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Sample records for site-directed mutagenesis short

  1. A simple, flexible and efficient PCR-fusion/Gateway cloning procedure for gene fusion, site-directed mutagenesis, short sequence insertion and domain deletions and swaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etchells J Peter

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The progress and completion of various plant genome sequencing projects has paved the way for diverse functional genomic studies that involve cloning, modification and subsequent expression of target genes. This requires flexible and efficient procedures for generating binary vectors containing: gene fusions, variants from site-directed mutagenesis, addition of protein tags together with domain swaps and deletions. Furthermore, efficient cloning procedures, ideally high throughput, are essential for pyramiding of multiple gene constructs. Results Here, we present a simple, flexible and efficient PCR-fusion/Gateway cloning procedure for construction of binary vectors for a range of gene fusions or variants with single or multiple nucleotide substitutions, short sequence insertions, domain deletions and swaps. Results from selected applications of the procedure which include ORF fusion, introduction of Cys>Ser mutations, insertion of StrepII tag sequence and domain swaps for Arabidopsis secondary cell wall AtCesA genes are demonstrated. Conclusion The PCR-fusion/Gateway cloning procedure described provides an elegant, simple and efficient solution for a wide range of diverse and complicated cloning tasks. Through streamlined cloning of sets of gene fusions and modification variants into binary vectors for systematic functional studies of gene families, our method allows for efficient utilization of the growing sequence and expression data.

  2. Tetragonal Lysozyme Interactions Studied by Site Directed Mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Lisa; Karr, Laurel J.; Nadarajah, Arunan; Pusey, Marc

    1999-01-01

    A number of recent experimental and theoretical studies have indicated that tetragonal lysozyme crystal growth proceeds by the addition of aggregates, formed by reversible self association of the solute molecules in the bulk solution. Periodic bond chain and atomic force microscopy studies have indicated that the probable growth unit is at minimum a 43 tetramer, and most likely an octamer composed of two complete turns about the 43 axis. If these results are correct, then there are intermolecular interactions which are only formed in the solution and others only formed at the joining of the growth unit to the crystal surface. We have set out to study these interactions, and the correctness of this hypothesis, using site directed mutagenesis of specific amino acid residues involved in the different bonds. We had initially expressed wild type lysozyme in S. cervasiae with yields of approximately 5 mg/L, which were eventually raised to approximately 40 mg/L. We are now moving the expression to the Pichia system, with anticipated yields of 300 to (3)500 mg/L, comparable to what can be obtained from egg whites. An additional advantage of using recombinant protein is the greater genetic homogeneity of the material obtained and the absence of any other contaminating egg proteins. The first mutation experiments are TYR 23 (Registered) PHE or ALA and ASN 113 (Registered) ALA or ASP. Both TYR 23 and ASN 113 form part of the postulated dimerization intermolecular binding site which lead to the formation of the 43 helix. Tyrosine also participates in an intermolecular hydrogen bond with ARG 114. The results of these and subsequent experiments will be discussed.

  3. Revised Mechanism and Improved Efficiency of the QuikChange Site-Directed Mutagenesis Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yongzhen; Xun, Luying

    2017-01-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis has been widely used for the substitution, addition or deletion of nucleotide residues in a defined DNA sequence. QuikChange™ site-directed mutagenesis and its related protocols have been widely used for this purpose because of convenience and efficiency. We have recently demonstrated that the mechanism of the QuikChange™ site-directed mutagenesis process is different from that being proposed. The new mechanism promotes the use of partially overlapping primers and commercial PCR enzymes for efficient PCR and mutagenesis.

  4. Facile Site-Directed Mutagenesis of Large Constructs Using Gibson Isothermal DNA Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemoto, Isaac T; Weyman, Philip D

    2017-01-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis is a commonly used molecular biology technique to manipulate biological sequences, and is especially useful for studying sequence determinants of enzyme function or designing proteins with improved activity. We describe a strategy using Gibson Isothermal DNA Assembly to perform site-directed mutagenesis on large (>~20 kbp) constructs that are outside the effective range of standard techniques such as QuikChange II (Agilent Technologies), but more reliable than traditional cloning using restriction enzymes and ligation.

  5. Expression and site-directed mutagenesis of human dihydrofolate reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prendergast, N.J.; Delcamp, T.J.; Smith, P.L.; Freisheim, J.H.

    1988-05-17

    A procaryotic high-level expression vector for human dihydrofolate reductase has been constructed and the protein characterized as a first step toward structure-function studies of this enzyme. A vector bearing the tac promoter, four synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides, and a restriction fragment from the dihydrofolate reductase cDNA were ligated in a manner which optimized the transcriptional and translational frequency of the enzyme mRNA. The reductase, comprising ca. 17% of the total soluble protein in the host bacteria, was purified to apparent homogeneity as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and characterized by amino acid composition, partial amino acid sequence, and steady-sate kinetic analysis. This expression vector has been used as a template for double-stranded plasmid DNA site-specific mutagenesis. Functional studies on a Cys-6 ..-->.. Ser-6 mutant enzyme support the contention that Cys-6 is obligatory for organomercurial activation of human dihydrofolate reductase. The Ser-6 mutant enzyme was not activated to any extent following a 24-h incubation with p-(hydroxymercuri)benzoate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced) (NADPH), whereas the k/sub cat/ for Cys-6 reductase increased 2-fold under identical conditions. The specific activities of the Cys-6 and Ser-6 enzymes were virtually identical as determined by methotrexate titration as were the K/sub m/ values for both dihydrofolate and NADPH. The Ser-6 mutant showed a decreased temperature stability and was more sensitive to inactivation by ..cap alpha..-chymotrypsin when compared to the wild-type enzyme. These results suggest that the Ser-6 mutant reductase is conformationally altered relative to the Cys-6 native enzyme.

  6. Expression and site-directed mutagenesis of human dihydrofolate reductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prendergast, N.J.; Delcamp, T.J.; Smith, P.L.; Freisheim, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    A procaryotic high-level expression vector for human dihydrofolate reductase has been constructed and the protein characterized as a first step toward structure-function studies of this enzyme. A vector bearing the tac promoter, four synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides, and a restriction fragment from the dihydrofolate reductase cDNA were ligated in a manner which optimized the transcriptional and translational frequency of the enzyme mRNA. The reductase, comprising ca. 17% of the total soluble protein in the host bacteria, was purified to apparent homogeneity as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and characterized by amino acid composition, partial amino acid sequence, and steady-sate kinetic analysis. This expression vector has been used as a template for double-stranded plasmid DNA site-specific mutagenesis. Functional studies on a Cys-6 → Ser-6 mutant enzyme support the contention that Cys-6 is obligatory for organomercurial activation of human dihydrofolate reductase. The Ser-6 mutant enzyme was not activated to any extent following a 24-h incubation with p-(hydroxymercuri)benzoate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced) (NADPH), whereas the k/sub cat/ for Cys-6 reductase increased 2-fold under identical conditions. The specific activities of the Cys-6 and Ser-6 enzymes were virtually identical as determined by methotrexate titration as were the K/sub m/ values for both dihydrofolate and NADPH. The Ser-6 mutant showed a decreased temperature stability and was more sensitive to inactivation by α-chymotrypsin when compared to the wild-type enzyme. These results suggest that the Ser-6 mutant reductase is conformationally altered relative to the Cys-6 native enzyme

  7. Multiple Site-Directed and Saturation Mutagenesis by the Patch Cloning Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Naohiro; Murakami, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Constructing protein-coding genes with desired mutations is a basic step for protein engineering. Herein, we describe a multiple site-directed and saturation mutagenesis method, termed MUPAC. This method has been used to introduce multiple site-directed mutations in the green fluorescent protein gene and in the moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase gene. Moreover, this method was also successfully used to introduce randomized codons at five desired positions in the green fluorescent protein gene, and for simple DNA assembly for cloning.

  8. Software-Supported USER Cloning Strategies for Site-Directed Mutagenesis and DNA Assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genee, Hans Jasper; Bonde, Mads Tvillinggaard; Bagger, Frederik Otzen

    2015-01-01

    USER cloning is a fast and versatile method for engineering of plasmid DNA. We have developed a user friendly Web server tool that automates the design of optimal PCR primers for several distinct USER cloning-based applications. Our Web server, named AMUSER (Automated DNA Modifications with USER...... cloning), facilitates DNA assembly and introduction of virtually any type of site-directed mutagenesis by designing optimal PCR primers for the desired genetic changes. To demonstrate the utility, we designed primers for a simultaneous two-position site-directed mutagenesis of green fluorescent protein...... (GFP) to yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), which in a single step reaction resulted in a 94% cloning efficiency. AMUSER also supports degenerate nucleotide primers, single insert combinatorial assembly, and flexible parameters for PCR amplification. AMUSER is freely available online at ....

  9. Improving the activity of the subtilisin nattokinase by site-directed mutagenesis and molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Meizhi; Deng, Xiongwei; Bao, Wei; Zhu, Li; Wu, Jieyuan; Cai, Yongjun; Jia, Yan; Zheng, Zhongliang; Zou, Guolin

    2015-09-25

    Nattokinase (NK), a bacterial serine protease from Bacillus subtilis var. natto, is a potential cardiovascular drug exhibiting strong fibrinolytic activity. To broaden its commercial and medical applications, we constructed a single-mutant (I31L) and two double-mutants (M222A/I31L and T220S/I31L) by site-directed mutagenesis. Active enzymes were expressed in Escherichia coli with periplasmic secretion and were purified to homogeneity. The kinetic parameters of enzymes were examined by spectroscopy assay and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and their fibrinolytic activities were determined by fibrin plate method. The substitution of Leu(31) for Ile(31) resulted in about 2-fold enhancement of catalytic efficiency (Kcat/KM) compared with wild-type NK. The specific activities of both double-mutants (M222A/I31L and T220S/I31L) were significantly increased when compared with the single-mutants (M222A and T220S) and the oxidative stability of M222A/I31L mutant was enhanced with respect to wild-type NK. This study demonstrates the feasibility of improving activity of NK by site-directed mutagenesis and shows successful protein engineering cases to improve the activity of NK as a potent therapeutic agent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Degeneration and domestication of a selfish gene in yeast: molecular evolution versus site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koufopanou, Vassiliki; Burt, Austin

    2005-07-01

    VDE is a homing endonuclease gene in yeasts with an unusual evolutionary history including horizontal transmission, degeneration, and domestication into the mating-type switching locus HO. We investigate here the effects of these features on its molecular evolution. In addition, we correlate rates of evolution with results from site-directed mutagenesis studies. Functional elements have lower rates of evolution than degenerate ones and higher conservation at functionally important sites. However, functionally important and unimportant sites are equally likely to have been involved in the evolution of new function during the domestication of VDE into HO. The domestication event also indicates that VDE has been lost in some species and that VDE has been present in yeasts for more than 50 Myr.

  11. Site-directed mutagenesis in Petunia × hybrida protoplast system using direct delivery of purified recombinant Cas9 ribonucleoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subburaj, Saminathan; Chung, Sung Jin; Lee, Choongil; Ryu, Seuk-Min; Kim, Duk Hyoung; Kim, Jin-Soo; Bae, Sangsu; Lee, Geung-Joo

    2016-07-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis of nitrate reductase genes using direct delivery of purified Cas9 protein preassembled with guide RNA produces mutations efficiently in Petunia × hybrida protoplast system. The clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-CRISPR associated endonuclease 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system has been recently announced as a powerful molecular breeding tool for site-directed mutagenesis in higher plants. Here, we report a site-directed mutagenesis method targeting Petunia nitrate reductase (NR) gene locus. This method could create mutations efficiently using direct delivery of purified Cas9 protein and single guide RNA (sgRNA) into protoplast cells. After transient introduction of RNA-guided endonuclease (RGEN) ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) with different sgRNAs targeting NR genes, mutagenesis at the targeted loci was detected by T7E1 assay and confirmed by targeted deep sequencing. T7E1 assay showed that RGEN RNPs induced site-specific mutations at frequencies ranging from 2.4 to 21 % at four different sites (NR1, 2, 4 and 6) in the PhNR gene locus with average mutation efficiency of 14.9 ± 2.2 %. Targeted deep DNA sequencing revealed mutation rates of 5.3-17.8 % with average mutation rate of 11.5 ± 2 % at the same NR gene target sites in DNA fragments of analyzed protoplast transfectants. Further analysis from targeted deep sequencing showed that the average ratio of deletion to insertion produced collectively by the four NR-RGEN target sites (NR1, 2, 4, and 6) was about 63:37. Our results demonstrated that direct delivery of RGEN RNPs into protoplast cells of Petunia can be exploited as an efficient tool for site-directed mutagenesis of genes or genome editing in plant systems.

  12. Tailor-Made Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: In Vitro Site-Directed Mutagenesis of PTEN and PTPRZ-B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luna, S.; Mingo, J.; Aurtenetxe, O.; Blanco, L.; Amo, L.; Schepens, J.; Hendriks, W.J.A.J.; Pulido, R.

    2016-01-01

    In vitro site-directed mutagenesis (SDM) of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) is a commonly used approach to experimentally analyze PTP functions at the molecular and cellular level and to establish functional correlations with PTP alterations found in human disease. Here, using the

  13. One-Tube-Only Standardized Site-Directed Mutagenesis: An Alternative Approach to Generate Amino Acid Substitution Collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mingo, J.; Erramuzpe, A.; Luna, S.; Aurtenetxe, O.; Amo, L.; Diez, I.; Schepens, J.T.G.; Hendriks, W.J.A.J.; Cortes, J.M.; Pulido, R.

    2016-01-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis (SDM) is a powerful tool to create defined collections of protein variants for experimental and clinical purposes, but effectiveness is compromised when a large number of mutations is required. We present here a one-tube-only standardized SDM approach that generates

  14. Mechanism of adenylate kinase: Site-directed mutagenesis versus x-ray and NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Mingdaw; Yan, Honggao

    1991-01-01

    Controversy is an integral part of scientific research and is often a precursor to the truth. However, this lesson has been learned in a very hard way in the case of the structure-function relationship of adenylate kinase (AK), which catalyzes the interconversion between MgATP+AMP and MgADP+ADP. While this small kinase has been considered a model kinase and the enzyme-substrate interaction of AK was among the first investigated by X-ray crystallography and NMR the substrate binding sites deduced from the early studies by these two powerful techniques (termed the X-ray model and the NMR model, respectively) were dramatically different. Ironically, both models have had substantial impact on researchers in related fields. The problems have finally been dealt with since 1987 by the interplay between site-directed mutagenesis, X-ray, and NMR. The purpose of this review is not only to summarize the current knowledge in the structure-function relationship of adenylate kinase but also to accurately document and critically analyze historical developments in the hope that history will not be repeated

  15. Improving the neutral phytase activity from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens DSM 1061 by site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Shao, Rong; Wang, Zupeng; Yan, Xiuhua

    2015-03-01

    Neutral phytase is used as a feed additive for degradation of anti-nutritional phytate in aquatic feed industry. Site-directed mutagenesis of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens DSM 1061 phytase was performed with an aim to increase its activity. Mutation residues were chosen based on multiple sequence alignments and structure analysis of neutral phytsaes from different microorganisms. The mutation sites on surface (D148E, S197E and N156E) and around the active site (D52E) of phytase were selected. Analysis of the phytase variants showed that the specific activities of mutants D148E and S197E remarkably increased by about 35 and 13% over a temperature range of 40-75 °C at pH 7.0, respectively. The k cat of mutants D148E and S197E were 1.50 and 1.25 times than that of the wild-type phytase, respectively. Both D148E and S197E showed much higher thermostability than that of the wild-type phytase. However, mutants N156E and D52E led to significant loss of specific activity of the enzyme. Structural analysis revealed that these mutations may affect conformation of the active site of phytase. The present mutant phytases D148E and S197E with increased activities and thermostabilities have application potential as additives in aquaculture feed.

  16. Enhancing activity and thermostability of lipase A from Serratia marcescens by site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mohsen; Sepehrizadeh, Zargham; Ebrahim-Habibi, Azadeh; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Setayesh, Neda

    2016-11-01

    Lipases as significant biocatalysts had been widely employed to catalyze various chemical reactions such as ester hydrolysis, ester synthesis, and transesterification. Improving the activity and thermostability of enzymes is desirable for industrial applications. The lipase of Serratia marcescens belonging to family I.3 lipase has a very important pharmaceutical application in production of chiral precursors. In the present study, to achieve improved lipase activity and thermostability, using computational predictions of protein, four mutant lipases of SML (MutG2P, MutG59P, Mut H279K and MutL613WA614P) were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis. The recombinant mutant proteins were over-expressed in E. coli and purified by affinity chromatography on the Ni-NTA system. Circular dichroism spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and kinetic parameters (Km and kcat) were determined. Our results have shown that the secondary structure of all lipases was approximately similar to one another. The MutG2P and MutG59P were more stable than wild type by approximately 2.3 and 2.9 in T 1/2 , respectively. The catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of MutH279K was enhanced by 2-fold as compared with the wild type (p<0.05). These results indicate that using protein modeling program and creating mutation, can enhance lipase activity and/or thermostability of SML and it also could be used for improving other properties of enzyme to the desired requirements as well as further mutations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cloning, Site-Directed Mutagenesis, and Functional Analysis of Active Residues in Lymantria dispar Chitinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiao-Jun; Yang, Chun; Zhang, Chang; Ren, Hui; Zhang, Jian-Dong

    2018-01-01

    Chitinases are glycosyl hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of β-(1,4)-glycosidic bonds in chitin, the major structural polysaccharide presented in the cuticle and gut peritrophic matrix of insects. Two aspartate residues (D143, D145) and one tryptophan (W146) in the Lymantria dispar chitinase are highly conserved residues observed within the second conserved motif of the family 18 chitinase catalytic region. In this study, a chitinase cDNA, LdCht5, was cloned from L. dispar, and the roles of the three residues were investigated using site-directed mutagenesis and substituting them with three other amino acids. Seven mutant proteins, D143E, D145E, W146G, D143E/D145E, D143E/W146G, D145E/W146G, and D143E/D145E/W146G, as well as the wild-type enzyme, were produced using the baculovirus-insect cell line expression system. The enzymatic and kinetic properties of these mutant enzymes were measured using the oligosaccharide substrate MU-(GlcNAc) 3 . Among the seven mutants, the D145E, D143E/D145E, and D145E/W146G mutations kept some extant catalytic activity toward MU-(GlcNAc) 3 , while the D143E, W146G, D143E/W146G, and D143E/D145E/W146G mutant enzymes were inactivated. Compared with the mutant enzymes, the wild-type enzyme had higher values of k cat and k cat / K m . A study of the multiple point mutations in the second conserved catalytic region would help to elucidate the role of the critical residues and their relationships.

  18. One-Tube-Only Standardized Site-Directed Mutagenesis: An Alternative Approach to Generate Amino Acid Substitution Collections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janire Mingo

    Full Text Available Site-directed mutagenesis (SDM is a powerful tool to create defined collections of protein variants for experimental and clinical purposes, but effectiveness is compromised when a large number of mutations is required. We present here a one-tube-only standardized SDM approach that generates comprehensive collections of amino acid substitution variants, including scanning- and single site-multiple mutations. The approach combines unified mutagenic primer design with the mixing of multiple distinct primer pairs and/or plasmid templates to increase the yield of a single inverse-PCR mutagenesis reaction. Also, a user-friendly program for automatic design of standardized primers for Ala-scanning mutagenesis is made available. Experimental results were compared with a modeling approach together with stochastic simulation data. For single site-multiple mutagenesis purposes and for simultaneous mutagenesis in different plasmid backgrounds, combination of primer sets and/or plasmid templates in a single reaction tube yielded the distinct mutations in a stochastic fashion. For scanning mutagenesis, we found that a combination of overlapping primer sets in a single PCR reaction allowed the yield of different individual mutations, although this yield did not necessarily follow a stochastic trend. Double mutants were generated when the overlap of primer pairs was below 60%. Our results illustrate that one-tube-only SDM effectively reduces the number of reactions required in large-scale mutagenesis strategies, facilitating the generation of comprehensive collections of protein variants suitable for functional analysis.

  19. Thermostability enhancement of an endo-1,4-β-galactanase from Talaromyces stipitatus by site-directed mutagenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Dorte Møller; Nyffenegger, Christian; Swiniarska, Malgorzata Maria

    2015-01-01

    -life of TSGAL, nine single amino acid residues were selected for site-directed mutagenesis on the basis of semi-rational design. Of these nine mutants, G305A showed half-lives of 114 min at 55 °C and 15 min at 60 °C, respectively. This is 8.6-fold higher than that of the TSGAL at 55 °C, whereas the other...

  20. R-prime site-directed transposon Tn7 mutagenesis of the photosynthetic apparatus in Rhodopseudomonas capsulata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youvan, D C [Univ. of California, Berkeley; Elder, J T; Sandlin, D E; Zsebo, K; Alder, D P; Panopoulos, N J; Marrs, B L; Hearst, J E

    1982-01-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis of the photosynthetic apparatus (PSA) genes in Rhodopseudomonas capsulata is presented utilizing a transposon Tn7 mutagenized R-prime. The R-prime, pRPS404, bears most of the genes necessary for the differentiation of the photosynthetic apparatus. Mutagenesis of the R-prime with Tn7 in Escherichia coli, conjugation into R. capsulata, and homologous recombination with the wild-type alleles efficiently generates photosynthetic apparatus lesions. Wild-type alleles are lost spontaneously and the Tn7-induced lesions are revealed by subsequent intramolecular recombination between IS21 insertion elements that bracket the prime sequences in direct repeat. The molecular nature of the intermediates involved in the transposition, recombination and deletion have been investigated by Southern hybridization analysis. The spontaneous loss of wild-type alleles after homologous recombination with the chromosome may be of general use to other prokaryotic site-directed transposon mutagenesis schemes. The IS21-mediated deletion of the prime DNA is dependent on the RecA protein in E. coli, generating the parental R-factor bearing one IS21 element. A genetic-physical map exists for a portion of the prime photosynthetic apparatus DNA. When Tn7 is inserted into a bacteriochlorophyll gene in the R-prime and then crossed into R. capsulata, mutants are produced that accumulate a bacteriochlorophyll precursor, which is in excellent agreement with the existing genetic-physical map. This corroborates the mutagenesis scheme.

  1. HTP-OligoDesigner: An Online Primer Design Tool for High-Throughput Gene Cloning and Site-Directed Mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilo, Cesar M; Lima, Gustavo M A; Maluf, Fernando V; Guido, Rafael V C; Polikarpov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Following burgeoning genomic and transcriptomic sequencing data, biochemical and molecular biology groups worldwide are implementing high-throughput cloning and mutagenesis facilities in order to obtain a large number of soluble proteins for structural and functional characterization. Since manual primer design can be a time-consuming and error-generating step, particularly when working with hundreds of targets, the automation of primer design process becomes highly desirable. HTP-OligoDesigner was created to provide the scientific community with a simple and intuitive online primer design tool for both laboratory-scale and high-throughput projects of sequence-independent gene cloning and site-directed mutagenesis and a Tm calculator for quick queries.

  2. Increase in D-tagatose production rate by site-directed mutagenesis of L-arabinose isomerase from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyo-Jung; Kim, Hye-Jung; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2006-02-01

    Among single-site mutations of L-arabinose isomerase derived from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans, two mutants were produced having the lowest and highest activities of D-tagatose production. Site-directed mutagenesis at these sites showed that the aromatic ring at amino acid 164 and the size of amino acid 475 were important for D-tagatose production. Among double-site mutations, one mutant converted D-galactose into D-tagatose with a yield of 58% whereas the wild type gave 46% D-tagatose conversion after 300 min at 65 degrees C.

  3. Protein crystallography and site-direct mutagenesis analysis of the poly(ethylene terephthalate) hydrolase PETase from Ideonella sakaiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; He, Lihui; Wang, Liping; Li, Tao; Li, Changcheng; Liu, Huayi; Luo, Yunzi; Bao, Rui

    2018-03-30

    Compared with traditional recycle strategies, biodegradation provides a sustainable solution for poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) wastes disposal. PETase, a newly identified enzyme from Ideonella sakaiensis, has high efficiency and specificity towards PET, which provides a prominent prospect on PET degradation. Based on the biochemical analysis, we propose that the wide substrate-binding pocket is critical for its excellent property on crystallized PET hydrolysis. Structure-guided site-directed mutagenesis exhibited improvement in PETase catalytic efficiency, providing valuable insight on how the molecular engineering of PETase can optimize its application in biocatalysis. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Site-directed mutagenesis of the foot-and-mouth disease virus RNA-polymerase gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brindeiro, R.M.; Soares, M.A.; Vianna, A.L.M.; Pontes, O.H.A. de; Pacheco, A.B.F.; Almeida, D.F. de; Tanuri, A.

    1991-01-01

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus RNA-polymerase gene was mutagenised in its active site. Pst I digestion of the polymerase gene (cDNA) generated a 790 bp fragment containing the critical sequence. This fragment was subcloned in M13mp8 for mutagenesis method. The polymerase gene was then reconstructed and subcloned in pUC19. These mutants will be used to study the enzyme structure and activity and to develop intracellular immunization assays in eukaryotic cells. (author)

  5. In vivo elimination of parental clones in general and site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Erika G; Acca, Felicity E; Belanger, Kristina M; Bylo, Mary E; Kay, Brian K; Weiner, Michael P; Kiss, Margaret M

    2015-02-01

    The Eco29k I restriction endonuclease is a Sac II isoschizomer that recognizes the sequence 5'-CCGCGG-3' and is encoded, along with the Eco29k I methylase, in the Escherichia coli strain 29k. We have expressed the Eco29k I restriction-methylation system (RM2) in E. coli strain TG1 to produce the strain AXE688. We have developed a directed molecular evolution (DME) mutagenesis method that uses Eco29k I to restrict incoming parental DNA in transformed cells. Using our DME method, we have demonstrated that our AXE688 strain results in mutated directed molecular evolution libraries with diversity greater than 10(7) from a single transformation and with greater than 90% recombinant clones. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of Random and Site-Directed Mutagenesis to Probe Protein Structure-Function Relationships: Applied Techniques in the Study of Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmire, Jeannette M; Merrell, D Scott

    2017-01-01

    Mutagenesis is a valuable tool to examine the structure-function relationships of bacterial proteins. As such, a wide variety of mutagenesis techniques and strategies have been developed. This chapter details a selection of random mutagenesis methods and site-directed mutagenesis procedures that can be applied to an array of bacterial species. Additionally, the direct application of the techniques to study the Helicobacter pylori Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur) protein is described. The varied approaches illustrated herein allow the robust investigation of the structural-functional relationships within a protein of interest.

  7. Changing the inhibitory specificity and function of Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor-V by site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, L; Lee, I; Chen, G; Huang, J K; Gong, Y; Krishnamoorthi, R

    1995-02-27

    Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor-V (CMTI-V) is also a specific inhibitor of human blood coagulation factor beta-factor XIIa. A recombinant version of CMTI-V has allowed probing of roles of individual amino acid residues including the reactive site residue, lysine (P1), by site-directed mutagenesis. The K44R showed at least a 5-fold increase in inhibitory activity toward human beta-factor XIIa, while there was no change toward bovine trypsin. This result demonstrates that beta-factor-XIIa prefers an arginine residue over lysine residue, while trypsin is non-specific to lysine or arginine in its binding pocket. On the other hand, the specificity of CMTI-V could be changed from trypsin to chymotrypsin inhibition by mutation of the P1 residue to either leucine or methionine (K44L or K44M).

  8. Enhancement of thermostability and kinetic efficiency of Aspergillus niger PhyA phytase by site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesampour, Ardeshir; Siadat, Seyed Ehsan Ranaei; Malboobi, Mohammad Ali; Mohandesi, Nooshin; Arab, Seyed Shahriar; Ghahremanpour, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-03-01

    Phytase efficiently catalyzes the hydrolysis of phytate to phosphate; it can be utilized as an animal supplement to provide animals their nutrient requirements for phosphate and to mitigate environmental pollution caused by unutilized feed phosphate. Owing to animal feed being commonly pelleted at 70 to 90 °C, phytase with a sufficiently high thermal stability is desirable. Based on the crystal structure of PhyA and bioinformatics analysis at variant heat treatments, 12 single and multiple mutants were introduced by site-directed mutagenesis in order to improve phytase thermostability. Mutated constructs were expressed in Pichia pastoris. The manipulated phytases were purified; their biochemical and kinetic investigation revealed that while the thermostability of six mutants was improved, P9 (T314S Q315R V62N) and P12 (S205N S206A T151A T314S Q315R) showed the highest heat stability (P phytase to be used as an animal feed supplement.

  9. Specificity of N-terminal methionyl peptidase: analysis by site-directed mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasper, T.J.; Boissel, J.P.; Bunn, H.F.

    1987-01-01

    The start site of eukaryotic translation is normally an AUG codon. The corresponding N-terminal methionine is most often removed when the nascent chain reaches about 30 residues. Data from a survey of 1764 eukaryotic protein sequences suggest that the residue adjacent to the initiator Met determines Met cleavage. In order to investigate the mechanism of this reaction, the authors have prepared oligonucleotide-directed mutants of human β-globin from gapped heteroduplexes of a T3/T7 plasmid containing a globin cDNA clone. To date, the authors have produced mutants encoding for 15 of 19 possible amino acid replacements at position 1 in the β-globin chain. These mutants have been confirmed by dideoxy sequencing, transcribed in vitro, and translated in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate in the presence of 35 S-methionine. Labeled translation products were then isolated by cation exchange HPLC, and tryptic peptides were analyzed by RP-HPLC. Thus far, this structural analysis has shown that for β-1 Val, Ala, and Ser, the initiator Met is cleaved, whereas for β-1 Lys, Met, Glu, Trp, Asn, Tyr, and Glu, initiator Met is retained. For β-1 Leu initiator Met is cleaved with a frequency of about 50%. These results are consistent with the data obtained from the previous survey. The expression of site-directed mutants in a cell-free system can also be used to investigate other N-terminal processing events, such as acetylation and myristylation

  10. Enhancement of oxidative stability of the subtilisin nattokinase by site-directed mutagenesis expressed in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, MeiZhi; Zheng, ZhongLiang; Bao, Wei; Cai, YongJun; Yin, Yan; Zou, GuoLin; Zou, GouLin

    2009-11-01

    Nattokinase (subtilisin NAT, NK) is a bacterial serine protease with strong fibrinolytic activity and it is a potent cardiovascular drug. In medical and commercial applications, however, it is susceptible to chemical oxidation, and subsequent inactivation or denaturation. Here we show that the oxidative stability of NK was substantially increased by optimizing the amino acid residues Thr(220) and Met(222), which were in the vicinity of the catalytic residue Ser(221) of the enzyme. Two nonoxidative amino acids (Ser and Ala) were introduced at these sites using site-directed mutagenesis. Active enzymes were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli with periplasmic secretion and enzymes were purified to homogeneity. The purified enzymes were analyzed with respect to oxidative stability, kinetic parameters, fibrinolytic activity and thermal stability. M222A mutant was found to have a greatly increased oxidative stability compared with wild-type enzyme and it was resistant to inactivation by more than 1 M H(2)O(2), whereas the wild-type enzyme was inactivated by 0.1 M H(2)O(2) (t(1/2) approximately 11.6 min). The other mutant (T220S) also showed an obvious increase in antioxidative ability. Molecular dynamic simulations on wild-type and T220S mutant proteins suggested that a hydrogen bond was formed between Ser(220) and Asn(155), and the spatial structure of Met(222) was changed compared with the wild-type. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of improving oxidative stability of NK by site-directed mutagenesis and shows successful protein engineering cases to improve stability of NK as a potent therapeutic agent.

  11. A mutant screening method by critical annealing temperature-PCR for site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Wu, Ting; Song, Jian; Chen, Xuelian; Zhang, Yu; Wan, Yu

    2013-03-11

    Distinguishing desired mutants from parental templates and undesired mutants is a problem not well solved in Quikchange™ mutagenesis. Although Dpn I digestion can eliminate methylated parental (WT) DNA, the efficiency is not satisfying due to the existence of hemi-methylated DNA in the PCR products, which is resistant to Dpn I. The present study designed a novel critical annealing temperature (T(c))-PCR to replace Dpn I digestion for more perfect mutant distinguishing, in which part-overlapping primers containing mutation(s) were used to reduce initial concentration of template DNA in mutagenic PCR. A T(c)-PCR with the same mutagenic primers was performed without Dpn I digestion. The T(c) for each pair of the primers was identified by gradient PCR. The relationship between PCR-identified T(c) and T(m) of the primers was analyzed and modeled with correlation and regression. Gradient PCR identified a T(c) for each of 14 tested mutagenic primers, which could discriminate mismatched parental molecules and undesired mutants from desired mutants. The PCR-identified T(c) was correlated to the primer's T(m) (r = 0.804, P<0.0001). Thus, in practical applications, the T(c) can be easily calculated with a regression equation, T(c)= 48.81 + 0.253*T(m). The new protocol introduced a novel T(c)-PCR method for mutant screening which can more efficiently and accurately select against parental molecules and undesired mutations in mutagenic sequence segments.

  12. Site-directed Mutagenesis Switching a Dimethylallyl Tryptophan Synthase to a Specific Tyrosine C3-Prenylating Enzyme*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Aili; Zocher, Georg; Stec, Edyta; Stehle, Thilo; Li, Shu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The tryptophan prenyltransferases FgaPT2 and 7-DMATS (7-dimethylallyl tryptophan synthase) from Aspergillus fumigatus catalyze C4- and C7-prenylation of the indole ring, respectively. 7-DMATS was found to accept l-tyrosine as substrate as well and converted it to an O-prenylated derivative. An acceptance of l-tyrosine by FgaPT2 was also observed in this study. Interestingly, isolation and structure elucidation revealed the identification of a C3-prenylated l-tyrosine as enzyme product. Molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis led to creation of a mutant FgaPT2_K174F, which showed much higher specificity toward l-tyrosine than l-tryptophan. Its catalytic efficiency toward l-tyrosine was found to be 4.9-fold in comparison with that of non-mutated FgaPT2, whereas the activity toward l-tryptophan was less than 0.4% of that of the wild-type. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on an enzymatic C-prenylation of l-tyrosine as free amino acid and altering the substrate preference of a prenyltransferase by mutagenesis. PMID:25477507

  13. Mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis identify several autophosphorylated residues required for the activity of PrkC, a Ser/Thr kinase from Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madec, Edwige; Stensballe, Allan; Kjellström, Sven

    2003-01-01

    We have shown recently that PrkC, which is involved in developmental processes in Bacillus subtilis, is a Ser/Thr kinase with features of the receptor kinase family of eukaryotic Hanks kinases. In this study, we expressed and purified from Escherichia coli the cytoplasmic domain of PrkC containing...... the kinase and a short juxtamembrane region. This fragment, which we designate PrkCc, undergoes autophosphorylation in E.coli. PrkCc is further autophosphorylated in vitro, apparently through a trans-kinase, intermolecular reaction. PrkC also displays kinase activity with myelin basic protein. Using high...... mass accuracy electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and nanoelectrospray tandem mass spectrometry, we identified seven phosphorylated threonine and one serine residue in PrkCc. All the corresponding residues were replaced by systematic site-directed mutagenesis and the purified mutant...

  14. Substitutions in PBP3 confer resistance to both ampicillin and extended-spectrum cephalosporins in Haemophilus parainfluenzae as revealed by site-directed mutagenesis and gene recombinants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienholtz, Nanna H; Ciechanowski, Aynur Barut; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels

    2017-01-01

    using site-directed mutagenesis. Recombinants were also generated using PCR-amplified ftsI from clinical strains encoding multiple amino acid substitutions. MICs of ampicillin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime and ceftriaxone were determined using Etest ® . Results: Transformation of a susceptible strain with fts...... for recombinants were lower than those for the donor strains. Using site-directed mutagenesis, no single substitution conferred resistance to the tested β-lactams, although V511A increased the MIC of cefuroxime to the intermediate category for intravenous administration. Recombinants encoding N526K...

  15. Site-Directed Mutagenesis of a Hyperthermophilic Endoglucanase Cel12B from Thermotoga maritima Based on Rational Design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinfeng Zhang

    Full Text Available To meet the demand for the application of high activity and thermostable cellulases in the production of new-generation bioethanol from nongrain-cellulose sources, a hyperthermostable β-1,4-endoglucase Cel12B from Thermotoga maritima was selected for further modification by gene site-directed mutagenesis method in the present study, based on homology modeling and rational design. As a result, two recombinant enzymes showed significant improvement in enzyme activity by 77% and 87%, respectively, higher than the parental enzyme TmCel12B. Furthermore, the two mutants could retain 80% and 90.5% of their initial activity after incubation at 80°C for 8 h, while only 45% for 5 h to TmCel12B. The Km and Vmax of the two recombinant enzymes were 1.97±0.05 mM, 4.23±0.15 μmol·mg(-1·min(-1 of TmCel12B-E225H-K207G-D37V, and 2.97±0.12 mM, 3.15±0.21 μmol·mg(-1·min(-1 of TmCel12B-E225H-K207G, respectively, when using CMC-Na as the substrate. The roles of the mutation sites were also analyzed and evaluated in terms of electron density, hydrophobicity of the modeled protein structures. The recombinant enzymes may be used in the hydrolysis of cellulose at higher temperature in the future. It was concluded that the gene mutagenesis approach of a certain active residues may effectively improve the performance of cellulases for the industrial applications and contribute to the study the thermostable mechanism of thermophilic enzymes.

  16. Preparation by site-directed mutagenesis and characterization of the E211Q mutant of yeast enolase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangadala, V S; Glover, C V; Robson, R L; Holland, M J; Lebioda, L; Brewer, J M

    1995-08-16

    The published 'charge shuttle' mechanism of enolase (Lebioda, L. and Stec, B. (1991) Biochemistry 30, 2817-2822) assigns Glu-211 the task of orienting a water molecule that serves as the catalytic base which removes the proton from carbon-2 of the substrate. We prepared the E211Q mutant of yeast enolase 1 by site-directed mutagenesis. It appears to be folded correctly and to respond similarly to many of the normal ligands of enolase: it is stabilized against thermal denaturation by conformational Mg2+ and by Mg2+ and substrate and binds the chromophoric substrate analogue D-tartronate semialdehyde-2-phosphate (TSP) with affinity comparable to that of the native enzyme. However, it has only 0.01% (10(-4)) of the activity of native enolase under standard assay conditions and does not exhibit significantly more activity at various pH values or higher concentrations of substrate and Mg2+. Its ability to produce the form of enzyme-bound and reacted TSP that absorbs at shorter wavelengths is greatly slowed, while the longer wavelength absorbing form is produced rapidly. Overall, these observations are consistent with the hypothetical mechanism.

  17. Site-directed Mutagenesis of Cysteine Residues in Phi-class Glutathione S-transferase F3 from Oryza sativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Hyunjoo; Lee, Juwon; Noh, Jinseok; Kong, Kwanghoon [Chung-Ang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    To elucidate the roles of cysteine residues in rice Phi-class GST F3, in this study, all three cysteine residues were replaced with alanine by site-directed mutagenesis in order to obtain mutants C22A, C73A and C77A. Three mutant enzymes were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to electrophoretic homogeneity by affinity chromatography on immobilized GSH. The substitutions of Cys73 and Cys77 residues in OsGSTF3 with alanine did not affect the glutathione conjugation activities, showing non-essentiality of these residues. On the other hand, the substitution of Cys22 residue with alanine resulted in approximately a 60% loss of specific activity toward ethacrynic acid. Moreover, the K{sub m}{sup CDNB} value of the mutant C22A was approximately 2.2 fold larger than that of the wild type. From these results, the evolutionally conserved cysteine 22 residue seems to participate rather in the structural stability of the active site in OsGSTF3 by stabilizing the electrophilic substrates-binding site's conformation than in the substrate binding directly.

  18. Site directed mutagenesis of amino acid residues at the active site of mouse aldehyde oxidase AOX1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Schumann

    Full Text Available Mouse aldehyde oxidase (mAOX1 forms a homodimer and belongs to the xanthine oxidase family of molybdoenzymes which are characterized by an essential equatorial sulfur ligand coordinated to the molybdenum atom. In general, mammalian AOs are characterized by broad substrate specificity and an yet obscure physiological function. To define the physiological substrates and the enzymatic characteristics of mAOX1, we established a system for the heterologous expression of the enzyme in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein showed spectral features and a range of substrate specificity similar to the native protein purified from mouse liver. The EPR data of recombinant mAOX1 were similar to those of AO from rabbit liver, but differed from the homologous xanthine oxidoreductase enzymes. Site-directed mutagenesis of amino acids Val806, Met884 and Glu1265 at the active site resulted in a drastic decrease in the oxidation of aldehydes with no increase in the oxidation of purine substrates. The double mutant V806E/M884R and the single mutant E1265Q were catalytically inactive enzymes regardless of the aldehyde or purine substrates tested. Our results show that only Glu1265 is essential for the catalytic activity by initiating the base-catalyzed mechanism of substrate oxidation. In addition, it is concluded that the substrate specificity of molybdo-flavoenzymes is more complex and not only defined by the three characterized amino acids in the active site.

  19. Identification of residues involved in nucleotidyltransferase activity of JHP933 from helicobacter pyloriby site-directed mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Xianren

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a well-known bacterial pathogen involved in the development of peptic ulcer, gastric adenocarcinoma and other forms of gastric cancer. Evidence has suggested that certain strain-specific genes in the plasticity region may play key roles in the pathogenesis of H. pylori-associated gastroduodenal diseases. Therefore there is considerable interest in the strain-specific genes located in the plasticity regions of H. pylori. JHP933 is encoded by the gene in the plasticity region of H. pylori strain J99. Recently, the crystal structure of JHP933 has confirmed it as a nucleotidyltransferase (NTase superfamily protein and a putative active site has been proposed. However, no evidence from direct functional assay has been presented to confirm the active site and little is known about the functional mechanism of JHP933. Here, through superimposition with Cid1/NTP complex structures, we modelled the complex structures of JHP933 with different NTPs. Based on the models and using rational site-directed mutagenesis combined with enzymatic activity assays, we confirm the active site and identify several residues important for the nucleotidyl transferring function of JHP933. Furthermore, mutations of these active site residues result in the abolishment of the nucleotidyltransferase activity of JHP933. This work provides preliminary insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the pathophysiological role in H. pylori infection of JHP933 as a novel NTase superfamily protein.

  20. Assignment of histidine resonances in the 1H NMR (500 MHz) spectrum of subtilisin BPN' using site-directed mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bycroft, M.; Fersht, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    A spin-echo pulse sequence has been used to resolve the six histidine C-2H protons in the 500-MHz NMR spectrum of subtilisin BPN'. Five of these residues have been substituted by site-directed mutagenesis, and this has enabled a complete assignment of these protons to be obtained. Analysis of the pH titration curves of these signals has provided microscopic pK a 's for the six histidines in this enzyme. The pK a 's of the histidine residues in subtilisin BPN' have been compared with the values obtained for the histidines in the homologous enzyme from Bacillus licheniformis (subtilisin Carlsberg). Four of the five conserved histidines titrate with essentially identical pK a 's in the two enzymes. It therefore appears that the assignments made for these residues in subtilisin BPN' can be transferred to subtilisin Carlsberg. On the basis of these assignments, the one histidine that titrates with a substantially different pK a in the two enzymes can be assigned to histidine-238. This difference in pK a has been attributed to a Trp to Lys substitution at position 241 in subtilisin Carlsberg

  1. Site-directed mutagenesis of serine 158 demonstrates its role in spinach leaf sucrose-phosphate synthase modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toroser, D.; McMichael, R. Jr; Krause, K. P.; Kurreck, J.; Sonnewald, U.; Stitt, M.; Huber, S. C.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis of spinach sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) was performed to investigate the role of Ser158 in the modulation of spinach leaf SPS. Tobacco plants expressing the spinach wild-type (WT), S158A, S158T and S157F/S158E SPS transgenes were produced. Expression of transgenes appeared not to reduce expression of the tobacco host SPS. SPS activity in the WT and the S158T SPS transgenics showed light/dark modulation, whereas the S158A and S157F/S158E mutants were not similarly light/dark modulated: the S158A mutant enzyme was not inactivated in the dark, and the S157F/S158E was not activated in the light. The inability to modulate the activity of the S158A mutant enzyme by protein phosphorylation was demonstrated in vitro. The WT spinach enzyme immunopurified from dark transgenic tobacco leaves had a low initial activation state, and could be activated by PP2A and subsequently inactivated by SPS-kinase plus ATP. Rapid purification of the S158A mutant enzyme from dark leaves of transgenic plants using spinach-specific monoclonal antibodies yielded enzyme that had a high initial activation state, and pre-incubation with leaf PP2A or ATP plus SPS-kinase (the PKIII enzyme) caused little modulation of activity. The results demonstrate the regulatory significance of Ser158 as the major site responsible for dark inactivation of spinach SPS in vivo, and indicate that the significance of phosphorylation is the introduction of a negative charge at the Ser158 position.

  2. Role of arginine-292 in the substrate specificity of aspartate aminotransferase as examined by site-directed mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronin, C.N.; Kirsch, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    X-ray crystallographic data have implicated Arg-292 as the residue responsible for the preferred side-chain substrate specificity of asparate aminotransferase. It forms a salt bridge with the β or γ carboxylate group of the substrate. In order to test this proposal and, in addition, to attempt to reverse the substrate charge specificity of this enzyme, Arg-292 has been converted to Asp-292 by site-directed mutagenesis. The activity k/sub cat//K/sub M/) of the mutant enzyme, R292D, toward the natural anionic substrates L-aspartate, L-glutamate, and α-ketoglutarate is depressed by over 5 orders of magnitude, whereas the activity toward the keto acid pyruvate and a number of aromatic and other neutral amino acids is reduced by only 2-9-fold. These results confirm the proposal that Arg-292 is critical for the rapid turnover of substrates bearing anionic side chains and show further that, apart from the desired alteration no major perturbations of the remainder of the molecule have been made. The activity of R292D toward the cationic amino acids L-arginine, L-lysine, and L-ornithine is increased by 9-16-fold over that of wild type and the ratio (k/sub cat//K/sub M/)/sub cationic//(k/sub cat//K/sub M/)/sub anionic/ is in the range 2-40-fold for R292D, whereas this ratio has a range of [(0.3-6) x 10 -6 ]-fold for wild type. Thus, the mutation has produced an inversion of the substrate charge specificity. Possible explanations for the less-than-expected reactivity of R292D with arginine are discussed

  3. Dissecting the Catalytic Mechanism of Betaine-Homocysteine S-Methyltransferase Using Intrinsic Tryptophan Fluorescence and Site-Directed Mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, C.; Gratson, A.A.; Evans, J.C.; Jiracek, J.; Collinsova, M.; Ludwig, M.L.; Garrow, T.A. (ASCR); (UIUC); (Michigan)

    2010-03-05

    Betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT) is a zinc-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from glycine betaine (Bet) to homocysteine (Hcy) to form dimethylglycine (DMG) and methionine (Met). Previous studies in other laboratories have indicated that catalysis proceeds through the formation of a ternary complex, with a transition state mimicked by the inhibitor S-({delta}-carboxybutyl)-l-homocysteine (CBHcy). Using changes in intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence to determine the affinity of human BHMT for substrates, products, or CBHcy, we now demonstrate that the enzyme-substrate complex reaches its transition state through an ordered bi-bi mechanism in which Hcy is the first substrate to bind and Met is the last product released. Hcy, Met, and CBHcy bind to the enzyme to form binary complexes with K{sub d} values of 7.9, 6.9, and 0.28 {micro}M, respectively. Binary complexes with Bet and DMG cannot be detected with fluorescence as a probe, but Bet and DMG bind tightly to BHMT-Hcy to form ternary complexes with K{sub d} values of 1.1 and 0.73 {micro}M, respectively. Mutation of each of the seven tryptophan residues in human BHMT provides evidence that the enzyme undergoes two distinct conformational changes that are reflected in the fluorescence of the enzyme. The first is induced when Hcy binds, and the second, when Bet binds. As predicted by the crystal structure of BHMT, the amino acids Trp44 and Tyr160 are involved in binding Bet, and Glu159 in binding Hcy. Replacing these residues by site-directed mutagenesis significantly reduces the catalytic efficiency (V{sub max}/K{sub m}) of the enzyme. Replacing Tyr77 with Phe abolishes enzyme activity.

  4. Evolution of flavone synthase I from parsley flavanone 3beta-hydroxylase by site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Yvonne Helen; Witte, Simone; Steuber, Holger; Matern, Ulrich; Martens, Stefan

    2007-07-01

    Flavanone 3beta-hydroxylase (FHT) and flavone synthase I (FNS I) are 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases with 80% sequence identity, which catalyze distinct reactions in flavonoid biosynthesis. However, FNS I has been reported exclusively from a few Apiaceae species, whereas FHTs are more abundant. Domain-swapping experiments joining the N terminus of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) FHT with the C terminus of parsley FNS I and vice versa revealed that the C-terminal portion is not essential for FNS I activity. Sequence alignments identified 26 amino acid substitutions conserved in FHT versus FNS I genes. Homology modeling, based on the related anthocyanidin synthase structure, assigned seven of these amino acids (FHT/FNS I, M106T, I115T, V116I, I131F, D195E, V200I, L215V, and K216R) to the active site. Accordingly, FHT was modified by site-directed mutagenesis, creating mutants encoding from one to seven substitutions, which were expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) for FNS I and FHT assays. The exchange I131F in combination with either M106T and D195E or L215V and K216R replacements was sufficient to confer some FNS I side activity. Introduction of all seven FNS I substitutions into the FHT sequence, however, caused a nearly complete change in enzyme activity from FHT to FNS I. Both FHT and FNS I were proposed to initially withdraw the beta-face-configured hydrogen from carbon-3 of the naringenin substrate. Our results suggest that the 7-fold substitution affects the orientation of the substrate in the active-site pocket such that this is followed by syn-elimination of hydrogen from carbon-2 (FNS I reaction) rather than the rebound hydroxylation of carbon-3 (FHT reaction).

  5. Endoglucanase enzyme protein engineering by site-directed mutagenesis to improve the enzymatic properties and its expression in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Nikzad Jamnani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fossil fuel is an expensive and finite energy source. Therefore, the use of renewable energy and biofuels production has been taken into consideration. One of the most suitable raw materials for biofuels is cellulosic compounds. Only microorganisms that contain cellulose enzymes can decompose cellulose and fungus of Trichodermareesei is the most important producer of this enzyme. Methods: In this study the nucleotide sequence of endoglucanase II, which is the starter of attack to cellulose chains, synthesized from amino acid sequence of this enzyme in fungus T.reesei and based on codon usage in the host; yeast Pichiapastoris. To produce optimized enzyme and to decrease the production time and enzyme price, protein engineering will be used. There are some methods to improve the enzymatic properties like site-directed mutagenesis in which amino-acid replacement occur. In this study two mutations were induced in endoglucanase enzyme gene by PCR in which free syctein positions 169 and 393 were switched to valine and histidine respectively. Then this gene was inserted into the pPinka expression vector and cloned in Escherichia coli. The recombinant plasmids were transferred into P.pastoris competent cells with electroporation, recombinant yeasts were cultured in BMMY medium and induced with methanol. Results: The sequencing of gene proved the induction of the two mutations and the presence of recombinant enzyme was confirmed by dinitrosalicilic acid method and SDS-PAGE. Conclusion: Examination of biochemical properties revealed that the two mutations simultaneously decreased catalytic power, thermal stability and increased the affinity of enzyme and substrate.

  6. Transcarboxylase (TC): demonstration by site-directed mutagenesis that methionines at the biotin site are essential for catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, H.G.; Shenoy, B.C.; Kumar, G.K.; Paranjape, S.; Murtif, V.; Samols, D.

    1987-01-01

    All biotin enzymes that have thus far been sequenced contain a conserved region ALA MET BCT MET. Two possible roles of the conserved region are (i) for recognition of the specific lysine of the enzyme that is to be biotinated posttranslationally by the synthetase or (ii) for activation of the biotin to function as a carboxyl carrier. The BCT of TC is at residue 89 of the 1.3S subunit. By site-directed mutagenesis, single amino acid substitutions have been made giving LEU 88, THR 88 and LEU 90 and these mutant subunits have been expressed in E. coli and isolated. Catalysis by TC involves Partial Reactions: (1) - 00 14 CCH 2 COCOO - + 1.3S biotin pyruvate + 1.3S biotin-COO - catalyzed by the 5S subunit (2) 14 CH 3 CH( 14 COO - )COSCoA + 1.3S biotin CH 3 CH 2 COSCoA + 1.3S biotin- 14 COO - , catalyzed by the 12S subunit. The mutant subunits LEU 88 and THR 88 are inactive in Reaction 1. In Reaction 2, they are 8% as active as the 1.3S wild type. At 10 times the concentration of the wild type, they are 40% as active. The LEU 90 subunit is about 40% as active as wild type in both Reactions 1 and 2. Thus, the two METS are functionally not equivalent. What their catalytic roles are remains to be determined. Shenoy et al. have shown these modifications do not effect the synthetase reaction

  7. Construction and expression of hepatitis B surface antigen escape variants within the "a" determinant by site directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golsaz Shirazi, Forough; Amiri, Mohammad Mehdi; Mohammadi, Hamed; Bayat, Ali Ahmad; Roohi, Azam; Khoshnoodi, Jalal; Zarnani, Amir Hassan; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Kardar, Gholam Ali; Shokri, Fazel

    2013-09-01

    The antibody response to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) controls hepatitis B virus infection. The "a" determinant of HBsAg is the most important target for protective antibody response, diagnosis and immunoprophylaxis. Mutations in this area may induce immune escape mutants and affect the performance of HBsAg assays. To construct clinically relevant recombinant mutant forms of HBsAg and assessment of their reactivity with anti-HBs monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Wild type (wt) and mutant (mt) HBsAg genes were constructed by site directed mutagenesis and SEOing PCR. The amplified genes were inserted into pCMV6-neo plasmid and transfected in CHO cell line. The expression of wt- and mtHBsAg was assessed by commercial ELISA assays and stable cells were established and cloned by limiting dilution. The recombinant mutants were further characterized using a panel of anti-HBs monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and the pattern of their reactivity was assessed by ELISA. Ten HBsAg mutants having single mutation within the "a" determinant including P120E, T123N, Q129H, M133L, K141E, P142S, D144A, G145R, N146S and C147S together with a wt form were successfully constructed and expressed in CHO cells. Reactivity of anti-HBs MAbs with mtHBsAgs displayed different patterns. The effect of mutations on antibody binding differed depending on the amino acid involved and its location within the ''a'' determinant. Mutation at amino acids 123 and 145 resulted in either complete loss or significant reduction of binding to all anti-HBs MAbs. Our panel of mtHBsAgs is a valuable tool for assessment of the antibody response to HBV escape mutants and may have substantial implications in HBV immunological diagnostics.

  8. Proton transfers in a channelrhodopsin-1 studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) difference spectroscopy and site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogren, John I; Yi, Adrian; Mamaev, Sergey; Li, Hai; Spudich, John L; Rothschild, Kenneth J

    2015-05-15

    Channelrhodopsin-1 from the alga Chlamydomonas augustae (CaChR1) is a low-efficiency light-activated cation channel that exhibits properties useful for optogenetic applications such as a slow light inactivation and a red-shifted visible absorption maximum as compared with the more extensively studied channelrhodopsin-2 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (CrChR2). Previously, both resonance Raman and low-temperature FTIR difference spectroscopy revealed that unlike CrChR2, CaChR1 under our conditions exhibits an almost pure all-trans retinal composition in the unphotolyzed ground state and undergoes an all-trans to 13-cis isomerization during the primary phototransition typical of other microbial rhodopsins such as bacteriorhodopsin (BR). Here, we apply static and rapid-scan FTIR difference spectroscopy along with site-directed mutagenesis to characterize the proton transfer events occurring upon the formation of the long-lived conducting P2 (380) state of CaChR1. Assignment of carboxylic C=O stretch bands indicates that Asp-299 (homolog to Asp-212 in BR) becomes protonated and Asp-169 (homolog to Asp-85 in BR) undergoes a net change in hydrogen bonding relative to the unphotolyzed ground state of CaChR1. These data along with earlier FTIR measurements on the CaChR1 → P1 transition are consistent with a two-step proton relay mechanism that transfers a proton from Glu-169 to Asp-299 during the primary phototransition and from the Schiff base to Glu-169 during P2 (380) formation. The unusual charge neutrality of both Schiff base counterions in the P2 (380) conducting state suggests that these residues may function as part of a cation selective filter in the open channel state of CaChR1 as well as other low-efficiency ChRs. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. SiteFind: A software tool for introducing a restriction site as a marker for successful site-directed mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Paul M

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Site-directed mutagenesis is a widely-used technique for introducing mutations into a particular DNA sequence, often with the goal of creating a point mutation in the corresponding amino acid sequence but otherwise leaving the overall sequence undisturbed. However, this method provides no means for verifying its success other than sequencing the putative mutant construct: This can quickly become an expensive method for screening for successful mutations. An alternative to sequencing is to simultaneously introduce a restriction site near the point mutation in manner such that the restriction site has no effect on the translated amino acid sequence. Thus, the novel restriction site can be used as a marker for successful mutation which can be quickly and easily assessed. However, finding a restriction site that does not disturb the corresponding amino acid sequence is a time-consuming task even for experienced researchers. A fast and easy to use computer program is needed for this task. Results We wrote a computer program, called SiteFind, to help us design a restriction site within the mutation primers without changing the peptide sequence. Because of the redundancy of genetic code, a given peptide can be encoded by many different DNA sequences. Since the list of possible restriction sites for a given DNA sequence is not always obvious, SiteFind automates this task. The number of possible sequences a computer program must search through increases exponentially as the sequence length increases. SiteFind uses a novel "moving window" algorithm to reduce the number of possible sequences to be searched to a manageable level. The user enters a nucleotide sequence, specifies what amino acid residues should be changed in the mutation, and SiteFind generates a list of possible restriction sites and what nucleotides must be changed to introduce that site. As a demonstration of its use, we successfully generated a single point mutation

  10. Combinatorial multispectral, thermodynamics, docking and site-directed mutagenesis reveal the cognitive characteristics of honey bee chemosensory protein to plant semiochemical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jing; Song, Xinmi; Fu, Xiaobin; Wu, Fan; Hu, Fuliang; Li, Hongliang

    2018-05-09

    In the chemoreceptive system of insects, there are always some soluble binding proteins, such as some antennal-specific chemosensory proteins (CSPs), which are abundantly distributed in the chemosensory sensillar lymph. The antennal-specific CSPs usually have strong capability to bind diverse semiochemicals, while the detailed interaction between CSPs and the semiochemicals remain unclear. Here, by means of the combinatorial multispectral, thermodynamics, docking and site-directed mutagenesis, we detailedly interpreted a binding interaction between a plant semiochemical β-ionone and antennal-specific CSP1 from the worker honey bee. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔH  0) indicate that the interaction is mainly driven by hydrophobic forces and electrostatic interactions. Docking prediction results showed that there are two key amino acids, Phe44 and Gln63, may be involved in the interacting process of CSP1 to β-ionone. In order to confirm the two key amino acids, site-directed mutagenesis were performed and the binding constant (K A ) for two CSP1 mutant proteins was reduced by 60.82% and 46.80% compared to wild-type CSP1. The thermodynamic analysis of mutant proteins furtherly verified that Phe44 maintained an electrostatic interaction and Gln63 contributes hydrophobic and electrostatic forces. Our investigation initially elucidates the physicochemical mechanism of the interaction between antennal-special CSPs in insects including bees to plant semiochemicals, as well as the development of twice thermodynamic analysis (wild type and mutant proteins) combined with multispectral and site-directed mutagenesis methods. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. From Green to Blue: Site-Directed Mutagenesis of the Green Fluorescent Protein to Teach Protein Structure-Function Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giron, Maria D.; Salto, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Structure-function relationship studies in proteins are essential in modern Cell Biology. Laboratory exercises that allow students to familiarize themselves with basic mutagenesis techniques are essential in all Genetic Engineering courses to teach the relevance of protein structure. We have implemented a laboratory course based on the…

  12. Improved thermostability and enzyme activity of a recombinant phyA mutant phytase from Aspergillus niger N25 by directed evolution and site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zizhong; Jin, Weiqiong; Sun, Rong; Liao, Yan; Zhen, Tianrun; Chen, Hui; Wu, Qi; Gou, Lin; Li, Chenlei

    2018-01-01

    We previously constructed three recombinant phyA mutant strains (PP-NP m -8, PP-NP ep -6A and I44E/T252R-PhyA), showing improved catalytic efficiency or thermostability of Aspergillus niger N25 phytase, by error-prone PCR or site-directed mutagenesis. In this study, directed evolution and site-directed mutagenesis were further applied to improve the modified phytase properties. After one-round error-prone PCR for phytase gene of PP-NP ep -6A, a single transformant, T195L/Q368E/F376Y, was obtained with the significant improvements in catalytic efficiency and thermostability. The phytase gene of T195L/Q368E/F376Y, combined with the previous mutant phytase genes of PP-NP ep -6A, PP-NP m -8 and I44E/T252R-PhyA, was then sequentially modified by DNA shuffling. Three genetically engineered strains with desirable properties were then obtained, namedQ172R, Q172R/K432R andQ368E/K432R. Among them, Q172R/K432R showed the highest thermostability with the longest half-life and the greatest remaining phytase activity after heat treatment, while Q368E/K432R showed the highest catalytic activity. Five substitutions (Q172R, T195L, Q368E, F376Y, K432R) identified from random mutagenesis were added sequentially to the phytase gene of PP-NP ep -6A to investigate how the mutant sites influence the properties of phytase. Characterization and structural analysis demonstrated that these mutations could produce cumulative or synergistic improvements in thermostability or catalytic efficiency of phytase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Site-directed mutagenesis of Azotobacter vinelandii ferredoxin I: [Fe-S] cluster-driven protein rearrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.E.; Burgess, B.K.; Stout, C.D.; Cash, V.L.; Dean, D.R.; Jensen, G.M.; Stephens, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    Azotobacter vinelandii ferredoxin I is a small protein that contains one [4Fe-4S] cluster and one [3Fe-4S] cluster. Recently the x-ray crystal structure has been redetermined and the fdxA gene, which encodes the protein, has been cloned and sequenced. Here the authors report the site-directed mutation of Cys-20, which is a ligand of the [4Fe-4S] cluster in the native protein, to alanine and the characterization of the protein product by x-ray crystallographic and spectroscopic methods. The data show that the mutant protein again contains one [4Fe-4S] cluster and one [3Fe-4S] cluster. The new [4Fe-4S] cluster obtains its fourth ligand from Cys-24, a free cysteine in the native structure. The formation of this [4Fe-4S] cluster drives rearrangement of the protein structure

  14. Site-directed mutagenesis and molecular modelling studies show the role of Asp82 and cysteines in rat acylase 1, a member of the M20 family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herga, Sameh; Brutus, Alexandre; Vitale, Rosa Maria; Miche, Helene; Perrier, Josette; Puigserver, Antoine; Scaloni, Andrea; Giardina, Thierry

    2005-01-01

    Acylase 1 from rat kidney catalyzes the hydrolysis of acyl-amino acids. Sequence alignment has shown that this enzyme belongs to the metalloprotein family M20. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments led to the identification of one functionally important amino acid residue located near one of the zinc coordinating residues, which play a critical role in the enzymatic activity. The D82N- and D82E-substituted forms showed no significant activity and very low activity, respectively, along with a loss of zinc coordination. Molecular modelling investigations indicated a putative role of D82 in ensuring a proper protonation of catalytic histidine. In addition, none of the five cysteine residues present in the rat kidney acylase 1 sequence seemed involved in the catalytic process: the loss of activity induced by the C294A substitution was probably due to a conformational change in the 3D structure

  15. Structure-guided approach identifies a novel class of HIV-1 ribonuclease H inhibitors: binding mode insights through magnesium complexation and site-directed mutagenesis studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poongavanam, Vasanthanathan; Corona, Angela; Steinmann, Casper

    2018-01-01

    is a long and expensive process that can be speeded up by in silico methods. In the present study, a structure-guided screening is coupled with a similarity-based search on the Specs database to identify a new class of HIV-1 RNase H inhibitors. Out of the 45 compounds selected for experimental testing, 15...... inhibited the RNase H function below 100 μM with three hits exhibiting IC50 values active compound, AA, inhibits HIV-1 RNase H with an IC50 of 5.1 μM and exhibits a Mg-independent mode of inhibition. Site-directed mutagenesis studies provide valuable insight into the binding mode of newly...

  16. A saxitoxin-binding aptamer with higher affinity and inhibitory activity optimized by rational site-directed mutagenesis and truncation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X; Hu, B; Gao, S X; Liu, D J; Sun, M J; Jiao, B H; Wang, L H

    2015-07-01

    Saxitoxin (STX), a member of the family of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins, poses toxicological and ecotoxicological risks. To develop an analytical recognition element for STX, a DNA aptamer (APT(STX1)) was previously discovered via an iterative process known as Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) by Handy et al. Our study focused on generating an improved aptamer based on APT(STX1) through rational site-directed mutation and truncation. In this study, we generated the aptamer, M-30f, with a 30-fold higher affinity for STX compared with APT(STX1). The Kd value for M-30f was 133 nM, which was calculated by Bio-Layer Interferometry. After optimization, we detected and compared the interaction of STX with aptamers (APT(STX1) or M-30f) through several techniques (ELISA, cell bioassay, and mouse bioassay). Both aptamers' STX-binding ability was demonstrated in all three methods. Moreover, M-30f performs better than its parent sequence with higher suppressive activity against STX. As a molecular recognition element, M-30f has good prospects for practical application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Site-Directed Mutagenesis Study Revealed Three Important Residues in Hc-DAF-22, a Key Enzyme Regulating Diapause of Haemonchus contortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Huang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Haemonchus contortus (H. contortus is one of the most important parasites of small ruminants, especially goats and sheep. The complex life cycle of this nematode is a main obstacle for the control and prevention of haemonchosis. So far, a special form of arrested development called diapause different from the dauer stage in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans has been found in many parasitic nematodes. In our previous study, we have characterized a novel gene Hc-daf-22 from H. contortus sharing high homology with Ce-daf-22 and functional analysis showed this gene has similar biological function with Ce-daf-22. In this study, Hc-daf-22 mutants were constructed using site-directed mutagenesis, and carried out rescue experiments, RNA interference (RNAi experiments and in vitro enzyme activity analysis with the mutants to further explore the precise function site of Hc-DAF-22. The results showed that Hc-daf-22 mutants could be expressed in the rescued ok693 worms and the expression positions were mainly in the intestine which was identical with that of Hc-daf-22 rescued worms. Through lipid staining we found that Hc-daf-22 could rescue daf-22 mutant (ok693 from the fatty acid metabolism deficiency while Hc-daf-22 mutants failed. Brood size and body length analyses in rescue experiment along with body length and life span analyses in RNAi experiment elucidated that Hc-daf-22 resembled Ce-daf-22 in effecting the development and capacity of C. elegans and mutants impaired the function of Hc-daf-22. Together with the protease activity assay, this research revealed three important active resides 84C/299H/349H in Hc-DAF-22 by site-directed mutagenesis.

  18. Purification and site-directed mutagenesis of linoleate 9S-dioxygenase-allene oxide synthase of Fusarium oxysporum confirms the oxygenation mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Jernerén, Fredrik; Oliw, Ernst H

    2017-07-01

    Plants and fungi form jasmonic acid from α-linolenic acid. The first two steps of biosynthesis in plants occur by sequential transformation by 13S-lipoxygenase and allene oxide synthase (AOS). The biosynthesis in fungi may follow this classical scheme, but the only fungal AOS discovered so far are cytochromes P450 (CYP) fused to 8- and 9-dioxygenases (DOX). In the present report, we purified recombinant 9S-DOX-AOS of Fusarium oxysporum from cell lysate by cobalt affinity chromatography to near homogeneity and studied key residues by site-directed mutagenesis. Sequence homology with 8R-DOX-linoleate diol synthases (8R-DOX-LDS) suggested that Tyr414 catalyzes hydrogen abstraction and that Cys1051 forms the heme thiolate ligand. Site-directed mutagenesis (Tyr414Phe; Cys1051Ser) led to loss of 9S-DOX and 9S-AOS activities, respectively, but other important residues in the CYP parts of 5,8- and 7,8-LDS or 9R-AOS were not conserved. The UV-visible spectrum of 9S-DOX-AOS showed a Soret band at 409 nm, which shifted to 413 nm in the Cys1051Ser mutant. The 9S-AOS of the Tyr414Phe mutant transformed 9S-hydroperoxides of α-linolenic and linoleic acids to allene oxides/α-ketols, but it did not transform 13-hydroperoxides. We conclude that 9S- and 8R-DOX catalyze hydrogen abstraction at C-11 and C-8, respectively, by homologous Tyr residues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Site-Directed Mutagenesis Study Revealed Three Important Residues in Hc-DAF-22, a Key Enzyme Regulating Diapause of Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Zheng, Xiuping; Zhang, Hongli; Ding, Haojie; Guo, Xiaolu; Yang, Yi; Chen, Xueqiu; Zhou, Qianjin; Du, Aifang

    2017-01-01

    Haemonchus contortus ( H. contortus ) is one of the most important parasites of small ruminants, especially goats and sheep. The complex life cycle of this nematode is a main obstacle for the control and prevention of haemonchosis. So far, a special form of arrested development called diapause different from the dauer stage in Caenorhabditis elegans ( C. elegans ) has been found in many parasitic nematodes. In our previous study, we have characterized a novel gene Hc-daf-22 from H. contortus sharing high homology with Ce-daf-22 and functional analysis showed this gene has similar biological function with Ce-daf-22 . In this study, Hc-daf-22 mutants were constructed using site-directed mutagenesis, and carried out rescue experiments, RNA interference (RNAi) experiments and in vitro enzyme activity analysis with the mutants to further explore the precise function site of Hc-DAF-22. The results showed that Hc-daf-22 mutants could be expressed in the rescued ok693 worms and the expression positions were mainly in the intestine which was identical with that of Hc-daf-22 rescued worms. Through lipid staining we found that Hc-daf-22 could rescue daf-22 mutant ( ok693 ) from the fatty acid metabolism deficiency while Hc-daf-22 mutants failed. Brood size and body length analyses in rescue experiment along with body length and life span analyses in RNAi experiment elucidated that Hc-daf-22 resembled Ce-daf-22 in effecting the development and capacity of C. elegans and mutants impaired the function of Hc-daf-22 . Together with the protease activity assay, this research revealed three important active resides 84C/299H/349H in Hc-DAF-22 by site-directed mutagenesis.

  20. Functional role of proteolytic cleavage at arginine-275 of human tissue plasminogen activator as assessed by site-directed mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tate, K.M.; Higgins, D.L.; Holmes, W.E.; Winkler, M.E.; Heyneker, H.L.; Vehar, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Activation of the zymogen form of a serine protease is associated with a conformational change that follows proteolysis at a specific site. Tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) is homologous to mammalian serine proteases and contains an apparent activation cleavage site at arginine-275. To clarify the functional consequences of cleavage at arginine-275 of t-PA, site-specific mutagenesis was performed to convert arginine-275 to a glutamic acid. The mutant enzyme (designated Arg-275 → Glu t-PA) could be converted to the two-chain form by Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease but not by plasmin. The one-chain form was 8 times less active against the tripeptide substrate H-D-isoleucyl-L-prolyl-L-arginine-rho-nitroanilide (S-2288), and the ability of the enzyme to activate plasminogen in the absence of fibrinogen was reduced 20-50 times compared to the two-chain form. In contrast, one-chain Arg-275 → Glu t-PA has equal activity to the two-chain form when assayed in the presence of physiological levels of fibrinogen and plasminogen. Fibrin bound significantly more of the one-chain form of t-PA than the two-chain form for both the wild-type and mutated enzymes. One- and two-chain forms of the wild-type and mutated plasminogen activators slowly formed complexes with plasma protease inhibitors, although the one-chain forms showed decreased complex formation with → 2 -macroglobulin. The one-chain form of t-PA therefore is fully functional under physiologic conditions and has a increased fibrin binding compared to the two-chain form

  1. Use of molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis to define the structural basis for the immune response to carbohydrate xenoantigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yew Margaret

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural antibodies directed at carbohydrates reject porcine xenografts. They are initially expressed in germline configuration and are encoded by a small number of structurally-related germline progenitors. The transplantation of genetically-modified pig organs prevents hyperacute rejection, but delayed graft rejection still occurs, partly due to humoral responses. IgVH genes encoding induced xenoantibodies are predominantly, not exclusively, derived from germline progenitors in the VH3 family. We have previously identified the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes encoding VH3 xenoantibodies in patients and primates. In this manuscript, we complete the structural analysis of induced xenoantibodies by identifying the IgVH genes encoding the small proportion of VH4 xenoantibodies and the germline progenitors encoding xenoantibody light chains. This information has been used to define the xenoantibody/carbohydrate binding site using computer-simulated modeling. Results The VH4-59 gene encodes antibodies in the VH4 family that are induced in human patients mounting active xenoantibody responses. The light chain of xenoantibodies is encoded by DPK5 and HSIGKV134. The structural information obtained by sequencing analysis was used to create computer-simulated models. Key contact sites for xenoantibody/carbohydrate interaction for VH3 family xenoantibodies include amino acids in sites 31, 33, 50, 57, 58 and the CDR3 region of the IgVH gene. Site-directed mutagenesis indicates that mutations in predicted contact sites alter binding to carbohydrate xenoantigens. Computer-simulated modeling suggests that the CDR3 region directly influences binding. Conclusion Xenoantibodies induced during early and delayed xenograft responses are predominantly encoded by genes in the VH3 family, with a small proportion encoded by VH4 germline progenitors. This restricted group can be identified by the unique canonical structure of the light chain, heavy

  2. Enhancement in catalytic activity of Aspergillus niger XynB by selective site-directed mutagenesis of active site amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiuyun; Tian, Zhennan; Jiang, Xukai; Zhang, Qun; Wang, Lushan

    2018-01-01

    XynB from Aspergillus niger ATCC1015 (AnXynB) is a mesophilic glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 11 xylanase which holds great potentials in a wide variety of industrial applications. In the present study, the catalytic activity and stability of AnXynB were improved by a combination of computational and experimental approaches. Virtual mutation and molecular dynamics simulations indicated that the introduction of Glu and Asn altered the interaction network at the - 3 subsite. Interestingly, the double mutant S41N/T43E displayed 72% increase in catalytic activity when compared to the wild type (WT). In addition, it also showed a better thermostability than the WT enzyme. Kinetic determination of the T43E and S41N/T43E mutants suggested that the higher xylanase activity is probably due to the increasing binding affinity of enzyme and substrate. Consequently, the enzyme activity and thermostability of AnXynB was both increased by selective site-directed mutagenesis at the - 3 subsite of its active site architecture which provides a good example for a successfully engineered enzyme for potential industrial application. Moreover, the molecular evolution approach adopted in this study led to the design of a library of sequences that captures a meaningful functional diversity in a limited number of protein variants.

  3. Enhancement of the catalytic activity of ferulic acid decarboxylase from Enterobacter sp. Px6-4 through random and site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunji; Park, Jiyoung; Jung, Chaewon; Han, Dongfei; Seo, Jiyoung; Ahn, Joong-Hoon; Chong, Youhoon; Hur, Hor-Gil

    2015-11-01

    The enzyme ferulic acid decarboxylase (FADase) from Enterobacter sp. Px6-4 catalyzes the decarboxylation reaction of lignin monomers and phenolic compounds such as p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid into their corresponding 4-vinyl derivatives, that is, 4-vinylphenol, 4-vinylcatechol, and 4-vinylguaiacol, respectively. Among various ferulic acid decarboxylase enzymes, we chose the FADase from Enterobacter sp. Px6-4, whose crystal structure is known, and produced mutants to enhance its catalytic activity by random and site-directed mutagenesis. After three rounds of sequential mutations, FADase(F95L/D112N/V151I) showed approximately 34-fold higher catalytic activity than wild-type for the production of 4-vinylguaiacol from ferulic acid. Docking analyses suggested that the increased activity of FADase(F95L/D112N/V151I) could be due to formation of compact active site compared with that of the wild-type FADase. Considering the amount of phenolic compounds such as lignin monomers in the biomass components, successfully bioengineered FADase(F95L/D112N/V151I) from Enterobacter sp. Px6-4 could provide an ecofriendly biocatalytic tool for producing diverse styrene derivatives from biomass.

  4. Site-directed mutagenesis under the direction of in silico protein docking modeling reveals the active site residues of 3-ketosteroid-Δ1-dehydrogenase from Mycobacterium neoaurum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ning; Shen, Yanbing; Yang, Xu; Su, Liqiu; Tang, Rui; Li, Wei; Wang, Min

    2017-07-01

    3-Ketosteroid-Δ 1 -dehydrogenases (KsdD) from Mycobacterium neoaurum could transform androst-4-ene-3,17-dione (AD) to androst-1,4-diene-3,17-dione. This reaction has a significant effect on the product of pharmaceutical steroid. The crystal structure and active site residues information of KsdD from Mycobacterium is not yet available, which result in the engineering of KsdD is tedious. In this study, by the way of protein modeling and site-directed mutagenesis, we find that, Y122, Y125, S138, E140 and Y541 from the FAD-binding domain and Y365 from the catalytic domain play a key role in this transformation. Compared with the wild type, the decline in AD conversion for mutants illustrated that Y125, Y365, and Y541 were essential to the function of KsdD. Y122, S138 and E140 contributed to the catalysis of KsdD. The following analysis revealed the catalysis mechanism of these mutations in KsdD of Mycobacterium. These information presented here facilitate the manipulation of the catalytic properties of the enzyme to improve its application in the pharmaceutical steroid industry.

  5. Site-directed mutagenesis of the Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G protein β subunit suggests divergent mechanisms of effector activation between plant and animal G proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravorty, David; Trusov, Yuri; Botella, José Ramón

    2012-03-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins are integral components of signal transduction in humans and other mammals and have been therefore extensively studied. However, while they are known to mediate many processes, much less is currently known about the effector pathways and molecular mechanisms used by these proteins to regulate effectors in plants. We designed a complementation strategy to study G protein signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana, particularly the mechanism of action of AGB1, the sole identified β subunit. We used biochemical and effector regulation data from human G protein studies to identify four potentially important residues for site-directed mutagenesis (T65, M111, D250 and W361 of AGB1). Each residue was individually mutated and the resulting mutated protein introduced in the agb1-2 mutant background under the control of the native AGB1 promoter. Interestingly, even though these mutations have been shown to have profound effects on effector signaling in humans, all the mutated subunits were able to restore thirteen of the fifteen Gβ-deficient phenotypes characterized in this study. Only one mutated protein, T65A was unable to complement the hypersensitivity to mannitol during germination observed in agb1 mutants; while only D250A failed to restore lateral root numbers in the agb1 mutant to wild-type levels. Our results suggest that the mechanisms used in mammalian G protein signaling are not well conserved in plant G protein signaling, and that either the effectors used by plant G proteins, or the mechanisms used to activate them, are at least partially divergent from the well-studied mammalian G proteins.

  6. Evolution of Flavone Synthase I from Parsley Flavanone 3β-Hydroxylase by Site-Directed Mutagenesis1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Yvonne Helen; Witte, Simone; Steuber, Holger; Matern, Ulrich; Martens, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Flavanone 3β-hydroxylase (FHT) and flavone synthase I (FNS I) are 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases with 80% sequence identity, which catalyze distinct reactions in flavonoid biosynthesis. However, FNS I has been reported exclusively from a few Apiaceae species, whereas FHTs are more abundant. Domain-swapping experiments joining the N terminus of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) FHT with the C terminus of parsley FNS I and vice versa revealed that the C-terminal portion is not essential for FNS I activity. Sequence alignments identified 26 amino acid substitutions conserved in FHT versus FNS I genes. Homology modeling, based on the related anthocyanidin synthase structure, assigned seven of these amino acids (FHT/FNS I, M106T, I115T, V116I, I131F, D195E, V200I, L215V, and K216R) to the active site. Accordingly, FHT was modified by site-directed mutagenesis, creating mutants encoding from one to seven substitutions, which were expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) for FNS I and FHT assays. The exchange I131F in combination with either M106T and D195E or L215V and K216R replacements was sufficient to confer some FNS I side activity. Introduction of all seven FNS I substitutions into the FHT sequence, however, caused a nearly complete change in enzyme activity from FHT to FNS I. Both FHT and FNS I were proposed to initially withdraw the β-face-configured hydrogen from carbon-3 of the naringenin substrate. Our results suggest that the 7-fold substitution affects the orientation of the substrate in the active-site pocket such that this is followed by syn-elimination of hydrogen from carbon-2 (FNS I reaction) rather than the rebound hydroxylation of carbon-3 (FHT reaction). PMID:17535823

  7. Prediction and characterization of novel epitopes of serotype A foot-and-mouth disease viruses circulating in East Africa using site-directed mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Fufa Dawo; Parida, Satya; Asfor, Amin S.; Haydon, Daniel T.; Reeve, Richard; Paton, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Epitopes on the surface of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid have been identified by monoclonal antibody (mAb) escape mutant studies leading to the designation of four antigenic sites in serotype A FMDV. Previous work focused on viruses isolated mainly from Asia, Europe and Latin America. In this study we report on the prediction of epitopes in African serotype A FMDVs and testing of selected epitopes using reverse genetics. Twenty-four capsid amino acid residues were predicted to be of antigenic significance by analysing the capsid sequences (n = 56) using in silico methods, and six residues by correlating capsid sequence with serum–virus neutralization data. The predicted residues were distributed on the surface-exposed capsid regions, VP1–VP3. The significance of residue changes at eight of the predicted epitopes was tested by site-directed mutagenesis using a cDNA clone resulting in the generation of 12 mutant viruses involving seven sites. The effect of the amino acid substitutions on the antigenic nature of the virus was assessed by virus neutralization (VN) test. Mutations at four different positions, namely VP1-43, VP1-45, VP2-191 and VP3-132, led to significant reduction in VN titre (P value = 0.05, 0.05, 0.001 and 0.05, respectively). This is the first time, to our knowledge, that the antigenic regions encompassing amino acids VP1-43 to -45 (equivalent to antigenic site 3 in serotype O), VP2-191 and VP3-132 have been predicted as epitopes and evaluated serologically for serotype A FMDVs. This identifies novel capsid epitopes of recently circulating serotype A FMDVs in East Africa. PMID:25614587

  8. Site-directed mutagenesis of α-L-rhamnosidase from Alternaria sp. L1 to enhance synthesis yield of reverse hydrolysis based on rational design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Liu, Xiaohong; Yin, Zhenhao; Liu, Qian; Lu, Lili; Xiao, Min

    2016-12-01

    The α-L-rhamnosidase catalyzes the hydrolytic release of rhamnose from polysaccharides and glycosides and is widely used due to its applications in a variety of industrial processes. Our previous work reported that a wild-type α-L-rhamnosidase (RhaL1) from Alternaria sp. L1 could synthesize rhamnose-containing chemicals (RCCs) though reverse hydrolysis reaction with inexpensive rhamnose as glycosyl donor. To enhance the yield of reverse hydrolysis reaction and to determine the amino acid residues essential for the catalytic activity of RhaL1, site-directed mutagenesis of 11 residues was performed in this study. Through rationally designed mutations, the critical amino acid residues which may form direct or solvent-mediated hydrogen bonds with donor rhamnose (Asp 252 , Asp 257 , Asp 264 , Glu 530 , Arg 548 , His 553 , and Trp 555 ) and may form the hydrophobic pocket in stabilizing donor (Trp 261 , Tyr 302 , Tyr 316 , and Trp 369 ) in active-site of RhaL1 were analyzed, and three positive mutants (W261Y, Y302F, and Y316F) with improved product yield stood out. From the three positive variants, mutant W261Y accelerated the reverse hydrolysis with a prominent increase (43.7 %) in relative yield compared to the wild-type enzyme. Based on the 3D structural modeling, we supposed that the improved yield of mutant W261Y is due to the adjustment of the spatial position of the putative catalytic acid residue Asp 257 . Mutant W261Y also exhibited a shift in the pH-activity profile in hydrolysis reaction, indicating that introducing of a polar residue in the active site cavity may affect the catalysis behavior of the enzyme.

  9. Probing the importance of hydrogen bonds in the active site of the subtilisin nattokinase by site-directed mutagenesis and molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhong-liang; Ye, Mao-qing; Zuo, Zhen-yu; Liu, Zhi-gang; Tai, Keng-chang; Zou, Guo-lin

    2006-05-01

    Hydrogen bonds occurring in the catalytic triad (Asp32, His64 and Ser221) and the oxyanion hole (Asn155) are very important to the catalysis of peptide bond hydrolysis by serine proteases. For the subtilisin NK (nattokinase), a bacterial serine protease, construction and analysis of a three-dimensional structural model suggested that several hydrogen bonds formed by four residues function to stabilize the transition state of the hydrolysis reaction. These four residues are Ser33, Asp60, Ser62 and Thr220. In order to remove the effect of these hydrogen bonds, four mutants (Ser33-->Ala33, Asp60-->Ala60, Ser62-->Ala62, and Thr220-->Ala220) were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis. The results of enzyme kinetics indicated that removal of these hydrogen bonds increases the free-energy of the transition state (DeltaDeltaG(T)). We concluded that these hydrogen bonds are more important for catalysis than for binding the substrate, because removal of these bonds mainly affects the kcat but not the K(m) values. A substrate, SUB1 (succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide), was used during enzyme kinetics experiments. In the present study we have also shown the results of FEP (free-energy perturbation) calculations with regard to the binding and catalysis reactions for these mutant subtilisins. The calculated difference in FEP also suggested that these four residues are more important for catalysis than binding of the substrate, and the simulated values compared well with the experimental values from enzyme kinetics. The results of MD (molecular dynamics) simulations further demonstrated that removal of these hydrogen bonds partially releases Asp32, His64 and Asn155 so that the stability of the transition state decreases. Another substrate, SUB2 (H-D-Val-Leu-Lys-p-nitroanilide), was used for FEP calculations and MD simulations.

  10. Mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinin, N.P.

    1986-01-01

    Problems on radiation mutagenesis, in particular, data on general factors of genetic radiation effects, dependences of mutation frequencies on radiation dose and threshold in genetic radiation effects, problems of low doses, modification of genetic radiation effects, repauir of injuries of genetic material, photoreactivation, causing structure chromosomal mutations under radiation action, on relative genetic efficiency of different types of radiation are considered besides others

  11. Characterization of CYP154F1 from Thermobifida fusca YX and Extension of Its Substrate Spectrum by Site-Directed Mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühlmann, Ansgar; Groth, Georg; Urlacher, Vlada B

    2018-03-02

    Previous studies on cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP) from family 154 reported their substrate promiscuity and high activity. Hence, herein, the uncharacterized family member CYP154F1 is described. Screening of more than 100 organic compounds revealed that CYP154F1 preferably accepts small linear molecules with a carbon chain length of 8-10 atoms. In contrast to thoroughly characterized CYP154E1, CYP154F1 has a much narrower substrate spectrum and lower activity. A structural alignment of homology models of CYP154F1 and CYP154E1 revealed few differences in the active sites of both family members. By gradual mutagenesis of the CYP154F1 active site towards those of CYP154E1, a key residue accounting for the different activities of both enzymes was identified at position 234. Substitution of T234 for large hydrophobic amino acids led to up to tenfold higher conversion rates of small substrates, such as geraniol. Replacement of T234 by small hydrophobic amino acids, valine or alanine, resulted in mutants with extended substrate spectra. These mutants are able to convert some of the larger substrates of CYP154E1, such as (E)-stilbene and (+)-nootkatone. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Study of signal transduction mechanism of angiotensin 2 receptor by means of site-directed mutagenesis; Bui totsuzen hen'iho wo mochiita anjiotenshin 2 reseputa no joho dentatsu kiko no kaimei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamano, Yoshiaki [Tottori University, Tottori (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1998-12-16

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure. In order to clarify the signaling mechanism mediated by angiotensin 2 receptor, Gq-protein binding amino acid residues of this receptor were clarified by site-directed mutagenesis study. Amino acid residues in the carboxyl tail region were changed by alanines, individually. These mutated receptors were expressed stably in CHO cells, and GTP effect and second messenger molecules were determined, and three residues (Y 312, F313 and L 314) in this region were determined to be concerned for the binding of Gq protein. The other signaling systems, Gi, MAP kinase, JAK-STAT mediated, were reported to be concerned for this receptor. Novel drags for high blood pressure therapy would be explored by clarifying these signaling mechanisms. (author)

  13. Ligand-bound Structures and Site-directed Mutagenesis Identify the Acceptor and Secondary Binding Sites of Streptomyces coelicolor Maltosyltransferase GlgE*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syson, Karl; Stevenson, Clare E. M.; Miah, Farzana; Barclay, J. Elaine; Tang, Minhong; Gorelik, Andrii; Rashid, Abdul M.; Lawson, David M.; Bornemann, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    GlgE is a maltosyltransferase involved in α-glucan biosynthesis in bacteria that has been genetically validated as a target for tuberculosis therapies. Crystals of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis enzyme diffract at low resolution so most structural studies have been with the very similar Streptomyces coelicolor GlgE isoform 1. Although the donor binding site for α-maltose 1-phosphate had been previously structurally defined, the acceptor site had not. Using mutagenesis, kinetics, and protein crystallography of the S. coelicolor enzyme, we have now identified the +1 to +6 subsites of the acceptor/product, which overlap with the known cyclodextrin binding site. The sugar residues in the acceptor subsites +1 to +5 are oriented such that they disfavor the binding of malto-oligosaccharides that bear branches at their 6-positions, consistent with the known acceptor chain specificity of GlgE. A secondary binding site remote from the catalytic center was identified that is distinct from one reported for the M. tuberculosis enzyme. This new site is capable of binding a branched α-glucan and is most likely involved in guiding acceptors toward the donor site because its disruption kinetically compromises the ability of GlgE to extend polymeric substrates. However, disruption of this site, which is conserved in the Streptomyces venezuelae GlgE enzyme, did not affect the growth of S. venezuelae or the structure of the polymeric product. The acceptor subsites +1 to +4 in the S. coelicolor enzyme are well conserved in the M. tuberculosis enzyme so their identification could help inform the design of inhibitors with therapeutic potential. PMID:27531751

  14. Functional mapping of the fission yeast DNA polymerase δ B-subunit Cdc1 by site-directed and random pentapeptide insertion mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Fiona C

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA polymerase δ plays an essential role in chromosomal DNA replication in eukaryotic cells, being responsible for synthesising the bulk of the lagging strand. In fission yeast, Pol δ is a heterotetrameric enzyme comprising four evolutionarily well-conserved proteins: the catalytic subunit Pol3 and three smaller subunits Cdc1, Cdc27 and Cdm1. Pol3 binds directly to the B-subunit, Cdc1, which in turn binds the C-subunit, Cdc27. Human Pol δ comprises the same four subunits, and the crystal structure was recently reported of a complex of human p50 and the N-terminal domain of p66, the human orthologues of Cdc1 and Cdc27, respectively. Results To gain insights into the structure and function of Cdc1, random and directed mutagenesis techniques were used to create a collection of thirty alleles encoding mutant Cdc1 proteins. Each allele was tested for function in fission yeast and for binding of the altered protein to Pol3 and Cdc27 using the two-hybrid system. Additionally, the locations of the amino acid changes in each protein were mapped onto the three-dimensional structure of human p50. The results obtained from these studies identify amino acid residues and regions within the Cdc1 protein that are essential for interaction with Pol3 and Cdc27 and for in vivo function. Mutations specifically defective in Pol3-Cdc1 interactions allow the identification of a possible Pol3 binding surface on Cdc1. Conclusion In the absence of a three-dimensional structure of the entire Pol δ complex, the results of this study highlight regions in Cdc1 that are vital for protein function in vivo and provide valuable clues to possible protein-protein interaction surfaces on the Cdc1 protein that will be important targets for further study.

  15. Probing the ubiquinol-binding site of recombinant Sauromatum guttatum alternative oxidase expressed in E. coli membranes through site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Luke; May, Benjamin; Pendlebury-Watt, Alice; Shearman, Julia; Elliott, Catherine; Albury, Mary S; Shiba, Tomoo; Inaoka, Daniel Ken; Harada, Shigeharu; Kita, Kiyoshi; Moore, Anthony L

    2014-07-01

    In the present paper we have investigated the effect of mutagenesis of a number of highly conserved residues (R159, D163, L177 and L267) which we have recently shown to line the hydrophobic inhibitor/substrate cavity in the alternative oxidases (AOXs). Measurements of respiratory activity in rSgAOX expressed in Escherichia coli FN102 membranes indicate that all mutants result in a decrease in maximum activity of AOX and in some cases (D163 and L177) a decrease in the apparent Km (O2). Of particular importance was the finding that when the L177 and L267 residues, which appear to cause a bottleneck in the hydrophobic cavity, are mutated to alanine the sensitivity to AOX antagonists is reduced. When non-AOX anti-malarial inhibitors were also tested against these mutants widening the bottleneck through removal of isobutyl side chain allowed access of these bulkier inhibitors to the active-site and resulted in inhibition. Results are discussed in terms of how these mutations have altered the way in which the AOX's catalytic cycle is controlled and since maximum activity is decreased we predict that such mutations result in an increase in the steady state level of at least one O2-derived AOX intermediate. Such mutations should therefore prove to be useful in future stopped-flow and electron paramagnetic resonance experiments in attempts to understand the catalytic cycle of the alternative oxidase which may prove to be important in future rational drug design to treat diseases such as trypanosomiasis. Furthermore since single amino acid mutations in inhibitor/substrate pockets have been found to be the cause of multi-drug resistant strains of malaria, the decrease in sensitivity to main AOX antagonists observed in the L-mutants studied in this report suggests that an emergence of drug resistance to trypanosomiasis may also be possible. Therefore we suggest that the design of future AOX inhibitors should have structures that are less reliant on the orientation by the two

  16. Conformational heterogeneity of the bacteriopheophytin electron acceptor HA in reaction centers from Rhodopseudomonas viridis revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, J; Bibikova, M; Oesterhelt, D; Nabedryk, E

    1999-08-31

    The light-induced Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) difference spectra corresponding to the photoreduction of either the HA bacteriopheophytin electron acceptor (HA-/HA spectrum) or the QA primary quinone (QA-/QA spectrum) in photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs) of Rhodopseudomonas viridis are reported. These spectra have been compared for wild-type (WT) RCs and for two site-directed mutants in which the proposed interactions between the carbonyls on ring V of HA and the RC protein have been altered. In the mutant EQ(L104), the putative hydrogen bond between the protein and the 9-keto C=O of HA should be affected by changing Glu L104 to a Gln. In the mutant WF(M250), the van der Waals interactions between Trp M250 and the 10a-ester C=O of HA should be modified. The characteristic effects of both mutations on the FTIR spectra support the proposed interactions and allow the IR modes of the 9-keto and 10a-ester C=O of HA and HA- to be assigned. Comparison of the HA-/HA and QA-/QA spectra leads us to conclude that the QA-/QA IR signals in the spectral range above 1700 cm-1 are largely dominated by contributions from the electrostatic response of the 10a-ester C=O mode of HA upon QA photoreduction. A heterogeneity in the conformation of the 10a-ester C=O mode of HA in WT RCs, leading to three distinct populations of HA, appears to be related to differences in the hydrogen-bonding interactions between the carbonyls of ring V of HA and the RC protein. The possibility that this structural heterogeneity is related to the observed multiexponential kinetics of electron transfer and the implications for primary processes are discussed. The effect of 1H/2H exchange on the QA-/QA spectra of the WT and mutant RCs shows that neither Glu L104 nor any other exchangeable carboxylic residue changes appreciably its protonation state upon QA reduction.

  17. Site-directed Mutagenesis Shows the Significance of Interactions with Phospholipids and the G-protein OsYchF1 for the Physiological Functions of the Rice GTPase-activating Protein 1 (OsGAP1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Yuk-Lin; Cheung, Ming-Yan; Miao, Rui; Fong, Yu-Hang; Li, Kwan-Pok; Yu, Mei-Hui; Chye, Mee-Len; Wong, Kam-Bo; Lam, Hon-Ming

    2015-09-25

    The C2 domain is one of the most diverse phospholipid-binding domains mediating cellular signaling. One group of C2-domain proteins are plant-specific and are characterized by their small sizes and simple structures. We have previously reported that a member of this group, OsGAP1, is able to alleviate salt stress and stimulate defense responses, and bind to both phospholipids and an unconventional G-protein, OsYchF1. Here we solved the crystal structure of OsGAP1 to a resolution of 1.63 Å. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we successfully differentiated between the clusters of surface residues that are required for binding to phospholipids versus OsYchF1, which, in turn, is critical for its role in stimulating defense responses. On the other hand, the ability to alleviate salt stress by OsGAP1 is dependent only on its ability to bind OsYchF1 and is independent of its phospholipid-binding activity. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Structure-function relationships in the Na,K-ATPase α subunit: site-directed mutagenesis of glutamine-111 to arginine and asparagine-122 to aspartic acid generates a ouabain-resistant enzyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, E.M.; Lingrel, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    Na,K-ATPases from various species differ greatly in their sensitivity to cardiac glycosides such as ouabain. The sheep and human enzymes are a thousand times more sensitive than the corresponding ones from rat and mouse. To define the region of the α1 subunit responsible for this differential sensitivity, chimeric cDNAs of sheep and rat were constructed and expressed in ouabain-sensitive HeLa cells. The construct containing the amino-terminal half of the rat α1 subunit coding region and carboxyl-terminal half of the sheep conferred the ouabain-resistant phenotype to HeLa cells while the reverse construct did not. This indicates that the determinants involved in ouabain sensitivity are located in the amino-terminal half of the Na,K-ATPase α subunit. By use of site-directed mutagenesis, the amino acid sequence of the first extracellular domain (H1-H2) of the sheep α1 subunit was changed to that of the rat. When expressed in HeLa cells, this mutated sheep α1 construct, like the rat/sheep chimera, was able to confer ouabain resistance to these cells. Furthermore, similar results were observed when HeLa cells were transfected with a sheep α1 cDNA containing only two amino acid substitutions. The resistant cells, whether transfected with the rat α1 cDNA, the rat/sheep chimera, or the mutant sheep α1 cDNAs, exhibited identical biochemical characteristics including ouabain-inhibitable cell growth, 86 Rb + uptake, and Na,K-ATPase activity. These results demonstrate that the presence of arginine and aspartic acid on the amino end and carboxyl end, respectively, of the H1-H2 extracellular domain of the Na,K-ATPase α subunit together is responsible for the ouabain-resistant character of the rat enzyme and the corresponding residues in the sheep α1 subunit (glutamine and asparagine) are somehow involved in ouabain binding

  19. Structure-function relationships in the Na,K-ATPase. cap alpha. subunit: site-directed mutagenesis of glutamine-111 to arginine and asparagine-122 to aspartic acid generates a ouabain-resistant enzyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, E.M.; Lingrel, J.B.

    1988-11-01

    Na,K-ATPases from various species differ greatly in their sensitivity to cardiac glycosides such as ouabain. The sheep and human enzymes are a thousand times more sensitive than the corresponding ones from rat and mouse. To define the region of the ..cap alpha..1 subunit responsible for this differential sensitivity, chimeric cDNAs of sheep and rat were constructed and expressed in ouabain-sensitive HeLa cells. The construct containing the amino-terminal half of the rat ..cap alpha..1 subunit coding region and carboxyl-terminal half of the sheep conferred the ouabain-resistant phenotype to HeLa cells while the reverse construct did not. This indicates that the determinants involved in ouabain sensitivity are located in the amino-terminal half of the Na,K-ATPase ..cap alpha.. subunit. By use of site-directed mutagenesis, the amino acid sequence of the first extracellular domain (H1-H2) of the sheep ..cap alpha..1 subunit was changed to that of the rat. When expressed in HeLa cells, this mutated sheep ..cap alpha..1 construct, like the rat/sheep chimera, was able to confer ouabain resistance to these cells. Furthermore, similar results were observed when HeLa cells were transfected with a sheep ..cap alpha..1 cDNA containing only two amino acid substitutions. The resistant cells, whether transfected with the rat ..cap alpha..1 cDNA, the rat/sheep chimera, or the mutant sheep ..cap alpha..1 cDNAs, exhibited identical biochemical characteristics including ouabain-inhibitable cell growth, /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ uptake, and Na,K-ATPase activity. These results demonstrate that the presence of arginine and aspartic acid on the amino end and carboxyl end, respectively, of the H1-H2 extracellular domain of the Na,K-ATPase ..cap alpha.. subunit together is responsible for the ouabain-resistant character of the rat enzyme and the corresponding residues in the sheep ..cap alpha..1 subunit (glutamine and asparagine) are somehow involved in ouabain binding.

  20. Probing the effect of the non-active-site mutation Y229W in New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 by site-directed mutagenesis, kinetic studies, and molecular dynamics simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Chen

    Full Text Available New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1 has attracted extensive attention for its high catalytic activities of hydrolyzing almost all β-lactam antibiotics. NDM-1 shows relatively higher similarity to subclass B1 metallo-β-lactamases (MβLs, but its residue at position 229 is identical to that of B2/B3 MβLs, which is a Tyr instead of a B1-MβL-conserved Trp. To elucidate the possible role of Y229 in the bioactivity of NDM-1, we performed mutagenesis study and molecular dynamics (MD simulations. Although residue Y229 is spatially distant from the active site and not contacting directly with the substrate or zinc ions, the Y229W mutant was found to have higher kcat and Km values than those of wild-type NDM-1, resulting in 1 ∼ 7 fold increases in k(cat /K(m values against tested antibiotics. In addition, our MD simulations illustrated the enhanced flexibility of Loop 2 upon Y229W mutation, which could increase the kinetics of both substrate entrance (kon and product egress (koff. The enhanced flexibility of Loop 2 might allow the enzyme to adjust the geometry of its active site to accommodate substrates with different structures, broadening its substrate spectrum. This study indicated the possible role of the residue at position 229 in the evolution of NDM-1.

  1. Site-directed mutagenesis, in vivo electroporation and mass spectrometry in search for determinants of the subcellular targeting of Rab7b paralogue in the model eukaryote Paramecium octaurelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyroba, E; Kwaśniak, P; Miller, K; Kobyłecki, K; Osińska, M

    2016-04-11

    Protein products of the paralogous genes resulting from the whole genome duplication may acquire new function. The role of post-translational modifications (PTM) in proper targeting of Paramecium Rab7b paralogue - distinct from that of Rab7a directly involved in phagocytosis - was studied using point mutagenesis, proteomic analysis and double immunofluorescence after in vivo electroporation of the mutagenized protein. Here we show that substitution of Thr200 by Ala200 resulted in diminished incorporation of [P32] by 37.4% and of 32 [C14-]UDP-glucose by 24%, respectively, into recombinant Rab7b_200 in comparison to the non-mutagenized control. Double confocal imaging revealed that Rab7b_200 was mistargeted upon electroporation into living cells contrary to non- mutagenized recombinant Rab7b correctly incorporated in the cytostome area. We identified the peptide ion at m/z=677.63+ characteristic for the glycan group attached to Thr200 in Rab7b using nano LC-MS/MS and comparing the peptide map of this protein with that after deglycosylation with the mixture of five enzymes of different specificity. Based on the mass of this peptide ion and quantitative radioactive assays with [P32]and  [C14-]UDP- glucose, the suggested composition of the adduct attached to Thr200 might be (Hex)1(HexNAc)1(Phos)3 or (HexNAc)1 (Deoxyhexose)1 (Phos)1 (HexA)1. These data indicate that PTM of Thr200 located in the hypervariable C-region of Rab7b in Paramecium is crucial for the proper localization/function of this protein. Moreover, these proteins differ also in other PTM: the number of phosphorylated amino acids in Rab7b is much higher than in Rab7a.

  2. Invariant amino acids in the Mur peptide synthetases of bacterial peptidoglycan synthesis and their modification by site-directed mutagenesis in the UDP-MurNAc:L-alanine ligase from Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhss, A; Mengin-Lecreulx, D; Blanot, D; van Heijenoort, J; Parquet, C

    1997-09-30

    The comparison of the amino acid sequences of 20 cytoplasmic peptidoglycan synthetases (MurC, MurD, MurE, MurF, and Mpl) from various bacterial organisms has allowed us to detect common invariants: seven amino acids and the ATP-binding consensus sequence GXXGKT/S all at the same position in the alignment. The Mur synthetases thus appeared as a well-defined class of closely functionally related proteins. The conservation of a constant backbone length between certain invariants suggested common structural motifs. Among the other enzymes catalyzing a peptide bond formation driven by ATP hydrolysis to ADP and Pi, only folylpoly-gamma-l-glutamate synthetases presented the same common conserved amino acid residues, except for the most N-terminal invariant D50. Site-directed mutageneses were carried out to replace the K130, E174, H199, N293, N296, R327, and D351 residues by alanine in the MurC protein from Escherichia coli taken as model. For this purpose, plasmid pAM1005 was used as template, MurC being highly overproduced in this genetic setting. Analysis of the Vmax values of the mutated proteins suggested that residues K130, E174, and D351 are essential for the catalytic process whereas residues H199, N293, N296, and R327 were not. Mutations K130A, H199A, N293A, N296A, and R327A led to important variations of the Km values for one or more substrates, thereby indicating that these residues are involved in the structure of the active site and suggesting that the binding order of the substrates could be ATP, UDP-MurNAc, and alanine. The various mutated murC plasmids were tested for their effects on the growth, cell morphology, and peptidoglycan cell content of a murC thermosensitive strain at 42 degrees C. The observed effects (complementation, altered morphology, and reduced peptidoglycan content) paralleled more or less the decreased values of the MurC activity of each mutant.

  3. Receptor mutagenesis strategies for examination of structure-function relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blomenröhr, Marion; Vischer, Henry F; Bogerd, Jan

    2004-01-01

    This chapter describes three different strategies of receptor mutagenesis with their advantages, disadvantages, and limitations. Oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis using either the Altered Sites II in vitro mutagenesis system or the GeneTailor site-directed mutagenesis system can generate base

  4. Cloning and characterization of an acyl-CoA-dependent diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) gene from Tropaeolum majus, and a study of the functional motifs of the DGAT protein using site-directed mutagenesis to modify enzyme activity and oil content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingyu; Francis, Tammy; Mietkiewska, Elzbieta; Giblin, E Michael; Barton, Dennis L; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Meng; Taylor, David C

    2008-10-01

    A full-length cDNA encoding a putative diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1, EC 2.3.1.20) was obtained from Tropaeolum majus (garden nasturtium). The 1557-bp open reading frame of this cDNA, designated TmDGAT1, encodes a protein of 518 amino acids showing high homology to other plant DGAT1s. The TmDGAT1 gene was expressed exclusively in developing seeds. Expression of recombinant TmDGAT1 in the yeast H1246MATalpha quadruple mutant (DGA1, LRO1, ARE1, ARE2) restored the capability of the mutant host to produce triacylglycerols (TAGs). The recombinant TmDGAT1 protein was capable of utilizing a range of (14)C-labelled fatty acyl-CoA donors and diacylglycerol acceptors, and could synthesize (14)C-trierucin. Collectively, these findings confirm that the TmDGAT1 gene encodes an acyl-CoA-dependent DGAT1. In plant transformation studies, seed-specific expression of TmDGAT1 was able to complement the low TAG/unusual fatty acid phenotype of the Arabidopsis AS11 (DGAT1) mutant. Over-expression of TmDGAT1 in wild-type Arabidopsis and high-erucic-acid rapeseed (HEAR) and canola Brassica napus resulted in an increase in oil content (3.5%-10% on a dry weight basis, or a net increase of 11%-30%). Site-directed mutagenesis was conducted on six putative functional regions/motifs of the TmDGAT1 enzyme. Mutagenesis of a serine residue in a putative SnRK1 target site resulted in a 38%-80% increase in DGAT1 activity, and over-expression of the mutated TmDGAT1 in Arabidopsis resulted in a 20%-50% increase in oil content on a per seed basis. Thus, alteration of this putative serine/threonine protein kinase site can be exploited to enhance DGAT1 activity, and expression of mutated DGAT1 can be used to enhance oil content.

  5. Forward and reverse mutagenesis in C. elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutscher, Lena M.; Shaham, Shai

    2014-01-01

    Mutagenesis drives natural selection. In the lab, mutations allow gene function to be deciphered. C. elegans is highly amendable to functional genetics because of its short generation time, ease of use, and wealth of available gene-alteration techniques. Here we provide an overview of historical and contemporary methods for mutagenesis in C. elegans, and discuss principles and strategies for forward (genome-wide mutagenesis) and reverse (target-selected and gene-specific mutagenesis) genetic studies in this animal. PMID:24449699

  6. Faux Mutagenesis: Teaching Troubleshooting through Controlled Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartberg, Yasha

    2006-01-01

    By shifting pedagogical goals from obtaining successful mutations to teaching students critical troubleshooting skills, it has been possible to introduce site-directed mutagenesis into an undergraduate teaching laboratory. Described in this study is an inexpensive laboratory exercise in which students follow a slightly modified version of…

  7. Clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-mediated mutagenesis and phenotype rescue by piggyBac transgenesis in a nonmodel Drosophila species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, R; Murakami, H; Ote, M; Yamamoto, D

    2016-08-01

    How behavioural diversity emerged in evolution is an unexplored subject in biology. To tackle this problem, genes and circuits for a behaviour need to be determined in different species for phylogenetic comparisons. The recently developed clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR associated protein9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system made such a challenge possible by providing the means to induce mutations in a gene of interest in any organism. Aiming at elucidating diversification in genetic and neural networks for courtship behaviour, we attempted to generate a genetic tool kit in Drosophila subobscura, a nonmodel species distantly related to the genetic model Drosophila melanogaster. Here we report the generation of yellow (y) and white mutations with the aid of the CRISPR/Cas9 system, and the rescue of the y mutant phenotype by germline transformation of the newly established y mutant fly line with a y(+) -marked piggyBac vector. This successful mutagenesis and transformation in D. subobscura open up an avenue for comprehensive genetic analyses of higher functions in this and other nonmodel Drosophila species, representing a key step toward systematic comparisons of genes and circuitries underlying behaviour amongst species. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  8. Characterization and site-directed mutagenesis of Wzb, an O-phosphatase from Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Christophe

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reversible phosphorylation events within a polymerisation complex have been proposed to modulate capsular polysaccharide synthesis in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Similar phosphatase and kinase genes are present in the exopolysaccharide (EPS biosynthesis loci of numerous lactic acid bacteria genomes. Results The protein sequence deduced from the wzb gene in Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 9595 reveals four motifs of the polymerase and histidinol phosphatase (PHP superfamily of prokaryotic O-phosphatases. Native and modified His-tag fusion Wzb proteins were purified from Escherichia coli cultures. Extracts showed phosphatase activity towards tyrosine-containing peptides. The purified fusion protein Wzb was active on p-nitrophenyl-phosphate (pNPP, with an optimal activity in presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA 1% at pH 7.3 and a temperature of 75°C. At 50°C, residual activity decreased to 10 %. Copper ions were essential for phosphatase activity, which was significantly increased by addition of cobalt. Mutated fusion Wzb proteins exhibited reduced phosphatase activity on p-nitrophenyl-phosphate. However, one variant (C6S showed close to 20% increase in phosphatase activity. Conclusion These characteristics reveal significant differences with the manganese-dependent CpsB protein tyrosine phosphatase described for Streptococcus pneumoniae as well as with the polysaccharide-related phosphatases of Gram negative bacteria.

  9. Site-Directed Mutagenesis of the Fibronectin Domains in Insulin Receptor-Related Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor E. Deyev

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The orphan insulin receptor-related receptor (IRR, in contrast to its close homologs, the insulin receptor (IR and insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR can be activated by mildly alkaline extracellular medium. We have previously demonstrated that IRR activation is defined by its extracellular region, involves multiple domains, and shows positive cooperativity with two synergistic sites. By the analyses of point mutants and chimeras of IRR with IR in, we now address the role of the fibronectin type III (FnIII repeats in the IRR pH-sensing. The first activation site includes the intrinsically disordered subdomain ID (646–716 within the FnIII-2 domain at the C-terminus of IRR alpha subunit together with closely located residues L135, G188, R244, H318, and K319 of L1 and C domains of the second subunit. The second site involves residue T582 of FnIII-1 domain at the top of IRR lambda-shape pyramid together with M406, V407, and D408 from L2 domain within the second subunit. A possible importance of the IRR carbohydrate moiety for its activation was also assessed. IRR is normally less glycosylated than IR and IGF-IR. Swapping both FnIII-2 and FnIII-3 IRR domains with those of IR shifted beta-subunit mass from 68 kDa for IRR to about 100 kDa due to increased glycosylation and abolished the IRR pH response. However, mutations of four asparagine residues, potential glycosylation sites in chimera IRR with swapped FnIII-2/3 domains of IR, decreased the chimera glycosylation and resulted in a partial restoration of IRR pH-sensing activity, suggesting that the extensive glycosylation of FnIII-2/3 provides steric hindrance for the alkali-induced rearrangement of the IRR ectodomain.

  10. Thermostability enhancement of cellobiose 2-epimerase from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus by site-directed mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellobiose 2-epimerase from the thermophile Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus (CsCE) catalyzes the isomerization of lactose into lactulose, a non-digestible disaccharide widely used in food and pharmaceutical industries. Semi-rational approaches were applied to enhance the thermostability of CsCE...

  11. Antifreeze activity enhancement by site directed mutagenesis on an antifreeze protein from the beetle Rhagium mordax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Dennis Steven; Kristiansen, Erlend; von Solms, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    The ice binding motifs of insect antifreeze proteins (AFPs) mainly consist of repetitive TxT motifs aligned on a flat face of the protein. However, these motifs often contain non-threonines that disrupt the TxT pattern. We substituted two such disruptive amino acids located in the ice binding fac...

  12. Functional studies of elongation factor Tu from Escherichia coli : Site-directed mutagenesis and antibiotic action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krab, Ivo Maarten

    2001-01-01

    This PhD thesis describes several studies into the structure and function of Escherichia coli Elongation Factor Tu (EF-Tu). EF-Tu plays a central role in the bacterial protein synthesis machinery as the carrier of "coded building blocks" for protein synthesis, aminoacylated tRNA (aa-tRNA). Without

  13. Functional analysis of truncated and site-directed mutagenesis dextransucrases to produce different type dextrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Li, Meng-Qi; Hu, Xue-Qin; Li, Yao

    2017-07-01

    Dextrans with distinct molecular size and structure are increasingly being used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Dextran is produced by dextransucrase (DSR, EC2.4.5.1), which is produced by Leuconostoc mesenteroides. DSR belongs to glycosyl hydrolase family (GH70) and synthesizes branched α-glucan (dextran) with both 5% α(1-3) and 95% α(1-6) glycosidic linkages. The DSR gene dex-YG (Genebank, Accession No. DQ345760) was cloned from the wild strain Leuconostoc mesenteroides 0326. This study generated a series of C-terminally truncated variants of dextransucrase and substituting the amino-acid residues in the active site of DSR. With shorter length of DSR, its polysaccharide-synthesizing capability was impaired heavily, whereas oligosaccharide (acting as prebiotics)-synthesizing capability increased significantly, efficiently producing special sizes of dextran. All truncated mutant enzymes were active. Results demonstrated that the catalytic domain dextransucrase was likely in 800 aa or less. Based on the three-dimensional structure model of dextransucrase built through homology modeling methods, the DSR and its mutants with the acceptor substrate of maltose and donor substrate of sucrose were studied by molecular-docking method. Substituting these amino-acid residues significantly affected enzyme activities. Compared with the wild-type dextran, mutant enzymes catalyzed the synthesis of a-glucan with 1-9% α(1-3) and 90-98% α(1-6) branching linkages. Some mutants introduced a small amount of α(1-4) linkages and α(1-2) linkages. This strategy can be effectively used for the rational protein design of dextransucrase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Site directed mutagenesis in Petunia using CRISPR/CAS9 technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulus den Hollander; Dr. Nelleke Kreike

    2013-01-01

    The Green Biotechnology research group focusses on the application of molecular breeding/biotechnological tools and also on the development/analysis of new tools, for the breeding of enhanced vegetable crops and ornamental plants. The research group is positioned within Inholland University of

  15. Tweaking agonist efficacy at N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors by site-directed mutagenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kasper B; Clausen, Rasmus P; Bjerrum, Esben J

    2005-01-01

    The structural basis for partial agonism at N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors is currently unresolved. We have characterized several partial agonists at the NR1/NR2B receptor and investigated the mechanisms underlying their reduced efficacy by introducing mutations in the glutamate binding site...

  16. Model building of a thermolysin-like protease by mutagenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frigerio, F; Margarit, [No Value; Nogarotto, R; Grandi, G; Vriend, G; Hardy, F; Veltman, OR; Venema, G; Eijsink, VGH

    The present study concerns the use of site-directed mutagenesis experiments to optimize a three-dimensional model of the neutral protease of Bacillus subtilis (NP-sub), An initial model of NP-sub was constructed using the crystal structures of the homologous neutral proteases of Bacillus

  17. Forsythia improvement by mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadic, A.; Martin, Denise; Renoux, A.

    1980-01-01

    Mutagenesis is a method used by selectors to modify the genetic heritage of a species. Since about twenty years ago the list of varieties obtained has lengthened steadily. For various reasons, plants which propagate vegetatively, and amongst these a large number of decorative plants, have been especially improved by this method. Of the mutagenic agents known at present a favourite choice has often been the gamma radiations emitted by radioactive cobalt ( 60 Co). Several clones of forsythia, very irregular in decorative value, were exposed to gamma radiation for the purpose of judging the breadth of the easily identifiable mutation range and creating new varieties. From the results it is hoped very soon to release compact varieties with short internodes and varieties better suited to forcing because of their earlier flowering season [fr

  18. Step-By-Step In Vitro Mutagenesis: Lessons From Fucose-Binding Lectin PA-IIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrázková, Jana; Malinovská, Lenka; Wimmerová, Michaela

    2017-01-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis is a powerful technique which is used to understand the basis of interactions between proteins and their binding partners, as well as to modify these interactions. Methods of rational design that are based on detailed knowledge of the structure of a protein of interest are often used for preliminary investigations of the possible outcomes which can result from the practical application of site-directed mutagenesis. Also, random mutagenesis can be used in tandem with site-directed mutagenesis for an examination of amino acid "hotspots."Lectins are sugar-binding proteins which, among other functions, mediate the recognition of host cells by a pathogen and its adhesion to the host cell surface. Hence, lectins and their binding properties are studied and engineered using site-directed mutagenesis.In this chapter, we describe a site-directed mutagenesis method used for investigating the sugar binding pattern of the PA-IIL lectin from the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Moreover, procedures for the production and purification of PA-IIL mutants are described, and several basic methods for characterizing the mutants are discussed.

  19. Modeling membrane protein structure through site-directed ESR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavalenka, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is a
    relatively new biophysical tool for obtaining structural information about proteins. This
    thesis presents a novel approach, based on powerful spectral analysis techniques (multicomponent
    spectral

  20. Chemical and UV Mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Jeffrey L

    2016-01-01

    The ability to create mutations is an important step towards understanding bacterial physiology and virulence. While targeted approaches are invaluable, the ability to produce genome-wide random mutations can lead to crucial discoveries. Transposon mutagenesis is a useful approach, but many interesting mutations can be missed by these insertions that interrupt coding and noncoding sequences due to the integration of an entire transposon. Chemical mutagenesis and UV-based random mutagenesis are alternate approaches to isolate mutations of interest with the potential of only single nucleotide changes. Once a standard method, difficulty in identifying mutation sites had decreased the popularity of this technique. However, thanks to the recent emergence of economical whole-genome sequencing, this approach to making mutations can once again become a viable option. Therefore, this chapter provides an overview protocol for random mutagenesis using UV light or DNA-damaging chemicals.

  1. Protracted radiation mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinina, L.G.; Shanazarova, A.S.; Chernikova, O.P.

    1976-01-01

    The aim of the work is investigation of the dynamics of structural mutations of Cr.capillaris chromosomes induced by irradiation of seeds at different stages of the cell cycle with subsequent storage. The results obtained show that irradiation is followed by mutagenesis wave kinetics under such conditions. The level and the character of this phenomenon depends on the functional state of the nucleus or on the relationship between this state and the amount of water in the seeds. Studies of this phenomenon will bring better understanding to the mechanism of radiation mutagenesis [ru

  2. Computer Simulation of Mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, J. C.; Dent, M. T.

    1978-01-01

    A FORTRAN program is described which simulates point-substitution mutations in the DNA strands of typical organisms. Its objective is to help students to understand the significance and structure of the genetic code, and the mechanisms and effect of mutagenesis. (Author/BB)

  3. 2004 Mutagenesis Gordon Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Sue Jinks-Robertson

    2005-09-16

    Mutations are genetic alterations that drive biological evolution and cause many, if not all, human diseases. Mutation originates via two distinct mechanisms: ''vertical'' variation is de novo change of one or few bases, whereas ''horizontal'' variation occurs by genetic recombination, which creates new mosaics of pre-existing sequences. The Mutagenesis Conference has traditionally focused on the generation of mutagenic intermediates during normal DNA synthesis or in response to environmental insults, as well as the diverse repair mechanisms that prevent the fixation of such intermediates as permanent mutations. While the 2004 Conference will continue to focus on the molecular mechanisms of mutagenesis, there will be increased emphasis on the biological consequences of mutations, both in terms of evolutionary processes and in terms of human disease. The meeting will open with two historical accounts of mutation research that recapitulate the intellectual framework of this field and thereby place the current research paradigms into perspective. The two introductory keynote lectures will be followed by sessions on: (1) mutagenic systems, (2) hypermutable sequences, (3) mechanisms of mutation, (4) mutation avoidance systems, (5) mutation in human hereditary and infectious diseases, (6) mutation rates in evolution and genotype-phenotype relationships, (7) ecology, mutagenesis and the modeling of evolution and (8) genetic diversity of the human population and models for human mutagenesis. The Conference will end with a synthesis of the meeting as the keynote closing lecture.

  4. Efficient Mutagenesis Independent of Ligation (EMILI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füzik, Tibor; Ulbrich, Pavel; Ruml, Tomáš

    2014-11-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis is one of the most widely used techniques in life sciences. Here we describe an improved and simplified method for introducing mutations at desired sites. It consists of an inverse PCR using a plasmid template and two partially complementary primers. The synthesis step is followed by annealing of the PCR product's sticky ends, which are generated by exonuclease digestion. This method is fast, extremely efficient and cost-effective. It can be used to introduce large insertions and deletions, but also for multiple point mutations in a single step. To show the principle and to prove the efficiency of the method, we present a series of basic mutations (insertions, deletions, point mutations) on pUC19 plasmid DNA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Affinity enhancement of nanobody binding to EGFR: in silico site-directed mutagenesis and molecular dynamics simulation approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farasat, Alireza; Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh; Hosseinzadeh, Ghader; Sajjadi, Sharareh; Kamali, Mehdi; Keihan, Amir Homayoun

    2017-06-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a transmembrane glycoprotein, is overexpressed in many cancers such as head-neck, breast, prostate, and skin cancers for this reason it is a good target in cancer therapy and diagnosis. In nanobody-based cancer diagnosis and treatment, nanobodies with high affinity toward receptor (e.g. EGFR) results in effective treatment or diagnosis of cancer. In this regard, the main aim of this study is to develop a method based on molecular dynamic (MD) simulations for designing of 7D12 based nanobody with high affinity compared with wild-type nanobody. By surveying electrostatic and desolvation interactions between different residues of 7D12 and EGFR, the critical residues of 7D12 that play the main role in the binding of 7D12 to EGFR were elucidated and based on these residues, five logical variants were designed. Following the 50 ns MD simulations, pull and umbrella sampling simulation were performed for 7D12 and all its variants in complex with EGFR. Binding free energy of 7D12 (and all its variants) with EGFR was obtained by weighted histogram analysis method. According to binding free energy results, GLY101 to GLU mutation showed the highest binding affinity but this variant is unstable after 50 ns MD simulations. ALA100 to GLU mutation shows suitable binding enhancement with acceptable structural stability. Suitable position and orientation of GLU in residue 100 of 7D12 against related amino acids of EGFR formed some extra hydrogen and electrostatic interactions which resulted in binding enhancement.

  6. Catalytic surface radical in dye-decolorizing peroxidase: a computational, spectroscopic and site-directed mutagenesis study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Dolores; Pogni, Rebecca; Cañellas, Marina; Lucas, Fátima; Guallar, Victor; Baratto, Maria Camilla; Sinicropi, Adalgisa; Sáez-Jiménez, Verónica; Coscolín, Cristina; Romero, Antonio; Medrano, Francisco Javier; Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco J.; Martínez, Angel T.

    2014-01-01

    Dye-decolorizing peroxidase (DyP) of Auricularia auricula-judae has been expressed in Escherichia coli as a representative of a new DyP family, and subjected to mutagenic, spectroscopic, crystallographic and computational studies. The crystal structure of DyP shows a buried haem cofactor, and surface tryptophan and tyrosine residues potentially involved in long-range electron transfer from bulky dyes. Simulations using PELE (Protein Energy Landscape Exploration) software provided several binding-energy optima for the anthraquinone-type RB19 (Reactive Blue 19) near the above aromatic residues and the haem access-channel. Subsequent QM/MM (quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics) calculations showed a higher tendency of Trp-377 than other exposed haem-neighbouring residues to harbour a catalytic protein radical, and identified the electron-transfer pathway. The existence of such a radical in H2O2-activated DyP was shown by low-temperature EPR, being identified as a mixed tryptophanyl/tyrosyl radical in multifrequency experiments. The signal was dominated by the Trp-377 neutral radical contribution, which disappeared in the W377S variant, and included a tyrosyl contribution assigned to Tyr-337 after analysing the W377S spectra. Kinetics of substrate oxidation by DyP suggests the existence of high- and low-turnover sites. The high-turnover site for oxidation of RB19 (kcat> 200 s−1) and other DyP substrates was assigned to Trp-377 since it was absent from the W377S variant. The low-turnover site/s (RB19 kcat ~20 s−1) could correspond to the haem access-channel, since activity was decreased when the haem channel was occluded by the G169L mutation. If a tyrosine residue is also involved, it will be different from Tyr-337 since all activities are largely unaffected in the Y337S variant. PMID:25495127

  7. Effect of site-directed mutagenesis of His373 of yeast enolase on some of its physical and enzymatic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, J M; Glover, C V; Holland, M J; Lebioda, L

    1997-06-20

    The X-ray structure of yeast enolase shows His373 interacting with a water molecule also held by residues Glu168 and Glu211. The water molecule is suggested to participate in the catalytic mechanism (Lebioda, L. and Stec, B. (1991) Biochemistry 30, 2817-2822). Replacement of His373 with asparagine (H373N enolase) or phenylalanine (H373F enolase) reduces enzymatic activity to ca. 10% and 0.0003% of the native enzyme activity, respectively. H373N enolase exhibits a reduced Km for the substrate, 2-phosphoglycerate, and produces the same absorbance changes in the chromophoric substrate analogues TSP1 and AEP1, relative to native enolase. H373F enolase binds AEP less strongly, producing a smaller absorbance change than native enolase, and reacts very little with TSP. H373F enolase dissociates to monomers in the absence of substrate; H373N enolase subunit dissociation is less than H373F enolase but more than native enolase. Substrate and Mg2+ increase subunit association in both mutants. Differential scanning calorimetric experiments indicate that the interaction with substrate that stabilizes enolase to thermal denaturation involves His373. We suggest that the function of His373 in the enolase reaction may involve hydrogen bonding rather than acid/base catalysis, through interaction with the Glu168/Glu211/H2O system, which produces removal or addition of hydroxyl at carbon-3 of the substrate.

  8. Defining a conformational consensus motif in cotransin-sensitive signal sequences: a proteomic and site-directed mutagenesis study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Klein

    Full Text Available The cyclodepsipeptide cotransin was described to inhibit the biosynthesis of a small subset of proteins by a signal sequence-discriminatory mechanism at the Sec61 protein-conducting channel. However, it was not clear how selective cotransin is, i.e. how many proteins are sensitive. Moreover, a consensus motif in signal sequences mediating cotransin sensitivity has yet not been described. To address these questions, we performed a proteomic study using cotransin-treated human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and the stable isotope labelling by amino acids in cell culture technique in combination with quantitative mass spectrometry. We used a saturating concentration of cotransin (30 micromolar to identify also less-sensitive proteins and to discriminate the latter from completely resistant proteins. We found that the biosynthesis of almost all secreted proteins was cotransin-sensitive under these conditions. In contrast, biosynthesis of the majority of the integral membrane proteins was cotransin-resistant. Cotransin sensitivity of signal sequences was neither related to their length nor to their hydrophobicity. Instead, in the case of signal anchor sequences, we identified for the first time a conformational consensus motif mediating cotransin sensitivity.

  9. Defining a Conformational Consensus Motif in Cotransin-Sensitive Signal Sequences: A Proteomic and Site-Directed Mutagenesis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Wolfgang; Westendorf, Carolin; Schmidt, Antje; Conill-Cortés, Mercè; Rutz, Claudia; Blohs, Marcus; Beyermann, Michael; Protze, Jonas; Krause, Gerd; Krause, Eberhard; Schülein, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    The cyclodepsipeptide cotransin was described to inhibit the biosynthesis of a small subset of proteins by a signal sequence-discriminatory mechanism at the Sec61 protein-conducting channel. However, it was not clear how selective cotransin is, i.e. how many proteins are sensitive. Moreover, a consensus motif in signal sequences mediating cotransin sensitivity has yet not been described. To address these questions, we performed a proteomic study using cotransin-treated human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and the stable isotope labelling by amino acids in cell culture technique in combination with quantitative mass spectrometry. We used a saturating concentration of cotransin (30 micromolar) to identify also less-sensitive proteins and to discriminate the latter from completely resistant proteins. We found that the biosynthesis of almost all secreted proteins was cotransin-sensitive under these conditions. In contrast, biosynthesis of the majority of the integral membrane proteins was cotransin-resistant. Cotransin sensitivity of signal sequences was neither related to their length nor to their hydrophobicity. Instead, in the case of signal anchor sequences, we identified for the first time a conformational consensus motif mediating cotransin sensitivity. PMID:25806945

  10. Newly identified essential amino acid residues affecting ^8-sphingolipid desaturase activity revealed by site-directed mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to identify amino acid residues crucial for the enzymatic activity of ^8-sphingolipid desaturases, a sequence comparison was performed among ^8-sphingolipid desaturases and ^6-fatty acid desaturase from various plants. In addition to the known conserved cytb5 (cytochrome b5) HPGG motif and...

  11. Mapping the heparin-binding site of the BMP antagonist gremlin by site-directed mutagenesis based on predictive modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsinkam, Arnold Junior; Mulloy, Barbara; Rider, Christopher C

    2015-08-15

    Gremlin is a member of the CAN (cerberus and DAN) family of secreted BMP (bone morphogenetic protein) antagonists and also an agonist of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) receptor-2. It is critical in limb skeleton and kidney development and is re-expressed during tissue fibrosis. Gremlin binds strongly to heparin and heparan sulfate and, in the present study, we sought to investigate its heparin-binding site. In order to explore a putative non-contiguous binding site predicted by computational molecular modelling, we substituted a total of 11 key arginines and lysines located in three basic residue sequence clusters with homologous sequences from cerberus and DAN (differential screening selected gene abberative in neuroblastoma), CAN proteins which lack basic residues in these positions. A panel of six Myc-tagged gremlin mutants, MGR-1-MGR-6 (MGR, mutant gremlin), each containing different combinations of targeted substitutions, all showed markedly reduced affinity for heparin as demonstrated by their NaCl elution on heparin affinity chromatography, thus verifying our predictions. Both MGR-5 and MGR-6 retained BMP-4-binding activity comparable to that of wild-type gremlin. Low-molecular-mass heparin neither promoted nor inhibited BMP-4 binding. Finally, glutaraldehyde cross-linking demonstrated that gremlin forms non-covalent dimers, similar behaviour to that of DAN and also PRDC (protein related to cerberus and DAN), another CAN protein. The resulting dimer would possess two heparin-binding sites, each running along an exposed surface on the second β-strand finger loop of one of the monomers. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  12. Catalytically important amino-acid residues of abalone alginate lyase HdAly assessed by site-directed mutagenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Sayo; Sahara, Takehiko; Sato, Daisuke; Kawasaki, Kosei; Ohgiya, Satoru; Inoue, Akira; Ojima, Takao

    2008-01-01

    Alginate lyase is an enzyme that degrades alginate chains via β-elimination and has been used for the production of alginate oligosaccharides and protoplasts from brown algae. Previously, we deduced the amino-acid sequence of an abalone alginate lyase, HdAly, from its cDNA sequence and, through multiple amino-acid sequence alignment, found that several basic amino-acid residues were highly conserved among the polysaccharide-lyase family 14 (PL-14) enzymes including HdAly. In the present study...

  13. Improved efficacy of soluble human receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (RANK) fusion protein by site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Young Jun; Han, Jihye; Lee, Jae Yeon; Kim, HaHyung; Chun, Taehoon

    2015-06-01

    Soluble human receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B fusion immunoglobulin (hRANK-Ig) has been considered as one of the therapeutic agents to treat osteoporosis or diseases associated with bone destruction by blocking the interaction between RANK and the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL). However, no scientific record showing critical amino acid residues within the structural interface between the human RANKL and RANK complex is yet available. In this study, we produced several mutants of hRANK-Ig by replacement of amino acid residue(s) and tested whether the mutants had increased binding affinity to human RANKL. Based on the results from flow cytometry and surface plasmon resonance analyses, the replacement of E(125) with D(125), or E(125) and C(127) with D(125) and F(127) within loop 3 of cysteine-rich domain 3 of hRANK-Ig increases binding affinity to human RANKL over the wild-type hRANK-Ig. This result may provide the first example of improvement in the efficacy of hRANK-Ig by protein engineering and may give additional information to understand a more defined structural interface between hRANK and RANKL.

  14. Mutagenesis and Teratogenesis Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Progress is reported on research with mice in the areas of radioinduced and chemical mutagenesis, cytologic studies, radiation effects on DNA synthesis, radiation effects on germ cells, mutagenicity of coal-conversion products, and others. Research on Drosophila was concerned with mutagenesis and genetics of nucleases. Studies were conducted on hamster cells with regard to cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of alkylating agents, modification of the microtubule system, protein kinase activity, and others. Research on bacteria was concerned with effects of x radiation on bacteriophage of Haemophilus influenzae, x-ray induced DNA polymerase I-directed repair synthesis in Escherichia coli, transformation by DNA polymerase II in Bacillus subtilis, and others. Research on xenopus laevis was conducted in the areas of calcium-induced cleavage of oocytes, yolk degradation in explants, and others

  15. Technological advances in site-directed spin labeling of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbell, Wayne L; López, Carlos J; Altenbach, Christian; Yang, Zhongyu

    2013-10-01

    Molecular flexibility over a wide time range is of central importance to the function of many proteins, both soluble and membrane. Revealing the modes of flexibility, their amplitudes, and time scales under physiological conditions is the challenge for spectroscopic methods, one of which is site-directed spin labeling EPR (SDSL-EPR). Here we provide an overview of some recent technological advances in SDSL-EPR related to investigation of structure, structural heterogeneity, and dynamics of proteins. These include new classes of spin labels, advances in measurement of long range distances and distance distributions, methods for identifying backbone and conformational fluctuations, and new strategies for determining the kinetics of protein motion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effective mutagenesis of Arabidopsis by heavy ion beam-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Y.Y.; Saito, H.; Ryuto, H.; Fukunishi, N.; Yoshida, S.; Abe, T.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Arabidopsis researches frequently include the genetic approach, so efficient, convenient, and safe methods for mutagenesis are required. Currently, the most popular method for in house mutagenesis is application of EMS. Although this method is very effective, its base substitution-type mutations often gives leaky mutants with residual gene functions, leading some difficulty in understanding the corresponding gene functions. Heavy ion beam generated by accelerators gives highest energy transfer rates among known radiation-based mutagenesis methods including X ray, gamma ray, fast neutron, electron and proton irradiation. This feature is thought to give high frequency of the double strand break of genomic DNA and resultant short deletions, resulting frame shift-type mutations. At RIKEN Accelerator Research Facility (RARF, http://www.rarf.riken.go.jp/index-e.html), we have optimized conditions for effective mutagenesis of Arabidopsis regarding to ion species and irradiation dose, and achieved comparable mutation rates to the method with EMS. (author)

  17. Theory of misrepair mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresler, S.E.

    1975-01-01

    On the basis of experimental data, a model of induced mutagenesis is proposed that takes into account the repair of DNA damage by the Rec system. The peculiar feature of the Rec system is the cleavage and resynthesis of long sequences near the recognized DNA damage. Up to 1000-2000 nucleotides are replaced in one act. Therefore a definite probability exists of finding a damaged point on the second strand serving as template. It is believed that at this point no requirements of complementarity exist and that a random substitution can take place. This is the origin of a point mutation (transversion or frameshift). From this model, a general formula for the dose-response curve of mutagenesis is deduced which also takes into account the possibility of simultaneously initiated repair on both complementary strands of DNA. The latter leads to a lethal event when the points are situated proximally. This formula fits the observations in different cases studied. Some fundamental observations such as the absence of mutants from predominant single-strand breaks of DNA chains are readily explained

  18. Nevada Test Site-Directed Research, Development, and Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Will Lewis, Compiler

    2006-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site-Directed Research, Development, and Demonstration (SDRD) program completed a very successful year of research and development activities in FY 2005. Fifty new projects were selected for funding this year, and five FY 2004 projects were brought to conclusion. The total funds expended by the SDRD program were $5.4 million, for an average per project cost of just under $100,000. Two external audits of SDRD accounting practices were conducted in FY 2005. Both audits found the program's accounting practices consistent with the requirements of DOE Order 413.2A, and one included the observation that the NTS contractor ''did an exceptional job in planning and executing year-start activities.'' Highlights for the year included: the filing of 18 invention disclosures for intellectual property generated by FY 2005 projects; programmatic adoption of 17 FY 2004 SDRD-developed technologies; participation in the tri-lab Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) and SDRD program review that was broadly attended by NTS, NNSA, LDRD, and U.S. Department of Homeland Security representatives; peer reviews of all FY 2005 projects; and the successful completion of 55 R and D projects, as presented in this report

  19. Ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekwall, Karl; Thon, Genevieve

    2017-01-01

    Here we provide an ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis protocol for Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells.......Here we provide an ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis protocol for Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells....

  20. Phage transposon mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, M Sloan; Rubin, Eric J

    2009-01-01

    Phage transduction is an attractive method of genetic manipulation in mycobacteria. PhiMycoMarT7 is well suited for transposon mutagenesis as it is temperature sensitive for replication and contains T7 promoters that promote transcription, a highly active transposase gene, and an Escherichia coli oriR6 K origin of replication. Mycobacterial transposon mutant libraries produced by PhiMycoMarT7 transduction are amenable to both forward and reverse genetic studies. In this protocol, we detail the preparation of PhiMycoMarT7, including a description of the phage, reconstitution of the phage, purification of plaques, preparation of phage stock, and titering of phage stock. We then describe the transduction procedure and finally outline the isolation of individual transposon mutants.

  1. Phenotypic heterogeneity in a bacteriophage population only appears as stress-induced mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosef, Ido; Edgar, Rotem; Qimron, Udi

    2016-11-01

    Stress-induced mutagenesis has been studied in cancer cells, yeast, bacteria, and archaea, but not in viruses. In a recent publication, we present a bacteriophage model showing an apparent stress-induced mutagenesis. We show that the stress does not drive the mutagenesis, but only selects the fittest mutants. The mechanism underlying the observed phenomenon is a phenotypic heterogeneity that resembles persistence of the viral population. The new findings, the background for the ongoing debate on stress-induced mutagenesis, and the phenotypic heterogeneity underlying a novel phage infection strategy are discussed in this short manuscript.

  2. Direct Mutagenesis of Thousands of Genomic Targets using Microarray-derived Oligonucleotides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Mads; Kosuri, Sriram; Genee, Hans Jasper

    2015-01-01

    Multiplex Automated Genome Engineering (MAGE) allows simultaneous mutagenesis of multiple target sites in bacterial genomes using short oligonucleotides. However, large-scale mutagenesis requires hundreds to thousands of unique oligos, which are costly to synthesize and impossible to scale-up by ...

  3. Optogenetic mutagenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noma, Kentaro; Jin, Yishi

    2015-12-03

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can modify and damage DNA. Here we report an optogenetic mutagenesis approach that is free of toxic chemicals and easy to perform by taking advantage of a genetically encoded ROS generator. This method relies on the potency of ROS generation by His-mSOG, the mini singlet oxygen generator, miniSOG, fused to a histone. Caenorhabditis elegans expressing His-mSOG in the germline behave and reproduce normally, without photoinduction. Following exposure to blue light, the His-mSOG animals produce progeny with a wide range of heritable phenotypes. We show that optogenetic mutagenesis by His-mSOG induces a broad spectrum of mutations including single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), chromosomal deletions, as well as integration of extrachromosomal transgenes, which complements those derived from traditional chemical or radiation mutagenesis. The optogenetic mutagenesis expands the toolbox for forward genetic screening and also provides direct evidence that nuclear ROS can induce heritable and specific genetic mutations.

  4. Antimicrobials, stress and mutagenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandro Rodríguez-Rojas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cationic antimicrobial peptides are ancient and ubiquitous immune effectors that multicellular organisms use to kill and police microbes whereas antibiotics are mostly employed by microorganisms. As antimicrobial peptides (AMPs mostly target the cell wall, a microbial 'Achilles heel', it has been proposed that bacterial resistance evolution is very unlikely and hence AMPs are ancient 'weapons' of multicellular organisms. Here we provide a new hypothesis to explain the widespread distribution of AMPs amongst multicellular organism. Studying five antimicrobial peptides from vertebrates and insects, we show, using a classic Luria-Delbrück fluctuation assay, that cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs do not increase bacterial mutation rates. Moreover, using rtPCR and disc diffusion assays we find that AMPs do not elicit SOS or rpoS bacterial stress pathways. This is in contrast to the main classes of antibiotics that elevate mutagenesis via eliciting the SOS and rpoS pathways. The notion of the 'Achilles heel' has been challenged by experimental selection for AMP-resistance, but our findings offer a new perspective on the evolutionary success of AMPs. Employing AMPs seems advantageous for multicellular organisms, as it does not fuel the adaptation of bacteria to their immune defenses. This has important consequences for our understanding of host-microbe interactions, the evolution of innate immune defenses, and also sheds new light on antimicrobial resistance evolution and the use of AMPs as drugs.

  5. Experimental mutagenesis in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conger, B.V.

    1979-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in directed or controlled mutagenesis with bacterial systems, the genetic resolving power of which is much greater than that of higher plants. The mutagen specificity in higher plants has been of great interest, and numerous results and observations have been reported. The advances in the culture of plant cells and tissues have created much interest concerning the possibility of inducing and recovering mutants at the cellular level. There are great problems including the failure to regenerate plants from cells in all but a few species. The genetic and cytogenetic instability in the culture of plant tissues is well known, and the most common nuclear change is polyploidy including aneuploidy. The degree of polyploidy increases with calluses or culture age. In rice, the frequency of aneuploidy is greater in the calluses derived from roots than those derived from stem internodes. Polyploid and/or self-incompatible plant species are not as amenable to conventional mutation breeding techniques as diploid, self-fertilizing species. Inducing mutations in somatic tissues creates the problem of chimeras. However, the new cultivars of highly heterozygous, outcrossing, self-incompatible species are produced by combining several different clones. The performance of the progeny of at least 4 generations removed from the polycross of the parent clones is the important factor, and a high amount of heterozygocity is tolerated within cultivars and even on the same plants. (Yamashita, S.)

  6. Short (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telleman, Gerdien; den Hartog, Laurens

    2013-01-01

    Aim: This systematic review assessed the implant survival rate of short (<10 mm) dental implants installed in partially edentulous patients. A case report of a short implant in the posterior region have been added. Materials and methods: A search was conducted in the electronic databases of MEDLINE

  7. Recovery during radiation mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deen, D.F.; Shaw, E.I.

    1976-01-01

    Many variables (e.g. cell inoculum size, mutagen dose, expression time, and concentration of the selective agent) are known to affect the induced mutation frequency obtained in cultured mammalian cells. The authors have studied the effects of several parameters on the frequency of radiation-induced resistance to 8-azaguanine in asynchronous V79-171B hamster cells. Inoculation with 10 5 cells was followed by graded doses of radiation, expression times were optimized to maximize mutation frequency, and then the treated cells were challenged with 8-azaguanine for ten days. The optimal expression times which maximized mutation frequency were dose dependent and are in the range of 14-24, 24, and 24-36 hours respectively for doses of 250, 40 and 800 rads. A time interval of 24 hours between two 250-rad fractions resulted in a mutation frequency smaller than that obtained from administration of a single 500-rad dose. With 36 hours between halves of the dose, the induced mutation frequency was an order of magnitude lower than that produced by a single dose and actually below the unirradiated (spontaneous) frequency. Maintenance of cells after irradation first at 18 0 C for 24 hours, and then allowance of expression at 37 0 C for 24 hours, increased both the spontaneous and induced mutation frequency. A one-hour postirradiation balanced salt-solution treatment did not affect the number of spontaneous mutants that arose, but reduced the number of induced mutants. Thus, the balanced salt treatment lowers the induced mutation frequency about a factor of two. The possible significance of these results are discussed with respect to the role of radiation repair mechanisms during mutagenesis, and to recovery at low dose rates. A working hypothesis is advanced to explain the possible mechanism which causes expression time to vary as a function of the dose of mutagen. (author)

  8. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeted mutagenesis of GmFT2a delays flowering time in soya bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yupeng; Chen, Li; Liu, Xiujie; Guo, Chen; Sun, Shi; Wu, Cunxiang; Jiang, Bingjun; Han, Tianfu; Hou, Wensheng

    2018-01-01

    Flowering is an indication of the transition from vegetative growth to reproductive growth and has considerable effects on the life cycle of soya bean (Glycine max). In this study, we employed the CRISPR/Cas9 system to specifically induce targeted mutagenesis of GmFT2a, an integrator in the photoperiod flowering pathway in soya bean. The soya bean cultivar Jack was transformed with three sgRNA/Cas9 vectors targeting different sites of endogenous GmFT2a via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Site-directed mutations were observed at all targeted sites by DNA sequencing analysis. T1-generation soya bean plants homozygous for null alleles of GmFT2a frameshift mutated by a 1-bp insertion or short deletion exhibited late flowering under natural conditions (summer) in Beijing, China (N39°58', E116°20'). We also found that the targeted mutagenesis was stably heritable in the following T2 generation, and the homozygous GmFT2a mutants exhibited late flowering under both long-day and short-day conditions. We identified some 'transgene-clean' soya bean plants that were homozygous for null alleles of endogenous GmFT2a and without any transgenic element from the T1 and T2 generations. These 'transgene-clean' mutants of GmFT2a may provide materials for more in-depth research of GmFT2a functions and the molecular mechanism of photoperiod responses in soya bean. They will also contribute to soya bean breeding and regional introduction. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Site-Directed Research and Development FY 2014 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, H. A. [Nevada Test Site/National Security Technologies, LLC (United States)

    2015-04-22

    The reports contained herein are for project activities that occurred from October 2013 through September 2014. Project life cycle is indicated under the title as well as the original proposal number (in the following format: site abbreviation--ID #--originating fiscal year; e.g., STL-03-14). Each of the reports describes in detail the discoveries, achievements, and challenges encountered by our principal investigators. As SDRD, by definition, invests in “high-risk” and hopefully “high-payoff” research, the element of uncertainty is inherent. While many of our efforts are “successful” and result in positive outcomes or technology utilization, some fall short of expectations, but cannot be construed as “failure” in the negative sense. The latter is a natural and valid part of the process of advanced research and often leads to unforeseen new pathways to future discovery. Regardless, either result advances our knowledge base and increases our ability to identify solutions and/or avoid costly and unwarranted paths for future challenges. In summary, the SDRD program continues to provide an unfettered mechanism for innovation that returns multifold to our customers, to national security, and to the general public. The program is a vibrant R&D innovation engine, benefited by its discretionary pedigree, enhanced mission spectrum, committed resources, and sound competitiveness to yield maximum taxpayer benefit. The 25 projects described exemplify the creativity and ability of a diverse scientific and engineering talent base. The efforts also showcase an impressive capability and resource that can be brought to find solutions to a broad array of technology needs and applications relevant to the NNSS mission and national security. Further SDRD performance metrics can be found in the appendix at the end of this report.

  10. Biochemical and structural analysis of a site directed mutant of manganese dependent aminopeptidase P from Streptomyces lavendulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARYA NANDAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aminopeptidase P (APP removes N-terminal amino acids from peptides and proteins when the penultimate residue is proline. To understand the structure-function relationships of aminopeptidase P of Streptomyces lavendulae, a conserved arginine residue was replaced with lysine (R453K by site-directed mutagenesis. The overexpressed wild and mutant enzymes were of nearly 60 kDa and purified by nickel affinity chromatography. Kinetic analysis of R453K variant using Gly-Pro-pNA as the substrate revealed an increase in Km with a decrease in Vmax, leading to overall decrease in the catalytic efficiency, indicating that the guanidinium group of arginine plays an important role in substrate binding in APP. We constructed three dimensional models for the catalytic domains of wild and mutant enzyme and it revealed an interaction in R453 of native enzyme through hydrogen bonding with the adjacent residues making a substrate binding cavity whereas K453 did not participate in any hydrogen bonding. Hence, R453 in APP of S. lavenduale must be playing a critical role in the hydrolysis of the substrate.

  11. Comments on mutagenesis risk estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    Several hypotheses and concepts have tended to oversimplify the problem of mutagenesis and can be misleading when used for genetic risk estimation. These include: the hypothesis that radiation-induced mutation frequency depends primarily on the DNA content per haploid genome, the extension of this concept to chemical mutagenesis, the view that, since DNA is DNA, mutational effects can be expected to be qualitatively similar in all organisms, the REC unit, and the view that mutation rates from chronic irradiation can be theoretically and accurately predicted from acute irradiation data. Therefore, direct determination of frequencies of transmitted mutations in mammals continues to be important for risk estimation, and the specific-locus method in mice is shown to be not as expensive as is commonly supposed for many of the chemical testing requirements

  12. Molecular fundamentals of chromosomal mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganassi, E.Eh.; Zaichkina, S.I.; Malakhova, L.V.

    1987-01-01

    Precise quantitative correlation between the yield of chromosome structure damages and the yield of DNA damages is shown when comparing data on molecular and cytogenetic investigations carried out in cultural Mammalia cells. As the chromosome structure damage is to be connected with the damage of its carcass structure, then it is natural that DNA damage in loop regions is not to affect considerably the structure, while DNA damage lying on the loop base and connected with the chromosome carcass is to play a determining role in chromosomal mutagenesis. This DNA constitutes 1-2% from the total quantity of nuclear DNA. If one accepts that damages of these regions of DNA are ''hot'' points of chromosomal mutagenesis, then it becomes clear why 1-2% of preparation damages in a cell are realized in chromosome structural damages

  13. Mutational specificity of SOS mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Takeshi

    1986-01-01

    In an approach to the isolation of mutants of E. coli unable to produce mutations by ultraviolet light, the author has found new umuC-mutants. Their properties could be explained by ''SOS hypothesis of Radman and Witkin'', which has now been justified by many investigators. Analysis of the umuC region of E. coli chromosome cloned in pSK 100 has led to the conclusion that two genes, umuD and umuC, having the capacity of mutation induction express in the same mechanism as that of SOS genes, which is known to be inhibited by LexA protein bonding to ''SOS box'' found at promotor region. Suppressor analysis for mutational specificity has revealed: (i) umuDC-independent mutagens, such as EMS and (oh) 4 Cy, induce selected base substitution alone; and (ii) umuDC-dependent mutagens, such as X-rays and gamma-rays, induce various types of base substitution simultaneously, although they have mutational specificity. In the umuDC-dependent processes of basechange mutagenesis, the spectra of base substitution were a mixture of base substitution reflecting the specific base damages induced by individual mutagens and nonspecific base substitution. In conclusion, base substitution plays the most important role in umuDC-dependent mutagenesis, although mutagenesis of umuDC proteins remains uncertain. (Namekawa, K.)

  14. Efficient mutagenesis by Cas9 protein-mediated oligonucleotide insertion and large-scale assessment of single-guide RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, James A; Valen, Eivind; Thyme, Summer B; Huang, Peng; Akhmetova, Laila; Ahkmetova, Laila; Pauli, Andrea; Montague, Tessa G; Zimmerman, Steven; Richter, Constance; Schier, Alexander F

    2014-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system has been implemented in a variety of model organisms to mediate site-directed mutagenesis. A wide range of mutation rates has been reported, but at a limited number of genomic target sites. To uncover the rules that govern effective Cas9-mediated mutagenesis in zebrafish, we targeted over a hundred genomic loci for mutagenesis using a streamlined and cloning-free method. We generated mutations in 85% of target genes with mutation rates varying across several orders of magnitude, and identified sequence composition rules that influence mutagenesis. We increased rates of mutagenesis by implementing several novel approaches. The activities of poor or unsuccessful single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs) initiating with a 5' adenine were improved by rescuing 5' end homogeneity of the sgRNA. In some cases, direct injection of Cas9 protein/sgRNA complex further increased mutagenic activity. We also observed that low diversity of mutant alleles led to repeated failure to obtain frame-shift mutations. This limitation was overcome by knock-in of a stop codon cassette that ensured coding frame truncation. Our improved methods and detailed protocols make Cas9-mediated mutagenesis an attractive approach for labs of all sizes.

  15. Site-Directed Immobilization of BMP-2: Two Approaches for the Production of Innovative Osteoinductive Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabisz, Barbara; Schmitz, Werner; Schmitz, Michael; Luehmann, Tessa; Heusler, Eva; Rybak, Jens-Christoph; Meinel, Lorenz; Fiebig, Juliane E; Mueller, Thomas D; Nickel, Joachim

    2017-03-13

    The regenerative potential of bone is strongly impaired in pathological conditions, such as nonunion fractures. To support bone regeneration various scaffolds have been developed in the past, which have been functionalized with osteogenic growth factors such as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). However, most of them required supra-physiological levels of these proteins leading to burst releases, thereby causing severe side effects. Site-specific, covalent coupling of BMP2 to implant materials might be an optimal strategy in order to overcome these problems. Therefore, we created a BMP-2 variant (BMP2-K3Plk) containing a noncanonical amino acid (propargyl-l-lysine) substitution introduced by genetic code expansion that allows for site-specific and covalent immobilization onto polymeric scaffold materials. To directly compare different coupling strategies, we also produced a BMP2 variant containing an additional cysteine residue (BMP2-A2C) allowing covalent coupling by thioether formation. The BMP2-K3Plk mutant was coupled to functionalized beads by a copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) either directly or via a short biotin-PEG linker both with high specificity. After exposing the BMP-coated beads to C2C12 cells, ALP expression appeared locally restricted in close proximity to these beads, showing that both coupled BMP2 variants trigger cell differentiation. The advantage of our approach over non-site-directed immobilization techniques is the ability to produce fully defined osteogenic surfaces, allowing for lower BMP2 loads and concomitant higher bioactivities, for example, due to controlled orientation toward BMP2 receptors. Such products might provide superior bone healing capabilities with potential safety advantages as of homogeneous product outcome.

  16. Mechanisms of umuC-dependent mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Takeji; Kitagawa, Yoshinori

    1985-01-01

    Present status of studies on umcDC genes-induced mutagenesis is introduced. Specificity of umuCD-dependent and -independent base substitution and frameshift mutagenesis is presented. Biochemical examinations of U.V.-induced umuCD gene function are described. Previous studies suggest that umuCD genes are induced by SOS inhibitory systems, that gene products are directly responsible for mutagenesis, that base substitution is largely involved in inducible mutagenesis, and that many of frameshifts are induced irrespective of gene function. (Namekawa, K.)

  17. Induced repair and mutagenesis in animal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takimoto, Koichi

    1981-01-01

    Induced repair and mutagenesis of animal cells against UV were studied in contrast with SOS repair of E. coli primarily by the use of viruses. Since UV-enhanced reactivation is a phenomenon similar to UV-reactivation (mutagenesis) and the presence of lesion bypass synthsis has been suggested, UV-enhanced reactivation has several common aspects with SOS reactivation of E. coli. However, correlation is not necessarily noted between increase in the viral survival rate and mutagenesis, nor do protease blockers exert any effect. Therefore, SOS repair of E. coli may have different mechansms from induced repair and mutagenesis in animal cells. (Ueda, J.)

  18. Radiation mutagenesis of subtropic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerkadze, I.G.

    1987-01-01

    Possibilities of expansion of subtropic plant changeability and development of new gene bank for future selection-genetic studies are detected. New trends of radiation mutagenesis of subtropic plants are formulated as results of studies during many years. A lot of mutants is subjected to sufficient tests, and concrete results are obtained with the help of these tests for definite species. Summing genetic and selection estimations of the results, it is possible to make the conclusion that mutant selection represents one of the powerful methods of preparation of productive and qualitative species of subtropic plants, which are successfully introduced into practice

  19. The significance of disulfide bonding in biological activity of HB-EGF, a mutagenesis approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hoskins, J.T.; Zhou, Z.; Harding, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    A site-directed mutagenesis approach was taken to disrupt each of 3 disulfide bonds within human HB-EGF by substituting serine for both cysteine residues that contribute to disulfide bonding. Each HB-EGF disulfide analogue (HB-EGF-Cys/Ser108/121, HB-EGF-Cys/Ser116/132, and HB-EGF-Cys/Ser134/143) was cloned under the regulation of the mouse metallothionein (MT) promoter and stably expressed in mouse fibroblasts. HB-EGF immunoreactive proteins with Mr of 6.5, 21 and 24kDa were observed from lys...

  20. Minimizing off-Target Mutagenesis Risks Caused by Programmable Nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Kentaro; Gee, Peter; Hotta, Akitsu

    2015-10-16

    Programmable nucleases, such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator like effector nucleases (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats associated protein-9 (CRISPR-Cas9), hold tremendous potential for applications in the clinical setting to treat genetic diseases or prevent infectious diseases. However, because the accuracy of DNA recognition by these nucleases is not always perfect, off-target mutagenesis may result in undesirable adverse events in treated patients such as cellular toxicity or tumorigenesis. Therefore, designing nucleases and analyzing their activity must be carefully evaluated to minimize off-target mutagenesis. Furthermore, rigorous genomic testing will be important to ensure the integrity of nuclease modified cells. In this review, we provide an overview of available nuclease designing platforms, nuclease engineering approaches to minimize off-target activity, and methods to evaluate both on- and off-target cleavage of CRISPR-Cas9.

  1. Molecular techniques as complementary tools in orchid mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohd Nazir Basiran; Sakinah Ariffin [Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi (Malaysia)

    2002-02-01

    Orchid breeders have always been dependent on hybridization technology to produce new orchid hybrids and varieties. The technology has proven very reliable and easy to use and has produced wide range of successful cultivars with attractive combinations of spray length, bud number, flower colour and form, vase life, fragrance, seasonality, and compactness. By introducing mutagenesis however, wide variations of flower colours, form and size can still be obtained in addition to overcoming the problem of sexual incompatibility and sterility. In addition, complementary use of molecular techniques will allow breeders to target more specific characteristic changes and cut short breeding time. PCR-based techniques used to analyse the DNA of mutagenic clones found polymorphic fragments that can be developed as molecular markers. This paper describes how mutagenesis and molecular techniques can be used to enhance orchid breeding efforts. (author)

  2. Multiplex conditional mutagenesis in zebrafish using the CRISPR/Cas system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L; Maddison, L A; Chen, W

    2016-01-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) system is a powerful tool for genome editing in numerous organisms. However, the system is typically used for gene editing throughout the entire organism. Tissue and temporal specific mutagenesis is often desirable to determine gene function in a specific stage or tissue and to bypass undesired consequences of global mutations. We have developed the CRISPR/Cas system for conditional mutagenesis in transgenic zebrafish using tissue-specific and/or inducible expression of Cas9 and U6-driven expression of sgRNA. To allow mutagenesis of multiple targets, we have isolated four distinct U6 promoters and designed Golden Gate vectors to easily assemble transgenes with multiple sgRNAs. We provide experimental details on the reagents and applications for multiplex conditional mutagenesis in zebrafish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Engineering the cytokinin-glucoside specificity of the maize beta-D-glucosidase Zm-p60.1 using site-directed random mutagenesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filipi, T.; Mazura, P.; Janda, L.; Kiran, N.S.; Brzobohatý, Břetislav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 74, FEB2012 (2012), s. 40-48 ISSN 0031-9422 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : beta-Glucosidase * cis-Zeatin-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside * Cytokinin metabolism Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.050, year: 2012

  4. Dissecting the Catalytic Mechanism of Betaine - Homocysteine S-Methyltransferase by Use of Intrinsic Tryptophan Fluorescence and Site-Directed Mutagenesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Castro, C.; Gratson, A. A.; Evans, J. C.; Jiráček, Jiří; Collinsová, Michaela; Ludwig, M. L.; Garrow, T. A.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 18 (2004), s. 5341-5351 ISSN 0006-2960 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4055302 Grant - others:NIH(US) GM16429; NIH(US) DK52501; Illinois Agricultural Experimental Station(US) ILLU-698-352 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : BHMT * CBHcy * fluorescence Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.008, year: 2004

  5. An Examination by Site-Directed Mutagenesis of Putative Key Residues in the Determination of Coenzyme Specificity in Clostridial NAD+-Dependent Glutamate Dehydrogenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Griffin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sequence and structure comparisons of various glutamate dehydrogenases (GDH and other nicotinamide nucleotide-dependent dehydrogenases have potentially implicated certain residues in coenzyme binding and discrimination. We have mutated key residues in Clostridium symbiosum NAD+-specific GDH to investigate their contribution to specificity and to enhance acceptance of NADPH. Comparisons with E. coli NADPH-dependent GDH prompted design of mutants F238S, P262S, and F238S/P262S, which were purified and assessed at pH 6.0, 7.0, and 8.0. They showed markedly increased catalytic efficiency with NADPH, especially at pH 8.0 (∼170-fold for P262S and F238S/P262S with relatively small changes for NADH. A positive charge introduced through the D263K mutation also greatly increased catalytic efficiency with NADPH (over 100-fold at pH 8 and slightly decreased activity with NADH. At position 242, “P6” of the “core fingerprint,” where NAD+- and NADP+-dependent enzymes normally have Gly or Ala, respectively, clostridial GDH already has Ala. Replacement with Gly produced negligible shift in coenzyme specificity.

  6. 1.68-angstrom crystal structure of endopolygalacturonase II from Aspergillus niger and identification of active site residues by site-directed mutagenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, Y; Benen, JAE; Schroter, KH; Kalk, KH; Armand, S; Visser, J.; Dijkstra, BW

    1999-01-01

    Polygalacturonases specifically hydrolyze polygalaturonate, a major constituent of plant cell wall pectin. To understand the catalytic mechanism and substrate and product specificity of these enzymes, we have solved the x-ray structure of endopolygalacturonase LT of Aspergillus niger and we have

  7. Molecular cloning of a Bangladeshi strain of very virulent infectious bursal disease virus of chickens and its adaptation in tissue culture by site-directed mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.R.; Raue, R.; Mueller, H.

    2005-01-01

    Full-length cDNA of both genome segments of a Bangladeshi strain of very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (BD 3/99) were cloned in plasmid vectors along with the T7 promoter tagged to the 5'-ends. Mutations were introduced in the cloned cDNA to bring about two amino acid exchanges (Q253H and A284T) in the capsid protein VP2. Transfection of primary chicken embryo fibroblast cells with RNA transcribed in vitro from the full-length cDNA resulted in the formation of mutant infectious virus particles that grow in tissue culture. The pathogenicity of this molecularly-cloned, tissue-culture- adapted virus (BD-3tc) was tested in commercial chickens. The parental wild-type strain, BD 3/99, was included for comparison. The subclinical course of the disease and delayed bursal atrophy in BD-3tc-inoculated birds suggested that these amino acid substitutions made BD-3tc partially attenuated. (author)

  8. In silico site-directed mutagenesis informs species-specific predictions of chemical susceptibility derived from the Sequence Alignment to Predict Across Species Susceptibility (SeqAPASS) tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sequence Alignment to Predict Across Species Susceptibility (SeqAPASS) tool was developed to address needs for rapid, cost effective methods of species extrapolation of chemical susceptibility. Specifically, the SeqAPASS tool compares the primary sequence (Level 1), functiona...

  9. Dominating IgE-binding epitope of Bet v 1, the major allergen of birch pollen, characterized by X-ray crystallography and site-directed mutagenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangfort, Michael D; Mirza, Osman; Ipsen, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Specific allergy vaccination is an efficient treatment for allergic disease; however, the development of safer vaccines would enable a more general use of the treatment. Determination of molecular structures of allergens and allergen-Ab complexes facilitates epitope mapping and enables a rational...

  10. Site-Directed Mutagenesis Study of an Antibiotic-Sensing Noncoding RNA Integrated into a One-Semester Project-Based Biochemistry Lab Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerczei, Timea

    2017-01-01

    A laboratory sequence is described that is suitable for upper-level biochemistry or molecular biology laboratories that combines project-based and traditional laboratory experiments. In the project-based sequence, the individual laboratory experiments are thematically linked and aim to show how a bacterial antibiotic sensing noncoding RNA (the…

  11. Cooperativity in the two-domain arginine kinase from the sea anemone Anthopleura japonicus. II. Evidence from site-directed mutagenesis studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Tomohiko

    2010-08-01

    The arginine kinase (AK) from the sea anemone Anthopleura japonicus has an unusual two-domain structure (contiguous dimer; denoted by D1-D2). In a previous report, we suggested cooperativity in the contiguous dimer, which may be a result of domain-domain interactions, using MBP-fused enzymes. To further understand this observation, we inserted six-Lys residues into the linker region of the two-domain AK (D1-K6-D2 mutant) using His-tagged enzyme. The dissociation constants, K(a) and K(ia), of the mutant were similar to those of the wild-type enzyme but the catalytic constant, k(cat), was decreased to 28% that of the wild-type, indicating that some of the domain-domain interactions are lost due to the six-Lys insertion. Y68 plays a major role in arginine binding in the catalytic pocket in Limulus AK, and introduction of mutation at the Y68 position virtually abolishes catalytic activity. Thus, the constructed D1(Y68G)-D2 and D1-D2(Y68G) mutants mimic the D1(inactive)-D2(active) and D1(active)-D2(inactive) enzymes, respectively. The k(cat) values of both Y68 mutants were decreased to 13-18% that of the wild-type enzyme, which is much less than the 50% level of the two-domain enzyme. Thus, it is clear that substrate-binding to both domains is necessary for full expression of activity. In other words, substrate-binding appears to act as the trigger of the functional cooperativity in two-domain AK. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Probing the mechanistic role of the long α-helix in subunit L of respiratory Complex I from Escherichia coli by site-directed mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belevich, Galina; Knuuti, Juho; Verkhovsky, Michael I; Wikström, Mårten; Verkhovskaya, Marina

    2011-01-01

    The C-terminus of the NuoL subunit of Complex I includes a long amphipathic α-helix positioned parallel to the membrane, which has been considered to function as a piston in the proton pumping machinery. Here, we have introduced three types of mutations into the nuoL gene to test the piston-like function. First, NuoL was truncated at its C- and N-termini, which resulted in low production of a fragile Complex I with negligible activity. Second, we mutated three partially conserved residues of the amphipathic α-helix: Asp and Lys residues and a Pro were substituted for acidic, basic or neutral residues. All these variants exhibited almost a wild-type phenotype. Third, several substitutions and insertions were made to reduce rigidity of the amphipathic α-helix, and/or to change its geometry. Most insertions/substitutions resulted in a normal growth phenotype, albeit often with reduced stability of Complex I. In contrast, insertion of six to seven amino acids at a site of the long α-helix between NuoL and M resulted in substantial loss of proton pumping efficiency. The implications of these results for the proton pumping mechanism of Complex I are discussed. PMID:22060017

  13. Characterization of the free energy dependence of an interprotein electron transfer reaction by variation of pH and site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Brian A; Davidson, Victor L

    2015-10-01

    The interprotein electron transfer (ET) reactions of the cupredoxin amicyanin, which mediates ET from the tryptophan tryptophylquinone (TTQ) cofactor of methylamine dehydrogenase to cytochrome c-551i have been extensively studied. However, it was not possible to perform certain key experiments in that native system. This study examines the ET reaction from reduced amicyanin to an alternative electron acceptor, the diheme protein MauG. It was possible to vary the ΔG° for this ET reaction by simply changing pH to determine the dependence of kET on ΔG°. A P94A mutation of amicyanin significantly altered its oxidation-reduction midpoint potential value. It was not possible to study the ET from reduced P94A amicyanin to cytochrome c-551i in the native system because that reaction was kinetically coupled. However, the reaction from reduced P94A amicyanin to MauG was a true ET reaction and it was possible to determine values of reorganization energy (λ) and electronic coupling for the reactions of this variant as well as native amicyanin. Comparison of the λ values associated with the ET reactions between amicyanin and the TTQ of methylamine dehydrogenase, the diheme center of MauG and the single heme of cytochrome c-551i, provides insight into the factors that dictate the λ values for the respective reactions. These results demonstrate how study of ET reactions with alternative redox partner proteins can complement and enhance our understanding of the reactions with the natural redox partners, and further our understanding of mechanisms of protein ET reactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The CrIIL reduction of [2Fe-2S] ferredoxins and site of attachment of CrIII using 1H NMR and site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, S C; Worrall, J A; Liu, G; Aliverti, A; Zanetti, G; Luchinat, C; Bertini, I; Sykes, A G

    2000-04-17

    The recently reported NMR solution structure of FeIIIFeIII parsley FdI has made possible 2D NOESY NMR studies to determine the point of attachment of CrIIIL in FeIIIFeIII...CrIIIL. The latter Cr-modified product was obtained by reduction of FeIIIFeIII parsley and spinach FdI forms with [Cr(15-aneN4) (H2O)2]2+ (15-aneN4 = 1,4,8,12-tetraazacyclopentadecane), referred to here as CrIIL, followed by air oxidation and chromatographic purification. From a comparison of NMR cross-peak intensities of native and Cr-modified proteins, two surface sites designated A and B, giving large paramagnetic CrIIIL broadening of a number of amino acid peaks, have been identified. The effects at site A (residues 19-22, 27, and 30) are greater than those at site B (residues 92-94 and 96), which is on the opposite side of the protein. From metal (ICP-AES) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EIMS) analyses on the Cr-modified protein, attachment of a single CrIIIL only is confirmed for both parsley and spinach FdI and FdII proteins. Electrostatic interaction of the 3+ CrIIIL center covalently attached to one protein molecule (charge approximately -18) with a second (like) molecule provides an explanation for the involvement of two regions. Thus for 3-4 mM FeIIIFeIII...CrIIIL solutions used in NMR studies (CrIIIL attached at A), broadening effects due to electrostatic interactions at B on a second molecule are observed. Experiments with the Cys18Ala spinach FdI variant have confirmed that the previously suggested Cys-18 at site A is not the site of CrIIIL attachment. Line broadening at Val-22 of A gives the largest effect, and CrIIIL attachment at one or more adjacent (conserved) acidic residues in this region is indicated. The ability of CrIIL to bind in some (parsley and spinach) but not all cases (Anabaena variabilis) suggests that intramolecular H-bonding of acidic residues at A is relevant. The parsley and spinach FeIIFeIII...CrIIIL products undergo a second stage of reduction with the formation of FeIIFeII...CrIIIL. However, the spinach Glu92Ala (site B) variant undergoes only the first stage of reduction, and it appears that Glu-92 is required for the second stage of reduction to occur. A sample of CrIIIL-modified parsley FeIIIFeIII Fd is fully active as an electron carrier in the NADPH-cytochrome c reductase reaction catalyzed by ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase.

  15. Site-directed mutagenesis of Arg58 and Asp86 of elongation factor Tu from Escherichia coli: effects on the GTPase reaction and aminoacyl-tRNA binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde; Clark, Brian F. C.

    1996-01-01

    Elongation factor Tu from Escherichia coli was mutated separately at positions Asp86 and Arg58, in order to shed light both on the GTPase mechanism of elongation factor Tu and on the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA. In addition, the binding of guanine nucleotides was investigated by determination...

  16. Characterization of the β-lactam binding site of penicillin acylase of Escherichia coli by structural and site-directed mutagenesis studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkema, Wynand B.L.; Hensgens, Charles M.H.; Kroezinga, Els H.; de Vries, Erik; Floris, René; Laan, Jan-Metske van der; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Janssen, Dick B.

    2000-01-01

    The binding of penicillin to penicillin acylase was studied by X-ray crystallography. The structure of the enzyme–substrate complex was determined after soaking crystals of an inactive βN241A penicillin acylase mutant with penicillin G. Binding of the substrate induces a conformational change, in

  17. Characterization of the beta-lactam binding site of penicillin acylase of Escherichia coli by structural and site-directed mutagenesis studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkema, WBL; Hensgens, CMH; Kroezinga, EH; de Vries, E; Floris, R; van der Laan, JM; Dijkstra, BW; Janssen, DB

    2000-01-01

    The binding of penicillin to penicillin acylase was studied by X-ray crystallography, The structure of the enzyme-substrate complex was determined after soaking crystals of an inactive beta N241A penicillin acylase mutant with penicillin G, Binding of the substrate induces a conformational change,

  18. Molecular cloning, homology modeling and site-directed mutagenesis of vanadium-dependent bromoperoxidase (GcVBPO1) from Gracilaria changii (Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharum, H; Chu, W-C; Teo, S-S; Ng, K-Y; Rahim, R Abdul; Ho, C-L

    2013-08-01

    Vanadium-dependent haloperoxidases belong to a class of vanadium enzymes that may have potential industrial and pharmaceutical applications due to their high stability. In this study, the 5'-flanking genomic sequence and complete reading frame encoding vanadium-dependent bromoperoxidase (GcVBPO1) was cloned from the red seaweed, Fracilaria changii, and the recombinant protein was biochemically characterized. The deduced amino acid sequence of GcVBPO1 is 1818 nucleotides in length, sharing 49% identity with the vanadium-dependent bromoperoxidases from Corralina officinalis and Cor. pilulifera, respectively. The amino acid residues associated with the binding site of vanadate cofactor were found to be conserved. The Km value of recombinant GcVBPO1 for Br(-) was 4.69 mM, while its Vmax was 10.61 μkat mg(-1) at pH 7. Substitution of Arg(379) with His(379) in the recombinant protein caused a lower affinity for Br(-), while substitution of Arg(379) with Phe(379) not only increased its affinity for Br(-) but also enabled the mutant enzyme to oxidize Cl(-). The mutant Arg(379)Phe was also found to have a lower affinity for I(-), as compared to the wild-type GcVBPO1 and mutant Arg(379)His. In addition, the Arg(379)Phe mutant has a slightly higher affinity for H2O2 compared to the wild-type GcVBPO1. Multiple cis-acting regulatory elements associated with light response, hormone signaling, and meristem expression were detected at the 5'-flanking genomic sequence of GcVBPO1. The transcript abundance of GcVBPO1 was relatively higher in seaweed samples treated with 50 parts per thousand (ppt) artificial seawater (ASW) compared to those treated in 10 and 30 ppt ASW, in support of its role in the abiotic stress response of seaweed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Crucial role of Asp408 in the proton translocation pathway of multidrug transporter AcrB: evidence from site-directed mutagenesis and carbodiimide labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Markus A; von Ballmoos, Christoph; Verrey, François; Pos, Klaas M

    2009-06-30

    The three-component AcrA/AcrB/TolC efflux system of Escherichia coli catalyzes the proton motive force-driven extrusion of a variety of cytotoxic compounds. The inner membrane pump component AcrB belongs to the resistance nodulation and cell division (RND) superfamily and is responsible for drug specificity and energy transduction of the entire tripartite efflux system. Systematic mutational analysis of titratable and polar membrane-located amino acids revealed four residues, D407, D408, K940, and, R971, to be of prime importance for AcrB function. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry, D408 was shown to specifically react with dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) in a pH-dependent manner. The apparent pK(a) of D408 of 7.4 would enable binding and release of protons under physiological conditions. In contrast to other secondary transporters, D408 was not protected from carbodiimide modification in the presence of drugs, which supports the notion of spatially separated transport pathways for drugs and protons. This study provides evidence for a substantial role of membrane-located carboxylates as a central element of the proton translocation pathway in AcrB and other members of the RND superfamily.

  20. Mechanism of adenylate kinase. Demonstration of a functional relationship between aspartate 93 and Mg2+ by site-directed mutagenesis and proton, phosphorus-31, and magnesium-25 NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Honggao; Tsai, Mingdaw

    1991-01-01

    Earlier magnetic resonance studies suggested no direct interaction between Mg 2+ ions and adenylate kinase (AK) in the AK·MgATP (adenosine 5'-triphosphate) complex. However, recent NMR studies concluded that the carboxylate of aspartate 119 accepts a hydrogen bond from a water ligand of the bound Mg 2+ ion in the muscle AK · MgATP complex. On the other hand, in the 2.6-angstrom crystal structure of the yeast AK·MgAP 5 A [P 1 , P 5 -bis(5'-adenosyl)pentaphosphate] complex, the Mg 2+ ion is in proximity to aspartate 93. Substitution of Asp-93 with alanine resulted in no change in dissociation constants, 4-fold increases in K m , and a 650-fold decrease in k cat . Notable changes have been observed in the chemical shifts of the aromatic protons of histidine 36 and a few other aromatic residues. However, the results of detailed analyses of the free enzymes and the AK·MgAP 5 A complexes by one- and two-dimensional NMR suggested that the changes are due to localized perturbations. Thus it is concluded that Asp-93 stabilizes the transition state by ca. 3.9 kcal/mol. Other results raised the question of whether Mg 2+ could bind to D93A·nucleotide complexes, which was then probed by 25 MgNMR. The results suggest that Mg 2+ does bind to the D93A·AP 5 A complex, but possibly only weakly

  1. Direct random insertion mutagenesis of Helicobacter pylori.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de R.; Bakker, D.; Vliet, van AH; Kuipers, E.J.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C.M.J.E.; Kusters, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    Random insertion mutagenesis is a widely used technique for the identification of bacterial virulence genes. Most strategies for random mutagenesis involve cloning in Escherichia coli for passage of plasmids or for phenotypic selection. This can result in biased selection due to restriction or

  2. Mutagenesis and carcinogenesis resulting from environment pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, B.

    2001-01-01

    The paper reviews different ways of environmental contamination with natural and artificial harmful substances (chemical and radioactive) and their role in the processes of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. The recent studies of the mechanism of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis due to environmental pollution are discussed

  3. Direct random insertion mutagenesis of Helicobacter pylori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, Ramon; Bakker, Dennis; van Vliet, Arnoud H. M.; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Kusters, Johannes G.

    2003-01-01

    Random insertion mutagenesis is a widely used technique for the identification of bacterial virulence genes. Most strategies for random mutagenesis involve cloning in Escherichia coli for passage of plasmids or for phenotypic selection. This can result in biased selection due to restriction or

  4. Highly Efficient ENU Mutagenesis in Zebrafish.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, E.; Cuppen, E.; Feitsma, H.

    2009-01-01

    ENU (N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea) mutagenesis is a widely accepted and proven method to introduce random point mutations in the genome. Because there are no targeted knockout strategies available for zebrafish so far, random mutagenesis is currently the preferred method in both forward and reverse genetic

  5. Mutagenesis: Interactions with a parallel universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeffrey H

    Unexpected observations in mutagenesis research have led to a new perspective in this personal reflection based on years of studying mutagenesis. Many mutagens have been thought to operate via a single principal mechanism, with secondary effects usually resulting in only minor changes in the observed mutation frequencies and spectra. For example, we conceive of base analogs as resulting in direct mispairing as their main mechanism of mutagenesis. Recent studies now show that in fact even these simple mutagens can cause very large and unanticipated effects both in mutation frequencies and in the mutational spectra when used in certain pair-wise combinations. Here we characterize this leap in mutation frequencies as a transport to an alternate universe of mutagenesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cellular components required for mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elledge, S.J.; Perry, K.L.; Krueger, J.H.; Mitchell, B.B.; Walker, G.C.

    1983-01-01

    We have cloned the umuD and umuC genes of Escherichia coli and have shown that they code for two proteins of 16,000 and 45,000 daltons respectively; the two genes are organized in an operon that is repressed by the LexA protein. Similarly, we have shown that the mucA and mucB genes of the mutagenesis-enhancing plasmid pKM101 code for proteins of 16,000 and 45,000 daltons respectively and, like umuD/C, the genes are organized in an operon. Preliminary sequencing studies have indicated that the umuD/C and mucA/B loci are approximately 50% homologous at both the nucleic acid and deduced protein sequence levels and that the umuD gene is preceeded by two putative LexA binding sites separated by 4 basepairs. Like umuD/C, the mucA/B genes of pKM101 are induced by DNA damage and are repressed by LexA. In addition to inducing recA + lexA + -regulated din genes, DNA damaging agents such as uv and nalidixic acid also induce the heat shock proteins GroEL and DnaK in an htpR-dependent fashion. 22 references, 1 figure, 1 table

  7. [Stress-induced cellular adaptive mutagenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linjiang; Li, Qi

    2014-04-01

    The adaptive mutations exist widely in the evolution of cells, such as antibiotic resistance mutations of pathogenic bacteria, adaptive evolution of industrial strains, and cancerization of human somatic cells. However, how these adaptive mutations are generated is still controversial. Based on the mutational analysis models under the nonlethal selection conditions, stress-induced cellular adaptive mutagenesis is proposed as a new evolutionary viewpoint. The hypothetic pathway of stress-induced mutagenesis involves several intracellular physiological responses, including DNA damages caused by accumulation of intracellular toxic chemicals, limitation of DNA MMR (mismatch repair) activity, upregulation of general stress response and activation of SOS response. These responses directly affect the accuracy of DNA replication from a high-fidelity manner to an error-prone one. The state changes of cell physiology significantly increase intracellular mutation rate and recombination activity. In addition, gene transcription under stress condition increases the instability of genome in response to DNA damage, resulting in transcription-associated DNA mutagenesis. In this review, we summarize these two molecular mechanisms of stress-induced mutagenesis and transcription-associated DNA mutagenesis to help better understand the mechanisms of adaptive mutagenesis.

  8. Estimations of On-site Directional Wave Spectra from Measured Ship Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam

    2006-01-01

    include an quivalence of energy in the governing equations and, as regards the parametric concept, a frequency dependent spreading of the waves is introduced. The paper includes an extensive analysis of full-scale measurements for which the directional wave spectra are estimated by the two ship response......In general, two main concepts can be applied to estimate the on-site directional wave spectrum on the basis of ship response measurements: 1) a parametric method which assumes the wave spectrum to be composed by parameterised wave spectra, or 2) a non-parametric method where the directional wave...

  9. Evolving artificial metalloenzymes via random mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao; Swartz, Alan M.; Park, Hyun June; Srivastava, Poonam; Ellis-Guardiola, Ken; Upp, David M.; Lee, Gihoon; Belsare, Ketaki; Gu, Yifan; Zhang, Chen; Moellering, Raymond E.; Lewis, Jared C.

    2018-03-01

    Random mutagenesis has the potential to optimize the efficiency and selectivity of protein catalysts without requiring detailed knowledge of protein structure; however, introducing synthetic metal cofactors complicates the expression and screening of enzyme libraries, and activity arising from free cofactor must be eliminated. Here we report an efficient platform to create and screen libraries of artificial metalloenzymes (ArMs) via random mutagenesis, which we use to evolve highly selective dirhodium cyclopropanases. Error-prone PCR and combinatorial codon mutagenesis enabled multiplexed analysis of random mutations, including at sites distal to the putative ArM active site that are difficult to identify using targeted mutagenesis approaches. Variants that exhibited significantly improved selectivity for each of the cyclopropane product enantiomers were identified, and higher activity than previously reported ArM cyclopropanases obtained via targeted mutagenesis was also observed. This improved selectivity carried over to other dirhodium-catalysed transformations, including N-H, S-H and Si-H insertion, demonstrating that ArMs evolved for one reaction can serve as starting points to evolve catalysts for others.

  10. Incorporation of a lambda phage recombination system and EGFP detection to simplify mutagenesis of Herpes simplex virus bacterial artificial chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weir Jerry P

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Targeted mutagenesis of the herpesvirus genomes has been facilitated by the use of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC technology. Such modified genomes have potential uses in understanding viral pathogenesis, gene identification and characterization, and the development of new viral vectors and vaccines. We have previously described the construction of a herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2 BAC and the use of an allele replacement strategy to construct HSV-2 recombinants. While the BAC mutagenesis procedure is a powerful method to generate HSV-2 recombinants, particularly in the absence of selective marker in eukaryotic culture, the mutagenesis procedure is still difficult and cumbersome. Results Here we describe the incorporation of a phage lambda recombination system into an allele replacement vector. This strategy enables any DNA fragment containing the phage attL recombination sites to be efficiently inserted into the attR sites of the allele replacement vector using phage lambda clonase. We also describe how the incorporation of EGFP into the allele replacement vector can facilitate the selection of the desired cross-over recombinant BACs when the allele replacement reaction is a viral gene deletion. Finally, we incorporate the lambda phage recombination sites directly into an HSV-2 BAC vector for direct recombination of gene cassettes using the phage lambda clonase-driven recombination reaction. Conclusion Together, these improvements to the techniques of HSV BAC mutagenesis will facilitate the construction of recombinant herpes simplex viruses and viral vectors.

  11. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of human septin 1 with site-directed mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Hao; Yu, Wen-bo; Li, Shu-xing; Ding, Xiang-ming; Yu, Long; Bi, Ru-Chang

    2006-01-01

    The homogeneity of septin 1 has been improved by site-directed mutation of serine residues and only a small alteration in the secondary structure is observed to arise from the mutations. Crystals of the septin 1 mutant were grown and diffraction data were collected to 2.5 Å resolution. Septin 1 is a member of an evolutionarily conserved family of GTP-binding and filament-forming proteins named septins, which function in diverse processes including cytokinasis, vesicle trafficking, apoptosis, remodelling of the cytoskeleton, infection, neurodegeneration and neoplasia. Human septin 1 has been expressed and purified, but suffers from severe aggregation. Studies have shown that septin 1 with site-directed mutations of five serine residues (Ser19, Ser206, Ser307, Ser312 and Ser315) has a much lower degree of aggregation and better structural homogeneity and that the mutations cause only slight perturbations in the secondary structure of septin 1. This septin 1 mutant was crystallized and diffraction data were collected to 2.5 Å resolution. The space group is P422, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 106.028, c = 137.852 Å

  12. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of human septin 1 with site-directed mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Hao [Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Yu, Wen-bo [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Li, Shu-xing [Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Ding, Xiang-ming; Yu, Long [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Bi, Ru-Chang [Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2006-02-01

    The homogeneity of septin 1 has been improved by site-directed mutation of serine residues and only a small alteration in the secondary structure is observed to arise from the mutations. Crystals of the septin 1 mutant were grown and diffraction data were collected to 2.5 Å resolution. Septin 1 is a member of an evolutionarily conserved family of GTP-binding and filament-forming proteins named septins, which function in diverse processes including cytokinasis, vesicle trafficking, apoptosis, remodelling of the cytoskeleton, infection, neurodegeneration and neoplasia. Human septin 1 has been expressed and purified, but suffers from severe aggregation. Studies have shown that septin 1 with site-directed mutations of five serine residues (Ser19, Ser206, Ser307, Ser312 and Ser315) has a much lower degree of aggregation and better structural homogeneity and that the mutations cause only slight perturbations in the secondary structure of septin 1. This septin 1 mutant was crystallized and diffraction data were collected to 2.5 Å resolution. The space group is P422, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 106.028, c = 137.852 Å.

  13. Mutagenesis and phenotyping resources in zebrafish for studying development and human disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Gaurav Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an important model organism for studying development and human disease. The zebrafish has an excellent reference genome and the functions of hundreds of genes have been tested using both forward and reverse genetic approaches. Recent years have seen an increasing number of large-scale mutagenesis projects and the number of mutants or gene knockouts in zebrafish has increased rapidly, including for the first time conditional knockout technologies. In addition, targeted mutagenesis techniques such as zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases and clustered regularly interspaced short sequences (CRISPR) or CRISPR-associated (Cas), have all been shown to effectively target zebrafish genes as well as the first reported germline homologous recombination, further expanding the utility and power of zebrafish genetics. Given this explosion of mutagenesis resources, it is now possible to perform systematic, high-throughput phenotype analysis of all zebrafish gene knockouts. PMID:24162064

  14. Targeted Mutagenesis in Rice Using TALENs and the CRISPR/Cas9 System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Masaki; Nishizawa-Yokoi, Ayako; Toki, Seiichi

    2016-01-01

    Sequence-specific nucleases (SSNs), such as zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and the clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 nuclease (Cas9) system, are powerful tools for understanding gene function and for developing novel traits in plants. In plant species for which transformation and regeneration systems using protoplasts are not yet established, direct delivery to nuclei of SSNs either in the form of RNA or protein is difficult. Thus, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of SSN expression constructs in cultured cells is a practical means of delivering targeted mutagenesis in some plant species including rice. Because targeted mutagenesis occurs stochastically in transgenic cells and SSN-mediated targeted mutagenesis often leads to no selectable phenotype, identification of highly mutated cell lines is a critical step in obtaining regenerated plants with desired mutations.

  15. Mutagenesis and repair of DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janion, C.; Grzesiuk, E.; Fabisiewicz, A.; Tudek, B.; Ciesla, J.; Graziewicz, M.; Wojcik, A.; Speina, E.

    1998-01-01

    Full text. The discovery that the mfd gene codes for a transcription-coupling repair factor (TRCF) prompted us to re-investigate the MFD (mutation frequency decline) phenomenon in E.coli K-12 strain when mutations were induced by ultraviolet light, halogen light or MMS-treatment. These studies revealed that: (i) the process of MFD involves the proofreading activity of DNA pol III and the mismatch repair system, as well as, TRCF and the UvrABC-excinuclease (ii) a semi-rich plate test may be replaced by a rich liquid medium, (iii) the T-T pyrimidine dimers are the lesions excised with the highest activity, and (iv) overproduction of UmuD(D'C) proteins leads to a great increase in mutant frequency in irradiated and MMS-treated cells. The role of mismatch repair (MR) in MMS-induced mutagenesis is obscured by the fact that the spectra of mutational specificity are different in bacteria proficient and deficient in MR. It has been found that transposons Tn10 (and Tn5) when inserted into chromosomal DNA of E. coli influence the phenotype lowering the survival and frequency of mutations induced by UV or halogen light irradiation. This is connected with a deficiency of UmuD(D') and UmuC proteins. Transformation of bacteria with plasmids bearing the umuD(D')C genes, suppresses the effects of the transposon insertion, a phenomenon which has not been described before. Single-stranded DNA of M13mp18 phage was oxidized in vitro by a hydroxyl radical generating system including hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase/Fe3+/EDTA, and it was found that Fapy-Ade, Fapy-Gua, 8-oxyAde and thymine glycol were the main products formed. Replication of the oxidized template by T7 phage DNA polymerase, Klenow fragment of polymerase I, or polymerase beta from bovine thymus has revealed that oxidized pyrimidines are stronger blockers than oxidized purines for T7 phage and Klenow fragment polymerases and the blocking potency depends on the neighboring bases and on the type of polymerase. Studies of

  16. Modification of Antibody Function by Mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasch, James R; Dasch, Amy L

    2017-09-01

    The ability to "fine-tune" recombinant antibodies by mutagenesis separates recombinant antibodies from hybridoma-derived antibodies because the latter are locked with respect to their properties. Recombinant antibodies can be modified to suit the application: Changes in isotype, format (e.g., scFv, Fab, bispecific antibodies), and specificity can be made once the heavy- and light-chain sequences are available. After immunoglobulin heavy and light chains for a particular antibody have been cloned, the binding site-namely, the complementarity determining regions (CDR)-can be manipulated by mutagenesis to obtain antibody variants with improved properties. The method described here is relatively simple, uses commercially available reagents, and is effective. Using the pComb3H vector, a commercial mutagenesis kit, PfuTurbo polymerase (Agilent), and two mutagenic primers, a library of phage with mutagenized heavy and light CDR3 can be obtained. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  17. Photodynamic action of the methylene blue: mutagenesis and sinergism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capella, M.A.M.

    1988-01-01

    Two aspects of photodynamic therapy were studied: the associated mutagenesis and the interactions with physical agents, in order to increase its biological effects. The photodynamic action with methylene blue in the mutagenesis and sinergism is studied. (L.M.J.)

  18. Soybean breeding with EMS mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Aiqiu; Geng Yuxuan; Zhu Baogo

    1990-01-01

    Full text: 'Yudou No. 2' is a good soybean variety grown in the Honan Province. EMS was applied to seeds and valuable mutants were selected among the descendants. In a short period, several genetically stable strains were obtained. In the M 2 population, the early-maturing mutants were the most frequent, followed by short culm mutants. Other mutations altered leaf shape, grain size, habit of pod bearing, number of pods etc. One of the best strains is '86-180'. It is highly disease-resistant and ripens 19 days earlier than the original 'Yodou No. 2'. It bears more pods, although the seeds are a little bit smaller and is highly productive (4110kg/ha). Another good strain is '86-223'. It is also disease-resistant and highly productive (3390kg/ha). (author)

  19. Soybean breeding with EMS mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiqiu, Gu; Yuxuan, Geng; Baogo, Zhu [Institute of Genetics, Academia Sinica, Beijing (China)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: 'Yudou No. 2' is a good soybean variety grown in the Honan Province. EMS was applied to seeds and valuable mutants were selected among the descendants. In a short period, several genetically stable strains were obtained. In the M{sub 2} population, the early-maturing mutants were the most frequent, followed by short culm mutants. Other mutations altered leaf shape, grain size, habit of pod bearing, number of pods etc. One of the best strains is '86-180'. It is highly disease-resistant and ripens 19 days earlier than the original 'Yodou No. 2'. It bears more pods, although the seeds are a little bit smaller and is highly productive (4110kg/ha). Another good strain is '86-223'. It is also disease-resistant and highly productive (3390kg/ha). (author)

  20. Site-Directed Immobilization of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 to Solid Surfaces by Click Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siverino, Claudia; Tabisz, Barbara; Lühmann, Tessa; Meinel, Lorenz; Müller, Thomas; Walles, Heike; Nickel, Joachim

    2018-03-29

    Different therapeutic strategies for the treatment of non-healing long bone defects have been intensively investigated. Currently used treatments present several limitations that have led to the use of biomaterials in combination with osteogenic growth factors, such as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Commonly used absorption or encapsulation methods require supra-physiological amounts of BMP2, typically resulting in a so-called initial burst release effect that provokes several severe adverse side effects. A possible strategy to overcome these problems would be to covalently couple the protein to the scaffold. Moreover, coupling should be performed in a site-specific manner in order to guarantee a reproducible product outcome. Therefore, we created a BMP2 variant, in which an artificial amino acid (propargyl-L-lysine) was introduced into the mature part of the BMP2 protein by codon usage expansion (BMP2-K3Plk). BMP2-K3Plk was coupled to functionalized beads through copper catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). The biological activity of the coupled BMP2-K3Plk was proven in vitro and the osteogenic activity of the BMP2-K3Plk-functionalized beads was proven in cell based assays. The functionalized beads in contact with C2C12 cells were able to induce alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression in locally restricted proximity of the bead. Thus, by this technique, functionalized scaffolds can be produced that can trigger cell differentiation towards an osteogenic lineage. Additionally, lower BMP2 doses are sufficient due to the controlled orientation of site-directed coupled BMP2. With this method, BMPs are always exposed to their receptors on the cell surface in the appropriate orientation, which is not the case if the factors are coupled via non-site-directed coupling techniques. The product outcome is highly controllable and, thus, results in materials with homogeneous properties, improving their applicability for the repair of critical size bone defects.

  1. Crowding depression of UV-mutagenesis in E. coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockrath, R.; Harper, D.; Kristoff, S.; Stanford Univ., CA

    1980-01-01

    Strains of E. coli Br were exposed to UV radiation and assayed for reversion mutation, using a standard selection medium. If more irradiated bacteria were assayed per petri dish, a proportional increase in the number of indicated reversion mutants was oud only up to a limiting plating density. Beyond a density of about 10 8 viable bacteria per petri dish, the number of indicated revertants per viable bacteriy assayed (the mutation frequency) decreased as the plating density was increased. The crowding depression of mutagenesis was more severe for de novo and converted suppressor mutations, the mutation frequency being reduced 100-fold at a plating density of about 6 x 10 9 viable bacteria per plate. The effect on backmutation was 10 times less. Crowding depression of mutagenesis occured in excision-proficient and -deficient strains, with identical effects in the 2 strains on de novo and converted suppressor mutation, but different effects on backmutations. There were no accompanying effects on viability. Irreversible loss of potential mutants during crowded growth was indicated in wash-off experiments. The kinetics suggested a half-life of approximately 1 h. Kinetics for accumulation by the bacteria of the limiting metabolite (tyrosine) on the assay plate indicated a short period of time for protein synthesis, but direct examination of the proteins synthesized during early growth on a crowded plate demonstrated successful induction of recA protein. (orig.)

  2. Complex epidemiological approach to human mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czeizel, A.

    1980-01-01

    The main characteristics of the epidemiological approach are summarised and the criteria discussed for the adoption of this approach for the detection of human mutagenesis. Mutation monitoring systems are described and results of epidemiological studies of higher risk populations are presented. (C.F.)

  3. Target-selected mutagenesis of the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, B.M.; Mudde, J.B.; Plasterk, R.; Cuppen, E.

    2004-01-01

    The rat is one of the most extensively studied model organisms, and with its genome being sequenced, tools to manipulate gene function in vivo have become increasingly important. We here report proof of principle for target-selected mutagenesis as a reverse genetic or knockout approach for the rat.

  4. Excision repair and mutagenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilbey, Brian

    1987-01-01

    This and succeeding letters discuss the James and Kilbey (1977 and 1978) model for the initiation of u.v. mutagenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its application to include a number of chemical mutagens. The Baranowska et al (1987) results indicating the role of DNA replication, the differing mechanisms in Escherichia coli, are all discussed. (UK)

  5. Seed mutagenesis in Portulaca grandiflora (Hook)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennani, F.; Rossi-Hassani, B.D.

    2001-01-01

    Betalain pigments have been used as natural additives. Despite their importance, the biochemistry and genetics of betalain synthesis remain relatively undetermined. Portulaca grandiflora represents an ideal material for genetic analysis. In the present work, seed mutagenesis was examined with a view to enhance the chance of detection of new genetic markers in this species

  6. umuC-mediated misrepair mutagenesis in Escherichia coli: Extent and specificity of SOS mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinoura, Y.; Ise, T.; Kato, T.; Glickman, B.W.

    1983-01-01

    The role of the error-prone misrepair pathway in mutagenesis was examined for a series of mutagens in umuC + and umuC36 strains of Escherichia coli. Mutagenesis by ENU, MNU, MNNG and EMS was independent of the umuC + gene function, while mutagenesis by MMS, 4NQO, γ-rays and UV was largely umuC + -dependent. Residual mutagenesis following UV-treatment of a umuC - strain showed the same mutational specificity seen in the umuC + strain. In contrast, the umuC mutation altered specificity substantially in an excision-repair-defective strain that showed a UV-spectrum strikingly different from that seen in an excision-repair-proficient strain. Only one of nine trpE frameshift mutations examined was reverted by UV-light and its reversion was umuC-dependent. In comparison, the dependence of frameshift mutagenesis following ICR191 treatment was site-specific, suggesting at least two mechanisms of frameshift mutagenesis, one dependent upon misrepair, the other not. (orig./AJ)

  7. Ion Channel Conformation and Oligomerization Assessment by Site-Directed Spin Labeling and Pulsed-EPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliotas, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels are multimeric integral membrane proteins that respond to increased lipid bilayer tension by opening their nonselective pores to release solutes and relieve increased cytoplasmic pressure. These systems undergo major conformational changes during gating and the elucidation of their mechanism requires a deep understanding of the interplay between lipids and proteins. Lipids are responsible for transmitting lateral tension to MS channels and therefore play a key role in obtaining a molecular-detail model for mechanosensation. Site-directed spin labeling combined with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is a powerful spectroscopic tool in the study of proteins. The main bottleneck for its use relates to challenges associated with successful isolation of the protein of interest, introduction of paramagnetic labels on desired sites, and access to specialized instrumentation and expertise. The design of sophisticated experiments, which combine a variety of existing EPR methodologies to address a diversity of specific questions, require knowledge of the limitations and strengths, characteristic of each particular EPR method. This chapter is using the MS ion channels as paradigms and focuses on the application of different EPR techniques to ion channels, in order to investigate oligomerization, conformation, and the effect of lipids on their regulation. The methodology we followed, from the initial strategic selection of mutants and sample preparation, including protein purification, spin labeling, reconstitution into lipid mimics to the complete set-up of the pulsed-EPR experiments, is described in detail. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Nevada National Security Site: Site-Directed Research and Development (SDRD) Fiscal Year 2015 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, Howard A. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States). Site-Directed Research and Development Program

    2016-04-01

    This report presents results of multiple research projects, new and ongoing, funded under the Site-Directed Research and Development Program for the Nevada National Security Site during federal fiscal year 2015. The Site's legacy capabilities in remote sensing combined with new paradigms for emergency response and consequence management help drive the need to develop advanced aerial sensor platforms. Likewise, dynamic materials science is a critical area of scientific research for which basic physics issues are still unresolved. New methods of characterizing materials in extreme states are vitally needed, and these efforts are paving the way with new knowledge. Projects selected in FY 2015 for the Exploratory Research portfolio exhibit a strong balance of NNSS mission relevance. Geoscience, seismology, and techniques for detecting underground nuclear events are still essential focus areas. Many of the project reports in the second major section of this annual report are ongoing continuations in multi-year lifecycles. Diagnostic techniques for stockpile and nuclear security science figured prominently as well, with a few key efforts coming to fruition, such as phase transition detection. In other areas, modeling efforts toward better understanding plasma focus physics has also started to pay dividends for major program needs.

  9. Nevada Test Site-Directed Research and Development FY 2010 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard Bender, comp.

    2011-04-04

    This annual report of the Site-Directed Research and Development (SDRD) program represents the highly significant R&D accomplishments conducted during fiscal year 2010. This year was noteworthy historically, as the Nevada Test Site was renamed to the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). This change not only recognizes how the site's mission has evolved, but also heralds a future of new challenges and opportunities for the NNSS. In many ways, since its inception in 2002, the SDRD program has helped shape that evolving mission. As we approach 2012, SDRD will also mark a milestone, having completed its first full decade of innovative R&D in support of the site and national security. The program continues to fund advanced science and technology development across traditional Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear security areas such as stockpile stewardship and non-proliferation while also supporting Department of Homeland Security (DHS) needs, and specialized work for government agencies like the Department of Defense (DoD) and others. The NNSS will also contribute technologies in the areas of treaty verification and monitoring, two areas of increasing importance to national security. Keyed to the NNSS's broadened scope, the SDRD program will continue to anticipate and advance R&D projects that will help the NNSS meet forthcoming challenges.

  10. Nevada National Security Site. Site-Directed Research and Development FY 2011 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, Howard

    2012-01-01

    This fiscal year 2011 annual report of the Site-Directed Research and Development program, the 10th anniversary edition, recognizes a full decade of innovative R and D accomplishments in support of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). Last year the NNSS itself was renamed to reflect a diversifying mission, and our R and D program has contributed significantly to shape emerging missions that will continue to evolve. New initiatives in stockpile stewardship science, nonproliferation, and treaty verification and monitoring have had substantial successes in FY 2011, and many more accomplishments are expected. SDRD is the cornerstone on which many of these initiatives rest. Historically supporting our main focus areas, SDRD is also building a solid foundation for new, and non-traditional, emerging national security missions. The program continues its charter to advance science and technology for a broad base of agencies including the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and many others.

  11. Site-directed mutation of a laccase from Thermus thermophilus: Effect on the activity profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A site-directed mutant R453T of a laccase from Thermus thermophilus HB27 (Tth-laccase was constructed in order to investigate the effect on laccase catalytic properties. The mutated gene was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Nickel-affinity purification was achieved and followed by copper ion incorporation. The mature mutated enzyme was quantitatively equal to the wild type. A photometric assay based on the oxidation of the substrate 2,2-azino-bis-(3- ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS was employed in comparison with the wild-type Tth-laccase on catalytic properties. The R453T mutant exhibited improvement in substrate affinity and specific activity at room temperature, whereas those parameters were not significantly influenced when the temperature increased up to 65°C or higher. The mutant had better catalytic activity than that of the wild type at acidic pH. Investigated by circular dichroism spectroscopy, the mutant Tth-laccase displayed similar profiles at low and high temperatures.

  12. Nevada Test Site-Directed Research and Development: FY 2006 Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wil Lewis, editor

    2007-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site Directed Research and Development (SDRD) program completed its fifth successful year of research and development activities in FY 2006. Forty new projects were selected for funding this year, and ten FY 2005 projects were brought to conclusion. The total funds expended by the SDRD program were $6 million, for an average per-project cost of $120 thousand. Beginning in May, 2006 programmatic burden rates were applied to SDRD project costs. An external audit conducted in September 2006 verified that appropriate accounting practices were applied to the SDRD program. Highlights for the year included: the filing of 27 invention disclosures for intellectual property generated by FY 2006 projects; programmatic adoption of four FY 2005 SDRD-developed technologies; participation in the tri-Lab Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) and SDRD program review that was broadly attended by NTS, NNSA, LDRD, and U.S. Department of Homeland Security representatives; peer reviews of all FY 2006 projects; and the successful completion of 50 R and D projects, as presented in this report

  13. Nevada Natonal Security Site-Directed Research and Development FY 2010 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, Howard

    2011-01-01

    This annual report of the Site-Directed Research and Development (SDRD) program represents the highly significant R and D accomplishments conducted during fiscal year 2010. This year was noteworthy historically, as the Nevada Test Site was renamed to the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). This change not only recognizes how the site's mission has evolved, but also heralds a future of new challenges and opportunities for the NNSS. In many ways, since its inception in 2002, the SDRD program has helped shape that evolving mission. As we approach 2012, SDRD will also mark a milestone, having completed its first full decade of innovative R and D in support of the site and national security. The program continues to fund advanced science and technology development across traditional Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear security areas such as stockpile stewardship and non-proliferation while also supporting Department of Homeland Security (DHS) needs, and specialized work for government agencies like the Department of Defense (DoD) and others. The NNSS will also contribute technologies in the areas of treaty verification and monitoring, two areas of increasing importance to national security. Keyed to the NNSS's broadened scope, the SDRD program will continue to anticipate and advance R and D projects that will help the NNSS meet forthcoming challenges.

  14. Nevada Test Site-Directed Research, Development, and Demonstration. FY2005 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Will [comp.

    2006-09-01

    The Nevada Test Site-Directed Research, Development, and Demonstration (SDRD) program completed a very successful year of research and development activities in FY 2005. Fifty new projects were selected for funding this year, and five FY 2004 projects were brought to conclusion. The total funds expended by the SDRD program were $5.4 million, for an average per project cost of just under $100,000. Two external audits of SDRD accounting practices were conducted in FY 2005. Both audits found the program's accounting practices consistent with the requirements of DOE Order 413.2A, and one included the observation that the NTS contractor ''did an exceptional job in planning and executing year-start activities.'' Highlights for the year included: the filing of 18 invention disclosures for intellectual property generated by FY 2005 projects; programmatic adoption of 17 FY 2004 SDRD-developed technologies; participation in the tri-lab Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) and SDRD program review that was broadly attended by NTS, NNSA, LDRD, and U.S. Department of Homeland Security representatives; peer reviews of all FY 2005 projects; and the successful completion of 55 R&D projects, as presented in this report.

  15. Nevada National Security Site-Directed Research and Development FY 2011 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard Bender, comp.

    2012-04-25

    This fiscal year 2011 annual report of the Site-Directed Research and Development program, the 10th anniversary edition, recognizes a full decade of innovative R&D accomplishments in support of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). Last year the NNSS itself was renamed to reflect a diversifying mission, and our R&D program has contributed significantly to shape emerging missions that will continue to evolve. New initiatives in stockpile stewardship science, nonproliferation, and treaty verification and monitoring have had substantial successes in FY 2011, and many more accomplishments are expected. SDRD is the cornerstone on which many of these initiatives rest. Historically supporting our main focus areas, SDRD is also building a solid foundation for new, and non-traditional, emerging national security missions. The program continues its charter to advance science and technology for a broad base of agencies including the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and many others.

  16. Novel Random Mutagenesis Method for Directed Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hong; Wang, Hai-Yan; Zhao, Hong-Yan

    2017-01-01

    Directed evolution is a powerful strategy for gene mutagenesis, and has been used for protein engineering both in scientific research and in the biotechnology industry. The routine method for directed evolution was developed by Stemmer in 1994 (Stemmer, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91, 10747-10751, 1994; Stemmer, Nature 370, 389-391, 1994). Since then, various methods have been introduced, each of which has advantages and limitations depending upon the targeted genes and procedure. In this chapter, a novel alternative directed evolution method which combines mutagenesis PCR with dITP and fragmentation by endonuclease V is described. The kanamycin resistance gene is used as a reporter gene to verify the novel method for directed evolution. This method for directed evolution has been demonstrated to be efficient, reproducible, and easy to manipulate in practice.

  17. Genetic improvement of soybean through induced mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjaya, J.G.; Nandanwar, R.S.; Thengane, R.J.; Muthiah, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merril) is one of the important oilseed crops of India. The country produces more than 9.00 million tonnes of soybean per annum and has acquired first place amongst oilseed crops grown in India. Narrow genetic base of cultivated varieties in soybean is of global concern. Efficient mutant production systems, through physical or chemical mutagenesis, have been well established in soybean. A vast amount of genetic variability, of both quantitative and qualitative traits, has been generated through experimental mutagenesis. Two soybean varieties TAMS-38 and TAMS 98-21 have been developed and released for commercial cultivation by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC). In this paper the role of mutation breeding in soybean improvement has been discussed. (author)

  18. Mechanisms of uv mutagenesis in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, C.W.; Christensen, R.; Schwartz, A.

    1982-01-01

    The uv mutagenesis in yeast depends on the function of the RAD6 locus, a gene that is also responsible for a substantial fraction of wild-type resistance, suggesting that this eukaryote may possess a misrepair mechanism analogous to that proposed for Escherichia coli. The molecular mechanism responsible for RAD6 repair or recovery is not yet known, but it is different from either excision or recombination-dependent repair, processes carried out by the other two main repair pathways in yeast. RAD6-dependent mutagenesis has been found to have the following characteristics. It is associated at best with only a small fraction of RAD6-dependent repair, the majority of the sensitivity of rad6 mutants being due to their lack of nonmutagenic repair. SRS2 metabolic suppressors restore a substantial fraction of uv resistance to rad6 mutants but do not restore their uv mutability. Strains containing mutations at loci (rev, umr) that are probably more directly involved in mutagenesis are only mildly sensitive, and there is a poor correlation between their sensitivity and mutational deficiency. The uv mutagenesis appears to require a large number of gene functions, perhaps ten or more. Where examined in detail, these genes have been found to be concerned in the production of only a specific range of mutational events, not all of them. Mating experiments have shown that a substantial fraction, probably 40% or more, of uv-induced mutations are untargeted, that is, occur in lesion-free regions of DNA. The uv irradiation, therefore, produces a general reduction in the normally high fidelity with which DNA is replicated on undamaged templates. It does not appear to be necessary for the causal lesion to be present in the same chromosome as the mutation it induces. The reduction in fidelity may be the consequence of the production of a diffusible factor in uv-irradiated cells, but definite evidence supporting this proposal has not yet been obtained

  19. Recovery during radiation and chemical mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deen, D.F.

    1975-01-01

    These investigations were directed toward the study of recovery in radiation and chemical mutagenesis in cultured mammalian cells. A mutagenesis system was established in which mutation of V79-17lb Chinese hamster cells to 8-azaguanine resistance was tested. The effects of split dose and postirradiation treatments upon both x-ray and EMS induced mutagenesis were determined. Increasing the cell inoculum by a factor of 5 (from 10 5 to 5 x 10 5 ) decreased both the spontaneous and x-ray induced mutation frequencies by two orders of magnitude. The x-ray induced mutation frequency was found to be higher for those cells allowed to attach for 5 hours before irradiation, in comparison to those allowed to attach for 2 hours. The uv spectrum of 8-azaguanine changes as a function of storage time at low temperature, but not when diluted to either 10 μg/ml or 30 μg/ml and maintained at 37 0 C. The optimal expression time required after irradiation is dose dependent and can be determined from the relationship: E.T. = 1.93(10 -2 )D + 15.5. (E.T. = hours; D = rads). The duration of the optimal expression time can be estimated by summing the cell cycle time and the radiation induced lag time

  20. Site directed spin labeling studies of Escherichia coli dihydroorotate dehydrogenase N-terminal extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couto, Sheila G. [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Trabalhador Sao-carlense 400, C.P. 369, 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Grupo de Biofisica e Fisica Aplicada a Medicina, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Goias, Campus Samambaia, C.P. 131, 74001-970, Goiania, GO (Brazil); Cristina Nonato, M. [Laboratorio de Cristalografia de Proteinas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. do Cafe S/N, 14040-903, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Costa-Filho, Antonio J., E-mail: ajcosta@ffclrp.usp.br [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Trabalhador Sao-carlense 400, C.P. 369, 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, 14040-901, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EcDHODH is a membrane-associated enzyme and a promising target for drug design. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enzyme's N-terminal extension is responsible for membrane association. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N-terminal works as a molecular lid regulating access to the protein interior. -- Abstract: Dihydroorotate dehydrogenases (DHODHs) are enzymes that catalyze the fourth step of the de novo synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides. In this reaction, DHODH converts dihydroorotate to orotate, using a flavine mononucleotide as a cofactor. Since the synthesis of nucleotides has different pathways in mammals as compared to parasites, DHODH has gained much attention as a promising target for drug design. Escherichia coli DHODH (EcDHODH) is a family 2 DHODH that interacts with cell membranes in order to promote catalysis. The membrane association is supposedly made via an extension found in the enzyme's N-terminal. In the present work, we used site directed spin labeling (SDSL) to specifically place a magnetic probe at positions 2, 5, 19, and 21 within the N-terminal and thus monitor, by using Electron Spin Resonance (ESR), dynamics and structural changes in this region in the presence of a membrane model system. Overall, our ESR spectra show that the N-terminal indeed binds to membranes and that it experiences a somewhat high flexibility that could be related to the role of this region as a molecular lid controlling the entrance of the enzyme's active site and thus allowing the enzyme to give access to quinones that are dispersed in the membrane and that are necessary for the catalysis.

  1. Conformational change in full-length mouse prion: A site-directed spin-labeling study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inanami, Osamu; Hashida, Shukichi; Iizuka, Daisuke; Horiuchi, Motohiro; Hiraoka, Wakako; Shimoyama, Yuhei; Nakamura, Hideo; Inagaki, Fuyuhiko; Kuwabara, Mikinori

    2005-01-01

    The structure of the mouse prion (moPrP) was studied using site-directed spin-labeling electron spin resonance (SDSL-ESR). Since a previous NMR study by Hornemanna et al., [Hornemanna, Korthb, Oeschb, Rieka, Widera, Wuethricha, Glockshubera, Recombinant full-length murine prion protein, mPrP (23-231): purification and spectroscopic characterization, FEBS Lett. 413 (1997) 277-281] has indicated that N96, D143, and T189 in moPrP are localized in a Cu 2+ binding region, Helix1 and Helix2, respectively, three recombinant moPrP mutations (N96C, D143C, and T189C) were expressed in an Escherichia coli system, and then refolded by dialysis under low pH and purified by reverse-phase HPLC. By using the preparation, we succeeded in preserving a target cystein residue without alteration of the α-helix structure of moPrP and were able to apply SDSL-ESR with a methane thiosulfonate spin label to the full-length prion protein. The rotational correlation times (τ) of 1.1, 3.3, and 4.8 ns were evaluated from the X-band ESR spectra at pH 7.4 and 20 deg C for N96R1, D143R1, and T189R1, respectively. τ reflects the fact that the Cu 2+ binding region is more flexible than Helix1 or Helix2. ESR spectra recorded at various temperatures revealed two phases together with a transition point at around 20 deg C in D143R1 and T189R1, but not in N96R1. With the variation of pH from 4.0 to 7.8, ESR spectra of T189R1 at 20 deg C showed a gradual increase of τ from 2.9 to 4.8 ns. On the other hand, the pH-dependent conformational changes in N96R1 and D143R1 were negligible. These results indicated that T189 located in Helix2 possessed a structure sensitive to physiological pH changes; simultaneously, N96 in the Cu 2+ binding region and D143 in Helix1 were conserved

  2. Nevada Test Site-Directed Research and Development, FY 2007 Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wil Lewis, editor

    2008-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site-Directed Research and Development (SDRD) program completed a very successful year of research and development activities in FY 2007. Twenty-nine new projects were selected for funding this year, and eight projects started in FY 2006 were brought to conclusion. The total funds expended by the SDRD program were $5.67 million, for an average per-project cost of $153 thousand. An external audit conducted in September 2007 verified that appropriate accounting practices were applied to the SDRD program. Highlights for the year included: programmatic adoption of 8 SDRD-developed technologies; the filing of 9 invention disclosures for innovation evolving from SDRD projects; participation in the tri-Lab Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) and SDRD Symposium that was broadly attended by Nevada Test Site (NTS), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), LDRD, U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) representatives; peer reviews of all FY 2007 projects; and the successful completion of 37 R and D projects, as presented in this report. In response to a company-wide call, authors throughout the NTS complex submitted 182 proposals for FY 2007 SDRD projects. The SDRD program has seen a dramatic increase in the yearly total of submitted proposals--from 69 in FY 2002 to 182 this year--while the number of projects funded has actually decreased from a program high of 57 in FY 2004. The overall effect of this trend has helped ensure an increasingly competitive program that benefited from a broader set of innovative ideas, making project selection both challenging and rewarding. Proposals were evaluated for technical merit, including such factors as innovation, probability of success, potential benefit, and mission applicability. Authors and reviewers benefited from the use of a shortfalls list entitled the 'NTS Technology Needs Assessment' that was compiled from NTS, National Weapons Laboratory (NWL

  3. Nevada Test Site-Directed Research and Development, FY 2007 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wil Lewis, editor

    2008-02-20

    The Nevada Test Site-Directed Research and Development (SDRD) program completed a very successful year of research and development activities in FY 2007. Twenty-nine new projects were selected for funding this year, and eight projects started in FY 2006 were brought to conclusion. The total funds expended by the SDRD program were $5.67 million, for an average per-project cost of $153 thousand. An external audit conducted in September 2007 verified that appropriate accounting practices were applied to the SDRD program. Highlights for the year included: programmatic adoption of 8 SDRD-developed technologies; the filing of 9 invention disclosures for innovation evolving from SDRD projects; participation in the tri-Lab Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) and SDRD Symposium that was broadly attended by Nevada Test Site (NTS), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), LDRD, U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) representatives; peer reviews of all FY 2007 projects; and the successful completion of 37 R&D projects, as presented in this report. In response to a company-wide call, authors throughout the NTS complex submitted 182 proposals for FY 2007 SDRD projects. The SDRD program has seen a dramatic increase in the yearly total of submitted proposals--from 69 in FY 2002 to 182 this year--while the number of projects funded has actually decreased from a program high of 57 in FY 2004. The overall effect of this trend has helped ensure an increasingly competitive program that benefited from a broader set of innovative ideas, making project selection both challenging and rewarding. Proposals were evaluated for technical merit, including such factors as innovation, probability of success, potential benefit, and mission applicability. Authors and reviewers benefited from the use of a shortfalls list entitled the 'NTS Technology Needs Assessment' that was compiled from NTS, National Weapons Laboratory

  4. Site-directed fluorescence labeling of a membrane protein with BADAN: probing protein topology and local environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koehorst, R.B.M.; Spruijt, R.B.; Hemminga, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    We present a new and simple method based on site-directed fluorescence labeling using the BADAN label that allows to examine protein-lipid interactions in great detail. We apply this approach to a membrane-embedded mainly -helical reference protein, the M13 major coat protein, of which in a

  5. Fluorometric method of quantitative cell mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolbeare, F.A.

    1980-12-12

    A method for assaying a cell culture for mutagenesis is described. A cell culture is stained first with a histochemical stain, and then a fluorescent stain. Normal cells in the culture are stained by both the histochemical and fluorescent stains, while abnormal cells are stained only by the fluorescent stain. The two stains are chosen so that the histochemical stain absorbs the wavelengths that the fluorescent stain emits. After the counterstained culture is subjected to exciting light, the fluorescence from the abnormal cells is detected.

  6. The role of misrepair in experimental mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Hikoyuki

    1983-01-01

    Mutagenesis is classified as being either mispairing occuring at the time of chromosome replication or as being misrepair occuring when damaged nucleotides are converted to the paired ones. In the cell population of the root meristem of barley which is considered to be steadystate, the possibility of the selective segregation of the newly synthesized and the older template strands of DNA at mitosis was studied by the incorporation of 3 H-thymidine. Stochastic removal of de novo synthesized DNA strand to a zone of non-dividing cell population was unlikely. Thus, it has been concluded that there is special mechanisms for protecting the integrity of the DNA by removing the mispairing lesions. Barly seeds first exposed to a low level γ-radiation before treating with ethylmethane sulfonate. Survival rate of M 1 plants as well as mutation frequency of M 2 were higher for the combined treatment than for single treatment of chemical mutagen. A mutational response of barley cell to DNA damaging agent was much affected by a previous treatment with mutagens. It is suggested that in the experimental mutagenesis misrepair plays rather an important role than mispairing. (author)

  7. New mutations affecting induced mutagenesis in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, C W; Krauss, B R; Christensen, R B

    1985-01-01

    Previously isolated mutations in baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, that impair induced mutagenesis were all identified with the aid of tests that either exclusively or predominantly detect base-pair substitutions. To avoid this bias, we have screened 11 366 potentially mutant clones for UV-induced reversion of the frameshift allele, his4-38, and have identified 10 mutants that give much reduced yields of revertants. Complementation and recombination tests show that 6 of these carry mutations at the previously known REV1, REV1 and REV3 loci, while the remaining 4 define 3 new genes, REV4 (2 mutations), REV5 and REV6. The rev4 mutations are readily suppressed in many genetic backgrounds and, like the rev5 mutation, impart only a limited deficiency for induced mutagenesis: it is likely, therefore that the REV4+ and REV5+ gene functions are only remotely concerned with this process. The rev6 mutants have a more general deficiency, however, as well as marked sensitivity to UV and an increased spontaneous mutation rate, properties that suggest the REV6 gene is directly involved in mutation induction. The REV5 gene is located about 1 cM proximal to CYC1 on chromosome X.

  8. Laboratory of Mutagenesis and DNA Repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Two main lines of research were continued: the first one concerned the mechanisms controlling the fidelity of DNA replication in Escherichia coli; the second concerned cellular responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to DNA damaging agents. We have been investigating the question whether during chromosomal DNA replication in Escherichia coli the two DNA strands may be replicated with differential accuracy. To address this question we set up a new system that allows the examination of mutagenesis either of the leading strand or the lagging strand. Our results suggest that the lagging strand replication of the E. coli chromosome may be more accurate than leading strand replication. More recently, we studied mutagenesis of the two strands in recA730 strains which exhibit constitutive expression of the SOS system. Our results clearly indicate that in recA730 strains there is a significant difference in the fidelity of replication between the two replicating strands. Based on our data we propose a model describing a possible mechanism of SOS mutagenesis. To get more insight into cellular responses to DNA damage we have isolated several novel genes of S. cerevisiae, the transcription of which is induced by DNA lesions. Main effort was concentrated on the characterization of the DIN7 gene. We found that Din7p specifically affects the metabolism of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The elevated level of Din7p results in an increased frequency of mitochondrial petite mutants, as well as in a higher frequency of mitochondrial point mutations. Din7p affects also the stability of microsatellite sequences present in the mitochondrial genome. As expected, Din7p was found to be located in mitochondria. In another project, we found that the DIN8 gene isolated in our laboratory is identical with the UMP1 gene encoding a chaperone-like protein involved in 20S proteasome maturation. Interestingly, induction of UMP1 expression in response to DNA damage is subject to regulation

  9. Radiation mutagenesis in selection of apple trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolontaev, V.M.; Kolontaev, Yu.V.

    1977-01-01

    After X-radiation of grafts of antonovka apple trees, three groups of morphological mutants, namely, weak-, average- and violently-growing, have been revealed. Although the mutation spectrum has some indefinite character a dose of 6 kR causes, more frequently and in a greater number, the weak-growing mutants, and a dose of 2 kR, the violently-growing ones. Mutants of each group differ in the precociousness (precocious and latefruiting), type of fruiting (nospur and spur) and yield (high- and low-yielding). Using the method of radiation mutagenesis it is possible to rise the frequency and spectrum of somatic mutability of antonovka apple trees and to induce forms having valuable features

  10. Scoring function to predict solubility mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deutsch Christopher

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutagenesis is commonly used to engineer proteins with desirable properties not present in the wild type (WT protein, such as increased or decreased stability, reactivity, or solubility. Experimentalists often have to choose a small subset of mutations from a large number of candidates to obtain the desired change, and computational techniques are invaluable to make the choices. While several such methods have been proposed to predict stability and reactivity mutagenesis, solubility has not received much attention. Results We use concepts from computational geometry to define a three body scoring function that predicts the change in protein solubility due to mutations. The scoring function captures both sequence and structure information. By exploring the literature, we have assembled a substantial database of 137 single- and multiple-point solubility mutations. Our database is the largest such collection with structural information known so far. We optimize the scoring function using linear programming (LP methods to derive its weights based on training. Starting with default values of 1, we find weights in the range [0,2] so that predictions of increase or decrease in solubility are optimized. We compare the LP method to the standard machine learning techniques of support vector machines (SVM and the Lasso. Using statistics for leave-one-out (LOO, 10-fold, and 3-fold cross validations (CV for training and prediction, we demonstrate that the LP method performs the best overall. For the LOOCV, the LP method has an overall accuracy of 81%. Availability Executables of programs, tables of weights, and datasets of mutants are available from the following web page: http://www.wsu.edu/~kbala/OptSolMut.html.

  11. CRISPR/Cas-mediated targeted mutagenesis in Daphnia magna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Nakanishi

    Full Text Available The water flea Daphnia magna has been used as an animal model in ecology, evolution, and environmental sciences. Thanks to the recent progress in Daphnia genomics, genetic information such as the draft genome sequence and expressed sequence tags (ESTs is now available. To investigate the relationship between phenotypes and the available genetic information about Daphnia, some gene manipulation methods have been developed. However, a technique to induce targeted mutagenesis into Daphnia genome remains elusive. To overcome this problem, we focused on an emerging genome editing technique mediated by the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated (CRISPR/Cas system to introduce genomic mutations. In this study, we targeted a functionally conserved regulator of eye development, the eyeless gene in D. magna. When we injected Cas9 mRNAs and eyeless-targeting guide RNAs into eggs, 18-47% of the survived juveniles exhibited abnormal eye morphology. After maturation, up to 8.2% of the adults produced progenies with deformed eyes, which carried mutations in the eyeless loci. These results showed that CRISPR/Cas system could introduce heritable mutations into the endogenous eyeless gene in D. magna. This is the first report of a targeted gene knockout technique in Daphnia and will be useful in uncovering Daphnia gene functions.

  12. Maximizing mutagenesis with solubilized CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoprotein complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Alexa; Lindsay, Helen; Felker, Anastasia; Hess, Christopher; Anders, Carolin; Chiavacci, Elena; Zaugg, Jonas; Weber, Lukas M; Catena, Raul; Jinek, Martin; Robinson, Mark D; Mosimann, Christian

    2016-06-01

    CRISPR-Cas9 enables efficient sequence-specific mutagenesis for creating somatic or germline mutants of model organisms. Key constraints in vivo remain the expression and delivery of active Cas9-sgRNA ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) with minimal toxicity, variable mutagenesis efficiencies depending on targeting sequence, and high mutation mosaicism. Here, we apply in vitro assembled, fluorescent Cas9-sgRNA RNPs in solubilizing salt solution to achieve maximal mutagenesis efficiency in zebrafish embryos. MiSeq-based sequence analysis of targeted loci in individual embryos using CrispRVariants, a customized software tool for mutagenesis quantification and visualization, reveals efficient bi-allelic mutagenesis that reaches saturation at several tested gene loci. Such virtually complete mutagenesis exposes loss-of-function phenotypes for candidate genes in somatic mutant embryos for subsequent generation of stable germline mutants. We further show that targeting of non-coding elements in gene regulatory regions using saturating mutagenesis uncovers functional control elements in transgenic reporters and endogenous genes in injected embryos. Our results establish that optimally solubilized, in vitro assembled fluorescent Cas9-sgRNA RNPs provide a reproducible reagent for direct and scalable loss-of-function studies and applications beyond zebrafish experiments that require maximal DNA cutting efficiency in vivo. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Mutagenesis of Jatropha curcas - Exploring new traits in the breeding of a biofuel plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhar Mohamad; Sobri Hussein; Abdul Rahim Harun

    2010-01-01

    Mutagenesis in plant species is considered effective in recovering and producing useful mutants as it leads to a high degree of chimerism and produces high degree of somaclonal variations for further selection in breeding programmes. Jatropha curcas is a species with many attributes and considerable potential, especially as bio diesel. Narrow genetic background of Jatropha spp. gives less selection to growers for better quality plant materials. In this study, a new method through nuclear technology was used to increase the genetic variability of Jatropha towards novel superior potential mutant lines. The objective of the study is to generate new mutant varieties of Jatropha curcas through the mutagenesis approach in getting new sustainable mutants for high oil yield and improved plant characteristics. Seeds of a Jatropha cultivar were from selected materials from Lembaga Kenaf and Tembakau Negara, Kelantan. Radiosensitivity test was done by irradiating a total of each 60 seeds at multiple doses (0 Gy, 20 Gy, 40 Gy, 60 Gy, 80 Gy, 100 Gy, 200 Gy, 300 Gy, 400 Gy, 600 Gy and 700 Gy). After getting the LD 50 , three doses i.e. 250 Gy, 300 Gy and 350 Gy were selected for mutagenesis, where a total of 1000 seeds were exposed to gamma radiation. The seeds were hardened and field planted at close distance of 1 m x 1 m. Pruning was conducted three times at two months interval prior to screening for early flowering, short stature and high branching mutant lines. Radiosensitivity of seeds to acute gamma irradiation revealed that the LD 50 was at 320 Gy. At nursery stage, somatic mutations related to chlorophyll changes were observed on leaves with certain shapes. Screening of Jatropha via seed mutagenesis bore 6 early flowering mutants, 7 dwarf mutants and, 17 high branching plants. In narrowing the mutant lines, cuttings from each selected trait were collected and re-planted for further evaluation. (author)

  14. Heat shock and herpes virus: enhanced reactivation without untargeted mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lytle, C.D.; Carney, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    Enhanced reactivation of Ultraviolet-irradiated virus has been reported to occur in heat-shocked host cells. Since enhanced virus reactivation is often accompanied by untargeted mutagenesis, we investigated whether such mutagenesis would occur for herpes simplex virus (HSV) in CV-1 monkey kidney cells subjected to heat shock. In addition to expressing enhanced reactivation, the treated cells were transiently more susceptible to infection by unirradiated HSV. No mutagenesis of unirradiated HSV was found whether infection occurred at the time of increased susceptibility to infection or during expression of enhanced viral reactivation

  15. Active site-directed alkylation of Na+-K+-ATPase by digitalis sulphonate derivatives of different lipophilicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, U.; Klaus, W.; Rogatti, M.

    1981-01-01

    1 Sulphonate derivatives of k-strophanthidin and digitoxigenin were tested as active site-directed labels of Na+-K+-adenosine triphosphatase (Na+-ATPase) from guinea-pig heart. 2 Lipophilicity ranged between P = 93 for strophanthidin-3-tosyloxy-acetate (STA) and P = 3028 for digitoxigenin-3-tosyloxy-acetate (DTA). 3 Although the alkylating moiety of STA and DTA was identical, the reversibility of Na+-K+-ATPase inhibition varied appreciably (82% and 35% respectively). 4 It is concluded that lipophilicity contributes considerably to the irreversible binding of alkylating cardiotonic steroids to myocardial Na+-K+-ATPase. PMID:6261865

  16. DNA MUTAGENESIS IN PANAX GINSENG CELL CULTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiselev K.V.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available At the present time, it is well documented that plant tissue culture induces a number of mutations and chromosome rearrangements termed “somaclonal variations”. However, little is known about the nature and the molecular mechanisms of the tissue culture-induced mutagenesis and the effects of long-term subculturing on the rate and specific features of the mutagenesis. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare DNA mutagenesis in different genes of Panax ginseng callus cultures of different age. It has previously been shown that the nucleotide sequences of the Agrobacterium rhizogenes rolC locus and the selective marker nptII developed mutations during long-term cultivation of transgenic cell cultures of P. ginseng. In the present work, we analyzed nucleotide sequences of selected plant gene families in a 2-year-old and 20-year-old P. ginseng 1c cell culture and in leaves of cultivated P. ginseng plants. We analysed sequence variability between the Actin genes, which are a family of house-keeping genes; the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL and dammarenediol synthase (DDS genes, which actively participate in the biosynthesis of ginsenosides; and the somatic embryogenesis receptor kinase (SERK genes, which control plant development. The frequency of point mutations in the Actin, PAL, DDS, and SERK genes in the 2-year-old callus culture was markedly higher than that in cultivated plants but lower than that in the 20-year-old callus culture of P. ginseng. Most of the mutations in the 2- and 20-year-old P. ginseng calli were A↔G and T↔C transitions. The number of nonsynonymous mutations was higher in the 2- and 20-year-old callus cultures than the number of nonsynonymous mutations in the cultivated plants of P. ginseng. Interestingly, the total number of N→G or N→C substitutions in the analyzed genes was 1.6 times higher than the total number of N→A or N→T substitutions. Using methylation-sensitive DNA fragmentation

  17. Use of CRISPR/Cas Genome Editing Technology for Targeted Mutagenesis in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rongfang; Wei, Pengcheng; Yang, Jianbo

    2017-01-01

    Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) system is a newly emerging mutagenesis (gene-editing) tool in genetic engineering. Among the agriculturally important crops, several genes have been successfully mutated by the system, and some agronomic important traits have been rapidly generated, which indicates the potential applications in both scientific research and plant breeding. In this chapter, we describe a standard gene-editing procedure to effectively target rice genes and to make specific rice mutants using the CRISPR/Cas9 system mediated by Agrobacterium transformation.

  18. Favipiravir elicits antiviral mutagenesis during virus replication in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Armando; Thorne, Lucy; Goodfellow, Ian

    2014-10-21

    Lethal mutagenesis has emerged as a novel potential therapeutic approach to treat viral infections. Several studies have demonstrated that increases in the high mutation rates inherent to RNA viruses lead to viral extinction in cell culture, but evidence during infections in vivo is limited. In this study, we show that the broad-range antiviral nucleoside favipiravir reduces viral load in vivo by exerting antiviral mutagenesis in a mouse model for norovirus infection. Increased mutation frequencies were observed in samples from treated mice and were accompanied with lower or in some cases undetectable levels of infectious virus in faeces and tissues. Viral RNA isolated from treated animals showed reduced infectivity, a feature of populations approaching extinction during antiviral mutagenesis. These results suggest that favipiravir can induce norovirus mutagenesis in vivo, which in some cases leads to virus extinction, providing a proof-of-principle for the use of favipiravir derivatives or mutagenic nucleosides in the clinical treatment of noroviruses.

  19. Symposium on molecular and cellular mechanisms of mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    These proceedings contain abstracts only of the 21 papers presented at the Sympsoium. The papers dealt with molecular mechanisms of mutagenesis and cellular responses to chemical and physical mutagenic agents

  20. Symposium on molecular and cellular mechanisms of mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    These proceedings contain abstracts only of the 21 papers presented at the Sympsoium. The papers dealt with molecular mechanisms of mutagenesis and cellular responses to chemical and physical mutagenic agents. (ERB)

  1. Mutagenesis and mathematics: The allure of numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper sets out the formal, empirical, and mechanistic equations that my colleagues and I have developed for the description and analysis of dose-response data on the lethal and genetic effects of mutagens in microorganisms. These three types of equations are interrelated inasmuch as they are all based ultimately on the use of the Poisson distribution in the formal definition of lethal and mutational hit functions. Explicit mathematical expressions for these functions can be written down in either empirical or mechanistic terms. The empirical equations are obtained simply by writing the hit functions as finite polynomials with adjustable coefficients. The mechanistic equations are based on the assumptions of the DNA damage-repair hypothesis. The mathematical formulation of this hypothesis entails an important change in the definition of the word hit from that used in the classical hit/target theory of radiation biology. The theoretical and practical applications of these various equations in mutation research are summarized briefly and their merits are assessed in light of recent advances in our understanding of the biochemical basis of mutagenesis

  2. The Roles of UmuD in Regulating Mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaylene N. Ollivierre

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available All organisms are subject to DNA damage from both endogenous and environmental sources. DNA damage that is not fully repaired can lead to mutations. Mutagenesis is now understood to be an active process, in part facilitated by lower-fidelity DNA polymerases that replicate DNA in an error-prone manner. Y-family DNA polymerases, found throughout all domains of life, are characterized by their lower fidelity on undamaged DNA and their specialized ability to copy damaged DNA. Two E. coli Y-family DNA polymerases are responsible for copying damaged DNA as well as for mutagenesis. These DNA polymerases interact with different forms of UmuD, a dynamic protein that regulates mutagenesis. The UmuD gene products, regulated by the SOS response, exist in two principal forms: UmuD2, which prevents mutagenesis, and UmuD2′, which facilitates UV-induced mutagenesis. This paper focuses on the multiple conformations of the UmuD gene products and how their protein interactions regulate mutagenesis.

  3. Empirical complexities in the genetic foundations of lethal mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, James J; Joyce, Paul; Gladstone, Eric; Molineux, Ian J

    2013-10-01

    From population genetics theory, elevating the mutation rate of a large population should progressively reduce average fitness. If the fitness decline is large enough, the population will go extinct in a process known as lethal mutagenesis. Lethal mutagenesis has been endorsed in the virology literature as a promising approach to viral treatment, and several in vitro studies have forced viral extinction with high doses of mutagenic drugs. Yet only one empirical study has tested the genetic models underlying lethal mutagenesis, and the theory failed on even a qualitative level. Here we provide a new level of analysis of lethal mutagenesis by developing and evaluating models specifically tailored to empirical systems that may be used to test the theory. We first quantify a bias in the estimation of a critical parameter and consider whether that bias underlies the previously observed lack of concordance between theory and experiment. We then consider a seemingly ideal protocol that avoids this bias-mutagenesis of virions-but find that it is hampered by other problems. Finally, results that reveal difficulties in the mere interpretation of mutations assayed from double-strand genomes are derived. Our analyses expose unanticipated complexities in testing the theory. Nevertheless, the previous failure of the theory to predict experimental outcomes appears to reside in evolutionary mechanisms neglected by the theory (e.g., beneficial mutations) rather than from a mismatch between the empirical setup and model assumptions. This interpretation raises the specter that naive attempts at lethal mutagenesis may augment adaptation rather than retard it.

  4. Environmental stress induces trinucleotide repeat mutagenesis in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Nimrat; Lin, Yunfu; Santillan, Beatriz A; Yotnda, Patricia; Wilson, John H

    2015-03-24

    The dynamic mutability of microsatellite repeats is implicated in the modification of gene function and disease phenotype. Studies of the enhanced instability of long trinucleotide repeats (TNRs)-the cause of multiple human diseases-have revealed a remarkable complexity of mutagenic mechanisms. Here, we show that cold, heat, hypoxic, and oxidative stresses induce mutagenesis of a long CAG repeat tract in human cells. We show that stress-response factors mediate the stress-induced mutagenesis (SIM) of CAG repeats. We show further that SIM of CAG repeats does not involve mismatch repair, nucleotide excision repair, or transcription, processes that are known to promote TNR mutagenesis in other pathways of instability. Instead, we find that these stresses stimulate DNA rereplication, increasing the proportion of cells with >4 C-value (C) DNA content. Knockdown of the replication origin-licensing factor CDT1 eliminates both stress-induced rereplication and CAG repeat mutagenesis. In addition, direct induction of rereplication in the absence of stress also increases the proportion of cells with >4C DNA content and promotes repeat mutagenesis. Thus, environmental stress triggers a unique pathway for TNR mutagenesis that likely is mediated by DNA rereplication. This pathway may impact normal cells as they encounter stresses in their environment or during development or abnormal cells as they evolve metastatic potential.

  5. Yellow fluorescent protein phiYFPv (Phialidium): structure and structure-based mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pletneva, Nadya V.; Pletnev, Vladimir Z., E-mail: vzpletnev@gmail.com; Souslova, Ekaterina; Chudakov, Dmitry M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lukyanov, Sergey [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Nizhny Novgorod State Medical Academy, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Martynov, Vladimir I.; Arhipova, Svetlena; Artemyev, Igor [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Wlodawer, Alexander [National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Dauter, Zbigniew [National Cancer Institute, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Pletnev, Sergei [National Cancer Institute, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); SAIC-Frederick, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-06-01

    The yellow fluorescent protein phiYFPv with improved folding has been developed from the spectrally identical wild-type phiYFP found in the marine jellyfish Phialidium. The yellow fluorescent protein phiYFPv (λ{sub em}{sup max} ≃ 537 nm) with improved folding has been developed from the spectrally identical wild-type phiYFP found in the marine jellyfish Phialidium. The latter fluorescent protein is one of only two known cases of naturally occurring proteins that exhibit emission spectra in the yellow–orange range (535–555 nm). Here, the crystal structure of phiYFPv has been determined at 2.05 Å resolution. The ‘yellow’ chromophore formed from the sequence triad Thr65-Tyr66-Gly67 adopts the bicyclic structure typical of fluorophores emitting in the green spectral range. It was demonstrated that perfect antiparallel π-stacking of chromophore Tyr66 and the proximal Tyr203, as well as Val205, facing the chromophore phenolic ring are chiefly responsible for the observed yellow emission of phiYFPv at 537 nm. Structure-based site-directed mutagenesis has been used to identify the key functional residues in the chromophore environment. The obtained results have been utilized to improve the properties of phiYFPv and its homologous monomeric biomarker tagYFP.

  6. Structure-Function Analysis of Chloroplast Proteins via Random Mutagenesis Using Error-Prone PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Louis; Zito, Francesca; Auroy, Pascaline; Johnson, Xenie; Peltier, Gilles; Alric, Jean

    2018-06-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis of chloroplast genes was developed three decades ago and has greatly advanced the field of photosynthesis research. Here, we describe a new approach for generating random chloroplast gene mutants that combines error-prone polymerase chain reaction of a gene of interest with chloroplast complementation of the knockout Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant. As a proof of concept, we targeted a 300-bp sequence of the petD gene that encodes subunit IV of the thylakoid membrane-bound cytochrome b 6 f complex. By sequencing chloroplast transformants, we revealed 149 mutations in the 300-bp target petD sequence that resulted in 92 amino acid substitutions in the 100-residue target subunit IV sequence. Our results show that this method is suited to the study of highly hydrophobic, multisubunit, and chloroplast-encoded proteins containing cofactors such as hemes, iron-sulfur clusters, and chlorophyll pigments. Moreover, we show that mutant screening and sequencing can be used to study photosynthetic mechanisms or to probe the mutational robustness of chloroplast-encoded proteins, and we propose that this method is a valuable tool for the directed evolution of enzymes in the chloroplast. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  7. The significance of disulfide bonding in biological activity of HB-EGF, a mutagenesis approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoskins, J.T.; Zhou, Z.; Harding, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    A site-directed mutagenesis approach was taken to disrupt each of 3 disulfide bonds within human HB-EGF by substituting serine for both cysteine residues that contribute to disulfide bonding. Each HB-EGF disulfide analogue (HB-EGF-Cys/Ser 108/121 , HB-EGF-Cys/Ser 116/132 , and HB-EGF-Cys/Ser 134/143 ) was cloned under the regulation of the mouse metallothionein (MT) promoter and stably expressed in mouse fibroblasts. HB-EGF immunoreactive proteins with M r of 6.5, 21 and 24 kDa were observed from lysates of HB-EGF and each HB-EGF disulfide analogue. HB-EGF immunohistochemical analyses of each HB-EGF stable cell line demonstrated ubiquitous protein expression except HB-EGF-Cys/Ser 108/121 and HB-EGF-Cys/Ser 116/132 stable cell lines which exhibited accumulated expression immediately outside the nucleus. rHB-EGF, HB-EGF, and HB-EGF 134/143 proteins competed with 125 I-EGF in an A431 competitive binding assay, whereas HB-EGF-Cys/Ser 108/121 and HB-EGF-Cys/Ser 116/132 failed to compete. Each HB-EGF disulfide analogue lacked the ability to stimulate tyrosine phosphorylation of the 170 kDa EGFR. These results suggest that HB-EGF-Cys/Ser 134/143 antagonizes EGFRs

  8. PI-PfuI and PI-PfuII, intein-coded homing endonucleases from Pyrococcus furiosus. II. Characterization Of the binding and cleavage abilities by site-directed mutagenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Komori, K; Ichiyanagi, K; Morikawa, K; Ishino, Y

    1999-01-01

    PI- Pfu I and PI- Pfu II from Pyrococcus furiosus are homing endonucleases, as shown in the accompanying paper. These two endonucleases are produced by protein splicing from the precursor protein including ribonucleotide reductase (RNR). We show here that both enzymes specifically interact with their substrate DNA and distort the DNA strands by 73 degrees and 67 degrees, respectively. They have two copies of the amino acid sequence motif LAGLIDADG, which is present in the majority of homing e...

  9. Functional Differentiation of Antiporter-Like Polypeptides in Complex I; a Site-Directed Mutagenesis Study of Residues Conserved in MrpA and NuoL but Not in MrpD, NuoM, and NuoN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Sperling

    Full Text Available It has long been known that the three largest subunits in the membrane domain (NuoL, NuoM and NuoN of complex I are homologous to each other, as well as to two subunits (MrpA and MrpD from a Na+/H+ antiporter, Mrp. MrpA and NuoL are more similar to each other and the same is true for MrpD and NuoN. This suggests a functional differentiation which was proven experimentally in a deletion strain model system, where NuoL could restore the loss of MrpA, but not that of MrpD and vice versa. The simplest explanation for these observations was that the MrpA and MrpD proteins are not antiporters, but rather single subunit ion channels that together form an antiporter. In this work our focus was on a set of amino acid residues in helix VIII, which are only conserved in NuoL and MrpA (but not in any of the other antiporter-like subunits. and to compare their effect on the function of these two proteins. By combining complementation studies in B. subtilis and 23Na-NMR, response of mutants to high sodium levels were tested. All of the mutants were able to cope with high salt levels; however, all but one mutation (M258I/M225I showed differences in the efficiency of cell growth and sodium efflux. Our findings showed that, although very similar in sequence, NuoL and MrpA seem to differ on the functional level. Nonetheless the studied mutations gave rise to interesting phenotypes which are of interest in complex I research.

  10. Site-directed mutagenesis of HIV-1 vpu gene demonstrates two clusters of replication-defective mutants with distinct ability to down-modulate cell surface CD4 and tetherin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Nomaguchi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 Vpu acts positively on viral infectivity by mediating CD4 degradation in endoplasmic reticulum and enhances virion release by counteracting a virion release restriction factor, tetherin. In order to define the impact of Vpu activity on HIV-1 replication, we have generated a series of site-specific proviral vpu mutants. Of fifteen mutants examined, seven exhibited a replication-defect similar to that of a vpu-deletion mutant in a lymphocyte cell line H9. These mutations clustered in narrow regions within transmembrane domain (TMD and cytoplasmic domain (CTD. Replication-defective mutants displayed the reduced ability to enhance virion release from a monolayer cell line HEp2 without exception. Upon transfection with Vpu expression vectors, neither TMD mutants nor CTD mutants blocked CD4 expression at the cell surface in another monolayer cell line MAGI. While TMD mutants were unable to down-modulate cell surface tetherin in HEp2 cells, CTD mutants did quite efficiently. Confocal microscopy analysis revealed the difference of intracellular localization between TMD and CTD mutants. In total, replication capability of HIV-1 carrying vpu mutations correlates well with the ability of Vpu to enhance virion release and to impede the cell surface expression of CD4 but not with the ability to down-modulate cell surface tetherin. Our results here suggest that efficient viral replication requires not only down-regulation of cell surface tetherin but also its degradation.

  11. Expression of Cry1Ac toxin-binding region in Plutella xyllostella cadherin-like receptor and studying their interaction mode by molecular docking and site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaodan; Zhang, Xiao; Zhong, Jianfeng; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Cunzheng; Xie, Yajing; Lin, Manman; Xu, Chongxin; Lu, Lina; Zhu, Qing; Liu, Xianjin

    2018-05-01

    Cadherin-like protein has been identified as the primary Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry toxin receptor in Lepidoptera pests and plays a key role in Cry toxin insecticidal. In this study, we successfully expressed the putative Cry1Ac toxin-binding region (CR7-CR11) of Plutella xylostella cadherin-like in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The expressed CR7-CR11 fragment showed binding ability to Cry1Ac toxin under denaturing (Ligand blot) and non-denaturing (ELISA) conditions. The three-dimensional structure of CR7-CR11 was constructed by homology modeling. Molecular docking results of CR7-CR11 and Cry1Ac showed that domain II and domain III of Cry1Ac were taking part in binding to CR7-CR11, while CR7-CR8 was the region of CR7-CR11 in interacting with Cry1Ac. The interaction of toxin-receptor complex was found to arise from hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interaction. Through the computer-aided alanine mutation scanning, amino acid residues of Cry1Ac (Met341, Asn442 and Ser486) and CR7-CR11 (Asp32, Arg101 and Arg127) were predicted as the hot spot residues involved in the interaction of the toxin-receptor complex. At last, we verified the importance role of these key amino acid residues by binding assay. These results will lay a foundation for further elucidating the insecticidal mechanism of Cry toxin and enhancing Cry toxin insecticidal activity by molecular modification. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Species-specific differences of the spectroscopic properties of P700 - Analysis of the influence of non-conserved amino acid residues by site-directed mutagenesis of photosystem I from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witt, H.; Bordignon, E.; Carbonera, D.; Dekker, J.P.; Karapetyan, N.; Teutloff, C.; Webber, A.; Lubitz, W.; Schlodder, E.

    2003-01-01

    We applied optical spectroscopy, magnetic resonance techniques, and redox titrations to investigate the properties of the primary electron donor P700 in photosystem I (PS I) core complexes from cyanobacteria (Thermosynechococcus elongatus, Spirulina platensis, and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803), algae

  13. A report on 36 years practical work on crop improvement through induced mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, S.K. [CSIR, Madhyamgram Experimental Farm, Bose Institute, Kolkata (India)], E-mail: subodhskdatta@rediffmail.com

    2008-07-01

    Physical and/or chemical mutagens cause random changes in the nuclear DNA or cytoplasmic organelles, resulting in gene, chromosomal or genomic mutations. The author will share his life time experience and achievement on induced mutagenesis. The author initiated induced mutagenesis work in 1971 till July 2007 and used both physical (X-ray and Gamma rays) and chemical (EMS, MMS, Colchicine) mutagens for improvement of vegetables (Trichosanthes anguina L, T. cucumarina , Cucurbita maxima L, Cephalandra indica, Luffa acutangula Roxb., Lagenaria ciceraria), medicinal (Trigonella foenum-graecum L, Mentha citrate Ehrh), pulse (Winged Bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus L. D.C.), oil bearing (Jatropha curcas L, Rosa damascene, Cymbopogon flexuosus (Nees) Wats) and ornamental (Bougainvillea, Chrysanthemum, Dahlia, Gladiolus, Hibiscus, Lantana depressa Naud, Rose, Tuberose, Narcissus etc.) crops. All classical and advanced mutagenesis methods have been extensively used for the development of new and novel cultivars of economic importance. Early flowering, late flowering, dwarf, yellow fruit color, crinkled leaf, short thick fruit, increased branching, increased pod and seed number, seed size, seed color (green, brown, chocolate color) high fruit-, seed-, oil- and punicic acidyielding mutants have been developed in T. anguina, T. fornum-graecum, Winged Bean and in J.curcas containing 'curcas oil', an efficient substitute fuel for diesel engines. Induction of flower color and chlorophyll variegated mutants in L. depressa proved the efficiency of mutation technique for domestication of wild relatives. Author was deeply engaged for the last 30 years for improvement of ornamentals and has been most successful to produce quite a large number of new promising mutant varieties in different ornamentals. Colchicine has been successfully used to develop new flower color in chrysanthemum and rose and high yielding strains in T. anguina. A novel direct in vitro regeneration technique has

  14. Genome-Wide Mutagenesis in Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Gao, Lihui

    2018-01-01

    Signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) is a functional genomics approach to identify bacterial virulence determinants and virulence factors by simultaneously screening multiple mutants in a single host animal, and has been utilized extensively for the study of bacterial pathogenesis, host-pathogen interactions, and spirochete and tick biology. The signature-tagged transposon mutagenesis has been developed to investigate virulence determinants and pathogenesis of Borrelia burgdorferi. Mutants in genes important in virulence are identified by negative selection in which the mutants fail to colonize or disseminate in the animal host and tick vector. STM procedure combined with Luminex Flex ® Map™ technology and next-generation sequencing (e.g., Tn-seq) are the powerful high-throughput tools for the determination of Borrelia burgdorferi virulence determinants. The assessment of multiple tissue sites and two DNA resources at two different time points using Luminex Flex ® Map™ technology provides a robust data set. B. burgdorferi transposon mutant screening indicates that a high proportion of genes are the novel virulence determinants that are required for mouse and tick infection. In this protocol, an effective signature-tagged Himar1-based transposon suicide vector was developed and used to generate a sequence-defined library of nearly 4800 mutants in the infectious B. burgdorferi B31 clone. In STM, signature-tagged suicide vectors are constructed by inserting unique DNA sequences (tags) into the transposable elements. The signature-tagged transposon mutants are generated when transposon suicide vectors are transformed into an infectious B. burgdorferi clone, and the transposable element is transposed into the 5'-TA-3' sequence in the B. burgdorferi genome with the signature tag. The transposon library is created and consists of many sub-libraries, each sub-library has several hundreds of mutants with same tags. A group of mice or ticks are infected with a mixed

  15. Improvement of soybean variety 'Bragg' through mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, P.S.; Prabhakar; Tiwari, S.P.; Sandhu, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Variety 'Bragg' (Jackson x D49-2491) of soybean (Glycine max. (L.) Merrill) was found to be high yielding and widely adaptable throughout India. Its yield stability, however, is unsatisfactory, probably due to low germinability necessitating use of higher seed rate. With the main objective to rectify this defect, mutagenesis involving chemical as well as physical mutagens was used. Dry seeds were treated with EMS or MMS (0.2, 0.4 and 0.6%), or gamma rays (15, 20 and 25 kR) with and without additional exposure to UV (2 hrs at 260 nm) in 1982. In M 2 , a mutation frequency ranging from 2.24 to 22.85% was observed. Screening of M 2 and of subsequent generations yielded a broad spectrum of mutations. Some of the mutants are agronomically useful. Among them, mutant 'T 2 14' resulting from 25 kR gamma rays + UV, was found to possess better germinability (+15%), earliness (5 days) and high yield during both rainy and post-rainy seasons in 1986 and 1987, when compared with the parent variety 'Bragg'. The mutant has smaller seed-size (TGW 125 g) than the parent (145 g). In soybean, large-seeded varieties were reported to have poorer seed germinability. Thus, the better germinability of the mutant might be related to its reduced seed size. Seeds of the mutant show a light brown colour of the hilum in contrast to the black hilum of 'Bragg'. In other characters the mutant is similar to 'Bragg'. The mutant should have potential for commercial cultivation in India. For confirmation of its agronomically superior performance, it is undergoing national evaluation in multilocational trials under 'All India Co-ordinated Research Project on Soybean (ICAR)'. The strain has been named 'NRC-2'. (author)

  16. Improvement of soybean variety 'Bragg' through mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, P S; Prabhakar,; Tiwari, S P; Sandhu, J S [National Research Centre for Soybean, Indore (India)

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Variety 'Bragg' (Jackson x D49-2491) of soybean (Glycine max. (L.) Merrill) was found to be high yielding and widely adaptable throughout India. Its yield stability, however, is unsatisfactory, probably due to low germinability necessitating use of higher seed rate. With the main objective to rectify this defect, mutagenesis involving chemical as well as physical mutagens was used. Dry seeds were treated with EMS or MMS (0.2, 0.4 and 0.6%), or gamma rays (15, 20 and 25 kR) with and without additional exposure to UV (2 hrs at 260 nm) in 1982. In M{sub 2}, a mutation frequency ranging from 2.24 to 22.85% was observed. Screening of M{sub 2} and of subsequent generations yielded a broad spectrum of mutations. Some of the mutants are agronomically useful. Among them, mutant 'T{sub 2}14' resulting from 25 kR gamma rays + UV, was found to possess better germinability (+15%), earliness (5 days) and high yield during both rainy and post-rainy seasons in 1986 and 1987, when compared with the parent variety 'Bragg'. The mutant has smaller seed-size (TGW 125 g) than the parent (145 g). In soybean, large-seeded varieties were reported to have poorer seed germinability. Thus, the better germinability of the mutant might be related to its reduced seed size. Seeds of the mutant show a light brown colour of the hilum in contrast to the black hilum of 'Bragg'. In other characters the mutant is similar to 'Bragg'. The mutant should have potential for commercial cultivation in India. For confirmation of its agronomically superior performance, it is undergoing national evaluation in multilocational trials under 'All India Co-ordinated Research Project on Soybean (ICAR)'. The strain has been named 'NRC-2'. (author)

  17. Site directed recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurka, Jerzy W.

    1997-01-01

    Enhanced homologous recombination is obtained by employing a consensus sequence which has been found to be associated with integration of repeat sequences, such as Alu and ID. The consensus sequence or sequence having a single transition mutation determines one site of a double break which allows for high efficiency of integration at the site. By introducing single or double stranded DNA having the consensus sequence flanking region joined to a sequence of interest, one can reproducibly direct integration of the sequence of interest at one or a limited number of sites. In this way, specific sites can be identified and homologous recombination achieved at the site by employing a second flanking sequence associated with a sequence proximal to the 3'-nick.

  18. Mutagenesis as a breeding method in lentil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihor, M.; Stoyanova, M.; Mehandjiev, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Mutagenesis was used to develop cultivars with good adaptability to exogenous factors and with increased productivity. By means of this alternative breeding procedure, increases in biological and nutritive value of the seeds were studied. To increase genetic variability in lentil (Lens culinaris Medic.) breeding material, experimental mutagenesis was applied parallel to conventional breeding methods. The aim was to characterize the mutant lines as well as determine whether some of them could be directly registered as cultivars or as gene donors in breeding programme. Within the period 1993-1996, eight mutant lentil lines were studied under field conditions. They were obtained as a result of gamma rays ( 60 Co) and ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) treatment of the small seeded cultivar 'Tadjikskaya 95'. Air-dried seeds were treated. During the vegetative stage, phenological observation was made. The structural elements of productivity were established by biometrical analysis of 25-30 plants from each of the variants. Phytopathological evaluations were made using the scoring procedure established by ICARDA. Protein content was determined by the Kiejdhal method. The technological qualities of the seeds were determined using the method of Tretyakova and Ustinova. The mutant lines differed considerably in their biological traits from the parent cultivar. The vegetative period ranged from 84 to 89 days. The mutant lines were latermaturing than parent variety Tadjikskaya 95 by 1-5 days. As a result of mutagen treatment, the range in plant height was expanded from 1 to 8.3 cm. Line 96-8, obtained after irradiation with gamma rays, was the tallest (40.3 cm). Lodging of the mutant lines was greater than that of the initial cultivar and ranged from 20.0 to 66.7%. The trait varied to a great extent depending on environmental conditions. Mutagenic treatments also caused changes in seed size and seed coat colour. Development of resistance to important diseases of lentil

  19. Elucidating the design principles of photosynthetic electron-transfer proteins by site-directed spin labeling EPR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishara Silva, K; Jagannathan, Bharat; Golbeck, John H; Lakshmi, K V

    2016-05-01

    Site-directed spin labeling electron paramagnetic resonance (SDSL EPR) spectroscopy is a powerful tool to determine solvent accessibility, side-chain dynamics, and inter-spin distances at specific sites in biological macromolecules. This information provides important insights into the structure and dynamics of both natural and designed proteins and protein complexes. Here, we discuss the application of SDSL EPR spectroscopy in probing the charge-transfer cofactors in photosynthetic reaction centers (RC) such as photosystem I (PSI) and the bacterial reaction center (bRC). Photosynthetic RCs are large multi-subunit proteins (molecular weight≥300 kDa) that perform light-driven charge transfer reactions in photosynthesis. These reactions are carried out by cofactors that are paramagnetic in one of their oxidation states. This renders the RCs unsuitable for conventional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy investigations. However, the presence of native paramagnetic centers and the ability to covalently attach site-directed spin labels in RCs makes them ideally suited for the application of SDSL EPR spectroscopy. The paramagnetic centers serve as probes of conformational changes, dynamics of subunit assembly, and the relative motion of cofactors and peptide subunits. In this review, we describe novel applications of SDSL EPR spectroscopy for elucidating the effects of local structure and dynamics on the electron-transfer cofactors of photosynthetic RCs. Because SDSL EPR Spectroscopy is uniquely suited to provide dynamic information on protein motion, it is a particularly useful method in the engineering and analysis of designed electron transfer proteins and protein networks. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biodesign for Bioenergetics--the design and engineering of electronic transfer cofactors, proteins and protein networks, edited by Ronald L. Koder and J.L. Ross Anderson. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Mutagenesis of metal compounds in bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishioka, H

    1974-01-01

    The mutagenic activity of 41 metal compounds was examined by applying the Rec-assay method with Bacillus subtilis H17 (rec/sup +/) and M45 (rec/sup -/) strains. Among these compounds, Na/sub 2/HAsO/sub 4/, CdCl/sub 2/, K/sub 2/CrO/sub 4/, K/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/, CH/sub 3/HgCl, C/sub 2/H/sub 5/HgCl, CH/sub 3/COOHgC/sub 6/H/sub 5/, MnCl/sub 2/, MnNO/sub 3/, MnSO/sub 4/, Mn(CH/sub 3/COO)/sub 2/, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/MoO/sub 4/ and KMoO/sub 4/ showed positive results. The reactions of K/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/ and (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/MoO/sub 4/ were especially strong in the assay. Therefore, mutation induction to reversion (try/sup +/) and streptomycin resistance (SM/sup r/) of E. coli B/r WP2 try/sup -/ (hcl/sup +/ and hcr/sup -/) by the two compounds were examined by the following two experimental procedures. Stationary phase bacteria were exposed to the compounds at high concentrations (6.9 x 10/sup -3/ approx. 3.44 x 10/sup -2/M) in M9 buffer for 15 min at 37/sup -/ with shaking. After incubation at 37/sup 0/ for 48 h visible colonies on the plates were scored. Bacteria in M9 buffer were plated in media supplemented with low concentrations (1.7 x 10/sup -5/ approx. 3.4 x 10/sup -5/M) of the compounds. K/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/ and (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/MoO/sub 4/ increased the mutation rate of SM/sup r/ and try/sup +/ in both strains treated with either procedure. No marked differences in mutation rate were found between hcr/sup +/ and hcr/sup -/. After treatment with high concentrations of compounds one can imagine that a peroxidation state produced by these peroxides in the media might affect the killing and mutation induction. These results suggest the possibility that the mutagenesis of the metals relate to their atomic values, rather than the peroxidation state as far as these two compounds are concerned.

  1. Genetic analysis of gamma-ray mutagenesis in yeast. II. Allele-specific control of mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, R.H.; Lawrence, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    We find that partially different sets of gene functions are required for the production of different kinds of mutations induced by 60 Co γ rays in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This observation is very similar to others made previously with respect to uv mutagenesis and confirms the conclusion that such distinctive patterns of genetic control reflect properties of the test alleles and their genetic locations, rather than the kinds of lesions required to revert them. The data also support the model of mutagenic repair outlined in the first paper of this series in which partially different sets of gene functions are required for the production of different kinds of mutations, the formation of mutations at different genetic sites and the induction of mutations by different mutagens

  2. Suppression of radiation mutagenesis by dactinomycin in Chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokita, N.; Capenter, S.G.; Chen, D.J.; MacInnes, M.A.; Raju, M.R.

    1985-01-01

    Dactinomycin (AMD) suppression of radiation mutagenesis was investigated using an in vitro mutation assay (6-thioguanine resistance) in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Cells were exposed to acute single doses of x rays followed by 1 hr-treatment with 0.1 or 1 μg/ml AMD. The cell survival curves plotted as a function of x-ray doses were similar for radiation alone and radiation plus AMD. The results suggest that AMD treatment was only slightly mutagenic, however, when given immediately after irradiation, it suppressed radiatiion mutagenesis at higher x-ray dose regions (below 10% survival levels). Higher AMD concentrations appeared more suppressive than lower concentrations. Dose-response data analyzed based on Poisson distribution models suggest the stochastic dependence of x-ray mutagenesis and AMD cytotoxity

  3. A Simple Combinatorial Codon Mutagenesis Method for Targeted Protein Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsare, Ketaki D; Andorfer, Mary C; Cardenas, Frida S; Chael, Julia R; Park, Hyun June; Lewis, Jared C

    2017-03-17

    Directed evolution is a powerful tool for optimizing enzymes, and mutagenesis methods that improve enzyme library quality can significantly expedite the evolution process. Here, we report a simple method for targeted combinatorial codon mutagenesis (CCM). To demonstrate the utility of this method for protein engineering, CCM libraries were constructed for cytochrome P450 BM3 , pfu prolyl oligopeptidase, and the flavin-dependent halogenase RebH; 10-26 sites were targeted for codon mutagenesis in each of these enzymes, and libraries with a tunable average of 1-7 codon mutations per gene were generated. Each of these libraries provided improved enzymes for their respective transformations, which highlights the generality, simplicity, and tunability of CCM for targeted protein engineering.

  4. Back to the future: revisiting HIV-1 lethal mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapp, Michael J.; Patterson, Steven E.; Mansky, Louis M.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of eliminating HIV-1 infectivity by elevating the viral mutation rate was first proposed over a decade ago, even though the general concept had been conceived earlier for RNA viruses. Lethal mutagenesis was originally viewed as a novel chemotherapeutic approach for treating HIV-1 infection in which use of a viral mutagen would over multiple rounds of replication lead to the lethal accumulation of mutations, rendering the virus population non infectious – known as the slow mutation accumulation model. There have been limitations in obtaining good efficacy data with drug leads, leaving some doubt into clinical translation. More recent studies of the APOBEC3 proteins as well as new progress in the use of nucleoside analogs for inducing lethal mutagenesis have helped to refocus attention on rapid induction of HIV-1 lethal mutagenesis in a single or limited number of replication cycles leading to a rapid mutation accumulation model. PMID:23195922

  5. CRISPR/Cas9 mediates efficient conditional mutagenesis in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhaoyu; Wu, Menghua; Wen, Kejia; Ren, Menda; Long, Li; Zhang, Xuedi; Gao, Guanjun

    2014-09-05

    Existing transgenic RNA interference (RNAi) methods greatly facilitate functional genome studies via controlled silencing of targeted mRNA in Drosophila. Although the RNAi approach is extremely powerful, concerns still linger about its low efficiency. Here, we developed a CRISPR/Cas9-mediated conditional mutagenesis system by combining tissue-specific expression of Cas9 driven by the Gal4/upstream activating site system with various ubiquitously expressed guide RNA transgenes to effectively inactivate gene expression in a temporally and spatially controlled manner. Furthermore, by including multiple guide RNAs in a transgenic vector to target a single gene, we achieved a high degree of gene mutagenesis in specific tissues. The CRISPR/Cas9-mediated conditional mutagenesis system provides a simple and effective tool for gene function analysis, and complements the existing RNAi approach. Copyright © 2014 Xue et al.

  6. Mechanisms of mutagenesis of E. coli by ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, F.; Wood, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    This summary shows that uv mutagenesis involves several processes and several types of mutations. It is important to know, if some step or event affects, say, uv-induced reversion of a his mutant, what kinds of mutation cause the reversion. More, if reversion of the mutant is not affected, it is essential to know what kinds of mutation are involved, because statements can only be made about these mutations, and not about uv mutagenesis in general. It is also clear that the spectrum of mutations will depend on dose. Thus, extrapolation from experimental data at high dose to low dose situations involve considerations both of numbers and of kinds of mutations. Extrapolation of these results to other organisms may be particularly difficult because the SOS functions play such a large role in uv mutagenesis of E. coli. 34 refs., 1 tab

  7. Genetic modifications of established varieties of potato through mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    Owing to the high intercrossability of improved clones with primitive cultivars and many wild species there is little justification for use of induced mutations in potato to increase variability per se. Modification of certain traits while leaving the genotype basically intact is a promising use of mutagenesis in potato. The successful curing of defects in clones will depend on the establishment a priori of three principles. First, the clones undergoing mutagenesis should be well established varieties tolerant or resistant to the major biotic and abiotic stresses in the area of cultivation. The yield and culinary quality should also be considered high. Second, there should exist some indication that the variation desired is induceable, either through reports of natural intra-clone variation or previous mutagenesis studies. Third, initial screening should be done in virus-free materials

  8. Theories of Lethal Mutagenesis: From Error Catastrophe to Lethal Defection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejero, Héctor; Montero, Francisco; Nuño, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    RNA viruses get extinct in a process called lethal mutagenesis when subjected to an increase in their mutation rate, for instance, by the action of mutagenic drugs. Several approaches have been proposed to understand this phenomenon. The extinction of RNA viruses by increased mutational pressure was inspired by the concept of the error threshold. The now classic quasispecies model predicts the existence of a limit to the mutation rate beyond which the genetic information of the wild type could not be efficiently transmitted to the next generation. This limit was called the error threshold, and for mutation rates larger than this threshold, the quasispecies was said to enter into error catastrophe. This transition has been assumed to foster the extinction of the whole population. Alternative explanations of lethal mutagenesis have been proposed recently. In the first place, a distinction is made between the error threshold and the extinction threshold, the mutation rate beyond which a population gets extinct. Extinction is explained from the effect the mutation rate has, throughout the mutational load, on the reproductive ability of the whole population. Secondly, lethal defection takes also into account the effect of interactions within mutant spectra, which have been shown to be determinant for the understanding the extinction of RNA virus due to an augmented mutational pressure. Nonetheless, some relevant issues concerning lethal mutagenesis are not completely understood yet, as so survival of the flattest, i.e. the development of resistance to lethal mutagenesis by evolving towards mutationally more robust regions of sequence space, or sublethal mutagenesis, i.e., the increase of the mutation rate below the extinction threshold which may boost the adaptability of RNA virus, increasing their ability to develop resistance to drugs (including mutagens). A better design of antiviral therapies will still require an improvement of our knowledge about lethal

  9. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemontt, J F

    1979-01-01

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data, and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described particularly in relation to their involvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus, are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis.

  10. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemontt, J F

    1979-01-01

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described, particularly in relation to their imvolvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis.

  11. Effective lethal mutagenesis of influenza virus by three nucleoside analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Matthew D; Lauring, Adam S

    2015-04-01

    Lethal mutagenesis is a broad-spectrum antiviral strategy that exploits the high mutation rate and low mutational tolerance of many RNA viruses. This approach uses mutagenic drugs to increase viral mutation rates and burden viral populations with mutations that reduce the number of infectious progeny. We investigated the effectiveness of lethal mutagenesis as a strategy against influenza virus using three nucleoside analogs, ribavirin, 5-azacytidine, and 5-fluorouracil. All three drugs were active against a panel of seasonal H3N2 and laboratory-adapted H1N1 strains. We found that each drug increased the frequency of mutations in influenza virus populations and decreased the virus' specific infectivity, indicating a mutagenic mode of action. We were able to drive viral populations to extinction by passaging influenza virus in the presence of each drug, indicating that complete lethal mutagenesis of influenza virus populations can be achieved when a sufficient mutational burden is applied. Population-wide resistance to these mutagenic agents did not arise after serial passage of influenza virus populations in sublethal concentrations of drug. Sequencing of these drug-passaged viral populations revealed genome-wide accumulation of mutations at low frequency. The replicative capacity of drug-passaged populations was reduced at higher multiplicities of infection, suggesting the presence of defective interfering particles and a possible barrier to the evolution of resistance. Together, our data suggest that lethal mutagenesis may be a particularly effective therapeutic approach with a high genetic barrier to resistance for influenza virus. Influenza virus is an RNA virus that causes significant morbidity and mortality during annual epidemics. Novel therapies for RNA viruses are needed due to the ease with which these viruses evolve resistance to existing therapeutics. Lethal mutagenesis is a broad-spectrum strategy that exploits the high mutation rate and the low

  12. Tissue culture regeneration and radiation induced mutagenesis in banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, V.M.; Ganapathi, T.R.

    2009-01-01

    Radiation induced mutagenesis is an important tool for banana genetic improvement. At BARC, protocols for shoo-tip multiplication of commercial banana varieties have been developed and transferred to user agencies for commercial production. Excellent embryogenic cell suspensions were established in banana cvs. Rasthali and Rajeli, and were maintained at low temperatures for long-term storage. Normal plantlets were successfully regenerated from these cell suspensions. The cell suspensions and shoot-tip cultures were gamma-irradiated for mutagenesis. The mutagenized populations were field screened and a few interesting mutants have been isolated. The existence of genetic variation was confirmed using DNA markers. Further evaluation of these mutants is in progress. (author)

  13. Towards controlled mutagenesis with transposons Ac and Tam3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haring, M; Veken, J; Windrich, R; Kneppers, T; Rommens, C; Nijkamp, H J.J.; Hille, J [Department of Genetics, Free University, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: The discovery of mobile genetic elements in plants has permitted the use of these transposons for insertional mutagenesis. This applies so far only to Zea mays and Antirrhinum majus, because other plant transposable elements have not been characterised so thoroughly at the genetic and the molecular level. To establish whether transposons (Ac from maize and Tam3 from Antirrhinum) remain mobile in heterologous hosts, either in somatic tissue or after meiosis, a phenotypic assay system for transposition was developed. The separation of the two transposition functions will allow controlled mutagenesis of plant genes. Our results indicate that both transposable elements remain active in heterologous hosts. (author)

  14. ENU mutagenesis to generate genetically modified rat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boxtel, Ruben; Gould, Michael N; Cuppen, Edwin; Smits, Bart M G

    2010-01-01

    The rat is one of the most preferred model organisms in biomedical research and has been extremely useful for linking physiology and pathology to the genome. However, approaches to genetically modify specific genes in the rat germ line remain relatively scarce. To date, the most efficient approach for generating genetically modified rats has been the target-selected N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis-based technology. Here, we describe the detailed protocols for ENU mutagenesis and mutant retrieval in the rat model organism.

  15. Mutagenesis of Trichoderma Viride by Ultraviolet and Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Risheng; Li Manman; Deng Shengsong; Hu Huajia; Wang Huai; Li Fenghe

    2012-01-01

    Considering the importance of a microbial strain capable of increased cellulase production, a mutant strain UP4 of Trichoderma viride was developed by ultraviolet (UV) and plasma mutation. The mutant produced a 21.0 IU/mL FPase which was 98.1% higher than that of the parent strain Trichoderma viride ZY-1. In addition, the effect of ultraviolet and plasma mutagenesis was not merely simple superimposition of single ultraviolet mutation and single plasma mutation. Meanwhile, there appeared a capsule around some of the spores after the ultraviolet and plasma treatment, namely, the spore surface of the strain became fuzzy after ultraviolet or ultraviolet and plasma mutagenesis.

  16. Mutagenesis of Trichoderma Viride by Ultraviolet and Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Risheng; Li, Manman; Deng, Shengsong; Hu, Huajia; Wang, Huai; Li, Fenghe

    2012-04-01

    Considering the importance of a microbial strain capable of increased cellulase production, a mutant strain UP4 of Trichoderma viride was developed by ultraviolet (UV) and plasma mutation. The mutant produced a 21.0 IU/mL FPase which was 98.1% higher than that of the parent strain Trichoderma viride ZY-1. In addition, the effect of ultraviolet and plasma mutagenesis was not merely simple superimposition of single ultraviolet mutation and single plasma mutation. Meanwhile, there appeared a capsule around some of the spores after the ultraviolet and plasma treatment, namely, the spore surface of the strain became fuzzy after ultraviolet or ultraviolet and plasma mutagenesis.

  17. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemontt, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data, and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described particularly in relation to their involvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus, are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis

  18. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemontt, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described, particularly in relation to their imvolvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis

  19. Lesion-induced DNA weak structural changes detected by pulsed EPR spectroscopy combined with site-directed spin labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicoli, Giuseppe; Mathis, Gérald; Aci-Sèche, Samia; Saint-Pierre, Christine; Boulard, Yves; Gasparutto, Didier; Gambarelli, Serge

    2009-06-01

    Double electron-electron resonance (DEER) was applied to determine nanometre spin-spin distances on DNA duplexes that contain selected structural alterations. The present approach to evaluate the structural features of DNA damages is thus related to the interspin distance changes, as well as to the flexibility of the overall structure deduced from the distance distribution. A set of site-directed nitroxide-labelled double-stranded DNA fragments containing defined lesions, namely an 8-oxoguanine, an abasic site or abasic site analogues, a nick, a gap and a bulge structure were prepared and then analysed by the DEER spectroscopic technique. New insights into the application of 4-pulse DEER sequence are also provided, in particular with respect to the spin probes' positions and the rigidity of selected systems. The lesion-induced conformational changes observed, which were supported by molecular dynamics studies, confirm the results obtained by other, more conventional, spectroscopic techniques. Thus, the experimental approaches described herein provide an efficient method for probing lesion-induced structural changes of nucleic acids.

  20. Topology of OxlT, the oxalate transporter of Oxalobacter formigenes, determined by site-directed fluorescence labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, L; Jia, Z; Jung, T; Maloney, P C

    2001-04-01

    The topology of OxlT, the oxalate:formate exchange protein of Oxalobacter formigenes, was established by site-directed fluorescence labeling, a simple strategy that generates topological information in the context of the intact protein. Accessibility of cysteine to the fluorescent thiol-directed probe Oregon green maleimide (OGM) was examined for a panel of 34 single-cysteine variants, each generated in a His(9)-tagged cysteine-less host. The reaction with OGM was readily scored by examining the fluorescence profile after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of material purified by Ni2+ linked affinity chromatography. A position was assigned an external location if its single-cysteine derivative reacted with OGM added to intact cells; a position was designated internal if OGM labeling required cell lysis. We also showed that labeling of external, but not internal, positions was blocked by prior exposure of cells to the impermeable and nonfluorescent thiol-specific agent ethyltrimethylammonium methanethiosulfonate. Of the 34 positions examined in this way, 29 were assigned unambiguously to either an internal or external location; 5 positions could not be assigned, since the target cysteine failed to react with OGM. There was no evidence of false-positive assignment. Our findings document a simple and rapid method for establishing the topology of a membrane protein and show that OxlT has 12 transmembrane segments, confirming inferences from hydropathy analysis.

  1. Half-of-the-sites reactivity of outer-membrane phospholipase A against an active-site-directed inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubarretxena-Belandia, I; Cox, R C; Dijkman, R; Egmond, M R; Verheij, H M; Dekker, N

    1999-03-01

    The reaction of a novel active-site-directed phospholipase A1 inhibitor with the outer-membrane phospholipase A (OMPLA) was investigated. The inhibitor 1-p-nitrophenyl-octylphosphonate-2-tridecylcarbamoyl-3-et hanesulfonyl -amino-3-deoxy-sn-glycerol irreversibly inactivated OMPLA. The inhibition reaction did not require the cofactor calcium or an unprotonated active-site His142. The inhibition of the enzyme solubilized in hexadecylphosphocholine micelles was characterized by a rapid (t1/2 = 20 min) and complete loss of enzymatic activity, concurrent with the covalent modification of 50% of the active-site serines, as judged from the amount of p-nitrophenolate (PNP) released. Modification of the remaining 50% occurred at a much lower rate, indicative of half-of-the-sites reactivity against the inhibitor of this dimeric enzyme. Inhibition of monomeric OMPLA solubilized in hexadecyl-N,N-dimethyl-1-ammonio-3-propanesulfonate resulted in an equimolar monophasic release of PNP, concurrent with the loss of enzymatic activity (t1/2 = 14 min). The half-of-the-sites reactivity is discussed in view of the dimeric nature of this enzyme.

  2. Discovery of novel STAT3 small molecule inhibitors via in silico site-directed fragment-based drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenying; Xiao, Hui; Lin, Jiayuh; Li, Chenglong

    2013-06-13

    Constitutive activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been validated as an attractive therapeutic target for cancer therapy. To stop both STAT3 activation and dimerization, a viable strategy is to design inhibitors blocking its SH2 domain phosphotyrosine binding site that is responsible for both actions. A new fragment-based drug design (FBDD) strategy, in silico site-directed FBDD, was applied in this study. A designed novel compound, 5,8-dioxo-6-(pyridin-3-ylamino)-5,8-dihydronaphthalene-1-sulfonamide (LY5), was confirmed to bind to STAT3 SH2 by fluorescence polarization assay. In addition, four out of the five chosen compounds have IC50 values lower than 5 μM for the U2OS cancer cells. 8 (LY5) has an IC50 range in 0.5-1.4 μM in various cancer cell lines. 8 also suppresses tumor growth in an in vivo mouse model. This study has demonstrated the utility of this approach and could be used to other drug targets in general.

  3. Active-site-directed inactivation of Aspergillus oryzae beta-galactosidase with beta-D-galactopyranosylmethyl-p-nitrophenyltriazene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mega, T; Nishijima, T; Ikenaka, T

    1990-04-01

    beta-D-Galactopyranosylmethyl-p-nitrophenyltriazene (beta-GalMNT), a specific inhibitor of beta-galactosidase, was isolated as crystals by HPLC and its chemical and physicochemical characteristics were examined. Aspergillus oryzae beta-galactosidase was inactivated by the compound. We studied the inhibition mechanism in detail. The inhibitor was hydrolyzed by the enzyme to p-nitroaniline and an active intermediate (beta-galactopyranosylmethyl carbonium or beta-galactopyranosylmethyldiazonium), which inactivated the enzyme. The efficiency of inactivation of the enzyme (the ratio of moles of inactivated enzyme to moles of beta-GalMNT hydrolyzed by the enzyme) was 3%; the efficiency of Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase was 49%. In spite of the low efficiency, the rate of inactivation of A. oryzae enzyme was not very different from that of the E. coli enzyme, because the former hydrolyzed beta-GalMNT faster than the latter did. A. oryzae beta-galactosidase was also inactivated by p-chlorophenyl, p-tolyl, and m-nitrophenyl derivatives of beta-galactopyranosylmethyltriazene. However, E. coli beta-galactosidase was not inactivated by these triazene derivatives. The results showed that the inactivation of A. oryzae and E. coli beta-galactosidases by beta-GalMNT was an enzyme-activated and active-site-directed irreversible inactivation. The possibility of inactivation by intermediates produced nonenzymatically was ruled out for E. coli, but not for the A. oryzae enzyme.

  4. SimLabel: a graphical user interface to simulate continuous wave EPR spectra from site-directed spin labeling experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, E; Le Breton, N; Martinho, M; Mileo, E; Belle, V

    2017-08-01

    Site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) combined with continuous wave electron paramagnetic resonance (cw EPR) spectroscopy is a powerful technique to reveal, at the residue level, structural transitions in proteins. SDSL-EPR is based on the selective grafting of a paramagnetic label on the protein under study, followed by cw EPR analysis. To extract valuable quantitative information from SDSL-EPR spectra and thus give reliable interpretation on biological system dynamics, numerical simulations of the spectra are required. Such spectral simulations can be carried out by coding in MATLAB using functions from the EasySpin toolbox. For non-expert users of MATLAB, this could be a complex task or even impede the use of such simulation tool. We developed a graphical user interface called SimLabel dedicated to run cw EPR spectra simulations particularly coming from SDSL-EPR experiments. Simlabel provides an intuitive way to visualize, simulate, and fit such cw EPR spectra. An example of SDSL-EPR spectra simulation concerning the study of an intrinsically disordered region undergoing a local induced folding is described and discussed. We believe that this new tool will help the users to rapidly obtain reliable simulated spectra and hence facilitate the interpretation of their results. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. A Review on Microbial Mutagenesis through Gamma Irradiation for Agricultural Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoe, P.C.K.; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2016-01-01

    Gamma irradiation is widely used in sterilization and mutagenesis, especially for plant breeding and crop protection. Microbial mutagenesis through gamma irradiation is mainly applied in fermentation industry. In agriculture, gamma irradiation is mostly applied in crop improvement. Microbial mutagenesis is mainly applied against fungus and spore-forming bacteria, which are resistant to gamma irradiation. Response of microbes to gamma irradiation varies and depends on various factors. Review of previous works on gamma irradiation for microbial mutagenesis in agriculture may provide some information for the use of this method. The general view on gamma irradiation, its application, and mutagenesis are discussed in this paper. Further investigation on microbial mutagenesis should consider molecular changes, information on which is lacking in previous works. Moreover, studies on microbial mutagenesis are still lacking in Malaysia despite having several gamma irradiation facilities. Therefore, further studies on microbial mutagenesis should be conducted. (author)

  6. p53 Mutagenesis by Benzo[a]pyrene derived Radical Cations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Sushmita; Bhojnagarwala, Pratik; Francey, Lauren; Lu, Ding; Jeffrey Field, Trevor M. Penning

    2013-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a major human carcinogen in combustion products such as cigarette smoke and diesel exhaust, is metabolically activated into DNA-reactive metabolites via three different enzymatic pathways. The pathways are the anti-(+)-benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-diol 9, 10-epoxide pathway (P450/ epoxide hydrolase catalyzed) (B[a]PDE), the benzo[a]pyrene o-quinone pathway (aldo ketose reductase (AKR) catalyzed) and the B[a]P radical cation pathway (P450 peroxidase catalyzed). We used a yeast p53 mutagenesis system to assess mutagenesis by B[a]P radical cations. Because radical cations are short-lived, they were generated in situ by reacting B[a]P with cumene hydroperoxide (CuOOH) and horse radish peroxidase (HRP) and then monitoring the generation of the more stable downstream products, B[a]P-1,6-dione and B[a]P-3,6-dione. Based on the B[a]P-1,6 and 3,6-dione formation, approximately 4µM of radical cation was generated. In the mutagenesis assays, the radical cations produced in situ showed a dose-dependent increase in mutagenicity from 0.25 µM to 10 µM B[a]P with no significant increase seen with further escalation to 50 µM B[a]P. However, mutagenesis was 200-fold less than with the AKR pathway derived B[a]P, 7–8 dione. Mutant p53 plasmids, which yield red colonies, were recovered from the yeast to study the pattern and spectrum of mutations. The mutation pattern observed was G to T (31%) > G to C (29%) > G to A (14%). The frequency of codons mutated by the B[a]P radical cations was essentially random and not enriched at known cancer hotspots. The quinone products of radical cations, B[a]P-1,6-dione and B[a]P-3,6-dione were more mutagenic than the radical cation reactions, but still less mutagenic than AKR derived B[a]P-7,8-dione. We conclude that B[a]P radical cations and their quinone products are weakly mutagenic in this yeast-based system compared to redox cycling PAH o-quinones. PMID:22768918

  7. The disparity mutagenesis model predicts rescue of living things from catastrophic errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuru eFurusawa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In animals including humans, mutation rates per generation will exceed a perceived threshold, which should result in an excessive genetic load. Despite this, they have survived without extinction. This is a perplexing problem for human genetics, arising at the end of the last century, and to date still does not have a fully satisfactory explanation. Shortly after we proposed the disparity theory of evolution in 1992, the disparity mutagenesis model was proposed, which forms the basis for an explanation for an acceleration of evolution and species survival. This model predicts a significant increase of the mutation threshold values if there is a high enough fidelity difference in replication between the lagging and leading strands. When applied to biological evolution, the model predicts that living things, including humans, might overcome the lethal effect of accumulated deleterious mutations and be able to survive. Artificially-prepared mutator strains of microorganisms, in which an enhanced lagging-strand-biased mutagenesis was introduced, showed unexpectedly high adaptability to severe environments. The implications of the striking behaviors shown by these disparity mutators will be discussed in relation to how living things with high mutation rates can avoid the self-defeating risk of excess mutations.

  8. An inducible tool for random mutagenesis in Aspergillus niger based on the transposon Vader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paun, Linda; Nitsche, Benjamin; Homan, Tim; Ram, Arthur F; Kempken, Frank

    2016-07-01

    The ascomycete Aspergillus niger is widely used in the biotechnology, for instance in producing most of the world's citric acid. It is also known as a major food and feed contaminant. While generation of gene knockouts for functional genomics has become feasible in ku70 mutants, analyzing gene functions or metabolic pathways remains a laborious task. An unbiased transposon-based mutagenesis approach may aid this process of analyzing gene functions by providing mutant libraries in a short time. The Vader transposon is a non-autonomous DNA-transposon, which is activated by the homologous tan1-transposase. However, in the most commonly used lab strain of A. niger (N400 strain and derivatives), we found that the transposase, encoded by the tan1 gene, is mutated and inactive. To establish a Vader transposon-based mutagenesis system in the N400 background, we expressed the functional transposase of A. niger strain CBS 513.88 under the control of an inducible promoter based on the Tet-on system, which is activated in the presence of the antibiotic doxycycline (DOX). Increasing amounts of doxycycline lead to higher Vader excision frequencies, whereas little to none activity of Vader was observed without addition of doxycycline. Hence, this system appears to be suitable for producing stable mutants in the A. niger N400 background.

  9. Methods for targetted mutagenesis in gram-positive bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunfeng

    2014-05-27

    The present invention provides a method of targeted mutagenesis in Gram-positive bacteria. In particular, the present invention provides a method that effectively integrates a suicide integrative vector into a target gene in the chromosome of a Gram-positive bacterium, resulting in inactivation of the target gene.

  10. Insertional mutagenesis using Tnt1 retrotransposon in potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato is the third most important food crop in the world. However, genetics and genomics research of potato has lagged behind many major crop species due to its autotetraploidy and a highly heterogeneous genome. Insertional mutagenesis using T-DNA or transposable elements, which is available in sev...

  11. CYTOTOXICITY AND MUTAGENESIS METHODS FOR EVALUATING TOXICITY REMOVAL FROM WASTEWATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project was a feasibility study of the effectiveness of a mammalian cell cytotoxicity assay and a mammalian cell mutagenesis assay for monitoring the toxicity and mutagenicity of influent and effluent wastewater at treatment plants. In the cytotoxicity assay, ambient samples...

  12. What Can a Micronucleus Teach? Learning about Environmental Mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Ana R.; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2009-01-01

    The micronucleus test is widely employed in environmental health research. It can also be an excellent tool for learning important concepts in environmental health. In this article we present an inquiry-based laboratory exercise where students explore several theoretical and practical aspects of environmental mutagenesis employing the micronucleus…

  13. p21-ras effector domain mutants constructed by "cassette" mutagenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stone, J C; Vass, W C; Willumsen, B M

    1988-01-01

    A series of mutations encoding single-amino-acid substitutions within the v-rasH effector domain were constructed, and the ability of the mutants to induce focal transformation of NIH 3T3 cells was studied. The mutations, which spanned codons 32 to 40, were made by a "cassette" mutagenesis...

  14. The European dimension for the mouse genome mutagenesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Auwerx, J.; Avner, P.; Baldock, R.; Ballabio, A.; Balling, R.; Barbacid, M.; Berns, A.; Bradley, A.; Brown, S.; Carmeliet, P.; Chambon, P.; Cox, R.; Davidson, D.; Davies, K.; Duboule, D.; Forejt, Jiří; Granucci, F.; Hastie, N.; Angelis, M. H. de; Jackson, I.; Kioussis, D.; Kollias, G.; Lathrop, M.; Lendahl, U.; Malumbres, M.; von Melchner, H.; Müller, W.; Partanen, J.; Ricciardi-Castagnoli, P.; Rigby, P.; Rosen, B.; Rosenthal, N.; Skarnes, B.; Stewart, A. F.; Thornton, J.; Tocchini-Valentini, G.; Wagner, E.; Wahli, W.; Wurst, W.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 16, - (2004), s. 925-927 ISSN 1061-4036 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A079 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : The European Mouse Mutagenesis Consortium Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 24.695, year: 2004

  15. Integrating structural and mutagenesis data to elucidate GPCR ligand binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Christian; Harpsøe, Kasper; Hauser, Alexander S

    2016-01-01

    is reported that exhibit activity through multiple receptors, binding in allosteric sites, and bias towards different intracellular signalling pathways. Furthermore, a wealth of single point mutants has accumulated in literature and public databases. Integrating these structural and mutagenesis data will help...

  16. Targeted mutagenesis using CRISPR/Cas in inbred potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targeted mutagenesis using sequence-specific nucleases (SSNs) has been well established in several important crop species, but is in need of improvement in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). For over a century, potatoes have been bred as autotetraploids (2n = 4x = 48), relying on F1 selections and clona...

  17. Utilization of mutagenesis for improvement of yam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokpa, G.

    1997-01-01

    Yam (Dioscorea spp.) is an important vegetable crop in tropical countries of Africa, the Caribbean, South Africa, and South East Asia. The tubers which contain 2-3 times more protein than sweet potato, cassava and plantain, constitute a major staple food for about 200 million people in West Africa. This are contributes 96% to the world production of yam. The goals of this mutation breeding program is to obtain from selected yam varieties, plants are are tolerant to viruses or to mealy bugs, are erect or semi-erect in habit (bushy architecture), are able to grow without staking and have a short growing season. 17 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  18. Utilization of mutagenesis for improvement of yam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokpa, G [IDESSA, Inst. des Savanes, Dept. des Cultures Vivrieres, Bouake (Cote d` Ivoire)

    1997-12-01

    Yam (Dioscorea spp.) is an important vegetable crop in tropical countries of Africa, the Caribbean, South Africa, and South East Asia. The tubers which contain 2-3 times more protein than sweet potato, cassava and plantain, constitute a major staple food for about 200 million people in West Africa. This are contributes 96% to the world production of yam. The goals of this mutation breeding program is to obtain from selected yam varieties, plants are are tolerant to viruses or to mealy bugs, are erect or semi-erect in habit (bushy architecture), are able to grow without staking and have a short growing season. 17 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  19. Circular dichroism and site-directed spin labeling reveal structural and dynamical features of high-pressure states of myoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Michael T.; Horwitz, Joseph; McCoy, John; Hubbell, Wayne L.

    2013-01-01

    Excited states of proteins may play important roles in function, yet are difficult to study spectroscopically because of their sparse population. High hydrostatic pressure increases the equilibrium population of excited states, enabling their characterization [Akasaka K (2003) Biochemistry 42:10875–85]. High-pressure site-directed spin-labeling EPR (SDSL-EPR) was developed recently to map the site-specific structure and dynamics of excited states populated by pressure. To monitor global secondary structure content by circular dichroism (CD) at high pressure, a modified optical cell using a custom MgF2 window with a reduced aperture is introduced. Here, a combination of SDSL-EPR and CD is used to map reversible structural transitions in holomyoglobin and apomyoglobin (apoMb) as a function of applied pressure up to 2 kbar. CD shows that the high-pressure excited state of apoMb at pH 6 has helical content identical to that of native apoMb, but reversible changes reflecting the appearance of a conformational ensemble are observed by SDSL-EPR, suggesting a helical topology that fluctuates slowly on the EPR time scale. Although the high-pressure state of apoMb at pH 6 has been referred to as a molten globule, the data presented here reveal significant differences from the well-characterized pH 4.1 molten globule of apoMb. Pressure-populated states of both holomyoglobin and apoMb at pH 4.1 have significantly less helical structure, and for the latter, that may correspond to a transient folding intermediate. PMID:24248390

  20. Theory for site-site pair distribution functions of molecular fluids. II. Approximations for the Percus--Yevick site-site direct correlation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.

    1977-01-01

    A theory for site-site pair distribution functions of molecular fluids is derived from the Ornstein-Zernike equation. Atom-atom pair distribution functions of this theory which were obtained by using different approximations for the Percus-Yevick site-site direct correlation functions are compared

  1. Targeted mutagenesis in sea urchin embryos using TALENs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoi, Sayaka; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Sakamoto, Naoaki; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Genome editing with engineered nucleases such as zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) has been reported in various animals. We previously described ZFN-mediated targeted mutagenesis and insertion of reporter genes in sea urchin embryos. In this study, we demonstrate that TALENs can induce mutagenesis at specific genomic loci of sea urchin embryos. Injection of TALEN mRNAs targeting the HpEts transcription factor into fertilized eggs resulted in the impairment of skeletogenesis. Sequence analyses of the mutations showed that deletions and/or insertions occurred at the HpEts target site in the TALEN mRNAs-injected embryos. The results suggest that targeted gene disruption using TALENs is feasible in sea urchin embryos. © 2013 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2013 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  2. Study of UV-induced mutagenesis in Bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippov, V.D.; Lotareva, O.V.

    1978-01-01

    The mechanism of UV-induced mutagenesis was studied in Bacillus subtilis departing from the assumption that a lower yield of UV-induced mutations should be found in mutants deficient in the recombination if production of mutations is coupled with the recombination process. Three recombination-deficient strains were used: two (recA and recF) with defects in different recombination pathways and the third (recB) has a block at a stage common for both of them. UV light induced reversions to prototrophy in recB cells and did not in recA and recF strains. Direct mutations, which confer to the cell additional growth requirements, were induced by UV light in recA and recF mutants. It is concluded that UV-induced mutagenesis in B subtilis is independent of the two known recombination mechanisms

  3. Mutagenesis breeding research of Lactobacillus brevis of nitrite reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Zeli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The pollution of nitrite in food became one of the focus of food safety issues,the use of biotechnology methods degrading nitrite became hotspot.The primitive strain was Lactobacillus brevis C2,preserved in our laboratory,had the ability to degrade nitrite,through composite mutagenesis of 15 W,254 nm,20 cm ultraviolet mutagenesis (UV for 120 s and 0.8% diethyl sulfate(DES in 37℃ mutation for 40 min,after screening,we successfully obtained high efficient strain of nitrite degradation,named UV6-DS2,relative to the starting strain,under the condition of 400 mg/L nitrite,after 12 h degradation,nitrite degradation rate increased from 92.8% to 97.8%,to explore its application in food was able to effectively reduce concentration of nitrite in food.

  4. Transcriptional mutagenesis: causes and involvement in tumor development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brégeon, Damien; Doetsch, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of normal cells in a human do not multiply continuously but are quiescent and devote most of their energy to gene transcription. When DNA damages in the transcribed strand of an active gene are bypassed by an RNA polymerase, they can miscode at the damaged site and produce mutant transcripts. This process known as transcriptional mutagenesis can lead to the production of mutant proteins that could be important in tumor development. PMID:21346784

  5. Photodynamic action of methylene blue: mutagenesis and synergism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capella, M.A.M.

    1988-01-01

    The associated mutagenesis and the interactions with physical agents in order to potencialize its biological effects are studied. The induction of mutation in bacterias due to photodynamic action of methylene blue is presented as well as the induction of single breaks in bacterial DNA and the relationship between the repair systems, especially the SOS one. The interaction of the photodynamic therapy with low intensity electric current is discussed. (M.A.C.) [pt

  6. Himar1 Transposon for Efficient Random Mutagenesis in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinfeng Ding

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is the primary etiological agent of aggressive periodontal disease. Identification of novel virulence factors at the genome-wide level is hindered by lack of efficient genetic tools to perform mutagenesis in this organism. The Himar1 mariner transposon is known to yield a random distribution of insertions in an organism’s genome with requirement for only a TA dinucleotide target and is independent of host-specific factors. However, the utility of this system in A. actinomycetemcomitans is unknown. In this study, we found that Himar1 transposon mutagenesis occurs at a high frequency (×10-4, and can be universally applied to wild-type A. actinomycetemcomitans strains of serotypes a, b, and c. The Himar1 transposon inserts were stably inherited in A. actinomycetemcomitans transconjugants in the absence of antibiotics. A library of 16,000 mutant colonies of A. actinomycetemcomitans was screened for reduced biofilm formation. Mutants with transposon inserts in genes encoding pilus, putative ion transporters, multidrug resistant proteins, transcription regulators and enzymes involved in the synthesis of extracellular polymeric substance, bacterial metabolism and stress response were discovered in this screen. Our results demonstrated the utility of the Himar1 mutagenesis system as a novel genetic tool for functional genomic analysis in A. actinomycetemcomitans.

  7. Primer Extension Mutagenesis Powered by Selective Rolling Circle Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huovinen, Tuomas; Brockmann, Eeva-Christine; Akter, Sultana; Perez-Gamarra, Susan; Ylä-Pelto, Jani; Liu, Yuan; Lamminmäki, Urpo

    2012-01-01

    Primer extension mutagenesis is a popular tool to create libraries for in vitro evolution experiments. Here we describe a further improvement of the method described by T.A. Kunkel using uracil-containing single-stranded DNA as the template for the primer extension by additional uracil-DNA glycosylase treatment and rolling circle amplification (RCA) steps. It is shown that removal of uracil bases from the template leads to selective amplification of the nascently synthesized circular DNA strand carrying the desired mutations by phi29 DNA polymerase. Selective RCA (sRCA) of the DNA heteroduplex formed in Kunkel's mutagenesis increases the mutagenesis efficiency from 50% close to 100% and the number of transformants 300-fold without notable diversity bias. We also observed that both the mutated and the wild-type DNA were present in at least one third of the cells transformed directly with Kunkel's heteroduplex. In contrast, the cells transformed with sRCA product contained only mutated DNA. In sRCA, the complex cell-based selection for the mutant strand is replaced with the more controllable enzyme-based selection and less DNA is needed for library creation. Construction of a gene library of ten billion members is demonstrated with the described method with 240 nanograms of DNA as starting material. PMID:22355397

  8. Lethal mutagenesis: targeting the mutator phenotype in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Edward J; Loeb, Lawrence A

    2010-10-01

    The evolution of cancer and RNA viruses share many similarities. Both exploit high levels of genotypic diversity to enable extensive phenotypic plasticity and thereby facilitate rapid adaptation. In order to accumulate large numbers of mutations, we have proposed that cancers express a mutator phenotype. Similar to cancer cells, many viral populations, by replicating their genomes with low fidelity, carry a substantial mutational load. As high levels of mutation are potentially deleterious, the viral mutation frequency is thresholded at a level below which viral populations equilibrate in a traditional mutation-selection balance, and above which the population is no longer viable, i.e., the population undergoes an error catastrophe. Because their mutation frequencies are fine-tuned just below this error threshold, viral populations are susceptible to further increases in mutational load and, recently this phenomenon has been exploited therapeutically by a concept that has been termed lethal mutagenesis. Here we review the application of lethal mutagenesis to the treatment of HIV and discuss how lethal mutagenesis may represent a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of solid cancers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Coherent wavepackets in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex are robust to excitonic-structure perturbations caused by mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiuri, Margherita; Ostroumov, Evgeny E.; Saer, Rafael G.; Blankenship, Robert E.; Scholes, Gregory D.

    2018-02-01

    Femtosecond pulsed excitation of light-harvesting complexes creates oscillatory features in their response. This phenomenon has inspired a large body of work aimed at uncovering the origin of the coherent beatings and possible implications for function. Here we exploit site-directed mutagenesis to change the excitonic level structure in Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complexes and compare the coherences using broadband pump-probe spectroscopy. Our experiments detect two oscillation frequencies with dephasing on a picosecond timescale—both at 77 K and at room temperature. By studying these coherences with selective excitation pump-probe experiments, where pump excitation is in resonance only with the lowest excitonic state, we show that the key contributions to these oscillations stem from ground-state vibrational wavepackets. These experiments explicitly show that the coherences—although in the ground electronic state—can be probed at the absorption resonances of other bacteriochlorophyll molecules because of delocalization of the electronic excitation over several chromophores.

  10. Ligand binding modes from low resolution GPCR models and mutagenesis: chicken bitter taste receptor as a test-case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pizio, Antonella; Kruetzfeldt, Louisa-Marie; Cheled-Shoval, Shira; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Behrens, Maik; Niv, Masha Y

    2017-08-15

    Bitter taste is one of the basic taste modalities, warning against consuming potential poisons. Bitter compounds activate members of the bitter taste receptor (Tas2r) subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The number of functional Tas2rs is species-dependent. Chickens represent an intriguing minimalistic model, because they detect the bitter taste of structurally different molecules with merely three bitter taste receptor subtypes. We investigated the binding modes of several known agonists of a representative chicken bitter taste receptor, ggTas2r1. Because of low sequence similarity between ggTas2r1 and crystallized GPCRs (~10% identity, ~30% similarity at most), the combination of computational approaches with site-directed mutagenesis was used to characterize the agonist-bound conformation of ggTas2r1 binding site between TMs 3, 5, 6 and 7. We found that the ligand interactions with N93 in TM3 and/or N247 in TM5, combined with hydrophobic contacts, are typically involved in agonist recognition. Next, the ggTas2r1 structural model was successfully used to identify three quinine analogues (epiquinidine, ethylhydrocupreine, quinidine) as new ggTas2r1 agonists. The integrated approach validated here may be applicable to additional cases where the sequence identity of the GPCR of interest and the existing experimental structures is low.

  11. Directed mutagenesis affects recombination in Azospirillum brasilense nif genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.P. Nunes

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the gene transfer/mutagenesis system for Azospirillum brasilense, gene-cartridge mutagenesis was used to replace the nifD gene with the Tn5 kanamycin resistance gene. The construct was transferred to A. brasilense by electrotransformation. Of the 12 colonies isolated using the suicide plasmid pSUP202 as vector, only four did not show vector integration into the chromosome. Nevertheless, all 12 colonies were deficient in acetylene reduction, indicating an Nif- phenotype. Four Nif- mutants were analyzed by Southern blot, using six different probes spanning the nif and Km r genes and the plasmid vector. Apparently, several recombination events occurred in the mutant genomes, probably caused mainly by gene disruption owing to the mutagenesis technique used: resistance gene-cartridge mutagenesis combined with electrotransformation.Com o objetivo de melhorar os sistemas de transferência gênica e mutagênese para Azospirillum brasilense, a técnica de mutagênese através do uso de um gene marcador ("gene-cartridge mutagenesis" foi utilizada para substituir a região genômica de A. brasilense correspondente ao gene nifD por um segmento de DNA do transposon Tn5 contendo o gene que confere resistência ao antibiótico canamicina. A construção foi transferida para a linhagem de A. brasilense por eletrotransformação. Doze colônias transformantes foram isoladas com o plasmídeo suicida pSUP202 servindo como vetor. Dessas, somente quatro não possuíam o vetor integrado no cromossomo da bactéria. Independentemente da integração ou não do vetor, as 12 colônias foram deficientes na redução do gás acetileno, evidenciando o fenótipo Nif -. Quatro mutantes Nif - foram analisados através da técnica de Southern blot, utilizando-se seis diferentes fragmentos contendo genes nif, de resistência à canamicina e do vetor como sondas. Os resultados sugerem a ocorrência de eventos recombinacionais variados no genoma dos mutantes. A

  12. Next-generation site-directed transgenesis in the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae: self-docking strains expressing germline-specific phiC31 integrase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M Meredith

    Full Text Available Diseases transmitted by mosquitoes have a devastating impact on global health and the situation is complicated due to difficulties with both existing control measures and the impact of climate change. Genetically modified mosquitoes that are refractory to disease transmission are seen as having great potential in the delivery of novel control strategies. The Streptomyces phage phiC31 integrase system has been successfully adapted for site-directed transgene integration in a range of insects, thus overcoming many limitations due to size constraints and random integration associated with transposon-mediated transformation. Using this technology, we previously published the first site-directed transformation of Anopheles gambiae, the principal vector of human malaria. Mosquitoes were initially engineered to incorporate the phiC31 docking site at a defined genomic location. A second phase of genetic modification then achieved site-directed integration of an anti-malarial effector gene. In the current publication we report improved efficiency and utility of the phiC31 integrase system following the generation of Anopheles gambiae self-docking strains. Four independent strains, with docking sites at known locations on three different chromosome arms, were engineered to express integrase under control of the regulatory regions of the nanos gene from Anopheles gambiae. The resulting protein accumulates in the posterior oocyte to provide integrase activity at the site of germline development. Two self-docking strains, exhibiting significantly different levels of integrase expression, were assessed for site-directed transgene integration and found to demonstrate greatly improved survival and efficiency of transformation. In the fight against malaria, it is imperative to establish a broad repertoire of both anti-malarial effector genes and tissue-specific promoters to regulate their expression, enabling those offering maximum effect with minimum fitness

  13. Untargeted viral mutagenesis is not found in X-irradiated monkey cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lytle, C.D.; Carney, P.G.; Lee, W.; Bushar, H.F.

    1988-01-01

    The existence of untargeted viral mutagenesis in X-irradiated cells was investigated in a mammalian virus/cell system, where a low level of such viral mutagenesis can be demonstrated in UV-irradiated cells. In the positive control experiment UV-elicited mutagenesis was shown with cell exposures of 5, 10 and 15 J/m 2 and a delay of 24 h between cell irradiation and infection with unirradiated herpes simplex virus. Although X-ray doses of 1, 3 and 10 Gy elicit enhanced reactivation of UV-irradiated virus, no untargeted mutagenesis for any X-ray dose at post-irradiation infection times of 0, 24 or 72 h was observed in this study. Thus untargeted mutagenesis of herpes simplex virus was not demonstrated in X-irradiated monkey cells, under conditions where X-ray-enhanced reactivation occurs and where untargeted mutagenesis in UV-irradiated cells occurs. (author)

  14. Mutagenesis in sequence encoding of human factor VII for gene therapy of hemophilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Kazemi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Current treatment of hemophilia which is one of the most common bleeding disorders, involves replacement therapy using concentrates of FVIII and FIX .However, these concentrates have been associated with viral infections and thromboembolic complications and development of antibodies. "nThe use of recombinant human factor VII (rhFVII is effective  for the treatment of patients with  hemophilia A or B, who develop antibodies ( referred as inhibitors against  replacement therapy , because it induces coagulation independent of FVIII and FIX. However, its short half-life and high cost have limited its use. One potential solution to this problem may be the use of FVIIa gene transfer, which would attain continuing therapeutic levels of expression from a single injection. The aim of this study was to engineer a novel hFVII (human FVII gene containing a cleavage site for the intracellular protease and furin, by PCR mutagenesis "nMethods: The sequence encoding light and heavy chains of hFVII, were amplified by using hFVII/pTZ57R and specific primers, separately. The PCR products were cloned in pTZ57R vector. "nResults and discussion: Cloning was confirmed by restriction analysis or PCR amplification using specific primers and plasmid universal primers. Mutagenesis of sequence encoding light and heavy chain was confirmed by restriction enzyme. "nConclusion: In the present study, it was provided recombinant plasmids based on mutant form of DNA encoding light and heavy chains.  Joining mutant form of DNA encoding light chain with mutant heavy chain led to a new variant of hFVII. This variant can be activated by furin and an increase in the proportion of activated form of FVII. This mutant form of hFVII may be used for gene therapy of hemophilia.

  15. Modification of γ-induced mutagenesis in Ames test-strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basha, S.G.; Krasavin, E.A.; Kozubek, S.; Amirtaev, K.G.

    1990-01-01

    Glycerine and cysteamine protective effect on mutagenesis was studied in 3 strains of Salmonella typhimurium under γ-radiation. Glycerine modifying effect was shown to be not similar for various test-strains and depended on DNA injury nature. DNA complex injuries were shown to play significant role in mutagenesis of TA100 and TA102 strains. Absence of cysteamine modifying effect on γ-induced mutagenesis testified to cysteamine effect on enzyme balance. 20 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  16. Mechanism of SOS-induced targeted and untargeted mutagenesis in E. coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maenhaut-Michel, G.

    1985-01-01

    This paper retraces the evolution of hypotheses concerning mechanisms of SOS induced mutagenesis. Moreover, it reports some recent data which support a new model for the mechanism of targeted and untargeted mutagenesis in E. coli. In summary, the SOS mutator effect, which is responsible for untargeted mutagenesis and perhaps for the misincorporation step in targeted mutagenesis, is believed to involve a fidelity function associated with DNA polymerase III and does not require the umuC gene product. umuC and umuD gene products are probably required specifically for elongation of DNA synthesis past blocking lesions, i.e. to allow mutagenic replication of damaged DNA

  17. Beyond the Natural Proteome: Nondegenerate Saturation Mutagenesis-Methodologies and Advantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Amaral, M M; Frigotto, L; Hine, A V

    2017-01-01

    Beyond the natural proteome, high-throughput mutagenesis offers the protein engineer an opportunity to "tweak" the wild-type activity of a protein to create a recombinant protein with required attributes. Of the various approaches available, saturation mutagenesis is one of the core techniques employed by protein engineers, and in recent times, nondegenerate saturation mutagenesis is emerging as the approach of choice. This review compares the current methodologies available for conducting nondegenerate saturation mutagenesis with traditional, degenerate saturation and briefly outlines the options available for screening the resulting libraries, to discover a novel protein with the required activity and/or specificity. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The relationship between survival and mutagenesis in Escherichia coli after fractionated ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzidic, S.; Salaj-Smic, E.; Trgovcevic, Z.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between survival and mutagenesis in Escherichia coli after fractionated ultraviolet (UV) irradiation was studied. The cells were incubated either in buffer or nutrient media. Regardless of incubation conditions, greater survival is observed after fractionated irradiation than after acute irradiation. When the cells are incubated in buffer, UV mutagenesis decreases with an increase in the number of dose fractions. However, when the cells are cultivated in nutrient media, the increased survival is coupled with the enhanced capacity for UV mutagenesis. The authors, therefore, assume that during incubation in nutrient media, fractionated irradiation leads to full and prolonged expression of all UV inducible (SOS) genes, including those required for mutagenesis. (Auth.)

  19. [Influence of diethyl sulfate (DES) mutagenesis on growth properties and pigment secondary metabolites of Phellinus igniarius].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Wu, Xin-yuan; Ma, Wei; Chen, Jing; Liu, Cheng; Wu, Xiu-li

    2015-06-01

    The diethyl sulfate (DES) mutagenesis was chosen for the mutagenic treatment to Phellinus igniarius, and the relationship of mutagenesis time and death rate was investigated with 0.5% DES. The differences of mycelial growth speed, liquid fermentation mycelia biomass, morphology and pigment classes of secondary metabolites production speed and antioxidant activities of metabolite products were discussed. The study displayed that DES mutagenesis could change mycelial morphology without obvious effect on mycelium growth, and the DES mutagenesis improved antioxidant activities of the active ingredients of P. igniarius and had more antioxidant activity of hypoxia/sugar PC12 nerve cells than that of P. igniarius.

  20. A protocol for chemical mutagenesis in Strongyloides ratti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li; Chang, Zisong; Dieterich, Christoph; Streit, Adrian

    2015-11-01

    Genetic analysis using experimentally induced mutations has been a most valuable tool in the analysis of various organisms. However, genetic analysis of endoparasitic organisms tends to be difficult because of the limited accessibility of the sexually reproducing adults, which are normally located within the host. Nematodes of the genera Strogyloides and Parastrongyloides represent an exception to this because they can form facultative free-living sexually reproducing generations in between parasitic generations. Here we present a protocol for the chemical mutagenesis of Strongyloides ratti. Further we evaluate the feasibility of identifying the induced mutations by whole genome re-sequencing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. History of the science of mutagenesis from a personal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malling, Heinrich V

    2004-01-01

    A career in the study of mutagenesis spanning 50 years is a gift few scientists have been bestowed. My tenure in the field started in 1953, the year the structure of DNA became known (Watson and Crick [1953]: Nature 171:737). Before that time, it was suspected that DNA was the genetic material based on the research of Oswald T. Avery (Avery et al. [1944]: J Exp Med 79:137), but many scientists still believed that proteins or polysaccharides could be the genetic material. The present article describes a lifetime of personal experience in the field of chemical mutagenesis. The methods used to treat viruses with chemical mutagens were well developed in the 1950s. Here I review the early use of nitrous acid and hydroxylamine as mutagens in eukaryotes, the development of methods for the metabolic activation of mutagens by microsomal preparations, and the selection of a mutant tester set for the qualitative characterization of the mutagenic activity of chemicals. These studies provided critical background information that was used by Bruce Ames in the development of his Salmonella/microsome assay, widely known as the Ames test (Ames et al. [1973]: Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 70:2281-2285). This article also describes how a set of diagnostic chemical mutagens was selected and used to identify the molecular nature of gene mutations. Today, DNA sequencing has replaced the use of diagnostic mutagens, but studies of this kind formed the foundation of modern mutation research. They also helped set the stage for the organization of the Environmental Mutagen Society and the Environmental Mutagen Information Center, which are described. The article ends with the development of mammalian single-cell mutation assays, the first system for studying in vivo mutagenesis using recoverable vectors in transgenic animals, other mutation assays in intact mammals, and my thoughts on the critically important area of germ cell mutagenesis. This narrative is not a complete autobiographical account

  2. Radiation mutagenesis in development of genetic fundamentals of cotton selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musaev, D.A.; Almatov, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    Some results of investigations on preparation and genetic analysis of mutants in inbreeding lines of genetic collections of cotton plants, as well as problems on mutant application in practical selection are covered. The results show that the scientific authenticity and efficiency of fundamental and applied investigations in the field of experimental mutagenesis of cotton plants,being a facultative self-polinator, depend on keeping necessary methodical requirements. Application of inbreeding lines of genetic collection with marker features as the initial material, isolation of plants usinng self-polination of flowers on all stages of investigation are related to these requirements. Several methodical recommendations on genetic-selective investigations are developed

  3. Recent advances of microbial breeding via heavy-ion mutagenesis at IMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, W; Li, W; Chen, J

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays, the value of heavy-ion mutagenesis has been accepted as a novel powerful mutagen technique to generate new microbial mutants due to its high linear energy transfer and high relative biological effectiveness. This paper briefly reviews recent progress in developing a more efficient mutagenesis technique for microbial breeding using heavy-ion mutagenesis, and also presents the outline of the beam line for microbial breeding in Heavy Ion Research Facility of Lanzhou. Then, new insights into microbial biotechnology via heavy-ion mutagenesis are also further explored. We hope that our concerns will give deep insight into microbial breeding biotechnology via heavy-ion mutagenesis. We also believe that heavy-ion mutagenesis breeding will greatly contribute to the progress of a comprehensive study industrial strain engineering for bioindustry in the future. There is currently a great interest in developing rapid and diverse microbial mutation tool for strain modification. Heavy-ion mutagenesis has been proved as a powerful technology for microbial breeding due to its broad spectrum of mutation phenotypes with high efficiency. In order to deeply understand heavy-ion mutagenesis technology, this paper briefly reviews recent progress in microbial breeding using heavy-ion mutagenesis at IMP, and also presents the outline of the beam line for microbial breeding in Heavy Ion Research Facility of Lanzhou (HIRFL) as well as new insights into microbial biotechnology via heavy-ion mutagenesis. Thus, this work can provide the guidelines to promote the development of novel microbial biotechnology cross-linking heavy-ion mutagenesis breeding that could make breeding process more efficiently in the future. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Is radiation an appropriate model for chemical mutagenesis and carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter attempts to show why the quadratic, or ''linear quadratic,'' relationship holds for organ dose-single cell radiation effects, and to explore the extension of this relationship to chemical exposures in general. Demonstrates that although the ''αD + βD 2 relationship'' may be unexpected for normal pharmacologicalmedical dose-response relationships, a linear, no-threshold curve of this kind is expected for all stochastic-type (accidental or risk) situations with health consequences (e.g. all common accidents) including exposure to ''low-level radiation'' (LLR). Discusses the stochastic or risk approach, relevant radiobiology, and the stochastic for chemicals. Assumes that even though actual mutational rates cannot be expected to apply to the relevance of Tradescantia or any other single cell system as a predictor for mutagenesis and carcinogenesis in animals and man, the cardinal principles of genetics largely transcend species and the particular environment in which the cell is located. Concludes that with regard to LLR, the curve shapes and other relationships developed for Tradescantia would be expected to apply in principle to animal and human mutagenesis and carcinogenesis

  5. In vitro mutagenesis of commercial fern, Asplenium nidus from spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norazlina Noordin

    2004-01-01

    Asplenium is a largest, most diverse fern genera. One of the common species is Asplenium nidus, well known as Bird's-nest fern, a medium to large fern with erect, stout, unbranched rhizomes. In creating variability of ferns for the benefit of the ornamental plant industry, in vitro mutagenesis is used. In this study, spores of Asplenium nidus were collected from frond bearing mature sporangia. Spores were cultured in modified 1/2 MS basal medium supplemented with various combinations of 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) and Naphtalene Acetic Acid (NAA). Spore cultures were incubated in incubation room at 24 degree C with 16 hours photoperiod (3500 lux). It was found that, the most effective combinations were 1 mg/1 BAP + 0. 1 mg/1 NAA and 2mg/1 BAP + 0. 1 mg/1 NAA. Prothallus was formed after 10 days of cultures and gametophytes were formed 1 month later. These gametophytes were irradiated with Gamma ray at doses of 0, 20, 90, 120, 150 and 180 Gy. From the preliminary result obtained from this study, for generating variations and desired phenotypic expression for Asplenium nidus, recommended doses for in vitro mutagenesis using spores are between 90 Gy to 150 Gy. Gametophytes were subcultured at monthly interval to ensure further development and propagation. Frequent monitoring for any changes in the morphology of the irradiated Asplenium nidus plants were carried out. (Author)

  6. Tradescantia bioassays as monitoring systems for environmental mutagenesis: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, G.S.; Ma, T.H.; Pimentel, D.; Weinstein, L.H.

    1997-01-01

    Since the early studies on the genetic effects of chemical and physical agents, species and clones of Tradescantia have been used as experimental subjects, by virtue of a series of favorable genetic characteristics. Bearing just six pairs (2n = 12) of large, easily observable chromosomes, cells from almost every part of the plant, from the root tips to the developing pollen tube, yield excellent material for cytogenetic studies. As a consequence of the intensive use of Tradescantia in genetic studies, a series of genetic characteristics have been found that offer opportunities for the detection of agents affecting the stability of the genome. At least five such characteristics have been selected as endpoints for the establishment of assays to evaluate mutagenesis. Three of these, root-tip mitosis, pollen-tube, and microspore mitosis are essentially chromosome aberration assays, wherein one observes and evaluates the visible damage in the chromosomes. A fourth, the stamen-hair mutation assay (Trad-SHM), is a point mutation mitotic assay based on the expression of a recessive gene for flower color in heterozygous plants. The fifth assay is a cytogenetic test based on the formation of micronuclei (Trad-MCN) that result from chromosome breakage in the meiotic pollen mother cells. This article examines the characteristics and fundamentals of the Trad-MCN and the Trad-SHM assays and reviews the results obtained to date with these systems in the assessment of environmental mutagenesis. (author)

  7. Tissue culture and mutagenesis of rain lily (zephyranthes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Nazir Basiran; Zaiton Ahmad; Shakinah Salleh; Shuhaimi Shamsudin; Aiza Shaliha Jamaludin

    2004-01-01

    There are three varieties of Zephyranthes used widely in landscaping due to their robust growth and attractive flowers in pink, yellow and white. Both in vivo and in vitro mutagenesis are an effective approach to increase the flower colour variations of Zephyranthes. In vitro propagation for the three varieties was attempted by using the induction medium developed by Sachar and Kapoor in 1959. The medium contains I ma of each indole 3-acetic acid (IAA), indole 3-butyric acid (IBA) and kinetin. Following surface sterilization of bulb scales, 17.8%, 10.5% and 10.7% of pink, white and yellow varieties respectively, were able to form small bulblets on the induction media. Further development of these bulblets into plantlets was also achieved on the same medium. Work is now being carried out to improve the efficiency of bulblet regeneration. Mutagenesis of Zephyranthes was initiated from bulbs of the pink varieties to develop new varieties with attractive combinations of flower colour and forms, shelf life and growth habits. These bulbs were irradiated using a gamma cell with a 60 Co source. Three variants with different flower colour and morphology have been achieved so far and are now being propagated in the nursery. (Author)

  8. Mechanisms of Base Substitution Mutagenesis in Cancer Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Bacolla

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer genome sequence data provide an invaluable resource for inferring the key mechanisms by which mutations arise in cancer cells, favoring their survival, proliferation and invasiveness. Here we examine recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for the predominant type of genetic alteration found in cancer cells, somatic single base substitutions (SBSs. Cytosine methylation, demethylation and deamination, charge transfer reactions in DNA, DNA replication timing, chromatin status and altered DNA proofreading activities are all now known to contribute to the mechanisms leading to base substitution mutagenesis. We review current hypotheses as to the major processes that give rise to SBSs and evaluate their relative relevance in the light of knowledge acquired from cancer genome sequencing projects and the study of base modifications, DNA repair and lesion bypass. Although gene expression data on APOBEC3B enzymes provide support for a role in cancer mutagenesis through U:G mismatch intermediates, the enzyme preference for single-stranded DNA may limit its activity genome-wide. For SBSs at both CG:CG and YC:GR sites, we outline evidence for a prominent role of damage by charge transfer reactions that follow interactions of the DNA with reactive oxygen species (ROS and other endogenous or exogenous electron-abstracting molecules.

  9. Mechanisms of base substitution mutagenesis in cancer genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacolla, Albino; Cooper, David N; Vasquez, Karen M

    2014-03-05

    Cancer genome sequence data provide an invaluable resource for inferring the key mechanisms by which mutations arise in cancer cells, favoring their survival, proliferation and invasiveness. Here we examine recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for the predominant type of genetic alteration found in cancer cells, somatic single base substitutions (SBSs). Cytosine methylation, demethylation and deamination, charge transfer reactions in DNA, DNA replication timing, chromatin status and altered DNA proofreading activities are all now known to contribute to the mechanisms leading to base substitution mutagenesis. We review current hypotheses as to the major processes that give rise to SBSs and evaluate their relative relevance in the light of knowledge acquired from cancer genome sequencing projects and the study of base modifications, DNA repair and lesion bypass. Although gene expression data on APOBEC3B enzymes provide support for a role in cancer mutagenesis through U:G mismatch intermediates, the enzyme preference for single-stranded DNA may limit its activity genome-wide. For SBSs at both CG:CG and YC:GR sites, we outline evidence for a prominent role of damage by charge transfer reactions that follow interactions of the DNA with reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other endogenous or exogenous electron-abstracting molecules.

  10. Visualization of tandem repeat mutagenesis in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormeyer, Miriam; Lentes, Sabine; Ballin, Patrick; Wilkens, Markus; Klumpp, Stefan; Kohlheyer, Dietrich; Stannek, Lorena; Grünberger, Alexander; Commichau, Fabian M

    2018-03-01

    Mutations are crucial for the emergence and evolution of proteins with novel functions, and thus for the diversity of life. Tandem repeats (TRs) are mutational hot spots that are present in the genomes of all organisms. Understanding the molecular mechanism underlying TR mutagenesis at the level of single cells requires the development of mutation reporter systems. Here, we present a mutation reporter system that is suitable to visualize mutagenesis of TRs occurring in single cells of the Gram-positive model bacterium Bacillus subtilis using microfluidic single-cell cultivation. The system allows measuring the elimination of TR units due to growth rate recovery. The cultivation of bacteria carrying the mutation reporter system in microfluidic chambers allowed us for the first time to visualize the emergence of a specific mutation at the level of single cells. The application of the mutation reporter system in combination with microfluidics might be helpful to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying TR (in)stability in bacteria. Moreover, the mutation reporter system might be useful to assess whether mutations occur in response to nutrient starvation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Non-targeted mutagenesis of unirradiated lambda phage in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.D.; Hutchinson, F.

    1984-01-01

    Non-targeted mutagenesis of lambda phage by ultraviolet light is the increase over background mutagenesis when non-irradiated phage are grown in irradiated Escherichia coli host cells. Such mutagenesis is caused by different processes from targeted mutagenesis, in which mutations in irradiated phage are correlated with photoproducts in the phage DNA. Non-irradiated phage grown in heavily irradiated uvr + host cells showed non-targeted mutations, which were 3/4 frameshifts, whereas targeted mutations were 2/3 transitions. For non-targeted mutagenesis in heavily irradiated host cells, there were one or two mutant phage per mutant burst. From the results of a series of experiments with various mutant host cells, a major pathway of non-targeted mutagenesis by ultraviolet light was proposed which acts in addition to ''SOS induction''. This pathway involves binding of the enzyme DNA polymerase I to damaged genomic DNA, and low polymerase activity leads to frameshift mutations during semiconservative DNA replication. The data suggest that this process will play a much smaller role in ultraviolet mutagenesis of the bacterial genome than it does in the mutagenesis of lambda phage. (author)

  12. Antimutation effect of an E. coli membrane fraction on UV-mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, D.; Kristoff, S.; Bockrath, R.; Indiana Univ., Indianapolis; Indiana Univ., Indianapolis

    1980-01-01

    The depression of mutagenesis that occurs when irradiated E. coli are plated at high densities is studied. The number of mutant colonies indicated increases linearly with increasing plate density to about 10 8 bacteria per plate. At higher plate densities, suppressor mutations are very sensitive to crowding depression of mutagenesis and backmutations are somewhat sensitive. (orig./AJ)

  13. The relation between repair of DNA and radiation and chemical mutagenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, L.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of various genes involved in DNA repair functions on radiation and chemical mutagenesis in Escherichia coli is discussed and compared to similar studies done in yeast. Results of the effect of various genes conferring radiation-sensitivty on mutation induction in yeast are presented and related to current ideas of mutagenesis

  14. Non-targeted mutagenesis of unirradiated lambda phage in Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, R.D.; Hutchinson, F. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (USA). Dept. of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry)

    1984-03-05

    Non-targeted mutagenesis of lambda phage by ultraviolet light is the increase over background mutagenesis when non-irradiated phage are grown in irradiated Escherichia coli host cells. Such mutagenesis is caused by different processes from targeted mutagenesis, in which mutations in irradiated phage are correlated with photoproducts in the phage DNA. Non-irradiated phage grown in heavily irradiated uvr/sup +/ host cells showed non-targeted mutations, which were 3/4 frameshifts, whereas targeted mutations were 2/3 transitions. For non-targeted mutagenesis in heavily irradiated host cells, there were one or two mutant phage per mutant burst. From the results of a series of experiments with various mutant host cells, a major pathway of non-targeted mutagenesis by ultraviolet light was proposed which acts in addition to ''SOS induction''. This pathway involves binding of the enzyme DNA polymerase I to damaged genomic DNA, and low polymerase activity leads to frameshift mutations during semiconservative DNA replication. The data suggest that this process will play a much smaller role in ultraviolet mutagenesis of the bacterial genome than it does in the mutagenesis of lambda phage.

  15. Site-directed immobilization of a genetically engineered anti-methotrexate antibody via an enzymatically introduced biotin label significantly increases the binding capacity of immunoaffinity columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Kaitlynn R; Smith, Christopher A; Hofstetter, Heike; Horn, James R; Hofstetter, Oliver

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the effect of random vs. site-directed immobilization techniques on the performance of antibody-based HPLC columns was investigated using a single-domain camelid antibody (VHH) directed against methotrexate (MTX) as a model system. First, the high flow-through support material POROS-OH was activated with disuccinimidyl carbonate (DSC), and the VHH was bound in a random manner via amines located on the protein's surface. The resulting column was characterized by Frontal Affinity Chromatography (FAC). Then, two site-directed techniques were explored to increase column efficiency by immobilizing the antibody via its C-terminus, i.e., away from the antigen-binding site. In one approach, a tetra-lysine tail was added, and the antibody was immobilized onto DSC-activated POROS. In the second site-directed approach, the VHH was modified with the AviTag peptide, and a biotin-residue was enzymatically incorporated at the C-terminus using the biotin ligase BirA. The biotinylated antibody was subsequently immobilized onto NeutrAvidin-derivatized POROS. A comparison of the FAC analyses, which for all three columns showed excellent linearity (R(2)>0.999), revealed that both site-directed approaches yield better results than the random immobilization; the by far highest efficiency, however, was determined for the immunoaffinity column based on AviTag-biotinylated antibody. As proof of concept, all three columns were evaluated for quantification of MTX dissolved in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Validation using UV-detection showed excellent linearity in the range of 0.04-12μM (R(2)>0.993). The lower limit of detection (LOD) and lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) were found to be independent of the immobilization strategy and were 40nM and 132nM, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision was below 11.6%, and accuracy was between 90.7% and 112%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the AviTag-system in chromatography, and the first

  16. Photo-Oxidative Stress-Driven Mutagenesis and Adaptive Evolution on the Marine Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum for Enhanced Carotenoid Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqian Yi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine diatoms have recently gained much attention as they are expected to be a promising resource for sustainable production of bioactive compounds such as carotenoids and biofuels as a future clean energy solution. To develop photosynthetic cell factories, it is important to improve diatoms for value-added products. In this study, we utilized UVC radiation to induce mutations in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum and screened strains with enhanced accumulation of neutral lipids and carotenoids. Adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE was also used in parallel to develop altered phenotypic and biological functions in P. tricornutum and it was reported for the first time that ALE was successfully applied on diatoms for the enhancement of growth performance and productivity of value-added carotenoids to date. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS was utilized to study the composition of major pigments in the wild type P. tricornutum, UV mutants and ALE strains. UVC radiated strains exhibited higher accumulation of fucoxanthin as well as neutral lipids compared to their wild type counterpart. In addition to UV mutagenesis, P. tricornutum strains developed by ALE also yielded enhanced biomass production and fucoxanthin accumulation under combined red and blue light. In short, both UV mutagenesis and ALE appeared as an effective approach to developing desired phenotypes in the marine diatoms via electromagnetic radiation-induced oxidative stress.

  17. Scientific projection paper for mutagenesis, transformation and cell killing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, P.

    1980-01-01

    Our knowledge about mutagenesis, transformation, and cell killing by ionizing radiation consists of large bodies of data, which are potentially useful in terms of application to human risk assessment and to the constructive use of radiation, as in cancer treatment. The three end-points discussed above are united by at least five significant concepts in radiation research strategy: (1) The inter-relationships among the important end-points, mutation, carcinogenesis, and cell killing. Research on one is meaningful only in the context of information about the other two. (2) The interaction of radiations with other agents in producing these end-points. (3) The mechanisms of action of other environmental mutagenic, carcinogenic, and cytotoxic agents. (4) The use of repair deficient human mutant cells. (5) The study of radiation damage mechanisms. There is no better way to extrapolate laboratory data to the clinical and public worlds than to understand the underlying biological mechanisms that produced the data

  18. Results and perspectives of mutagenesis applied to durum wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnara, D.

    1975-01-01

    A review is made of the main aspects and problems of mutagenesis applied to the breeding of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum). Features and type of action of the main physical and chemical mutagens are considered: a comparison is also made between the two classes of mutagens, on the basis of results so far achieved. Mentions is then made of methods of treatment; parts of plant which can be treated; growing of treated material in segregating generations: data to be successively recorded. Methods of estimating mutation frequency and the problem of arising chimerical tissues and its possible overcoming are also discussed. Examination is made of some special effects of mutagens, namely: induction of translocations; diploidization of polyploids; induction of haploids and aneuploids; genetic analysis of specific loci; induction of male sterility. Finally, results are reviewed concerning induction and utilization, either as varieties or in cross breeding programmes, of mutants for characters of agronomic interest. (Bagnara, D.)

  19. Environmental mutagenesis during the end-Permian ecological crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, Henk; Looy, Cindy V; Collinson, Margaret E; Brinkhuis, Henk; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, Johanna H A; Kürschner, Wolfram M; Sephton, Mark A

    2004-08-31

    During the end-Permian ecological crisis, terrestrial ecosystems experienced preferential dieback of woody vegetation. Across the world, surviving herbaceous lycopsids played a pioneering role in repopulating deforested terrain. We document that the microspores of these lycopsids were regularly released in unseparated tetrads indicative of failure to complete the normal process of spore development. Although involvement of mutation has long been hinted at or proposed in theory, this finding provides concrete evidence for chronic environmental mutagenesis at the time of global ecological crisis. Prolonged exposure to enhanced UV radiation could account satisfactorily for a worldwide increase in land plant mutation. At the end of the Permian, a period of raised UV stress may have been the consequence of severe disruption of the stratospheric ozone balance by excessive emission of hydrothermal organohalogens in the vast area of Siberian Traps volcanism. Copyright 2004 The National Academy of Sciencs of the USA

  20. Study of UV-mutagenesis in Bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotareva, O.V.; Filippov, V.D.

    1974-01-01

    The sensitivity of Bac. subtilis to the inactivating and mutagenic effects of UV-mutants has been determined: uvr, which does not extract pyrimidine dimers from damaged DNA; recsub(x), which exhibits a reduced activity of ATP-dependent DNAase; poll, which is devoid of DNA polymerase, and wild strains (DT). The sensitivity of these strains to the inactivating effects of UV rays increases in the order: DT<= recsub(x) << uvr < poll, and UV mutability in the order: DT = rec(sub(x) < poll<< uvr. A comparison of UV mutagenesis in Bac. subtilis and E. coli suggests the hypothesis that the mechanisms of UV mutation formation are similar in these two organisms. (author)

  1. Mutant fatty acid desaturase and methods for directed mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanklin, John [Shoreham, NY; Whittle, Edward J [Greenport, NY

    2008-01-29

    The present invention relates to methods for producing fatty acid desaturase mutants having a substantially increased activity towards substrates with fewer than 18 carbon atom chains relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon chain length specificity, the sequences encoding the desaturases and to the desaturases that are produced by the methods. The present invention further relates to a method for altering a function of a protein, including a fatty acid desaturase, through directed mutagenesis involving identifying candidate amino acid residues, producing a library of mutants of the protein by simultaneously randomizing all amino acid candidates, and selecting for mutants which exhibit the desired alteration of function. Candidate amino acids are identified by a combination of methods. Enzymatic, binding, structural and other functions of proteins can be altered by the method.

  2. Creating Sunflower Mutant Lines (Helianthus Annuus L.) Using Induced Mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Encheva, J.

    2009-01-01

    Immature sunflower zygotic embryos of sunflower fertility restorer line 374 R were treated with ultrasound and gamma radiation before plating embryos to culture medium. All plants were isolated and self-pollinated for several generations. New sunflower forms with inherited morphological and biochemical changes were obtained. The genetic changes occurring during the mutation procedure included fourteen morphological and biochemical characters. In comparison to the check line 374 R, decreasing of the mean value of the indexes was registered for 33 % of the total number of characters and vise verse, significant increasing was observed for 60 %. Mutation for resistance to the local population of Orobanche cumana race A-E was obtained from the susceptible Bulgarian control line 374 R. Two investigated mutant lines possessed 100 % resistance to Orobanche and stable inheritance in the next generations. Our results showed that induced mutagenesis in sunflower can be successfully used to develop new lines useful for heterosis breeding

  3. Radiation induced DNA damage and repair in mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strniste, G.F.; Chen, D.J.; Okinaka, R.T.

    1987-01-01

    The central theme in cellular radiobiological research has been the mechanisms of radiation action and the physiological response of cells to this action. Considerable effort has been directed toward the characterization of radiation-induced DNA damage and the correlation of this damage to cellular genetic change that is expressed as mutation or initiating events leading to cellular transformation and ultimately carcinogenesis. In addition, there has been a significant advancement in their understanding of the role of DNA repair in the process of mutation leading to genetic change in cells. There is extensive literature concerning studies that address radiation action in both procaryotic and eucaryotic systems. This brief report will make no attempt to summarize this voluminous data but will focus on recent results from their laboratory of experiments in which they have examined, at both the cellular and molecular levels, the process of ionizing radiation-induced mutagenesis in cultured human cells

  4. Mechanisms of uv mutagenesis in yeast and E. coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, C.; Christensen, R.; Christensen, J.R.; O'Brien, T.

    1983-01-01

    Experiments investigating ultraviolet light mutagenesis in either bakers' yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or E. coli have led to the following conclusions. First, cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers cause most mutations in both organisms; pyrimidine adducts, such as PyC, can account at best for only a small proportion. 86 percent of forward mutations induced at the E. coli lacI locus can be abolished by photoreactivation under conditions which do not alter the level of recA induction. About 75 percent of the forward mutations induced at the CAN1 locus of yeast could be removed by photoreactivation, a value that lies within the range observed previously for the reversion of CYC1 alleles (60 percent - 97 percent). Second, about 10 percent of the lacI forward mutations are untargeted, a smaller fraction than found previously for cycl-91 reversion in yeast. It is not yet clear whether the two species are really different in this respect, of whether the cycl-91 reversion site is a typical of the yeast genome at large. Third, analysis of reversion frequencies of 20 mutant alleles suggests that about 10 to 25 percent of all replication errors produced by mutagenic mechanisms in uv-irradiated yeast involve additions or deletions of base-pairs, indicating that error-prone repair does not just produce substitutions. Last, the REV1 locus in yeast is concerned with the induction of frameshift mutations at some, but not all, genetic sites, just as found previously for substitution mutations. The function of the REV3 gene is more widely, though not universally, required while the function of the RAD6 gene, like that of the recA locus in E. coli, appears to be necessary for all kinds of uv mutagenesis. E coli genes comparable to REV1 and REV3 have not yet been described; conversely, there does not yet appear to be a yeast equivalent of umuC

  5. Mechanisms of uv mutagenesis in yeast and E. coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, C.; Christensen, R.; Christensen, J.R.; O'Brien, T.

    1983-01-01

    Experiments investigating ultraviolet light mutagenesis in either bakers' yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or E. coli have led to the following conclusions. First, cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers cause most mutations in both organisms; pyrimidine adducts, such as PyC, can account at best for only a small proportion. Eighty-six percent of forward mutations induced at the E. coli lacI locus can be abolished by photoreactivation under conditions which do not alter the level of recA induction. About 75 percent of the forward mutations induced at the CAN1 locus of yeast could be removed by photoreactivation, a value that lies within the range observed previously for the reversion of CYC1 alleles (60 percent - 97 percent). Second, about 10 percent of the lacI forward mutations are untargeted, a smaller fraction than found previously for cycl1-91 reversion in yeast. It is not yet clear whether the two species are really different in this respect, or whether the cyc1-91 reversion site is atypical of the yeast genome at large. Third, analysis of reversion frequencies of 20 mutant alleles suggests that about 10 - 25 percent of all replication errors produced by mutagenic mechanisms in UV-irradiated yeast involve additions or deletions of base-pairs, indicating that error-prone repair does not just produce substitutions. Last, the REV1 locus in yeast is concerned with the induction of frameshift mutations at some, but not all, genetic sites, just as found previously for substitution mutations. The function of the REV3 gene is more widely, though not universally, required while the function of the RAD6 gene, like that of the recA locus in E. coli, appears to be necessary for all kinds of UV mutagenesis. E. coli genes comparable to REV1 and REV3 have not yet been described, conversely, there does not yet appear to be a yeast equivalent of umuC. 13 references, 4 tables

  6. Mechanism of porcine liver xanthine oxidoreductase mediated N-oxide reduction of cyadox as revealed by docking and mutagenesis studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chigang Chen

    Full Text Available Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR is a cytoplasmic molybdenum-containing oxidoreductase, catalyzing both endogenous purines and exogenous compounds. It is suggested that XOR in porcine hepatocytes catalyzes the N-oxide reduction of quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxides (QdNOs. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying this metabolism, the cDNA of porcine XOR was cloned and heterologously expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells. The bovine XOR, showing sequence identity of 91% to porcine XOR, was employed as template for homology modeling. By docking cyadox, a representative compound of QdNOs, into porcine XOR model, eight amino acid residues, Gly47, Asn352, Ser360, Arg427, Asp430, Asp431, Ser1227 and Lys1230, were located at distances of less than 4Å to cyadox. Site-directed mutagenesis was performed to analyze their catalytic functions. Compared with wild type porcine XOR, G47A, S360P, D431A, S1227A, and K1230A displayed altered kinetic parameters in cyadox reduction, similarly to that in xanthine oxidation, indicating these mutations influenced electron-donating process of xanthine before subsequent electron transfer to cyadox to fulfill the N-oxide reduction. Differently, R427E and D430H, both located in the 424-434 loop, exhibited a much lower K(m and a decreased V(max respectively in cyadox reduction. Arg427 may be related to the substrate binding of porcine XOR to cyadox, and Asp430 is suggested to be involved in the transfer of electron to cyadox. This study initially reveals the possible catalytic mechanism of porcine XOR in cyadox metabolism, providing with novel insights into the structure-function relationship of XOR in the reduction of exogenous di-N-oxides.

  7. Characterizing the Hot Spots Involved in RON-MSPβ Complex Formation Using In Silico Alanine Scanning Mutagenesis and Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Zarei

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Implication of protein-protein interactions (PPIs in development of many diseases such as cancer makes them attractive for therapeutic intervention and rational drug design. RON (Recepteur d’Origine Nantais tyrosine kinase receptor has gained considerable attention as promising target in cancer therapy. The activation of RON via its ligand, macrophage stimulation protein (MSP is the most common mechanism of activation for this receptor. The aim of the current study was to perform in silico alanine scanning mutagenesis and to calculate binding energy for prediction of hot spots in protein-protein interface between RON and MSPβ chain (MSPβ. Methods: In this work the residues at the interface of RON-MSPβ complex were mutated to alanine and then molecular dynamics simulation was used to calculate binding free energy. Results: The results revealed that Gln193, Arg220, Glu287, Pro288, Glu289, and His424 residues from RON and Arg521, His528, Ser565, Glu658, and Arg683 from MSPβ may play important roles in protein-protein interaction between RON and MSP. Conclusion: Identification of these RON hot spots is important in designing anti-RON drugs when the aim is to disrupt RON-MSP interaction. In the same way, the acquired information regarding the critical amino acids of MSPβ can be used in the process of rational drug design for developing MSP antagonizing agents, the development of novel MSP mimicking peptides where inhibition of RON activation is required, and the design of experimental site directed mutagenesis studies.

  8. Targeted mutagenesis in Zea mays using TALENs and the CRISPR/Cas system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Kang; Chen, Kunling; Gao, Caixia

    2014-02-20

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) systems have emerged as powerful tools for genome editing in a variety of species. Here, we report, for the first time, targeted mutagenesis in Zea mays using TALENs and the CRISPR/Cas system. We designed five TALENs targeting 4 genes, namely ZmPDS, ZmIPK1A, ZmIPK, ZmMRP4, and obtained targeting efficiencies of up to 23.1% in protoplasts, and about 13.3% to 39.1% of the transgenic plants were somatic mutations. Also, we constructed two gRNAs targeting the ZmIPK gene in maize protoplasts, at frequencies of 16.4% and 19.1%, respectively. In addition, the CRISPR/Cas system induced targeted mutations in Z. mays protoplasts with efficiencies (13.1%) similar to those obtained with TALENs (9.1%). Our results show that both TALENs and the CRISPR/Cas system can be used for genome modification in maize. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Fluorescence-Based Reporters for Detection of Mutagenesis in E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Melissa; Allen, Jennifer; Cervantes, Layla; Lilly, Joshua; Camps, Manel

    2017-01-01

    Mutagenesis in model organisms following exposure to chemicals is used as an indicator of genotoxicity. Mutagenesis assays are also used to study mechanisms of DNA homeostasis. This chapter focuses on detection of mutagenesis in prokaryotes, which boils down to two approaches: reporter inactivation (forward mutation assay) and reversion of an inactivating mutation (reversion mutation assay). Both methods are labor intensive, involving visual screening, quantification of colonies on solid media, or determining a Poisson distribution in liquid culture. Here, we present two reversion reporters for in vivo mutagenesis that produce a quantitative output, and thus have the potential to greatly reduce the amount of test chemical and labor involved in these assays. This output is obtained by coupling a TEM β lactamase-based reversion assay with GFP fluorescence, either by placing the two genes on the same plasmid or by fusing them translationally and interrupting the N-terminus of the chimeric ORF with a stop codon. We also describe a reporter aimed at facilitating the monitoring of continuous mutagenesis in mutator strains. This reporter couples two reversion markers, allowing the temporal separation of mutation events in time, thus providing information about the dynamics of mutagenesis in mutator strains. Here, we describe these reporter systems, provide protocols for use, and demonstrate their key functional features using error-prone Pol I mutagenesis as a source of mutations. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Yeast Environmental Stress Response Regulates Mutagenesis Induced by Proteotoxic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Erika; Fox, Catherine A.; Broach, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Conditions of chronic stress are associated with genetic instability in many organisms, but the roles of stress responses in mutagenesis have so far been elucidated only in bacteria. Here, we present data demonstrating that the environmental stress response (ESR) in yeast functions in mutagenesis induced by proteotoxic stress. We show that the drug canavanine causes proteotoxic stress, activates the ESR, and induces mutagenesis at several loci in an ESR-dependent manner. Canavanine-induced mutagenesis also involves translesion DNA polymerases Rev1 and Polζ and non-homologous end joining factor Ku. Furthermore, under conditions of chronic sub-lethal canavanine stress, deletions of Rev1, Polζ, and Ku-encoding genes exhibit genetic interactions with ESR mutants indicative of ESR regulating these mutagenic DNA repair processes. Analyses of mutagenesis induced by several different stresses showed that the ESR specifically modulates mutagenesis induced by proteotoxic stress. Together, these results document the first known example of an involvement of a eukaryotic stress response pathway in mutagenesis and have important implications for mechanisms of evolution, carcinogenesis, and emergence of drug-resistant pathogens and chemotherapy-resistant tumors. PMID:23935537

  11. Random mutagenesis by error-prone pol plasmid replication in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, David L; Lilly, Joshua; Hernandez, Jaime; Romsdahl, Jillian; Troll, Christopher J; Camps, Manel

    2014-01-01

    Directed evolution is an approach that mimics natural evolution in the laboratory with the goal of modifying existing enzymatic activities or of generating new ones. The identification of mutants with desired properties involves the generation of genetic diversity coupled with a functional selection or screen. Genetic diversity can be generated using PCR or using in vivo methods such as chemical mutagenesis or error-prone replication of the desired sequence in a mutator strain. In vivo mutagenesis methods facilitate iterative selection because they do not require cloning, but generally produce a low mutation density with mutations not restricted to specific genes or areas within a gene. For this reason, this approach is typically used to generate new biochemical properties when large numbers of mutants can be screened or selected. Here we describe protocols for an advanced in vivo mutagenesis method that is based on error-prone replication of a ColE1 plasmid bearing the gene of interest. Compared to other in vivo mutagenesis methods, this plasmid-targeted approach allows increased mutation loads and facilitates iterative selection approaches. We also describe the mutation spectrum for this mutagenesis methodology in detail, and, using cycle 3 GFP as a target for mutagenesis, we illustrate the phenotypic diversity that can be generated using our method. In sum, error-prone Pol I replication is a mutagenesis method that is ideally suited for the evolution of new biochemical activities when a functional selection is available.

  12. Short philtrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003302.htm Short philtrum To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A short philtrum is a shorter than normal distance between ...

  13. Mutagenesis Objective Search and Selection Tool (MOSST: an algorithm to predict structure-function related mutations in proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asenjo Juan A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functionally relevant artificial or natural mutations are difficult to assess or predict if no structure-function information is available for a protein. This is especially important to correctly identify functionally significant non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs or to design a site-directed mutagenesis strategy for a target protein. A new and powerful methodology is proposed to guide these two decision strategies, based only on conservation rules of physicochemical properties of amino acids extracted from a multiple alignment of a protein family where the target protein belongs, with no need of explicit structure-function relationships. Results A statistical analysis is performed over each amino acid position in the multiple protein alignment, based on different amino acid physical or chemical characteristics, including hydrophobicity, side-chain volume, charge and protein conformational parameters. The variances of each of these properties at each position are combined to obtain a global statistical indicator of the conservation degree of each property. Different types of physicochemical conservation are defined to characterize relevant and irrelevant positions. The differences between statistical variances are taken together as the basis of hypothesis tests at each position to search for functionally significant mutable sites and to identify specific mutagenesis targets. The outcome is used to statistically predict physicochemical consensus sequences based on different properties and to calculate the amino acid propensities at each position in a given protein. Hence, amino acid positions are identified that are putatively responsible for function, specificity, stability or binding interactions in a family of proteins. Once these key functional positions are identified, position-specific statistical distributions are applied to divide the 20 common protein amino acids in each position of the protein

  14. Construction of a mutagenesis cartridge for poliovirus genome-linked viral protein: isolation and characterization of viable and nonviable mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, R.J.; Tada, H.; Ypma-Wong, M.F.; Dunn, J.J.; Semler, B.L.; Wimmer, E.

    1988-01-01

    By following a strategy of genetic analysis of poliovirus, the authors have constructed a synthetic mutagenesis cartridge spanning the genome-linked viral protein coding region and flanking cleavage sites in an infectious cDNA clone of the type I (Mahoney) genome. The insertion of new restriction sites within the infectious clone has allowed them to replace the wild-type sequences with short complementary pairs of synthetic oligonucleotides containing various mutations. A set of mutations have been made that create methionine codons within the genome-linked viral protein region. The resulting viruses have growth characteristics similar to wild type. Experiments that led to an alteration of the tyrosine residue responsible for the linkage to RNA have resulted in nonviable virus. In one mutant, proteolytic processing assayed in vitro appeared unimpaired by the mutation. They suggest that the position of the tyrosine residue is important for genome-linked viral protein function(s)

  15. Mutagenesis and Genome Engineering of Epstein-Barr Virus in Cultured Human Cells by CRISPR/Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Kit-San; Chan, Chi-Ping; Kok, Kin-Hang; Jin, Dong-Yan

    2017-01-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR associated protein 9 nuclease (Cas9) system is a powerful genome-editing tool for both chromosomal and extrachromosomal DNA. DNA viruses such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which undergoes episomal replication in human cells, can be effectively edited by CRISPR/Cas9. We have demonstrated targeted editing of the EBV genome by CRISPR/Cas9 in several lines of EBV-infected cells. CRISPR/Cas9-based mutagenesis and genome engineering of EBV provides a new method for genetic analysis, which has some advantages over bacterial artificial chromosome-based recombineering. This approach might also prove useful in the cure of EBV infection. In this chapter, we use the knockout of the BART promoter as an example to detail the experimental procedures for construction of recombinant EBV in human cells.

  16. Role of the RecF gene product in UV mutagenesis of lambda phage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.D.; Stein, J.

    1986-01-01

    E. coli recF mutants have a greatly reduced capacity for Weigle mutagenesis of ultraviolet light-irradiated lambda phage. A recF 332::Tn3 mutation was introduced into an E. coli recA441 lex A51 strain which constitutively expresses SOS functions. Weigle mutagenesis of phage lambda could occur in the resulting strain in the absence of host cell irradiation, and was increased when the recA441 (tif) allele was activated of recF strains to support Weigle mutagenesis can therefore be ascribed to a defect in expression of SOS functions after irradiation. (orig.)

  17. A function of mutagenesis on rhodotorula RY strain irradiated by heavy ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongyu; Li Chenghua; Ding Xinchun; Wang Jufang; Zhou Guangming; Xie Hongmei; Li Qiang; Dang bingrong; Wen Xiaoqiong; Li Wenjian; Wei Zengquan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, red yeast (Rhodotorula RY Strain) that produces carotene is irradiated by 50 MeV/u 12 C 6+ heavy ion from Heavy Ion Accelerator in IMP. Fermentation tests show that 50 MeV/u 12 C 6+ heavy ion has a mutagenesis effect on the red yeast. Some strains of red yeast with changed production of carotene were found by screening. Meanwhile, by RFLP and RAPD analysis, authors have a further evidence that heavy ion can cause mutagenesis in Rhodotorula RY Strain. This presents a new prospect for the mutagenesis breeding by heavy ion in industry

  18. Structure of Bacillus subtilis γ-glutamyltranspeptidase in complex with acivicin: diversity of the binding mode of a classical and electrophilic active-site-directed glutamate analogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, Tomoyo; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Fukuyama, Keiichi; Hiratake, Jun; Wada, Kei

    2014-01-01

    The binding modes of acivicin, a classical and an electrophilic active-site-directed glutamate analogue, to bacterial γ-glutamyltranspeptidases were found to be diverse. γ-Glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) is an enzyme that plays a central role in glutathione metabolism, and acivicin is a classical inhibitor of GGT. Here, the structure of acivicin bound to Bacillus subtilis GGT determined by X-ray crystallography to 1.8 Å resolution is presented, in which it binds to the active site in a similar manner to that in Helicobacter pylori GGT, but in a different binding mode to that in Escherichia coli GGT. In B. subtilis GGT, acivicin is bound covalently through its C3 atom with sp 2 hybridization to Thr403 O γ , the catalytic nucleophile of the enzyme. The results show that acivicin-binding sites are common, but the binding manners and orientations of its five-membered dihydroisoxazole ring are diverse in the binding pockets of GGTs

  19. Site-directed fluorescence labeling reveals a revised N-terminal membrane topology and functional periplasmic residues in the Escherichia coli cell division protein FtsK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezuk, Alison M; Goodyear, Mara; Khursigara, Cezar M

    2014-08-22

    In Escherichia coli, FtsK is a large integral membrane protein that coordinates chromosome segregation and cell division. The N-terminal domain of FtsK (FtsKN) is essential for division, and the C terminus (FtsKC) is a well characterized DNA translocase. Although the function of FtsKN is unknown, it is suggested that FtsK acts as a checkpoint to ensure DNA is properly segregated before septation. This may occur through modulation of protein interactions between FtsKN and other division proteins in both the periplasm and cytoplasm; thus, a clear understanding of how FtsKN is positioned in the membrane is required to characterize these interactions. The membrane topology of FtsKN was initially determined using site-directed reporter fusions; however, questions regarding this topology persist. Here, we report a revised membrane topology generated by site-directed fluorescence labeling. The revised topology confirms the presence of four transmembrane segments and reveals a newly identified periplasmic loop between the third and fourth transmembrane domains. Within this loop, four residues were identified that, when mutated, resulted in the appearance of cellular voids. High resolution transmission electron microscopy of these voids showed asymmetric division of the cytoplasm in the absence of outer membrane invagination or visible cell wall ingrowth. This uncoupling reveals a novel role for FtsK in linking cell envelope septation events and yields further evidence for FtsK as a critical checkpoint of cell division. The revised topology of FtsKN also provides an important platform for future studies on essential interactions required for this process. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Development of potent in vivo mutagenesis plasmids with broad mutational spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badran, Ahmed H; Liu, David R

    2015-10-07

    Methods to enhance random mutagenesis in cells offer advantages over in vitro mutagenesis, but current in vivo methods suffer from a lack of control, genomic instability, low efficiency and narrow mutational spectra. Using a mechanism-driven approach, we created a potent, inducible, broad-spectrum and vector-based mutagenesis system in E. coli that enhances mutation 322,000-fold over basal levels, surpassing the mutational efficiency and spectra of widely used in vivo and in vitro methods. We demonstrate that this system can be used to evolve antibiotic resistance in wild-type E. coli in mutagenesis of chromosomes, episomes and viruses in vivo, and are applicable to both bacterial and bacteriophage-mediated laboratory evolution platforms.

  1. Radiation-induced base substitution mutagenesis in single-stranded DNA phage M13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandenburger, A.; Godson, G.N.; Glickman, B.W.; Sluis, C.A. van

    1981-01-01

    To elucidate the relative contributions of targeted and untargeted mutations to γ and UV radiation mutagenesis, the DNA sequences of 174 M13 revertant phages isolated from stocks of irradiated or unirradiated amber mutants grown in irradiated (SOS-induced) or unirradiated (non-induced) host bacteria, have been determined. Differences in the spectra of base change mutations induced in the various conditions were apparent, but no obvious specificity of mutagenesis was detected. In particular, under the present conditions, pyrimidine dimers did not seem to be the principal sites of UV-induced base substitution mutagenesis, suggesting that such mutagenesis occurs at the sites of lesions other than pyrimidine dimers, or is untargeted. (U.K.)

  2. Optogenetic Random Mutagenesis Using Histone-miniSOG in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noma, Kentaro; Jin, Yishi

    2016-11-14

    Forward genetic screening in model organisms is the workhorse to discover functionally important genes and pathways in many biological processes. In most mutagenesis-based screens, researchers have relied on the use of toxic chemicals, carcinogens, or irradiation, which requires designated equipment, safety setup, and/or disposal of hazardous materials. We have developed a simple approach to induce heritable mutations in C. elegans using germline-expressed histone-miniSOG, a light-inducible potent generator of reactive oxygen species. This mutagenesis method is free of toxic chemicals and requires minimal laboratory safety and waste management. The induced DNA modifications include single-nucleotide changes and small deletions, and complement those caused by classical chemical mutagenesis. This methodology can also be used to induce integration of extrachromosomal transgenes. Here, we provide the details of the LED setup and protocols for standard mutagenesis and transgene integration.

  3. The use of plant tissue culture system in the mutagenesis of Secale cereale L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybczynski, J.J.; KozIowska, W.; Turzynski, D.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Among cereals, Secale cereale L. is the worst species for 'in vitro' mutagenesis. In the case of seed mutagenesis of rye each seed is expected to be a different genotype and only somatic embryogenesis assures propagation towards numerous individuals possessing the same genotype. Therefore, another system of in-vitro mutagenesis is explored. Immature embryos were isolated from spikes of field growing plants. The established cultures were irradiated with 0.5; 1.0 and 1.5 kR gamma rays on the first day of the culture and after 6 weeks in culture. After irradiation all cultures were subcultured. For mutagenesis in general uniformity of the original material is very important. Therefore, in rye, irradiation of regenerated somatic embryos may be a good approach. (author)

  4. Retroviral Vectors for Analysis of Viral Mutagenesis and Recombination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M.O. Rawson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Retrovirus population diversity within infected hosts is commonly high due in part to elevated rates of replication, mutation, and recombination. This high genetic diversity often complicates the development of effective diagnostics, vaccines, and antiviral drugs. This review highlights the diverse vectors and approaches that have been used to examine mutation and recombination in retroviruses. Retroviral vectors for these purposes can broadly be divided into two categories: those that utilize reporter genes as mutation or recombination targets and those that utilize viral genes as targets of mutation or recombination. Reporter gene vectors greatly facilitate the detection, quantification, and characterization of mutants and/or recombinants, but may not fully recapitulate the patterns of mutagenesis or recombination observed in native viral gene sequences. In contrast, the detection of mutations or recombination events directly in viral genes is more biologically relevant but also typically more challenging and inefficient. We will highlight the advantages and disadvantages of the various vectors and approaches used as well as propose ways in which they could be improved.

  5. In vitro mutagenesis for the improvement of Josapine pineapple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusli Ibrahim; Amir Hamzah

    2006-01-01

    Pineapple is the most important fruit in terms of revenue earner in Malaysia. There are about 10,000 ha cultivated with this fruit and half of this is owned by estates and planted for the canning industry. The export of canned pineapple is about 2 million standard cases annually valued at RM 60 million, while the export of fresh pineapple is about 40,000 tonnes worth about RM 10 million. The industry for canning is however, an ailing industry with production on the decline since the 70s. Somaclonal variations and induced mutation using irradiation in breeding are least invasive in changes to genetic make-up of an established variety and will be useful for improving the pineapple varieties. The use of tissue culture to generate somaclones with minute genetic changes that do not damage the overall varietal identity would be the most suitable tool to improve the variety. Protocols for the production of tissue culture plantlets of pineapple using bioreactor technology has been developed and proved to be much more efficient and productive compared to conventional method. In vitro mutagenesis using adventitious buds had produced new plants with smooth leaves, vigorous growth and ornamental-like characters. A total of 30,000 plants derived from tissue culture will be planted and screened in the field for the improvement of Josapine pineapple against bacterial heart rot disease and multiple crown. (Author)

  6. A wheat cold resistance mutant derived from space mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Peng; Sun Mingzhu; Zhang Fengyun; Gao Guoqiang; Qiu Denglin; Li Xinhua

    2012-01-01

    A cold resistance mutant, obtained by spaceflight mutagenesis on the seeds of wheat variety Han6172, and the DNA of cold resistance mutant and contrast Han6172 were compared by SRAP technique. 380 pairs of primers were screened, 6 pairs of them had polymorphisms between mutant and contrast, the rate was 1.58%, and this data indicated that there are no obvious DNA differences between mutant and contrast Six specific fragments were obtained, 3 fragments of them were amplified in mutant. Homology analysis in GenBank showed that Me3-Em7-Mt, Me4-Em11-CK, Me7-Em19-CK and Me6-Em9-Mt all had homologous sequences with wheat chromosome 3B-specific BAC library, and this result indicated that the gene and regulator sequences associated with mutant cold resistance might locate on 3B chromosome. It was speculated that space mutation induced the mutation of 3B chromosome primary structure, and influenced the expressions of cold resistance genes, which resulted in the mutation of cold resistance ability. (authors)

  7. The Fanconi anemia pathway limits the severity of mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, John M; Nham, Peter B; Salazar, Edmund P; Thompson, Larry H

    2006-08-13

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a developmental and cancer predisposition disorder in which key, yet unknown, physiological events promoting chromosome stability are compromised. FA cells exhibit excess metaphase chromatid breaks and are universally hypersensitive to DNA interstrand crosslinking agents. Published mutagenesis data from single-gene mutation assays show both increased and decreased mutation frequencies in FA cells. In this review we discuss the data from the literature and from our isogenic fancg knockout hamster CHO cells, and interpret these data within the framework of a molecular model that accommodates these seemingly divergent observations. In FA cells, reduced rates of recovery of viable X-linked hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (hprt) mutants are characteristically observed for diverse mutagenic agents, but also in untreated cultures, indicating the relevance of the FA pathway for processing assorted DNA lesions. We ascribe these reductions to: (1) impaired mutagenic translesion synthesis within hprt during DNA replication and (2) lethality of mutant cells following replication fork breakage on the X chromosome, caused by unrepaired double-strand breaks or large deletions/translocations encompassing essential genes flanking hprt. These findings, along with studies showing increased spontaneous mutability of FA cells at two autosomal loci, support a model in which FA proteins promote both translesion synthesis at replication-blocking lesions and repair of broken replication forks by homologous recombination and DNA end joining. The essence of this model is that the FANC protein pathway serves to restrict the severity of mutational outcome by favoring base substitutions and small deletions over larger deletions and chromosomal rearrangements.

  8. Directed combinatorial mutagenesis of Escherichia coli for complex phenotype engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Rongming; Liang, Liya; Garst, Andrew D.; Choudhury, Alaksh; Nogué, Violeta Sànchez i.; Beckham, Gregg T.; Gill, Ryan T.

    2018-05-01

    Strain engineering for industrial production requires a targeted improvement of multiple complex traits, which range from pathway flux to tolerance to mixed sugar utilization. Here, we report the use of an iterative CRISPR EnAbled Trackable genome Engineering (iCREATE) method to engineer rapid glucose and xylose co-consumption and tolerance to hydrolysate inhibitors in E. coli. Deep mutagenesis libraries were rationally designed, constructed, and screened to target ~40,000 mutations across 30 genes. These libraries included global and high-level regulators that regulate global gene expression, transcription factors that play important roles in genome-level transcription, enzymes that function in the sugar transport system, NAD(P)H metabolism, and the aldehyde reduction system. Specific mutants that conferred increased growth in mixed sugars and hydrolysate tolerance conditions were isolated, confirmed, and evaluated for changes in genome-wide expression levels. We tested the strain with positive combinatorial mutations for 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP) production under high furfural and high acetate hydrolysate fermentation, which demonstrated a 7- and 8-fold increase in 3HP productivity relative to the parent strain, respectively.

  9. A wheat cold resistance mutant derived from space mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Peng; Sun Mingzhu; Zhang Fengyun; Gao Guoqiang; Qiu Denglin; Li Xinhua

    2011-01-01

    A cold resistance mutant, obtained by spaceflight mutagenesis on the seeds of wheat variety Han6172, and the DNA of cold resistance mutant and contrast Han6172 were compared by SRAP technique. 380 pairs of primers were screened, 6 pairs of them had polymorphisms between mutant and contrast, the rate was 1.58%, and this data indicated that there are no obvious DNA differences between mutant and contrast. Six specific fragments were obtained, 3 fragments of them were amplified in mutant. Homology analysis in GenBank showed that Me3-Em7-Mt, Me4-Em11-CK, Me7-Em19-CK and Me6-Em9-Mt all had homologous sequences with wheat chromosome 3B-specific BAC library, and this result indicated that the gene and regulator sequences associated with mutant cold resistance might locate on 3B chromosome. It was speculated that space mutation induced the mutation of 3B chromosome primary structure, and influenced the expressions of cold resistance genes, which resulted in the mutation of cold resistance ability. (authors)

  10. ENU Mutagenesis in Mice Identifies Candidate Genes For Hypogonadism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jeffrey; Hurley, Lisa A.; Harris, Rebecca M.; Finlayson, Courtney; Tong, Minghan; Fisher, Lisa A.; Moran, Jennifer L.; Beier, David R.; Mason, Christopher; Jameson, J. Larry

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide mutagenesis was performed in mice to identify candidate genes for male infertility, for which the predominant causes remain idiopathic. Mice were mutagenized using N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU), bred, and screened for phenotypes associated with the male urogenital system. Fifteen heritable lines were isolated and chromosomal loci were assigned using low density genome-wide SNP arrays. Ten of the fifteen lines were pursued further using higher resolution SNP analysis to narrow the candidate gene regions. Exon sequencing of candidate genes identified mutations in mice with cystic kidneys (Bicc1), cryptorchidism (Rxfp2), restricted germ cell deficiency (Plk4), and severe germ cell deficiency (Prdm9). In two other lines with severe hypogonadism candidate sequencing failed to identify mutations, suggesting defects in genes with previously undocumented roles in gonadal function. These genomic intervals were sequenced in their entirety and a candidate mutation was identified in SnrpE in one of the two lines. The line harboring the SnrpE variant retains substantial spermatogenesis despite small testis size, an unusual phenotype. In addition to the reproductive defects, heritable phenotypes were observed in mice with ataxia (Myo5a), tremors (Pmp22), growth retardation (unknown gene), and hydrocephalus (unknown gene). These results demonstrate that the ENU screen is an effective tool for identifying potential causes of male infertility. PMID:22258617

  11. Multiplex Conditional Mutagenesis Using Transgenic Expression of Cas9 and sgRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Linlin; Maddison, Lisette A; Li, Mingyu; Kara, Nergis; LaFave, Matthew C; Varshney, Gaurav K; Burgess, Shawn M; Patton, James G; Chen, Wenbiao

    2015-06-01

    Determining the mechanism of gene function is greatly enhanced using conditional mutagenesis. However, generating engineered conditional alleles is inefficient and has only been widely used in mice. Importantly, multiplex conditional mutagenesis requires extensive breeding. Here we demonstrate a system for one-generation multiplex conditional mutagenesis in zebrafish (Danio rerio) using transgenic expression of both cas9 and multiple single guide RNAs (sgRNAs). We describe five distinct zebrafish U6 promoters for sgRNA expression and demonstrate efficient multiplex biallelic inactivation of tyrosinase and insulin receptor a and b, resulting in defects in pigmentation and glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, we demonstrate temporal and tissue-specific mutagenesis using transgenic expression of Cas9. Heat-shock-inducible expression of cas9 allows temporal control of tyr mutagenesis. Liver-specific expression of cas9 disrupts insulin receptor a and b, causing fasting hypoglycemia and postprandial hyperglycemia. We also show that delivery of sgRNAs targeting ascl1a into the eye leads to impaired damage-induced photoreceptor regeneration. Our findings suggest that CRISPR/Cas9-based conditional mutagenesis in zebrafish is not only feasible but rapid and straightforward. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  12. Using mutagenesis to explore conserved residues in the RNA-binding groove of influenza A virus nucleoprotein for antiviral drug development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Lin; Hung, Hui-Chen; Lo, Shou-Chen; Chiang, Ching-Hui; Chen, I.-Jung; Hsu, John T.-A.; Hou, Ming-Hon

    2016-02-01

    Nucleoprotein (NP) is the most abundant type of RNA-binding viral protein in influenza A virus-infected cells and is necessary for viral RNA transcription and replication. Recent studies demonstrated that influenza NP is a valid target for antiviral drug development. The surface of the groove, covered with numerous conserved residues between the head and body domains of influenza A NP, plays a crucial role in RNA binding. To explore the mechanism by which NP binds RNA, we performed a series of site-directed mutagenesis in the RNA-binding groove, followed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR), to characterize the interactions between RNA and NP. Furthermore, a role of Y148 in NP stability and NP-RNA binding was evaluated. The aromatic residue of Y148 was found to stack with a nucleotide base. By interrupting the stacking interaction between Y148 and an RNA base, we identified an influenza virus NP inhibitor, (E, E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) -1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione; this inhibitor reduced the NP’s RNA-binding affinity and hindered viral replication. Our findings will be useful for the development of new drugs that disrupt the interaction between RNA and viral NP in the influenza virus.

  13. Engineering Cofactor Preference of Ketone Reducing Biocatalysts: A Mutagenesis Study on a γ-Diketone Reductase from the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Serving as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Katzberg

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of pharmaceuticals and catalysts more and more relies on enantiopure chiral building blocks. These can be produced in an environmentally benign and efficient way via bioreduction of prochiral ketones catalyzed by dehydrogenases. A productive source of these biocatalysts is the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whose genome also encodes a reductase catalyzing the sequential reduction of the γ-diketone 2,5-hexanedione furnishing the diol (2S,5S-hexanediol and the γ-hydroxyketone (5S-hydroxy-2-hexanone in high enantio- as well as diastereoselectivity (ee and de >99.5%. This enzyme prefers NADPH as the hydrogen donating cofactor. As NADH is more stable and cheaper than NADPH it would be more effective if NADH could be used in cell-free bioreduction systems. To achieve this, the cofactor binding site of the dehydrogenase was altered by site-directed mutagenesis. The results show that the rational approach based on a homology model of the enzyme allowed us to generate a mutant enzyme having a relaxed cofactor preference and thus is able to use both NADPH and NADH. Results obtained from other mutants are discussed and point towards the limits of rationally designed mutants.

  14. In vitro mutagenesis studies at the arginine residues of adenylate kinase. A revised binding site for AMP in the X-ray-deduced model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyo Joon; Nishikawa, Satoshi; Tokutomi, Yuiko; Uesugi, Seiichi; Takenaka, Hitoshi; Hamada, Minoru; Kuby, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    Although X-ray crystallographic and NMR studies have been made on the adenylate kinases, the substrate-binding sites are not unequivocally established. In an attempt to shed light on the binding sites for MgATP 2- and for AMP 2- in human cytosolic adenylate kinase, the authors have investigated the enzymic effects of replacement of the arginine residues, which had been assumed by Pai et al. to interact with the phosphoryl groups of AMP 2- and MgATP 2- . With use of the site-directed mutagenesis method, point mutations were made in the artificial gene for hAK1 to replace these arginine residues with alanyl residues and yield the mutants R44A hAK1, R132A hAK1, R138A hAK1, and R149A hAK1. The resulting large increases in the K m,app values for AMP 2- of the mutant enzymes, the relatively small increases in the K m,app values for MgATP 2- , and the fact that the R132A, R138A, and R149A mutant enzymes proved to be very poor catalysts are consistent with the idea that the assigned substrate binding sites of Pai et al. have been reversed and that their ATP-binding site may be assigned as the AMP site

  15. Arginine kinase in Toxocara canis: Exon-intron organization, functional analysis of site-directed mutants and evaluation of putative enzyme inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Susiji; Yatawara, Lalani; Nagataki, Mitsuru; Agatsuma, Takeshi

    2016-10-01

    To determine exon/intron organization of the Toxocara canis (T. canis) AK (TCAK) and to test green and black tea and several other chemicals against the activity of recombinant TCAK in the guanidino-specific region by site-directed mutants. Amplification of genomic DNA fragments containing introns was carried out by PCRs. The open-reading frame (1200 bp) of TCAK (wild type) was cloned into the BamH1/SalI site of pMAL-c2X. The maltose-binding protein-TCAK fusion protein was expressed in Escherichia coli TB1 cells. The purity of the expressed enzyme was verified by SDS-PAGE. Mutations were introduced into the guanidino-specific region and other areas of pMAL/TCAK by PCR. Enzyme activity was measured with an NADH-linked assay at 25 °C for the forward reaction (phosphagen synthesis). Arginine kinase in T. canis has a seven-exon/six-intron gene structure. The lengths of the introns ranged from 542 bp to 2 500 bp. All introns begin with gt and end with ag. Furthermore, we measured the enzyme activity of site-directed mutants of the recombinant TCAK. The K m value of the mutant (Alanine to Serine) decreased indicating a higher affinity for substrate arginine than the wild-type. The K m value of the mutant (Serine to Glycine) increased to 0.19 mM. The K m value (0.19 mM) of the double mutant (Alanine-Serine to Serine-Glycine) was slightly greater than in the wild-type (0.12 mM). In addition, several other chemicals were tested; including plant extract Azadiracta indica (A. indica), an aminoglycoside antibiotic (aminosidine), a citrus flavonoid glycoside (rutin) and a commercially available catechin mixture against TCAK. Green and black tea (1:10 dilution) produced 15% and 25% inhibition of TCAK, respectively. The extract of A. indica produced 5% inhibition of TCAK. Moreover, green and black tea produced a non-competitive type of inhibition and A. indica produced a mixed-type of inhibition on TCAK. Arginine kinase in T. canis has a seven-exon/six-intron gene

  16. Bromopyruvate, an active site-directed inactivator of E. coli 2-keto-4-hydroxyglutarate(KHG) aldolase, modifies glutamic acid residue-45

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlahos, C.J.; Dekker, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    E. coli KHG-aldolase (2-keto-4-hydroxyglutarate ↔ pyruvate + glyoxylate), a novel trimeric Class I aldolase, requires one active-site lysine residue (Lys 133)/subunit for Schiff-base formation as well as one arginine residue (Arg 49)/subunit for catalytic activity. The substrate analog, 3-bromopyruvate (BRPY), causes a time- and concentration-dependent loss of KHG-aldolase activity. This inactivation is regarded as active site-directed since: (a) BRPY modification results in complete loss of enzymatic activity; (b) saturation kinetics are exhibited, suggesting that a reversible complex is formed between the aldolase and BRPY prior to the rate-limiting inactivation step; (c) over 90% of the initial aldolase activity is protected by either substrate, pyruvate or KHG; (d) 1.1 mol of 14 C-BRPY is bound/enzyme subunit. Peptide isolation and sequencing show that the incorporated radioactivity is associated with residue Glu-45. Denaturation of the enzyme with guanidine x HCl following treatment with excess 14 C-BRPY allows for the incorporation of carbon-14 at Cys-159 and Cys-180 as well. The presence of pyruvate protects Glu-45 from being esterified but does not prevent the alkylation of the two cysteine residues. These results suggest that Glu-45 is essential for the catalytic activity of E. coli KHG-aldolase, most likely functioning as the active-site amphoteric proton donor/acceptor moiety that is involved in the overall mechanism of the reaction catalyzed by this enzyme

  17. Structure of Bacillus subtilis γ-glutamyltranspeptidase in complex with acivicin: diversity of the binding mode of a classical and electrophilic active-site-directed glutamate analogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ida, Tomoyo [Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Suzuki, Hideyuki [Kyoto Institute of Technology, Goshokaido-cho, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Fukuyama, Keiichi [Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Hiratake, Jun [Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Wada, Kei, E-mail: keiwada@med.miyazaki-u.ac.jp [University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan); Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)

    2014-02-01

    The binding modes of acivicin, a classical and an electrophilic active-site-directed glutamate analogue, to bacterial γ-glutamyltranspeptidases were found to be diverse. γ-Glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) is an enzyme that plays a central role in glutathione metabolism, and acivicin is a classical inhibitor of GGT. Here, the structure of acivicin bound to Bacillus subtilis GGT determined by X-ray crystallography to 1.8 Å resolution is presented, in which it binds to the active site in a similar manner to that in Helicobacter pylori GGT, but in a different binding mode to that in Escherichia coli GGT. In B. subtilis GGT, acivicin is bound covalently through its C3 atom with sp{sup 2} hybridization to Thr403 O{sup γ}, the catalytic nucleophile of the enzyme. The results show that acivicin-binding sites are common, but the binding manners and orientations of its five-membered dihydroisoxazole ring are diverse in the binding pockets of GGTs.

  18. Abundant off-target edits from site-directed RNA editing can be reduced by nuclear localization of the editing enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallecillo-Viejo, Isabel C; Liscovitch-Brauer, Noa; Montiel-Gonzalez, Maria Fernanda; Eisenberg, Eli; Rosenthal, Joshua J C

    2018-01-02

    Site-directed RNA editing (SDRE) is a general strategy for making targeted base changes in RNA molecules. Although the approach is relatively new, several groups, including our own, have been working on its development. The basic strategy has been to couple the catalytic domain of an adenosine (A) to inosine (I) RNA editing enzyme to a guide RNA that is used for targeting. Although highly efficient on-target editing has been reported, off-target events have not been rigorously quantified. In this report we target premature termination codons (PTCs) in messages encoding both a fluorescent reporter protein and the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) protein transiently transfected into human epithelial cells. We demonstrate that while on-target editing is efficient, off-target editing is extensive, both within the targeted message and across the entire transcriptome of the transfected cells. By redirecting the editing enzymes from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, off-target editing is reduced without compromising the on-target editing efficiency. The addition of the E488Q mutation to the editing enzymes, a common strategy for increasing on-target editing efficiency, causes a tremendous increase in off-target editing. These results underscore the need to reduce promiscuity in current approaches to SDRE.

  19. Restriction digest screening facilitates efficient detection of site-directed mutations introduced by CRISPR in C. albicans UME6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ben A; Smith, Olivia L; Pickerill, Ethan S; York, Mary K; Buenconsejo, Kristen J P; Chambers, Antonio E; Bernstein, Douglas A

    2018-01-01

    Introduction of point mutations to a gene of interest is a powerful tool when determining protein function. CRISPR-mediated genome editing allows for more efficient transfer of a desired mutation into a wide range of model organisms. Traditionally, PCR amplification and DNA sequencing is used to determine if isolates contain the intended mutation. However, mutation efficiency is highly variable, potentially making sequencing costly and time consuming. To more efficiently screen for correct transformants, we have identified restriction enzymes sites that encode for two identical amino acids or one or two stop codons. We used CRISPR to introduce these restriction sites directly upstream of the Candida albicans UME6 Zn 2+ -binding domain, a known regulator of C. albicans filamentation. While repair templates coding for different restriction sites were not equally successful at introducing mutations, restriction digest screening enabled us to rapidly identify isolates with the intended mutation in a cost-efficient manner. In addition, mutated isolates have clear defects in filamentation and virulence compared to wild type C. albicans . Our data suggest restriction digestion screening efficiently identifies point mutations introduced by CRISPR and streamlines the process of identifying residues important for a phenotype of interest.

  20. Mutagenesis and haploid culture for disease resistance in Brassica napus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, M V; Ahmad, I; Ingram, D S [Botany School, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Most winter oilseed rape cultivars share parentage and therefore show little genetic diversity. There is no known resistance to Alternaria spp. in oilseed rape or in any related Brassica species. Experiments with tissue culture yielded only transient, non-genetic resistance. Therefore, mutagenesis may be used to generate heritable resistance to Alternaria spp. Gamma irradiation was applied to seeds of 'Bienvenue', secondary embryoids of cvs 'Primor' and 'Rapora', and buds of cvs 'Primor' and 'Ariana'. Isolated microspores from cv 'Ariana' and rapid cycling B. napus were also treated. The doses used ranged from 0-100 Gy for isolated microspores and buds, up to 600 Gy for seeds and 960 Gy for secondary embryoids. EMS was used to treat seeds of line WRG-42 (supplied by Nickersons RPB) and microspores of cv 'Bienvenue' and rapid cycling B. napus. Seeds were treated with up to 2.0% EMS for 0.2 h. before plating them on the culture medium. Seed irradiation up to 600 Gy did not reduce germination. M{sub 1} and M{sub 2} progenies were tested both in the laboratory and in field trials, and none of these were found to be resistant to Alternaria. However, considerable variation for other characters was observed. Haploid cultures from these plants were extremely difficult to regenerate, and for this reason no regenerant plants have been tested for resistance. For irradiated secondary embryoids the regeneration capacity decreased with increasing dose. Regenerated plants have been tested for resistance to Alternaria, but stable resistance was not observed. Haploid cultures were obtained from irradiated buds, using both anther and microspore culture. Low irradiation treatment was beneficial to developing embryoids. Some regenerants have been obtained from EMS treated microspores and seeds. Four plants have repeatedly given increased levels of resistance to A. brassicicola, and progenies are being tested to determine the genetic nature of the resistance. (author)

  1. Molecular Determinants of Mutant Phenotypes, Inferred from Saturation Mutagenesis Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Arti; Gupta, Kritika; Khare, Shruti; Jain, Pankaj C; Patel, Siddharth; Kumar, Prasanth; Pulianmackal, Ajai J; Aghera, Nilesh; Varadarajan, Raghavan

    2016-11-01

    Understanding how mutations affect protein activity and organismal fitness is a major challenge. We used saturation mutagenesis combined with deep sequencing to determine mutational sensitivity scores for 1,664 single-site mutants of the 101 residue Escherichia coli cytotoxin, CcdB at seven different expression levels. Active-site residues could be distinguished from buried ones, based on their differential tolerance to aliphatic and charged amino acid substitutions. At nonactive-site positions, the average mutational tolerance correlated better with depth from the protein surface than with accessibility. Remarkably, similar results were observed for two other small proteins, PDZ domain (PSD95 pdz3 ) and IgG-binding domain of protein G (GB1). Mutational sensitivity data obtained with CcdB were used to derive a procedure for predicting functional effects of mutations. Results compared favorably with those of two widely used computational predictors. In vitro characterization of 80 single, nonactive-site mutants of CcdB showed that activity in vivo correlates moderately with thermal stability and solubility. The inability to refold reversibly, as well as a decreased folding rate in vitro, is associated with decreased activity in vivo. Upon probing the effect of modulating expression of various proteases and chaperones on mutant phenotypes, most deleterious mutants showed an increased in vivo activity and solubility only upon over-expression of either Trigger factor or SecB ATP-independent chaperones. Collectively, these data suggest that folding kinetics rather than protein stability is the primary determinant of activity in vivo This study enhances our understanding of how mutations affect phenotype, as well as the ability to predict fitness effects of point mutations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  2. Radiation mutagenesis from molecular and genetic points of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, D.J.C.; Park, M.S.; Okinaka, R.T.; Jaberaboansari, A.

    1993-01-01

    An important biological effect of ionizing radiation on living organisms is mutation induction. Mutation is also a primary event in the etiology of cancer. The chain events, from induction of DNA damage by ionizing radiation to processing of these damages by the cellular repair/replication machinery, that lead to mutation are not well understood. The development of quantitative methods for measuring mutation-induction, such as the HPRT system, in cultured mammalian cells has provided an estimate of the mutagenic effects of x- and γ-rays as wen as of high LET radiation in both rodent and human cells. A major conclusion from these mutagenesis data is that high LET radiation induces mutations more efficiently than g-rays. Molecular analysis of mutations induced by sparsely ionizing radiation have detected major structural alterations at the gene level. Our molecular results based on analysis of human HPRT deficient mutants induced by γ-rays, α-particles and high energy charged particles indicate that higher LET radiation induce more total and large deletion mutations than γ-rays. Utilizing molecular techniques including polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and Direct DNA sequencing, mutational spectra induced by ionizing radiation have been compared in different cell systems. Attempts have also been made to determine the mutagenic potential and the nature of mutation induced by low dose rate γ-rays. Defective repair, in the form of either a diminished capability for repair or inaccurate repair, can lead to increased risk of heritable mutations from radiation exposure. Therefore, the effects of DNA repair deficiency on the mutation induction in mammalian cells is reviewed

  3. Checkpoint responses to replication stalling: inducing tolerance and preventing mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kai, Mihoko; Wang, Teresa S.-F

    2003-11-27

    Replication mutants often exhibit a mutator phenotype characterized by point mutations, single base frameshifts, and the deletion or duplication of sequences flanked by homologous repeats. Mutation in genes encoding checkpoint proteins can significantly affect the mutator phenotype. Here, we use fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) as a model system to discuss the checkpoint responses to replication perturbations induced by replication mutants. Checkpoint activation induced by a DNA polymerase mutant, aside from delay of mitotic entry, up-regulates the translesion polymerase DinB (Pol{kappa}). Checkpoint Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (9-1-1) complex, which is loaded onto chromatin by the Rad17-Rfc2-5 checkpoint complex in response to replication perturbation, recruits DinB onto chromatin to generate the point mutations and single nucleotide frameshifts in the replication mutator. This chain of events reveals a novel checkpoint-induced tolerance mechanism that allows cells to cope with replication perturbation, presumably to make possible restarting stalled replication forks. Fission yeast Cds1 kinase plays an essential role in maintaining DNA replication fork stability in the face of DNA damage and replication fork stalling. Cds1 kinase is known to regulate three proteins that are implicated in maintaining replication fork stability: Mus81-Eme1, a hetero-dimeric structure-specific endonuclease complex; Rqh1, a RecQ-family helicase involved in suppressing inappropriate recombination during replication; and Rad60, a protein required for recombinational repair during replication. These Cds1-regulated proteins are thought to cooperatively prevent mutagenesis and maintain replication fork stability in cells under replication stress. These checkpoint-regulated processes allow cells to survive replication perturbation by preventing stalled replication forks from degenerating into deleterious DNA structures resulting in genomic instability and cancer development.

  4. Checkpoint responses to replication stalling: inducing tolerance and preventing mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Mihoko; Wang, Teresa S.-F.

    2003-01-01

    Replication mutants often exhibit a mutator phenotype characterized by point mutations, single base frameshifts, and the deletion or duplication of sequences flanked by homologous repeats. Mutation in genes encoding checkpoint proteins can significantly affect the mutator phenotype. Here, we use fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) as a model system to discuss the checkpoint responses to replication perturbations induced by replication mutants. Checkpoint activation induced by a DNA polymerase mutant, aside from delay of mitotic entry, up-regulates the translesion polymerase DinB (Polκ). Checkpoint Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (9-1-1) complex, which is loaded onto chromatin by the Rad17-Rfc2-5 checkpoint complex in response to replication perturbation, recruits DinB onto chromatin to generate the point mutations and single nucleotide frameshifts in the replication mutator. This chain of events reveals a novel checkpoint-induced tolerance mechanism that allows cells to cope with replication perturbation, presumably to make possible restarting stalled replication forks. Fission yeast Cds1 kinase plays an essential role in maintaining DNA replication fork stability in the face of DNA damage and replication fork stalling. Cds1 kinase is known to regulate three proteins that are implicated in maintaining replication fork stability: Mus81-Eme1, a hetero-dimeric structure-specific endonuclease complex; Rqh1, a RecQ-family helicase involved in suppressing inappropriate recombination during replication; and Rad60, a protein required for recombinational repair during replication. These Cds1-regulated proteins are thought to cooperatively prevent mutagenesis and maintain replication fork stability in cells under replication stress. These checkpoint-regulated processes allow cells to survive replication perturbation by preventing stalled replication forks from degenerating into deleterious DNA structures resulting in genomic instability and cancer development

  5. Mutagenesis and haploid culture for disease resistance in Brassica napus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, M.V.; Ahmad, I.; Ingram, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Most winter oilseed rape cultivars share parentage and therefore show little genetic diversity. There is no known resistance to Alternaria spp. in oilseed rape or in any related Brassica species. Experiments with tissue culture yielded only transient, non-genetic resistance. Therefore, mutagenesis may be used to generate heritable resistance to Alternaria spp. Gamma irradiation was applied to seeds of 'Bienvenue', secondary embryoids of cvs 'Primor' and 'Rapora', and buds of cvs 'Primor' and 'Ariana'. Isolated microspores from cv 'Ariana' and rapid cycling B. napus were also treated. The doses used ranged from 0-100 Gy for isolated microspores and buds, up to 600 Gy for seeds and 960 Gy for secondary embryoids. EMS was used to treat seeds of line WRG-42 (supplied by Nickersons RPB) and microspores of cv 'Bienvenue' and rapid cycling B. napus. Seeds were treated with up to 2.0% EMS for 0.2 h. before plating them on the culture medium. Seed irradiation up to 600 Gy did not reduce germination. M 1 and M 2 progenies were tested both in the laboratory and in field trials, and none of these were found to be resistant to Alternaria. However, considerable variation for other characters was observed. Haploid cultures from these plants were extremely difficult to regenerate, and for this reason no regenerant plants have been tested for resistance. For irradiated secondary embryoids the regeneration capacity decreased with increasing dose. Regenerated plants have been tested for resistance to Alternaria, but stable resistance was not observed. Haploid cultures were obtained from irradiated buds, using both anther and microspore culture. Low irradiation treatment was beneficial to developing embryoids. Some regenerants have been obtained from EMS treated microspores and seeds. Four plants have repeatedly given increased levels of resistance to A. brassicicola, and progenies are being tested to determine the genetic nature of the resistance. (author)

  6. Defect of Fe-S cluster binding by DNA polymerase δ in yeast suppresses UV-induced mutagenesis, but enhances DNA polymerase ζ - dependent spontaneous mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepchenkova, E I; Tarakhovskaya, E R; Siebler, H M; Pavlov, Y I

    2017-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes are duplicated by a complex machinery, utilizing high fidelity replicative B-family DNA polymerases (pols) α, δ and ε. Specialized error-prone pol ζ, the fourth B-family member, is recruited when DNA synthesis by the accurate trio is impeded by replication stress or DNA damage. The damage tolerance mechanism dependent on pol ζ prevents DNA/genome instability and cell death at the expense of increased mutation rates. The pol switches occurring during this specialized replication are not fully understood. The loss of pol ζ results in the absence of induced mutagenesis and suppression of spontaneous mutagenesis. Disruption of the Fe-S cluster motif that abolish the interaction of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the catalytic subunit of pol ζ with its accessory subunits, which are shared with pol δ, leads to a similar defect in induced mutagenesis. Intriguingly, the pol3-13 mutation that affects the Fe-S cluster in the CTD of the catalytic subunit of pol δ also leads to defective induced mutagenesis, suggesting the possibility that Fe-S clusters are essential for the pol switches during replication of damaged DNA. We confirmed that yeast strains with the pol3-13 mutation are UV-sensitive and defective in UV-induced mutagenesis. However, they have increased spontaneous mutation rates. We found that this increase is dependent on functional pol ζ. In the pol3-13 mutant strain with defective pol δ, there is a sharp increase in transversions and complex mutations, which require functional pol ζ, and an increase in the occurrence of large deletions, whose size is controlled by pol ζ. Therefore, the pol3-13 mutation abrogates pol ζ-dependent induced mutagenesis, but allows for pol ζ recruitment for the generation of spontaneous mutations and prevention of larger deletions. These results reveal differential control of the two major types of pol ζ-dependent mutagenesis by the Fe-S cluster present in replicative pol δ. Copyright © 2016

  7. Site-specific genomic (SSG and random domain-localized (RDL mutagenesis in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honigberg Saul M

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A valuable weapon in the arsenal available to yeast geneticists is the ability to introduce specific mutations into yeast genome. In particular, methods have been developed to introduce deletions into the yeast genome using PCR fragments. These methods are highly efficient because they do not require cloning in plasmids. Results We have modified the existing method for introducing deletions in the yeast (S. cerevisiae genome using PCR fragments in order to target point mutations to this genome. We describe two PCR-based methods for directing point mutations into the yeast genome such that the final product contains no other disruptions. In the first method, site-specific genomic (SSG mutagenesis, a specific point mutation is targeted into the genome. In the second method, random domain-localized (RDL mutagenesis, a mutation is introduced at random within a specific domain of a gene. Both methods require two sequential transformations, the first transformation integrates the URA3 marker into the targeted locus, and the second transformation replaces URA3 with a PCR fragment containing one or a few mutations. This PCR fragment is synthesized using a primer containing a mutation (SSG mutagenesis or is synthesized by error-prone PCR (RDL mutagenesis. In SSG mutagenesis, mutations that are proximal to the URA3 site are incorporated at higher frequencies than distal mutations, however mutations can be introduced efficiently at distances of at least 500 bp from the URA3 insertion. In RDL mutagenesis, to ensure that incorporation of mutations occurs at approximately equal frequencies throughout the targeted region, this region is deleted at the same time URA3 is integrated. Conclusion SSG and RDL mutagenesis allow point mutations to be easily and efficiently incorporated into the yeast genome without disrupting the native locus.

  8. Codon cassette mutagenesis: a general method to insert or replace individual codons by using universal mutagenic cassettes.

    OpenAIRE

    Kegler-Ebo, D M; Docktor, C M; DiMaio, D

    1994-01-01

    We describe codon cassette mutagenesis, a simple method of mutagenesis that uses universal mutagenic cassettes to deposit single codons at specific sites in double-stranded DNA. A target molecule is first constructed that contains a blunt, double-strand break at the site targeted for mutagenesis. A double-stranded mutagenic codon cassette is then inserted at the target site. Each mutagenic codon cassette contains a three base pair direct terminal repeat and two head-to-head recognition sequen...

  9. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-04

    Sep 4, 2017 ... Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a standardized ... Short communication. Open Access ... clinic during the time of the study and were invited to participate in the study. .... consume them. This is another ...

  10. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF P.T. KAYE

    . SHORT COMMUNICATION. Formation and Structural Analysis of Novel Dibornyl Ethers. Perry T. Kaye*, Andrew R. Duggan, Joseph M. Matjila, Warner E. Molema, and. Swarnam S. Ravindran. Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, ...

  11. An internal ribosome entry site directs translation of the 3'-gene from Pelargonium flower break virus genomic RNA: implications for infectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Fernández-Miragall

    Full Text Available Pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV, genus Carmovirus has a single-stranded positive-sense genomic RNA (gRNA which contains five ORFs. The two 5'-proximal ORFs encode the replicases, two internal ORFs encode movement proteins, and the 3'-proximal ORF encodes a polypeptide (p37 which plays a dual role as capsid protein and as suppressor of RNA silencing. Like other members of family Tombusviridae, carmoviruses express ORFs that are not 5'-proximal from subgenomic RNAs. However, in one case, corresponding to Hisbiscus chlorotic ringspot virus, it has been reported that the 3'-proximal gene can be translated from the gRNA through an internal ribosome entry site (IRES. Here we show that PFBV also holds an IRES that mediates production of p37 from the gRNA, raising the question of whether this translation strategy may be conserved in the genus. The PFBV IRES was functional both in vitro and in vivo and either in the viral context or when inserted into synthetic bicistronic constructs. Through deletion and mutagenesis studies we have found that the IRES is contained within a 80 nt segment and have identified some structural traits that influence IRES function. Interestingly, mutations that diminish IRES activity strongly reduced the infectivity of the virus while the progress of the infection was favoured by mutations potentiating such activity. These results support the biological significance of the IRES-driven p37 translation and suggest that production of the silencing suppressor from the gRNA might allow the virus to early counteract the defence response of the host, thus facilitating pathogen multiplication and spread.

  12. An internal ribosome entry site directs translation of the 3'-gene from Pelargonium flower break virus genomic RNA: implications for infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Miragall, Olga; Hernández, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV, genus Carmovirus) has a single-stranded positive-sense genomic RNA (gRNA) which contains five ORFs. The two 5'-proximal ORFs encode the replicases, two internal ORFs encode movement proteins, and the 3'-proximal ORF encodes a polypeptide (p37) which plays a dual role as capsid protein and as suppressor of RNA silencing. Like other members of family Tombusviridae, carmoviruses express ORFs that are not 5'-proximal from subgenomic RNAs. However, in one case, corresponding to Hisbiscus chlorotic ringspot virus, it has been reported that the 3'-proximal gene can be translated from the gRNA through an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). Here we show that PFBV also holds an IRES that mediates production of p37 from the gRNA, raising the question of whether this translation strategy may be conserved in the genus. The PFBV IRES was functional both in vitro and in vivo and either in the viral context or when inserted into synthetic bicistronic constructs. Through deletion and mutagenesis studies we have found that the IRES is contained within a 80 nt segment and have identified some structural traits that influence IRES function. Interestingly, mutations that diminish IRES activity strongly reduced the infectivity of the virus while the progress of the infection was favoured by mutations potentiating such activity. These results support the biological significance of the IRES-driven p37 translation and suggest that production of the silencing suppressor from the gRNA might allow the virus to early counteract the defence response of the host, thus facilitating pathogen multiplication and spread.

  13. Comparison of CRISPR/Cas9 expression constructs for efficient targeted mutagenesis in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Masafumi; Toki, Seiichi; Endo, Masaki

    2015-08-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is an efficient tool used for genome editing in a variety of organisms. Despite several recent reports of successful targeted mutagenesis using the CRISPR/Cas9 system in plants, in each case the target gene of interest, the Cas9 expression system and guide-RNA (gRNA) used, and the tissues used for transformation and subsequent mutagenesis differed, hence the reported frequencies of targeted mutagenesis cannot be compared directly. Here, we evaluated mutation frequency in rice using different Cas9 and/or gRNA expression cassettes under standardized experimental conditions. We introduced Cas9 and gRNA expression cassettes separately or sequentially into rice calli, and assessed the frequency of mutagenesis at the same endogenous targeted sequences. Mutation frequencies differed significantly depending on the Cas9 expression cassette used. In addition, a gRNA driven by the OsU6 promoter was superior to one driven by the OsU3 promoter. Using an all-in-one expression vector harboring the best combined Cas9/gRNA expression cassette resulted in a much improved frequency of targeted mutagenesis in rice calli, and bi-allelic mutant plants were produced in the T0 generation. The approach presented here could be adapted to optimize the construction of Cas9/gRNA cassettes for genome editing in a variety of plants.

  14. 2012 Gordon Research Conference on Mutagenesis - Formal Schedule and Speaker/Poster Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demple, Bruce [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States). School of Medicine

    2012-08-24

    The delicate balance among cellular pathways that control mutagenic changes in DNA will be the focus of the 2012 Mutagenesis Gordon Research Conference. Mutagenesis is essential for evolution, while genetic stability maintains cellular functions in all organisms from microbes to metazoans. Different systems handle DNA lesions at various times of the cell cycle and in different places within the nucleus, and inappropriate actions can lead to mutations. While mutation in humans is closely linked to disease, notably cancers, mutational systems can also be beneficial. The conference will highlight topics of beneficial mutagenesis, including full establishment of the immune system, cell survival mechanisms, and evolution and adaptation in microbial systems. Equal prominence will be given to detrimental mutation processes, especially those involved in driving cancer, neurological diseases, premature aging, and other threats to human health. Provisional session titles include Branching Pathways in Mutagenesis; Oxidative Stress and Endogenous DNA Damage; DNA Maintenance Pathways; Recombination, Good and Bad; Problematic DNA Structures; Localized Mutagenesis; Hypermutation in the Microbial World; and Mutation and Disease.

  15. Evaluation of the catalytic mechanism of AICAR transformylase by pH-dependent kinetics, mutagenesis, and quantum chemical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, J H; Wall, M; Benkovic, S J; Díaz, N; Suárez, D; Merz, K M

    2001-05-23

    The catalytic mechanism of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide transformylase (AICAR Tfase) is evaluated with pH dependent kinetics, site-directed mutagenesis, and quantum chemical calculations. The chemistry step, represented by the burst rates, was not pH-dependent, which is consistent with our proposed mechanism that the 4-carboxamide of AICAR assists proton shuttling. Quantum chemical calculations on a model system of 5-amino-4-carboxamide imidazole (AICA) and formamide using the B3LYP/6-31G level of theory confirmed that the 4-carboxamide participated in the proton-shuttling mechanism. The result also indicated that the amide-assisted mechanism is concerted such that the proton transfers from the 5-amino group to the formamide are simultaneous with nucleophilic attack by the 5-amino group. Because the process does not lead to a kinetically stable intermediate, the intramolecular proton transfer from the 5-amino group through the 4-carboxamide to the formamide proceeds in the same transition state. Interestingly, the calculations predicted that protonation of the N3 of the imidazole of AICA would reduce the energy barrier significantly. However, the pK(a) of the imidazole of AICAR was determined to be 3.23 +/- 0.01 by NMR titration, and AICAR is likely to bind to the enzyme with its imidazole in the free base form. An alternative pathway was suggested by modeling Lys266 to have a hydrogen-bonding interaction with the N3 of the imidazole of AICAR. Lys266 has been implicated in catalysis based on mutagenesis studies and the recent X-ray structure of AICAR Tfase. The quantum chemical calculations on a model system that contains AICA complexed with CH3NH3+ as a mimic of the Lys residue confirmed that such an interaction lowered the activation energy of the reaction and likewise implicated the 4-carboxamide. To experimentally verify this hypothesis, we prepared the K266R mutant and found that its kcat is reduced by 150-fold from that of the wild type

  16. Membrane docking geometry of GRP1 PH domain bound to a target lipid bilayer: an EPR site-directed spin-labeling and relaxation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huai-Chun Chen

    Full Text Available The second messenger lipid PIP(3 (phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate is generated by the lipid kinase PI3K (phosphoinositide-3-kinase in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane, where it regulates a broad array of cell processes by recruiting multiple signaling proteins containing PIP(3-specific pleckstrin homology (PH domains to the membrane surface. Despite the broad importance of PIP(3-specific PH domains, the membrane docking geometry of a PH domain bound to its target PIP(3 lipid on a bilayer surface has not yet been experimentally determined. The present study employs EPR site-directed spin labeling and relaxation methods to elucidate the membrane docking geometry of GRP1 PH domain bound to bilayer-embedded PIP(3. The model target bilayer contains the neutral background lipid PC and both essential targeting lipids: (i PIP(3 target lipid that provides specificity and affinity, and (ii PS facilitator lipid that enhances the PIP(3 on-rate via an electrostatic search mechanism. The EPR approach measures membrane depth parameters for 18 function-retaining spin labels coupled to the PH domain, and for calibration spin labels coupled to phospholipids. The resulting depth parameters, together with the known high resolution structure of the co-complex between GRP1 PH domain and the PIP(3 headgroup, provide sufficient constraints to define an optimized, self-consistent membrane docking geometry. In this optimized geometry the PH domain engulfs the PIP(3 headgroup with minimal bilayer penetration, yielding the shallowest membrane position yet described for a lipid binding domain. This binding interaction displaces the PIP(3 headgroup from its lowest energy position and orientation in the bilayer, but the headgroup remains within its energetically accessible depth and angular ranges. Finally, the optimized docking geometry explains previous biophysical findings including mutations observed to disrupt membrane binding, and the rapid lateral

  17. Effect of MCM09, an active site-directed inhibitor of factor Xa, on B16-BL6 melanoma lung colonies in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, C; Hess, S; Eckl, R W; di Lena, A; Bruno, A; Thomas, O; Poggi, A

    2006-03-01

    Treatment with anticoagulant drugs has shown potential inhibitory effect on tumor invasion, although the relationship with clotting inhibition was not clear. The aim of our study was to evaluate the potential antitumor activity of MCM09, a newly developed, active site-directed, small molecule inhibitor of factor Xa (FXa) [WO0216312], and to relate the findings to anticlotting potency. MCM09 (0.1-10 mg kg(-1)) or heparin (H; 10 mg kg(-1)) was injected intravenously (i.v.), with 5 x 10(4) B16-BL6 melanoma cells, in C57BL/6 mice. Mice were killed after 18 days, to count lung colonies. Ex vivo anticoagulant activity was measured by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) on mouse plasma. MCM09, a selective inhibitor of FXa (IC-50 = 2.4 nm against human FXa), inhibited in a dose-dependent manner B16-BL6 melanoma lung colonies in mice. Mean lung metastasis number was 20.9 +/- 4.8 in controls (n = 10), 1.2 +/- 0.4 in mice treated with H, 10 mg kg(-1) i.v. (P < 0.01), 0.9 +/- 0.3, 9.2 +/- 2.2 and 15.5 +/- 2.6 in mice treated with MCM09, at 10 (P < 0.01), 1 (P < 0.05) and 0.1 mg kg(-1) i.v. (ns), respectively. MCM09 (10 mg kg(-1) i.v.) significantly prolonged APTT (57.1 +/- 10.2 s) 30 min after i.v. injection when compared with controls (25.3 +/- 1.6 s; P < 0.05). Lung colonies were 74.2-72.6% reduced by MCM09 (10 mg kg(-1)) given 60 or 120 min before cells, but not by MCM09 given 60 min thereafter, suggesting a direct cell interaction as a mechanism underlying antitumor activity.

  18. Site-directed mutational analysis of structural interactions of low molecule compounds binding to the N-terminal 8 kDa domain of DNA polymerase β

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Shizuka; Kamisuki, Shinji; Takata, Kei-ichi; Kasai, Nobuyuki; Kimura, Seisuke; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Ohta, Keisuke; Sugawara, Fumio; Sakaguchi, Kengo

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported the mode of inhibition of DNA polymerase β (pol. β) by long chain fatty acids and a bile acid, involving binding analyses to the N-terminal 8-kDa DNA binding domain. Here we describe a site-directed mutational analysis in which the key amino acids (L11, K35, H51, K60, L77, and T79), which are direct interaction sites in the domain, were substituted with K, A, A, A, K, and A, respectively. And their pol. β interactions with a C24-long chain fatty acid, nervonic acid (NA), and a bile acid, lithocholic acid (LCA), were investigated by gel mobility shift assay and NMR spectroscopy. In the case of K35A, there was complete loss of DNA binding activity while K60A hardly has any activity. In contrast the other mutations had no appreciable effects. Thus, K35 and K60 are key amino acid sites for binding to template DNA. The DNA binding activities of L11K, H51A, and T79A as well as the wild type were inhibited by NA to the same extent. T79A demonstrated a disturbed interaction with LCA. 1 H- 15 N HSQC NMR analysis indicated that despite their many similarities, the wild-type and the mutant proteins displayed some significant chemical shift differences. Not only were the substituted amino acid residues three-dimensionally shifted, but some amino acids which are positioned far distant from the key amino acids showed a shift. These results suggest that the interaction surface was significantly distorted with the result that LCA could not bind to the domain. These findings confirm our previous biochemical and 3D structural proposals concerning inhibition by NA and LCA

  19. Global Structure of a Three-Way Junction in a Phi29 Packaging RNA Dimer Determined Using Site-Directed Spin Labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Tung, Chang-Shung; Sowa, Glenna; Hatmal, Ma' mon M.; Haworth, Ian S.; Qin, Peter Z.

    2012-02-08

    The condensation of bacteriophage phi29 genomic DNA into its preformed procapsid requires the DNA packaging motor, which is the strongest known biological motor. The packaging motor is an intricate ring-shaped protein/RNA complex, and its function requires an RNA component called packaging RNA (pRNA). Current structural information on pRNA is limited, which hinders studies of motor function. Here, we used site-directed spin labeling to map the conformation of a pRNA three-way junction that bridges binding sites for the motor ATPase and the procapsid. The studies were carried out on a pRNA dimer, which is the simplest ring-shaped pRNA complex and serves as a functional intermediate during motor assembly. Using a nucleotide-independent labeling scheme, stable nitroxide radicals were attached to eight specific pRNA sites without perturbing RNA folding and dimer formation, and a total of 17 internitroxide distances spanning the three-way junction were measured using Double Electron-Electron Resonance spectroscopy. The measured distances, together with steric chemical constraints, were used to select 3662 viable three-way junction models from a pool of 65 billion. The results reveal a similar conformation among the viable models, with two of the helices (HT and HL) adopting an acute bend. This is in contrast to a recently reported pRNA tetramer crystal structure, in which HT and HL stack onto each other linearly. The studies establish a new method for mapping global structures of complex RNA molecules, and provide information on pRNA conformation that aids investigations of phi29 packaging motor and developments of pRNA-based nanomedicine and nanomaterial.

  20. Hypoxia induces mitochondrial mutagenesis and dysfunction in inflammatory arthritis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Biniecka, Monika

    2012-02-01

    mitochondrial genome mutagenesis, and antioxidants significantly rescue these events.

  1. Directed evolution and targeted mutagenesis to murinize Listeria monocytogenes Internalin A for enhanced infectivity in the murine oral infection model

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Monk, Ian R

    2010-12-13

    Abstract Background Internalin A (InlA) is a critical virulence factor which mediates the initiation of Listeria monocytogenes infection by the oral route in permissive hosts. The interaction of InlA with the host cell ligand E-cadherin efficiently stimulates L. monocytogenes entry into human enterocytes, but has only a limited interaction with murine cells. Results We have created a surface display library of randomly mutated InlA in a non-invasive heterologous host Lactococcus lactis in order to create and screen novel variants of this invasion factor. After sequential passage through a murine cell line (CT-26), multiple clones with enhanced invasion characteristics were identified. Competitive index experiments were conducted in mice using selected mutations introduced into L. monocytogenes EGD-e background. A novel single amino acid change was identified which enhanced virulence by the oral route in the murine model and will form the basis of further engineering approaches. As a control a previously described EGD-InlAm murinized strain was also re-created as part of this study with minor modifications and designated EGD-e InlA m*. The strain was created using a procedure that minimizes the likelihood of secondary mutations and incorporates Listeria-optimized codons encoding the altered amino acids. L. monocytogenes EGD-e InlA m* yielded consistently higher level murine infections by the oral route when compared to EGD-e, but did not display the two-fold increased invasion into a human cell line that was previously described for the EGD-InlAm strain. Conclusions We have used both site-directed mutagenesis and directed evolution to create variants of InlA which may inform future structure-function analyses of this protein. During the course of the study we engineered a murinized strain of L. monocytogenes EGD-e which shows reproducibly higher infectivity in the intragastric murine infection model than the wild type, but does not display enhanced entry into human

  2. Directed evolution and targeted mutagenesis to murinize listeria monocytogenes internalin A for enhanced infectivity in the murine oral infection model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Colin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Internalin A (InlA is a critical virulence factor which mediates the initiation of Listeria monocytogenes infection by the oral route in permissive hosts. The interaction of InlA with the host cell ligand E-cadherin efficiently stimulates L. monocytogenes entry into human enterocytes, but has only a limited interaction with murine cells. Results We have created a surface display library of randomly mutated InlA in a non-invasive heterologous host Lactococcus lactis in order to create and screen novel variants of this invasion factor. After sequential passage through a murine cell line (CT-26, multiple clones with enhanced invasion characteristics were identified. Competitive index experiments were conducted in mice using selected mutations introduced into L. monocytogenes EGD-e background. A novel single amino acid change was identified which enhanced virulence by the oral route in the murine model and will form the basis of further engineering approaches. As a control a previously described EGD-InlAm murinized strain was also re-created as part of this study with minor modifications and designated EGD-e InlAm*. The strain was created using a procedure that minimizes the likelihood of secondary mutations and incorporates Listeria-optimized codons encoding the altered amino acids. L. monocytogenes EGD-e InlAm* yielded consistently higher level murine infections by the oral route when compared to EGD-e, but did not display the two-fold increased invasion into a human cell line that was previously described for the EGD-InlAm strain. Conclusions We have used both site-directed mutagenesis and directed evolution to create variants of InlA which may inform future structure-function analyses of this protein. During the course of the study we engineered a murinized strain of L. monocytogenes EGD-e which shows reproducibly higher infectivity in the intragastric murine infection model than the wild type, but does not display enhanced

  3. In vitro mutagenesis for development of novel variants in Rose (Rosa X Hybrida)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namita, B.; Raju, D.V.S.; Prasad, K.V.; Singh, Kanwar P.

    2014-01-01

    Rose (Rosa x hybrida) is the top ranking cut flower in international market due to its attractive flowers with longer stem and fragrance. Modern roses are the result of hybridization, selection and spontaneous mutations. In floriculture industry, the demand of the novel varieties of rose is increasing day by day due to change in trends and taste. Mutation breeding is an already established method for improvement of flower crops. It offers several advantages over conventional methods for the improvement of one or more traits within a short span of time. Induced mutation is one of the potent methods to induce variability in existing rose genotypes. Mutation breeding combined with tissue culture i.e. in vitro mutagenesis has proven more effective in rose due to controlled environment that provides ideal conditions for survival of mutated tissues or cells. Keeping these aspects in view, the present investigation was carried out to induce variability in rose cv. Grand Gala under in vitro conditions using gamma (γ) rays. Single node cuttings were excised from the field grown plants and were irradiated with different doses of γ rays (0,10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 Gy) using a 60 Co source. The γ-irradiated explants were then pretreated, surface sterilized and cultured aseptically on Murashige and Skoog basal medium supplemented with 2.5 mg 5-benzylaminopurine (BAP) plus 5.0 mg kinetin plus 0.1 mg a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) plus 0.5 mg gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) plus 40 mg adenine sulphate plus 0.8% (w/v) agar-agar to induce sprouting and shoot proliferation. Explants treated at higher dose of γ-rays (70 and 80 Gy) showed deleterious effects of ionising radiation. The 30 Gy treatment was found to be the LD 50 dose. It was observed that few explants treated with γ-rays sprouted, showed slow growth and failed to survive after the first sub culture. The explants irradiated with 50 Gy γ-rays exhibited minimum explant survival, bud sprouting, number of shoots

  4. Short Stature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christesen, Henrik Boye Thybo; Pedersen, Birgitte Tønnes; Pournara, Effie

    2016-01-01

    -scale, non-interventional, multinational study. The patient cohort consisted of 5996 short pediatric patients diagnosed with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), Turner syndrome (TS) or born small for gestational age (SGA). The proportions of children with baseline height standard deviation score (SDS) below......The use of appropriate growth standards/references is of significant clinical importance in assessing the height of children with short stature as it may determine eligibility for appropriate therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of using World Health Organization (WHO) instead...... of national growth standards/references on height assessment in short children. Data were collected from routine clinical practice (1998-2014) from nine European countries that have available national growth references and were enrolled in NordiNet® International Outcome Study (IOS) (NCT00960128), a large...

  5. Chromosomal damages and mutagenesis in mammalian and human cells induced by ionizing radiations with different LET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govorun, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    On the basis of literature and proper data the inference was made about essential role of structural chromosomal (and gene) damages in spontaneous and radiation-induced mutagenesis of mammalian and human cells on HPRT-loci. The evidences of increasing role of these damages in the mutagenesis after the influence of ionizing radiations with high LET are adduced. The consequences of HPRT-gene damages have been examined hypothetically. The geterogeneity of mutant subclones on their cytogenetical properties were revealed experimentally. The data reflect a phenomenon of the reproductive chromosomal instability in many generations of mutant cell. The mutagenesis of mammalian cells is also accompanied by the impairment of chromosome integrity with high probability as a stage of appropriate genome reorganization because of changed vital conditions

  6. Effect of umuC mutations on targeted and untargeted ultraviolet mutagenesis in bacteriophage lambda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maenhaut-Michel, G.; Caillet-Fauquet, P.

    1984-01-01

    Mutagenesis of phage lambda towards clear-plaque (c + → c) results in two classes of mutants that can be distinguished genetically and morphologically. Indirect mutagenesis, i.e. mutagenesis of unirradiated phage lambdac + stimulated by the ultraviolet irradiation of the Escherichia coli host, results in mixed bursts (c/c + ) of turbid wild-type and clear=plaque mutant phages. Pure bursts of lambdac mutants are induced by irradiation of the phage genome. Irradiation of both phages and host bacteria stimulates the production of the two classes of mutant clones. It is shown that three different mutant alleles of the E. coli umuC gene only prevent the appearance of pure bursts of clear-plaque mutants, while mixed bursts are produced at least as frequently in umuC mutants as in the umuC + parent. (author)

  7. Genetic analysis of gamma-ray mutagenesis in yeast. I. Reversion in radiation-sensitive strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, R.H.; Lawrence, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    The frequency of revertants induced by 60 Co γ rays of the ochre allele, cyc1-9, has been measured in radiation-sensitive strains carrying one of 19 nonallelic mutations and in wild-type strains. The results indicate that ionizing radiation mutagenesis depends on the activity of the RAD6 group of genes and that the gene functions employed are very similar, but probably not identical, to those that mediate uv mutagenesis. Repair activities dependent on the functions of the RAD50 through RAD57 loci, the major pathway for the repair of damage caused by ionizing radiation, do not appear to play any part in mutagenesis. A comparison between the γ-ray data and those obtained previously with uv and chemical mutagens suggests that the RAD6 mutagenic pathway is in fact composed of a set of processes, some of which are concerned with error-prone, and some with error-free, recovery activities

  8. Environmental Stress Induces Trinucleotide Repeat Mutagenesis in Human Cells by Alt-Nonhomologous End Joining Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Nimrat; Lin, Yunfu; Yotnda, Patricia; Wilson, John H

    2016-07-31

    Multiple pathways modulate the dynamic mutability of trinucleotide repeats (TNRs), which are implicated in neurodegenerative disease and evolution. Recently, we reported that environmental stresses induce TNR mutagenesis via stress responses and rereplication, with more than 50% of mutants carrying deletions or insertions-molecular signatures of DNA double-strand break repair. We now show that knockdown of alt-nonhomologous end joining (alt-NHEJ) components-XRCC1, LIG3, and PARP1-suppresses stress-induced TNR mutagenesis, in contrast to the components of homologous recombination and NHEJ, which have no effect. Thus, alt-NHEJ, which contributes to genetic mutability in cancer cells, also plays a novel role in environmental stress-induced TNR mutagenesis. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Genome-wide comparison of ultraviolet and ethyl methanesulphonate mutagenesis methods for the brown alga Ectocarpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroy, Olivier; Peters, Akira F; Coelho, Susana M; Cock, J Mark

    2015-12-01

    Ectocarpus has emerged as a model organism for the brown algae and a broad range of genetic and genomic resources are being generated for this species. The aim of the work presented here was to evaluate two mutagenesis protocols based on ultraviolet irradiation and ethyl methanesulphonate treatment using genome resequencing to measure the number, type and distribution of mutations generated by the two methods. Ultraviolet irradiation generated a greater number of genetic lesions than ethyl methanesulphonate treatment, with more than 400 mutations being detected in the genome of the mutagenised individual. This study therefore confirms that the ultraviolet mutagenesis protocol is suitable for approaches that require a high density of mutations, such as saturation mutagenesis or Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes (TILLING). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The influence of glycerol on γ-induced mutagenesis in Salmonella typhimurium cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basha, S.G.; Krasavin, E.A.; Kozubek, S.; Amirtaev, K.G.

    1990-01-01

    A study was made of the modifying effect of glycerol on the survival rate and γ-radiation-induced mutagenesis of Salmonella typhimurium cells TA98, TA100 and TA102. The DMF value, with respect to the survival rate, was 2.05-0.20. The dependence of the yield of γ-radiation-induced mutants on radiation dose was described by the curve with a maximum; the mutation frequency M(D) was well described by a gradual function M(D)=kD x . DMF values of the induced mutagenesis amounted to 2 for strains TA100 and TA102, and 1.5 for strain TA98

  11. Ultraviolet mutagenesis and the SOS response in Escherichia coli: A personal perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witkin, E.M.

    1989-01-01

    The study of ultraviolet (UV) mutagenesis in Escherichia coli began with the assumption that genes were likely to be changed at the instant of photon absorption. Over many decades, it became clear that postirradiation cellular activities, including enzymatic DNA repair of UV photo products and error-prone modes of tolerating unrepaired DNA lesions can exert profound influences on the mutagenic outcome of irradiation. Current study focusses on the molecular details of radiation-induced translesion DNA replication as the final event in UV mutagenesis

  12. Moderate repetitions (mobile elements) and hot points of chromosomal mutagenesis in Drozophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrova, M.V.; Sevan'kaev, A.V.; Aleksandrov, I.D.

    1989-01-01

    The results of experimental examination of hypothesis on mobile elements (ME) as target for radiation-induced chromosomal mutagenesis do not confirm it in this direct variant though indicate on the presence of nonincidental connection between sites of ME localization of certain type and points of chromosomal mutagenesis are presented. The presented regularity is explained by assumption that settling of the ME by genome is going along postulated static chromomer-binding-DNA complexes, playing an important role in space organization of interphase chromatin. 11 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  13. Short Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Rühli, Frank

    2015-01-01

    modality in ancient mummy research. The aim of this short review is to address the advantages and pitfalls of this particular technique for such unique samples. We recommend that when results of X-ray examination of mummies are presented, the specific recording data should be listed, and any given finds...

  14. Short fusion

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    French and UK researchers are perfecting a particle accelerator technique that could aid the quest for fusion energy or make X-rays that are safer and produce higher-resolution images. Led by Dr Victor Malka from the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Techniques Avancees in Paris, the team has developed a better way of accelerating electrons over short distances (1 page).

  15. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UPuser

    Short communication. Polymorphisms of the CAST gene in the Meishan and five other pig populations in China. Q.S. Wang. 1. , Y.C. Pan. 1#. , L.B. Sun. 2 and H. Meng. 1. 1 Department of Animal Science, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai. 201101, P.R. China. 2 Shanghai Institute of ...

  16. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    ______. *Corresponding author. E-mail: vani_chem@yahoo.com. SHORT COMMUNICATION. OXIDATION OF L-CYSTINE BY CHROMIUM(VI) - A KINETIC STUDY. Kalyan Kumar Adari, Annapurna Nowduri and Vani Parvataneni*. Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Andhra University,.

  17. Short communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantophlet, Andre J.; Gilbert, M.S.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Vonk, R.J.

    2017-01-01

    Heavy veal calves (4-6 mo old) often develop problems with insulin sensitivity. This could lead to metabolic disorders and impaired animal growth performance. Studies in various animal species have shown that the supplementation of short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) can improve insulin

  18. Quantitative evaluation of DNA damage and mutation rate by atmospheric and room-temperature plasma (ARTP) and conventional mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue; Zhang, Chong; Zhou, Qian-Qian; Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Li-Yan; Chang, Hai-Bo; Li, He-Ping; Oda, Yoshimitsu; Xing, Xin-Hui

    2015-07-01

    DNA damage is the dominant source of mutation, which is the driving force of evolution. Therefore, it is important to quantitatively analyze the DNA damage caused by different mutagenesis methods, the subsequent mutation rates, and their relationship. Atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) mutagenesis has been used for the mutation breeding of more than 40 microorganisms. However, ARTP mutagenesis has not been quantitatively compared with conventional mutation methods. In this study, the umu test using a flow-cytometric analysis was developed to quantify the DNA damage in individual viable cells using Salmonella typhimurium NM2009 as the model strain and to determine the mutation rate. The newly developed method was used to evaluate four different mutagenesis systems: a new ARTP tool, ultraviolet radiation, 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO), and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) mutagenesis. The mutation rate was proportional to the corresponding SOS response induced by DNA damage. ARTP caused greater DNA damage to individual living cells than the other conventional mutagenesis methods, and the mutation rate was also higher. By quantitatively comparing the DNA damage and consequent mutation rate after different types of mutagenesis, we have shown that ARTP is a potentially powerful mutagenesis tool with which to improve the characteristics of microbial cell factories.

  19. Ribozyme Mediated gRNA Generation for In Vitro and In Vivo CRISPR/Cas9 Mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Raymond Teck Ho; Ng, Ashley Shu Mei; Ingham, Philip W

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 is now regularly used for targeted mutagenesis in a wide variety of systems. Here we report the use of ribozymes for the generation of gRNAs both in vitro and in zebrafish embryos. We show that incorporation of ribozymes increases the types of promoters and number of target sites available for mutagenesis without compromising mutagenesis efficiency. We have tested this by comparing the efficiency of mutagenesis of gRNA constructs with and without ribozymes and also generated a transgenic zebrafish expressing gRNA using a heat shock promoter (RNA polymerase II-dependent promoter) that was able to induce mutagenesis of its target. Our method provides a streamlined approach to test gRNA efficiency as well as increasing the versatility of conditional gene knock out in zebrafish.

  20. Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    huis

    Short Communication. QTL analysis of production traits on SSC3 in a Large White×Meishan pig resource family. B. Zuo. 1. , Y.Z. Xiong. 1#. , Y.H. Su. 2. , C.Y. Deng. 1. , M.G. Lei. 1. , F.E. Li. 1. , R. Zheng. 1 and S.W. Jiang. 1. 1 Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture & Key Lab of Agricultural ...

  1. DinB Upregulation Is the Sole Role of the SOS Response in Stress-Induced Mutagenesis in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galhardo, Rodrigo S.; Do, Robert; Yamada, Masami; Friedberg, Errol C.; Hastings, P. J.; Nohmi, Takehiko; Rosenberg, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Stress-induced mutagenesis is a collection of mechanisms observed in bacterial, yeast, and human cells in which adverse conditions provoke mutagenesis, often under the control of stress responses. Control of mutagenesis by stress responses may accelerate evolution specifically when cells are maladapted to their environments, i.e., are stressed. It is therefore important to understand how stress responses increase mutagenesis. In the Escherichia coli Lac assay, stress-induced point mutagenesis requires induction of at least two stress responses: the RpoS-controlled general/starvation stress response and the SOS DNA-damage response, both of which upregulate DinB error-prone DNA polymerase, among other genes required for Lac mutagenesis. We show that upregulation of DinB is the only aspect of the SOS response needed for stress-induced mutagenesis. We constructed two dinB(oc) (operator-constitutive) mutants. Both produce SOS-induced levels of DinB constitutively. We find that both dinB(oc) alleles fully suppress the phenotype of constitutively SOS-“off” lexA(Ind−) mutant cells, restoring normal levels of stress-induced mutagenesis. Thus, dinB is the only SOS gene required at induced levels for stress-induced point mutagenesis. Furthermore, although spontaneous SOS induction has been observed to occur in only a small fraction of cells, upregulation of dinB by the dinB(oc) alleles in all cells does not promote a further increase in mutagenesis, implying that SOS induction of DinB, although necessary, is insufficient to differentiate cells into a hypermutable condition. PMID:19270270

  2. Generation of thermostable Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase variants using site saturation mutagenesis library and cell-free protein expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katano, Yuta; Li, Tongyang; Baba, Misato; Nakamura, Miyo; Ito, Masaaki; Kojima, Kenji; Takita, Teisuke; Yasukawa, Kiyoshi

    2017-12-01

    We attempted to increase the thermostability of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MMLV) reverse transcriptase (RT). The eight-site saturation mutagenesis libraries corresponding to Ala70-Arg469 in the whole MMLV RT (Thr24-Leu671), in each of which 1 out of 50 amino acid residues was replaced with other amino acid residue, were constructed. Seven-hundred and sixty eight MMLV RT clones were expressed using a cell-free protein expression system, and their thermostabilities were assessed by the temperature of thermal treatment at which they retained cDNA synthesis activity. One clone D200C was selected as the most thermostable variant. The highest temperature of thermal treatment at which D200C exhibited cDNA synthesis activity was 57ºC, which was higher than for WT (53ºC). Our results suggest that a combination of site saturation mutagenesis library and cell-free protein expression system might be useful for generation of thermostable MMLV RT in a short period of time for expression and selection.

  3. DNA polymerase III of Escherichia coli is required for UV and ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagensee, M.E.; Timme, T.L.; Bryan, S.K.; Moses, R.E.

    1987-06-01

    Strains of Escherichia coli possessing the pcbA1 mutation, a functional DNA polymerase I, and a temperature-sensitive mutation in DNA polymerase III can survive at the restrictive temperature (43 degrees C) for DNA polymerase III. The mutation rate of the bacterial genome of such strains after exposure to either UV light or ethyl methanesulfonate was measured by its rifampicin resistance or amino acid requirements. In addition, Weigle mutagenesis of preirradiated lambda phage was also measured. In all cases, no increase in mutagenesis was noted at the restrictive temperature for DNA polymerase III. Introduction of a cloned DNA polymerase III gene returned the mutation rate of the bacterial genome as well as the Weigle mutagenesis to normal at 43 degrees C. Using a recA-lacZ fusion, the SOS response after UV irradiation was measured and found to be normal at the restrictive and permissive temperature for DNA polymerase III, as was induction of lambda prophage. Recombination was also normal at either temperature. Our studies demonstrate that a functional DNA polymerase III is strictly required for mutagenesis at a step other than SOS induction.

  4. Workshop on ENU Mutagenesis: Planning for Saturation, July 25-28, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadeau, Joseph H

    2002-07-25

    The goal of the conference is to enhance the development of improved technologies and new approaches to the identification of genes underlying chemically-induced mutant phenotypes. The conference brings together ENU mutagenesis experts from the United States and aborad for a small, intensive workshop to consider these issues.

  5. Deletion mutagenesis identifies a haploinsufficient role for gamma-zein in opaque-2 endosperm modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality Protein Maize (QPM) is a hard kernel variant of the high-lysine mutant, opaque-2. Using gamma irradiation, we created opaque QPM variants to identify opaque-2 modifier genes and to investigate deletion mutagenesis combined with Illumina sequencing as a maize functional genomics tool. A K0326...

  6. Natural selection underlies apparent stress-induced mutagenesis in a bacteriophage infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosef, Ido; Edgar, Rotem; Levy, Asaf; Amitai, Gil; Sorek, Rotem; Munitz, Ariel; Qimron, Udi

    2016-04-18

    The emergence of mutations following growth-limiting conditions underlies bacterial drug resistance, viral escape from the immune system and fundamental evolution-driven events. Intriguingly, whether mutations are induced by growth limitation conditions or are randomly generated during growth and then selected by growth limitation conditions remains an open question(1). Here, we show that bacteriophage T7 undergoes apparent stress-induced mutagenesis when selected for improved recognition of its host's receptor. In our unique experimental set-up, the growth limitation condition is physically and temporally separated from mutagenesis: growth limitation occurs while phage DNA is outside the host, and spontaneous mutations occur during phage DNA replication inside the host. We show that the selected beneficial mutations are not pre-existing and that the initial slow phage growth is enabled by the phage particle's low-efficiency DNA injection into the host. Thus, the phage particle allows phage populations to initially extend their host range without mutagenesis by virtue of residual recognition of the host receptor. Mutations appear during non-selective intracellular replication, and the frequency of mutant phages increases by natural selection acting on free phages, which are not capable of mutagenesis.

  7. Alleles conferring improved fiber quality from EMS mutagenesis of elite cotton genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The elite gene pool of cotton (Gossypium spp.) has less diversity than those of most other major crops, making identification of novel alleles important to ongoing crop improvement. A total of 3,164 M5 lines resulting from ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis of two G. hirsutum breeding lines, TAM 94L...

  8. Random mutagenesis of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus using in vitro mariner transposition and natural transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guschinskaya, Natalia; Brunel, Romain; Tourte, Maxime; Lipscomb, Gina L; Adams, Michael W W; Oger, Philippe; Charpentier, Xavier

    2016-11-08

    Transposition mutagenesis is a powerful tool to identify the function of genes, reveal essential genes and generally to unravel the genetic basis of living organisms. However, transposon-mediated mutagenesis has only been successfully applied to a limited number of archaeal species and has never been reported in Thermococcales. Here, we report random insertion mutagenesis in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. The strategy takes advantage of the natural transformability of derivatives of the P. furiosus COM1 strain and of in vitro Mariner-based transposition. A transposon bearing a genetic marker is randomly transposed in vitro in genomic DNA that is then used for natural transformation of P. furiosus. A small-scale transposition reaction routinely generates several hundred and up to two thousands transformants. Southern analysis and sequencing showed that the obtained mutants contain a single and random genomic insertion. Polyploidy has been reported in Thermococcales and P. furiosus is suspected of being polyploid. Yet, about half of the mutants obtained on the first selection are homozygous for the transposon insertion. Two rounds of isolation on selective medium were sufficient to obtain gene conversion in initially heterozygous mutants. This transposition mutagenesis strategy will greatly facilitate functional exploration of the Thermococcales genomes.

  9. Novel Escherichia coli umuD′ Mutants: Structure-Function Insights into SOS Mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLenigan, Mary; Peat, Thomas S.; Frank, Ekaterina G.; McDonald, John P.; Gonzalez, Martín; Levine, Arthur S.; Hendrickson, Wayne A.; Woodgate, Roger

    1998-01-01

    Although it has been 10 years since the discovery that the Escherichia coli UmuD protein undergoes a RecA-mediated cleavage reaction to generate mutagenically active UmuD′, the function of UmuD′ has yet to be determined. In an attempt to elucidate the role of UmuD′ in SOS mutagenesis, we have utilized a colorimetric papillation assay to screen for mutants of a hydroxylamine-treated, low-copy-number umuD′ plasmid that are unable to promote SOS-dependent spontaneous mutagenesis. Using such an approach, we have identified 14 independent umuD′ mutants. Analysis of these mutants revealed that two resulted from promoter changes which reduced the expression of wild-type UmuD′, three were nonsense mutations that resulted in a truncated UmuD′ protein, and the remaining nine were missense alterations. In addition to the hydroxylamine-generated mutants, we have subcloned the mutations found in three chromosomal umuD1, umuD44, and umuD77 alleles into umuD′. All 17 umuD′ mutants resulted in lower levels of SOS-dependent spontaneous mutagenesis but varied in the extent to which they promoted methyl methanesulfonate-induced mutagenesis. We have attempted to correlate these phenotypes with the potential effect of each mutation on the recently described structure of UmuD′. PMID:9721309

  10. Functional studies of human intestinal alkaline sphingomyelinase by deglycosylation and mutagenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jun; Hansen, Gert H; Nilsson, Ake

    2005-01-01

    in NPP are conserved, and those of the active core are modified. We examined the functional changes of the enzyme induced by deglycosylation and mutagenesis. Treating alk-SMase cDNA-transfected COS-7 cells with tunicamycin rendered the expressed enzyme completely inactive. Mutations of the five potential...

  11. Mismatch repair deficiency does not enhance ENU mutagenesis in the zebrafish germ line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitsma, Harma; de Bruijn, Ewart; van de Belt, Jose; Nijman, Isaac J; Cuppen, Edwin

    2008-07-01

    S(N)1-type alkylating agents such as N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) are very potent mutagens. They act by transferring their alkyl group to DNA bases, which, upon mispairing during replication, can cause single base pair mutations in the next replication cycle. As DNA mismatch repair (MMR) proteins are involved in the recognition of alkylation damage, we hypothesized that ENU-induced mutation rates could be increased in a MMR-deficient background, which would be beneficial for mutagenesis approaches. We applied a standard ENU mutagenesis protocol to adult zebrafish deficient in the MMR gene msh6 and heterozygous controls to study the effect of MMR on ENU-induced DNA damage. Dose-dependent lethality was found to be similar for homozygous and heterozygous mutants, indicating that there is no difference in ENU resistance. Mutation discovery by high-throughput dideoxy resequencing of genomic targets in outcrossed progeny of the mutagenized fish did also not reveal any differences in germ line mutation frequency. These results may indicate that the maximum mutation load for zebrafish has been reached with the currently used, highly optimized ENU mutagenesis protocol. Alternatively, the MMR system in the zebrafish germ line may be saturated very rapidly, thereby having a limited effect on high-dose ENU mutagenesis.

  12. Building on the Past, Shaping the Future: The Environmental Mutagenesis and Genomics Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    In late 2012 the members of the Environmental Mutagen Society voted to change its name to the Environmental Mutagenesis and Genomics Society. Here we describe the thought process that led to adoption of the new name, which both respects the rich history of a Society founded in 19...

  13. Gene discovery by chemical mutagenesis and whole-genome sequencing in Dictyostelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Lin Frank; Santhanam, Balaji; Webb, Amanda Nicole; Zupan, Blaž; Shaulsky, Gad

    2016-09-01

    Whole-genome sequencing is a useful approach for identification of chemical-induced lesions, but previous applications involved tedious genetic mapping to pinpoint the causative mutations. We propose that saturation mutagenesis under low mutagenic loads, followed by whole-genome sequencing, should allow direct implication of genes by identifying multiple independent alleles of each relevant gene. We tested the hypothesis by performing three genetic screens with chemical mutagenesis in the social soil amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum Through genome sequencing, we successfully identified mutant genes with multiple alleles in near-saturation screens, including resistance to intense illumination and strong suppressors of defects in an allorecognition pathway. We tested the causality of the mutations by comparison to published data and by direct complementation tests, finding both dominant and recessive causative mutations. Therefore, our strategy provides a cost- and time-efficient approach to gene discovery by integrating chemical mutagenesis and whole-genome sequencing. The method should be applicable to many microbial systems, and it is expected to revolutionize the field of functional genomics in Dictyostelium by greatly expanding the mutation spectrum relative to other common mutagenesis methods. © 2016 Li et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  14. Identification of a halotolerant mutant via in vitro mutagenesis in the cyanobacterium Fremyella diplosiphon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy metabolism and photosynthetic pigment accumulation are affected by salt stress in cyanobacteria leading to cessation of growth. The effect of salinity on the fresh water cyanobacteria, Fremyella diplosiphon was investigated and mutagenesis-based efforts were undertaken to enhance salt toleran...

  15. Pilot study of large-scale production of mutant pigs by ENU mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Tang; Cao, Chunwei; Shang, Haitao; Guo, Weiwei; Mu, Yanshuang; Yang, Shulin; Zhang, Ying; Zheng, Qiantao; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Xianlong; Liu, Yu; Kong, Qingran; Li, Kui; Wang, Dayu; Qi, Meng; Hong, Qianlong; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Xiupeng; Jia, Qitao; Wang, Xiao; Qin, Guosong; Li, Yongshun; Luo, Ailing; Jin, Weiwu; Yao, Jing; Huang, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Hongyong; Li, Menghua; Xie, Xiangmo; Zheng, Xuejuan; Guo, Kenan; Wang, Qinghua; Zhang, Shibin; Li, Liang; Xie, Fei; Zhang, Yu; Weng, Xiaogang; Yin, Zhi; Hu, Kui; Cong, Yimei; Zheng, Peng; Zou, Hailong; Xin, Leilei; Xia, Jihan; Ruan, Jinxue; Li, Hegang; Zhao, Weiming; Yuan, Jing; Liu, Zizhan; Gu, Weiwang; Li, Ming; Wang, Yong; Wang, Hongmei; Yang, Shiming; Liu, Zhonghua; Wei, Hong; Zhao, Jianguo; Zhou, Qi; Meng, Anming

    2017-06-22

    N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis is a powerful tool to generate mutants on a large scale efficiently, and to discover genes with novel functions at the whole-genome level in Caenorhabditis elegans, flies, zebrafish and mice, but it has never been tried in large model animals. We describe a successful systematic three-generation ENU mutagenesis screening in pigs with the establishment of the Chinese Swine Mutagenesis Consortium. A total of 6,770 G1 and 6,800 G3 pigs were screened, 36 dominant and 91 recessive novel pig families with various phenotypes were established. The causative mutations in 10 mutant families were further mapped. As examples, the mutation of SOX10 (R109W) in pig causes inner ear malfunctions and mimics human Mondini dysplasia, and upregulated expression of FBXO32 is associated with congenital splay legs. This study demonstrates the feasibility of artificial random mutagenesis in pigs and opens an avenue for generating a reservoir of mutants for agricultural production and biomedical research.

  16. Genome-wide LORE1 retrotransposon mutagenesis and high-throughput insertion detection in Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbanski, Dorian Fabian; Malolepszy, Anna; Stougaard, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Insertion mutants facilitate functional analysis of genes, but for most plant species it has been difficult to identify a suitable mutagen and to establish large populations for reverse genetics. The main challenge is developing efficient high-throughput procedures for both mutagenesis and insert......Insertion mutants facilitate functional analysis of genes, but for most plant species it has been difficult to identify a suitable mutagen and to establish large populations for reverse genetics. The main challenge is developing efficient high-throughput procedures for both mutagenesis...... plants. The identified insertions showed that the endogenous LORE1 retrotransposon is well suited for insertion mutagenesis due to its homogenous gene targeting and exonic insertion preference. Since LORE1 transposition occurs in the germline, harvesting seeds from a single founder line and cultivating...... progeny generates a complete mutant population. This ease of LORE1 mutagenesis combined with the efficient FSTpoolit protocol, which exploits 2D pooling, Illumina sequencing, and automated data analysis, allows highly cost-efficient development of a comprehensive reverse genetic resource....

  17. Comparing Different Strategies in Directed Evolution of Enzyme Stereoselectivity: Single- versus Double-Code Saturation Mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhoutong; Lonsdale, Richard; Li, Guangyue; Reetz, Manfred T

    2016-10-04

    Saturation mutagenesis at sites lining the binding pockets of enzymes constitutes a viable protein engineering technique for enhancing or inverting stereoselectivity. Statistical analysis shows that oversampling in the screening step (the bottleneck) increases astronomically as the number of residues in the randomization site increases, which is the reason why reduced amino acid alphabets have been employed, in addition to splitting large sites into smaller ones. Limonene epoxide hydrolase (LEH) has previously served as the experimental platform in these methodological efforts, enabling comparisons between single-code saturation mutagenesis (SCSM) and triple-code saturation mutagenesis (TCSM); these employ either only one or three amino acids, respectively, as building blocks. In this study the comparative platform is extended by exploring the efficacy of double-code saturation mutagenesis (DCSM), in which the reduced amino acid alphabet consists of two members, chosen according to the principles of rational design on the basis of structural information. The hydrolytic desymmetrization of cyclohexene oxide is used as the model reaction, with formation of either (R,R)- or (S,S)-cyclohexane-1,2-diol. DCSM proves to be clearly superior to the likewise tested SCSM, affording both R,R- and S,S-selective mutants. These variants are also good catalysts in reactions of further substrates. Docking computations reveal the basis of enantioselectivity. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Random mutagenesis of human serine racemase reveals residues important for the enzymatic activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoffman, Hillary Elizabeth; Jirásková, Jana; Zvelebil, M.; Konvalinka, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 1 (2010), s. 59-79 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : D-serine * serine racemase * random mutagenesis Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.853, year: 2010

  19. Identification of a novel streptococcal gene cassette mediating SOS mutagenesis in Streptococcus uberis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varhimo, Emilia; Savijoki, Kirsi; Jalava, Jari; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Varmanen, Pekka

    Streptococci have been considered to lack the classical SOS response, defined by increased mutation after UV exposure and regulation by LexA. Here we report the identification of a potential self-regulated SOS mutagenesis gene cassette in the Streptococcaceae family. Exposure to UV light was found

  20. A Mutant Mouse with a Highly Specific Contextual Fear-Conditioning Deficit Found in an N-Ethyl-N-Nitrosourea (ENU) Mutagenesis Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletcher, Mathew T.; Wiltshire, Tim; Tarantino, Lisa M.; Mayford, Mark; Reijmers, Leon G.; Coats, Jennifer K.

    2006-01-01

    Targeted mutagenesis in mice has shown that genes from a wide variety of gene families are involved in memory formation. The efficient identification of genes involved in learning and memory could be achieved by random mutagenesis combined with high-throughput phenotyping. Here, we provide the first report of a mutagenesis screen that has…

  1. A high-throughput shotgun mutagenesis approach to mapping B-cell antibody epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Edgar; Doranz, Benjamin J

    2014-09-01

    Characterizing the binding sites of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) on protein targets, their 'epitopes', can aid in the discovery and development of new therapeutics, diagnostics and vaccines. However, the speed of epitope mapping techniques has not kept pace with the increasingly large numbers of mAbs being isolated. Obtaining detailed epitope maps for functionally relevant antibodies can be challenging, particularly for conformational epitopes on structurally complex proteins. To enable rapid epitope mapping, we developed a high-throughput strategy, shotgun mutagenesis, that enables the identification of both linear and conformational epitopes in a fraction of the time required by conventional approaches. Shotgun mutagenesis epitope mapping is based on large-scale mutagenesis and rapid cellular testing of natively folded proteins. Hundreds of mutant plasmids are individually cloned, arrayed in 384-well microplates, expressed within human cells, and tested for mAb reactivity. Residues are identified as a component of a mAb epitope if their mutation (e.g. to alanine) does not support candidate mAb binding but does support that of other conformational mAbs or allows full protein function. Shotgun mutagenesis is particularly suited for studying structurally complex proteins because targets are expressed in their native form directly within human cells. Shotgun mutagenesis has been used to delineate hundreds of epitopes on a variety of proteins, including G protein-coupled receptor and viral envelope proteins. The epitopes mapped on dengue virus prM/E represent one of the largest collections of epitope information for any viral protein, and results are being used to design better vaccines and drugs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Roles for the yeast RAD18 and RAD52 DNA repair genes in UV mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J D; Chadee, D N; Kunz, B A

    1994-11-01

    Experimental evidence indicates that although the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD18 and RAD52 genes are not required for nucleotide excision repair, they function in the processing of UV-induced DNA damage in yeast. Conflicting statements regarding the UV mutability of strains deleted for RAD18 prompted us to re-examine the influence of RAD18, and RAD52, on UV mutagenesis. To do so, we characterized mutations induced by UV in SUP4-o, a yeast suppressor tRNA gene. SUP4-o was maintained on a plasmid in isogenic strains that either carried one of two different rad18 deletions (rad18 delta) or had RAD52 disrupted. Both rad18 deletions decreased the frequency of UV-induced SUP4-o mutations to levels close to those for spontaneous mutagenesis in the rad18 delta backgrounds, and prevented a net increase in mutant yield. A detailed analysis of mutations isolated after UV irradiation of one of the rad18 delta strains uncovered little evidence of the specificity features typical for UV mutagenesis in the isogenic repair-proficient (RAD) parent (e.g., predominance of G.C-->A.T transitions). Evidently, UV induction of SUP4-o mutations is highly dependent on the RAD18 gene. Compared to the RAD strain, disruption of RAD52 reduced the frequency and yield of UV mutagenesis by about two-thirds. Closer inspection revealed that 80% of this reduction was due to a decrease in the frequency of G.C-->A.T transitions. In addition, there were differences in the distributions and site specificities of single base-pair substitutions. Thus, RAD52 also participates in UV mutagenesis of a plasmid-borne gene in yeast, but to a lesser extent than RAD18.

  3. Enzyme kinetics, inhibitors, mutagenesis and electron paramagnetic resonance analysis of dual-affinity nitrate reductase in unicellular N(2)-fixing cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. PCC 8801.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tung-Hei; Chen, Yung-Han; Huang, Jine-Yung; Liu, Kang-Cheng; Ke, Shyue-Chu; Chu, Hsiu-An

    2011-11-01

    The assimilatory nitrate reductase (NarB) of N(2)-fixing cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. PCC 8801 is a monomeric enzyme with dual affinity for substrate nitrate. We purified the recombinant NarB of Cyanothece sp. PCC 8801 and further investigated it by enzyme kinetics analysis, site-directed mutagenesis, inhibitor kinetics analysis, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The NarB showed 2 kinetic regimes at pH 10.5 or 8 and electron-donor conditions methyl viologen or ferredoxin (Fd). Fd-dependent NR assay revealed NarB with very high affinity for nitrate (K(m)1, ∼1μM; K(m)2, ∼270μM). Metal analysis and EPR results showed that NarB contains a Mo cofactor and a [4Fe-4S] cluster. In addition, the R352A mutation on the proposed nitrate-binding site of NarB greatly altered both high- and low-affinity kinetic components. Furthermore, the effect of azide on the NarB of Cyanothece sp. PCC 8801 was more complex than that on the NarB of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 with its single kinetic regime. With 1mM azide, the kinetics of the wild-type NarB was transformed from 2 kinetic regimes to hyperbolic kinetics, and its activity was enhanced significantly under medium nitrate concentrations. Moreover, EPR results also suggested a structural difference between the two NarBs. Taken together, our results show that the NarB of Cyanothece sp. PCC 8801 contains only a single Mo-catalytic center, and we rule out that the enzyme has 2 independent, distinct catalytic sites. In addition, the NarB of Cyanothece sp. PCC 8801 may have a regulatory nitrate-binding site. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Correlation of binding-loop internal dynamics with stability and function in potato I inhibitor family: relative contributions of Arg(50) and Arg(52) in Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor-V as studied by site-directed mutagenesis and NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Mengli; Gong, Yu-Xi; Wen, Lisa; Krishnamoorthi, Ramaswamy

    2002-07-30

    The side chains of Arg(50) and Arg(52) at positions P(6)' and P(8)', respectively, anchor the binding loop to the protein scaffold by means of hydrogen bonds in Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor-V (CMTI-V), a potato I family member. Here, we have investigated the relative contributions of Arg(50) and Arg(52) to the binding-loop flexibility and stability by determining changes in structure, dynamics, and proteolytic stability as a consequence of individually mutating them into an alanine. We have compared chemical shift assignments of main-chain hydrogens and nitrogens, and (1)H-(1)H interresidue nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs) for the two mutants with those of the wild-type protein. We have also measured NMR longitudinal and transverse relaxation rates and (15)N-(1)H NOE enhancements for all backbone and side-chain NH groups and calculated the model-free parameters for R50A-rCMTI-V and R52A-rCMTI-V. The three-dimensional structures and backbone dynamics of the protein scaffold region remain very similar for both mutants, relative to the wild-type protein. The flexibility of the binding loop is increased in both R50A- and R52A-rCMTI-V. In R52A-rCMTI-V, the mean generalized order parameter () of the P(6)-P(1) residues of the binding loop (39-44) decreases to 0.68 +/- 0.02 from 0.76 +/- 0.04 observed for the wild-type protein. However, in R50A-rCMTI-V, the flexibility of the whole binding loop increases, especially that of the P(1)'-P(3)' residues (45-47), whose value drops dramatically to 0.35 +/- 0.03 from 0.68 +/- 0.03 determined for rCMTI-V. More strikingly, S(2) values of side-chain N epsilon Hs reveal that, in the R50A mutant, removal of the R50 hydrogen bond results in the loss of the R52 hydrogen bond too, whereas in R52A, the R50 hydrogen bond remains unaffected. Kinetic data on trypsin-catalyzed hydrolysis of the reactive-site peptide bond (P(1)-P(1)') suggest that the activation free energy barrier of the reaction at 25 degrees C is reduced by 2.1 kcal/mol for R50A-rCMTI-V and by 1.5 kcal/mol for R52A-rCMTI-V, relative to rCMTI-V. Collectively, the results suggest that although both the P(6') and P(8)' anchors are required for optimal inhibitor function and stability in the potato I family, the former is essential for the existence of the latter and has greater influence on the binding-loop structure, dynamics, and stability.

  5. Detección de una mutación no estándar en el Proto-oncogen RET por mutagénesis dirigida Detection of a non-standard mutation in the ret protoncogene by site directed mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Real

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de MEN2A es una enfermedad autosómica dominante que se caracteriza por el desarrollo de cáncer medular de tiroides, feocromocitoma e hiperplasia de paratiroides. Mutaciones en el ret proto-oncogén se asocian con MEN2A, con una penetrancia cercana al 100%. El gen se encuentra en el cromosoma 10q11.2 y codifica para una proteína transmembrana con función de receptor del tipo tirosina quinasa. Mutaciones que afectan el dominio extracelular de la proteína estimulan la dimerización espontánea del receptor y un aumento de la actividad de tirosina quinasa basal. El codón 634 codifica para una cisteína, y es considerado un sitio hot-spot por encontrarse mutado en el 85% de las familias con MEN2A. Para este sitio, nuestro grupo desarrolló en 2002 una metodología de detección indirecta y económica. Ante una familia sospechada de MEN2A, se aplicó esta estrategia, que reveló un codón 634 sano. Por posterior secuenciación se confirmó que el paciente índice portaba una mutación en el codón 611. Se desarrolló una nueva estrategia familia-específica por PCR mutagénica, que permitió diagnosticar en nuestro país a todos los integrantes de la familia con costos accesibles. Un niño en el cual se halló la mutación, fue tiroidectomizado preventivamente, y a la fecha goza de buena salud. De esta manera, combinando la estrategia de detección de mutaciones en el sitio hot-spot y un posterior diseño de otra metodología familia-específica se pudo diagnosticar e intervenir preventivamente a la familia, sin enviar todas las muestras al extranjero.MEN2A is an autosomic dominant disease, characterized by medullary thyroid cancer, pheochromocytoma and parathyroid hyperplasia. Mutations in the ret proto-oncogene are associated with this disease, with almost 100% of pennetrance. The gene, situated on chromosome 10q11.2, codes for a transmembrane protein with a tirosinkinase-like receptor function. Mutations that affect its extracellular domain, stimulate spontaneous homodimerization and elevate the basal tirosinkinase activity. The codon 634 of the gene is considered a hot-spot site, since it is mutated in 85% of the MEN2A families. Our group developed in 2002 an indirect and costless strategy to detect alterations in this site. We present a family suspected of having MEN2A. We applied our PCR based indirect strategy on the DNA of the index patient and found that there was no mutation in that site. Posterior sequencing of exon 10 and 11 confirmed that the mutation affecting this family was in codon 611. Thus, we developed a new costless family-specific strategy based on mutagenic PCR and enzymatic cuts to diagnose all the family members. A seven-year old boy with this mutation was preventively thyroidectomized. In this way, combining the indirect methodology for codon 634 previously developed by our group, and a posterior family-specific mutation detection strategy, we were able to diagnose and intervene presymptomaticly the family members, avoiding sending all the samples to foreign centers.

  6. Effect of induced mutagenesis in rice tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddumage, R.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of chemical mutagens and ionising radiation on growth, regenerative capacity of rice callus culture and the effect o9f mutagens on frequency and spectrum of mutant regenerants, derived from calli and determination of approximate semi-lethal dose of each mutagen on rice calli was studied. Intact mature de-husked grains and pieces of primordial particles of four varieties were used as explants in the experiment. Organogenesis was induced using MS media supplemented with agar. After thirty days calluses were subjected to varying concentrations/dosage of mutagens. The effect of mutagens on growth of callus was stimulative in low concentration/doses at short exposure, but in higher concentration/doses at longer exposure it was oppressive. In x-radiation treatment all the studied doses showed only stimulative effect on growth. The effect of mutagenic treatment on regenerative capacity was negative. No specificity was found even between two chemical mutagens of their action on studied characters

  7. Mutagenesis of the somaclones in vitro of cut roses by 60Co γ-rays irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Suping; Su Yan; Wang Lihua; Tang Kaixue; Wang Jihua; Zhang Hao

    2009-01-01

    Mutagenesis of cut rose in vitro irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays was studied. The callus of leaves and regenerations adventitious bud was used as the explants for mutagenesis. Effect of 60 Co γ-rays irradiation on the callus's regeneration rate, adventitious bud's multiplication rate and vegetal status were studied. The results showed that the regeneration frequency of callus was decreased by 60 Co γ-rays irradiation. The regenerations adventitious bud was the better experimental materials compared with the callus of leaves. The lethal dose was 122 Gy and the semi-lethal dose was 76 Gy according to the regression equation. The appropriate dose on adventitious bud by irradiation rays was 50-60 Gy. (authors)

  8. Improvement of DNA transfer frequency and transposon mutagenesis of Erwinia carotovora subsp. betavasculorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rella, M; Axelrood, P E; Weinhold, A R; Schroth, M N

    1989-01-01

    The production of antibiotics and their role in microbial competition under natural conditions can be readily studied by the use of transposon mutants. Several antibiotic-producing strains of Erwinia carotovora subsp. betavasculorum were unable to accept foreign DNA. A plasmid delivery system was developed, using ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis, which entailed isolating E. carotovora subsp. betavasculorum mutants able to accept foreign DNA and transfer it to other strains. This enabled transposon mutagenesis of a wild-type antibiotic-producing strain of E. carotovora subsp. betavasculorum. Twelve antibiotic-negative mutants were isolated, and one of these showed a reduction in antibiotic production in vitro. Many of these mutants also showed a reduction in their ability to macerate potato tissue. The mutants were classified into four genetic groups on the basis of their genetic and phenotypic characteristics, indicating that several genes are involved in antibiotic biosynthesis by E. carotovora subsp. betavasculorum. PMID:2543291

  9. Altered lipid accumulation in Nannochloropsis salina CCAP849/3 following EMS and UV induced mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Beacham

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae have potential as a chemical feed stock in a range of industrial applications. Nannochloropsis salina was subject to EMS mutagenesis and the highest lipid containing cells selected using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Assessment of growth, lipid content and fatty acid composition identified mutant strains displaying a range of altered traits including changes in the PUFA content and a total FAME increase of up to 156% that of the wild type strain. Combined with a reduction in growth this demonstrated a productivity increase of up to 76%. Following UV mutagenesis, lipid accumulation of the mutant cultures was elevated to more than 3 fold that of the wild type strain, however reduced growth rates resulted in a reduction in overall productivity. Changes observed are indicative of alterations to the regulation of the omega 6 Kennedy pathway. The importance of these variations in physiology for industrial applications such as biofuel production is discussed.

  10. Cell-mediated mutagenesis and cell transformation of mammalian cells by chemical carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huberman, E.; Langenbach, R.

    1977-01-01

    We have developed a cell-mediated mutagenesis assay in which cells with the appropriate markers for mutagenesis are co-cultivated with either lethally irradiated rodent embryonic cells that can metabolize carcinogenic hydrocarbons or with primary rat liver cells that can metabolize chemicals carcinogenic to the liver. During co-cultivation, the reactive metabolites of the procarcinogen appear to be transmitted to the mutable cells and induce mutations in them. Assays of this type make it possible to demonstrate a relationship between carcinogenic potency of the chemicals and their ability to induce mutations in mammalian cells. In addition, by simultaneously comparing the frequencies of transformation and mutation induced in normal diploid hamster cells by benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and one of its metabolites, it is possible to estimate the genetic target size for cell transformation in vitro

  11. Study on mutagenesis of Signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens) by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Rahim Harun; Shuhami Shamsuddin; Ghazali Hussin

    2000-01-01

    Before starting experiments on induced mutation breeding of crops it is essential to carry out radiosensitivity test when determining the optimum doses of every plant genotype. Factors such as moisture content and oxsigen availability could influence mutagenesis process through ionizing radiation. Many methodologies could be used for determining the effect of radiation on seed of plants such as the 'Sandwich blotter technique' and 'Sand bed technique'. Different species have different sensitivity to mutagenic agents. Even varieties of the same species show variations in sensitivity to irradiation. Brachiaria clecumbens was found to be less sensitive to gamma radiation. At a dose of 800 Gy, the percentage reduction in growth was around 40%. Early result has shown that the optimum doses for mutagenesis was between 700 to 900 Gy

  12. Impact of increased mutagenesis on adaptation to high temperature in bacteriophage Qβ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas, María; Cabanillas, Laura; Kubota, Kirina; Lázaro, Ester

    2016-10-01

    RNA viruses replicate with very high error rates, which makes them more sensitive to additional increases in this parameter. This fact has inspired an antiviral strategy named lethal mutagenesis, which is based on the artificial increase of the error rate above a threshold incompatible with virus infectivity. A relevant issue concerning lethal mutagenesis is whether incomplete treatments might enhance the adaptive possibilities of viruses. We have addressed this question by subjecting an RNA virus, the bacteriophage Qβ, to different transmission regimes in the presence or the absence of sublethal concentrations of the mutagenic nucleoside analogue 5-azacytidine (AZC). Populations obtained were subsequently exposed to a non-optimal temperature and analyzed to determine their consensus sequences. Our results show that previously mutagenized populations rapidly fixed a specific set of mutations upon propagation at the new temperature, suggesting that the expansion of the mutant spectrum caused by AZC has an influence on later evolutionary behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pecularities of mutagenesis of T4Br bacteriophage under the direct and indirect radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurov, S.S.

    1975-01-01

    Different lethal and mutagenic effects were shown when bacteriophage T4Br + (470 r/min) was irradiated in broth (direct effect) and a buffer solution (direct and indirect action). The survival rate of the bacteriophage in the buffer solution was 0.1 percent for a dose rate of 60 kr; in the broth it was 10 percent. The frequency of mutation of the bacteriophage also showed the greater effect of the irradiation in the buffer solution than in the broth (25 and 5 r-mutants respectively at a dose rate of 10 kr). An analysis of the ratio of the r-groups when the bacteriophage was treated in various ways revealed differences between mutagenesis produced in the broth and the buffer, and spontaneous mutagenesis. (V.A.P.)

  14. The mutagenesis and breeding of high productive strains of streptomyces jingyangensis '5406'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Hongyan; Yin Xinyun

    1988-03-01

    The purpose of these experiments is to explore the mutagenesis rhythm and breed high productive strains of actinomycete '5406'. The single colony agar pieces of strain F 358 were treated with fast neutron and 60 Co-γ ray irradiation Two mutants have been selected from 20025 treated single colonies. The output of cytokinins from them is higher than from strain F 358 . The original strain 'Mu-Tan-al' rejuvenated by freezing was treated with several physical and chemical mutagens. The mutagenesis rhythm has been summed up tentatively. Eight mutants obtained from 93014 treated single colonies produced more '5406' antibiotics than that of strain 'Mu-Tan-al,. The effect of mutant 'N2-10-Ra3' was the best

  15. Regulation of mutagenesis by exogenous biological factors in the eukaryotic cell systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukash L. L.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The representations of the mutations and the nature of spontaneous mutation process and mutagenesis induced by exogenous oncoviruses, DNAs and proteins-mitogens are analysed. Exogenous biological factors induce DNA damages in regulatory-informational way, acting on the cellular systems for maintenance of genetical stability. Molecular mechanisms are the same as at spontaneous mutagenesis but they are realized with the participation of alien genetical material. Among biological mutagens, the oncoviruses and mobile genetic elements (MGEs are distinguished as the strongest destabilizing factors which direct tumor transformation of somatic mammalian cells. Genetical reprogramming or changing the programs of gene expression at the differentiation of stem and progenitor cells under growth factors and citokines is probably followed by mutations and recombinations as well.

  16. A highly efficient transposon mutagenesis system for the tomato pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, O; Gartemann, K H; Zellermann, E M; Eichenlaub, R; Burger, A

    2001-11-01

    A transposon mutagenesis system for Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis was developed based on antibiotic resistance transposons that were derived from the insertion element IS1409 from Arthrobacter sp. strain TM1 NCIB12013. As a prerequisite, the electroporation efficiency was optimized by using unmethylated DNA and treatment of the cells with glycine such that about 5 x 10(6) transformants per microg of DNA were generally obtained. Electroporation of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis with a suicide vector carrying transposon Tn1409C resulted in approximately 1 x 10(3) transposon mutants per pg of DNA and thus is suitable for saturation mutagenesis. Analysis of Tn1409C insertion sites suggests a random mode of transposition. Transposition of Tn1409C was also demonstrated for other subspecies of C. michiganensis.

  17. Random transposon mutagenesis of the Saccharopolyspora erythraea genome reveals additional genes influencing erythromycin biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedashchin, Andrij; Cernota, William H.; Gonzalez, Melissa C.; Leach, Benjamin I.; Kwan, Noelle; Wesley, Roy K.; Weber, J. Mark

    2015-01-01

    A single cycle of strain improvement was performed in Saccharopolyspora erythraea mutB and 15 genotypes influencing erythromycin production were found. Genotypes generated by transposon mutagenesis appeared in the screen at a frequency of ∼3%. Mutations affecting central metabolism and regulatory genes were found, as well as hydrolases, peptidases, glycosyl transferases and unknown genes. Only one mutant retained high erythromycin production when scaled-up from micro-agar plug fermentations to shake flasks. This mutant had a knockout of the cwh1 gene (SACE_1598), encoding a cell-wall-associated hydrolase. The cwh1 knockout produced visible growth and morphological defects on solid medium. This study demonstrated that random transposon mutagenesis uncovers strain improvement-related genes potentially useful for strain engineering. PMID:26468041

  18. Multiple pathways for SOS-induced mutagenesis in Escherichia coli: An overexpression of dinB/dinP results in strongly enhancing mutagenesis in the absence of any exogenous treatment to damage DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-Ryang; Maenhaut-Michel, Geneviéve; Yamada, Masami; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Matsui, Keiko; Sofuni, Toshio; Nohmi, Takehiko; Ohmori, Haruo

    1997-01-01

    dinP is an Escherichia coli gene recently identified at 5.5 min of the genetic map, whose product shows a similarity in amino acid sequence to the E. coli UmuC protein involved in DNA damage-induced mutagenesis. In this paper we show that the gene is identical to dinB, an SOS gene previously localized near the lac locus at 8 min, the function of which was shown to be required for mutagenesis of nonirradiated λ phage infecting UV-preirradiated bacterial cells (termed λUTM for λ untargeted mutagenesis). A newly constructed dinP null mutant exhibited the same defect for λUTM as observed previously with a dinB::Mu mutant, and the defect was complemented by plasmids carrying dinP as the only intact bacterial gene. Furthermore, merely increasing the dinP gene expression, without UV irradiation or any other DNA-damaging treatment, resulted in a strong enhancement of mutagenesis in F′lac plasmids; at most, 800-fold increase in the G6-to-G5 change. The enhanced mutagenesis did not depend on recA, uvrA, or umuDC. Thus, our results establish that E. coli has at least two distinct pathways for SOS-induced mutagenesis: one dependent on umuDC and the other on dinB/P. PMID:9391106

  19. Improvement of DNA transfer frequency and transposon mutagenesis of Erwinia carotovora subsp. betavasculorum.

    OpenAIRE

    Rella, M; Axelrood, P E; Weinhold, A R; Schroth, M N

    1989-01-01

    The production of antibiotics and their role in microbial competition under natural conditions can be readily studied by the use of transposon mutants. Several antibiotic-producing strains of Erwinia carotovora subsp. betavasculorum were unable to accept foreign DNA. A plasmid delivery system was developed, using ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis, which entailed isolating E. carotovora subsp. betavasculorum mutants able to accept foreign DNA and transfer it to other strains. This enabled tra...

  20. Lack of enhancement of chemical mutagenesis by saccharin in the Salmonella assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, T.K. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN); Stoltz, D.R.; Epler, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    A purified batch of the artificial sweetener saccharin (S-1022) was assayed for mutagenicity and comutagenicity by the Ames Salmonella assay system. Saccharin was not mutagenic and failed to enhance the mutagenic activity induced by a wide variety of known mutagens. These results do not argue against the tumor-promoter-like activity of saccharin but only indicate that the Ames Salmonella assay is not capable of detecting saccharin as a promoter of mutagenesis.

  1. The Mechanism of Nucleotide Excision Repair-Mediated UV-Induced Mutagenesis in Nonproliferating Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozmin, Stanislav G.; Jinks-Robertson, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Following the irradiation of nondividing yeast cells with ultraviolet (UV) light, most induced mutations are inherited by both daughter cells, indicating that complementary changes are introduced into both strands of duplex DNA prior to replication. Early analyses demonstrated that such two-strand mutations depend on functional nucleotide excision repair (NER), but the molecular mechanism of this unique type of mutagenesis has not been further explored. In the experiments reported here, an ade2 adeX colony-color system was used to examine the genetic control of UV-induced mutagenesis in nondividing cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We confirmed a strong suppression of two-strand mutagenesis in NER-deficient backgrounds and demonstrated that neither mismatch repair nor interstrand crosslink repair affects the production of these mutations. By contrast, proteins involved in the error-prone bypass of DNA damage (Rev3, Rev1, PCNA, Rad18, Pol32, and Rad5) and in the early steps of the DNA-damage checkpoint response (Rad17, Mec3, Ddc1, Mec1, and Rad9) were required for the production of two-strand mutations. There was no involvement, however, for the Pol η translesion synthesis DNA polymerase, the Mms2-Ubc13 postreplication repair complex, downstream DNA-damage checkpoint factors (Rad53, Chk1, and Dun1), or the Exo1 exonuclease. Our data support models in which UV-induced mutagenesis in nondividing cells occurs during the Pol ζ-dependent filling of lesion-containing, NER-generated gaps. The requirement for specific DNA-damage checkpoint proteins suggests roles in recruiting and/or activating factors required to fill such gaps. PMID:23307894

  2. Amino acid substitutions in random mutagenesis libraries: lessons from analyzing 3000 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Frauenkron-Machedjou, Victorine Josiane; Kardashliev, Tsvetan; Ruff, Anna Joëlle; Zhu, Leilei; Bocola, Marco; Schwaneberg, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    The quality of amino acid substitution patterns in random mutagenesis libraries is decisive for the success in directed evolution campaigns. In this manuscript, we provide a detailed analysis of the amino acid substitutions by analyzing 3000 mutations of three random mutagenesis libraries (1000 mutations each; epPCR with a low-mutation and a high-mutation frequency and SeSaM-Tv P/P) employing lipase A from Bacillus subtilis (bsla). A comparison of the obtained numbers of beneficial variants in the mentioned three random mutagenesis libraries with a site saturation mutagenesis (SSM) (covering the natural diversity at each amino acid position of BSLA) concludes the diversity analysis. Seventy-six percent of the SeSaM-Tv P/P-generated substitutions yield chemically different amino acid substitutions compared to 64% (epPCR-low) and 69% (epPCR-high). Unique substitutions from one amino acid to others are termed distinct amino acid substitutions. In the SeSaM-Tv P/P library, 35% of all theoretical distinct amino acid substitutions were found in the 1000 mutation library compared to 25% (epPCR-low) and 26% (epPCR-high). Thirty-six percent of distinct amino acid substitutions found in SeSaM-Tv P/P were unobtainable by epPCR-low. Comparison with the SSM library showed that epPCR-low covers 15%, epPCR-high 18%, and SeSaM-Tv P/P 21% of obtainable beneficial amino acid positions. In essence, this study provides first insights on the quality of epPCR and SeSaM-Tv P/P libraries in terms of amino acid substitutions, their chemical differences, and the number of obtainable beneficial amino acid positions.

  3. Mutagenesis and cytotoxicity in human epithelial cells by far- and near-ultraviolet radiations: action spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.A.; Huberman, E.; Cunningham, M.L.; Peak, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Action spectra were determined for cell killing and mutation by monochromatic ultraviolet and visible radiations (254-434 nm) in cultured human epithelial P3 cells. Cell killing was more efficient following radiation at the shorter wavelengths (254-434 nm) than at longer wavelengths (365-434 nm). At 254 nm, for example, a fluence of 11 Jm-2 gave 37% cell survival, while at 365 nm, 17 X 10(5) Jm-2 gave equivalent survival. At 434 nm little killing was observed with fluences up to 3 X 10(6) Jm-2. Mutant induction, determined at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase locus, was caused by radiation at 254, 313, and 365 nm. There was no mutant induction at 334 nm although this wavelength was highly cytotoxic. Mutagenesis was not induced by 434 nm radiation, either. There was a weak response at 405 nm; the mutant frequencies were only slightly increased above background levels. For the mutagenic wavelengths, log-log plots of the mutation frequency against fluence showed linear regressions with positive slopes of 2.5, consistent with data from a previous study using Escherichia coli. The data points of the action spectra for lethality and mutagenesis were similar to the spectrum for DNA damage at wavelengths shorter than 313 nm, whereas at longer wavelengths the lethality spectrum had a shoulder, and the mutagenesis spectrum had a secondary peak at 365 nm. No correlation was observed for the P3 cells between the spectra for cell killing and mutagenesis caused by wavelengths longer than 313 nm and the induction of DNA breakage or the formation of DNA-to-protein covalent bonds in these cells

  4. The contribution of Nth and Nei DNA glycosylases to mutagenesis in Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolla, Nabiela; Goosens, Vivianne J; Kana, Bavesh D; Gordhan, Bhavna G

    2014-01-01

    The increased prevalence of drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) indicates that significant mutagenesis occurs during tuberculosis disease in humans. DNA damage by host-derived reactive oxygen/nitrogen species is hypothesized to be critical for the mutagenic process in Mtb thus, highlighting an important role for DNA repair enzymes in maintenance of genome fidelity. Formamidopyrimidine (Fpg/MutM/Fapy) and EndonucleaseVIII (Nei) constitute the Fpg/Nei family of DNA glycosylases and together with EndonucleaseIII (Nth) are central to the base excision repair pathway in bacteria. In this study we assess the contribution of Nei and Nth DNA repair enzymes in Mycobacterium smegmatis (Msm), which retains a single nth homologue and duplications of the Fpg (fpg1 and fpg2) and Nei (nei1 and nei2) homologues. Using an Escherichia coli nth deletion mutant, we confirm the functionality of the mycobacterial nth gene in the base excision repair pathway. Msm mutants lacking nei1, nei2 and nth individually or in combination did not display aberrant growth in broth culture. Deletion of nth individually results in increased UV-induced mutagenesis and combinatorial deletion with the nei homologues results in reduced survival under oxidative stress conditions and an increase in spontaneous mutagenesis to rifampicin. Deletion of nth together with the fpg homolgues did not result in any growth/survival defects or changes in mutation rate. Furthermore, no differential emergence of the common rifampicin resistance conferring genotypes were noted. Collectively, these data confirm a role for Nth in base excision repair in mycobacteria and further highlight a novel interplay between the Nth and Nei homologues in spontaneous mutagenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Modulating effect of dimethylbenzanthracene on gamma-ray mutagenesis in the soybean test system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, T. [National Inst. of Genetics, Mishima, Shizuoka (Japan); Inoue, T.

    1987-10-15

    Dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA), a strong tumor initiator, did not show mutagenic activity in the soybean test system either alone or in combination with tumor promoter, TPA. In combination treatments with DMBA and gamma-rays, the mutagenicity of gamma-rays was not affected by post-treatment with DMBA. However, DMBA pre-treatment clearly reduced gammaray-ray induced spotting frequency, suggesting that DMBA affects mutagenesis in gamma-irradiated soybean cells.

  6. Molecular processes as basis for plasmid-mediated bacterial UV-light resistance and mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleshkin, G.I.; Brukhanskij, G.V.; Skavronskaya, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    The increase of UV-resistance and UV-induced mutagenesis by lambda 1 pint intmid as well as molecular-genetic mechanisms of plasmid participation in reparation and DNA replication and its degradation after UV-irradiation in plasmid cells on pKM101 plasmid model have been investigated. Data testifying to the necessity of intmid integration in chromosome as obligatory stage of intmid participation in increasing UV-resistance of bacterial cells are obtained. It has been found that intmid raises UV-resistance of cells and increases respectively the UV-induced reverants efficiency. On the basis of the experiment data the conclusion is drawn that the intmid capacity to raise UV-resistance and, possibly, mutagenesis is bound not only with its integration into chromosome but also with pol A + chromosome replication by dependendent imtmid replication complex. It is shown that pKM101 plasmid ensures functioning in E coli cells of inducible, chloroamphenicol-resistant DNA replication, highly resistant to UV-light harmful effect and that the volume of excision reparation in E. coli cells carrying pKM101 plasmid is increased as compared with the volume of reparation in plasmid legs cells. The combination of the data obtained gives grounds to the authors to assume that inducible replication, inducible reparation of DNA and inducible decrease of DNA degradation determined by pKM101 plasmid may serve as recA + lexA + basis dependent increase of UV-resistance and mutagenesis and that these processes provide the possibility of functioning of integrative replication mechanism of plasmid participation in ensuring UV-resistance and mutagenesis of plants

  7. A plasmid-transposon hybrid mutagenesis system effective in a broad range of Enterobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita eMonson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Random transposon mutagenesis is a powerful technique used to generate libraries of genetic insertions in many different bacterial strains. Here we develop a system facilitating random transposon mutagenesis in a range of different Gram-negative bacterial strains, including Pectobacterium atrosepticum, Citrobacter rodentium, Serratia sp. ATCC39006, Serratia plymuthica, Dickeya dadantii and many more. Transposon mutagenesis was optimized in each of these strains and three studies are presented to show the efficacy of this system. Firstly, the important agricultural pathogen D. dadantii was mutagenized. Two mutants that showed reduced protease production and one mutant producing the previously cryptic pigment, indigoidine, were identified and characterized. Secondly, the enterobacterium, Serratia sp. ATCC39006 was mutagenized and mutants incapable of producing gas vesicles, proteinaceous intracellular organelles, were identified. One of these contained a β-galactosidase transcriptional fusion within the gene gvpA1, essential for gas vesicle production. Finally, the system was used to mutate the biosynthetic gene clusters of the antifungal, anti-oomycete and anticancer polyketide, oocydin A, in the plant-associated enterobacterium, Dickeya solani MK10. The mutagenesis system was developed to allow easy identification of transposon insertion sites by sequencing, after facile generation of a replicon encompassing the transposon and adjacent DNA, post-excision. Furthermore, the system can also create transcriptional fusions with either β-galactosidase or β-glucuronidase as reporters, and exploits a variety of drug resistance markers so that multiple selectable fusions can be generated in a single strain. This system of various transposons has wide utility and can be combined in many different ways.

  8. Random Mutagenesis of the Aspergillus oryzae Genome Results in Fungal Antibacterial Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard, Cory A.; Brown, Stacy D.; Hayman, J. Russell

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant bacteria cause severe infections in hospitals and communities. Development of new drugs to combat resistant microorganisms is needed. Natural products of microbial origin are the source of most currently available antibiotics. We hypothesized that random mutagenesis of Aspergillus oryzae would result in secretion of antibacterial compounds. To address this hypothesis, we developed a screen to identify individual A. oryzae mutants that inhibit the growth of Methicillin-res...

  9. Repair and mutagenesis of herpes simplex virus in UV-irradiated monkey cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lytle, C.D.; Goddard, J.G.; Lin, C.H.

    1980-01-01

    Mutagenic repair in mammalian cells was investigated by determining the mutagenesis of UV-irradiated or unirradiated herpes simplex virus in UV-irradiated CV-1 monkey kidney cells. These results were compared with the results for UV-enhanced virus reactivation (UVER) in the same experimental situation. High and low multiplicities of infection were used to determine the effects of multiplicity reactivation (MR). UVER and MR were readily demonstrable and were approximately equal in amount in an infectious center assay. For this study, a forward-mutation assay was developed to detect virus mutants resistant to iododeoxycytidine (ICdR), probably an indication of the mutant virus being defective at its thymidine kinase locus. ICdR-resistant mutants did not have a growth advantage over wild-type virus in irradiated or unirradiated cells. Thus, higher fractions of mutant virus indicated greater mutagenesis during virus repair and/or replication. The data showed that: (1) unirradiated virus was mutated in unirradiated cells, providing a background level of mutagenesis; (2) unirradiated virus was mutated about 40% more in irradiated cells, indicating that virus replication (DNA synthesis) became more mutagenic as a result of cell irradiation; (3) irradiated virus was mutated much more (about 6-fold) than unirradiated virus, even in unirradiated cells; (4) cell irradiation did not change the mutagenesis of irradiated virus except at high multiplicity of infection. High multiplicity of infection did not demonstrate UVER or MR alone to be either error-free or error-prone. When the two processes were present simultaneously, they were mutagenic. (orig.)

  10. Combined mutagenesis of Rhodosporidium toruloides for improved production of carotenoids and lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chaolei; Shen, Hongwei; Zhang, Xibin; Yu, Xue; Wang, Han; Xiao, Shan; Wang, Jihui; Zhao, Zongbao K

    2016-10-01

    To improve production of lipids and carotenoids by the oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides by screening mutant strains. Upon physical mutagenesis of the haploid strain R. toruloides np11 with an atmospheric and room temperature plasma method followed by chemical mutagenesis with nitrosoguanidine, a mutant strain, R. toruloides XR-2, formed dark-red colonies on a screening plate. When cultivated in nitrogen-limited media, XR-2 cells grew slower but accumulated 0.23 g lipids/g cell dry wt and 0.75 mg carotenoids/g CDW. To improve its production capacity, different amino acids and vitamins were supplemented. p-Aminobenzoic acid and tryptophan had beneficial effects on cell growth. When cultivated in nitrogen-limited media in the presence of selected vitamins, XR-2 accumulated 0.41 g lipids/g CDW and 0.69 mg carotenoids/g CDW. A mutant R. toruloides strain with improved production profiles for lipids and carotenoids was obtained, indicating its potential to use combined mutagenesis for a more productive phenotype.

  11. Application of In Vitro Transposon Mutagenesis to Erythromycin Strain Improvement in Saccharopolyspora erythraea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, J Mark; Reeves, Andrew; Cernota, William H; Wesley, Roy K

    2017-01-01

    Transposon mutagenesis is an invaluable technique in molecular biology for the creation of random mutations that can be easily identified and mapped. However, in the field of microbial strain improvement, transposon mutagenesis has scarcely been used; instead, chemical and physical mutagenic methods have been traditionally favored. Transposons have the advantage of creating single mutations in the genome, making phenotype to genotype assignments less challenging than with traditional mutagens which commonly create multiple mutations in the genome. The site of a transposon mutation can also be readily mapped using DNA sequencing primer sites engineered into the transposon termini. In this chapter an in vitro method for transposon mutagenesis of Saccharopolyspora erythraea is presented. Since in vivo transposon tools are not available for most actinomycetes including S. erythraea, an in vitro method was developed. The in vitro method involves a significant investment in time and effort to create the mutants, but once the mutants are made and screened, a large number of highly relevant mutations of direct interest to erythromycin production can be found.

  12. Transgenic Chinese hamster V79 cell lines which exhibit variable levels of gpt mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, C.B.; Rossman, T.G.

    1990-01-01

    The Escherichia coli gpt gene coding for xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase has been stably transfected into HPRT - Chinese hamster V79 cells. Several gpt - cell lines have been established, which retain the sequence(s) even after long-term culture without selection for gpt. While spontaneous mutagenesis to gpt - occurs rather frequently for most cell lines, it cannot be correlated with either the number of plasmid integration sites or deletion of the plasmid sequence(s). One transgenic cell line (g12), which continuously maintains a low spontaneous mutation frequency was used in comparative mutagenesis studies with wild-type V79 cells (gpt vs. hprt). Alkylating agents such as N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and β-propiolactone (BPL) are shown to be equally toxic and mutagenic in both g12 and V79 cells. UV and X-rays are also equally toxic to both cell lines. The data presented here suggests that g12 cells may be useful to study mammalian mutagenesis by agents which yield limited response at the hprt locus

  13. Ascorbate enhances u.v.-mutagenesis in E. coli but inhibits it in Chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossman, T.G.; Klein, C.B.; Naslund, M.

    1986-01-01

    Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) causes an increase in the mutation frequency of u.v.-irradiated Escherichia coli WP2. The enhancement occurs at all u.v. fluences, and is dependent upon the ascorbate concentration in the medium. A maximum effect (approx. 8- to 13-fold) is seen at 100-150 μg/ml, although some enhancement can be seen even at 10 μg/ml. The comutagenic effect of ascorbate with u.v. in E. coli is dependent upon peptone, a constituent of nutrient broth. The enhancement of u.v.-mutagenesis by ascorbate is absent in strains WP2sub(s) (uvrA) amd WP6 (polA), suggesting that ascorbate affects the repair of pyrimidine dimers. The opposite results are observed for u.v.-mutagenesis in Chinese hamster V79 cells. The presence of ascorbate (50 μg/ml) during u.v. irradiation does not enhance the u.v. effect, but rather decreases it approx. 30%. These results are discussed with regard to differences in the mechanism of u.v.-mutagenesis and DNA repair in bacterial and mammalian cells. (author)

  14. Lack of mutational hot spots during decitabine-mediated HIV-1 mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Jonathan M O; Landman, Sean R; Reilly, Cavan S; Bonnac, Laurent; Patterson, Steven E; Mansky, Louis M

    2015-11-01

    Decitabine has previously been shown to induce lethal mutagenesis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). However, the factors that determine the susceptibilities of individual sequence positions in HIV-1 to decitabine have not yet been defined. To investigate this, we performed Illumina high-throughput sequencing of multiple amplicons prepared from proviral DNA that was recovered from decitabine-treated cells infected with HIV-1. We found that decitabine induced an ≈4.1-fold increase in the total mutation frequency of HIV-1, primarily due to a striking ≈155-fold increase in the G-to-C transversion frequency. Intriguingly, decitabine also led to an ≈29-fold increase in the C-to-G transversion frequency. G-to-C frequencies varied substantially (up to ≈80-fold) depending upon sequence position, but surprisingly, mutational hot spots (defined as upper outliers within the mutation frequency distribution) were not observed. We further found that every single guanine position examined was significantly susceptible to the mutagenic effects of decitabine. Taken together, these observations demonstrate for the first time that decitabine-mediated HIV-1 mutagenesis is promiscuous and occurs in the absence of a clear bias for mutational hot spots. These data imply that decitabine-mediated G-to-C mutagenesis is a highly effective antiviral mechanism for extinguishing HIV-1 infectivity. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Improvement of lipid production by the oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides through UV mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Ryosuke; Kashihara, Tomomi; Ogino, Hiroyasu

    2017-05-01

    Oleaginous yeasts are considered a promising alternative lipid source for biodiesel fuel production. In this study, we attempted to improve the lipid productivity of the oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides through UV irradiation mutagenesis and selection based on ethanol and H 2 O 2 tolerance or cerulenin, a fatty acid synthetase inhibitor. Glucose consumption, cell growth, and lipid production of mutants were evaluated. The transcription level of genes involved in lipid production was also evaluated in mutants. The ethanol and H 2 O 2 tolerant strain 8766 2-31M and the cerulenin resistant strain 8766 3-11C were generated by UV mutagenesis. The 8766 2-31M mutant showed a higher lipid production rate, and the 8766 3-11C mutant produced a larger amount of lipid and had a higher lipid production rate than the wild type strain. Transcriptional analysis revealed that, similar to the wild type strain, the ACL1 and GND1 genes were expressed at significantly low levels, whereas IDP1 and ME1 were highly expressed. In conclusion, lipid productivity in the oleaginous yeast R. toruloides was successfully improved via UV mutagenesis and selection. The study also identified target genes for improving lipid productivity through gene recombination.

  16. DNA damage and mutagenesis of lambda phage induced by gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertram, Heidi

    1988-01-01

    Lambda phage DNA was gamma irradiated in aqueous solution and strand breakage determined. Twice as much minor structural damage per lethal hit was found in this DNA compared with DNA from irradiated phage suspensions. The in vitro irradiated DNA was repackaged into infectious particles. Induction of mutations in the cI or cII cistron was scored using SOS-induced host cells. In vitro prepared particles were found to have second-order kinetics for mutagenesis induced by gamma rays indicating two pre-mutational events were necessary to produce a mutation, but bacteria-free phage suspensions ('lys-phage') showed single hit kinetics for mutagenesis after irradiation. Increase in the mutation rate in the phage particles was mainly due to minor lesions, i.e. ssb, als and unidentified base damage. In lys-phage, mutagenesis might be enhanced by clustered DNA damage - configuration not existing in pack-phage. Loss of infectivity was analysed in comparison with structural damage. All lesions contributed to biological inactivation. Minor lesions were tolerated by lambda phage to a limited extent. Major lesions (e.g. dsb) contributed most to infectivity loss and were considered lethal events. (U.K.)

  17. Spontaneous mutability and light-induced mutagenesis in Salmonella typhimurium: effects of an R-plasmid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdivia, L.

    1979-01-01

    The UV-protecting plasmid R46 was transferred by conjugation to a genetically marked mouse-virulent Salmonella typhimurium strain, not derived from LT2; in this host the plasmid conferred UV protection and enhanced UV mutagenesis just as it does in LT2 lines. Tra - derivatives of R46 encountered during transduction retained UV-protecting and mutagenesis-enhancing ability. Stored strains carrying the R46-derived plasmids with strong mutator effect but not UV-protecting had lost most of their original streptomycin resistance but were slightly resistant to spectinomycin; attempts to transfer such plasmids failed. R46 enhanced the weak mutagenic effect of visible light on several his and trp mutants of strain LT2, including some whose frequency of spontaneous reversion was not increased by the plasmid. A mutagenic effect was produced by visible-light irradiation of hisG46(R46), either growing cells or nonmultiplying (histidine-deprived cells at 10 0 C). Presence of catalase or cyanide during irradiation did not prevent mutagenesis, which excludes some hypothetical mechanisms. Visible-light irradiation of hisG46 or hisG46(R46) under strict anaerobiosis had little or no mutagenic effect (controls showed that revertants if produced would have been detected). This is as expected if visible-light irradiation in air causes photodynamic damage to DNA and mutations are produced during error-prone, plasmid-enhanced repair

  18. Ionizing radiation-induced bystander mutagenesis and adaptation: Quantitative and temporal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ying; Zhou Junqing; Baldwin, Joseph; Held, Kathryn D.; Prise, Kevin M.; Redmond, Robert W.; Liber, Howard L.

    2009-01-01

    This work explores several quantitative aspects of radiation-induced bystander mutagenesis in WTK1 human lymphoblast cells. Gamma-irradiation of cells was used to generate conditioned medium containing bystander signals, and that medium was transferred onto naive recipient cells. Kinetic studies revealed that it required up to 1 h to generate sufficient signal to induce the maximal level of mutations at the thymidine kinase locus in the bystander cells receiving the conditioned medium. Furthermore, it required at least 1 h of exposure to the signal in the bystander cells to induce mutations. Bystander signal was fairly stable in the medium, requiring 12-24 h to diminish. Medium that contained bystander signal was rendered ineffective by a 4-fold dilution; in contrast a greater than 20-fold decrease in the cell number irradiated to generate a bystander signal was needed to eliminate bystander-induced mutagenesis. This suggested some sort of feedback inhibition by bystander signal that prevented the signaling cells from releasing more signal. Finally, an ionizing radiation-induced adaptive response was shown to be effective in reducing bystander mutagenesis; in addition, low levels of exposure to bystander signal in the transferred medium induced adaptation that was effective in reducing mutations induced by subsequent γ-ray exposures.

  19. Mouse ENU Mutagenesis to Understand Immunity to Infection: Methods, Selected Examples, and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégory Caignard

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases are responsible for over 25% of deaths globally, but many more individuals are exposed to deadly pathogens. The outcome of infection results from a set of diverse factors including pathogen virulence factors, the environment, and the genetic make-up of the host. The completion of the human reference genome sequence in 2004 along with technological advances have tremendously accelerated and renovated the tools to study the genetic etiology of infectious diseases in humans and its best characterized mammalian model, the mouse. Advancements in mouse genomic resources have accelerated genome-wide functional approaches, such as gene-driven and phenotype-driven mutagenesis, bringing to the fore the use of mouse models that reproduce accurately many aspects of the pathogenesis of human infectious diseases. Treatment with the mutagen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU has become the most popular phenotype-driven approach. Our team and others have employed mouse ENU mutagenesis to identify host genes that directly impact susceptibility to pathogens of global significance. In this review, we first describe the strategies and tools used in mouse genetics to understand immunity to infection with special emphasis on chemical mutagenesis of the mouse germ-line together with current strategies to efficiently identify functional mutations using next generation sequencing. Then, we highlight illustrative examples of genes, proteins, and cellular signatures that have been revealed by ENU screens and have been shown to be involved in susceptibility or resistance to infectious diseases caused by parasites, bacteria, and viruses.

  20. Yeasts acquire resistance secondary to antifungal drug treatment by adaptive mutagenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Quinto-Alemany

    Full Text Available Acquisition of resistance secondary to treatment both by microorganisms and by tumor cells is a major public health concern. Several species of bacteria acquire resistance to various antibiotics through stress-induced responses that have an adaptive mutagenesis effect. So far, adaptive mutagenesis in yeast has only been described when the stress is nutrient deprivation. Here, we hypothesized that adaptive mutagenesis in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans as model organisms would also take place in response to antifungal agents (5-fluorocytosine or flucytosine, 5-FC, and caspofungin, CSP, giving rise to resistance secondary to treatment with these agents. We have developed a clinically relevant model where both yeasts acquire resistance when exposed to these agents. Stressful lifestyle associated mutation (SLAM experiments show that the adaptive mutation frequencies are 20 (S. cerevisiae -5-FC, 600 (C. albicans -5-FC or 1000 (S. cerevisiae--CSP fold higher than the spontaneous mutation frequency, the experimental data for C. albicans -5-FC being in agreement with the clinical data of acquisition of resistance secondary to treatment. The spectrum of mutations in the S. cerevisiae -5-FC model differs between spontaneous and acquired, indicating that the molecular mechanisms that generate them are different. Remarkably, in the acquired mutations, an ectopic intrachromosomal recombination with an 87% homologous gene takes place with a high frequency. In conclusion, we present here a clinically relevant adaptive mutation model that fulfils the conditions reported previously.

  1. Quantitative Missense Variant Effect Prediction Using Large-Scale Mutagenesis Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Vanessa E; Hause, Ronald J; Luebeck, Jens; Shendure, Jay; Fowler, Douglas M

    2018-01-24

    Large datasets describing the quantitative effects of mutations on protein function are becoming increasingly available. Here, we leverage these datasets to develop Envision, which predicts the magnitude of a missense variant's molecular effect. Envision combines 21,026 variant effect measurements from nine large-scale experimental mutagenesis datasets, a hitherto untapped training resource, with a supervised, stochastic gradient boosting learning algorithm. Envision outperforms other missense variant effect predictors both on large-scale mutagenesis data and on an independent test dataset comprising 2,312 TP53 variants whose effects were measured using a low-throughput approach. This dataset was never used for hyperparameter tuning or model training and thus serves as an independent validation set. Envision prediction accuracy is also more consistent across amino acids than other predictors. Finally, we demonstrate that Envision's performance improves as more large-scale mutagenesis data are incorporated. We precompute Envision predictions for every possible single amino acid variant in human, mouse, frog, zebrafish, fruit fly, worm, and yeast proteomes (https://envision.gs.washington.edu/). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Complementation of a pKM101 derivative that decreases resistance to UV killing but increases susceptibility to mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, P.J.; Perry, K.L.; Walker, G.C.

    1985-01-01

    The drug resistance plasmid pKM101 makes Escherichia coli resistant to the lethal effects of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and more susceptible to mutagenesis by a variety of agents. The plasmid operon responsible for increasing mutagenesis has been termed mucAB (Mutagenesis, UV and chemical). The authors have isolated a derivative of pKM101 called pGW1975 which makes cells more sensitive to killing by UV but which retains the ability of pKM101 to increase susceptibility to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) mutagenesis. pGW1975 increases UV mutagenesis less than pKM101 in a uvrA + strain but more than pKM101 in a uvrA - strain. muc - point and insertion mutants of pKM101 and pGW1975 complement to restore the plasmid-mediated: (i) ability to reactivate UV-irradiated phage, (ii) resistance to killing by UV, and (iii) level of susceptibility to UV mutagenesis. They have identified a 2.0 kb region of pKM101 which is responsible for the complementation and which maps counterclockwise of mucAB. (Auth)

  3. An improved type of ''Kohleria'' obtained through in vitro chemical mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, T.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Kohleria hybrids (Gesneriaceae) are used as indoor ornamentals. As in other pot plants, compact plant habit and low energy requirement are major breeding objectives. A trihybrid of the following composition was used in the experiments: (K. amabilis x K. bogotensis) x K. eriantha. This hybrid has attractive flowers but long internodes, large leaves and is late flowering under low light conditions. Adventitious buds were induced in high numbers by cultivating internode segments aseptically on agar medium supplemented with 1 mg/l kinetin and 0.5 mg/l IAA. For inducing mutations, internode explants from in-vitro grown shoots were soaked for 1 hour in a filter-sterilized aqueous solution of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMH; 500 mg/l) at 20 deg. C; the solution was unbuffered and immediately used after preparation. Two-node micro-cuttings of regenerated shoots were rooted ex vitro in a mixture of peat and sand (1:1 by volume) and grown into mature plants without losses. Whereas control plants regenerated in-vitro through adventitious buds showed as little variation as plants raised from conventional tip cuttings, conspicuous phenotypic changes were observed in plants originating from NMH-treated explants. In a first experiment, 21% of the plants differed from the controls in one or more characters. While the majority of these variants were inferior to the control, one designated as ''II-2-0'' showed early flowering under the natural low light conditions during winter. This character was retained after cloning. A second mutagenesis experiment was performed using aseptic stock cultures of this mutant ''II-20-0'', in order to obtain a more desirable plant habit. In this case, plants bearing phenotypic changes occurred about twice as frequently as in the first experiment, although the mutagenic treatment was the same. Among the selected variants there was one, designated ''II-2-32'', in which early flowering under low light conditions was coupled with significantly

  4. Synthesis of 17α-[(E)-2-[125I]iodoethenyl]androsta-4-6-dien-17β-o l-3-one, an active -site-directed photoaffinity radiolabel for androgen-binding proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Cruz, P.J.; Smith, H.E.; Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN; Danzo, B.J.; Clanton, J.A.; Mason, N.S.

    1993-01-01

    The active-site-directed photoaffinity radiolabel for androgen-binding proteins, 17α-[(E)-2-[ 125 I]iodoethenyl]androsta-4,6-dien-17β-ol-3-one, was prepared by reaction of 17α-[(E)-2-tributyltin(IV)ethenyl]androsta-4,6-dien-17β-ol-3-one with carrier added sodium iodide-125 in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and acetic acid. Purification by HPLC gave the radiolabeled steroid in 52% radiochemical yield with a specific activity of 27 Ci/mmol and 100% radiochemical purity. (author)

  5. Origin of Somatic Mutations in β-Catenin versus Adenomatous Polyposis Coli in Colon Cancer: Random Mutagenesis in Animal Models versus Nonrandom Mutagenesis in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Da; Zhang, Min; Gold, Barry

    2017-07-17

    Wnt signaling is compromised early in the development of human colorectal cancer (CRC) due to truncating nonsense mutations in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). CRC induced by chemical carcinogens, such as heterocyclic aromatic amines and azoxymethane, in mice also involves dysregulation of Wnt signaling but via activating missense mutations in the β-catenin oncogene despite the fact that genetically modified mice harboring an inactive APC allele efficiently develop CRC. In contrast, activating mutations in β-catenin are rarely observed in human CRC. Dysregulation of the Wnt signaling pathway by the two distinct mechanisms reveals insights into the etiology of human CRC. On the basis of calculations related to DNA adduct levels produced in mouse CRC models using mutagens, and the number of stem cells in the mouse colon, we show that two nonsense mutations required for biallelic disruption of APC are statistically unlikely to produce CRC in experiments using small numbers of mice. We calculate that an activating mutation in one allele near the critical GSK3β phosphorylation site on β-catenin is >10 5 -times more likely to produce CRC by random mutagenesis due to chemicals than inactivating two alleles in APC, yet it does not occur in humans. Therefore, the mutagenesis mechanism in human CRC cannot be random. We explain that nonsense APC mutations predominate in human CRC because of deamination at 5-methylcytosine at CGA and CAG codons, coupled with the number of human colonic stem cells and lifespan. Our analyses, including a comparison of mutation type and age at CRC diagnosis in U.S. and Chinese patients, also indicate that APC mutations in CRC are not due to environmental mutagens that randomly damage DNA.

  6. High throughput mutagenesis for identification of residues regulating human prostacyclin (hIP receptor expression and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Bill

    Full Text Available The human prostacyclin receptor (hIP receptor is a seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR that plays a critical role in vascular smooth muscle relaxation and platelet aggregation. hIP receptor dysfunction has been implicated in numerous cardiovascular abnormalities, including myocardial infarction, hypertension, thrombosis and atherosclerosis. Genomic sequencing has discovered several genetic variations in the PTGIR gene coding for hIP receptor, however, its structure-function relationship has not been sufficiently explored. Here we set out to investigate the applicability of high throughput random mutagenesis to study the structure-function relationship of hIP receptor. While chemical mutagenesis was not suitable to generate a mutagenesis library with sufficient coverage, our data demonstrate error-prone PCR (epPCR mediated mutagenesis as a valuable method for the unbiased screening of residues regulating hIP receptor function and expression. Here we describe the generation and functional characterization of an epPCR derived mutagenesis library compromising >4000 mutants of the hIP receptor. We introduce next generation sequencing as a useful tool to validate the quality of mutagenesis libraries by providing information about the coverage, mutation rate and mutational bias. We identified 18 mutants of the hIP receptor that were expressed at the cell surface, but demonstrated impaired receptor function. A total of 38 non-synonymous mutations were identified within the coding region of the hIP receptor, mapping to 36 distinct residues, including several mutations previously reported to affect the signaling of the hIP receptor. Thus, our data demonstrates epPCR mediated random mutagenesis as a valuable and practical method to study the structure-function relationship of GPCRs.

  7. High throughput mutagenesis for identification of residues regulating human prostacyclin (hIP) receptor expression and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill, Anke; Rosethorne, Elizabeth M; Kent, Toby C; Fawcett, Lindsay; Burchell, Lynn; van Diepen, Michiel T; Marelli, Anthony; Batalov, Sergey; Miraglia, Loren; Orth, Anthony P; Renaud, Nicole A; Charlton, Steven J; Gosling, Martin; Gaither, L Alex; Groot-Kormelink, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    The human prostacyclin receptor (hIP receptor) is a seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that plays a critical role in vascular smooth muscle relaxation and platelet aggregation. hIP receptor dysfunction has been implicated in numerous cardiovascular abnormalities, including myocardial infarction, hypertension, thrombosis and atherosclerosis. Genomic sequencing has discovered several genetic variations in the PTGIR gene coding for hIP receptor, however, its structure-function relationship has not been sufficiently explored. Here we set out to investigate the applicability of high throughput random mutagenesis to study the structure-function relationship of hIP receptor. While chemical mutagenesis was not suitable to generate a mutagenesis library with sufficient coverage, our data demonstrate error-prone PCR (epPCR) mediated mutagenesis as a valuable method for the unbiased screening of residues regulating hIP receptor function and expression. Here we describe the generation and functional characterization of an epPCR derived mutagenesis library compromising >4000 mutants of the hIP receptor. We introduce next generation sequencing as a useful tool to validate the quality of mutagenesis libraries by providing information about the coverage, mutation rate and mutational bias. We identified 18 mutants of the hIP receptor that were expressed at the cell surface, but demonstrated impaired receptor function. A total of 38 non-synonymous mutations were identified within the coding region of the hIP receptor, mapping to 36 distinct residues, including several mutations previously reported to affect the signaling of the hIP receptor. Thus, our data demonstrates epPCR mediated random mutagenesis as a valuable and practical method to study the structure-function relationship of GPCRs.

  8. Misrepair of overlapping daughter strand gaps as a possible mechanism for UV induced mutagenesis in uvr strains of Escherichia coli: a general model for induced mutagenesis by misrepair (SOS repair) of closely spaced DNA lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedgwick, S.G.

    1976-01-01

    It has been previously reported that an inducible form of post-replication repair appeared to be required for UV induced mutagenesis in an uvrA strain of Escherichia coli. It is shown here that the numbers of daughter strand gaps requiring inducible repair were similar to the numbers calculated to be overlapping one another in opposite daughter chromosomes. An estimation of survival with no repair of these gaps resembled the survival predicted with mutagenesis. It is thus proposed that inducible post-replication repair causes mutagenesis by the repair of overlapping daughter strand gaps. A general model for induced mutagenesis is presented. It is proposed that (a) some DNA lesions introduced by any DNA damaging agent may be close enough to interfere with constitutive repair replication of each other, (b) these lesions induce a repair system (SOS repair) which involves the recA + . lexA + and polC + genes (c) repair, and noncomitant mutagenesis occurs during repair replication by the insertion of mismatched bases oppposite the noncoding DNA lesions

  9. Increased efficiency of targeted mutagenesis by CRISPR/Cas9 in plants using heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Chantal; Zhang, Fei; Mendez, Josefina; Lozano, Yamile; Chatpar, Krishna; Irish, Vivian F; Jacob, Yannick

    2018-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system has greatly improved our ability to engineer targeted mutations in eukaryotic genomes. While CRISPR/Cas9 appears to work universally, the efficiency of targeted mutagenesis and the adverse generation of off-target mutations vary greatly between different organisms. In this study, we report that Arabidopsis plants subjected to heat stress at 37°C show much higher frequencies of CRISPR-induced mutations compared to plants grown continuously at the standard temperature (22°C). Using quantitative assays relying on green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter genes, we found that targeted mutagenesis by CRISPR/Cas9 in Arabidopsis is increased by approximately 5-fold in somatic tissues and up to 100-fold in the germline upon heat treatment. This effect of temperature on the mutation rate is not limited to Arabidopsis, as we observed a similar increase in targeted mutations by CRISPR/Cas9 in Citrus plants exposed to heat stress at 37°C. In vitro assays demonstrate that Cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9) is more active in creating double-stranded DNA breaks at 37°C than at 22°C, thus indicating a potential contributing mechanism for the in vivo effect of temperature on CRISPR/Cas9. This study reveals the importance of temperature in modulating SpCas9 activity in eukaryotes, and provides a simple method to increase on-target mutagenesis in plants using CRISPR/Cas9. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Targeted mutagenesis in tetraploid switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) using CRISPR/Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Merrick, Paul; Zhang, Zhengzhi; Ji, Chonghui; Yang, Bing; Fei, Shui-Zhang

    2018-02-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system has become a powerful tool for targeted mutagenesis. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a high yielding perennial grass species that has been designated as a model biomass crop by the U.S. Department of Energy. The self-infertility and high ploidy level make it difficult to study gene function or improve germplasm. To overcome these constraints, we explored the feasibility of using CRISPR/Cas9 for targeted mutagenesis in a tetraploid cultivar 'Alamo' switchgrass. We first developed a transient assay by which a non-functional green-fluorescent protein gene containing a 1-bp frameshift insertion in its 5' coding region was successfully mutated by a Cas9/sgRNA complex resulting in its restored function. Agrobacterium-mediated stable transformation of embryogenic calli derived from mature caryopses averaged a 3.0% transformation efficiency targeting the genes of teosinte branched 1(tb1)a and b and phosphoglycerate mutase (PGM). With a single construct containing two sgRNAs targeting different regions of tb1a and tb1b genes, primary transformants (T0) containing CRISPR/Cas9-induced mutations were obtained at frequencies of 95.5% (tb1a) and 11% (tb1b), respectively, with T0 mutants exhibiting increased tiller production. Meanwhile, a mutation frequency of 13.7% was obtained for the PGM gene with a CRISPR/Cas9 construct containing a single sgRNA. Among the PGM T0 mutants, six are heterozygous and one is homozygous for a 1-bp deletion in the target region with no apparent phenotypical alterations. We show that CRISPR/Cas9 system can generate targeted mutagenesis effectively and obtain targeted homozygous mutants in T0 generation in switchgrass, circumventing the need of inbreeding. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Modeling insertional mutagenesis using gene length and expression in murine embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex S Nord

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available High-throughput mutagenesis of the mammalian genome is a powerful means to facilitate analysis of gene function. Gene trapping in embryonic stem cells (ESCs is the most widely used form of insertional mutagenesis in mammals. However, the rules governing its efficiency are not fully understood, and the effects of vector design on the likelihood of gene-trapping events have not been tested on a genome-wide scale.In this study, we used public gene-trap data to model gene-trap likelihood. Using the association of gene length and gene expression with gene-trap likelihood, we constructed spline-based regression models that characterize which genes are susceptible and which genes are resistant to gene-trapping techniques. We report results for three classes of gene-trap vectors, showing that both length and expression are significant determinants of trap likelihood for all vectors. Using our models, we also quantitatively identified hotspots of gene-trap activity, which represent loci where the high likelihood of vector insertion is controlled by factors other than length and expression. These formalized statistical models describe a high proportion of the variance in the likelihood of a gene being trapped by expression-dependent vectors and a lower, but still significant, proportion of the variance for vectors that are predicted to be independent of endogenous gene expression.The findings of significant expression and length effects reported here further the understanding of the determinants of vector insertion. Results from this analysis can be applied to help identify other important determinants of this important biological phenomenon and could assist planning of large-scale mutagenesis efforts.

  12. Effect of SOS-induced levels of imuABC on spontaneous and damage-induced mutagenesis in Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Ingrid R; Lima-Noronha, Marco A; Silva, Larissa G; Fernández-Silva, Frank S; Freitas, Aline Luiza D; Marques, Marilis V; Galhardo, Rodrigo S

    2017-11-01

    imuABC (imuAB dnaE2) genes are responsible for SOS-mutagenesis in Caulobacter crescentus and other bacterial species devoid of umuDC. In this work, we have constructed operator-constitutive mutants of the imuABC operon. We used this genetic tool to investigate the effect of SOS-induced levels of these genes upon both spontaneous and damage-induced mutagenesis. We showed that constitutive expression of imuABC does not increase spontaneous or damage-induced mutagenesis, nor increases cellular resistance to DNA-damaging agents. Nevertheless, the presence of the operator-constitutive mutation rescues mutagenesis in a recA background, indicating that imuABC are the only genes required at SOS-induced levels for translesion synthesis (TLS) in C. crescentus. Furthermore, these data also show that TLS mediated by ImuABC does not require RecA, unlike umuDC-dependent mutagenesis in E. coli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mutational spectrum analysis of umuC-independent and umuC-dependent γ-radiation mutagenesis in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargentini, N.J.; Smith, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    γ-radiation mutagenesis Escherichia coli K-12. Mutagenesis (argE3(OC) A rg + ) was blocked in a δ(recA-srlR)306 strain at the same doses that induced mutations in umuC122::Tn5 and wild-type strains, indicating that both umuC-independent and umuC-dependent mechanisms function within recA-dependent misrepair. Analyses of various suppressor and back mutations that result in argE3 and hisG4 ochre reversion and an analysis of trpE9777 reversion were performed on umuC and wild-type cells irradiated in the presence and absence of oxygen. While the umuC strain showed the γ-radiation induction of base substitution and frameshifts when irradiated in the absence of oxygen, the umuC mutation blocked all oxygen-dependent base-substitution mutagenesis, but non all oxygen-dependent frameshift mutagenesis. For anoxically irradiated cells, the yields of GC T and AT GC transitions were essentially umuC independent, while the yields of (AT or GC) TA transversions were heavily umuC dependent. These data suggest new concepts about the nature of the DNA lesions and the mutagenic mechanisms that lead to γ-radiation mutagenesis. (author). 48 refs.; 1 tab.; 6 refs

  14. Low-dose radiation attenuates chemical mutagenesis in vivo. Cross adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakinuma, Shizuko; Yamauchi, Kazumi; Amasaki, Yoshiko; Nishimura, Mayumi; Shimada, Yoshiya

    2009-01-01

    The biological effects of low-dose radiation are not only of social concern but also of scientific interest. The radioadaptive response, which is defined as an increased radioresistance by prior exposure to low-dose radiation, has been extensively studied both in vitro and in vivo. Here we briefly review the radioadaptive response with respect to mutagenesis, survival rate, and carcinogenesis in vivo, and introduce our recent findings of cross adaptation in mouse thymic cells, that is, the suppressive effect of repeated low-dose radiation on mutation induction by the alkylating agent N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea. (author)

  15. Application of radiation induced in vitro mutagenesis for the improvement of sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penna, Suprasanna; Patade, Vikas Y.; Vaidya, E.R.; Patil, V.D.

    2009-01-01

    Sugarcane varieties with improved tolerance to adverse environmental conditions are highly desirable, as unfavourable environmental factors are the major contributors that can reduce average productivity by 65% to 87%. In this study, we have employed in vitro cultures and radiation induced mutagenesis in three commercially used cultivars. Irradiated callus cultures were also selected for salt tolerance, and radiosensitivity in terms of growth rate and cell viability indicated stress effects. Several mutants with agronomically desirable traits have been isolated that are in field evaluation. (author)

  16. Uvm mutants of Escherichia coli K 12 deficient in UV mutagenesis. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinborn, G.

    1978-01-01

    Selection for defective reversion induction, after UV treatment of E. coli K 12, yielded uvm mutants. These mutants exhibited highly reduced or no UV mutability for all loci tested although they were moderately and normally mutable by X-rays and EMS, respectively. Uvm mutations confer only a slight sensitivity to killing by UV and X-rays and no clear sensitivity to the lethal effect of HN2, EMS or MMS. Growth and viability of untreated uvm cells were normal. The properties of uvm mutants are discussed in relation to those of other relevant mutant types and to some actual problems of induced mutagenesis. (orig.) 891 AJ [de

  17. Design of Deinococcus radiodurans thioredoxin reductase with altered thioredoxin specificity using computational alanine mutagenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Obiero, Josiah; Sanders, David AR

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the X-ray crystal structure of the complex between Escherichia coli thioredoxin reductase (EC TrxR) and its substrate thioredoxin (Trx) was used as a guide to design a Deinococcus radiodurans TrxR (DR TrxR) mutant with altered Trx specificity. Previous studies have shown that TrxRs have higher affinity for cognate Trxs (same species) than that for Trxs from different species. Computational alanine scanning mutagenesis and visual inspection of the EC TrxR–Trx interface suggested...

  18. Chemical rescue of the post-translationally carboxylated lysine mutant of allantoinase and dihydroorotase by metal ions and short-chain carboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ya-Yeh; Huang, Yen-Hua; Huang, Cheng-Yang

    2013-04-01

    Bacterial allantoinase (ALLase) and dihydroorotase (DHOase) are members of the cyclic amidohydrolase family. ALLase and DHOase possess similar binuclear metal centers in the active site in which two metals are bridged by a post-translationally carboxylated lysine. In this study, we determined the effects of carboxylated lysine and metal binding on the activities of ALLase and DHOase. Although DHOase is a metalloenzyme, purified DHOase showed high activity without additional metal supplementation in a reaction mixture or bacterial culture. However, unlike DHOase, ALLase had no activity unless some specific metal ions were added to the reaction mixture or culture. Substituting the metal binding sites H59, H61, K146, H186, H242, or D315 with alanine completely abolished the activity of ALLase. However, the K146C, K146D and K146E mutants of ALLase were still active with about 1-6% activity of the wild-type enzyme. These ALLase K146 mutants were found to have 1.4-1.7 mol metal per mole enzyme subunit, which may indicate that they still contained the binuclear metal center in the active site. The activity of the K146A mutant of the ALLase and the K103A mutant of DHOase can be chemically rescued by short-chain carboxylic acids, such as acetic, propionic, and butyric acids, but not by ethanol, propan-1-ol, and imidazole, in the presence of Co2+ or Mn2+ ions. However, the activity was still ~10-fold less than that of wild-type ALLase. Overall, these results indicated that the 20 natural basic amino acid residues were not sufficiently able to play the role of lysine. Accordingly, we proposed that during evolution, the post-translational modification of carboxylated lysine in the cyclic amidohydrolase family was selected for promoting binuclear metal center self-assembly and increasing the nucleophilicity of the hydroxide at the active site for enzyme catalysis. This kind of chemical rescue combined with site-directed mutagenesis may also be used to identify a binuclear metal

  19. Mutagenesis Analysis Reveals Distinct Amino Acids of the Human Serotonin 5-HT2C Receptor Underlying the Pharmacology of Distinct Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Canal, Clinton E; Cordova-Sintjago, Tania C; Zhu, Wanying; Booth, Raymond G

    2017-01-18

    While exploring the structure-activity relationship of 4-phenyl-2-dimethylaminotetralins (PATs) at serotonin 5-HT 2C receptors, we discovered that relatively minor modification of PAT chemistry impacts function at 5-HT 2C receptors. In HEK293 cells expressing human 5-HT 2C-INI receptors, for example, (-)-trans-3'-Br-PAT and (-)-trans-3'-Cl-PAT are agonists regarding Gα q -inositol phosphate signaling, whereas (-)-trans-3'-CF 3 -PAT is an inverse agonist. To investigate the ligand-receptor interactions that govern this change in function, we performed site-directed mutagenesis of 14 amino acids of the 5-HT 2C receptor based on molecular modeling and reported G protein-coupled receptor crystal structures, followed by molecular pharmacology studies. We found that S3.36, T3.37, and F5.47 in the orthosteric binding pocket are critical for affinity (K i ) of all PATs tested, we also found that F6.44, M6.47, C7.45, and S7.46 are primarily involved in regulating EC/IC 50 functional potencies of PATs. We discovered that when residue S5.43, N6.55, or both are mutated to alanine, (-)-trans-3'-CF 3 -PAT switches from inverse agonist to agonist function, and when N6.55 is mutated to leucine, (-)-trans-3'-Br-PAT switches from agonist to inverse agonist function. Notably, most point-mutations that affected PAT pharmacology did not significantly alter affinity (K D ) of the antagonist radioligand [ 3 H]mesulergine, but every mutation tested negatively impacted serotonin binding. Also, amino acid mutations differentially affected the pharmacology of other commercially available 5-HT 2C ligands tested. Collectively, the data show that functional outcomes shared by different ligands are mediated by different amino acids and that some 5-HT 2C receptor residues important for pharmacology of one ligand are not necessarily important for another ligand.

  20. Mutations within Four Distinct Gag Proteins Are Required To Restore Replication of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 after Deletion Mutagenesis within the Dimerization Initiation Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chen; Rong, Liwei; Quan, Yudong; Laughrea, Michael; Kleiman, Lawrence; Wainberg, Mark A.

    1999-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genomic RNA segments at nucleotide (nt) positions +240 to +274 are thought to form a stem-loop secondary structure, termed SL1, that serves as a dimerization initiation site for viral genomic RNA. We have generated two distinct deletion mutations within this region, termed BH10-LD3 and BH10-LD4, involving nt positions +238 to +253 and +261 to +274, respectively, and have shown that each of these resulted in significant diminutions in levels of viral infectiousness. However, long-term culture of each of these viruses in MT-2 cells resulted in a restoration of infectiousness, due to a series of compensatory point mutations within four distinct proteins that are normally cleaved from the Gag precursor. In the case of BH10-LD3, these four mutations were MA1, CA1, MP2, and MNC, and they involved changes of amino acid Val-35 to Ile within the matrix protein (MA), Ile-91 to Thr within the capsid (CA), Thr-12 to Ile within p2, and Thr-24 to Ile within the nucleocapsid (NC). The order in which these mutations were acquired by the mutated BH10-LD3 was MNC > CA1 > MP2 > MA1. The results of site-directed mutagenesis studies confirmed that each of these four substitutions contributed to the increased viability of the mutated BH10-LD3 viruses and that the MNC substitution, which was acquired first, played the most important role in this regard. Three point mutations, MP2, MNC, and MA2, were also shown to be sequentially acquired by viruses that had emerged in culture from the BH10-LD4 deletion. The first two of these were identical to those described above, while the last involved a change of Val-35 to Leu. All three of these substitutions were necessary to restore the infectiousness of mutated BH10-LD4 viruses to wild-type levels, although the MP2 mutation alone, but neither of the other two substitutions, was able to confer some viability on BH10-LD4 viruses. Studies of viral RNA packaging showed that the BH10-LD4 deletion only

  1. Genetic toxicology of metal compounds. II. Enhancement of ultraviolet light-induced mutagenesis in Escherichia coli WP2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossman, T.G.; Molina, M.

    1986-01-01

    Salts of metals which are carcinogenic, noncarcinogenic, or of unknown carcinogenicity were assayed for their abilities to modulate ultraviolet (UV)-induced mutagenesis in Escherichia coli WP2. In addition to the previously reported comutagenic effect of arsenite, salts of three other compounds were found to enhance UV mutagenesis. CuCl 2 , MnCl 2 (and a small effect by KMnO 4 ), and NaMoO 4 acted as comutagens in E coli WP2, which has wild-type DNA repair capability, but were much less comutagenic in the repair deficient strain WP2/sub s/ (uvrA). The survival of irradiated or unirradiated cells was not affected by these compounds. No effects on UV mutagenesis were seen for 16 other metal compounds. We suggest that the comutagenic effects might occur either via metal-induced decreases in the fidelity of repair replication or via metal-induced depurination

  2. Radioprotective action of glycerol and cysteamine on inactivation and mutagenesis in Salmonella tester strains after gamma and heavy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basha, S.G.; Krasavin, E.A.; Kozubek, S.

    1991-01-01

    Inactivation and mutagenesis were studied in Salmonella tester strains after γ-irradiation and after heavy ion irradiation in the presence of glycerol and cysteamine. Bacterial cells were irradiated at Dubna, JINR. Ions from deuterons to carbon were used with residual energies 2-9 MeV/u. The protective effect of glycerol was found both for γ-radiation and for heavy ions up to 50 keV/μm for both cell inactivation and mutagenesis in Salmonella tester strains with different mutation events. Cell sensitivity slightly increased with LET before falling down. The maximum was shifted in the presence of glycerol to the left and was less pronounced. The radioprotective effect of glycerol diminished gradually with LET from 2.0 for γ-radiation to 1.1 for carbon ions. Mutagenesis increases with LET in TA100 strain; in TA98 strain no marked increase could be detected. 13 refs.; 4 figs.; 5 tabs

  3. Natural short sleeper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep - natural short sleeper ... 7 to 9 hours of sleep each night. Short sleepers sleep less than 75% of what is normal for their age. Natural short sleepers are different from people who chronically do ...

  4. Viral Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes: Generation, Mutagenesis, and Removal of Mini-F Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Karsten Tischer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance and manipulation of large DNA and RNA virus genomes had presented an obstacle for virological research. BAC vectors provided a solution to both problems as they can harbor large DNA sequences and can efficiently be modified using well-established mutagenesis techniques in Escherichia coli. Numerous DNA virus genomes of herpesvirus and pox virus were cloned into mini-F vectors. In addition, several reverse genetic systems for RNA viruses such as members of Coronaviridae and Flaviviridae could be established based on BAC constructs. Transfection into susceptible eukaryotic cells of virus DNA cloned as a BAC allows reconstitution of recombinant viruses. In this paper, we provide an overview on the strategies that can be used for the generation of virus BAC vectors and also on systems that are currently available for various virus species. Furthermore, we address common mutagenesis techniques that allow modification of BACs from single-nucleotide substitutions to deletion of viral genes or insertion of foreign sequences. Finally, we review the reconstitution of viruses from BAC vectors and the removal of the bacterial sequences from the virus genome during this process.

  5. Random mutagenesis of aspergillus niger and process optimization for enhanced production of glucose oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, I.; Nawaz, A.; Mukhtar, A.N.H.; Mansoor, H.M.Z.; Ameer, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    The study deals with the improvement of wild strain Aspergillus niger IIB-31 through random mutagenesis using chemical mutagens. The main aim of the work was to enhance the glucose oxidase (GOX) yield of wild strain (24.57+-0.01 U/g of cell mass) through random mutagenesis and process optimization. The wild strain of Aspergillus niger IIB-31 was treated with chemical mutagens such as Ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) and nitrous acid for this purpose. Mutagen treated 98 variants indicating the positive results were picked and screened for the glucose oxidase production using submerged fermentation. EMS treated E45 mutant strain gave the highest glucose oxidase production (69.47 + 0.01 U/g of cell mass), which was approximately 3-folds greater than the wild strain IIB-31. The preliminary cultural conditions for the production of glucose oxidase using submerged fermentation from strain E45 were also optimized. The highest yield of GOD was obtained using 8% glucose as carbon and 0.3% peptone as nitrogen source at a medium pH of 7.0 after an incubation period of 72 hrs at 30 degree. (author)

  6. Comparative Analysis of Context-Dependent Mutagenesis Using Human and Mouse Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofya A. Medvedeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Substitution rates strongly depend on their nucleotide context. One of the most studied examples is the excess of C > T mutations in the CG context in various groups of organisms, including vertebrates. Studies on the molecular mechanisms underlying this mutation regularity have provided insights into evolution, mutagenesis, and cancer development. Recently several other hypermutable motifs were identified in the human genome. There is an increased frequency of T > C mutations in the second position of the words ATTG and ATAG and an increased frequency of A > C mutations in the first position of the word ACAA. For a better understanding of evolution, it is of interest whether these mutation regularities are human specific or present in other vertebrates, as their presence might affect the validity of currently used substitution models and molecular clocks. A comprehensive analysis of mutagenesis in 4 bp mutation contexts requires a vast amount of mutation data. Such data may be derived from the comparisons of individual genomes or from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP databases. Using this approach, we performed a systematical comparison of mutation regularities within 2–4 bp contexts in Mus musculus and Homo sapiens and uncovered that even closely related organisms may have notable differences in context-dependent mutation regularities.

  7. Selection of gamma-ray induced salt tolerant rice mutants by in vitro mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Sub; Chun, Jae Beom; Lee, Kyung Jun; Kim, Jin Baek; Kim, Sang Hoon; Yun, Song Jong; Kang, Si Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The present study had been performed to select the salt tolerant rice mutant lines through an in vivo and in vitro mutagenesis with a gamma-ray. The physiological responses such as MDA and chlorophyll of the selected salt mutant lines were investigated under salt stress. For the selection of the salt tolerant rice mutants by in vitro mutagenesis with gamma-ray, we conducted a second selection procedure with 1,500 mutant lines induced from the original cv. Dongan (wild-type, WT): Ist, selection under a nutrient solution with 171 mM NaCI: 2nd, selection under in vitro conditions. Based on a growth comparison of the entries, out of mutant lines, the putative 2 salt tolerant rice mutant lines, ST-495 and ST-532, were selected. The 2 ST-lines had a lower malonaldehyde (MDA) contents than wild-type (WT) during salt stress. The survival rate of the WT, ST-495 and ST-532 were 36.6%, 70% and 50% in 171 mM NaCI, respectively. The chlorophyll and carotenoid contents were decreased more in a WT plant than the two selected mutant lines. These rice mutant lines will be released for cultivation at the reclaimed land and used as a control plot for genetic research about salt tolerance.

  8. Generation of a glucose de-repressed mutant of Trichoderma reesei using disparity mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakuma, Hidekazu; Koyama, Yoshiyuki; Miyachi, Ayako; Nasukawa, Masashi; Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Yano, Shuntaro; Ogihara, Jun; Kasumi, Takafumi

    2016-01-01

    We obtained a novel glucose de-repressed mutant of Trichoderma reesei using disparity mutagenesis. A plasmid containing DNA polymerase δ lacking proofreading activity, and AMAI, an autonomously replicating sequence was introduced into T. reesei ATCC66589. The rate of mutation evaluated with 5-fluoroorotic acid resistance was approximately 30-fold higher than that obtained by UV irradiation. The transformants harboring incompetent DNA polymerase δ were then selected on 2-deoxyglucose agar plates with hygromycin B. The pNP-lactoside hydrolyzing activities of mutants were 2 to 5-fold higher than the parent in liquid medium containing glucose. Notably, the amino acid sequence of cre1, a key gene involved in glucose repression, was identical in the mutant and parent strains, and further, the cre1 expression levels was not abolished in the mutant. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the strains of T. reesei generated by disparity mutagenesis are glucose de-repressed variants that contain mutations in yet-unidentified factors other than cre1.

  9. Fragile DNA Motifs Trigger Mutagenesis at Distant Chromosomal Loci in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Natalie; Zhang, Yu; Nishida, Yuri; Sheng, Ziwei; Choudhury, Shilpa; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Lobachev, Kirill S.

    2013-01-01

    DNA sequences capable of adopting non-canonical secondary structures have been associated with gross-chromosomal rearrangements in humans and model organisms. Previously, we have shown that long inverted repeats that form hairpin and cruciform structures and triplex-forming GAA/TTC repeats induce the formation of double-strand breaks which trigger genome instability in yeast. In this study, we demonstrate that breakage at both inverted repeats and GAA/TTC repeats is augmented by defects in DNA replication. Increased fragility is associated with increased mutation levels in the reporter genes located as far as 8 kb from both sides of the repeats. The increase in mutations was dependent on the presence of inverted or GAA/TTC repeats and activity of the translesion polymerase Polζ. Mutagenesis induced by inverted repeats also required Sae2 which opens hairpin-capped breaks and initiates end resection. The amount of breakage at the repeats is an important determinant of mutations as a perfect palindromic sequence with inherently increased fragility was also found to elevate mutation rates even in replication-proficient strains. We hypothesize that the underlying mechanism for mutagenesis induced by fragile motifs involves the formation of long single-stranded regions in the broken chromosome, invasion of the undamaged sister chromatid for repair, and faulty DNA synthesis employing Polζ. These data demonstrate that repeat-mediated breaks pose a dual threat to eukaryotic genome integrity by inducing chromosomal aberrations as well as mutations in flanking genes. PMID:23785298

  10. Selection of gamma-ray induced salt tolerant rice mutants by in vitro mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Sub; Chun, Jae Beom; Lee, Kyung Jun; Kim, Jin Baek; Kim, Sang Hoon; Yun, Song Jong; Kang, Si Yong

    2010-01-01

    The present study had been performed to select the salt tolerant rice mutant lines through an in vivo and in vitro mutagenesis with a gamma-ray. The physiological responses such as MDA and chlorophyll of the selected salt mutant lines were investigated under salt stress. For the selection of the salt tolerant rice mutants by in vitro mutagenesis with gamma-ray, we conducted a second selection procedure with 1,500 mutant lines induced from the original cv. Dongan (wild-type, WT): Ist, selection under a nutrient solution with 171 mM NaCI: 2nd, selection under in vitro conditions. Based on a growth comparison of the entries, out of mutant lines, the putative 2 salt tolerant rice mutant lines, ST-495 and ST-532, were selected. The 2 ST-lines had a lower malonaldehyde (MDA) contents than wild-type (WT) during salt stress. The survival rate of the WT, ST-495 and ST-532 were 36.6%, 70% and 50% in 171 mM NaCI, respectively. The chlorophyll and carotenoid contents were decreased more in a WT plant than the two selected mutant lines. These rice mutant lines will be released for cultivation at the reclaimed land and used as a control plot for genetic research about salt tolerance

  11. Simple-MSSM: a simple and efficient method for simultaneous multi-site saturation mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feng; Xu, Jian-Miao; Xiang, Chao; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Zhao, Li-Qing; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2017-04-01

    To develop a practically simple and robust multi-site saturation mutagenesis (MSSM) method that enables simultaneously recombination of amino acid positions for focused mutant library generation. A general restriction enzyme-free and ligase-free MSSM method (Simple-MSSM) based on prolonged overlap extension PCR (POE-PCR) and Simple Cloning techniques. As a proof of principle of Simple-MSSM, the gene of eGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) was used as a template gene for simultaneous mutagenesis of five codons. Forty-eight randomly selected clones were sequenced. Sequencing revealed that all the 48 clones showed at least one mutant codon (mutation efficiency = 100%), and 46 out of the 48 clones had mutations at all the five codons. The obtained diversities at these five codons are 27, 24, 26, 26 and 22, respectively, which correspond to 84, 75, 81, 81, 69% of the theoretical diversity offered by NNK-degeneration (32 codons; NNK, K = T or G). The enzyme-free Simple-MSSM method can simultaneously and efficiently saturate five codons within one day, and therefore avoid missing interactions between residues in interacting amino acid networks.

  12. Mutagenesis in mammalian cells can be modulated by radiation-induced voltage-dependent potassium channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, A.H.; Zhou, L.Y.; Lambe, E.K.; Hahn, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    In mammalian cells, little is known about the initial events whose ultimate consequence is mutagenesis or DNA repair. The role the plasma membrane may play as an initiator of such a pathway is not understood. We show, for the first time, that membrane voltage-dependent potassium (K + ) currents, activated by ionizing radiation play a significant role in radiation mutagenesis. Specifically, we show that the frequency of mutation at the HGPRT locus is increased as expected to 37.6±4.0 mutations per 100,000 survivors by 800 cGy of ionizing radiation from a spontaneous frequency of 1.5±1.5. This increase, however, is abolished if either K + channel blocker, CsCl or BaCl 2 , is present for 2h following irradiation of the cells. RbCl, chemically similar to CsCl but known not to block K + channels, is ineffective in reducing the mutation frequency. Treatment of cells with CsCl or BaCl 2 had no effect on radiation-induced cell killing

  13. Construction of a horseradish peroxidase resistant toward hydrogen peroxide by saturation mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, Sedigheh; Dastgheib, Seyed Mohammad Mehdi; Khajeh, Khosro

    2016-11-01

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) with a variety of potential biotechnological applications is still isolated from the horseradish root as a mixture of different isoenzymes with different biochemical properties. There is an increasing demand for preparations of high amounts of pure enzyme but its recombinant production is limited because of the lack of glycosylation in Escherichia coli and different glycosylation patterns in yeasts which affects its stability parameters. The goal of this study was to increase the stability of non-glycosylated enzyme, which is produced in E. coli, toward hydrogen peroxide via mutagenesis. Asparagine 268, one of the N-glycosylation sites of the enzyme, has been mutated via saturation mutagenesis using the megaprimer method. Modification and miniaturization of previously described protocols enabled screening of a library propagated in E. coli XJb (DE3). The library of mutants was screened for stability toward hydrogen peroxide with azinobis (ethylbenzthiazoline sulfonate) as a reducing substrate. Asn268Gly mutant, the top variant from the screening, exhibited 18-fold increased stability toward hydrogen peroxide and twice improved thermal stability compared with the recombinant HRP. Moreover, the substitution led to 2.5-fold improvement in the catalytic efficiency with phenol/4-aminoantipyrine. Constructed mutant represents a stable biocatalyst, which may find use in medical diagnostics, biosensing, and bioprocesses. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Improving isopropanol tolerance and production of Clostridium beijerinckii DSM 6423 by random mutagenesis and genome shuffling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérando, H Máté de; Fayolle-Guichard, F; Rudant, L; Millah, S K; Monot, F; Ferreira, Nicolas Lopes; López-Contreras, A M

    2016-06-01

    Random mutagenesis and genome shuffling was applied to improve solvent tolerance and isopropanol/butanol/ethanol (IBE) production in the strictly anaerobic bacteria Clostridium beijerinckii DSM 6423. Following chemical mutagenesis with N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NTG), screening of putatively improved strains was done by submitting the mutants to toxic levels of inhibitory chemicals or by screening for their tolerance to isopropanol (>35 g/L). Suicide substrates, such as ethyl or methyl bromobutyrate or alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitors like allyl alcohol, were tested and, finally, 36 mutants were isolated. The fermentation profiles of these NTG mutant strains were characterized, and the best performing mutants were used for consecutive rounds of genome shuffling. Screening of strains with further enhancement in isopropanol tolerance at each recursive shuffling step was then used to spot additionally improved strains. Three highly tolerant strains were finally isolated and able to withstand up to 50 g/L isopropanol on plates. Even if increased tolerance to the desired end product was not always accompanied by higher production capabilities, some shuffled strains showed increased solvent titers compared to the parental strains and the original C. beijerinckii DSM 6423. This study confirms the efficiency of genome shuffling to generate improved strains toward a desired phenotype such as alcohol tolerance. This tool also offers the possibility of obtaining improved strains of Clostridium species for which targeted genetic engineering approaches have not been described yet.

  15. Gain-of-function mutagenesis approaches in rice for functional genomics and improvement of crop productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moin, Mazahar; Bakshi, Achala; Saha, Anusree; Dutta, Mouboni; Kirti, P B

    2017-07-01

    The epitome of any genome research is to identify all the existing genes in a genome and investigate their roles. Various techniques have been applied to unveil the functions either by silencing or over-expressing the genes by targeted expression or random mutagenesis. Rice is the most appropriate model crop for generating a mutant resource for functional genomic studies because of the availability of high-quality genome sequence and relatively smaller genome size. Rice has syntenic relationships with members of other cereals. Hence, characterization of functionally unknown genes in rice will possibly provide key genetic insights and can lead to comparative genomics involving other cereals. The current review attempts to discuss the available gain-of-function mutagenesis techniques for functional genomics, emphasizing the contemporary approach, activation tagging and alterations to this method for the enhancement of yield and productivity of rice. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Development of a Dunaliella tertiolecta Strain with Increased Zeaxanthin Content Using Random Mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjae; Ahn, Junhak; Jeon, Hancheol; Jin, EonSeon

    2017-06-21

    Zeaxanthin is a xanthophyll pigment that is regarded as one of the best carotenoids for the prevention and treatment of degenerative diseases. In the worldwide natural products market, consumers prefer pigments that have been produced from biological sources. In this study, a Dunaliella tertiolecta strain that has 10-15% higher cellular zeaxanthin content than the parent strain ( zea1 ), was obtained by random mutagenesis using ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) as a mutagen. This mutant, mp3 , was grown under various salinities and light intensities to optimize culture conditions for zeaxanthin production. The highest cellular zeaxanthin content was observed at 1.5 M NaCl and 65-85 μmol photons·m -2 ·s -1 , and the highest daily zeaxanthin productivity was observed at 0.6 M NaCl and 140-160 μmol photons·m -2 ·s -1 . The maximal yield of zeaxanthin from mp3 in fed-batch culture was 8 mg·L -1 , which was obtained at 0.6 M NaCl and 140-160 μmol photons·m -2 ·s -1 . These results suggest that random mutagenesis with EMS is useful for generating D. tertiolecta strains with increased zeaxanthin content, and also suggest optimal culture conditions for the enhancement of biomass and zeaxanthin production by the zeaxanthin accumulating mutant strains.

  17. Single d(ApG)/cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) adduct-induced mutagenesis in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnouf, D.; Fuchs, R.P.P.; Gauthier, C.; Chottard, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The mutation spectrum induced by the widely used antitumor drug cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cis-DDP) showed that cisDDP[d(ApG)] adducts, although they account for only 25% of the lesions formed are ∼5 times more mutagenic than the major GG adduct. The authors report the construction of vectors bearing a single cisDDP[d(ApG)] lesion and their use in mutagenesis experiments in Escherichia coli. The mutagenic processing of the lesion is found to depend strictly on induction of the SOS system of the bacterial host cells. In SOS-induced cells, mutation frequencies of 1-2% were detected. All these mutations are targeted to the 5' base of the adduct. Single A → T transversions are mainly observed (80%), whereas A → G transitions account for 10% of the total mutations. Tandem base-pair substitutions involving the adenine residue and the thymine residue immediately 5' to the adduct occur at a comparable frequency (10%). No selective loss of the strand bearing the platinum adduct was seen, suggesting that, in vivo, cisDDP[d(ApG)] adducts are not blocking lesions. The high mutation specificity of cisDDP-[d(ApG)]-induced mutagenesis is discussed in relation to structural data

  18. The role of the bacterial mismatch repair system in SOS-induced mutagenesis: a theoretical background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, O.V.; Kapralov, M.I.; Chuluunbaatar, O.; Sweilam, N.H.

    2012-01-01

    A theoretical study is performed of the possible role of the methyl-directed mismatch repair system in the ultraviolet-induced mutagenesis of Escherichia coli bacterial cells. For this purpose, a mathematical model of the bacterial mismatch repair system is developed. Within this model, the key pathways of this type of repair are simulated on the basis of modern experimental data related to its mechanisms. Here we have modelled in detail five main pathways of DNA misincorporation removal with different DNA exonucleases. Using our calculations, we have tested the hypothesis that the bacterial mismatch repair system is responsible for the removal of the nucleotides misincorporated by DNA polymerase V (the UmuD' 2 C complex) during ultraviolet-induced SOS response. For the theoretical analysis of the mutation frequency, we have combined the proposed mathematical approach with the model of SOS-induced mutagenesis in the E.coli bacterial cell developed earlier. Our calculations support the hypothesis that methyl-directed mismatch repair influences the mutagenic effect of ultraviolet radiation

  19. Caffeine enhanced measurement of mutagenesis by low levels of [gamma]-irradiation in human lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puck, T.P.; Johnson, R.; Waldren, C.A. (Eleanor Roosevelt Institute for Cancer Research, Denver, CO (United States)); Morse, H. (Univ. of Colorado Cancer Center, Denver, CO (United States))

    1993-09-01

    The well-known action of caffeine in synergizing mutagenesis (including chromosome aberrations) of agents like ionizing radiation by inhibition of cellular repair processes has been incorporated into a rapid procedure for detection of mutagenicity with high sensitivity. Effects of 5-10 rads of [gamma]-irradiation, which approximate the human lifetime dose accumulation from background radiation, can be detected in a two-day procedure using an immortalized human WBC culture. Chromosomally visible lesions are scored on cells incubated for 2 h after irradiation in the presence and absence of 1.0 mg/ml of caffeine. An eightfold amplification of scorable lesions is achieved over the action of radiation alone. This approach provides a closer approximation to absolute mutagenicity unmitigated by repair processes, which can vary in different situations. It is proposed that mutagenesis testing of this kind, using caffiene or other repair-inhibitory agents, be employed to identify mutagens in their effective concentrations to which human populations may be exposed; to detect agents such as caffeine that may synergize mutagenic actions and pose epidemiologic threats; and to discover effective anti-mutagens. Information derived from the use of such procedures may help prevent cancer and newly acquired genetic disease.

  20. The effect of chronic alcohol consumption on mitochondrial DNA mutagenesis in human blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurmb-Schwark, N. von [Institute of Legal Medicine, Christian Albrecht University of Kiel, Arnold-Heller-Str. 12, 24105 Kiel (Germany)], E-mail: nvonwurmb@rechtsmedizin.uni-kiel.de; Ringleb, A.; Schwark, T. [Institute of Legal Medicine, Christian Albrecht University of Kiel, Arnold-Heller-Str. 12, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Broese, T.; Weirich, S.; Schlaefke, D. [Clinic of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Rostock, Gehlsheimer Str. 20, Rostock (Germany); Wegener, R. [Institute of Legal Medicine, St-Georg-Str. 108, University of Rostock, 18055 Rostock (Germany); Oehmichen, M. [Institute of Legal Medicine, Christian Albrecht University of Kiel, Arnold-Heller-Str. 12, 24105 Kiel (Germany)

    2008-01-01

    The 4977 bp deletion of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is known to accumulate with increasing age in post mitotic tissues. Recently, studies came out detecting this specific alteration also in fast replicating cells, e.g. in blood or skin tissue, often in correlation to specific diseases or - specifically in skin - external stressors such as UV radiation. In this study, we investigated mitochondrial mutagenesis in 69 patients with a chronic alcoholic disease and 46 age matched controls with a moderate drinking behavior. Two different fragments, specific for total and for deleted mtDNA (dmtDNA) were amplified in a duplex-PCR. A subsequent fragment analysis was performed and for relative quantification, the quotient of the peak areas of amplification products specific for deleted and total mtDNA was determined. Additionally, a real time PCR was performed to quantify mtDNA copy number. The relative amount of 4977 bp deleted mtDNA in alcoholics was significantly increased compared to controls. On the other hand, no difference regarding the mtDNA/nuclear DNA ratio in both investigated groups was detected. Additionally, no age dependence could be found nor in alcoholics, neither in the control group. These findings indicate that mtDNA mutagenesis in blood can be influenced by stressors such as alcohol. Ethanol seems to be a significant factor to alter mitochondrial DNA in blood and might be an additional contributor for the cellular aging process.