical learning environment, and overall course enjoyment/satisfaction. The sample population consisted of students taking undergraduate courses in medical terminology at two western colleges. The survey instrument was derived from Thomerson's questionnaire, which included closed- and open-ended questions assessing perceptions of students toward their courses. Controlling for grade expectations, results revealed no significant differences among the on-site, remote-site, and traditional classroom students in any of the four cluster domains. However, a nonsignificant (and continuing) trend suggested that students preferred the traditional classroom environment. When results were controlled for age, significant differences emerged between traditional and nontraditional students on measures of student/teacher interaction, physical learning environment, and overall enjoyment/satisfaction, as nontraditional students exhibited higher scores. Students' responses to open-ended questions indicated they enjoyed the convenience of online instruction, but reported finding frustration with technology itself.

  17. Speciation of iodine (I-127) in the natural environment around Canadian CANDU sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, S.J.; Kotzer, T.G.; Chant, L.A

    2001-06-01

    In Canada, very little data is available regarding the concentrations and chemical speciation of iodine in the environment proximal and distal to CANDU Nuclear Power Generating Stations (NPGS). In the immediate vicinity of CANDU reactors, the short-lived iodine isotope {sup 131}I (t{sub 1/2} = 8.04 d), which is produced from fission reactions, is generally below detection and yields little information about the environmental cycling of iodine. Conversely, the fission product {sup 129}I has a long half-life (t{sub 1/2} = 1.57x10{sup 7} y) and has had other anthropogenic inputs (weapons testing, nuclear fuel reprocessing) other than CANDU over the past 50 years. As a result, the concentrations of stable iodine ({sup 127}I) have been used as a proxy. In this study, a sampling system was developed and tested at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) to collect and measure the particulate and gaseous inorganic and organic fractions of stable iodine ({sup 127}I) in air and associated organic and inorganic reservoirs. Air, vegetation and soil samples were collected at CRL, and at Canadian CANDU Nuclear Power Generating Stations (NPGS) at OPG's (Ontario Power Generation) Pickering (PNGS) and Darlington NPGS (DNGS) in Ontario, as well as at NB Power's Pt. Lepreau NPGS in New Brunswick. The concentrations of particulate and inorganic iodine in air at CRL were extremely low, and were often found to be below detection. The concentrations are believed to be at this level because the sediments in the CRL area are glacial fluvial and devoid of marine ionic species, and the local atmospheric conditions at the sampling site are very humid. Concentrations of a gaseous organic species were comparable to worldwide levels. The concentrations of particulate and inorganic iodine in air were also found to be low at PNGS and DNGS, which may be attributed to reservoir effects of the large freshwater lakes in southern Ontario, which might serve to dilute the atmospheric iodine

  18. Use of native plants for the remediation of abandoned mine sites in Mediterranean semiarid environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchetta, G; Cappai, G; Carucci, A; Tamburini, E

    2015-03-01

    Abandoned tailing dumps from mining industry represent important sources of metal contamination in the surrounding environments. This study evaluates the potential of two Mediterranean native plants, Pistacia lentiscus and Phragmites australis, for phytoremediation of two Sardinian contaminated mine sites. A 6 months study has been conducted at greenhouse-controlled conditions with the aim of investigating the plant capability to tolerate high metal concentrations and to extract or immobilize them within the roots. The possibility to mitigate stress on the plants and improve treatment efficiency by adding compost as amendment was also evaluated. Both species were able to restrict accumulation of Cd, Pb and Zn to the root tissues exhibiting a metal concentration ratio of plant roots to soil bioavailable fraction higher than two (four in the case of Zn). However, the two species showed different adaptation responses, being the survival of P. australis after 6 months in contaminated soil lower (25 %-58 %) than that observed for P. lentiscus (77 %-100 %). Compost addition resulted in a lower metal uptake in tissues of both plants and a higher survival of P. australis, whilst almost no effect was observed as regard the growth of both species. The two tested species appear to be promising candidates for phytostabilization, P. lentiscus exhibiting a greater adaptability to heavy metal contaminated matrices than P. australis.

  19. Site Environmental Report for 2008, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, Regina; Baskin, David; Fox, Robert; Jelinski, John; Pauer, Ron; Thorson, Patrick; Wahl, Linnea; Xu, Suying

    2009-09-21

    The Site Environmental Report for 2008 is an integrated report on the environmental programs at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and satisfies the requirements of DOE order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Volume II contains individual data results from surveillance and monitoring activities

  20. Site Environmental Report for 2008, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, Regina; Baskin, David; Fox, Robert; Jelinski, John; Pauer, Ron; Thorson, Patrick; Wahl, Linnea; Xu, Suying

    2009-09-21

    The Site Environmental Report for 2008 is an integrated report on environmental programs at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and satisfies the requirements of DOE Order 231.1 A., Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Volume II contains individual data results from surveillance and monitoring activities

  1. Site Environmental Report for 2007 Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, Regina E; Baskin, David; Fox, Robert; Jelinski, John; Pauer, Ron; Thorson, Patrick; Wahl, Linnea; Wyrick, Steve

    2008-09-15

    The Site Environmental Report for 2007 is an integrated report on the environmental programs at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and satisfies the requirements of DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Volume II contains individual data results from surveillance and monitoring activities.

  2. Site-Based Management in a Collective Bargaining Environment: Can We Mix Oil and Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossey, Richard

    Site-based management has become a popular school reform strategy. However, conflicts can arise when school districts with collective bargaining try to implement site-based management. Site-based management depends on collaboration and cooperation among educators, both of which conflict with collective bargaining's adversarial nature. There is…

  3. DC resistivity and induced polarisation investigations at a waste disposal site and its environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristodemou, E.; Thomas-Betts, A.

    2000-05-01

    We report the results from some geoelectrical surveys carried out to monitor the spread of contamination in underlying aquifers due to a landfill site. The geophysically determined electrical properties of the aquifers have subsequently been used to estimate hydraulic conductivities which are required for modelling contaminant transport. The type of waste deposited and the influence of the geological environment were the crucial factors investigated, employing the DC resistivity and time domain induced polarisation (IP) methods. The landfill was mainly a liquid disposal site with existing borehole information showing that the waste contained high concentrations of not only inorganic material (chlorides, sulphates) but also organic matter (indicated by high values of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC)). The measured fluid resistivities ρw from the surrounding boreholes showed values as low as 0.25 Ω m, leading us to expect low bulk resistivities ρo. The aquifer system in the study area, with an eastwards regional groundwater flow, consists of three sand aquifers with intervening semi-pervious clay aquitards. Clay particles are also present in the sand formations and expected to influence the overall bulk resistivity and chargeability. The presence of organic waste is another factor suggesting that the IP method could be employed as a diagnostic tool. Our resistivity measurements along the survey lines perpendicular to the groundwater flow show systematic reductions of resistivities relative to the control line, the effect decreasing progressively eastwards from the landfill. The resistivities of these contaminated sections were higher than expected and one possible explanation for this could be the presence of the organic waste. However, an alternative explanation could be the low porosities in the sand formations. Low porosity may imply reduced fluid content, and therefore increased bulk resistivities, as well as lower hydraulic

  4. Coordination Environment of Copper Sites in Cu-CHA Zeolite Investigated by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godiksen, Anita; Stappen, Frederick N.; Vennestrøm, Peter N. R.

    2014-01-01

    the zeolite framework is very simple with only one crystallographically independent tetrahedral site (T-site). In this study the results of an X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) investigation of ion-exchanged Cu-CHA zeolite with a Si/Al ratio of 14 ± 1 is presented. Different dehydration treatments...

  5. Appropriate Pedagogical Approaches For Conduct of Site Planning and Built Environment Studio in Spatial Planning Education Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valliappan Alagappan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Spatial planning education is multi-disciplinary in nature and particularly site planning needs exposure to Engineering, Architectural, Landscape, Sociological, Economic, and Infrastructural aspects. The curriculum of the spatial planning program introduces the site-planning studio (multi-level design and planning at the initial semesters without introduction of single space design and planning. Due to inadequate exposure the students find it difficult to plan and design residential layouts in the planning studio. The site-planning studio provides a good understanding of how the articulation of density can modify the built form and environment. There are considerable lacunae in the adopted approaches of site planning studios in various planning schools. The author discusses in detail the varied methodologies and approaches adopted in site planning and built environment studio programs. The two pedagogical studios methods experimented in the site-planning studio were discussed at length. One method discusses from unit level planning and designing to block and neighborhood level and other method discusses from neighborhood to block and unit level. Within these two studio pedagogical methodologies, for conduct of site planning exercises two approaches were generally adopted i.e block-based approach and Design based approach. The characteristic features, outcomes, advantages and disadvantages of each methodologies /approach offer an understanding of how site-planning studios have to be taught in the planning program. The author emphasizes the importance of a gradual progression from a single space design and planning to multi-level design and planning for enhanced comprehension of students.

  6. The level and patterns of fertility among women in Kersa Demographic Surveillance and Health Research Center (KDS-HRC) Field site, Kersa District, East Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelalem, Desalew; Semahegn, Agumasie; Tesfaye, Gezahegn; Sileshi, Balewgize

    2015-01-01

    Fertility is one of the three principal components of population dynamics. High fertility and rapid population growth exert negative influences on economic and social development. This study was aimed to estimate the level and trends of fertility among (15-49 years) old women in kersa demographic surveillance and health research center, kersa district Eastern Ethiopia. The study was conducted at kersa demographic surveillance and health research center in kersa district, Eastern Ethiopia. The study utilized five years follow up data (2008-2012). All women (15 to 49 years old) who have been living at kersa demographic surveillance and health research center in kersa district from 2008 to 2012 were included in the analysis to estimate the level and pattern of fertility. Descriptive statistics was computed to determine level and pattern of fertility. Age specific fertility rate was highest in women of the age group 25-29 years old (233.2 per 1000 women in 2008; 205.8 per 1000 women in 2009; 279.0 per 1000 women in 2010; 186.6 per 1000 women in 2011 and 198.5 per 1000 women in 2012) in five consecutive years from 2008 to 2012. Total fertility rate didn't show any significant decline during the study period, i.e., 4.3, 4.5, 4.9, 3.5, 4.0 live births per woman throughout her reproductive period (15-49) years old in 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively. On the other hand, general fertility rate declined from 110.3 births per 1000 women in 2008 to 95.9 per 1000 women in the reproductive age in 2012. The total fertility rate was found to be relatively high. Fertility rate is higher in rural residents and illiterate women than in urban residents and literate women. Strong information, education, communication and behavior change communication on family planning should be designed and implemented to prevent unwanted fertility.

  7. Status of activities on the inactive uranium mill tailings sites remedial action program. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    This report on the status of the Office of Environment's program for inactive uranium mill tailings sites is an analysis of the current status and a forecast of future activities of the Office of Environment. The termination date for receipt of information was September 30, 1980. Aerial radiological surveys and detailed ground radiological assessments of properties within the communities in the vicinity of the designated processing sites in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, Salt Lake City, Utah, and Boise, Idaho led to the designation of an initial group of vicinity properties for remedial action. The potential health effects of the residual radioactive materials on or near these properties were estimated, and the Assistant Secretary for Environment recommended priorities for performing remedial action to the Department's Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy. In designating these properties and establishing recommended priorities for performing remedial action, the Office of Environment consulted with the Environmental Protection Agency, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, representatives from the affected State and local governments, and individual property owners. After notifying the Governors of each of the affected States and the Navajo Nation of the Secretary of Energy's designation of processing sites within their areas of jurisdiction and establishment of remedial action priorities, a Sample Cooperative Agreement was developed by the Department in consultation with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and provided to the affected States and the Navajo Nation for comments. During September 1980, a Cooperative Agreement with the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania for the designated Canonsburg processing site was executed by the Department. It is anticipated that a Cooperative Agreement between the State of Utah and the Department to perform remedial actions at the designated Salt Lake City site will be executed in the near future.

  8. Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the origin...... and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  9. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: STAGING (Staging Site Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for staging sites along the Hudson River. Vector points in this data set represent locations of possible staging areas...

  10. Report of findings: Contaminant study of the environment surrounding the Cape Romanzof Long Range Radar Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Cape Romanzof Long Range Radar Site (Cape Romanzof) contains many petroleum-related spills and hazardous substances. Therefore, in 1987 and 1988 a field study...

  11. Obsolete pesticide storage sites and their POP release into the environment-an Armenian case study

    OpenAIRE

    A. Dvorská; Šír, M. (Miloslav); Honzajková, Z.; Komprda, J.; Čupr, P.; Petrlík, J.; Anakhasyan, E.; Simonyan, L.; Kubal, M

    2012-01-01

    Organochlorinated pesticides were widely applied in Armenia until the 1980s, like in all former Soviet Union republics. Subsequently, the problem of areas contaminated by organochlorinated pesticides emerged. Environmental, waste and food samples at one pesticide burial site (Nubarashen) and three former pesticide storage sites (Jrarat, Echmiadzin and Masis) were taken and analysed on the content of organochlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans and dioxin-...

  12. Site environmental report for 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brekke, D.D.; Holland, R.C.; Gordon, K.W. [ed.

    1995-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is committed to conducting its operations in an environmentally safe and sound manner. It is mandatory that activities at SNL/California comply with all applicable environmental statutes, regulations, and standards. Moreover, SNL/California continuously strives to reduce risks to employees, the public, and the environment to the lowest levels reasonably possible. To help verify effective protection of public safety and preservation of the environment, SNL/California maintains an extensive, ongoing environmental monitoring program. This program monitors all significant airborne and liquid effluents and the environment at the SNL/California site perimeter. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) performs off-site environmental monitoring for both sites. These monitoring efforts ensure that emission controls are effective in preventing contamination of the environment. As part of SNL/California`s Environmental Monitoring Program, an environmental surveillance system measures the possible presence of radioactive and hazardous materials in ambient air, surface water, groundwater, sewage, soil, vegetation, and locally-produced food-stuffs. The program also includes an extensive environmental dosimetry program, which measures external radiation levels around the Livermore site and nearby vicinity. Each year, the results of the Environmental Monitoring Program are published in this report, the Site Environmental Report This executive summary focuses on impacts to the environment and estimated radiation doses to the public from site emissions. Chapter 3, {open_quotes}Compliance Summary,{close_quotes} reviews the site`s various environmental protection activities and compliance status with applicable environmental regulations. The effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance results for 1994 show that SNL/California operations had no harmful effects on the environment or the public. A summary of the findings is provided below.

  13. Internet and Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged in this co......The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged...... in this context. With such platforms comes the massive provision and storage of personal data that are systematically evaluated, marketed, and used for targeting users with advertising. In a world of global economic competition, economic crisis, and fear of terrorism after 9/11, both corporations and state...... in the age of the internet; civil watch-surveillance on social networking sites; and networked interactive surveillance in transnational space. This book is a result of a research action launched by the intergovernmental network COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology)....

  14. Internet and Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    institutions have a growing interest in accessing this personal data. Here, contributors explore this changing landscape by addressing topics such as commercial data collection by advertising, consumer sites and interactive media; self-disclosure in the social web; surveillance of file-sharers; privacy...... in this context. With such platforms comes the massive provision and storage of personal data that are systematically evaluated, marketed, and used for targeting users with advertising. In a world of global economic competition, economic crisis, and fear of terrorism after 9/11, both corporations and state...

  15. GSFC Supplier Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Topics covered include: Develop Program/Project Quality Assurance Surveillance Plans The work activities performed by the developer and/or his suppliers are subject to evaluation and audit by government-designated representatives. CSO supports project by selecting on-site supplier representative s by one of several methods: (1) a Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) person via a Letter Of Delegation (LOD), (2) an independent assurance contractor (IAC) via a contract Audits, Assessments, and Assurance (A3) Contract Code 300 Mission Assurance Support Contract (MASC)

  16. Emotional, restorative and vitalizing effects of forest and urban environments at four sites in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Norimasa; Korpela, Kalevi; Lee, Juyoung; Morikawa, Takeshi; Tsunetsugu, Yuko; Park, Bum-Jin; Li, Qing; Tyrväinen, Liisa; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi; Kagawa, Takahide

    2014-07-15

    The present study investigated the well-being effects of short-term forest walking and viewing ("forest bathing"). The hypothesis in our study was that both environment (forest vs. urban) and activity (walking and viewing) would influence psychological outcomes. An additional aim was to enhance basic research using several psychological methods. We conducted the experiments using 45 respondents in four areas of Japan from August to September, 2011. The hypothesis in our study was supported, because significant interaction terms between the environment and activity were confirmed regarding the Profile of Mood States (POMS) indexes, Restorative Outcome Scale (ROS) and Subjective Vitality Scale (SVS). No statistical differences between the two experimental groups in any of the ten scales were found before the experiment. However, feelings of vigor and positive effects, as well as feelings of subjective recovery and vitality were stronger in the forest environment than in the urban environment.

  17. Emotional, Restorative and Vitalizing Effects of Forest and Urban Environments at Four Sites in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norimasa Takayama

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the well-being effects of short-term forest walking and viewing (“forest bathing”. The hypothesis in our study was that both environment (forest vs. urban and activity (walking and viewing would influence psychological outcomes. An additional aim was to enhance basic research using several psychological methods. We conducted the experiments using 45 respondents in four areas of Japan from August to September, 2011. The hypothesis in our study was supported, because significant interaction terms between the environment and activity were confirmed regarding the Profile of Mood States (POMS indexes, Restorative Outcome Scale (ROS and Subjective Vitality Scale (SVS. No statistical differences between the two experimental groups in any of the ten scales were found before the experiment. However, feelings of vigor and positive effects, as well as feelings of subjective recovery and vitality were stronger in the forest environment than in the urban environment.

  18. Savannah River Site Environmental Report for 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, M.W.; Mamatey, A.; Spitzer, D.

    1994-12-16

    The mission at the Savannah River Site has changed from producing nuclear weapons materials for national defense to managing the waste it has generated, restoring the environment, and enhancing industrial development in and around the site. But no matter what the site`s mission is, it will continue to maintain its comprehensive environmental monitoring and surveillance program. In 1994, effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance were conducted within a 30,000-square-mile area in and around SRS that includes neighboring cities, towns, and counties in Georgia and South Carolina and extends up to 100 miles from the site. Thousands of samples of air, surface water, groundwater, foodstuffs, drinking water, wildlife, rainwater, soil, sediment, and vegetation were collected and analyzed for radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants.

  19. ANTHROPOGENIC POLLEN INDICATORS (API FROM ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES AS LOCAL EVIDENCE OF HUMAN-INDUCED ENVIRONMENTS IN THE ITALIAN PENINSULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Mercuri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pollen data from twenty-six archaeological sites are reviewed to investigate the development of human-induced environments through the presence of selected Anthropogenic Pollen Indicators (API. The sites are located in six Italian regions - Veneto, Emilia Romagna, Tuscany, Basilicata, Calabria, and Sicily - and in the Republic of San Marino. Their chronology spans from the Bronze to the Renaissance ages, from approximately 4200 to 500 years BP. The API which are common in these sites are properly considered important markers of human activity and anthropization in the Mediterranean area. The most frequent API taxa in pollen spectra are seven: Artemisia, Centaurea, Cichorieae and Plantago are ubiquitous and therefore they have the major relevance, followed by cereals and Urtica, and by Trifolium type. The spread of plants producing these pollen grains is sometimes marked by high percentage values in pollen spectra. Pollen records show that, as expected, cereals and wild synanthropic herbs were widespread near archaeological sites but local differences are evident. Ecological and chrono-cultural reasons may be at the base of the observed differences. In general, the synanthropic plants well represent the xeric environments that developed as a result of the continuous human pressure and changes in soil compositions. These changes have occurred especially during the mid and late Holocene.

  20. Submarine hydrothermal environments as sites for the origin and evolution of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, S.; Baross, J.

    1985-01-01

    That life formed and evolved in hydrothermal environments is proposed. This hypothesis is plausible in terms of the tectonic, paleontological, and degassing history of the Earth. Submarine hydrothermal vents are the only contemporary geological environment which may truly be called primeval and which today continue to be a major source of gases and dissolved elements to the ocean. The microbial assemblages in present day hydrothermal systems therefore could be living analogues of the earliest microbial communities to develop on Earth. The evidence for the hypothesis is reviewed.

  1. Site-specific Perception. Philosophical reflections on the impact of environment on perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Friberg

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The question raised is about the differences in perception between people due to different environmental backgrounds. The assumption is that we learn to perceive and that the environment is essential for this learning. This is discussed taking a classical philosophical view on perception from Leibniz and Baumgarten’s aesthetics recently revived in the concept of atmosphere, as proposed by Gernot Böhme. The conclusion points to questions of the consequences of the environment for our perception as well as to the importance of aesthetic education in training perception.

  2. Nest site selection and breeding success in three Turdus thrush species coexisting in an urban environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikula, P.; Hromada, M.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Tryjanowski, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2014), s. 83-92 ISSN 0001-6454 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : breeding success * coexistence * nest-habitat partitioning * nest site selection * predation * synurbization * urban habitat * thrushes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.745, year: 2014

  3. Blended Learning Environments: Using Social Networking Sites to Enhance the First Year Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    This study explores blending virtual and physical learning environments to enhance the experience of first year by immersing students into university culture through social and academic interaction between peers. It reports on the progress made from 2008 to 2009 using an existing academic platform, the first year design elective course…

  4. Using a Classification of Psychological Experience in Social-Networking Sites as a Virtual Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onibokun, Joseph; van Schaik, Paul

    2012-01-01

    With over 800 million users worldwide, the global importance of Facebook as a social-networking platform is beyond doubt. This popularity, particularly among university-students, has encouraged research to explore ways in which social networking can be adapted into virtual learning environments. In particular, this study uses the think-aloud…

  5. Environmental monitoring and surveillance on the Oak Ridge Reservation: 1993 Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koncinski, W.S. [ed.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Environmental monitoring and surveillance are conducted on the Oak Ridge Reservation and its environs throughout the year. Environmental monitoring ensures that (1) the reservation is a safe place to work, (2) activities on the reservation do not adversely affect the neighboring communities, and (3) compliance is made with federal and state regulations. This document is a compilation of the monitoring and surveillance data for calendar year 1993. It is a tool for analysts in the fields of environmental monitoring and environmental restoration. The summary information found in the annual site environmental report was drawn from the contents of summary in this document.

  6. Visualization of the Differential Transition State Stabilization within the Active Site Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Leszczynski

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Increasing interest in the enzymatic reaction mechanisms and in the nature of catalytic effects in enzymes causes the need of appropriate visualization methods. A new interactive method to investigate catalytic effects using differential transition state stabilization approach (DTSS [1, 2] is presented. The catalytic properties of the active site of cytidine deaminase (E.C. 3.5.4.5 is visualized in the form of differential electrostatic properties. The visualization was implemented using scripting interface of VMD [3]. Cumulative Atomic Multipole Moments (CAMM [4,5,6] were utilized for efficient yet accurate evaluation of the electrostatic properties. The implementation is efficient enough for interactive presentation of catalytic effects in the active site of the enzyme due to transition state or substrate movement. This system of visualization of DTTS approach can be potentially used to validate hypotheses regarding the catalytic mechanism or to study binding properties of transition state analogues.

  7. Solar-collector materials exposure to the IPH site environment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, V.L.

    1982-01-01

    In-situ environmental exposure tests were conducted at nine proposed intermediate-temperature Industrial Process Heat (IPH) sites. Three types of reflector materials were evaluated for survivability at the nine sites: second-surface silvered glass, aluminized acrylic FEK-244 film on aluminum substrate, and Alzak (electropolished aluminum) on aluminum substrate. Black chrome absorber material and low-iron float glass were evaluated for thermal, photochemical, and environmental degradation. The reflector specimens were monitored for decreases in specular and hemispherical reflectance due to soil buildup. The absorber material was evaluated for changes in solar absorptivity and emissivity, and the float glass was monitored for changes in transmissivity. Surface and subsurface defects on all materials were examined microscopically and, where deemed of note, were documented photographically.

  8. Solar-collector-materials exposure to the IPH site environment. Volume 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, V.L.

    1982-01-01

    In-situ environmental exposure tests were conducted at nine proposed intermediate-temperature Industrial Process Heat (IPH) sites. Three types of reflector materials were evaluated for survivability at the nine sites: second-surface silvered glass, aluminized acrylic FEK-244 film on aluminumsubstrate and Alzak (electropolished aluminum) on aluminium substrate. Black chrome absorber material and low-iron float glass were evaluated for thermal, photochemical, and environmental degradation. The reflector specimens were monitored for decreases in specular and hemispherical reflectance due to soil buildup. The absorber material was evaluated for changes in solar absorptivity and emissivity, and the float glass was monitored for changes in transmissivity. Surface and subsurface defects on all materials were examined microscopically and, where deemed of note, were documented photographically.

  9. Modelling the buried human body environment in upland climes using three contrasting field sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew S; Janaway, Robert C; Holland, Andrew D; Dodson, Hilary I; Baran, Eve; Pollard, A Mark; Tobin, Desmond J

    2007-06-14

    Despite an increasing literature on the decomposition of human remains, whether buried or exposed, it is important to recognise the role of specific microenvironments which can either trigger or delay the rate of decomposition. Recent casework in Northern England involving buried and partially buried human remains has demonstrated a need for a more detailed understanding of the effect of contrasting site conditions on cadaver decomposition and on the microenvironment created within the grave itself. Pigs (Sus scrofa) were used as body analogues in three inter-related taphonomy experiments to examine differential decomposition of buried human remains. They were buried at three contrasting field sites (pasture, moorland, and deciduous woodland) within a 15 km radius of the University of Bradford, West Yorkshire, UK. Changes to the buried body and the effect of these changes on hair and associated death-scene textile materials were monitored as was the microenvironment of the grave. At recovery, 6, 12 and 24 months post-burial, the extent of soft tissue decomposition was recorded and samples of fat and soil were collected for gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis. The results of these studies demonstrated that (1) soil conditions at these three burial sites has a marked effect on the condition of the buried body but even within a single site variation can occur; (2) the process of soft tissue decomposition modifies the localised burial microenvironment in terms of microbiological load, pH, moisture and changes in redox status. These observations have widespread application for the investigation of clandestine burial and time since deposition, and in understanding changes within the burial microenvironment that may impact on biomaterials such as hair and other associated death scene materials.

  10. Environment and Economic Activity of the Pestretsy 2 Site Inhabitants on the Mesha River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galimova Madina Sh.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary results of integrated archaeological and paleo-ecological research in the multilayer site Pestretsy 2 on the Mesha river (Middle Volga region are discussed in the article. As a result of geology and geomorphology studies, it was found that cultural layers of the Bronze and Early Iron Ages occurred in the buried soil complex, which was coated by river fresh deposits formed in 19th–20th centuries. According paleo-geography data, the site was situated on elevated plot in the lake-marsh basin, the basin, which radiocarbon age is about 4 thousand years ago. The site seems to be the remnants of the Late Bronze long-term settlement (at least in excavated part belonging to so called Zaymishche cultural type as shown by stratigraphy, planigraphy and stone artifacts data. The shouldered arrowhead with barbs and triangular stem of the Seyma type found in this layer allows us to refer it to the 18th–16thth centuries. As for the subsequent Ananyino and Azelino cultural layers, they were apparently short-term camps. Numerous faunal remains studied using archaeo-zoological methods, demonstrated animal husbandry practice houses adjoining (so called “forest” type combined with highly developed hunting and seasonal fishing. Use-wear analysis of stone inventory confirms the authors conclusion.

  11. Computer Vision Photogrammetry for Underwater Archaeological Site Recording in a Low-Visibility Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, T.

    2015-04-01

    Computer Vision Photogrammetry allows archaeologists to accurately record underwater sites in three dimensions using simple twodimensional picture or video sequences, automatically processed in dedicated software. In this article, I share my experience in working with one such software package, namely PhotoScan, to record a Dutch shipwreck site. In order to demonstrate the method's reliability and flexibility, the site in question is reconstructed from simple GoPro footage, captured in low-visibility conditions. Based on the results of this case study, Computer Vision Photogrammetry compares very favourably to manual recording methods both in recording efficiency, and in the quality of the final results. In a final section, the significance of Computer Vision Photogrammetry is then assessed from a historical perspective, by placing the current research in the wider context of about half a century of successful use of Analytical and later Digital photogrammetry in the field of underwater archaeology. I conclude that while photogrammetry has been used in our discipline for several decades now, for various reasons the method was only ever used by a relatively small percentage of projects. This is likely to change in the near future since, compared to the `traditional' photogrammetry approaches employed in the past, today Computer Vision Photogrammetry is easier to use, more reliable and more affordable than ever before, while at the same time producing more accurate and more detailed three-dimensional results.

  12. Creating a course-based web site in a university environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Bernard R.; Mcneil, Sara G.

    1997-06-01

    The delivery of educational materials is undergoing a remarkable change from the traditional lecture method to dissemination of courses via the World Wide Web. This paradigm shift from a paper-based structure to an electronic one has profound implications for university faculty. Students are enrolling in classes with the expectation of using technology and logging on to the Internet, and professors are realizing that the potential of the Web can have a significant impact on classroom activities. An effective method of integrating electronic technologies into teaching and learning is to publish classroom materials on the World Wide Web. Already, many faculty members are creating their own home pages and Web sites for courses that include syllabi, handouts, and student work. Additionally, educators are finding value in adding hypertext links to a wide variety of related Web resources from online research and electronic journals to government and commercial sites. A number of issues must be considered when developing course-based Web sites. These include meeting the needs of a target audience, designing effective instructional materials, and integrating graphics and other multimedia components. There are also numerous technical issues that must be addressed in developing, uploading and maintaining HTML documents. This article presents a model for a university faculty who want to begin using the Web in their teaching and is based on the experiences of two College of Education professors who are using the Web as an integral part of their graduate courses.

  13. Who is Surveilling Whom?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    This article concerns the particular form of counter-surveillance termed “sousveillance”, which aims to turn surveillance at the institutions responsible for surveillance. Drawing on the theoretical perspectives “mediatization” and “aerial surveillance,” the article studies WikiLeaks’ publication...

  14. The Evolving Demographic and Health Transition in Four Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Evidence from Four Sites in the INDEPTH Network of Longitudinal Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayaga Bawah

    Full Text Available This paper contributes evidence documenting the continued decline in all-cause mortality and changes in the cause of death distribution over time in four developing country populations in Africa and Asia. We present levels and trends in age-specific mortality (all-cause and cause-specific from four demographic surveillance sites: Agincourt (South Africa, Navrongo (Ghana in Africa; Filabavi (Vietnam, Matlab (Bangladesh in Asia. We model mortality using discrete time event history analysis. This study illustrates how data from INDEPTH Network centers can provide a comparative, longitudinal examination of mortality patterns and the epidemiological transition. Health care systems need to be reconfigured to deal simultaneously with continuing challenges of communicable disease and increasing incidence of non-communicable diseases that require long-term care. In populations with endemic HIV, long-term care of HIV patients on ART will add to the chronic care needs of the community.

  15. The Evolving Demographic and Health Transition in Four Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Evidence from Four Sites in the INDEPTH Network of Longitudinal Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawah, Ayaga; Houle, Brian; Alam, Nurul; Razzaque, Abdur; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Debpuur, Cornelius; Welaga, Paul; Oduro, Abraham; Hodgson, Abraham; Tollman, Stephen; Collinson, Mark; Kahn, Kathleen; Toan, Tran Khan; Phuc, Ho Dang; Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Sankoh, Osman; Clark, Samuel J

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes evidence documenting the continued decline in all-cause mortality and changes in the cause of death distribution over time in four developing country populations in Africa and Asia. We present levels and trends in age-specific mortality (all-cause and cause-specific) from four demographic surveillance sites: Agincourt (South Africa), Navrongo (Ghana) in Africa; Filabavi (Vietnam), Matlab (Bangladesh) in Asia. We model mortality using discrete time event history analysis. This study illustrates how data from INDEPTH Network centers can provide a comparative, longitudinal examination of mortality patterns and the epidemiological transition. Health care systems need to be reconfigured to deal simultaneously with continuing challenges of communicable disease and increasing incidence of non-communicable diseases that require long-term care. In populations with endemic HIV, long-term care of HIV patients on ART will add to the chronic care needs of the community.

  16. Longitudinal Surveillance of Porcine Rotavirus B Strains from the United States and Canada and In Silico Identification of Antigenically Important Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances K. Shepherd

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rotavirus B (RVB is an important swine pathogen, but control and prevention strategies are limited without an available vaccine. To develop a subunit RVB vaccine with maximal effect, we characterized the amino acid sequence variability and predicted antigenicity of RVB viral protein 7 (VP7, a major neutralizing antibody target, from clinically infected pigs in the United States and Canada. We identified genotype-specific antigenic sites that may be antibody neutralization targets. While some antigenic sites had high amino acid functional group diversity, nine antigenic sites were completely conserved. Analysis of nucleotide substitution rates at amino acid sites (dN/dS suggested that negative selection appeared to be playing a larger role in the evolution of the identified antigenic sites when compared to positive selection, and was identified in six of the nine conserved antigenic sites. These results identified important characteristics of RVB VP7 variability and evolution and suggest antigenic residues on RVB VP7 that are negatively selected and highly conserved may be good candidate regions to include in a subunit vaccine design due to their tendency to remain stable.

  17. Between visibility and surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie

    As activists move from alternative media platforms to commercial social media platforms they face increasing challenges in protecting their online security and privacy. While government surveillance of activists is well-documented in both scholarly research and the media, corporate surveillance...... of activists remains under-researched. This presentation explores visibility as a prerequisite and an obstacle to political participation. The dual capacity of visibility in social media enables both surveillance and counter-surveillance by making not only the surveilled actor, but also the surveilling actor......’ surveillance of anti-capitalist activists in social media....

  18. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site: Phase 2 -- Birth defects. Technical progress report, year 01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunbar, J.B.

    1995-10-01

    The Savannah River Region Health Information System Birth Defects Registry (SRRHIS-BDR) began on September 30, 1994. As with the SRRHIS Cancer Registry, surveillance of the 12 Georgia counties was subcontracted to Emory University School of Public Health. Collaborative efforts between the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) and Emory University staffs have been characterized by warm relationships and commitment to developing a state of the art registry. As a result of early planning efforts, the authors were able to actually activate the data collection. As of the end of September 1995, partial data from the 1994 birth cohort and up-to-date data for the 1995 birth cohort had been collected on the South Carolina side. The Georgia Staff started later and have not yet caught up to the 1994 level. South Carolina was able to start earlier because they were fortunate to quickly recruit an abstractor. Also, by the end of the first year, an innovative automated data entry system for laptop computers was developed by the computer staff to facilitate and improve data collection.

  19. The environment and vegetation of the flux measurement site near Skukuza, Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Scholes

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The SAFARI-2000 intensive study site is located 13 km WSW of Skukuza. Detailed measurements of the exchanges of energy, water, carbon dioxide and other substances between the savanna and the atmosphere have been made there since April 2000. This paper provides basic information regarding the climate, soils and vegetation at the site. The site is located near the top of a gentle rise in an undulating granitic landscape. Most of the data were collected within a 300 m square centred on the flux tower situated at 25@01.184' S, 31@29.813' E and oriented true north. The tower stands exactly on the ecotone between a ridgetop broad-leafed Combretum savanna on sandy soil and a midslope fme-leafed Acacia savanna on clayey soil. The ecotone is marked by a 10 m wide band of sedges. The tree basal area within the sample square was 6.8 mVha (@ 1.0 standard error, the tree density 128 @ 16 plants/ha and the tree crown cover 24 @ 4 . Shrubs, defined as woody plants greater than 0.5 m but less than 2.5 m tall, contributed a further 7.6 crown cover. The basal area weighted mean height of the trees was 9 m, and the maximum height 13m. Nineteen woody plant species were recorded within the square, with 70 of the woody plant basal area dominated by Combretum apiculatum, Sclerocarya birrea and Acacia nigrescens. The rooted basal area of grasses was 7.1 @ 0.6 and in June 2000 the grass standing crop was 400 g DM m2.

  20. Rehabilitation of Seven (7) Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites in a Brackish Water/Lagoon Environment in South Trinidad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Avryl; Ramnath, Kelvin; Dyal, Shyam; Lalla, Francesca; Roopchand, Jaipersad

    2007-12-01

    The Petroleum Company of Trinidad and Tobago Limited operates in a wide diversity of tropical habitats in South Trinidad one of which is a brackish water environment known as the Godineau Swamp. Historically this field was operated by predecessor multinational companies, who at that time employed operational practices based on the absence of legal requirements, that were not environmentally considerate. Following a detailed environmental audit of the field (also known as the Oropouche Field), seven (7) contaminated sites were found, that presented a risk to the lagoon and its associated mangrove swamp ecology. Remediation of the seven (7) sites was done in two (2) phases; phase 1 being sampling and characterization of the waste inclusive of migration and phase 2 the actual on-site soil remediation. Phase 1 conducted during the period December 2004 to February 2005, indicated a total of 19,484 m3 of contaminated material with TPH being the main contaminant. The average concentration of TPH was 3.25%. Phase 2 remediation was initiated in October 2005 and involved the following three (3) aspects to achieve a TPH concentration of less than 1%: ▪ Preparation of waste remediation sites adjacent to contaminated sites and excavation and spreading onto cells ▪ Bioremediation onsite using naturally occurring bacteria and rototilling ▪ Rehabilitation and closure of the site following accepted lab results. The benefits of conducting this project in the petroleum industry are to ensure compliance to the national Sensitive Areas Rules and Draft Waste Management Rules, conformance to ISO 14001 Certification requirements and conservation of biodiversity in the mangrove swamp.

  1. Infrastructure stability surveillance with high resolution InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balz, Timo; Düring, Ralf

    2017-02-01

    The construction of new infrastructure in largely unknown and difficult environments, as it is necessary for the construction of the New Silk Road, can lead to a decreased stability along the construction site, leading to an increase in landslide risk and deformation caused by surface motion. This generally requires a thorough pre-analysis and consecutive surveillance of the deformation patterns to ensure the stability and safety of the infrastructure projects. Interferometric SAR (InSAR) and the derived techniques of multi-baseline InSAR are very powerful tools for a large area observation of surface deformation patterns. With InSAR and deriver techniques, the topographic height and the surface motion can be estimated for large areas, making it an ideal tool for supporting the planning, construction, and safety surveillance of new infrastructure elements in remote areas.

  2. Solid Waste Landfill Site Selection in the Sense of Environment Sensitive Sustainable Urbanization: Izmir, Turkey Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    TÜdeş, Şule; Kumlu, Kadriye Burcu Yavuz

    2017-10-01

    Each stage of the planning process should be based on the natural resource protection, in the sense of environmental sensitive and sustainable urban planning. Values, which are vital for the continuity of the life in the Earth, as soil, water, forest etc. should be protected from the undesired effects of the pollution and the other effects caused by the high urbanization levels. In this context, GIS-MCDM based solid waste landfill site selection is applied for Izmir, Turkey, where is a significant attraction place for tourism. As Multi criteria Decision Making (MCDM) technique, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used. In this study, geological, tectonically and hydrological data, as well as agricultural land use, slope, distance to the settlement areas and the highways are used as inputs for AHP analysis. In the analysis stage, those inputs are rated and weighted. The weighted criteria are evaluated via GIS, by using weighted overlay tool. Therefore, an upper-scale analysis is conducted and a map, which shows the alternative places for the solid waste landfill sites, considering the environmental protection and evaluated in the context of environmental and urban criteria, are obtained.

  3. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohen, K.; Stoker, A.; Stone, G. [and others

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1992. The Laboratory routinely monitors for radiation and for radioactive and nonradioactive materials at (or on) Laboratory sites as well as in the surrounding region. LANL uses the monitoring results to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to identify potentially undesirable trends. Data were collected in 1992 to assess external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions and liquid effluents; concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface waters and groundwaters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and environmental compliance. Using comparisons with standards, regulations, and background levels, this report concludes that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are small and do not pose a demonstrable threat to the public, laboratory employees, or the environment.

  4. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    This report documents the environmental surveillance program conducted by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) in 1979. Routine monitoring for radiation and radioactive or chemical substances was conducted on the Laboratory site and in the surrounding region to determine compliance with appropriate standards and permit early identification of possible undesirable trends. Results and interpretation of the data for 1979 on penetrating radiation, chemical and radiochemical quality of ambient air, surface and ground water, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, food, and airborne and liquid effluents are included. Comparisons with appropriate standards and regulations or with background levels from natural or other non-LASL sources provide a basis for concluding that environmental effects attributable to LASL operations are minor and cannot be considered likely to result in any hazard to the population of the area. Results of several special studies provide documentation of some unique environmental conditions in the LASL environs.

  5. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1987. Routine monitoring for radiation and radioactive or chemical materials is conducted on the Laboratory site as well as in the surrounding region. Monitoring results are used to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to permit early identification of potentially undesirable trends. Results and interpretation of data for 1987 cover: external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions and liquid effluents; concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface and ground waters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and environmental compliance. Comparisons with appropriate standards, regulations, and background levels provide the basis for concluding that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are insignificant and do not pose a threat to the public, Laboratory employees, or the environment. 113 refs., 33 figs., 120 tabs.

  6. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) during 1995. The Laboratory routinely monitors for radiation and for radioactive and nonradioactive materials at (or on) Laboratory sites as well as in the surrounding region. LANL uses the monitoring result to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to identify potentially undesirable trends. Data were collected in 1995 to assess external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions and liquid effluents; concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface waters and groundwaters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and environmental compliance. Using comparisons with standards, regulations, and background levels, this report concludes that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are small and do not pose a demonstrable threat to the public, Laboratory employees, or the environment.

  7. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1989. Routine monitoring for radiation and radioactive or chemical materials is conducted on the Laboratory site as well as in the surrounding region. Monitoring results are used to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to permit early identification of potentially undesirable trends. Results and interpretation of data for 1989 cover external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions and effluents; concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface and ground waters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and environmental compliance. Comparisons with appropriate standards, regulations, and background levels provide the basis for concluding that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are small and do not pose a threat to the public, Laboratory employees, or the environment. 58 refs., 31 figs., 39 tabs.

  8. Tracer test with arsenic(V) in an iron-reducing environment at the USGS Cape Cod Site (Mass. USA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höhn, R.; Isenbeck-Schröter, M.; Niedan, V.

    2001-01-01

    The transport of arsenic (V) (As V) in an aquifer environment is affected by sorption processes especially onto surfaces of iron hydroxides. During iron reduction, significant amounts of arsenic (III) As (III) may be released into the water. To study transport and reaction rates under field...... conditions, a small scale con-tinuous tracer test was performed in the zone with iron reduction in a sandy aquifer at the USGS Cape Cod test site. During 4 weeks, a tracer solution containing suboxic water, arsenic (V) (6.7 μmol) and bromide (1.6 mmol) was injected. Downstream the breakthrough of bromide...

  9. Uranium mining sites of Somair and Cominak (Niger). Situation of mission on site in may 2004, application of radiological impact and advice on the network of environmental surveillance; Sites miniers d'uranium de Somair et Cominak (Niger). Bilan de la mission sur site en mai 2004, appreciation de l'impact radiologique, et avis sur le reseau de surveillance de l'environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Servant, A.C.; Cessac, B.; Bassot, S

    2005-07-01

    The report presents successively the context of the two mining sites, the situation of the I.R.S.N. mission on site of may 2004, an appreciation by I.R.S.N. of sites impact on the populations, the evaluation by I.R.S.N. of associated impact to generic scenario of scrap recovery from sites by the population around. (N.C.)

  10. [Web-ring of sites for pathologists in the internet: a computer-mediated communication environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khramtsov, A I; Isianov, N N; Khorzhevskiĭ, V A

    2009-01-01

    The recently developed Web-ring of pathology-related Web-sites has transformed computer-mediated communications for Russian-speaking pathologists. Though the pathologists may be geographically dispersed, the network provides a complex of asynchronous and synchronous conferences for the purposes of diagnosis, consultations, education, communication, and collaboration in the field of pathology. This paper describes approaches to be used by participants of the pathology-related Web-ring. The approaches are analogous to the tools employed in telepathology and digital microscopy. One of the novel methodologies is the use of Web-based conferencing systems, in which the whole slide digital images of tissue microarrays were jointly reviewed online by pathologists at distant locations. By using ImageScope (Aperio Technologies) and WebEx connect desktop management technology, they shared presentations and images and communicated in realtime. In this manner, the Web-based forums and conferences will be a powerful addition to a telepathology.

  11. [Child health environment in the context of relocating of camp site families to social housing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Soledad; Sigala, Fiorenza; Argueta, Luzmila; Iglesias, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    Housing interventions aimed at overcoming poverty can lead to changes in the health status of children by modifying risk factors in their physical and social environment the aim was to identify children's environmental health factors to change with the relocation of families from slums to public housing. A cross-sectional study was conducted in children ages 2-8 years old of families relocated to public housing (n=115) who were compared to children residing in slums (n=88) in Santiago, Chile. Family socioeconomic characteristics, indoor environment and neighborhoods were collected. It was included respiratory symptoms, accidents and maternal-child care of children. χ2, Fisher and Mann-Whitney test were used to compare groups. There were differences in households related to pets keeping, presence of humidity/molds in homes, types of fuels, and perceived safety problems in neighborhoods (p<0.05). The families from slums reported higher tenancy of pets (73.8% v/s 32.2%%), humidity/molds in homes (43.,2% v/s 18.3%), use of wood for heating (39.8% v/s 0.0%), compared with families of public housing. Residents of public housing perceived more safety problems in neighborhood, and children have more asthma related symptoms and have lower diversity of accidents in home. Among the factors studied, indoor air quality and safety in neighborhoods could be linked to changes from the relocation of families. This reinforces the need to deepen the positive and negative influences of residential mobility of these groups focused on child welfare perspective. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Terrestrial environments during MIS 11: evidence from the Palaeolithic site at West Stow, Suffolk, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, R. C.; Parfitt, S. A.; Bridgland, D. R.; Lewis, S. G.; Rowe, P. J.; Atkinson, T. C.; Candy, I.; Debenham, N. C.; Penkman, K. E. H.; Rhodes, E. J.; Schwenninger, J.-L.; Griffiths, H. I.; Whittaker, J. E.; Gleed-Owen, C.

    2007-05-01

    Multidisciplinary investigations of the sequence at Beeches Pit, West Stow (Suffolk, UK), have a direct bearing the age of the Hoxnian Interglacial and its correlation with the continental Holsteinian and with the global marine record. At this site, glacial deposits (till and outwash gravels) referable to the Anglian Lowestoft Formation fill a subglacial channel cut in Chalk bedrock. Above these glacial deposits a series of interglacial sediments occurs, consisting of limnic, tufaceous and colluvial silts, lacking pollen but rich in shells, ostracods and vertebrates. Lower Palaeolithic flint artefacts of Acheulian character have also been recovered, including refitting examples. Charred material is abundant at certain horizons and many of the bones have been burned. Several discrete areas of burnt sediment are interpreted as hearths. The molluscan fauna comprises some 78 taxa and includes species of considerable zoogeographical and biostratigraphical importance. The land snail assemblage from the tufa consists of woodland taxa with no modern analogue, including species that are either extinct (e.g. Zonitoides sepultus) or which no longer live in Britain (e.g. Platyla polita, P. similis, Neniatlanta pauli). This is also the type locality of Retinella ( Lyrodiscus) skertchlyi, which belongs to a subgenus of zonitid land snail now living only on the Canary Islands. There are indications from this fauna ('the Lyrodiscus biome') that the climate was wetter and perhaps warmer than the present day. The vertebrate fauna is also noteworthy with species of open habitats, such as rabbit ( Oryctolagus cf . cuniculus), and of closed forest, such as squirrel ( Sciurus sp.) and garden dormouse ( Eliomys quercinus) present at different times. The occurrence of southern thermophiles, such as Aesculapian snake ( Zamenis longissimus), indicates temperatures warmer than those of eastern England today. The upper levels include much material reworked from the interglacial sediments

  13. Gamma radioactivity in the Iberian marine environment closest to the NEA dumping site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, P.I.; Vidal-Quadras, A.; Font, J.L.; Oliva, M.

    1988-01-01

    The distributions of caesium-137 and some naturally occurring gamma-emitters in a range of environmental samples, collected along the north-west Iberian coastline during April 1984, are presented. Samples, including surface waters, algae, sediments and fish, have been analyzed to establish accurate baselines for that region of the continental shelf closest to the NEA dumping site. Results indicate that caesium-137 levels were a factor of three lower than those typical of waters off the west coast of Ireland and are consistent with those expected from global fallout prior to the Chernobyl accident. The mean caesium-137 concentration in sea water at six well-separated stations near the coast was 3.85 +- 0.19 Bq m/sup -3/, whilst caesium-137 levels in widely consumed species of fish were in the range 1.1-6.2 Bq kg/sup -1/ (dry wt). It is estimated that caesium-137, through one year's ingestion of fish and shellfish, generates a collective dose equivalent commitment to the adult Galician population of 0.78 man-Sv, which is approximately 3% of the total annual collective dose equivalent from non-medical sources of radiation.

  14. Magnetic properties and environment sites in Fe doped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, S., E-mail: sferrari@fi.uba.ar [Instituto de Tecnología y Ciencias de la Ingeniería “Ing. Hilario Fernández Long”, UBA-CONICET, Facultad de Ingeniería, Av. Paseo Colón 850, C1063ACV, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pampillo, L.G. [Instituto de Tecnología y Ciencias de la Ingeniería “Ing. Hilario Fernández Long”, UBA-CONICET, Facultad de Ingeniería, Av. Paseo Colón 850, C1063ACV, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Saccone, F.D. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ingeniería, UBA, Av. Paseo Colón 850, C1063ACV, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2016-07-01

    Sn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 2} nanoparticles (x = 0, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15) were synthesized by co-precipitation. X-ray diffraction and electron diffraction images showed that only rutile type phase was present in the samples. Electron microscopy was used as a tool for revealing morphology, distribution size and structure characteristics of the nanoparticles; while Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy analysis confirmed the selected stoichiometry. {sup 57}Fe and {sup 119}Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy at Room Temperature showed a lattice disorder induced by the incorporation of Fe ions in the structure. No magnetic hyperfine ordering was detected for {sup 57}Fe probes and the asymmetry in their quadrupolar splittings is explained as a texture effect at the nanoparticles shells. Quadrupolar splitting at {sup 119}Sn probe reached a maximum for x = 0.1, being this fact attributable to a highest distorted environment. Magnetic hysteresis loops were measured at different temperatures showing, for Fe doped samples, a combination of paramagnetism and weak ferromagnetism. - Highlights: • The production of nanoparticles of Fe-doped tin dioxide with rutile structure. • The non-observation of secondary phases (even in Mössbauer Spectroscopy). • The asymmetry in doublets observed in {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer which means texture effect. • The magnetic behavior as mainly paramagnetism plus weak ferromagnetism. • The decrease of ferromagnetism with Fe doping fraction.

  15. Smart sensing surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    An effective public safety sensor system for heavily-populated applications requires sophisticated and geographically-distributed infrastructures, centralized supervision, and deployment of large-scale security and surveillance networks. Artificial intelligence in sensor systems is a critical design to raise awareness levels, improve the performance of the system and adapt to a changing scenario and environment. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energy-efficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide a 24/7 and all weather security operation in crowded environments or restricted areas. Technically, the S4 consists of a number of distributed sensor nodes integrated with specific passive sensors to rapidly collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data from near omni-directions. These distributed sensor nodes can cooperatively work to send immediate security information when new objects appear. When the new objects are detected, the S4 will smartly select the available node with a Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR camera to track the objects and capture associated imagery. The S4 provides applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. Other imaging processes can be updated to meet specific requirements and operations. In the S4, all the sensor nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology. This UWB RF technology can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The Service Oriented Architecture of S4 enables remote applications to interact with the S4

  16. Environmental surveillance data report for the fourth quarter of 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, P.Y.; Horwedel, B.M.; Loffman, R.S.; Osborne-Lee, A.E.; Powell, M.R.; Stevens, M.M.; Tardiff, M.F.; Valentine, C.K.; Wolf, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    The Environmental Surveillance and Protection Section within the Office of Environmental and Health Protection at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is responsible for the development and implementation of an environmental program to (1) ensure compliance with all federal, state, and Department of Energy (DOE) reporting requirements to quantitatively demonstrate prevention, control, and abatement of environmental pollution; (2) monitor the adequacy of containment and effluent controls; and (3) assess impacts of releases from ORNL facilities on the environment. Environmental monitoring, as defined by Draft DOE Order 5400.6, consists of two major activities: effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. Effluent monitoring is the collection and analysis of sample or measurements of liquid and gaseous effluents. Environmental surveillance is the collection and analysis of samples, or direct measurements, of air, water, soil, foodstuff, biota, and other media from DOE sites and their environs. Monthly or quarterly summaries are presented in this report for each media sampled. All data are rounded to two significant digits. The summary tables generally give the number of samples collected during the period and the maximum, minimum, average, and standard error of the mean (SE) values of parameters for which determinations were made.

  17. Environmental surveillance data report for the second quarter of 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gheesling, S.E.; Gideon, J.C.; Gregory, S.M.; Hamilton, L.V.; Loffman, R.S.; Salmons, M.C.; Stevens, M.M.

    1994-02-01

    The Environmental Surveillance and Protection Section within the Office of Environmental Compliance and Documentation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is responsible for the development and implementation of an environmental program to (1) ensure compliance with all federal, state, and Department of Energy (DOE) reporting requirements to quantitatively demonstrate prevention, control, and abatement of environmental pollution; (2) monitor the adequacy of containment and effluent controls; and (3) assess impacts of releases from ORNL facilities on the environment. Environmental monitoring consists of two major activities: effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. Effluent monitoring is the collection and analysis of samples or measurements of liquid and gaseous effluents. Environmental surveillance is the collection and analysis of samples, or direct measurements of air, water, soil, foodstuff, biota, and other media from DOE sites and their environs. Monthly or quarterly summaries are presented in this report for each medium sampled. All data are rounded to two significant digits. The summary tables generally give the number of samples collected during the period and the maximum, minimum, average, and standard error of the mean (SE) values of parameters for which determinations were made. The SE is based upon multiple samples collected throughout the period.

  18. Cardiovascular health knowledge, attitude and practice/behaviour in an urbanising community of Nepal: a population-based cross-sectional study from Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Abhinav; Aryal, Umesh Raj; Krettek, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study determined the knowledge, attitude and practice/behaviour of cardiovascular health in residents of a semiurban community of Nepal. Design To increase the understanding of knowledge, attitude and practice/behaviour towards cardiovascular health, we conducted in-home interviews using a questionnaire based on the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance and other resources, scoring all responses. We also recorded blood pressure and took anthropometric measurements. Setting Our study was conducted as part of the Heart-Health-Associated Research and Dissemination in the Community project in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site in two urbanising villages near Kathmandu. Participants The study population included 777 respondents from six randomly selected clusters in both villages. Results Seventy per cent of all participants were women and 26.9% lacked formal education. The burden of cardiovascular risk factors was high; 20.1% were current smokers, 43.3% exhibited low physical activity and 21.6% were hypertensive. Participants showed only poor knowledge of heart disease causes; 29.7% identified hypertension and 11% identified overweight and physical activity as causes, whereas only 2.2% identified high blood sugar as causative. Around 60% of respondents did not know any heart attack symptoms compared with 20% who knew 2–4 symptoms. Median percentage scores for knowledge, attitude and practice/behaviour were 79.3, 74.3 and 48, respectively. Nearly 44% of respondents had insufficient knowledge and less than 20% had highly satisfactory knowledge. Among those with highly satisfactory knowledge, only 14.7% had a highly satisfactory attitude and 19.5% and 13.9% had satisfactory and highly satisfactory practices, respectively. Conclusions Our study demonstrates a gap between cardiovascular health knowledge, attitude and practice/behaviour in a semiurban community in a low-income nation, even among those already affected by

  19. Environment and Health in Contaminated Sites: The Case of Taranto, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Pirastu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The National Environmental Remediation programme in Italy includes sites with documented contamination and associated potential health impacts (National Priority Contaminated Sites—NPCSs. SENTIERI Project, an extensive investigation of mortality in 44 NPCSs, considered the area of Taranto, a NPCS where a number of polluting sources are present. Health indicators available at municipality level were analyzed, that is, mortality (2003–2009, mortality time trend (1980–2008, and cancer incidence (2006-2007. In addition, the cohort of individuals living in the area was followed up to evaluate mortality (1998–2008 and morbidity (1998–2010 by district of residence. The results of the study consistently showed excess risks for a number of causes of death in both genders, among them: all causes, all cancers, lung cancer, and cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, both acute and chronic. An increased infant mortality was also observed from the time trends analysis. Mortality/morbidity excesses were detected in residents living in districts near the industrial area, for several disorders including cancer, cardiovascular, and respiratory diseases. These coherent findings from different epidemiological approaches corroborate the need to promptly proceed with environmental cleanup interventions. Most diseases showing an increase in Taranto NPCS have a multifactorial etiology, and preventive measures of proven efficacy (e.g., smoking cessation and cardiovascular risk reduction programs, breast cancer screening should be planned. The study results and public health actions are to be communicated objectively and transparently so that a climate of confidence and trust between citizens and public institutions is maintained.

  20. Hanford Site Environment Safety and Health (ES and H) FY 1999 and FY 2000 Execution Commitment Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    REEP, I.E.

    1999-12-01

    All sites in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Complex prepare this report annually for the DOE Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH). The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the previous and current year's Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) execution commitments and the S&H resources that support these activities. The fiscal year (FY) 1999 and 2000 information (Sieracki 1999) and data contained in the ''Hanford Site Environment, Safety and Health Fiscal Year 2001 Budget-Risk Management Summary'' (RL 1999) were the basis for preparing this report. Fiscal year 2000 finding of Office of Environmental Management (EM) and Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology (NE) activities is based on the President's budget of $1,065.1 million and $28.0 million, plus $2.7 million carryover finding, respectively, as of October 31, 1999. Any funding changes as a result of the Congressional appropriation process will be reflected in the Fiscal Year 2002 ES&H Budget-Risk Management Summary to be issued in May 2000. This report provides the end-of-year status of FY 1999 ES&H execution commitments, including actual S&H expenditures, and describes planned FY 2000 ES&H execution commitments and the S&H resources needed to support those activities. This requirement is included in the ES&H ''Guidance for FY200l Budget Formulations and Execution'' (DOE 1999).

  1. On-line monitoring of the dynamics of trihalomethane concentrations in a warm public swimming pool using an unsupervised membrane inlet mass spectrometry system with off-site real-time surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Gert H; Klausen, Morten M; Hansen, Vagn A; Lauritsen, Frants R

    2010-01-01

    To study the long-term dynamics of trihalomethanes (THMs) in a warm (31-33 degrees C) public swimming pool, we built a robust membrane inlet mass spectrometer that could perform unsupervised, on-site monitoring of the concentration of these compounds with off-site, real-time surveillance. The instrument was installed in a technical room below the pool and operated continuously for more than a year practically only interrupted for filament replacements every 6-8 weeks. One to two days after a filament replacement, the instrument stabilized and kept its calibration until shortly before the next filament burnout. The on-line monitoring of THMs revealed a daily rhythm in the concentrations of chloroform and bromodichloromethane. They increased during the pool's closing hours and decreased during opening hours with the minimum concentration being approximately half of the maximum. Over the 1 year monitoring period, the variation in the maximum registered daily concentration was 30-100 microg/L for chloroform. The variation of bromodichloromethane was 5-10 microg/L, except during bursts of 1-2 days duration, where the concentration of bromodichloromethane could reach 100 microg/L. The burst in bromodichloromethane concentration was directly correlated with salt addition (sodium chloride) to the pool water for use in the pool's electrolytic in-line chlorination system. A correlation between THM removal from the pool water and the operation of a strong water jet system was also found. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Enrichment, geo-accumulation and risk surveillance of toxic metals for different environmental compartments from Mehmood Booti dumping site, Lahore city, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiman, Umme; Mahmood, Adeel; Waheed, Sidra; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-02-01

    The present study was designed to probe the levels of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Mn, Cu, Ni, Zn and Fe) for different environmental matrices (ground water, wastewater, sediment, soil, dust and leachates). Impact of solid waste dumping site on nearby human population has also been assessed. The results revealed that concentration of Pb, Fe, Cd, Mn and Cu surpassed the permissible limits of World Health Organization (WHO) and US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in water, soil, sediments, while aforesaid metals in wastewater were above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS). Our results for enrichment factor (EF) and geo-accumulation (I(geo)) values revealed that soils and sediments were contaminated with Cd, Pb, Ni and Mn. The Cd content caused a considerably high potential ecological risk (E(r)(i) ≥ 320) in soil and sediments. Pb and Cd caused high health risk (HR > 1) to local residents via dust and drinking water intake. Potential cancer risk for Pb was higher than USEPA standard values (1.0E-06-1.0E-04) through water intake. The Mehmood Booti dumping site is a potential source of toxic pollutants contamination to the surrounding population. It is recommended to take proper actions for its management to resolve this issue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Internet and Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged in this co......The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged...... in this context. With such platforms comes the massive provision and storage of personal data that are systematically evaluated, marketed, and used for targeting users with advertising. In a world of global economic competition, economic crisis, and fear of terrorism after 9/11, both corporations and state...... institutions have a growing interest in accessing this personal data. Here, contributors explore this changing landscape by addressing topics such as commercial data collection by advertising, consumer sites and interactive media; self-disclosure in the social web; surveillance of file-sharers; privacy...

  4. A comparison of the demographics, clinical features, and survival of patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma of major and minor salivary glands versus less common sites within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Xu, Li; Zhao, Hui; El-Naggar, Adel K; Sturgis, Erich M

    2012-08-15

    The scientific literature to date lacks population-based studies on the demographics, clinical features, and survival of patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of different anatomic sites. The authors identified 5349 patients who had ACC of the major salivary glands (N = 1850), minor salivary glands (N = 2077), breast (N = 696), skin (N = 291), lung and bronchus (N = 203), female genital system (N = 132), and eye and orbit (N = 100) from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry. Differences in demographics, clinical features, and survival of patients were assessed. ACC of the eye and orbit was associated with younger age at presentation (mean age,49.9 years). ACC of the skin or breast tended to present with less aggressive prognostic features, whereas ACC of the lung and bronchus or eye and orbit tended to present with more aggressive prognostic features. In a multivariate survival analysis of patients who presented with localized disease, patients with ACC of the breast (hazard ratio [HR], 0.40) or skin (HR, 0.40) had a significantly lower risk death than patients with ACC of the major salivary glands; whereas patients with ACC of the lung and bronchus (HR, 3.72) or the eye and orbit (HR, 3.67) had a significantly higher risk. For patients who presented with regional disease, the only clear prognostic difference in multivariate analysis was that patients with ACC of skin fared significantly better. The demographics and clinical features of patients with ACC differ by disease site. The current results indicated that site may be an important predictor of survival for patients who present with localized disease but is less important for patients who present with regional disease. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  5. Community-Operated Environmental Surveillance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the environmental surveillance activities with which citizens living near the Hanford Site have been participating. Local teachers have been managing and operating three special radiological air sampling stations located in Richland, Basin City, and Franklin County, Washington. Other expansion efforts of this program are also described.

  6. Project Surveillance and Maintenance Plan. [UMTRA Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-09-01

    The Project Surveillance and Maintenance Plan (PSMP) describes the procedures that will be used by the US Department of Energy (DOE), or other agency as designated by the President to verify that inactive uranium tailings disposal facilities remain in compliance with licensing requirements and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for remedial actions. The PSMP will be used as a guide for the development of individual Site Surveillance and Maintenance Plans (part of a license application) for each of the UMTRA Project sites. The PSMP is not intended to provide minimum requirements but rather to provide guidance in the selection of surveillance measures. For example, the plan acknowledges that ground-water monitoring may or may not be required and provides the (guidance) to make this decision. The Site Surveillance and Maintenance Plans (SSMPs) will form the basis for the licensing of the long-term surveillance and maintenance of each UMTRA Project site by the NRC. Therefore, the PSMP is a key milestone in the licensing process of all UMTRA Project sites. The Project Licensing Plan (DOE, 1984a) describes the licensing process. 11 refs., 22 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Surveillance and Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøge, Ask Risom; Albrechtslund, Anders; Lauritsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    eyes of cameras are but one of many important aspects of the surveillance society. In particular, surveillance has become intrinsic to our digitally mediated communication. Many are constantly engaged in forms of social surveillance as they observe what friends, family, celebrities, love interests...... represent and define us in lieu of our embodied selves. It is thus vital for students and scholars in the field of communication to address surveillance issues. This article takes up the task of providing an overview of the most relevant work on surveillance for the field of communication. The article...... to surveillance studies’ undertakings and politics. Third, the article presents the reader with core surveillance theories and their sources of inspiration. It points to the panopticon, which has been a dominant but also controversial concept, but mostly the bibliography suggests post-panoptic theories, which...

  8. Smart sensing surveillance video system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Szu, Harold

    2016-05-01

    An intelligent video surveillance system is able to detect and identify abnormal and alarming situations by analyzing object movement. The Smart Sensing Surveillance Video (S3V) System is proposed to minimize video processing and transmission, thus allowing a fixed number of cameras to be connected on the system, and making it suitable for its applications in remote battlefield, tactical, and civilian applications including border surveillance, special force operations, airfield protection, perimeter and building protection, and etc. The S3V System would be more effective if equipped with visual understanding capabilities to detect, analyze, and recognize objects, track motions, and predict intentions. In addition, alarm detection is performed on the basis of parameters of the moving objects and their trajectories, and is performed using semantic reasoning and ontologies. The S3V System capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded environments. It would be directly applicable to solutions for emergency response personnel, law enforcement, and other homeland security missions, as well as in applications requiring the interoperation of sensor networks with handheld or body-worn interface devices.

  9. Surveillance-based Mechanisms in MUVEs (MultiUser Virtual Environments used for Monitoring, Data Gathering and Evaluation of Knowledge Transfer in VirtuReality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Štogr

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Multiuser virtual environments (MUVEs generate a large amount of data but most of them are not accessible even to users who triggered them. What’s more, most datasets are not even stored for further use; they have only temporary character and very short "halftime of decay" limited f.e. to onesecondlong screen display. Such a huge loss of data makes evaluation of knowledge transfer in MUVEs almost impossible. There is a need to both improve monitoring capabilities of MUVEs to be able to make completion assessment and use MUVEs that enable simulation (reexperience using complete datasets gathered from environment itself. Future research in the field of simulation methodology is suggested.

  10. Common mental disorder in Nyanza province, Kenya in 2013 and its associated risk factors--an assessment of change since 2004, using a repeat household survey in a demographic surveillance site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Rachel; Othieno, Caleb; Ongeri, Linnet; Sifuna, Peter; Ongecha, Michael; Kingora, James; Kiima, David; Omollo, Raymond; Ogutu, Bernhards

    2015-12-09

    Repeat household surveys are useful to assess change in prevalence over time, but there have been no repeat surveys of common mental disorder (CMD) in Kenya, or indeed sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore a repeat household survey of CMD and its associated risk factors was conducted in Maseno area, Kisumu county in Kenya, using a demographic surveillance site as the sample frame, in order to test the hypotheses that (a) the prevalence of CMD would increase between 2004 and 2013 due to the intervening political, social and economic pressures; (b) as in 2004, there would be no gender difference in prevalence of CMD. One thousand one hundred ninety households were selected, and 1158 adult participants consented to be interviewed with a structured epidemiological assessment while 32 refused to participate in the study interviews, giving a response rate of 97.3%. The study found that the overall prevalence of CMD in 2013 was 10.3%. However, there were significantly higher rates of having any CMD in 2013 if one was female (OR 6.2, p mental disorders continue to pose a significant public health burden in Kenya, and gender related vulnerability merits further research and is relevant for health worker training.

  11. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring the onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. The Hanford Environmental Health Foundation is responsible for monitoring the nonradiological parameters as defined in the National Drinking Water Standards while PNL conducts the radiological monitoring of the onsite drinking water. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize the expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site.

  12. Guidance for UMTRA project surveillance and maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-01-01

    The Guidance for UMTRA Project Surveillance and Maintenance describes the procedures that will be used to verify that Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal sites continue to function as designed. The approach of this guidance document is to identify surveillance requirements and maintenance procedures that will be used to comply with NRC license requirements. This document addresses five primary activities: Definition and characterization of final site conditions. Site inspections; Ground-water monitoring; Aerial photography; and Custodial maintenance and contingency repair. Final site conditions will be defined and characterized prior to the completion of remedial actions at a site. As-built drawings will be compiled, a final topographic survey will be performed, a vicinity map will be prepared, and ground and aerial photographs will be taken. Survey monuments, site markers, and signs will be established as will a network of monitoring wells.

  13. Market-Based Approach to Mobile Surveillance Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Elmogy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The active surveillance of public and private sites is increasingly becoming a very important and critical issue. It is, therefore, imperative to develop mobile surveillance systems to protect these sites. Modern surveillance systems encompass spatially distributed mobile and static sensors in order to provide effective monitoring of persistent and transient objects and events in a given area of interest (AOI. The realization of the potential of mobile surveillance requires the solution of different challenging problems such as task allocation, mobile sensor deployment, multisensor management, cooperative object detection and tracking, decentralized data fusion, and interoperability and accessibility of system nodes. This paper proposes a market-based approach that can be used to handle different problems of mobile surveillance systems. Task allocation and cooperative target tracking are studied using the proposed approach as two challenging problems of mobile surveillance systems. These challenges are addressed individually and collectively.

  14. Mineral formation on metallic copper in a `Future repository site environment`: Textural considerations based on natural analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amcoff, Oe. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Inst. of Earth Sciences

    1998-01-01

    Copper mineral formation in the Swedish `repository site environment` is discussed. Special attention is given to ore mineral textures (=the spatial relation among minerals), with examples given from nature. It is concluded: By analogy with observations from natural occurrences, an initial coating of Cu-oxide on the canister surface (because of entrapped air during construction) will probably not hinder a later sulphidation process. Early formation of Cu-sulphides on the canister surface may be accompanied by formation of CuFe-sulphides. The latter phase(s) may form through replacement of the Cu-sulphides or, alternatively, by means of reaction between dissolved copper and fine-grained iron sulphide (pyrite) in the surrounding bentonite. Should for some reason the bentonite barrier fail and the conditions become strongly oxidizing, we can expect crustifications and rhythmic growths of Cu(II)-phases, like malachite (Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3}). A presence of Fe{sup 2} in the clay minerals making up the bentonite might prove to have an adverse effect on the canister stability, since, in this case, the bentonite might be expected to act as a sink for dissolved copper. The mode of mineral growth along the copper - bentonite interface remains an open question.

  15. Handbook of surveillance technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    From officially sanctioned, high-tech operations to budget spy cameras and cell phone video, this updated and expanded edition of a bestselling handbook reflects the rapid and significant growth of the surveillance industry. The Handbook of Surveillance Technologies, Third Edition is the only comprehensive work to chronicle the background and current applications of the full-range of surveillance technologies--offering the latest in surveillance and privacy issues.Cutting-Edge--updates its bestselling predecessor with discussions on social media, GPS circuits in cell phones and PDAs, new GIS s

  16. Surveillance as cultural practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Torin

    2011-01-01

    This special section of The Sociological Quarterly explores research on “surveillance as cultural practice,” which indicates an orientation to surveillance that views it as embedded within, brought about by, and generative of social practices in specific cultural contexts. Such an approach is more likely to include elements of popular culture, media, art, and narrative; it is also more likely to try to comprehend people's engagement with surveillance on their own terms, stressing the production of emic over etic forms of knowledge. This introduction sketches some key developments in this area and discusses their implications for the field of “surveillance studies” as a whole.

  17. Groundwater surveillance plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forstrom, J.M. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States); Smith, E.D.; Winters, S.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Haase, C.S.; King, H.L. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States); McMaster, W.M. [McMaster (W.M.), Heiskell, TN (United States)

    1994-07-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 requires the preparation of environmental monitoring plans and implementation of environmental monitoring programs for all DOE facilities. The order identifies two distinct components of environmental monitoring, namely effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. In general, effluent monitoring has the objectives of characterizing contaminants and demonstrating compliance with applicable standards and permit requirements, whereas environmental surveillance has the broader objective of monitoring the effects of DOE activities on on- and off-site environmental and natural resources. The purpose of this document is to support the Environmental Monitoring Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) by describing the groundwater component of the environmental surveillance program for the DOE facilities on the ORR. The distinctions between groundwater effluent monitoring and groundwater surveillance have been defined in the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Groundwater Surveillance Strategy. As defined in the strategy, a groundwater surveillance program consists of two parts, plant perimeter surveillance and off-site water well surveillance. This document identifies the sampling locations, parameters, and monitoring frequencies for both of these activities on and around the ORR and describes the rationale for the program design. The program was developed to meet the objectives of DOE Order 5400.1 and related requirements in DOE Order 5400.5 and to conform with DOE guidance on environmental surveillance and the Energy Systems Groundwater Surveillance Strategy.

  18. Surveillance of ground vehicles for airport security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Erik; Wang, Zhonghai; Shen, Dan; Ling, Haibin; Chen, Genshe

    2014-06-01

    Future surveillance systems will work in complex and cluttered environments which require systems engineering solutions for such applications such as airport ground surface management. In this paper, we highlight the use of a L1 video tracker for monitoring activities at an airport. We present methods of information fusion, entity detection, and activity analysis using airport videos for runway detection and airport terminal events. For coordinated airport security, automated ground surveillance enhances efficient and safe maneuvers for aircraft, unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) and unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) operating within airport environments.

  19. Seismic site survey investigations in urban environments: The case of the underground metro project in Copenhagen, Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, K.; Mendoza, J. A.; Colberg-Larsen, J.; Ploug, C.

    2009-05-01

    Near surface geophysics applications are gaining more widespread use in geotechnical and engineering projects. The development of data acquisition, processing tools and interpretation methods have optimized survey time, reduced logistics costs and increase results reliability of seismic surveys during the last decades. However, the use of wide-scale geophysical methods under urban environments continues to face great challenges due to multiple noise sources and obstacles inherent to cities. A seismic pre-investigation was conducted to investigate the feasibility of using seismic methods to obtain information about the subsurface layer locations and media properties in Copenhagen. Such information is needed for hydrological, geotechnical and groundwater modeling related to the Cityringen underground metro project. The pre-investigation objectives were to validate methods in an urban environment and optimize field survey procedures, processing and interpretation methods in urban settings in the event of further seismic investigations. The geological setting at the survey site is characterized by several interlaced layers of clay, till and sand. These layers are found unevenly distributed throughout the city and present varying thickness, overlaying several different unit types of limestone at shallow depths. Specific results objectives were to map the bedrock surface, ascertain a structural geological framework and investigate bedrock media properties relevant to the construction design. The seismic test consisted of a combined seismic reflection and refraction analyses of a profile line conducted along an approximately 1400 m section in the northern part of Copenhagen, along the projected metro city line. The data acquisition was carried out using a 192 channels array, receiver groups with 5 m spacing and a Vibroseis as a source at 10 m spacing. Complementarily, six vertical seismic profiles (VSP) were performed at boreholes located along the line. The reflection

  20. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West Valley Environmental Services LLC (WVES) and URS - Washington Division

    2008-12-17

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2007. The report summarizes the calendar year (CY) 2007 environmental protection program at the WVDP. Monitoring and surveillance of the facilities used by the DOE are conducted to verify protection of public health and safety and the environment.

  1. Reassembling Surveillance Creep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøge, Ask Risom; Lauritsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We live in societies in which surveillance technologies are constantly introduced, are transformed, and spread to new practices for new purposes. How and why does this happen? In other words, why does surveillance “creep”? This question has received little attention either in theoretical developm......We live in societies in which surveillance technologies are constantly introduced, are transformed, and spread to new practices for new purposes. How and why does this happen? In other words, why does surveillance “creep”? This question has received little attention either in theoretical...... development or in empirical analyses. Accordingly, this article contributes to this special issue on the usefulness of Actor-Network Theory (ANT) by suggesting that ANT can advance our understanding of ‘surveillance creep’. Based on ANT’s model of translation and a historical study of the Danish DNA database......, we argue that surveillance creep involves reassembling the relations in surveillance networks between heterogeneous actors such as the watchers, the watched, laws, and technologies. Second, surveillance creeps only when these heterogeneous actors are adequately interested and aligned. However...

  2. Surveillance of respiratory viruses.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surveillance of respiratory viruses. A 10-year laboratory-based study. J. M. McAnerney, S. Johnson, B. D. Schoub. Respiratory virus isolates made at the National Institute for. Virology from 1982 to 1991 were studied. An active virus surveillance programme, 'viral watch', which recruits throat swab specimens from a network ...

  3. Surveillance Avoidance Technique Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-02

    path and, using the evaluation module for feedback , alter the path until acceptable surveil- lance avoidance performance is achieved. The current ISAS...Nmber Diselav Stage Containing - Date: I I Time ( GIlT ): Figure 3-46: Textual Display for GRAPHICAL Module 3-64 Surveillance Avoidance Final Report System

  4. Card Sorting in an Online Environment: Key to Involving Online-Only Student Population in Usability Testing of an Academic Library Web Site?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paladino, Emily B.; Klentzin, Jacqueline C.; Mills, Chloe P.

    2017-01-01

    Based on in-person, task-based usability testing and interviews, the authors' library Web site was recently overhauled in order to improve user experience. This led to the authors' interest in additional usability testing methods and test environments that would most closely fit their library's goals and situation. The appeal of card sorting…

  5. 2006 SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY; RATEL,K.

    2007-10-01

    Each year, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) prepares an annual Site Environmental Report (SER) in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting of the U.S. Department of Energy. The report is written to inform the public, regulators, employees, and other stakeholders of BNL's environmental performance during the calendar year in review. The SER summarizes environmental data; environmental management performance; compliance with applicable DOE, federal, state, and local regulations; and compliance, restoration, and surveillance monitoring program performance. BNL has prepared annual SERs since 1971 and has documented nearly all of its environmental history since the Laboratory's inception in 1947. The report is available in print and as a downloadable file on the BNL web page at http://www.bnl.gov/ewms/ser/. A summary of the SER is also prepared each year to provide a general overview of the report, and is distributed with a CD of the full report.

  6. 2009 Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratel, K.M.; Brookhaven National Laboratory

    2010-09-30

    Each year, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) prepares an annual Site Environmental Report (SER) in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting of the U.S. Department of Energy. The report is written to inform the public, regulators, employees, and other stakeholders of BNL's environmental performance during the calendar year in review. The SER summarizes environmental data; environmental management performance; compliance with applicable DOE, federal, state, and local regulations; and compliance, restoration, and surveillance monitoring program performance. BNL has prepared annual SERs since 1971 and has documented nearly all of its environmental history since the Laboratory's inception in 1947. The report is available in print and as a downloadable file on the BNL web page at http://www.bnl.gov/ewms/ser/. A summary of the SER is also prepared each year to provide a general overview of the report, and is distributed with a CD of the full report.

  7. Semi-open environmental conditions during phases of hominin occupation at the Eemian Interglacial basin site Neumark-Nord 2 and its wider environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Eduard; Bakels, Corrie

    2015-06-01

    Neandertal occupation of Eemian environments in Europe is well attested by several archaeological sites dating to this interglacial period. Does this mean that Neandertals were living in closed forest environments? Due to the potential variability of Eemian environments in space and time, it is necessary to study environmental records that can be correlated with phases of hominin presence, as reflected in the archaeological record. Such a perspective can be obtained from the small basin locality Neumark-Nord 2, as it contains an extensive and detailed environmental record, as well as a large archaeological record consisting of several distinct find levels. Analysis shows that hominin presence is predominantly associated with semi-open environmental conditions. A review of the data from the neighbouring Neumark-Nord 1 basin shows that semi-open environments were also characterizing the wider environment during phases of hominin presence at both basin localities. Large herbivores attracted to the water in these basins may have played an important role in the vegetation openness, probably in conjunction with (local) climatic conditions. The relationship between hominin presence and semi-open environments is explained as Neandertals exploiting the large herbivores aggregating around these freshwater localities, while the more varied vegetation would also have provided them with edible plant foods. Other Eemian sites from freshwater contexts provide evidence for semi-open conditions as well.

  8. The South African national non-natural mortality surveillance system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surveillance system simplicity, flexibility, acceptability, sensitivity, positive predictive value, representativeness, timeliness, data usefulness and resources. Results. The NMSS was established at 10 target sites. Lack of equipment, personnel resistance, and closure of some mortuaries prevented implementation in the ...

  9. System specification for the integrated monitoring and surveillance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This System Specification establishes the requirements for the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) Integrated Monitoring and Surveillance System (IMSS). In this document, ``Integrated Monitoring and Surveillance System`` is used to describe the concept of integrated sensors, computers, personnel, and systems that perform the functions of sensing conditions, acquiring data, monitoring environmental safety and health, controlling and accounting for materials, monitoring material stability, monitoring container integrity, transferring data, and analyzing, reporting, and storing data. This concept encompasses systems (e.g. sensors, personnel, databases, etc.) that are already in place at the sites but may require modifications or additions to meet all identified surveillance requirements. The purpose of this System Specification is to provide Department of Energy (DOE) sites that store plutonium materials with a consolidation of all known requirements for the storage and surveillance of 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides. This compilation may be used (1) as a baseline for surveillance system design specifications where 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides will be stored and monitored; (2) as a checklist for evaluating existing surveillance systems to ensure that all requirements are met for the storage and surveillance of 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides; and (3) as a baseline for preparing procurement specifications tailored for site specific storage and surveillance of 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides.

  10. Vigilancia de las infecciones de herida quirúrgica. Experiencia de 18 meses en el Instituto Nacional de Cancerología Surgical site infection surveillance at the National Cancer Institute in Mexico. An 18 months experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Vilar-Compte

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Conocer la frecuencia de infecciones quirúrgicas con un programa prospectivo de vigilancia de cirugías y seguimiento postegreso, en el Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, que es un hospital de tercer nivel de la Ciudad de México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Durante 18 meses se captaron y se vigilaron todas las cirugías efectuadas en el hospital. Se calcularon las razones (por 100 cirugías de infecciones de herida quirúrgica (IHQX por servicio y por el grado de contaminación bacteriana. Se utilizaron las definiciones de IHQX del Centro para la Prevención y el Control de las Enfermedades de Estados Unidos de América (1992. RESULTADOS. Se vigilaron 3 372 cirugías. Trescientos trece casos se infectaron: 140 (44.7% fueron incisionales superficiales; 137 (43.7%, incisionales profundas, y 36 (11.5%, de órganos y espacios. La frecuencia de IHQX fue de 9.28%; para las cirugías limpias, limpias-contaminadas, contaminadas y sucias fue de 7.35, 10.5, 17.3 y 21.5%, respectivamente. La frecuencia de infecciones por servicio fue: gastroenterología, 14.13%; tumores de mama, 11.08%; piel y partes blandas, 10.98%; ginecología, 9.06%; urología, 7.38%; cabeza y cuello, 7.13%, y neumología, 1.81%. La IHQX ocurrió en promedio a los 11.6±6.23 días; 85 casos (27.16% se diagnosticaron mientras el paciente estaba hospitalizado, y 228 (72.84%, después del egreso del paciente. Se obtuvo algún cultivo en 134 (42.8% casos. Los gérmenes más comunes fueron: E. coli, 38 (22.5%; estafilococo coagulasa negativo, 23 (13.6%; Pseudomonas sp., 22 (13%; S. aureus, 16 (9.4%, y enterococos,13 (7.7%. CONCLUSIONES. La vigilancia prospectiva de las cirugías con un seguimiento por 30 días aumentó hasta en 400% la posibilidad de detectar una IHQX. La frecuencia de IHQX en las cirugías limpias y limpias-contaminadas se encuentra por arriba de lo informado.OBJECTIVES. To calculate the surgical site infection (SSI rates with a surgical prospective surveillance

  11. Correlates of smoking susceptibility among adolescents in a peri-urban area of Nepal: a population-based cross-sectional study in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Umesh R; Petzold, Max; Bondjers, Göran; Krettek, Alexandra

    2014-12-01

    Background Susceptibility to smoking is defined as an absence of firm commitment not to smoke in the future or when offered a cigarette by best friends. Susceptibility begins in adolescence and is the first step in the transition to becoming an established smoker. Many scholars have hypothesized and studied whether psychosocial risk factors play a crucial role in preventing adolescent susceptibility to smoking or discourage susceptible adolescents from becoming established smokers. Our study examined sociodemographic and family and childhood environmental factors associated with smoking susceptibility among adolescents in a peri-urban area of Nepal. Design We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study during October-November 2011 in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS) located in a peri-urban area near Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal, where tobacco products are easily available. Trained local enumerators conducted face-to-face interviews with 352 respondents aged 14-16. We used stepwise logistic regression to assess sociodemographic and family and childhood environmental factors associated with smoking susceptibility. Results The percentage of smoking susceptibility among respondents was 49.70% (95% CI: 44.49; 54.93). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that smoking susceptibility was associated with smoking by exposure of adolescents to pro-tobacco advertisements (AOR [adjusted odds ratio] =2.49; 95% CI: 1.46-4.24), the teacher (2.45; 1.28-4.68), adolescents attending concerts/picnics (2.14; 1.13-4.04), and smoking by other family members/relatives (1.76; 1.05-2.95). Conclusions Smoking susceptible adolescents are prevalent in the JD-HDSS, a peri-urban community of Nepal. Several family and childhood environmental factors increased susceptibility to smoking among Nepalese non-smoking adolescents. Therefore, intervention efforts need to be focused on family and childhood environmental factors with emphasis on impact of

  12. Correlates of smoking susceptibility among adolescents in a peri-urban area of Nepal: a population-based cross-sectional study in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Umesh R; Petzold, Max; Bondjers, Göran; Krettek, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Susceptibility to smoking is defined as an absence of firm commitment not to smoke in the future or when offered a cigarette by best friends. Susceptibility begins in adolescence and is the first step in the transition to becoming an established smoker. Many scholars have hypothesized and studied whether psychosocial risk factors play a crucial role in preventing adolescent susceptibility to smoking or discourage susceptible adolescents from becoming established smokers. Our study examined sociodemographic and family and childhood environmental factors associated with smoking susceptibility among adolescents in a peri-urban area of Nepal. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study during October-November 2011 in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS) located in a peri-urban area near Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal, where tobacco products are easily available. Trained local enumerators conducted face-to-face interviews with 352 respondents aged 14-16. We used stepwise logistic regression to assess sociodemographic and family and childhood environmental factors associated with smoking susceptibility. The percentage of smoking susceptibility among respondents was 49.70% (95% CI: 44.49; 54.93). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that smoking susceptibility was associated with smoking by exposure of adolescents to pro-tobacco advertisements (AOR [adjusted odds ratio] =2.49; 95% CI: 1.46-4.24), the teacher (2.45; 1.28-4.68), adolescents attending concerts/picnics (2.14; 1.13-4.04), and smoking by other family members/relatives (1.76; 1.05-2.95). Smoking susceptible adolescents are prevalent in the JD-HDSS, a peri-urban community of Nepal. Several family and childhood environmental factors increased susceptibility to smoking among Nepalese non-smoking adolescents. Therefore, intervention efforts need to be focused on family and childhood environmental factors with emphasis on impact of role models smoking, refusal skills in

  13. An Enhanced Synthetic Environment for Maritime Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    apprises et recommandations pour des changements organisationnels et de processus au sein de la section ESFF. Basé sur le travail accompli dans la...parties des messages OTH étaient incorrectes ou même vides. Ceci a été corrigé avec un examen de toutes les données de message suivis des changements ...composants modulaires tells: le trafic, climat (météo), et terrain. Ces composants modulaires peuvent être réutilisés à l’avenir en ES. Les sections de

  14. The Copyright Surveillance Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Zajko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Creative works are now increasingly distributed as digital “content” through the internet, and copyright law has created powerful incentives to monitor and control these flows. This paper analyzes the surveillance industry that has emerged as a result. Copyright surveillance systems identify copyright infringement online and identify persons to hold responsible for infringing acts. These practices have raised fundamental questions about the nature of identification and attribution on the internet, as well as the increasing use of algorithms to make legal distinctions. New technologies have threatened the profits of some media industries through copyright infringement, but also enabled profitable forms of mass copyright surveillance and enforcement. Rather than a system of perfect control, copyright enforcement continues to be selective and uneven, but its broad reach results in systemic harm and provides opportunities for exploitation. It is only by scrutinizing copyright surveillance practices and copyright enforcement measures that we can evaluate these consequences.

  15. 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies Program encompasses design, tracking, oversight, and review responsibilities for studies mandated under section 522 of the...

  16. Sanitary surveillance and bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volnei Garrafa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory practices in the field of health surveillance are indispensable. The aim of this study is to show ‒ taking the Brazilian National Surveillance Agency, governing body of sanitary surveillance in Brazil as a reference ‒ that bioethics provides public bodies a series of theoretical tools from the field of applied ethics for the proper exercise and control of these practices. To that end, the work uses two references of bioethics for the development of a comparative and supportive analysis to regulatory activities in the field of health surveillance: the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights of Unesco and the theory of intervention bioethics. We conclude that organizations and staff working with regulatory activities can take advantage of the principles and frameworks proposed by bioethics, especially those related to the Declaration and the theory of intervention bioethics, the latter being set by the observation and use of the principles of prudence, precaution, protection and prevention.

  17. Lateral Surveillance in Singapore

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hee Jhee Jiow; Sofia Morales

    2015-01-01

      With its high Internet penetration rate, and the dense saturation of audio-visual-capturing mobile smartphones among its citizens, Singapore provides a ripe technological infrastructure for a surveillance society...

  18. There is no silver bullet: the value of diversification in planning invasive species surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denys Yemshanov; Frank H. Koch; Bo Lu; D. Barry Lyons; Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Taylor Scarr; Klaus Koehler

    2014-01-01

    In this study we demonstrate how the notion of diversification can be used in broad-scale resource allocation for surveillance of invasive species. We consider the problem of short-term surveillance for an invasive species in a geographical environment.Wefind the optimal allocation of surveillance resourcesamongmultiple geographical subdivisions via application of a...

  19. Diabetes, obesity, and recommended fruit and vegetable consumption in relation to food environment sub-types: a cross-sectional analysis of Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, United States Census, and food establishment data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenfeld, Cara L; Leslie, Timothy F; Makara, Matthew A

    2015-05-14

    Social and spatial factors are an important part of individual and community health. The objectives were to identify food establishment sub-types and evaluate prevalence of diabetes, obesity, and recommended fruit and vegetable consumption in relation to these sub-types in the Washington DC metropolitan area. A cross-sectional study design was used. A measure of retail food environment was calculated as the ratio of number of sources of unhealthier food options (fast food, convenience stores, and pharmacies) to healthier food options (grocery stores and specialty food stores). Two categories were created: ≤ 1.0 (healthier options) and > 1.0 (unhealthier options). k-means clustering was used to identify clusters based on proportions of grocery stores, restaurants, specialty food, fast food, convenience stores, and pharmacies. Prevalence data for county-level diabetes, obesity, and consumption of five or more fruits or vegetables per day (FV5) was obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Multiple imputation was used to predict block-group level health outcomes with US Census demographic and economic variables as the inputs. The healthier options category clustered into three sub-types: 1) specialty food, 2) grocery stores, and 3) restaurants. The unhealthier options category clustered into two sub-types: 1) convenience stores, and 2) restaurants and fast food. Within the healthier options category, diabetes prevalence in the sub-types with high restaurants (5.9 %, p = 0.002) and high specialty food (6.1 %, p = 0.002) was lower than the grocery stores sub-type (7.1 %). The high restaurants sub-type compared to the high grocery stores sub-type had significantly lower obesity prevalence (28.6 % vs. 31.2 %, p obesity, or higher FV5 prevalence across the two sub-types. However, restaurants (including fast food) sub-type was significantly associated with lower diabetes and obesity, and higher FV prevalence compared to grocery store sub-type. These

  20. An “EAR” on environmental surveillance and monitoring: A case study on the use of Exposure–Activity Ratios (EARs) to prioritize sites, chemicals, and bioactivities of concern in Great Lakes waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Brett R.; Ankley, Gerald T.; Corsi, Steven; DeCicco, Laura; Houck, Kieth A.; Judson, Richard S.; Li, Shibin; Martin, Matthew T.; Murphy, Elizabeth; Schroeder, Anthony L.; Smith, Edwin R.; Swintek, Joe; Villeneuve, Daniel L.

    2017-01-01

    Current environmental monitoring approaches focus primarily on chemical occurrence. However, based on concentration alone, it can be difficult to identify which compounds may be of toxicological concern and should be prioritized for further monitoring, in-depth testing, or management. This can be problematic because toxicological characterization is lacking for many emerging contaminants. New sources of high-throughput screening (HTS) data, such as the ToxCast database, which contains information for over 9000 compounds screened through up to 1100 bioassays, are now available. Integrated analysis of chemical occurrence data with HTS data offers new opportunities to prioritize chemicals, sites, or biological effects for further investigation based on concentrations detected in the environment linked to relative potencies in pathway-based bioassays. As a case study, chemical occurrence data from a 2012 study in the Great Lakes Basin along with the ToxCast effects database were used to calculate exposure–activity ratios (EARs) as a prioritization tool. Technical considerations of data processing and use of the ToxCast database are presented and discussed. EAR prioritization identified multiple sites, biological pathways, and chemicals that warrant further investigation. Prioritized bioactivities from the EAR analysis were linked to discrete adverse outcome pathways to identify potential adverse outcomes and biomarkers for use in subsequent monitoring efforts.

  1. Department of Energy – Office of Science Pacific Northwest Site Office Environmental Monitoring Plan for the DOE-SC PNNL Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Meier, Kirsten M.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.; Poston, Ted M.; Rhoads, Kathleen

    2011-12-21

    The Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) manages the contract for operations at the U.S. Depart¬ment of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Site in Richland, Washington. Radiological operations at the DOE-SC PNNL Site expanded in 2010 with the completion of facilities at the Physical Sciences Facility. As a result of the expanded radiological work at the site, the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH) has required that offsite environmental surveillance be conducted as part of the PNNL Site Radioactive Air Emissions License. The environ¬mental monitoring and surveillance requirements of various orders, regulations, and guidance documents consider emission levels and subsequent risk of negative human and environmental impacts. This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) describes air surveillance activities at the DOE-SC PNNL Site. The determination of offsite environmental surveillance needs evolved out of a Data Quality Objectives process (Barnett et al. 2010) and Implementation Plan (Snyder et al. 2010). The entire EMP is a compilation of several documents, which include the Main Document (this text), Attachment 1: Sampling and Analysis Plan, Attachment 2: Data Management Plan, and Attachment 3: Dose Assessment Guidance.

  2. Appropriate Pedagogical Approaches For Conduct of Site Planning and Built Environment Studio in Spatial Planning Education Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Valliappan Alagappan

    2015-01-01

    Spatial planning education is multi-disciplinary in nature and particularly site planning needs exposure to Engineering, Architectural, Landscape, Sociological, Economic, and Infrastructural aspects. The curriculum of the spatial planning program introduces the site-planning studio (multi-level design and planning) at the initial semesters without introduction of single space design and planning. Due to inadequate exposure the students find it difficult to plan and design residential layouts ...

  3. Site environmental report for 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, K.W. [ed.; Brekke, D.D. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Holland, R.C. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is committed to conducting its operations in an environmentally safe and sound manner. It is mandatory that activities at SNL/California comply with all applicable environmental statutes, regulations, and standards. Moreover, SNL/California continuously strives to reduce risks to employees, the public, and the environment to the lowest levels reasonably possible. To help verify effective protection of public safety and preservation of the environment, SNL/California maintains an extensive, ongoing environmental monitoring program. This program, conducted in conjunction with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, monitors all significant airborne and liquid effluents and the general environment in the area. This monitoring effort ensures that emission controls are effective in preventing contamination of the environment. As part of the Environmental Monitoring Program, an ambient environmental surveillance system measures the possible presence of radioactive and hazardous materials in ambient air, surface water, groundwater, sewage, soil, vegetation, and locally-produced food stuffs. The program also includes an extensive environmental dosimetry program, which measures external radiation levels around the Livermore site and nearby vicinity. This executive summary focuses on impacts to the environment and estimated radiation doses to the public from site emissions.

  4. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1991. Environmental protection group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewart, J.; Kohen, K.L. [comps.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1991. Routine monitoring for radiation and for radioactive and chemical materials is conducted on the Laboratory site as well as in the surrounding region. Monitoring results are used to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to permit early identification of potentially undesirable trends. Results and interpretation of data for 1991 cover external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions and effluents; concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface waters and groundwaters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and environmental compliance. Comparisons with appropriate standards, regulations, and background levels provide the basis for concluding that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are small and do not pose a threat to the public, Laboratory employees, or the environment.

  5. Unforeseen costs of cutting mosquito surveillance budgets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo M Vazquez-Prokopec

    Full Text Available A budget proposal to stop the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC funding in surveillance and research for mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue and West Nile virus has the potential to leave the country ill-prepared to handle new emerging diseases and manage existing ones. In order to demonstrate the consequences of such a measure, if implemented, we evaluated the impact of delayed control responses to dengue epidemics (a likely scenario emerging from the proposed CDC budget cut in an economically developed urban environment. We used a mathematical model to generate hypothetical scenarios of delayed response to a dengue introduction (a consequence of halted mosquito surveillance in the City of Cairns, Queensland, Australia. We then coupled the results of such a model with mosquito surveillance and case management costs to estimate the cumulative costs of each response scenario. Our study shows that halting mosquito surveillance can increase the management costs of epidemics by up to an order of magnitude in comparison to a strategy with sustained surveillance and early case detection. Our analysis shows that the total costs of preparedness through surveillance are far lower than the ones needed to respond to the introduction of vector-borne pathogens, even without consideration of the cost in human lives and well-being. More specifically, our findings provide a science-based justification for the re-assessment of the current proposal to slash the budget of the CDC vector-borne diseases program, and emphasize the need for improved and sustainable systems for vector-borne disease surveillance.

  6. Surveillance Metrics Sensitivity Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierbaum, R; Hamada, M; Robertson, A

    2011-11-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  7. Surveillance metrics sensitivity study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Michael S. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Bierbaum, Rene Lynn; Robertson, Alix A. (Lawrence Livermore Laboratory)

    2011-09-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  8. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alan P.

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance involves the collection and analysis of data for the detection and monitoring of threats to public health. Surveillance should also inform as to the epidemiology of the threat and its burden in the population. A further key component of surveillance is the timely feedback of data to stakeholders with a view to generating action aimed at reducing or preventing the public health threat being monitored. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance involves the collection of antibiotic susceptibility test results undertaken by microbiology laboratories on bacteria isolated from clinical samples sent for investigation. Correlation of these data with demographic and clinical data for the patient populations from whom the pathogens were isolated gives insight into the underlying epidemiology and facilitates the formulation of rational interventions aimed at reducing the burden of resistance. This article describes a range of surveillance activities that have been undertaken in the UK over a number of years, together with current interventions being implemented. These activities are not only of national importance but form part of the international response to the global threat posed by antibiotic resistance. PMID:25918439

  9. Restoration of plant diversity on ditch banks: Seed and site limitation in response to agri-environment schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leng, X.; Musters, C.J.M.; Snoo, de G.R.

    2009-01-01

    Recently it has become clear that seed limitation is probably a much more important factor in plant recovery than has often been recognized. However, in practice, restoration measures that are focussed on decreasing site limitation may actually increase seed limitation. We tried to determine whether

  10. Towards One Health disease surveillance: The Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esron D. Karimuribo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Africa has the highest burden of infectious diseases in the world and yet the least capacity for its risk management. It has therefore become increasingly important to search for ‘fit-for- purpose’ approaches to infectious disease surveillance and thereby targeted disease control. The fact that the majority of human infectious diseases are originally of animal origin means we have to consider One Health (OH approaches which require inter-sectoral collaboration for custom-made infectious disease surveillance in the endemic settings of Africa. A baseline survey was conducted to assess the current status and performance of human and animal health surveillance systems and subsequently a strategy towards OH surveillance system was developed. The strategy focused on assessing the combination of participatory epidemiological approaches and the deployment of mobile technologies to enhance the effectiveness of disease alerts and surveillance at the point of occurrence, which often lies in remote areas. We selected three study sites, namely the Ngorongoro, Kagera River basin and Zambezi River basin ecosystems. We have piloted and introduced the next-generation Android mobile phones running the EpiCollect application developed by Imperial College to aid geo-spatial and clinical data capture and transmission of this data from the field to the remote Information Technology (IT servers at the research hubs for storage, analysis, feedback and reporting. We expect that the combination of participatory epidemiology and technology will significantly improve OH disease surveillance in southern Africa.

  11. Towards one health disease surveillance: the Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimuribo, Esron D; Sayalel, Kuya; Beda, Eric; Short, Nick; Wambura, Philemon; Mboera, Leonard G; Kusiluka, Lughano J M; Rweyemamu, Mark M

    2012-06-20

    Africa has the highest burden of infectious diseases in the world and yet the least capacity for its risk management. It has therefore become increasingly important to search for 'fit-for- purpose' approaches to infectious disease surveillance and thereby targeted disease control. The fact that the majority of human infectious diseases are originally of animal origin means we have to consider One Health (OH) approaches which require inter-sectoral collaboration for custom-made infectious disease surveillance in the endemic settings of Africa. A baseline survey was conducted to assess the current status and performance of human and animal health surveillance systems and subsequently a strategy towards OH surveillance system was developed. The strategy focused on assessing the combination of participatory epidemiological approaches and the deployment of mobile technologies to enhance the effectiveness of disease alerts and surveillance at the point of occurrence, which often lies in remote areas. We selected three study sites, namely the Ngorongoro, Kagera River basin and Zambezi River basin ecosystems. We have piloted and introduced the next-generation Android mobile phones running the EpiCollect application developed by Imperial College to aid geo-spatial and clinical data capture and transmission of this data from the field to the remote Information Technology (IT) servers at the research hubs for storage, analysis, feedback and reporting. We expect that the combination of participatory epidemiology and technology will significantly improve OH disease surveillance in southern Africa.

  12. The role of supplementary environmental surveillance to complement acute flaccid paralysis surveillance for wild poliovirus in Pakistan - 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowger, Tori L; Burns, Cara C; Sharif, Salmaan; Gary, Howard E; Iber, Jane; Henderson, Elizabeth; Malik, Farzana; Zahoor Zaidi, Syed Sohail; Shaukat, Shahzad; Rehman, Lubna; Pallansch, Mark A; Orenstein, Walter A

    2017-01-01

    More than 99% of poliovirus infections are non-paralytic and therefore, not detected by acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance. Environmental surveillance (ES) can detect circulating polioviruses from sewage without relying on clinical presentation. With extensive ES and continued circulation of polioviruses, Pakistan presents a unique opportunity to quantify the impact of ES as a supplement to AFP surveillance on overall completeness and timeliness of poliovirus detection. Genetic, geographic and temporal data were obtained for all wild poliovirus (WPV) isolates detected in Pakistan from January 2011 through December 2013. We used viral genetics to assess gaps in AFP surveillance and ES as measured by detection of 'orphan viruses' (≥1.5% different in VP1 capsid nucleotide sequence). We compared preceding detection of closely related circulating isolates (≥99% identity) detected by AFP surveillance or ES to determine which surveillance system first detected circulation before the presentation of each polio case. A total of 1,127 WPV isolates were detected by AFP surveillance and ES in Pakistan from 2011-2013. AFP surveillance and ES combined exhibited fewer gaps (i.e., % orphan viruses) in detection than AFP surveillance alone (3.3% vs. 7.7%, respectively). ES detected circulation before AFP surveillance in nearly 60% of polio cases (200 of 346). For polio cases reported from provinces conducting ES, ES detected circulation nearly four months sooner on average (117.6 days) than did AFP surveillance. Our findings suggest ES in Pakistan is providing earlier, more sensitive detection of wild polioviruses than AFP surveillance alone. Overall, targeted ES through strategic selection of sites has important implications in the eradication endgame strategy.

  13. The Use of Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) and Social Network Site (SNS) Hosted Forums in Higher Education: A Preliminary Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollyhead, Andrew; Edwards, David J.; Holt, Gary D.

    2012-01-01

    Grounded theory is used to examine the role and application of both educator-led and student-led forums within a virtual learning environment (VLE) of a higher education institution (HEI). The study reports experiences and perceptions of academics in two faculties (business and technology) in the HEI who use both asynchronous VLE forums and social…

  14. [Correlation between aquatic plant diversity and water environment in the typical sites of Hangzhou section of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yin; Xu, Xiao-Lu; Zhang, De-Yong; Wang, Li; Zhu, Xu-Ni; Feng, Feng; Zhou, Qiao-Jun; Xie, Peng

    2014-05-01

    Community characteristics of aquatic plant are important indicators for water quality. In order to understand the distribution characteristics of aquatic plants in aquatic ecosystem of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal ( Hangzhou section) , and to analyze the relationship between water quality and plant community, an investigation of the aquatic plants in five typical sites was made in this study. Species composition, biological diversity, quantity distribution and dominant species of aquatic plants in five sites were studied for ecological changes. Physicochemical factors such as temperature, pH value, transparency, dissolved oxygen and main elements of living were also analyzed. Based on the results, the distribution of phytoplankton diversity and environment factor correlations by multivariate statistical analysis were discussed. The trophic levels of these sites were assessed by using related biological standards. Results indicated that the diversity of aquatic plant mainly depends on the diversity of phytoplankton in the typical sites of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal. We observed and identified 35 genus algae, including advantage community of Hyalodiscus Ehrenberg and Melosira Agardh, which belonged to Bacillariophyta. According to the impact on the phytoplankton diversity and distribution, factors such as dissolved oxygen, transparency, water temperature, etc. had an obvious influence on the distribution of phytoplankton in the existing 6 environmental factors, while the influence of pH value was the highest. In terms of water quality eutrophication, site Tangxi Bridge and Maiyu Bridge showed a relatively lighter pollution, while site Yiqiao Bridge, Gujia Bridge and Gongchen Bridge showed a higher pollution, and the pollution of site Yiqiao Bridge was the most serious.

  15. Site Environmental Report for 2007 Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, Regina E.; Baskin, David; Fox, Robert; Jelinski, John; Pauer, Ron; Thorson, Patrick; Wahl, Linnea

    2008-09-15

    The Site Environmental Report is an integrated report on Berkeley Lab's environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. It summarizes Berkeley Lab's environmental management performance, presents environmental monitoring results, and describes significant programs for calendar year 2007. Volume I is organized into an executive summary followed by six chapters that contain an overview of the Laboratory, a discussion of the Laboratory's environmental management system, the status of environmental programs, and summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities.

  16. Surface Environmental Surveillance Project: Locations Manual Volume 1 – Air and Water Volume 2 – Farm Products, Soil & Vegetation, and Wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G.; Patton, Gregory W.; Stegen, Amanda; Poston, Ted M.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes all environmental monitoring locations associated with the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project. Environmental surveillance of the Hanford site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The environmental surveillance sampling design is described in the Hanford Site Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operation Office (DOE/RL-91-50). This document contains the locations of sites used to collect samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP). Each section includes directions, maps, and pictures of the locations. A general knowledge of roads and highways on and around the Hanford Site is necessary to successfully use this manual. Supplemental information (Maps, Gazetteer, etc.) may be necessary if user is unfamiliar with local routes. The SESP is a multimedia environmental surveillance effort to measure the concentrations of radionuclides and chemicals in environmental media to demonstrate compliance with applicable environmental quality standards and public exposure limits, and assessing environmental impacts. Project personnel annually collect selected samples of ambient air, surface water, agricultural products, fish, wildlife, and sediments. Soil and vegetation samples are collected approximately every 5 years. Analytical capabilities include the measurement of radionuclides at very low environmental concentrations and, in selected media, nonradiological chemicals including metals, anions, volatile organic compounds, and total organic carbon.

  17. Idaho National Laboratory Site Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordstrom, Jenifer [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This plan provides a high-level summary of environmental monitoring performed by various organizations within and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and DOE Order 458.1, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, Guide DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance, and in accordance with 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. The purpose of these orders is to 1) implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations, and 2) to establish standards and requirements for the operations of DOE and DOE contractors with respect to protection of the environment and members of the public against undue risk from radiation. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL Site, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. Detailed monitoring procedures, program plans, or other governing documents used by contractors or agencies to implement requirements are referenced in this plan. This plan covers all planned monitoring and environmental surveillance. Non-routine activities such as special research studies and characterization of individual sites for environmental restoration are outside the scope of this plan.

  18. Surveillance of respiratory viruses.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Respiratory virus isolates made at the National Institute for. Virology from 1982 to 1991 were studied. An active virus surveillance programme, 'viral watch', which recruits throat swab specimens from a network of monitoring centres - mainly in the Witwatersrand and Vereeniging area with one centre in Middelburg - that ...

  19. Infectieziekten Surveillance Informatie Systeem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprenger MJW; van Pelt W; CIE

    1994-01-01

    In the Netherlands an electronic network has been proposed for structured data transfer and communication concerning the control of infectious diseases. This project has been baptized ISIS (Infectious diseases Surveillance Information System). It is an initiative of the Dutch Government. ISIS

  20. Conic surveillance evasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewin, J.; Olsder, G.J.

    1979-01-01

    A surveillance-evasion differential game of degree with a detection zone in the shape of a two-dimensional cone is posed. The nature of the optimal strategies and the singular phenomena of the value function are described and correlated to subsets of the space of all possible parameter combinations,

  1. Radioecological surveillance 2001-2003 of marine environment of the dismantling workings of the old pipe of releases in sea Cogema la Hague (Anse des Moulinets); Surveillance radioecologique 2001-2003 de l'environnement marin du chantier de demantelement de l'ancienne conduite de rejets en mer Cogema-La Hague (Anse des Moulinets)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-15

    In order to watch the environment of the construction site of dismantling of the former pipe of releases in sea of Cogema-La Hague, the special and permanent commission of Information near the establishment Cogema of La Hague (C.S.P.I.) asked the association for the radiation monitoring in the West (A.C.R.O.) to realize a specific campaign of measures, on the basis of a protocol accepted by the C.S.P.I.. During the three years of the building work, two significant increases of the concentration in {sup 137}Cs in the marine flora with at most, 9.3 Bq/kg dry, are noticed so be it ten times the concentration that could be measured before the building work begins. We note a net improvement of the situation after the works. The {sup 137}Cs tends finally to disappear. For the sedimentary masses and the sands of beaches, it is outlined no increase of the contamination in {sup 137}Cs (during the works and in posteriori) which translates in a irrefutable way contributions of the construction site. Let us remind this subject that the level of contamination of sands of the Moulinets cove by the named radionuclides is the most important of the coasts of La Hague and that a such report supposes that local events are behind. In conclusion, the campaign of measures of the ambient gamma radiation realized in August, 2004, that is three months after works, consolidates the hypothesis that the works did not generate particular radiological situation susceptible to increase the external risk of irradiation in the Moulinets cove. (N.C.)

  2. A population health surveillance theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Allaki, Farouk; Bigras-Poulin, Michel; Michel, Pascal; Ravel, André

    2012-01-01

    Despite its extensive use, the term "Surveillance" often takes on various meanings in the scientific literature pertinent to public health and animal health. A critical appraisal of this literature also reveals ambiguities relating to the scope and necessary structural components underpinning the surveillance process. The authors hypothesized that these inconsistencies translate to real or perceived deficiencies in the conceptual framework of population health surveillance. This paper presents a population health surveillance theory framed upon an explicit conceptual system relative to health surveillance performed in human and animal populations. The population health surveillance theory reflects the authors' system of thinking and was based on a creative process. POPULATION HEALTH SURVEILLANCE INCLUDES TWO BROAD COMPONENTS: one relating to the human organization (which includes expertise and the administrative program), and one relating to the system per se (which includes elements of design and method) and which can be viewed as a process. The population health surveillance process is made of five sequential interrelated steps: 1) a trigger or need, 2) problem formulation, 3) surveillance planning, 4) surveillance implementation, and 5) information communication and audit. The population health surveillance theory provides a systematic way of understanding, organizing and evaluating the population health surveillance process.

  3. Process for Transition of Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Title II Disposal Sites to the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management for Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-03-01

    This document presents guidance for implementing the process that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) will use for assuming perpetual responsibility for a closed uranium mill tailings site. The transition process specifically addresses sites regulated under Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) but is applicable in principle to the transition of sites under other regulatory structures, such as the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program.

  4. Towards an integrated approach for characterization of sinkhole hazards in urban environments: the unstable coastal site of Casalabate, Lecce, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Rose, Marco; Leucci, Giovanni

    2010-06-01

    Sinkholes occur in many areas of the world, especially where carbonate rocks crop out. They are formed due to natural processes or caused by man's activities. In both cases, severe consequences have to be registered on the anthropogenic environment and related infrastructures. Knowledge of both the mechanism of the sinkhole formation and the localization of this subtle geohazard is therefore necessary for planners and decision makers to perform the most appropriate and suitable programs of land use and development. The Apulia region of southern Italy is characterized for most of its extension by carbonate rocks, which makes it one of the most remarkable examples of karst in the Mediterranean basin. The sinkhole formation in Apulia urban areas has recently produced severe damages, especially along its coastal planes, where different types of sinkholes occur. The detection of cavities, that could collapse and create a sinkhole, in an urban environment presents numerous difficulties (buried networks, reworked soils, etc). A methodology has been developed to respond to this need based on the integration of four complementary methods: geological analysis of outcrops and existing borehole descriptions, aerophotogrammetric interpretation of aerial photos, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and ground penetrating radar (GPR). The combination of these methods, applied to a test sector in the city of Casalabate, made it possible to locate the principal karstic conduits beneath the study area and identify a zone of high sinkhole geohazard associated with one such feature.

  5. Sites and Monuments Records and Historic Environment Records in England: is Cinderella finally going to the Ball?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Gilman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past, SMRs have all too often been cast as the Cinderellas of British Archaeology — underfunded, inconsistent, unreliable and difficult to use. Recent events indicate that this picture is changing, and changing fast. The paper discusses the recent changes and how these are affecting SMRs' use of computing, and concludes by an attempt to chart some trends for the future, notably the impending change of SMRs to broader-based Historic Environment Records (HERs. The most recent assessment of SMRs in England by David Baker (1999 has shown that, since the first SMRs emerged in the 1970s, their development across the country has been uneven and often on an ad hoc basis. However, recent years have seen rapid development in the field of SMRs and there are some encouraging signs that the future progress of SMRs may be different. SMRs are aspiring to cover a wide range of material, from artefacts to landscapes, and there are increasing moves towards providing greater access to this information in more creative ways. The article examines the current trend towards greater integration of information about the historic environment, through widening the scope of SMRs or linking them to other systems. Finally, the article looks at the need for more academic use of SMRs and provides some suggestions how this might be achieved.

  6. Les hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques dans l'environnement : la réhabilitation des anciens sites industriels The Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Environment : the Former Industrial Sites Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costes J. M.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Les hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques ou HAP peuvent être d'origine naturelle mais ils proviennent principalement des processus de pyrolyse. On peut les retrouver dans les sols de certains anciens sites industriels. Cela peut être le cas des sites d'anciennes usines à gaz. Même si aucune conséquence sur la santé humaine n'a été signalée et même si les risques paraissent virtuels, le principe de précaution rend nécessaire de s'occuper des risques liés à ces anciens sites industriels. Gaz de France, propriétaire de 467 sites d'anciennes usines à gaz assume l'héritage industriel dans le cadre d'un protocole signé avec le ministère de l'Environnement. Après une étude des sols, une évaluation des risques est réalisée. En fonction des résultats de cette évaluation des risques et de l'usage du site (actuel et prévu, des solutions de traitement peuvent être mises en Suvre. Parmi les techniques applicables aux sols pollués par des HAP, un intérêt particulier s'est porté sur les traitements biologiques, en pleine évolution, qui offrent une solution économique bien adaptée au traitement de grands volumes de sols souillés par une pollution organique moyennement concentrée. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs can be found under natural conditions but they can be produced by pyrolysis processes. They can be found in former industrial sites subsoil, especially on Manufactured Gas Plant sites (MGP sites. Gaz de France has inherited the patrimony of former French gas companies on nationalisation in 1946; consequently, Gaz De France is still the owner of 467 of manufactured gas plants. Even if no impact on human health has been detected and even if the risks seem to be virtual, Gaz de France has to prevent any environmental consequence due to the possible presence of residues in the subsoil of the sites: a protocol has been signed with the French Ministry of Environment. Following the investigations on the site, a

  7. Health and Safety Procedures Manual for hazardous waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thate, J.E.

    1992-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Chemical Assessments Team (ORNL/CAT) has developed this Health and Safety Procedures Manual for the guidance, instruction, and protection of ORNL/CAT personnel expected to be involved in hazardous waste site assessments and remedial actions. This manual addresses general and site-specific concerns for protecting personnel, the general public, and the environment from any possible hazardous exposures. The components of this manual include: medical surveillance, guidance for determination and monitoring of hazards, personnel and training requirements, protective clothing and equipment requirements, procedures for controlling work functions, procedures for handling emergency response situations, decontamination procedures for personnel and equipment, associated legal requirements, and safe drilling practices.

  8. 2003 SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ENVIRONMENT AND WASTE MANAGMENT SERVICES DIVISION; ET AL.

    2004-10-01

    Each year, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), a multi-program national laboratory, prepares an annual Site Environmental Report (SER) in accordance with Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting, of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The SER is written to inform outside regulators, the public, and Laboratory employees of BNL's environmental performance during the calendar year in review, and to summarize BNL's on-site environmental data; environmental management performance; compliance with applicable DOE, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), state, and local regulations; and environmental, restoration, and surveillance monitoring programs. BNL has prepared annual SERs since 1971 and has documented nearly all of its environmental history since the Laboratory's inception in 1947. This report is intended to be a technical document. It is available in print and as a downloadable file on the BNL web page at http://www.bnl.ser.htm. A summary of the SER is also prepared each year to provide a general overview, and is distributed with a CD version of the full-length SER. The summary supports BNL's educational and community outreach program.

  9. N-CDAD in Canada: Results of the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program 1997 N-CDAD Prevalence Surveillance Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghen Hyland

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A 1996 preproject survey among Canadian Hospital Epidemiology Committee (CHEC sites revealed variations in the prevention, detection, management and surveillance of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD. Facilities wanted to establish national rates of nosocomially acquired CDAD (N-CDAD to understand the impact of control or prevention measures, and the burden of N-CDAD on health care resources. The CHEC, in collaboration with the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control (Health Canada and under the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program, undertook a prevalence surveillance project among selected hospitals throughout Canada.

  10. Site Formation Processes and Hunter-Gatherers Use of Space in a Tropical Environment: A Geo-Ethnoarchaeological Approach from South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesem, David E.; Lavi, Noa; Madella, Marco; Ajithprasad, P.; French, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Hunter-gatherer societies have distinct social perceptions and practices which are expressed in unique use of space and material deposition patterns. However, the identification of archaeological evidence associated with hunter-gatherer activity is often challenging, especially in tropical environments such as rainforests. We present an integrated study combining ethnoarchaeology and geoarchaeology in order to study archaeological site formation processes related to hunter-gatherers’ ways of living in tropical forests. Ethnographic data was collected from an habitation site of contemporary hunter-gatherers in the forests of South India, aimed at studying how everyday activities and way of living dictate patterns of material deposition. Ethnoarchaeological excavations of abandoned open-air sites and a rock-shelter of the same group located deep in the forests, involved field observations and sampling of sediments from the abandoned sites and the contemporary site. Laboratory analyses included geochemical analysis (i.e., FTIR, ICP-AES), phytolith concentration analysis and soil micromorphology. The results present a dynamic spatial deposition pattern of macroscopic, microscopic and chemical materials, which stem from the distinctive ways of living and use of space by hunter-gatherers. This study shows that post-depositional processes in tropical forests result in poor preservation of archaeological materials due to acidic conditions and intensive biological activity within the sediments. Yet, the multiple laboratory-based analyses were able to trace evidence for activity surfaces and their maintenance practices as well as localized concentrations of activity remains such as the use of plants, metals, hearths and construction materials. PMID:27783683

  11. Site Formation Processes and Hunter-Gatherers Use of Space in a Tropical Environment: A Geo-Ethnoarchaeological Approach from South India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Friesem

    Full Text Available Hunter-gatherer societies have distinct social perceptions and practices which are expressed in unique use of space and material deposition patterns. However, the identification of archaeological evidence associated with hunter-gatherer activity is often challenging, especially in tropical environments such as rainforests. We present an integrated study combining ethnoarchaeology and geoarchaeology in order to study archaeological site formation processes related to hunter-gatherers' ways of living in tropical forests. Ethnographic data was collected from an habitation site of contemporary hunter-gatherers in the forests of South India, aimed at studying how everyday activities and way of living dictate patterns of material deposition. Ethnoarchaeological excavations of abandoned open-air sites and a rock-shelter of the same group located deep in the forests, involved field observations and sampling of sediments from the abandoned sites and the contemporary site. Laboratory analyses included geochemical analysis (i.e., FTIR, ICP-AES, phytolith concentration analysis and soil micromorphology. The results present a dynamic spatial deposition pattern of macroscopic, microscopic and chemical materials, which stem from the distinctive ways of living and use of space by hunter-gatherers. This study shows that post-depositional processes in tropical forests result in poor preservation of archaeological materials due to acidic conditions and intensive biological activity within the sediments. Yet, the multiple laboratory-based analyses were able to trace evidence for activity surfaces and their maintenance practices as well as localized concentrations of activity remains such as the use of plants, metals, hearths and construction materials.

  12. Site Formation Processes and Hunter-Gatherers Use of Space in a Tropical Environment: A Geo-Ethnoarchaeological Approach from South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesem, David E; Lavi, Noa; Madella, Marco; Ajithprasad, P; French, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Hunter-gatherer societies have distinct social perceptions and practices which are expressed in unique use of space and material deposition patterns. However, the identification of archaeological evidence associated with hunter-gatherer activity is often challenging, especially in tropical environments such as rainforests. We present an integrated study combining ethnoarchaeology and geoarchaeology in order to study archaeological site formation processes related to hunter-gatherers' ways of living in tropical forests. Ethnographic data was collected from an habitation site of contemporary hunter-gatherers in the forests of South India, aimed at studying how everyday activities and way of living dictate patterns of material deposition. Ethnoarchaeological excavations of abandoned open-air sites and a rock-shelter of the same group located deep in the forests, involved field observations and sampling of sediments from the abandoned sites and the contemporary site. Laboratory analyses included geochemical analysis (i.e., FTIR, ICP-AES), phytolith concentration analysis and soil micromorphology. The results present a dynamic spatial deposition pattern of macroscopic, microscopic and chemical materials, which stem from the distinctive ways of living and use of space by hunter-gatherers. This study shows that post-depositional processes in tropical forests result in poor preservation of archaeological materials due to acidic conditions and intensive biological activity within the sediments. Yet, the multiple laboratory-based analyses were able to trace evidence for activity surfaces and their maintenance practices as well as localized concentrations of activity remains such as the use of plants, metals, hearths and construction materials.

  13. The role of platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 in atheroma formation varies depending on the site-specific hemodynamic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Matthew; Smith, Emily; Ross, Ewan; Krams, Robert; Segers, Dolf; Buckley, Christopher D; Nash, Gerard B; Rainger, G Ed

    2013-04-01

    Polymorphisms in the platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1)-1 gene are linked to increased risk of coronary artery disease. Because PECAM-1 has been demonstrated to form a mechanosensory complex that can modulate inflammatory responses in murine arterial endothelial cells, we hypothesized that PECAM-1 contributes to atherogenesis in a shear-dependent and site-specific manner. ApoE(-/-) mice that were wild-type, heterozygous, or deficient in PECAM-1 were placed on a high-fat diet. Detailed analysis of the aorta at sites with differing hemodynamics revealed that PECAM-1-deficient mice had reduced disease in areas of disturbed flow, whereas plaque burden was increased in areas of steady, laminar flow. In concordance with these observations, bone marrow chimera experiments revealed that hematopoietic PECAM-1 resulted in accelerated atheroma formation in areas of laminar and disturbed flow, however endothelial PECAM-1 moderated disease progression in areas of high sheer stress. Moreover, using shear stress-modifying carotid cuffs, PECAM-1 was shown to promote macrophage recruitment into lesions developing in areas of low shear stress. PECAM-1 on bone marrow cells is proatherogenic irrespective of the hemodynamic environment, however endothelial cell PECAM-1 is antiatherogenic in high shear environments. Thus, targeting this pathway therapeutically would require a cell-type and context-specific strategy.

  14. Self-surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    , and gamification modulate the enactment of selfhood? How does self-surveillance contribute to corresponding notions of self-optimization and self-cultivation such as “the good life”, “sustainable lifestyle”, “healthy living”, “good learning” and “work productivity”?......Gadgets and applications are increasingly being developed and used for tracking, quantifying, and documenting everyday life activities and especially health and fitness devices such as GPS-enabled sports watches are well-known and popular. However, self-surveillance practices involving networked...... technologies can be found across many domains, including culture, food, learning, work and general living. Individuals use tools and techniques to track themselves, thereby translating their own habits, bodies, moods, and thoughts into objects to scrutinize and transform. In addition, self-tracking is often...

  15. Impact of a coastal disposal site for inert waste on the physical marine environment, Barcola-Bovedo, Trieste, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colizza, E. [Istituto di Geologia e Paleontologia, Univ. degli Studi, Trieste (Italy); Fontolan, G. [Istituto di Geologia e Paleontologia, Univ. degli Studi, Trieste (Italy); Brambati, A. [Istituto di Geologia e Paleontologia, Univ. degli Studi, Trieste (Italy)

    1996-06-01

    Sediments in the marine area surrounding the Barcola-Bovedo coastal disposal site for inert wastes show a textural adjustment as a response to the new morphology due to construction of a 150-m-wide x 350-m-long landfill. Relatively coarse-sized deposits were found along the nearshore area facing the central landfill face, while pelitic sediments transported in suspension settle deeper, mainly in the northwestern sector of the study area, according to the cyclonic circulation scheme. Geochemical comparison between disposed material and sea-bottom sediments, normalized taking in account the regional variability of the element contents, shows: (1) Cr concentrations in the coastal samples twice as high as in the offshore ones, with the former characterizing the whole coastal and port area of Trieste, and (2) `anomalous` enrichments of Zn, Cu, and Pb, located mainly in the southern stretch of the investigated area, where dumping work is in progress in order to connect the landfill with the port area. Although the new morphology of the sea bottom is reflected in the grain-size redistribution, the sediments were not altered as far as their geochemical properties are concerned. In contrast, the recent discharge of material in the southern area is easily discernible because of its high heavy-metal content. (orig.)

  16. Oak Ridge Reservation: Annual Site Environmental Report for 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochelle, James [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rogers, Ben [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Roche, Paula R. [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hughes, Joan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Coffey, Mike [East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report is prepared annually and presents summary environmental data to (1) characterize environmental performance, (2) summarize environmental occurrences reported during the year, (3) confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and (4) highlight significant program activities. The report fulfills the requirement contained in DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting (DOE 2004) that an integrated annual site environmental report be prepared. The results summarized in this report are based on data collected prior to and through 2015. This report is not intended to nor does it present the results of all environmental monitoring associated with the ORR. Data collected for other site and regulatory purposes, such as environmental restoration/remedial investigation reports, waste management characterization sampling data, and environmental permit compliance data, are presented in other documents that have been prepared in accordance with applicable DOE guidance and/or laws and are referenced herein as appropriate. Environmental monitoring on the ORR consists primarily of two major activities: effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. Effluent monitoring involves the collection and analysis of samples or measurements of liquid and gaseous effluents at the points of release to the environment; these measurements allow the quantification and official reporting of contaminant levels, assessment of radiation and chemical exposures to the public, and demonstration of compliance with applicable standards and permit requirements. Environmental surveillance consists of direct measurements and collection and analysis of samples taken from the site and its environs exclusive of effluents; these activities provide information on contaminant concentrations in air, water, groundwater, soil, foods, biota, and other media. Environmental surveillance data support determinations regarding

  17. Surveillance, Normalisation, and Repression

    OpenAIRE

    Dorronsoro, Gilles; Grojean, Olivier; Hersant, Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    One of the most fertile developments in contemporary thought has been to place the production of individuals at the heart of its enquiries, thus breaking with philosophical currents positing an a-historical individual. The aim of this special issue is to enquire into how exactly this process transpires within organisations that normalise, repress, and conduct surveillance of individuals who are either part of an institution or else the object of their operations. The work carried out by insti...

  18. [Case-surveillance of measles in Aichi Prefecture in 2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Masako; Hirose, Kaoru; Masui, Tsuneo; Minagawa, Hiroko

    2009-09-01

    Under the Japanese Infectious Disease Prevention Law, measles was monitored by the national epidemiological surveillance system through reports from sentinel clinical institutions until December 2007. In order to obtain rapid and precise information on measles outbreaks and take necessary actions, a case-surveillance system was introduced in Aichi Prefecture in February 2007. In this report, measles cases reported through the case-surveillance system were examined for characteristics of infection and the utility of the system. The case-surveillance system for measles started in Aichi in February 2007, all local medical institutions being requested to provide a set of information on every measles case immediately after the clinical diagnosis was made. Reported data were processed by ourselves and real-time surveillance results were shown in our web site. Data were analyzed and compared with measles data from the national epidemiological surveillance system, reported by the sentinel clinical institutions in Aichi. A total of 212 cases were registered through the case-surveillance from February to December 2007, including 123 (58.0%) adult cases (over 15 years old of age). In contrast, only 56 cases were registered in Aichi by the national epidemiological surveillance in 2007 including 11 adult cases (19.6%), indicating considerable under-representation of adult measles cases by the sentinel survey. Of the case-surveillance cases, 56 (26.4%) had an immunization history, 88 (41.5%) were without a history, and 68 (32.1%) were unknown, indicating that primary and/or secondary vaccine failure occurred in at least 26.4%. The results of the case-surveillance of measles in Aichi provided useful information on characteristics of measles infection and proved to be effective in detecting the occurrence of measles rapidly and accurately. In order to achieve the Japanese target of measles elimination by 2012, it will be necessary to further strengthen the monitoring system and

  19. 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE LIFE EXTENSION SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM RESULTS SUMMARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W.; Dunn, K.; Hackney, B.; Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.

    2011-01-06

    Results from the 9975 Surveillance Program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are summarized for justification to extend the life of the 9975 packages currently stored in the K-Area Materials Storage (KAMS) facility from 10 years to 15 years. This justification is established with the stipulation that surveillance activities will continue throughout this extended time to ensure the continued integrity of the 9975 materials of construction and to further understand the currently identified degradation mechanisms. The current 10 year storage life was developed prior to storage. A subsequent report was later used to extend the qualification of the 9975 shipping packages for 2 years for shipping plus 10 years for storage. However the qualification for the storage period was provided by the monitoring requirements of the Storage and Surveillance Program. This report summarizes efforts to determine a new safe storage limit for the 9975 shipping package based on the surveillance data collected since 2005 when the surveillance program began. KAMS is a zero-release facility that depends upon containment by the 9975 to meet design basis storage requirements. Therefore, to confirm the continued integrity of the 9975 packages while stored in KAMS, a 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program was implemented alongside the DOE required Integrated Surveillance Program (ISP) for 3013 plutonium-bearing containers. The 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program performs field surveillance as well as accelerated aging tests to ensure any degradation due to aging, to the extent that could affect packaging performance, is detected in advance of such degradation occurring in the field. The Program has demonstrated that the 9975 package has a robust design that can perform under a variety of conditions. As such the primary emphasis of the on-going 9975 Surveillance Program is an aging study of the 9975 Viton(reg.sign) GLT containment vessel O-rings and the Celotex(reg.sign) fiberboard thermal

  20. SITE SELECTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS USING ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS METHOD IN A GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ENVIRONMENT IN GIROFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Javaheri, T. Nasrabadi, M. H. Jafarian, G. R. Rowshan, H. Khoshnam

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste generation is among the most significant sources which threaten the global environmental health. As an ideal selection depends on considering several independent factors concerning land use, socio economy and hydrogeology, the use of a multi criteria evaluation method seems inevitable. Taking benefit of geographic information system as a tool in combination with geographical information technology, equips the spatial decision support systems in appropriate site selection of sanitary landfills. The present study involves a kind of multi criteria evaluation method under the name of weighted linear combination by using geographical information technology as a practical instrument to evaluate the suitability of the vicinity of Giroft city in Kerman province of Iran for landfill. Water permeability, slope, distance from rivers, depth of underground watertable, distance from residential areas, distance from generation centers, general environmental criterion and distance from roads are the criteria which have been taken in to consideration in the process of analyzing. Superposing all of the raster type layers including geomorphologic, hydrologic, humanistic and land use criteria in land suitability, the final zoning of appropriate, fairly appropriate and inappropriate districts have been identified. Considering relative priority of all criteria in comparison with others, a specific weight is designated to each criterion according to their total influence on the whole process of decision making. The results from the application of the presented methodology are zones for landfill with varying zonal land suitability. Finally the zones will be ranked in descending order to indicate the priority of different options in front of the eyes of decision makers. The results achieved by this study may help policy makers of Giroft city by a variety of options for being considered as sanitary landfill locations.

  1. Predicting summer site occupancy for an invasive species, the common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula, in an urban environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L Adams

    Full Text Available Invasive species are often favoured in fragmented, highly-modified, human-dominated landscapes such as urban areas. Because successful invasive urban adapters can occupy habitat that is quite different from that in their original range, effective management programmes for invasive species in urban areas require an understanding of distribution, habitat and resource requirements at a local scale that is tailored to the fine-scale heterogeneity typical of urban landscapes. The common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula is one of New Zealand's most destructive invasive pest species. As brushtail possums traditionally occupy forest habitat, control in New Zealand has focussed on rural and forest habitats, and forest fragments in cities. However, as successful urban adapters, possums may be occupying a wider range of habitats. Here we use site occupancy methods to determine the distribution of brushtail possums across five distinguishable urban habitat types during summer, which is when possums have the greatest impacts on breeding birds. We collected data on possum presence/absence and habitat characteristics, including possible sources of supplementary food (fruit trees, vegetable gardens, compost heaps, and the availability of forest fragments from 150 survey locations. Predictive distribution models constructed using the programme PRESENCE revealed that while occupancy rates were highest in forest fragments, possums were still present across a large proportion of residential habitat with occupancy decreasing as housing density increased and green cover decreased. The presence of supplementary food sources was important in predicting possum occupancy, which may reflect the high nutritional value of these food types. Additionally, occupancy decreased as the proportion of forest fragment decreased, indicating the importance of forest fragments in determining possum distribution. Control operations to protect native birds from possum predation in

  2. Predicting summer site occupancy for an invasive species, the common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), in an urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Amy L; Dickinson, Katharine J M; Robertson, Bruce C; van Heezik, Yolanda

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species are often favoured in fragmented, highly-modified, human-dominated landscapes such as urban areas. Because successful invasive urban adapters can occupy habitat that is quite different from that in their original range, effective management programmes for invasive species in urban areas require an understanding of distribution, habitat and resource requirements at a local scale that is tailored to the fine-scale heterogeneity typical of urban landscapes. The common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) is one of New Zealand's most destructive invasive pest species. As brushtail possums traditionally occupy forest habitat, control in New Zealand has focussed on rural and forest habitats, and forest fragments in cities. However, as successful urban adapters, possums may be occupying a wider range of habitats. Here we use site occupancy methods to determine the distribution of brushtail possums across five distinguishable urban habitat types during summer, which is when possums have the greatest impacts on breeding birds. We collected data on possum presence/absence and habitat characteristics, including possible sources of supplementary food (fruit trees, vegetable gardens, compost heaps), and the availability of forest fragments from 150 survey locations. Predictive distribution models constructed using the programme PRESENCE revealed that while occupancy rates were highest in forest fragments, possums were still present across a large proportion of residential habitat with occupancy decreasing as housing density increased and green cover decreased. The presence of supplementary food sources was important in predicting possum occupancy, which may reflect the high nutritional value of these food types. Additionally, occupancy decreased as the proportion of forest fragment decreased, indicating the importance of forest fragments in determining possum distribution. Control operations to protect native birds from possum predation in cities should

  3. Effect of chemical structure of S-nitrosothiols on nitric oxide release mediated by the copper sites of a metal organic framework based environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Edinbyrd, Kiara; Li, Tanping; Kumar, Revati

    2017-05-17

    The effect of chemical structure of different biologically compatible S-nitrosothiols on the solvation environment at catalytic copper sites in a metal organic framework (MOF) suspended in a solution of ethanol is probed using computational methods. The use of a copper based MOF as a storage vehicle and catalyst (copper sites of the MOF) in the controlled and sustained release of chemically stored nitric oxide (NO) from S-nitrosocysteine has been shown to occur both experimentally and computationally [J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2012, 134, 3330-3333; Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2015, 17, 23403]. Previous studies on a copper based MOF, namely HKUST-1, concluded that modifications in the R-group of s-nitrosothiols and/or organic linkers of MOFs led to a method capable of modulating NO release. In order to test the hypothesis that larger R-groups slow down NO release, four different RSNOs (R = cysteine, N-acetylcysteine, N-acetyl-d,l-penicillamine or glutathione) of varying size were investigated, which in turn required the use of a larger copper based MOF. Due to its desirable copper centers and more extensive framework, MOF-143, an analog of HKUST-1 was chosen to further explore both the effect of different RSNOs as well as MOF environments on NO release. Condensed phase classical molecular dynamics simulations are utilized to study the effect of the complex MOF environment as well as the chemical structure and size of the RSNO on the species on the catalytic reaction. The results indicate that in addition to the size of the RSNO species and the organic linkers within the MOF, the reaction rates can be modulated by the molecular structure of the RSNO and furthermore combining different RSNO species can also be used to tune the rate of NO release.

  4. Structural classification of steroid-binding sites on proteins by coarse-grained atomic environment and its correlation with their biological function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori-Tanaka, Yasuha; Yura, Kei; Takai-Igarashi, Takako; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    Steroid hormone is extensively used for transmitting variety of biological signals in organisms. Natural steroid hormone is synthesized from cholesterol in adrenal cortex and in sexual gland in vertebrates. Appropriately dosed synthetic steroid hormones can be used for medication. Despite their positive effects as medicine, they sometimes cause significant side effects due to their wide range of actions, and the studies for discovering the mechanisms of side effects were carried out aiming to reduce the side effects. The fundamental cause of the side effects seems to be interactions between the steroid and a non-target protein. To understand the possible range of interaction of steroid molecule, we gathered all the three-dimensional structures of protein-steroid complex determined by X-ray crystallography, compared the atomic environments of the steroid-binding sites in proteins and classified the pattern of steroid binding. Protein Data Bank contained 871 structures of steroid-protein complexes in 382 entries. For this study, we selected 832 steroid binding proteins. Using a newly developed method to describe the atomic environments of these steroid molecules and their function, we were able to separate the environments into six patterns. This classification had a potential to predict the function of function-unknown proteins with a co-crystallized steroid molecule. We speculated that the proteins grouped into the same pattern of nuclear receptors were the candidates of non-targeted proteins causing a side effect by a therapeutic prescription of steroid hormone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Selection of 3013 Containers for Field Surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Peppers, Elizabeth Kelly, James McClard, Gary Friday, Theodore Venetz, and Jerry Stakebade

    2007-01-01

    This report revises and combines three earlier reports dealing with the binning, statistical sampling, and sample selection of 3013 containers for field surveillance. It includes changes to the binning specification resulting from completion of the Savannah River Site packaging campaign and new information from the shelf-life program and field surveillance activities. The revised bin assignments result in changes to the random sample specification. These changes are necessary to meet the statistical requirements of the surveillance program. This report will be reviewed regularly and revised as needed. Section 1 of this report summarizes the results of an extensive effort to assign all of the current and projected 3013 containers in the Department of Energy (DOE) inventory to one of three bins (Innocuous, Pressure and Corrosion, or Pressure) based on potential failure mechanisms. Grouping containers into bins provides a framework to make a statistical selection of individual containers from the entire population for destructive and nondestructive field surveillance. The binning process consisted of three main steps. First, the packaged containers were binned using information in the Integrated Surveillance Program database and a decision tree. The second task was to assign those containers that could not be binned using the decision tree to a specific bin using container-by-container engineering review. The final task was to evaluate containers not yet packaged and assign them to bins using process knowledge. The technical basis for the decisions made during the binning process is included in Section 1. A composite decision tree and a summary table show all of the containers projected to be in the DOE inventory at the conclusion of packaging at all sites. Decision trees that provide an overview of the binning process and logic are included for each site. Section 2 of this report describes the approach to the statistical selection of containers for surveillance and

  6. Wallops Ship Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donna C.

    2011-01-01

    Approved as a Wallops control center backup system, the Wallops Ship Surveillance Software is a day-of-launch risk analysis tool for spaceport activities. The system calculates impact probabilities and displays ship locations relative to boundary lines. It enables rapid analysis of possible flight paths to preclude the need to cancel launches and allow execution of launches in a timely manner. Its design is based on low-cost, large-customer- base elements including personal computers, the Windows operating system, C/C++ object-oriented software, and network interfaces. In conformance with the NASA software safety standard, the system is designed to ensure that it does not falsely report a safe-for-launch condition. To improve the current ship surveillance method, the system is designed to prevent delay of launch under a safe-for-launch condition. A single workstation is designated the controller of the official ship information and the official risk analysis. Copies of this information are shared with other networked workstations. The program design is divided into five subsystems areas: 1. Communication Link -- threads that control the networking of workstations; 2. Contact List -- a thread that controls a list of protected item (ocean vessel) information; 3. Hazard List -- threads that control a list of hazardous item (debris) information and associated risk calculation information; 4. Display -- threads that control operator inputs and screen display outputs; and 5. Archive -- a thread that controls archive file read and write access. Currently, most of the hazard list thread and parts of other threads are being reused as part of a new ship surveillance system, under the SureTrak project.

  7. European Influenza Surveillance Scheme on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snacken, R; Manuguerra, J C; Taylor, P

    1998-09-01

    In 1995, The European Influenza Surveillance Scheme was created with the participation of eight networks from seven countries. The main objectives were to continue the previous CARE Telematics Network and to adapt the project to the Internet environment as well as to improve substantially the quality of the surveillance according to new epidemiological requirements. Clinical and virological data from the general population and hospitals are collected in an interactive real-time database which can then be used for data entry, queries and consultations. Research programmes have been undertaken in various fields such as standardisation of clinical data and comparability between countries. Validation and security processes guarantee the quality assurance as well as regular assessment by the steering committee. Two additional countries will participate during the next influenza season (1997-98). This will represent an early warning system in a region of approximately 264 million inhabitants.

  8. 1995 annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Fernald Environmental Management Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. During the past several years, a number of DOE sites have participated in the Epidemiologic Surveillance Program. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at FEMP and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out.

  9. Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program started in 1966 and conducted epidemiologic research to quantify the potential adverse effects of prescription drugs, utilizing in-hospital monitoring.

  10. Screening and surveillance of workers exposed to mineral dusts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G.R.

    1997-12-31

    This publication resulted from a World Health Organisation initiated project to investigate the harmonisation of definitions, approaches and methodologies for the screening and surveillance of workers exposed to mineral dust. The first part of the book provides definitions of screening and surveillance and describes the main elements of such programmes. The second part discusses the practical aspect of the screening and surveillance of working populations exposed to crystalline silica, coal mine dust and asbestos. Although no single set of guidelines is applicable to the development and implementation of a programme for the screening and surveillance of workers exposed to mineral dust, the recommendations, together with certain caveats, should provide a useful starting point. Annexes provide examples of existing programmes in various countries and environments and discuss the use and interpretation of questionnaires, lung spirometry and chest radiography. Overall the book should be of interest to occupational health professionals.

  11. Oak Ridge Reservation annual site environmental report for 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The US Department of Energy currently oversees activities on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a government-owned, contractor-operated facility. Three sites compose the reservation: the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and East Tennessee Technology Park (formerly the K-25 Site). The ORR was established in the early 1940s as part of the Manhattan Project, a secret undertaking that produced the materials for the first atomic bombs. The reservation`s role has evolved over the years, and it continues to adapt to meet the changing defense, energy, and research needs of the US. Both the work carried out for the war effort and subsequent research, development, and production activities have produced (and continue to produce) radiological and hazardous wastes. This document contains a summary of environmental monitoring activities on the ORR and its surroundings. Environmental monitoring on the ORR consists of two major activities: effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. Effluent monitoring involves the collection and analysis of samples or measurements of liquid and gaseous effluents prior to release into the environment; these measurements allow the quantification and official reporting of contaminants, assessment of radiation exposures to the public, and demonstration of compliance with applicable standards and permit requirements. Environmental surveillance consists of the collection and analysis of environmental samples from the site and its environs; this provides direct measurement of contaminants in air, water, groundwater, soil, foods, biota, and other media subsequent to effluent release into the environment. Environmental surveillance data verify ORR`s compliance status and, combined with data from effluent monitoring, allow the determination of chemical and radiation dose/exposure assessment of ORR operations and effects, if any, on the local environment.

  12. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory site environmental report for calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, R.B.; Brooks, R.W.; Roush, D.; Martin, D.B. [Environmental Science and Research Foundation, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lantz, B.S. [Dept. of Energy, Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho Operations Office

    1998-08-01

    To verify that exposures resulting from operations at Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities remain very small, each site at which nuclear activities are conducted operates an environmental surveillance program to monitor the air, water and any other pathway whereby radionuclides from operations might conceivably reach workers and members of the public. Environmental surveillance and monitoring results are reported annually to the DOE-Headquarters. This report presents a compilation of data collected in 1997 for the routine environmental surveillance programs conducted on and around the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The results of the various monitoring programs for 1997 indicated that radioactivity from the INEEL operations could generally not be distinguished from worldwide fallout and natural radioactivity in the region surrounding the INEEL. Although some radioactive materials were discharged during INEEL operations, concentrations in the offsite environment and doses to the surrounding population were far less than state of Idaho and federal health protection guidelines.

  13. Land suitability assessment for wind power plant site selection using ANP-DEMATEL in a GIS environment: case study of Ardabil province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Ali; Malekmohammadi, Bahram; Jafari, Hamid Reza; Nasiri, Hossein; Amini Parsa, Vahid

    2014-10-01

    Wind energy is a renewable energy resource that has increased in usage in most countries. Site selection for the establishment of large wind turbines, called wind farms, like any other engineering project, requires basic information and careful planning. This study assessed the possibility of establishing wind farms in Ardabil province in northwestern Iran by using a combination of analytic network process (ANP) and decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) methods in a geographical information system (GIS) environment. DEMATEL was used to determine the criteria relationships. The weights of the criteria were determined using ANP and the overlaying process was done on GIS. Using 13 information layers in three main criteria including environmental, technical and economical, the land suitability map was produced and reclassified into 5 equally scored divisions from least suitable to most suitable areas. The results showed that about 6.68% of the area of Ardabil province is most suitable for establishment of wind turbines. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant portions of these most suitable zones coincide with suitable divisions of the input layers. The efficiency and accuracy of the hybrid model (ANP-DEMATEL) was evaluated and the results were compared to the ANP model. The sensitivity analysis, map classification, and factor weights for the two methods showed satisfactory results for the ANP-DEMATEL model in wind power plant site selection.

  14. 2003 Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Program Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-07-01

    are part of long-term site management. In response to post-closure care requirements set forth in UMTRCA, DOE Headquarters established the Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance (LTS&M) Program in 1988 at the DOE office in Grand Junction, Colorado. The program assumed long-term management responsibility for sites remediated under UMTRCA and other programs. Since its inception, the LTS&M Program has evolved in response to changing stakeholder needs, improvements in technology, and the addition of more DOE sites as remediation is completed. The mission of the LTS&M Program was to fulfill DOE’s responsibility to implement all activities necessary to ensure regulatory compliance and to protect the public and the environment from long-lived wastes associated with the nation’s nuclear energy, weapons, and research activities. Key components of the LTS&M Program included stakeholder participation, site monitoring and maintenance, records and information management, and research and technology transfer. This report presents summaries of activities conducted in 2003 in fulfillment of the LTS&M Program mission. On December 15, 2003, DOE established the Office of Legacy Management (LM) to allow for optimum management of DOE’s legacy responsibilities. Offices are located in Washington, DC, Grand Junction, Colorado, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to perform long-term site management, land management, site transition support, records management, and other related tasks. All activities formerly conducted under the LTS&M Program have been incorporated into the Office of Land and Site Management (LM–50), as well as management of remedies involving ground water and surface water contaminated by former processing activities.

  15. Sonoma Persistent Surveillance System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, D M

    2006-03-24

    Sonoma offers the first cost-effective, broad-area, high-resolution, real-time motion imagery system for surveillance applications. Sonoma is unique in its ability to provide continuous, real-time video imagery of an area the size of a small city with resolutions sufficient to track 8,000 moving objects in the field of view. At higher resolutions and over smaller areas, Sonoma can even track the movement of individual people. The visual impact of the data available from Sonoma is already causing a paradigm shift in the architecture and operation of other surveillance systems. Sonoma is expected to cost just one-tenth the price of comparably sized sensor systems. Cameras mounted on an airborne platform constantly monitor an area, feeding data to the ground for real-time analysis. Sonoma was designed to provide real-time data for actionable intelligence in situations such as monitoring traffic, special events, border security, and harbors. If a Sonoma system had been available in the aftermath of the Katrina and Rita hurricanes, emergency responders would have had real-time information on roads, water levels, and traffic conditions, perhaps saving many lives.

  16. Influenza sentinel surveillance network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torner, Nuria; Baricot, Maretva; Martínez, Ana; Toledo, Diana; Godoy, Pere; Dominguez, Ángela; Primary care physicians’ Network of Catalonia (PID, the Influenza Sentinel Surveillance

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of a collaborative action between Public Health services and Primary Care in the context of a case-control study on effectiveness of pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical measures to prevent hospitalization in a pandemic situation. To carry out this research the collaborative action of the primary care physicians members of the Influenza surveillance network was needed, they had to recall clinical information from influenza A(H1N1)pmd09 confirmed outpatient cases and negative outpatient controls matching their corresponding hospitalized confirmed case. A survey questionnaire to assess involvement of Influenza Sentinel Surveillance Primary care physicians’ Network of Catalonia (PIDIRAC) regarding the outpatient case and control outreach during the pandemic influenza season was performed. A total of 71,1% of completed surveys were received. Perception of pandemic activity was considered to be similar to seasonal influenza activity in 43.8% or higher but not unbearable in 37.5% of the replies. There was no nuisance reported from patients regarding neither the questions nor the surveyor. Collaborative research between Public Health services and Primary Care physicians enhances Public Health actions and research. PMID:23396181

  17. A Reference Architecture for Developing Resource-Limited Disease Surveillance Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Fatwanto, Agung

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, several countries have developed and implemented disease surveillance systems. These systems, eventhough having relatively similar functions, are adopting different approaches. Based on a preliminary study, an effective strategy for developing a disease surveillance system was proposed. This paper proposes a reference architecture for building a disease surveillance system based on the medical and technological perspective in the context of resource-limited environment.

  18. The Acheulian site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, Israel: environment, hominin culture, subsistence and adaptation on the shores of the paleo-Hula Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren-Inbar, N.

    2014-12-01

    The Acheulian site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov (GBY), located in the Hula Valley, northern sector of the Dead Sea transform, stretches along 3.5 km of the Jordan River and its banks. The accumulation of tilted lake-margin sediments interfingered with basalt flows began 1.1 Ma and ended after 0.6 Ma. The excavations (1989-1997) exposed 34 m thick deposits that provide unique data sets on climate, environment, biology, culture and hominin behavior. Hominin presence is known throughout the sequence, providing information on Acheulian technology and cognition along the time trajectory, but the richest sites (15 in number) occur above the M/B Chron Boundary. Reconstructions of paleoenvironment and habitats are based on fossil remains yielding an extremely rich typically Mediterranean biomass of diverse biogeographic origins. Macro and micro organic material (over 140 identified taxa) exhibits a typical Mediterranean environment similar to the extant flora, with few extinctions (20 species). The rich fossil faunal include molluscs, ostracods, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, micromammals and medium-sized to large mammals (over 237 taxa), predominantly Palearctic in biogeographic origin. Many of these taxa are still extant, attesting to stable habitats and paleoclimatic conditions. Hominin occupations are documented by thousands of lithic artifacts (flint, limestone and basalt), all assigned to the Large Flake Acheulian culture. These assemblages show a continuous cultural tradition of the same tool kit along the time trajectory. The lithic reduction required developed cognitive abilities and communication abilities, interpreted as language. Evidence of hominin subsistence includes data on carcass processing including extraction of marrow, with a preference for consumption of fallow deer, elephant, hippopotamus and fish. Edible plant remains include nuts, USO, fruits, seeds and vegetables in association with stone artifacts and animal bones. Fire, present throughout, was

  19. Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, JF

    2004-08-24

    This document is prepared annually to summarize environmental activities, primarily environmental-monitoring activities, on the ORR and within the ORR surroundings. The document fulfills the requirement of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1, ''Environment, Safety and Health Reporting,'' for an annual summary of environmental data to characterize environmental performance. The environmental monitoring criteria are described in DOE Order 450.1, ''Environmental Protection Program''. The results summarized in this report are based on data collected prior to and through 2003. This report is not intended to provide the results of all sampling on the ORR. Additional data collected for other site and regulatory purposes, such as environmental restoration remedial investigation reports, waste management characterization sampling data, and environmental permit compliance data, are presented in other documents that have been prepared in accordance with applicable DOE guidance and/or laws. Corrections to the report for the previous year are found in Appendix A. Environmental monitoring on the ORR consists primarily of two major activities: effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. Effluent monitoring involves the collection and analysis of samples or measurements of liquid and gaseous effluents at the point of release to the environment; these measurements allow the quantification and official reporting of contaminants, assessment of radiation and chemical exposures to the public, and demonstration of compliance with applicable standards and permit requirements. Environmental surveillance consists of the collection and analysis of environmental samples from the site and its environs; these activities provide direct measurement of contaminants in air, water, groundwater, soil, foods, biota, and other media subsequent to effluent release into the environment. Environmental surveillance data provide information regarding

  20. Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report for 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-09-30

    This document is prepared annually to summarize environmental activities, primarily environmental-monitoring activities, on the ORR and within the ORR surroundings. The document fulfills the requirement of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1, “Environment, Safety and Health Reporting,” for an annual summary of environmental data to characterize environmental performance. The environmental monitoring criteria are described in DOE Order 450.1, “Environmental Protection Program.” The results summarized in this report are based on data collected prior to and through 2003. This report is not intended to provide the results of all sampling on the ORR. Additional data collected for other site and regulatory purposes, such as environmental restoration remedial investigation reports, waste management characterization sampling data, and environmental permit compliance data, are presented in other documents that have been prepared in accordance with applicable DOE guidance and/or laws. Corrections to the report for the previous year are found in Appendix A. Environmental monitoring on the ORR consists primarily of two major activities: effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. Effluent monitoring involves the collection and analysis of samples or measurements of liquid and gaseous effluents at the point of release to the environment; these measurements allow the quantification and official reporting of contaminants, assessment of radiation and chemical exposures to the public, and demonstration of compliance with applicable standards and permit requirements. Environmental surveillance consists of the collection and analysis of environmental samples from the site and its environs; these activities provide direct measurement of contaminants in air, water, groundwater, soil, foods, biota, and other media subsequent to effluent release into the environment. Environmental surveillance data provide information regarding conformity with applicable DOE

  1. Surveillance of illness associated with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection among adults using a global clinical site network approach: the INSIGHT FLU 002 and FLU 003 studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dwyer, Dominic E; Gerstoft, Jan

    2011-01-01

    that experience clinically significant outcomes and to study factors related to these outcomes. Enrollment commenced in October 2009 and will continue until August 2011: as of the end of 2010, 62 sites in 14 countries in Australasia (12 sites), Europe (37) and North America (13) have enrolled 1365 adult patients......, with 1049 enrollments into the FLU 002 outpatient study and 316 into the FLU 003 hospitalization study. These 'in progress' INSIGHT influenza observational studies may act as a model for obtaining epidemiological, clinical and laboratory information in future international disease outbreaks....

  2. 2007 Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratel,K.

    2008-10-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) prepares an annual Site Environmental Report (SER) in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting of the U.S. Department of Energy. The report is written to inform the public, regulators, employees, and other stakeholders of the Laboratory's environmental performance during the calendar year in review. Volume I of the SER summarizes environmental data; environmental management performance; compliance with applicable DOE, federal, state, and local regulations; and performance in restoration and surveillance monitoring programs. BNL has prepared annual SERs since 1971 and has documented nearly all of its environmental history since the Laboratory's inception in 1947. Volume II of the SER, the Groundwater Status Report, also is prepared annually to report on the status of and evaluate the performance of groundwater treatment systems at the Laboratory. Volume II includes detailed technical summaries of groundwater data and its interpretation, and is intended for internal BNL users, regulators, and other technically oriented stakeholders. A brief summary of the information contained in Volume II is included in this volume in Chapter 7, Groundwater Protection. Both reports are available in print and as downloadable files on the BNL web page at http://www.bnl.gov/ewms/ser/. An electronic version on compact disc is distributed with each printed report. In addition, a summary of Volume I is prepared each year to provide a general overview of the report, and is distributed with a compact disc containing the-length report.

  3. 2005 SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY

    2006-08-29

    Each year, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) prepares an annual Site Environmental Report (SER) in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The report is written to inform the public, regulators, employees, and other stakeholders of BNL's environmental performance during the calendar year in review. The SER summarizes environmental data; environmental management performance; compliance with applicable DOE, federal, state, and local regulations; and compliance, restoration, and surveillance monitoring program performance. BNL has prepared annual SERs since 1971 and has documented nearly all of its environmental history since the Laboratory's inception in 1947. The report is available in print and as a downloadable file on the BNL web page at http://www.bnl.gov/ewms/ser/. A summary of the SER is also prepared each year to provide a general overview of the report, and is distributed with a CD of the full report.

  4. 2004 SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY; SER TEAM; ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SERVICES GROUP; ENVIROMENTAL AND WASTE MANAGEMENT SERVICES DIVISION FIELD SAMPLING TEAM; (MANY OTHER CONTRIBUTORS)

    2005-08-22

    Each year, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) prepares an annual Site Environmental Report (SER) in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The SER is written to inform the public, regulators, Laboratory employees, and other stakeholders of BNL's environmental performance during the calendar year in review. The report summarizes BNL's environmental data; environmental management performance; compliance with applicable DOE, federal, state, and local regulations; and restoration and surveillance monitoring programs. BNL has prepared annual SERs since 1971 and has documented nearly all of its environmental history since the Laboratory's inception in 1947. The SER is intended to be a technical document. It is available in print and as a downloadable file on the BNL web page at http://www.bnl.gov/esd/SER.htm. A summary of the SER is also prepared each year to provide a general overview of the report, and is distributed with a CD version of the full report. The summary supports BNL's educational and community outreach program.

  5. External radiation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site.

  6. Fish and wildlife surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the monitoring of radioactive contaminants in fish and wildlife species that inhabit the Colombia River and Hanford Site. Wildlife have access to areas of the Site containing radioactive contamination, and fish can be exposed to contamination in spring water entering the river along the shoreline. Therefore, samples are collected at various locations annually, generally during the hunting or fishing season, for selected species.

  7. PREZIES: PREventie van ZIEkenhuisinfecties door Surveillance. Deelcomponent postoperatieve wondinfecties II, 1997-1998

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geubbels ELPE; Dieten HEM van; Mintjes-de Groot AJ; Boer AS de; Kalmeijer D; Berg JMJ van den; CBO; CIE

    1999-01-01

    The results of the first two years of surveillance of surgical site infections in the PREZIES-project are described here. Infection percentages are given for 52 procedures. The effect of post-discharge surveillance is described and, for 10 procedures, a division is made between infection percentages

  8. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, Michelle; Brady, Doug

    2008-07-01

    Each year, LANL produces an Environmental Surveillance Report (ESR) in compliance with a Department of Energy (DOE) order. The ESR aims to summarize the environmental impacts of the Laboratory, the efforts to minimize these impacts, and LANL’s compliance with environmental regulations. This Summary Report presents the methods and results of environmental monitoring done in 2007 in a form that is more understandable and inviting to the public. Though other DOE sites have done Summary Reports in the past, this is LANL’s first for the ESR, and the authors were privileged to write this report from the perspective of students.

  9. Keyframe labeling technique for surveillance event classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şaykol, Ediz; Baştan, Muhammet; Güdükbay, Uğur; Ulusoy, Özgür

    2010-11-01

    The huge amount of video data generated by surveillance systems necessitates the use of automatic tools for their efficient analysis, indexing, and retrieval. Automated access to the semantic content of surveillance videos to detect anomalous events is among the basic tasks; however, due to the high variability of the audio-visual features and large size of the video input, it still remains a challenging task, though a considerable amount of research dealing with automated access to video surveillance has appeared in the literature. We propose a keyframe labeling technique, especially for indoor environments, which assigns labels to keyframes extracted by a keyframe detection algorithm, and hence transforms the input video to an event-sequence representation. This representation is used to detect unusual behaviors, such as crossover, deposit, and pickup, with the help of three separate mechanisms based on finite state automata. The keyframes are detected based on a grid-based motion representation of the moving regions, called the motion appearance mask. It has been shown through performance experiments that the keyframe labeling algorithm significantly reduces the storage requirements and yields reasonable event detection and classification performance.

  10. The Pedagogy of the Observed: How Does Surveillance Technology Influence Dance Studio Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    A local trend in commercial dance studio education is the implementation of real-time digital video surveillance. This case study explores how digital video cameras in the dance studio environment affect asymmetrical power relationships already present in the commercial studio setting, as well as how surveillance impacts feminist pedagogical…

  11. General surveillance of genetically modified crops : possibilities of GIS and remote sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerink, G.J.; Danes, M.H.G.I.

    2010-01-01

    According EU legislation a General Surveillance is necessary to monitor for unanticipated adverse effects of genetically modified organisms on the environment. In this report a prototype of a monitoring system for such a Surveillance is introduced on the basis of time series analysis of satellite

  12. Sharing, caring, and surveilling: an actor-partner interdependence model examination of Facebook relational maintenance strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Bree

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Relational maintenance is connected to high quality friendships. Friendship maintenance behaviors may occur online via social networking sites. This study utilized an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to examine how Facebook maintenance and surveillance affect friendship quality. Bryant and Marmo's (2012) Facebook maintenance scale was evaluated, revealing two factors: sharing and caring. Facebook surveillance was also measured. For friendship satisfaction and liking, significant positive actor and partner effects emerged for caring; significant negative actor, partner, and interaction effects emerged for sharing; and significant positive actor effects emerged for surveillance. For friendship closeness, significant positive actor effects emerged for caring and surveillance.

  13. 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE LIFE EXTENSION SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM RESULTS SUMMARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, K.; Daugherty, W.; Hackney, B.; Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.

    2011-05-27

    Results from the 9975 shipping package Storage and Surveillance Program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are summarized for justification to extend the life of the 9975 packages currently stored in the K-Area Complex (KAC). This justification is established with the stipulation that surveillance activities will continue throughout the extended time to ensure the continued integrity of the 9975 materials of construction and to further understand the currently identified degradation mechanisms. The 10 year storage life justification was developed prior to storage. A subsequent report was later used to validate the qualification of the 9975 shipping packages for 10 years in storage. However the qualification for the storage period was provided by the monitoring requirements of the 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program. This report summarizes efforts to determine a new safe storage limit for the 9975 shipping package based on the surveillance data collected since 2005 when the 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program began. The Program has demonstrated that the 9975 package has a robust design that can perform under a variety of conditions. The primary emphasis of the on-going 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program is an aging study of the 9975 Viton{reg_sign} containment vessel O-rings and the Celotex{reg_sign} fiberboard thermal insulation at bounding conditions of radiation, elevated temperatures and/or elevated humidity.

  14. Analysis of a Multi-Well Tracer Test at a Bank Filtration Site in an Arid Environment of El Paso, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, A. N.; Langford, R.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Sheng, Z.

    2005-12-01

    River bank filtered water is an important component of the drinking water production in many areas of the world. In riverbank filtration, the removal of pathogens is an important task for the production of good quality drinking water. The hydrogeological factors and spatial changes in the water's microbiology during the transport from the river to the aquifer have important implications on the quality of the produced water. The goal of this study was to investigate riverbank infiltration effectiveness in arid environments such as that of El Paso, Texas. The hydrostratigraphic units and hydrogeologic conditions were characterized with lithologic samples obtained from all boreholes collected during the construction of twelve observation wells and one production well in the site, which were constructed near the artificial stream to provide geologic and hydrologic information. The shallow aquifer is composed of three unites: high hydraulic conductivity layers on the top and bottom, and low conductivity layer in the middle. In this study advective transport of microspheres was compared with a conservative tracer such as bromide. Bromide was injected into an observation well at the channel margin. Simultaneously, 1, 6 and 10 micron-diameter fluorescent microspheres equivalent to Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and bacteria sizes were injected into the stream bottom and two observation wells to assess the suitability of microspheres as abiotic analogs in future investigations involving the physical aspects of bacteria and protozoa transport behavior. The 17.8 day-tracer test provided valuable results that are relevant to the transport of pathogens through the subsurface under riverbank filtration conditions. The 1 micron-size microspheres were abundant in the pumping and observation wells and showed multiple peaks similar to the bromide results. Microspheres from the three injection sites had distinctly different transport paths and rates. The 6 and 10 micron-size microspheres

  15. Surveillance of illness associated with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection among adults using a global clinical site network approach: the INSIGHT FLU 002 and FLU 003 studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dwyer, Dominic E; Nielsen, Henrik Ib

    2011-01-01

    The novel pandemic influenza A (H1H1) 2009 virus spread rapidly around the world in 2009. The paucity of prospective international epidemiologic data on predictors of clinical outcomes with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection stimulated the INSIGHT network, an international network of community...... that experience clinically significant outcomes and to study factors related to these outcomes. Enrollment commenced in October 2009 and will continue until August 2011: as of the end of 2010, 62 sites in 14 countries in Australasia (12 sites), Europe (37) and North America (13) have enrolled 1365 adult patients......, with 1049 enrollments into the FLU 002 outpatient study and 316 into the FLU 003 hospitalization study. These 'in progress' INSIGHT influenza observational studies may act as a model for obtaining epidemiological, clinical and laboratory information in future international disease outbreaks....

  16. What is a missing link among wireless persistent surveillance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Szu, Harold

    2011-06-01

    The next generation surveillance system will equip with versatile sensor devices and information focus capable of conducting regular and irregular surveillance and security environments worldwide. The community of the persistent surveillance must invest the limited energy and money effectively into researching enabling technologies such as nanotechnology, wireless networks, and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) to develop persistent surveillance applications for the future. Wireless sensor networks can be used by the military for a number of purposes such as monitoring militant activity in remote areas and force protection. Being equipped with appropriate sensors these networks can enable detection of enemy movement, identification of enemy force and analysis of their movement and progress. Among these sensor network technologies, covert communication is one of the challenging tasks in the persistent surveillance because it is highly demanded to provide secured sensor nodes and linkage for fear of deliberate sabotage. Due to the matured VLSI/DSP technologies, affordable COTS of UWB technology with noise-like direct sequence (DS) time-domain pulses is a potential solution to support low probability of intercept and low probability of detection (LPI/LPD) data communication and transmission. This paper will describe a number of technical challenges in wireless persistent surveillance development include covert communication, network control and routing, collaborating signal and information processing, and etc. The paper concludes by presenting Hermitian Wavelets to enhance SNR in support of secured communication.

  17. Guidebook for the implementation of obligations applicable to polluted sites and soils; Guide pour la mise en oeuvre des servitudes applicables aux sites et sols pollues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Any polluted soil represents a threat and can become an unacceptable risk for men and environment. This document presents some guidelines for the implementation of the obligations related to polluted soils: inventory of needs (prevention of any hazardous exposure, maintenance of the site surveillance, anticipation of safety measures in the case of works, perennializing of the information about the site); existing obligations (public utility obligations, project of general interest, private right conventional obligations, conventional obligations for the benefit of the government, conventional obligations in use between two parties); modalities of enforcement (obligations in the domain of water and soils); synthesis of the existing obligations. (J.S.)

  18. The role of supplementary environmental surveillance to complement acute flaccid paralysis surveillance for wild poliovirus in Pakistan – 2011–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Cara C.; Sharif, Salmaan; Gary, Howard E.; Iber, Jane; Henderson, Elizabeth; Malik, Farzana; Zahoor Zaidi, Syed Sohail; Shaukat, Shahzad; Rehman, Lubna; Pallansch, Mark A.; Orenstein, Walter A.

    2017-01-01

    Background More than 99% of poliovirus infections are non-paralytic and therefore, not detected by acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance. Environmental surveillance (ES) can detect circulating polioviruses from sewage without relying on clinical presentation. With extensive ES and continued circulation of polioviruses, Pakistan presents a unique opportunity to quantify the impact of ES as a supplement to AFP surveillance on overall completeness and timeliness of poliovirus detection. Methods Genetic, geographic and temporal data were obtained for all wild poliovirus (WPV) isolates detected in Pakistan from January 2011 through December 2013. We used viral genetics to assess gaps in AFP surveillance and ES as measured by detection of ‘orphan viruses’ (≥1.5% different in VP1 capsid nucleotide sequence). We compared preceding detection of closely related circulating isolates (≥99% identity) detected by AFP surveillance or ES to determine which surveillance system first detected circulation before the presentation of each polio case. Findings A total of 1,127 WPV isolates were detected by AFP surveillance and ES in Pakistan from 2011–2013. AFP surveillance and ES combined exhibited fewer gaps (i.e., % orphan viruses) in detection than AFP surveillance alone (3.3% vs. 7.7%, respectively). ES detected circulation before AFP surveillance in nearly 60% of polio cases (200 of 346). For polio cases reported from provinces conducting ES, ES detected circulation nearly four months sooner on average (117.6 days) than did AFP surveillance. Interpretation Our findings suggest ES in Pakistan is providing earlier, more sensitive detection of wild polioviruses than AFP surveillance alone. Overall, targeted ES through strategic selection of sites has important implications in the eradication endgame strategy. PMID:28742803

  19. Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report for 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, Wayne [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Y-12 Complex; Hughes, Joan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Coffey, Mike [East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Thompson, Sharon [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2007-09-01

    This document is prepared annually to summarize environmental activities, primarily environmental-monitoring activities, on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and within the ORR surroundings. The document fulfills the requirement of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 23l.IA, 'Environment, Safety and Health Reporting,' for an annual summary of environmental data to characterize environmental performance. The environmental-monitoring criteria are described in DOE Order 450.1, 'Environmental Protection Program.' The results summarized in this report are based on data collected prior to and through 2006. This report is not intended to provide the results of all sampling on the ORR. Additional data collected for other site and regulatory purposes, such as environmental restoration remedial investigation reports, waste management characterization sampling data, and environmental permit compliance data, are presented in other documents that have been prepared in accordance with applicable DOE guidance and/or laws and are referenced herein as appropriate. Corrections to the report for the previous year are found in Appendix A. Environmental monitoring on the ORR consists primarily of two major activities: effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. Effluent monitoring involves the collection and analysis of samples or measurements of liquid and gaseous effluents at the point of release to the environment; these measurements allow the quantification and official reporting of contaminants, assessment of radiation and chemical exposures to the public, and demonstration of compliance with applicable standards and permit requirements. Environmental surveillance consists of the collection and analysis of environmental samples from the site and its environs; these activities provide direct measurement of contaminant concentrations in air, water, groundwater, soil, foods, biota, and other media. Environmental surveillance data provide information regarding

  20. Environment of care: Is it time to reassess microbial contamination of the operating room air as a risk factor for surgical site infection in total joint arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvizi, Javad; Barnes, Sue; Shohat, Noam; Edmiston, Charles E

    2017-11-01

    In the modern operating room (OR), traditional surgical mask, frequent air exchanges, and architectural barriers are viewed as effective in reducing airborne microbial populations. Intraoperative sampling of airborne particulates is rarely performed in the OR because of technical difficulties associated with sampling methodologies and a common belief that airborne contamination is infrequently associated with surgical site infections (SSIs). Recent studies suggest that viable airborne particulates are readily disseminated throughout the OR, placing patients at risk for postoperative SSI. In 2017, virtually all surgical disciplines are engaged in the implantation of selective biomedical devices, and these implants have been documented to be at high risk for intraoperative contamination. Approximately 1.2 million arthroplasties are performed annually in the United States, and that number is expected to increase to 3.8 million by the year 2030. The incidence of periprosthetic joint infection is perceived to be low (air quality standards on their manufacturing processes, there is currently no U.S. standard for acceptable air quality within the OR environment. This review documents the contribution of air contamination to the etiology of periprosthetic joint infection, and evidence for selective innovative strategies to reduce the risk of intraoperative microbial aerosols. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Employee Reviews on Company Independent Sites and its Impact on Organizational Attractiveness: Role of Information Realism, Person – Environment Fit and Source Credibility Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavleen Kaur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Extant literature on recruitment has focused on the traditional sources of recruitment like company brochures, career fairs, and impact of such sources on intent to join the organization, productivity and turnover intention. The influence of recruitment related information on pre hire outcomes is still scarce and inconclusive. With the advent of technology and access to Internet, company websites have become an important source of recruitment. Apart from company websites, job seekers are now using company independent websites, forums or online communities to gather a more truthful picture and information about the job and organizational attributes. Social media too has become increasingly important medium where the current employees’ share how it is to work with the organization However research on web based recruitment is limited to company websites. Despite the widespread growth and practical use of these new and innovative media very little is known about how these independent sites influence recruitment pre hire outcomes. In this direction the proposed study presents a conceptual framework about how job seekers perceive company independent websites as a tool for providing recruitment communication and their impact on organizational attractiveness using Information Realism, Person-Environment fit framework, Source Credibility framework.

  2. Identification et surveillance des individus

    OpenAIRE

    Aghroum, Christian; Bonelli, Laurent; Dufief, Vincent; Thorel, Jérôme; Tsoukala, Anastassia; Vitran, Jean-Claude; Alberganti, Michel; Ceyhan, Ayse; Charrier, Philippe; Denis, Vincent; Laurent, Sébastien; Piazza, Pierre; Preuss-Laussinotte, Sylvia; Rousselin, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    « Big Brother is watching you ! » Cet avertissement placardé sur les murs de la cité imaginaire d'Océania dans le roman 1984 de Georges Orwell peut-il s'appliquer à nos sociétés contemporaines ? Passeport biométrique, fichage informatisé des individus, multiplication des caméras de surveillance, utilisation de puce dans des objets de la vie quotidienne, ou pour suivre les criminels en liberté surveillée, les mesures d'identification, de fichage et de surveillance des individus par des techniq...

  3. Master schedule for CY-1977 Hanford Environmental Surveillance Routine Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumer, P.J.; Myers, D.A.; Fix, J.J.

    1976-12-01

    Data are presented from the routine environmental surveillance program at the Hanford Site as conducted by the Environmental Evaluation Section of Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory for ERDA. Tables are presented to show levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollution in the Columbia River, sanitary water, surface water, ground water, foods, wildlife, soil, and vegetation. Data are also presented for external radiation measurements using thermoluminescent dosimeters, results of portable instrument surveys, and monitoring of waste disposal sites. (HLW)

  4. Surface Environmental Surveillance Procedures Manual, PNL-MA-580, Rev. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanf, Robert W.; Poston, Ted M.; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2007-07-01

    This manual contains the procedures that are used for the collection of routine Surface Environmental Surveillance Project environmental samples and field measurements on and around the Hanford Site. Specific responsibilities for project personnel are also defined.

  5. Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulford, Roberta Nancy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-29

    This lecture discusses stockpile stewardship efforts and the role surveillance plays in the process. Performance of the RTGs is described, and the question of the absence of anticipated He is addressed.

  6. Savannah River Site environmental data for 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, M.W. [ed.

    1995-12-31

    This document presents data from Savannah River Site routine environmental monitoring and surveillance programs. An attempt also has been made to include all available data from environmental research programs.

  7. Privacy Implications of Surveillance Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thommesen, Jacob; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a model for assessing the privacy „cost‟ of a surveillance system. Surveillance systems collect and provide personal information or observations of people by means of surveillance technologies such as databases, video or location tracking. Such systems can be designed for vari......This paper presents a model for assessing the privacy „cost‟ of a surveillance system. Surveillance systems collect and provide personal information or observations of people by means of surveillance technologies such as databases, video or location tracking. Such systems can be designed...... for various purposes, even as a service for those being observed, but in any case they will to some degree invade their privacy. The model provided here can indicate how invasive any particular system may be – and be used to compare the invasiveness of different systems. Applying a functional approach......, the model is established by first considering the social function of privacy in everyday life, which in turn lets us determine which different domains will be considered as private, and finally identify the different types of privacy invasion. This underlying model (function – domain – invasion) then serves...

  8. Climate and environments during Marine Isotope Stage 11 in the central Iberian Peninsula: the herpetofaunal assemblage from the Acheulean site of Áridos-1, Madrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Santonja, Manuel; Pérez-González, Alfredo; Panera, Joaquin; Rubio-Jara, Susana

    2014-06-01

    paleoenvironmental reconstruction based on the herpetofaunal assemblage suggests a patchy landscape with a large representation of dry meadows, scrubland and rocky habitats together with well-evidenced aquatic habitats. Such open environments during a warm and humid forestal period are seen to be connected with the location of the site in a large river valley, where open vegetation would have been partly initiated and certainly maintained by the grazing, browsing, trampling and tree-felling activities of large mammals.

  9. Calendar Year 2009 Annual Site Environmental Report for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Karen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bailey-White, Brenda [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bonaguidi, Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brown, Mendy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Byrd, Caroline [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cabble, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Castillo, Dave [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Coplen, Amy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Curran, Kelsey [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Deola, Regina [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Duran, Leroy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eckstein, Joanna [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Evelo, Stacie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fitzgerald, Tanja [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); French, Chris [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gerard, Morgan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gonzales, Linda [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gorman, Susan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jackson, Timothy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jarry, Jeff [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Adrian [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lauffer, Franz [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mauser, Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mayeux, Lucie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); McCord, Samuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Oborny, Stephanie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Perini, Robin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Puissant, Pamela [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reiser, Anita [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roma, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Salinas, Stephanie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Skelly, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ullrich, Rebecca [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wagner, Katrina [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wrons, Ralph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2010-09-30

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) is a government-owned/contractor operated facility. Sandia Corporation (Sandia), a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation (LMC), manages and operates the laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The DOE/NNSA, Sandia Site O ffice (SSO) administers the contract and oversees contractor operations at the site. This annual report summarizes data and the compliance status of Sandia Corporation’s environmental protection and monitoring programs through December 31, 2009. Major environmental programs include air quality, water quality, groundwater protection, terrestrial surveillance, waste management, pollution prevention (P2), environmental restoration (ER), oil and chemical spill prevention, and implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program (DOE 2008a) and DOE Manual 231.1-1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 2007).

  10. Annual Site Environmental Report Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Calendar year 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agogino, Karen [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Sanchez, Rebecca [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2008-09-30

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) is a government-owned/contractor-operated facility. Sandia Corporation (Sandia), a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, manages and operates the laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The DOE/NNSA Sandia Site Office (SSO) administers the contract and oversees contractor operations at the site. This annual report summarizes data and the compliance status of Sandia Corporation’s environmental protection and monitoring programs through December 31, 2007. Major environmental programs include air quality, water quality, groundwater protection, terrestrial surveillance, waste management, pollution prevention (P2), environmental restoration (ER), oil and chemical spill prevention, and implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program (DOE 2007a) and DOE Manual 231.1-1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 2007).

  11. A Five Day Training Course for Migrant Health Project Personnel in the Surveillance of Health Hazards of Sanitation Conditions in the Working and Living Environments of Migrant Farmworkers (Albany, New York, October 5-10, 1975).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besinaiz, Carlos, Ed.; Aranda, Roberto, Ed.

    The course aims to train migrant health personnel to recognize and identify adverse sanitary conditions related to the migrant farmworkers' living and working environments, and to outline approaches for the presentation and alleviation of health hazards through the referral of recognized sanitary deficiencies and code violations to responsible…

  12. Shoot water relations of mature black spruce families displaying a genotype x environment interaction in growth rate. I. Family and site effects over three growing seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Johnsen; John E Major

    1999-01-01

    Pressure-volume curves were determined for black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) trees from four full-sib families. During the first two years, trees were measured from a plantation on a dry site. In the third year, trees were sampled from the dry site and a wet site. Diurnal measurements of shoot water potential allowed in situ ...

  13. CD11c-positive cells from brain, spleen, lung, and liver exhibit site-specific immune phenotypes and plastically adapt to new environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immig, Kerstin; Gericke, Martin; Menzel, Franziska; Merz, Felicitas; Krueger, Martin; Schiefenhövel, Fridtjof; Lösche, Andreas; Jäger, Kathrin; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten; Biber, Knut; Bechmann, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    The brain's immune privilege has been also attributed to the lack of dendritic cells (DC) within its parenchyma and the adjacent meninges, an assumption, which implies maintenance of antigens rather than their presentation in lymphoid organs. Using mice transcribing the green fluorescent protein under the promoter of the DC marker CD11c (itgax), we identified a juxtavascular population of cells expressing this DC marker and demonstrated their origin from bone marrow and local microglia. We now phenotypically compared this population with CD11c/CD45 double-positive cells from lung, liver, and spleen in healthy mice using seven-color flow cytometry. We identified unique, site-specific expression patterns of F4/80, CD80, CD86, CX3CR1, CCR2, FLT3, CD103, and MHC-II. Furthermore, we observed the two known CD45-positive populations (CD45(high) and CD45(int) ) in the brain, whereas liver, lung, and spleen exhibited a homogeneous CD45(high) population. CD11c-positive microglia lacked MHC-II expression and CD45(high) /CD11c-positive cells from the brain have a lower percentage of MHC-II-positive cells. To test whether phenotypical differences are fixed by origin or specifically develop due to environmental factors, we transplanted brain and spleen mononuclear cells on organotypic slice cultures from brain (OHSC) and spleen (OSSC). We demonstrate that adaption and ramification of MHC-II-positive splenocytes is paralleled by down-regulation of MHC-II, whereas brain-derived mononuclear cells neither ramified nor up-regulated MHC-II in OSSCs. Thus, brain-derived mononuclear cells maintain their MHC-II-negative phenotype within the environment of an immune organ. Intraparenchymal CD11c-positive cells share immunophenotypical characteristics of DCs from other organs but remain unique for their low MHC-II expression. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Optofluidics-based DNA structure-competitive aptasensor for rapid on-site detection of lead(II) in an aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Feng; Zhu, Anna; Wang, Hongchen

    2014-11-07

    Lead ions (Pb(2+)), ubiquitous and one of the most toxic metallic pollutants, have attracted increasing attentions because of their various neurotoxic effects. Pb(2+) has been proven to induce a conformational change in G-quadruplex (G4) aptamers to form a stabilizing G4/Pb(2+) complex. Based on this principle, an innovative optofluidics-based DNA structure-competitive aptasensor was developed for Pb(2+) detection in an actual aquatic environment. The proposed sensing system has good characteristics, such as high sensitivity and selectivity, reusability, easy operation, rapidity, robustness, portability, use of a small sample volume, and cost effectiveness. A fluorescence-labeled G4 aptamer was utilized as a molecular probe. A DNA probe, a complementary strand of G4 aptamer, was immobilized onto the sensor surface. When the mixture of Pb(2+) solution and G4 aptamer was introduced into the optofluidic cell, Pb(2+) and the DNA probe bound competitively with the G4 aptamer. A high Pb(2+) concentration reduced the binding of the aptamer and the DNA probe; thus, a low-fluorescence signal was detected. A sensitive sensing response to Pb(2+) in the range of 1.0-300.0 nM with a low detection limit of 0.22 nM was exhibited under optimal conditions. The potential interference of the environmental sample matrix was assessed with spiked samples, and the recovery of Pb(2+) ranged from 80 to 105% with a relative standard deviation value of <8.5%. These observations clearly illustrate that with the use of different DNA or aptamer probes, the sensing strategy presented can be easily extended to the rapid on-site monitoring of other trace analytes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Post-discharge surveillance and infection rates in obstetric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, R C; Pedrosa, T M; Nogueira, J M; Gomes, D L; Neto, M F; Rezende, N A

    1998-06-01

    To study the impact of post-discharge surveillance on the detection of nosocomial surgical site infection (SSI) after cesarean section and vaginal delivery. During a 21-month period, all patients attending the obstetrics service in labor were recruited for a observational study on the incidence of SSI. Examinations to detect SSI were performed daily during the hospitalization period and up to 30 days after hospital discharge in an outpatient clinic supervised by the Infection Control Committee. The stratification of risk-factors and the criteria for the diagnosis of SSI were done in accordance with the methods described by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The rates of surgical site infection detected during the hospitalization period were compared with those reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National (United States) Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System (CDCNNIS) 'benchmarks'. The incidence of SSI detected by post-discharge outpatient surveillance was compared with that from in-hospital surveillance, for both cesarean section and vaginal delivery. A total of 4463 deliveries were performed during the study period, 2431 (54.5%) by the vaginal route and 2032 (45.5%) by cesarean section. In-hospital surveillance was done on all patients. Post-discharge examinations were done on 951 (46.8%) of the 2032 cesarean section patients. The incidence of SSI in cesarean section detected by in-hospital surveillance was 1.6% (32 cases) and lower than the 3.6% mean rate reported by the CDCNNIS. When SSIs detected by post-discharge surveillance were included, the total number of SSI was 196 cases (9.6%), a value much higher than that for the SSI detected by in-hospital surveillance alone. Only 5 cases (0.21%) of SSI were detected among the 2431 vaginal deliveries. The results of our study demonstrate that most of SSI following cesarean section were detected only after patient's discharge from the hospital and seems to indicate that

  16. 78 FR 68360 - Unmanned Aircraft System Test Site Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ...--news helicopters, aerial surveys, film/television production, law enforcement, etc.--the FAA is not... surveillance and privacy; Require Test Site operators to design the sites--including the creation of ``fake...

  17. 2D and 3D flash laser imaging for long-range surveillance in maritime border security: detection and identification for counter UAS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespel, L.; Riviere, N.; Fraces, M.; Dupouy, P. E.; Coyac, A.; Barillot, P.; Fauquex, S.; Plyer, A.; Tauvy, M.; Jacquart, M.; Vin, I.; Nascimben, E.; Perez, C.; Velayguet, J. P.; Gorce, D.

    2017-05-01

    To address the issues of maritime border surveillance or long range UAV identification, we develop two laser imagers (a 2D and a 3D system) with long range (LR) capacities to improve significantly the performances in terms of scope of monitoring and persistence of functions (e.g. H24, degraded visibility...). These systems are based on a new generation of focal plane arrays (FPA) with Avalanche PhotoDiode (APD) and are combined with high-performance image processing ("real-time") devoted to superresolution or tracking. In this paper, we first present the results of several maritime surveillance or Counter- Unmanned Aircraft System (C-UAS) demonstrations respectively conducted on a coastal site and a sensitive area. Comparisons between passive and active sensors are shown. The measurements obtained on various maritime targets are completed by end to end modelling in order to assess the systems performances in various atmospheric environments.

  18. Optimal surveillance for postoperative metastasis in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makita, Masujiro; Sakai, Takehiko; Ogiya, Akiko; Kitagawa, Dai; Morizono, Hidetomo; Miyagi, Yumi; Iijima, Kotaro; Iwase, Takuji

    2016-03-01

    To establish an optimal surveillance schedule after surgery for breast cancer, patients included in an institutional database were retrospectively investigated with respect to the first metastatic site and timing of recurrence. We investigated 11,676 pT1-4pN0-2M0 breast cancer patients treated from 1985 to 2009 and followed up until June 2014. Our surveillance protocol included physician visits and examinations with bone scans, liver echography, chest roentgenography and laboratory tests. We evaluated the liver, bones, lungs and pleura as surveillance covering sites (SCS) in addition to parameters such as time points exceeding 80 % with respect to the accumulated percentage of patients of recurrence and the number of surveillance per one recurrence (NSR), calculated by dividing the number of patients at risk of recurrence at the start of a particular time frame by the number of patients of recurrence at SCS within that period. There were a total of 1,962 recurrent patients, including 601 patients with locoregional recurrence, nine patients with recurrence in the opposite breast, 1,349 patients with recurrence at distant sites and three unknown patients. The number of patients with the bones, lungs, liver and pleura as the first site of recurrence was 447, 324, 144 and 69, respectively, and 72.9 % of the distant metastatic lesions belonged to SCS. The five-year overall survival rate after recurrence among the patients with single recurrent site was longer than that observed among the patients with multiple sites of recurrence (43.3 vs 25.3 %; p metastasis were detected within 5 years after surgery, while 80 % of the patients of pleura metastasis were detected within 10 years. The NSR was below 200 for the 10-year period, as was the NSR of the patients with lymph node metastasis and a positive hormone receptor status. In contrast, the NSR of the patients with a negative hormone receptor status was above 200 after 5 years. In this study, the prognosis of the patients

  19. Implementation of Emergency Medical Text Classifier for syndromic surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Debbie; Haas, Stephanie W; Waller, Anna E; Schwartz, Todd A; Mostafa, Javed; Best, Nakia C; Crouch, John

    2013-01-01

    Public health officials use syndromic surveillance systems to facilitate early detection and response to infectious disease outbreaks. Emergency department clinical notes are becoming more available for surveillance but present the challenge of accurately extracting concepts from these text data. The purpose of this study was to implement a new system, Emergency Medical Text Classifier (EMT-C), into daily production for syndromic surveillance and evaluate system performance and user satisfaction. The system was designed to meet user preferences for a syndromic classifier that maximized positive predictive value and minimized false positives in order to provide a manageable workload. EMT-C performed better than the baseline system on all metrics and users were slightly more satisfied with it. It is vital to obtain user input and test new systems in the production environment.

  20. Human-Interaction Challenges in UAV-Based Autonomous Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Michael; Harris, Robert; Shafto, Michael G.

    2004-01-01

    Autonomous UAVs provide a platform for intelligent surveillance in application domains ranging from security and military operations to scientific information gathering and land management. Surveillance tasks are often long duration, requiring that any approach be adaptive to changes in the environment or user needs. We describe a decision- theoretic model of surveillance, appropriate for use on our autonomous helicopter, that provides a basis for optimizing the value of information returned by the UAV. From this approach arise a range of challenges in making this framework practical for use by human operators lacking specialized knowledge of autonomy and mathematics. This paper describes our platform and approach, then describes human-interaction challenges arising from this approach that we have identified and begun to address.

  1. Congenital syphilis surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Marangoni

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Congenital syphilis (CS is mainly a consequence of the lack of antenatal care and control of sexually transmitted infections.The bedrock of the prevention of CS is syphilis diagnosis by serological screening during pregnancy.Current Italian guidelines suggest that all the pregnant women should be tested in the first trimester. Due to the frequently absence of specific signs of infection at birth, laboratory tests are often the only method for a correct CS diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of Treponema pallidum IgM Western Blot (WB and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF as an aid in the diagnosis of CS during a prospective surveillance study carried out at St. Orsola Hospital in Bologna, Italy, from November 2000 through June 2010. All pregnant women during pregnancy and at delivery were screened for syphilis by ARCHITECT® Syphilis TP, Abbott. Positive samples were further analysed by Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination Test (TPHA and Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR tests, Radim.An in-house Western Blot (WB was also performed. Infants born to syphilis seropositive mothers were enrolled in a prospective follow up. At birth, tests were performed (including IgM WB. Infants with positive RPR tests at birth born to mothers not adequately treated received also a long bone radiograph as well as a complete CSF analysis, including Veneral Disease Research Laboratori (VDRL (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics and PCR testing. All seroreactive infants received careful follow up examinations and serological testing at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 months or until the tests became negative. In this study, positive syphilis serology was noted in 151 pregnant women delivering in our hospital. Fifteen women had never been adequately treated, and 9 out 15 gave birth to infected newborns.All these 9 infants had positive IgM WB results on serum samples. Two babies had characteristic long bone lesions at X-ray examination and 3 were born

  2. Exhibition and Surveillance on the Internet: A Critical Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güler Demir

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The internet, new media, and social media environments should not be assessed only in terms of conveniences and opportunities that offer within the framework of technology. Along with the positive properties of these environments, there also exist negative aspects of carrying risks, and that may lead to problems. Despite the positive properties such as interaction, sharing, speed, flexibility and convenience, that might also be approached as a global network allowing negativities such as displaying, surveillance, inspection, and profiling. The negativities as mentioned earlier might lead to unrecoverable scientific, socio-economic, psychosocial, social and other consequences. The book “Exhibition and Surveillance on the Internet: a critical reading” by Mukadder Çakır is a thought-provoking book which brings many significant approaches to the internet environment and its tools in a critical context.

  3. Strengthening Injury Surveillance System in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motevalian Seyed Abbas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To strengthen the current Injury Surveillance System (IS System in order to better monitor injury conditions, improve protection ways and promote safety. Methods: At first we carried out a study to evaluate the frameworks of IS System in the developed countries. Then all the available documents from World Health Organization, Eastern Mediterranean Regional Organization, as well as Minister of Health and Medical Education concerning Iran were reviewed. Later a national stakeholder抯 consultation was held to collect opinions and views. A national workshop was also intended for provincial representatives from 41 universities to identify the barriers and limitations of the existing program and further to strengthen injury surveillance. Results: The evaluation of the current IS System revealed many problems, mainly presented as lack of accurate pre- and post-hospital death registry, need of precise injury data registry in outpatient medical centers, incomplete injury data registry in hospitals and lack of accuracy in definition of variables in injury registry. The five main characteristics of current IS System including flexibility, acceptability, simplicity, usefulness and timeliness were evaluated as moderate by experts. Conclusions: Major revisions must be considered in the current IS System in Iran. The following elements should be added to the questionnaire: identifier, manner of arrival to the hospital, situation of the injured patient, consumption of alcohol and opioids, other involved participants in the accident, intention, severity and site of injury, side effects of surgery and medication, as well as one month follow-up results. Data should be collected from 10% of all hospitals in Iran and analyzed every 3 months. Simultaneously data should be online to be retrieved by researches. Key words: Wounds and injuries; Population surveillance; Registries; Iran

  4. Annual Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, Virginia [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2014-10-02

    This report provides the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the public with information on the level of radioactive and non-radioactive pollutants (if any) that are added to the environment as a result of Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory’s (PPPL) operations. The results of the 2013 environmental surveillance and monitoring program for PPPL’s are presented and discussed. The report also summarizes environmental initiatives, assessments, and community involvement programs that were undertaken in 2013.

  5. Can Human Visual Surveillance be Improved with Intent Recognition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Tavakkoli

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In video surveillance applications, trained operators watch a number of screens simultaneously to detect potential security threats. Looking for such events in real time, in multiple videos simultaneously, is cognitively challenging for human operators. This study suggests that there is a significant need to use an automated video analysis system to aid human perception of security events in video surveillance applications. In this paper the performance of humans in observing a simulated environment is studied and quantified. Furthermore, this paper proposes an automated mechanism to detect events before they occur by means of an automated intent recognition system. Upon the detection of a potential event the proposed mechanism communicates the location of such potential threat to the human operator to redirect attention to the areas of interest within the video. Studying the improvements achieved by applying the intent recognition into the simulated video surveillance application in a two phase trial supports the need for an automated event detection approach in improving human video surveillance performance. Moreover, this paper presents a comparison of the performance in video surveillance with and without the aid of the intent recognition mechanism.

  6. Postmarketing surveillance for "modified-risk" tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) acquired authority to regulate tobacco products in 2009. This authority will provide a structured process for manufacturers to introduce products that may have "modified-risk" for morbidity or mortality relative to traditional tobacco products, with postmarketing surveillance and studies a condition of marketing. A narrative review approach was taken. The author searched and integrated publicly accessible literature on tobacco product surveillance as well as drug and medical device postmarket activities currently performed by FDA. FDA relies on active and passive methods for postmarket surveillance and can require specific studies and risk evaluation and mitigation strategies for certain products, including those with abuse liability. Past efforts at examining the individual and population effects of reduced harm tobacco products provide an example of integrating different data streams. Postmarket surveillance can be viewed in terms of the Agent-Host-Vector-Environment model, and concepts from diffusion of innovations are relevant to understanding factors associated with the adoption of new products by the population. Given that active and passive surveillance approaches have different strengths and weaknesses, multiple approaches may be necessary to evaluate population-level effects. Assuring that required studies are properly conducted and reported and that data indicating significant public health harms are quickly recognized will be important going forward. The advent of broad regulatory authority over tobacco provides opportunities for policy evaluation research. The research community can provide FDA with the independent science it needs to evaluate the public health impact of novel tobacco products.

  7. [Active surveillance for prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graefen, M; Ahyai, S; Heuer, R; Salomon, G; Schlomm, T; Isbarn, H; Budäus, L; Heinzer, H; Huland, H

    2008-03-01

    Active surveillance is a valuable treatment option in patients with newly diagnosed low-risk prostate cancer. Studies considering a watchful waiting approach showed favourable cancer-specific survival rates in such patients and it is assumed that patients benefit from a definitive therapy if life expectancy exceeds 10-15 years. Therefore active surveillance is especially valuable in older men and in patients with an elevated comorbidity profile. Precise identification of histologically and clinically insignificant prostate cancers is still not possible today. Active surveillance includes regular PSA measurements combined with follow-up biopsies; however, no standardized protocol exists so far. Histological progression in the follow-up biopsy and PSA elevation are the most important criteria for initiating definitive therapy. Today only a minority of low-risk patients join an active surveillance protocol and a substantial proportion of these men leave such a protocol early without evidence of progression. The psychological burden of living with an untreated cancer seems to be responsible for this. Active surveillance has the potential to lead to undertreatment as there is some evidence that prolonged treatment delay might adversely affect outcome of definitive therapy.

  8. Areal Distribution of Ammonium Contamination of Soil-Water Environment in the Vicinity of Old Municipal Landfill Site with Vertical Barrier

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koda, Eugeniusz; Osinski, Piotr; Sieczka, Anna; Wychowaniak, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    .... The assessment of the influence was conducted on piezometric recording basis, laboratory tests and site investigation, which gave information on contamination level and direction of pollutants migration...

  9. Early warning epidemic surveillance in the Pacific island nations: an evaluation of the Pacific syndromic surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Adam T; Kama, Mike; Samo, Marcus; Vaai, Saine; Matanaicake, Jane; Joshua, Cynthia; Kolbe, Anthony; Durrheim, David N; Paterson, Beverley J; Biaukula, Viema; Nilles, Eric J

    2016-07-01

    The Pacific Syndromic Surveillance System (PSSS), launched in 2010, provides a simple mechanism by which 121 sentinel surveillance sites in 21 Pacific island countries and areas perform routine indicator- and event-based surveillance for the early detection of infectious disease outbreaks. This evaluation aims to assess whether the PSSS is meeting its objectives, what progress has been made since a formative evaluation of the system was conducted in 2011, and provides recommendations to enhance the PSSS's performance in the future. Twenty-one informant interviews were conducted with national operators of the system and regional public health agencies that use information generated by it. Historic PSSS data were analysed to assess timeliness and completeness of reporting. The system is simple, acceptable and useful for public health decision-makers. The PSSS has greatly enhanced Pacific island countries' ability to undertake early warning surveillance and has contributed to efforts to meet national surveillance-related International Health Regulation (2005) capacity development obligations. Despite this, issues with timeliness and completeness of reporting, data quality and system stability persist. A balance between maintaining the system's simplicity and technical advances will need to be found to ensure its long-term sustainability, given the low-resource context for which it is designed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Calendar Year 2004 annual site environmental report : Tonopah Test Range, Nevada & Kauai Test Facility, Hawaii.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, Amber L.; Wagner, Katrina; Goering, Teresa Lynn; Koss, Susan I.; Salinas, Stephanie A.

    2005-09-01

    Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada and Kauai Test Facility (KTF) in Hawaii are government-owned, contractor-operated facilities operated by Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), through the Sandia Site Office (SSO), in Albuquerque, NM, manages TTR and KTF's operations. Sandia Corporation conducts operations at TTR in support of DOE/NNSA's Weapons Ordnance Program and has operated the site since 1957. Westinghouse Government Services subcontracts to Sandia Corporation in administering most of the environmental programs at TTR. Sandia Corporation operates KTF as a rocket preparation launching and tracking facility. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) summarizes data and the compliance status of the environmental protection and monitoring program at TTR and KTF through Calendar Year (CY) 2004. The compliance status of environmental regulations applicable at these sites include state and federal regulations governing air emissions, wastewater effluent, waste management, terrestrial surveillance, and Environmental Restoration (ER) cleanup activities. Sandia Corporation is responsible only for those environmental program activities related to its operations. The DOE/NNSA, Nevada Site Office (NSO) retains responsibility for the cleanup and management of ER TTR sites. Currently, there are no ER Sites at KTF. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program (DOE 2005) and DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 2004b).

  11. Modeling dynamics of (137)Cs in forest surface environments: Application to a contaminated forest site near Fukushima and assessment of potential impacts of soil organic matter interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Masakazu; Nagai, Haruyasu; Koarashi, Jun

    2016-05-01

    A process-based model for (137)Cs transfer in forest surface environments was developed to assess the dynamic behavior of Fukushima-derived (137)Cs in a Japanese forest. The model simulation successfully reproduced the observed data from 3year migration of (137)Cs in the organic and mineral soil layers at a contaminated forest near Fukushima. The migration of (137)Cs from the organic layer to the mineral soil was explained by the direct deposition pattern on the forest floor and the turnover of litter materials in the organic layer under certain ecological conditions. Long-term predictions indicated that more than 90% of the deposited (137)Cs would remain within the top 5cm of the soil for up to 30years after the accident, suggesting that the forest acts as an effective long-term reservoir of (137)Cs with limited transfer via the groundwater pathway. The model was also used to explore the potential impacts of soil organic matter (SOM) interactions on the mobility and bioavailability of (137)Cs in the soil-plant system. The simulation results for hypothetical organic soils with modified parameters of (137)Cs turnover revealed that the SOM-induced reduction of (137)Cs adsorption elevates the fraction of dissolved (137)Cs in the soil solution, thereby increasing the soil-to-plant transfer of (137)Cs without substantially altering the fractional distribution of (137)Cs in the soil. Slower fixation of (137)Cs on the flayed edge site of clay minerals and enhanced mobilization of the clay-fixed (137)Cs in organic-rich soils also appeared to elevate the soil-to-plant transfer of (137)Cs by increasing the fraction of the soil-adsorbed (exchangeable) (137)Cs. A substantial proportion (approximate 30%-60%) of (137)Cs in these organic-rich soils was transferred to layers deeper than 5cm decades later. These results suggested that SOM influences the behavior of (137)Cs in forests over a prolonged period through alterations of adsorption and fixation in the soil. Copyright

  12. Expansion of Vaccination Services and Strengthening Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Surveillance in Haiti, 2010-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohme, Rania A; Francois, Jeannot; Cavallaro, Kathleen F; Paluku, Gilson; Yalcouye, Idrissa; Jackson, Ernsley; Wright, Tracie; Adrien, Paul; Katz, Mark A; Hyde, Terri B; Faye, Pape; Kimanuka, Francine; Dietz, Vance; Vertefeuille, John; Lowrance, David; Dahl, Benjamin; Patel, Roopal

    2017-10-01

    Following the 2010 earthquake, Haiti was at heightened risk for vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) outbreaks due to the exacerbation of long-standing gaps in the vaccination program and subsequent risk of VPD importation from other countries. Therefore, partners supported the Haitian Ministry of Health and Population to improve vaccination services and VPD surveillance. During 2010-2016, three polio, measles, and rubella vaccination campaigns were implemented, achieving a coverage > 90% among children and maintaining Haiti free of those VPDs. Furthermore, Haiti is on course to eliminate maternal and neonatal tetanus, with 70% of communes achieving tetanus vaccine two-dose coverage > 80% among women of childbearing age. In addition, the vaccine cold chain storage capacity increased by 91% at the central level and 285% at the department level, enabling the introduction of three new vaccines (pentavalent, rotavirus, and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines) that could prevent an estimated 5,227 deaths annually. Haiti moved from the fourth worst performing country in the Americas in 2012 to the sixth best performing country in 2015 for adequate investigation of suspected measles/rubella cases. Sentinel surveillance sites for rotavirus diarrhea and meningococcal meningitis were established to estimate baseline rates of those diseases prior to vaccine introduction and to evaluate the impact of vaccination in the future. In conclusion, Haiti significantly improved vaccination services and VPD surveillance. However, high dependence on external funding and competing vaccination program priorities are potential threats to sustaining the improvements achieved thus far. Political commitment and favorable economic and legal environments are needed to maintain these gains.

  13. Animal Health Surveillance in Scotland in 2030: Using Scenario Planning to Develop Strategies in the Context of “Brexit”

    OpenAIRE

    Boden, Lisa A.; Auty, Harriet; Reeves, Aaron; Rydevik, Gustaf; Bessell, Paul; McKendrick, Iain J.

    2017-01-01

    Animal health surveillance is necessary to protect human and animal health, rural economies, and the environment from the consequences of large-scale disease outbreaks. In Scotland, since the Kinnaird review in 2011, efforts have been made to engage with stakeholders to ensure that the strategic goals of surveillance are better aligned with the needs of the end-users and other beneficiaries. The aims of this study were to engage with Scottish surveillance stakeholders and multidisciplinary ex...

  14. Informatics enables public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J. N McNabb

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the world has radically changed. New advances in information and communication technologies (ICT connect the world in ways never imagined. Public health informatics (PHI leveraged for public health surveillance (PHS, can enable, enhance, and empower essential PHS functions (i.e., detection, reporting, confirmation, analyses, feedback, response. However, the tail doesn't wag the dog; as such, ICT cannot (should not drive public health surveillance strengthening. Rather, ICT can serve PHS to more effectively empower core functions. In this review, we explore promising ICT trends for prevention, detection, and response, laboratory reporting, push notification, analytics, predictive surveillance, and using new data sources, while recognizing that it is the people, politics, and policies that most challenge progress for implementation of solutions.

  15. Enhanced surveillance for the Third United Nations Conference on Small Island Developing States, Apia, Samoa, September 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Paul; Saketa, Salanieta; Durand, Alexis; Vaai-Nielsen, Saine; Leong-Lui, Tile Ah; Naseri, Take; Matalima, Ailuai; Amosa, Filipina; Mercier, Alize; Lepers, Christelle; Lal, Vjesh; Wojcik, Richard; Lewis, Sheri; Roth, Adam; Souares, Yvan; Merilles, Onofre Edwin; Hoy, Damian

    2017-01-01

    The Ministry of Health in Samoa, in partnership with the Pacific Community, successfully implemented enhanced surveillance for the high-profile Third United Nations Conference on Small Island Developing States held concurrently with the popular local Teuila festival during a widespread chikungunya outbreak in September 2014. Samoa's weekly syndromic surveillance system was expanded to 12 syndromes and 10 sentinel sites from four syndromes and seven sentinel sites; sites included the national hospital, four private health clinics and three national health service clinics. Daily situation reports were produced and were disseminated through PacNet (the e-mail alert and communication tool of the Pacific Public Health Surveillance Network) together with daily prioritized line lists of syndrome activity to facilitate rapid response and investigation by the Samoan EpiNet team. Standard operating procedures for surveillance and response were introduced, together with a sustainability plan, including a monitoring and evaluation framework, to facilitate the transition of the mass gathering surveillance improvements to routine surveillance. The enhanced surveillance performed well, providing vital disease early warning and health security assurance. A total of 2386 encounters and 708 syndrome cases were reported. Influenza-like illness was the most frequently seen syndrome (17%). No new infectious disease outbreaks were recorded. The experience emphasized: (1) the need for a long lead time to pilot the surveillance enhancements and to maximize their sustainability; (2) the importance of good communication between key stakeholders; and (3) having sufficient staff dedicated to both surveillance and response.

  16. Enhanced surveillance for the Third United Nations Conference on Small Island Developing States, Apia, Samoa, September 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul White

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Ministry of Health in Samoa, in partnership with the Pacific Community, successfully implemented enhanced surveillance for the high-profile Third United Nations Conference on Small Island Developing States held concurrently with the popular local Teuila festival during a widespread chikungunya outbreak in September 2014. Samoa’s weekly syndromic surveillance system was expanded to 12 syndromes and 10 sentinel sites from four syndromes and seven sentinel sites; sites included the national hospital, four private health clinics and three national health service clinics. Daily situation reports were produced and were disseminated through PacNet (the email alert and communication tool of the Pacific Public Health Surveillance Network together with daily prioritized line lists of syndrome activity to facilitate rapid response and investigation by the Samoan EpiNet team. Standard operating procedures for surveillance and response were introduced, together with a sustainability plan, including a monitoring and evaluation framework, to facilitate the transition of the mass gathering surveillance improvements to routine surveillance. The enhanced surveillance performed well, providing vital disease early warning and health security assurance. A total of 2386 encounters and 708 syndrome cases were reported. Influenza-like illness was the most frequently seen syndrome (17%. No new infectious disease outbreaks were recorded. The experience emphasized: (1 the need for a long lead time to pilot the surveillance enhancements and to maximize their sustainability; (2 the importance of good communication between key stakeholders; and (3 having sufficient staff dedicated to both surveillance and response.

  17. Savannah River site environmental report for 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, M.; Mamatey, A. [eds.

    1998-12-31

    The mission at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has changed from the production of nuclear weapons materials for national defense to the management of site-generated waste, restoration of the surrounding environment, and the development of industry in and around the site. However, SRS-through its prime operating contractor, Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC)-continues to maintain a comprehensive environmental monitoring program. In 1996, effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance were conducted within a 31,000-square-mile area in and around SRS that includes neighboring cities, towns, and counties in Georgia and South Carolina and extends up to 100 miles from the site. Though the environmental monitoring program was streamlined in 1996-to improve its cost-effectiveness without compromising data quality or reducing its overall ability to produce critical information-thousands of samples of air, surface water, groundwater, food products, drinking water, wildlife, rainwater, soil, sediment, and vegetation were collected and analyzed for radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants.

  18. Oak Ridge Reservation, annual site environmental report for 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    The US DOE currently oversees activities on the Oak Ridge Reservation, a government-owned, contractor-operated facility. Three sites compose the reservation; Y-12, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and K-25. This document contains a summary of environmental monitoring activities on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and its surroundings. The results summarized in this report are based on the data collected during calendar year (CY) 1993 and compiled in; Environmental Monitoring in the Oak Ridge Reservation: CY 1993 Results. Annual environmental monitoring on the ORR consists of two major activities: effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. Effluent monitoring is the collection and analysis of samples or measurements of liquid, gaseous, or airborne effluents for the purpose of characterizing and quantifying contaminants and process stream characteristics, assessing radiation and chemical exposures to members of the public, and demonstrating compliance with applicable standards. Environmental surveillance is the collection and analysis of samples of air, water, soil, foodstuffs, biota, and other media from DOE sites and their environs and the measurement of external radiation for purposes of demonstrating compliance with applicable standards, assessing radiation and chemical exposures to members of the public, and assessing effects, if any, on the local environment.

  19. Global health surveillance and travelers' health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, Cinzia; Freedman, David O

    2009-10-01

    Monitoring disease trends among travelers can inform both pretravel advice and posttravel management. Data from sentinel travelers upon their return to medically sophisticated environments can also benefit local populations in resource-limited countries. Provider-based surveillance of travelers is increasingly sophisticated. Recently, networks such as GeoSentinel have provided cumulative trends in travel-related illness to assess pretravel risk for a mass gathering event--the Beijing Olympic Games. Data provided by the GeoSentinel also helped in determining the seasonality of dengue by region of travel and risk of acquiring schistosomiasis after a single short exposure. For chikungunya fever, detailed study of returned travelers exposed new clinical aspects of a disease previously studied in the tropics only. Clusters of hepatitis A, a vaccine-preventable disease, among European travelers, illustrated continued gaps in the preparation of the traveling public. Plasmodium knowlesi has emerged as the fifth human malaria parasite and is now a consideration in the diagnosis of febrile travelers from Asia. Automated global news scanning software is increasingly being able to detect and prioritize disease events. Every year millions of travelers visit countries where they are exposed to pathogens that are usually rare in their home countries. Global surveillance of travel-related disease represents a powerful tool for the detection of infectious diseases. These data should encourage clinicians to take a detailed travel history during every patient encounter.

  20. Poliovirus Laboratory Based Surveillance: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Syed Sohail Zahoor; Asghar, Humayun; Sharif, Salmaan; Alam, Muhammad Masroor

    2016-01-01

    World Health Assembly (WHA) in 1988 encouraged the member states to launch Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) (resolution WHA41.28) against "the Crippler" called poliovirus, through strong routine immunization program and intensified surveillance systems. Since its launch, global incidence of poliomyelitis has been reduced by more than 99 % and the disease squeezed to only three endemic countries (Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria) out of 125. Today, poliomyelitis is on the verge of eradication, and their etiological agents, the three poliovirus serotypes, are on the brink of extinction from the natural environment. The last case of poliomyelitis due to wild type 2 strain occurred in 1999 in Uttar Pradesh, India whereas the last paralytic case due to wild poliovirus type 3 (WPV3) was seen in November, 2012 in Yobe, Nigeria. Despite this progress, undetected circulation cannot fully rule out the eradication as most of the poliovirus infections are entirely subclinical; hence sophisticated environmental surveillance is needed to ensure the complete eradication of virus. Moreover, the vaccine virus in under-immunized communities can sometimes revert and attain wild type characteristics posing a big challenge to the program.

  1. Patient Compliance with Surveillance Following Elective Endovascular Aneurysm Repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godfrey, Anthony D., E-mail: deangodfrey@yahoo.co.uk; Morbi, Abigail H. M., E-mail: a.morbi@soton.ac.uk; Nordon, Ian M., E-mail: ian.nordon@uhs.nhs.uk [University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Unit of Cardiac Vascular and Thoracic Surgery - CV& T, Department of Vascular Surgery (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    PurposeIntegral to maintaining good outcomes post-endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is a robust surveillance protocol. A significant proportion of patients fail to comply with surveillance, exposing themselves to complications. We examine EVAR surveillance in Wessex (UK), exploring factors that may predict poor compliance.MethodsRetrospective analysis of 179 consecutive elective EVAR cases [2008–2013] was performed. 167 patients were male, with the age range of 50–95. Surveillance was conducted centrally (tertiary referral trauma centre) and at four spoke units. Surveillance compliance and predictors of non-compliance including age, gender, co-morbid status, residential location and socioeconomic status were analysed for univariate significance.ResultsFifty patients (27.9 %) were non-compliant with surveillance; 14 (8.1 %) had no imaging post-EVAR. At 1 year, 56.1 % (of 123 patients) were compliant. At years 2 and 3, 41.5 and 41.2 % (of 65 and 34 patients, respectively) were compliant. Four years post-EVAR, only one of eight attended surveillance (12.5 %). There were no statistically significant differences in age (p = 0.77), co-morbid status or gender (p = 0.64). Distance to central unit (p = 0.67) and surveillance site (p = 0.56) was non-significant. While there was a trend towards compliance in upper-middle-class socioeconomic groups (ABC1 vs. C1C2D), correlating with >50 % of non-compliant patients living within <10 mile radius of the central unit, overall predictive value was not significant (p = 0.82).ConclusionsCompliance with surveillance post-EVAR is poor. No independent predictor of non-compliance has been confirmed, but socioeconomic status appears to be relevant. There is a worrying drop-off in attendance beyond the first year. This study highlights a problem that needs to be addressed urgently, if we are to maintain good outcomes post-EVAR.

  2. A comparison of two injury surveillance systems within sports medicine clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, C F; Mitchell, D J

    2002-12-01

    This study compares a comprehensive method of collecting injury data from sports medicine clinics, with a more simplified method of injury surveillance. The sports medicine injury surveillance (SMIS) project was implemented in a group of five allied sports medicine clinics in Melbourne. over two consecutive years. The injury surveillance method used in the second year (SMIS2) was a simplified version of that used in the first year (SMIS1). Methodological differences in the injury surveillance systems included form design, staff commitment and training, auditing process, financial incentives offered and employment of a project officer. Data were collected on 6479 new sports injury patients during SMIS1 and on 1682 patients during SMIS2. Comparative data from the two years of injury surveillance included patient profile (gender. age. days from injury to treatment, sport and context of injury) and injury information (site, cause and nature of injury). The SMIS2 methodology was associated with a lower sensitivity (p sports medicine clinics.

  3. Epidemiological surveillance of legionellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Cano Portero

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Spain is among the countries with the highest incidence rates in the European Union and has seen the same increase in trends of legionelosis. This fact has been related to the increase in the use of a more sensitive diagnostic test. However, great differences have been observed in incidence rates and outbreaks reported by the Regions which could be explained by variations in the diagnostic effort. In spite of the existence of prevention and control rules, outbreaks still have occurred and some of them involved large number of cases. The source of infection identified most frequently is hot and cold water systems due to the large number of outbreaks related to tourist accommodation sites. The second most frequently identified source is cooling towers, which produce most of the cases.

  4. Public Health Surveillance Systems: Recent Advances in Their Use and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groseclose, Samuel L; Buckeridge, David L

    2017-03-20

    Surveillance is critical for improving population health. Public health surveillance systems generate information that drives action, and the data must be of sufficient quality and with a resolution and timeliness that matches objectives. In the context of scientific advances in public health surveillance, changing health care and public health environments, and rapidly evolving technologies, the aim of this article is to review public health surveillance systems. We consider their current use to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the public health system, the role of system stakeholders, the analysis and interpretation of surveillance data, approaches to system monitoring and evaluation, and opportunities for future advances in terms of increased scientific rigor, outcomes-focused research, and health informatics.

  5. Assessment of the potential risk on environment during the rehabilitation of a polluted site; Evaluation du risque potentiel sur l'environnement lors de la rehabilitation d'un site pollue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duong, V.L.

    1999-01-14

    Soil contamination is a recent problem. In the same way as water and air, industrial soil contamination induces a risk to human health and a threaten to environmental protection, thus it has to be cleaned up too. As french policy in this domain has been developing since the 1990's, then most of the guideline tools for managing contaminated sites still have to be developed. For this purpose, a work was engaged on the opportunity to elaborate, from the experience of other industrial countries and current knowledge, methodological management support tools for contaminated sites, especially for: the assessment of the degree of contamination of the site, in particular with the characterization of the hazard and risk levels related to the site. This has lead to the development of a tool, named TRACES (Tool for Risk assessment from Chemical Exposure to Soils), allowing a progressive and sequential diagnosis in view to establish both the opportunity to conduct a cleanup action and the remedial objectives to be reached, the identification of the most adapted technology for the remediation of the contaminated soils, based on a multi-criteria analysis method, ELECTRE III, that integrates multiple, potentially conflicting points of view according to the stakeholders. This is the RACES's (Remedial Alternative Classification and Evaluation System) main goal. Through the use of these tools, we pointed out the importance of such methodological tools to facilitate and accelerate decision making with a structured, objective and clear approach for managing contaminated sites. (author)

  6. National Cardiac Device Surveillance Program Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The National Cardiac Device Surveillance Program Database supports the Eastern Pacemaker Surveillance Center (EPSC) staff in its function of monitoring some 11,000...

  7. Regional Disease Surveillance Meeting - Final Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Mahy, Heidi A.

    2006-08-08

    On June 1, 2006, public health officials working in surveillance, epidemiological modeling, and information technology communities from the Seattle/Tacoma area and State of Washington met with members of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to discuss the current state of disease surveillance and gaps and needs to improve the current systems. The meeting also included a discussion of PNNL initiatives that might be appropriate to enhance disease surveillance and the current tools being used for disease surveillance. Participants broke out into two groups to identify critical gaps and needs for improving a surveillance system, and discuss the requirements for developing improved surveillance. Each group developed a list of key priorities summarizing the requirements for improved surveillance. The objective of this meeting was to work towards the development of an improved disease surveillance system.

  8. Inappropriate colonoscopic surveillance of hyperplastic polyps.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keane, R A

    2011-11-15

    Colonoscopic surveillance of hyperplastic polyps alone is controversial and may be inappropriate. The colonoscopy surveillance register at a university teaching hospital was audited to determine the extent of such hyperplastic polyp surveillance. The surveillance endoscopy records were reviewed, those patients with hyperplastic polyps were identified, their clinical records were examined and contact was made with each patient. Of the 483 patients undergoing surveillance for colonic polyps 113 (23%) had hyperplastic polyps alone on last colonoscopy. 104 patients remained after exclusion of those under appropriate surveillance. 87 of the 104 patients (84%) were successfully contacted. 37 patients (8%) were under appropriate colonoscopic surveillance for a significant family history of colorectal carcinoma. 50 (10%) patients with hyperplastic polyps alone and no other clinical indication for colonoscopic surveillance were booked for follow up colonoscopy. This represents not only a budgetary but more importantly a clinical opportunity cost the removal of which could liberate valuable colonoscopy time for more appropriate indications.

  9. Amended annual report for Brookhaven National Laboratory: Epidemiologic surveillance - 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    Epidemiologic surveillance at DOE facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences due to illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. Data are collected by coordinators at each site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and analyses are carried out. Rates of absences and rates of diagnoses associated with absences are analyzed by occupation and other relevant variables. They may be compared with the disease experience of different groups within the DOE work force and with populations and do not work for DOE to identify disease patterns or clusters that may be associated work activities. This report provides a final summary for BNL.

  10. Epidemiologic surveillance. Annual report for EG&G Rocky Flats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Epidemiologic surveillance at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences resulting from illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. Data are collected by coordinators at each site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and analyses are carried out. Rates of absences and rates of diagnoses associated with absences are analyzed by occupation and other relevant variables. They may be compared with the disease experience of different groups within the DOE work force and with populations that do not work for DOE to identify disease patterns or clusters that may be associated with work activities. This report presents the 1994 morbidity data for the Rocky Flats plant.

  11. Surveillance considerations for malaria elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barclay Victoria C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Constant malaria monitoring and surveillance systems have been highlighted as critical for malaria elimination. The absence of robust monitoring and surveillance systems able to respond to outbreaks in a timely manner undeniably contributed to the failure of the last global attempt to eradicate malaria. Today, technological advances could allow for rapid detection of focal outbreaks and improved deployment of diagnostic and treatment supplies to areas needing support. However, optimizing diffusion activities (e.g., distributing vector controls and medicines, as well as deploying behaviour change campaigns requires networks of diverse scholars to monitor, learn, and evaluate data and multiple organizations to coordinate their intervention activities. Surveillance systems that can gather, store and process information, from communities to national levels, in a centralized, widely accessible system will allow tailoring of surveillance and intervention efforts. Different systems and, thus reactions, will be effective in different endemic, geographical or socio-cultural contexts. Investing in carefully designed monitoring technologies, built for a multiple-acter, dynamic system, will help to improve malaria elimination efforts by improving the coordination, timing, coverage, and deployment of malaria technologies.

  12. Surveillance considerations for malaria elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Victoria C; Smith, Rachel A; Findeis, Jill L

    2012-08-31

    Constant malaria monitoring and surveillance systems have been highlighted as critical for malaria elimination. The absence of robust monitoring and surveillance systems able to respond to outbreaks in a timely manner undeniably contributed to the failure of the last global attempt to eradicate malaria. Today, technological advances could allow for rapid detection of focal outbreaks and improved deployment of diagnostic and treatment supplies to areas needing support. However, optimizing diffusion activities (e.g., distributing vector controls and medicines, as well as deploying behaviour change campaigns) requires networks of diverse scholars to monitor, learn, and evaluate data and multiple organizations to coordinate their intervention activities. Surveillance systems that can gather, store and process information, from communities to national levels, in a centralized, widely accessible system will allow tailoring of surveillance and intervention efforts. Different systems and, thus reactions, will be effective in different endemic, geographical or socio-cultural contexts. Investing in carefully designed monitoring technologies, built for a multiple-acter, dynamic system, will help to improve malaria elimination efforts by improving the coordination, timing, coverage, and deployment of malaria technologies.

  13. Conceptualising the Surveillance of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Damien

    2017-01-01

    Schools are risky places: the risk of a poor Ofsted report, the risk of sliding down league tables, the risk of teachers abusing children, the risk of teachers being falsely accused of abuse. As a result of risk anxiety and the ever-increasing sophistication of technology, the surveillance of teachers has proliferated, becoming a future-oriented…

  14. Surveillance Video Synopsis in GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujia Xie

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance videos contain a considerable amount of data, wherein interesting information to the user is sparsely distributed. Researchers construct video synopsis that contain key information extracted from a surveillance video for efficient browsing and analysis. Geospatial–temporal information of a surveillance video plays an important role in the efficient description of video content. Meanwhile, current approaches of video synopsis lack the introduction and analysis of geospatial-temporal information. Owing to the preceding problems mentioned, this paper proposes an approach called “surveillance video synopsis in GIS”. Ba