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Sample records for site srs south

  1. Hydrostratigraphy of the General Separations Area, Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aadland, R.K.; Harris, M.K.; Lewis, C.M.; Gaughan, T.F.; Westbrook, T.M.

    1991-01-01

    Detailed analysis and synthesis of geophysical, core, and hydrologic data from 230 wells were used to delineate the hydrostratigraphy and aquifer characteristics of the General Separations Area at SRS. The study area is hydrologically bounded on the north and northwest by Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) and on the south by Fourmile Branch (FB). The Cretaceous-Tertiary sedimentary sequence underlying the study area is divided into two Aquifer Systems; in ascending order, Aquifer Systems I and 11. The study concentrated on Aquifer System U, which includes all the Tertiary sediments above the Black Mingo Group (Paleocene) to the water table. This report includes a series of lithostratigraphic cross-sections, piezometric gradient profiles, head ratio contour maps, aquifer isopach maps, and potentiometric surface maps which illustrate the aquifer characteristics of the study area

  2. Hydrostratigraphy of the General Separations Area, Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aadland, R.K.; Harris, M.K.; Lewis, C.M.; Gaughan, T.F. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Westbrook, T.M. [Dames and Moore, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Detailed analysis and synthesis of geophysical, core, and hydrologic data from 230 wells were used to delineate the hydrostratigraphy and aquifer characteristics of the General Separations Area at SRS. The study area is hydrologically bounded on the north and northwest by Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) and on the south by Fourmile Branch (FB). The Cretaceous-Tertiary sedimentary sequence underlying the study area is divided into two Aquifer Systems; in ascending order, Aquifer Systems I and 11. The study concentrated on Aquifer System U, which includes all the Tertiary sediments above the Black Mingo Group (Paleocene) to the water table. This report includes a series of lithostratigraphic cross-sections, piezometric gradient profiles, head ratio contour maps, aquifer isopach maps, and potentiometric surface maps which illustrate the aquifer characteristics of the study area.

  3. Savannah River Site (SRS) environmental overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Rear, M.G.; Steele, J.L.; Kitchen, B.G.

    1990-01-01

    The environmental surveillance activities at and in the vicinity of the Savannah River Site (SRS) [formerly the Savannah River Plant (SRP)] comprise one of the most comprehensive and extensive environmental monitoring programs in the United States. This overview contains monitoring data from routine and nonroutine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities, summaries of environmental protection programs in progress, a summary of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) activities, and a listing of environmental permits (Appendix A) issued by regulatory agencies. This overview provides information about the impact of SRS operations on the public and the environment. The SRS occupies a large area of approximately 300 square miles along the Savannah River, principally in Aiken and Barnwell counties of South Carolina. SRS's primary function is the production of tritium, plutonium, and other special nuclear materials for national defense, for other governmental uses, and for some civilian purposes. From August 1950 to March 31, 1989, SRS was operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) by E. I. du Pont de Nemours ampersand Co. On April 1, 1989 the Westinghouse Savannah River Company assumed responsibility as the prime contractor for the Savannah River Site

  4. SRS: Site ranking system for hazardous chemical and radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Brown, S.L.

    1988-05-01

    This report describes the rationale and presents instructions for a site ranking system (SRS). SRS ranks hazardous chemical and radioactive waste sites by scoring important and readily available factors that influence risk to human health. Using SRS, sites can be ranked for purposes of detailed site investigations. SRS evaluates the relative risk as a combination of potentially exposed population, chemical toxicity, and potential exposure of release from a waste site; hence, SRS uses the same concepts found in a detailed assessment of health risk. Basing SRS on the concepts of risk assessment tends to reduce the distortion of results found in other ranking schemes. More importantly, a clear logic helps ensure the successful application of the ranking procedure and increases its versatility when modifications are necessary for unique situations. Although one can rank sites using a detailed risk assessment, it is potentially costly because of data and resources required. SRS is an efficient approach to provide an order-of-magnitude ranking, requiring only readily available data (often only descriptive) and hand calculations. Worksheets are included to make the system easier to understand and use. 88 refs., 19 figs., 58 tabs.

  5. SRS: Site ranking system for hazardous chemical and radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechard, R.P.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Brown, S.L.

    1988-05-01

    This report describes the rationale and presents instructions for a site ranking system (SRS). SRS ranks hazardous chemical and radioactive waste sites by scoring important and readily available factors that influence risk to human health. Using SRS, sites can be ranked for purposes of detailed site investigations. SRS evaluates the relative risk as a combination of potentially exposed population, chemical toxicity, and potential exposure of release from a waste site; hence, SRS uses the same concepts found in a detailed assessment of health risk. Basing SRS on the concepts of risk assessment tends to reduce the distortion of results found in other ranking schemes. More importantly, a clear logic helps ensure the successful application of the ranking procedure and increases its versatility when modifications are necessary for unique situations. Although one can rank sites using a detailed risk assessment, it is potentially costly because of data and resources required. SRS is an efficient approach to provide an order-of-magnitude ranking, requiring only readily available data (often only descriptive) and hand calculations. Worksheets are included to make the system easier to understand and use. 88 refs., 19 figs., 58 tabs

  6. RADIOLYTIC HYDROGEN GENERATION INSAVANNAH RIVER SITE (SRS) HIGH LEVEL WASTETANKS COMPARISON OF SRS AND HANFORDMODELING PREDICTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C; Ned Bibler, N

    2009-04-15

    In the high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS), hydrogen is produced continuously by interaction of the radiation in the tank with water in the waste. Consequently, the vapor spaces of the tanks are purged to prevent the accumulation of H{sub 2} and possible formation of a flammable mixture in a tank. Personnel at SRS have developed an empirical model to predict the rate of H{sub 2} formation in a tank. The basis of this model is the prediction of the G value for H{sub 2} production. This G value is the number of H{sub 2} molecules produced per 100 eV of radiolytic energy absorbed by the waste. Based on experimental studies it was found that the G value for H{sub 2} production from beta radiation and from gamma radiation were essentially equal. The G value for H{sub 2} production from alpha radiation was somewhat higher. Thus, the model has two equations, one for beta/gamma radiation and one for alpha radiation. Experimental studies have also indicated that both G values are decreased by the presence of nitrate and nitrite ions in the waste. These are the main scavengers for the precursors of H{sub 2} in the waste; thus the equations that were developed predict G values for hydrogen production as a function of the concentrations of these two ions in waste. Knowing the beta/gamma and alpha heat loads in the waste allows one to predict the total generation rate for hydrogen in a tank. With this prediction a ventilation rate can be established for each tank to ensure that a flammable mixture is not formed in the vapor space in a tank. Recently personnel at Hanford have developed a slightly different model for predicting hydrogen G values. Their model includes the same precursor for H{sub 2} as the SRS model but also includes an additional precursor not in the SRS model. Including the second precursor for H{sub 2} leads to different empirical equations for predicting the G values for H{sub 2} as a function of the nitrate and nitrite concentrations in

  7. Breeding bird populations and habitat associations within the Savannah River Site (SRS).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthreaux, Sidney, A.; Steven J. Wagner.

    2005-06-29

    Gauthreaux, Sidney, A., and Steven J. Wagner. 2005. Breeding bird populations and habitat associations within the Savannah River Site (SRS). Final Report. USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, Aiken, SC. 48 pp. Abstract: During the 1970's and 1980's a dramatic decline occurred in the populations of Neotropical migratory birds, species that breed in North America and winter south of the border in Central and South America and in the Caribbean. In 1991 an international initiative was mounted by U. S. governmental land management agencies, nongovernmental conservation agencies, and the academic and lay ornithological communities to understand the decline of Neotropical migratory birds in the Americas. In cooperation with the USDA Forest Service - Savannah River (FS - SR) we began 1992 a project directed to monitoring population densities of breeding birds using the Breeding Bird Census (BBC) methodology in selected habitats within the Savannah River Site SRS. In addition we related point count data on the occurrence of breeding Neotropical migrants and other bird species to the habitat data gathered by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the USDA Forest Service and data on habitat treatments within forest stands.

  8. Pilot study risk assessment for selected problems at the Savannah River Site (SRS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Holtzman, S.; Meinhold, A.; Morris, S.C.; Pardi, R.; Sun, C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Daniels, J.I.; Layton, D.; McKone, T.E.; Straume, T.; Anspaugh, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    An assessment of the health risks was made for releases of tritium and {sup 137}Cs from the Savannah River Site (SRS) at water-receptor locations downriver. Although reactor operations were shut down at the SRS in 1989, liquid wastes continue to be released to the Savannah River either by direct discharges into onsite surface waters or by groundwater transport into surface waters from waste facilities. Existing state mandates will cause the liquid waste streams from future operations to go directly into surface waters. Two drinking water processing plants take water from the river approximately 129 km downriver from the SRS. Potential incremental risks of cancer fatality to individuals and each population were analyzed for either no further reactor operations or resumption of operation of one specific reactor.

  9. Pilot study risk assessment for selected problems at the Savannah River Site (SRS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Holtzman, S.; Meinhold, A.; Morris, S.C.; Pardi, R.; Sun, C. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Daniels, J.I.; Layton, D.; McKone, T.E.; Straume, T.; Anspaugh, L. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

    1993-03-01

    An assessment of the health risks was made for releases of tritium and [sup 137]Cs from the Savannah River Site (SRS) at water-receptor locations downriver. Although reactor operations were shut down at the SRS in 1989, liquid wastes continue to be released to the Savannah River either by direct discharges into onsite surface waters or by groundwater transport into surface waters from waste facilities. Existing state mandates will cause the liquid waste streams from future operations to go directly into surface waters. Two drinking water processing plants take water from the river approximately 129 km downriver from the SRS. Potential incremental risks of cancer fatality to individuals and each population were analyzed for either no further reactor operations or resumption of operation of one specific reactor.

  10. Pilot study risk assessment for selected problems at the Savannah River Site (SRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Holtzman, S.; Meinhold, A.; Morris, S.C.; Pardi, R.; Sun, C.; Daniels, J.I.; Layton, D.; McKone, T.E.; Straume, T.; Anspaugh, L.

    1993-03-01

    An assessment of the health risks was made for releases of tritium and 137 Cs from the Savannah River Site (SRS) at water-receptor locations downriver. Although reactor operations were shut down at the SRS in 1989, liquid wastes continue to be released to the Savannah River either by direct discharges into onsite surface waters or by groundwater transport into surface waters from waste facilities. Existing state mandates will cause the liquid waste streams from future operations to go directly into surface waters. Two drinking water processing plants take water from the river approximately 129 km downriver from the SRS. Potential incremental risks of cancer fatality to individuals and each population were analyzed for either no further reactor operations or resumption of operation of one specific reactor

  11. SRS ECOLOGY ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L; Doug Martin, D; Eric Nelson, E; Nancy Halverson, N; John Mayer, J; Michael Paller, M; Rodney Riley, R; Michael Serrato, M

    2006-03-01

    The SRS Ecology Environmental Information Document (EEID) provides a source of information on the ecology of Savannah River Site (SRS). The SRS is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)--owned property on the upper Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina, centered approximately 40 kilometers (25 miles) southeast of Augusta, Georgia. The entire site was designated a National Environmental Research Park in 1972 by the Atomic Energy Commission, the predecessor of DOE. This document summarizes and synthesizes ecological research and monitoring conducted on the three main types of ecosystems found at SRS: terrestrial, wetland and aquatic. It also summarizes the available information on the threatened and endangered species found on the Savannah River Site. SRS is located along the Savannah River and encompasses an area of 80,267 hectares (310 square miles) in three South Carolina counties. It contains diverse habitats, flora, and fauna. Habitats include upland terrestrial areas, wetlands, streams, reservoirs, and the adjacent Savannah River. These diverse habitats support a variety of plants and animals, including many commercially or recreationally valuable species and several rare, threatened, or endangered species. Soils are the basic terrestrial resource, influencing the development of terrestrial biological communities. Many different soils exist on the SRS, from hydric to well-drained, and from sand to clay. In general, SRS soils are predominantly well-drained loamy sands.

  12. Knowledges and abilities catalog for nuclear power plant operators: Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-20

    The Knowledges and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operations: Savannah River Site (SRS) Production Reactors, provides the basis for the development of content-valid certification examinations for Senior Reactor Operators (SROs) and Central Control Room Supervisors (SUP). The position of Shift Technical Engineer (STE) has been included in the catalog for completeness. This new SRS reactor operating shift crew position is held by an individual holding a CCR Supervisor Certification who has received special engineering and technical training. Also, the STE has a Bachelor of Science degree in engineering or a related technical field. The SRS catalog contains approximately 2500 knowledge and ability (K/A) statements for SROs and SUPs at heavy water moderated production reactors. Each K/A statement has been rated for its importance to the safe operation of the plant in a manner ensuring the health and safety of the public. The SRS K/A catalog is presently organized into five major sections: Plant Systems grouped by Safety Function, Plant Wide Generic K/As, Emergency Plant Evolutions, Theory and Components (to be developed).

  13. Progress in the environmental restoration at the Savannah River Site (SRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, J.M.; McClain, L.

    1992-01-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Program has continued to achieve significant accomplishments important to the mission of cleaning up inactive waste sites, performing corrective actions on contaminated groundwater, planning for decontaminating/decommissioning surplus facilities and ensuring that the environment and the health and safety of people are protected. The multifaceted cleanup at SRS represents noteworthy milestones across the DOE complex. The associated lessons learned and key elements of the progress will be presented in the course of the paper

  14. Decommissioning the physics laboratory, building 777-10A, at the Savannah River Site (SRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musall, John C.; Cope, Jeff L.

    2008-01-01

    SRS recently completed a four year mission to decommission ∼250 excess facilities. As part of that effort, SRS decommissioned a 48,000 ft 2 laboratory that housed four low-power test reactors, formerly used by SRS to determine reactor physics. This paper describes and reviews the decommissioning, with a focus on component segmentation and handling (i.e. hazardous material removal, demolition, and waste handling). The paper is intended to be a resource for engineers, planners, and project managers, who face similar decommissioning challenges. Building 777-10A, located at the south end of SRS's A/M-Area, was built in 1953 and had a gross area of ∼48,000 ft 2 . Building 777-10A had two main areas: a west wing, which housed four experimental reactors and associated equipment; and an east wing, which housed laboratories, and shops, offices. The reactors were located in two separate areas: one area housed the Process Development Pile (PDP) reactor and the Lattice Test Reactor (LTR), while the second area housed the Standard Pile (SP) and the Sub-critical Experiment (SE) reactors. The west wing had five levels: three below and three above grade (floor elevations of -37', -28', -15', 0', +13'/+16' and +27' (roof elevation of +62')), while the east wing had two levels: one below and one above grade (floor elevations of -15' and 0' (roof elevation of +16')). Below-grade exterior walls were constructed of reinforced concrete, ∼1' thick. In general, above-grade exterior walls were steel frames covered by insulation and corrugated, asbestos-cement board. The two interior walls around the PDP/LTR were reinforced concrete ∼5' thick and ∼30' high, while the SP/SE reactors resided in a reinforced, concrete cell with 3.5'-6' thick walls/roof. All other interior walls were constructed of metal studs covered with either asbestos-cement or gypsum board. In general, the floors were constructed of reinforced concrete on cast-in-place concrete beams below-grade and concrete on

  15. Genome-centric evaluation of Burkholderia sp. strain SRS-W-2-2016 resistant to high concentrations of uranium and nickel isolated from the Savannah River Site (SRS, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Pathak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Savannah River Site (SRS, an approximately 800-km2 former nuclear weapons production facility located near Aiken, SC remains co-contaminated by heavy metals and radionuclides. To gain a better understanding on microbially-mediated bioremediation mechanisms, several bacterial strains resistant to high concentrations of Uranium (U and Nickel (Ni were isolated from the Steeds Pond soils located within the SRS site. One of the isolated strains, designated as strain SRS-W-2-2016, grew robustly on both U and Ni. To fully understand the arsenal of metabolic functions possessed by this strain, a draft whole genome sequence (WGS was obtained, assembled, annotated and analyzed. Genome-centric evaluation revealed the isolate to belong to the Burkholderia genus with close affiliation to B. xenovorans LB400, an aggressive polychlorinated biphenyl-degrader. At a coverage of 90×, the genome of strain SRS-W-2-2016 consisted of 8,035,584 bases with a total number of 7071 putative genes assembling into 191 contigs with an N50 contig length of 134,675 bases. Several gene homologues coding for resistance to heavy metals/radionuclides were identified in strain SRS-W-2-2016, such as a suite of outer membrane efflux pump proteins similar to nickel/cobalt transporter regulators, peptide/nickel transport substrate and ATP-binding proteins, permease proteins, and a high-affinity nickel-transport protein. Also noteworthy were two separate gene fragments in strain SRS-W-2-2016 homologous to the spoT gene; recently correlated with bacterial tolerance to U. Additionally, a plethora of oxygenase genes were also identified in the isolate, potentially involved in the breakdown of organic compounds facilitating the strain's successful colonization and survival in the SRS co-contaminated soils. The WGS project of Burkholderia sp. strain SRS-W-2-2016 is available at DDBJ/ENA/GenBank under the accession #MSDV00000000.

  16. Savannah River Site (SRS) implementation program plan for DNFSB Recommendation 90-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talukdar, B.K.; Loceff, F.

    1993-10-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) based on its review and evaluation of the content and implementation of standards relating to design, construction, operation, and decommissioning of Defense Nuclear Facilities has made the recommendations (90-2) which when implemented would assure comparable or equivalent levels of safety to the environment, public and workers as required for the commercial nuclear facilities. DOE has accepted the DNFSB 90-2 recommendations and have directed SRS and other M&Os to implement them. This report discusses implementation program which commits to developing Requirement Identification Documents (RID`s) for all defense nuclear facilities in the DOE complex.

  17. Savannah River Site (SRS) implementation program plan for DNFSB Recommendation 90-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talukdar, B.K.; Loceff, F.

    1993-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) based on its review and evaluation of the content and implementation of standards relating to design, construction, operation, and decommissioning of Defense Nuclear Facilities has made the recommendations (90-2) which when implemented would assure comparable or equivalent levels of safety to the environment, public and workers as required for the commercial nuclear facilities. DOE has accepted the DNFSB 90-2 recommendations and have directed SRS and other M ampersand Os to implement them. This report discusses implementation program which commits to developing Requirement Identification Documents (RID's) for all defense nuclear facilities in the DOE complex

  18. Groundwater Treatment at SRS: An Innovative Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorque, M.A.; Golshir, G.H.; Davis, B.

    1998-03-01

    The SRS is located in southwestern South Carolina, occupying an almost circular area of approximately 800 km2 within Aiken, Barnwell, and Allendale counties. The site lies approximately 36 km southeast of Augusta, Georgia, and is bounded by the Savannah River along its southwestern border. Prior to the establishment of the SRS in 1952, the area was largely a rural agricultural community. As part of the defense complex, the SRS produced special nuclear materials for the national defense.From 1955 until 1988, unlined earthen basins were used to dispose of wastewater from the SRS separations facilities located in the F and H areas. Approximately 300 million liters of wastewater was transported annually from the process area through underground piping to the basins. The wastewater was allowed to evaporate and to seep into the underlying formations. There were three basins in the F-Area covering a total of about 3 hectares; while the H-Area was served by four basins covering about 6 hectares. The seepage basins closure was started in 1989 and SCDHEC certified the closures as completed in 1991.Groundwater monitoring conducted in accordance with the provisions of the RCRA Permits determined that the underlying hydrogeologic units were contaminated by tritium, radioactive metals (primarily Cesium 137, Strontium 90, and Uranium 235), nitrate and heavy metals, some of which are defined as hazardous by RCRA. Under the terms and conditions of the RCRA Post- Closure Permits, it was necessary to remediate the contaminated groundwater plumes

  19. Receipt capability for foreign research reactor (FRR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, William D. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The United Stated Department of Energy began implementation of the ten year FRR SNF return policy in May, 1996. Seventeen months into the thirteen year return program, four shipments have been made, returning 863 assemblies of aluminum clad SNF to SRS. Five additional shipments containing over 1,200 assemblies are scheduled in fiscal year 1998. During negotiation of contracts with various reactor operators, it has become apparent that many facilities wish to delay the return of their SNF until the latter part of the program. This has raised concern on the part of the DOE that insufficient receipt capability will exist during the last three to five years of the program to ensure the return of all of the SNF. To help quantify this issue and ensure that it is addressed early in the program, a computer simulation model has been developed at SRS to facilitate the planning, scheduling, and analysis of SNF shipments to be received from offsite facilities. The simulation model, called OFFSHIP, greatly reduces the time and effort required to analyze the complex global transportation system that involves dozens of reactor facilities, multiple casks and fuel types, and time-dependent SNF inventories. OFFSHIP allows the user to input many variables including priorities, cask preferences, shipping date preferences, turnaround times, and regional groupings. User input is easily managed using a spreadsheet format and the output data is generated in a spreadsheet format to facilitate detailed analysis and prepare graphical results. The model was developed in Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications and runs native in Microsoft Excel. The receipt schedules produced by the model have been compared to schedules generated manually with consistent results. For the purposes of this presentation, four scenarios have been developed. The 'Base Case' accounts for those countries/facilities that DOE believes may not participate in the return program. The three additional scenarios look at the

  20. Atomic test site (south Australia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godman, N.A.; Cousins, Jim; Hamilton, Archie.

    1993-01-01

    The debate, which lasted about half an hour, is reported verbatin. It was prompted by the campaign by the Maralinga people of South Australia to have their traditional lands restored to them. Between 1953 and 1957 the United Kingdom government carried out of atomic tests and several hundred minor trials on the lands. A clean-up programme had taken place in 1967 but further decontamination was needed before the area is safe for traditional aboriginal life and culture. A small area will remain contaminated with plutonium for thousands of years. The cost and who would pay, the Australian or UK government was being negotiated. The UK government's position was that the site is remote, the health risk is slight and the clean-up operation of 1967 was acknowledged as satisfactory by the Australian government. (UK)

  1. Microcrustaceans (Branchipoda and Copepoda) of Wetland Impoundments on the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBiase, Adrienne E; Taylor, Barbara E

    2005-09-21

    The United States Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina, contains an abundance of freshwater wetlands and impoundments. Four large impoundments, as well as several small, abandoned farm and mill ponds, and about 400 Carolina bays and other small, isolated depression wetland ponds are located within the 893 km2 area of the SRS. Crustaceans of the orders Branchiopoda and Copepoda are nearly ubiquitous in these water bodies. Although small in size, these organisms are often very abundant. They consequently play an important trophic role in freshwater food webs supporting fish, larval salamanders, larval insects, and numerous other animals, aquatic and terrestrial. This report provides an introduction to the free-living microcrustaceans of lentic water bodies on the SRS and a comprehensive list of species known to occur there. Occurrence patterns are summarized from three extensive survey studies, supplemented with other published and unpublished records. In lieu of a key, we provide a guide to taxonomic resources and notes on undescribed species. Taxa covered include the orders Cladocera, Anostraca, Laevicaudata, and Spinicaudata of the Subclass Branchiopoda and the Superorders Calanoida and Cyclopoida of Subclass Copepoda. Microcrustaceans of the Superorder Harpacticoida of the Subclass Copepoda and Subclass Ostracoda are also often present in lentic water bodies. They are excluded from this report because they have not received much study at the species level on the SRS.

  2. SRS ecology: Environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.; Shipley, R.W.; Bowers, J.A. [and others

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this Document is to provide a source of ecological information based on the exiting knowledge gained from research conducted at the Savannah River Site. This document provides a summary and synthesis of ecological research in the three main ecosystem types found at SRS and information on the threatened and endangered species residing there.

  3. SRS ecology: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wike, L.D.; Shipley, R.W.; Bowers, J.A.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this Document is to provide a source of ecological information based on the exiting knowledge gained from research conducted at the Savannah River Site. This document provides a summary and synthesis of ecological research in the three main ecosystem types found at SRS and information on the threatened and endangered species residing there

  4. Point and Fixed Plot Sampling Inventory Estimates at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parresol, Bernard, R.

    2004-02-01

    This report provides calculation of systematic point sampling volume estimates for trees greater than or equal to 5 inches diameter breast height (dbh) and fixed radius plot volume estimates for trees < 5 inches dbh at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken County, South Carolina. The inventory of 622 plots was started in March 1999 and completed in January 2002 (Figure 1). Estimates are given in cubic foot volume. The analyses are presented in a series of Tables and Figures. In addition, a preliminary analysis of fuel levels on the SRS is given, based on depth measurements of the duff and litter layers on the 622 inventory plots plus line transect samples of down coarse woody material. Potential standing live fuels are also included. The fuels analyses are presented in a series of tables.

  5. Coexistence of ferromagnetism and unconventional spin-glass freezing in the site-disordered kagome ferrite SrS n2F e4O11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlyk, L.; Strobel, S.; Farmer, B.; De Long, L. E.; Niewa, R.

    2018-02-01

    Single-crystal x-ray diffraction refinements indicate SrS n2F e4O11 crystallizes in the hexagonal R -type ferrite structure with noncentrosymmetric space group P 63m c and lattice parameters a =5.9541 (2 )Å , c =13.5761 (5 )Å , Z =2 (R (F )=0.034 ). Octahedrally coordinated 2 a [M (1) and M (1a)] and 6 c sites [M (2 )] have random, mixed occupation by Sn and Fe; whereas the tetrahedrally coordinated 2 b sites [Fe(3) and Fe(3a)] are exclusively occupied by Fe, whose displacement from the ideal position with trigonal-bipyramidal coordination causes the loss of inversion symmetry. Our dc and ac magnetization data indicate SrS n2F e4O11 single crystals undergo a ferro- or ferri-magnetic transition below a temperature TC=630 K with very low coercive fields μoHc ⊥=0.27 Oe and μoHc ∥=1.5 Oe at 300 K, for applied field perpendicular and parallel to the c axis, respectively. The value for TC is exceptionally high, and the coercive fields exceptionally low, among the known R-type ferrites. Time-dependent dc magnetization and frequency-dependent ac magnetization data indicate the onset of short-range, spin-glass freezing below Tf=35.8 K , which results from crystallographic disorder of magnetic F e3 + and nonmagnetic S n4 + ions on a frustrated Kagome sublattice. Anomalous ac susceptibility and thermomagnetic relaxation behavior in the short-range-ordered state differs from that of conventional spin glasses. Optical measurements in the ultraviolet to visible frequency range in a diffuse reflectance geometry indicate an overall optical band gap of 0.8 eV, consistent with observed semiconducting properties.

  6. An aerial radiological survey of the Savannah River Site and surrounding area, Aiken, South Carolina, October--November 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojtech, R.J.

    1993-12-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period of October 14 to November 23, 1991, over an area surrounding the United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). The area is situated 15 kilometers south of Aiken, South Carolina. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the gamma ray environment of the SRS and surrounding areas. Contour maps showing gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level were constructed from the aerial data and overlaid on a United States Geological Survey map of the area. The exposure rates measured within the survey region are generally uniform and typical of natural background. The reported exposure rate values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution. Enhanced exposure rates not attributable to natural background were measured over several areas within the survey region. The manmade radionuclides detected in these areas, cesium-137, cobalt-60, and protactinium-234m, were produced by the reactor operations and material processing conducted at the SRS. The radiation levels produced by these nuclides are consistent with those levels measured during previous SRS aerial surveys. Radionuclide assays of soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations within the survey boundaries

  7. Soil and soil gas sampling in nine potential new waste sites, Central Shops diesel loading and SRS fault areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Geochemical surveys conducted by Microseeps Ltd at S.R.P. during March and April 1988 were carried out in two phases. The first consisted of nine potential new waste site locations as shown in Figure 1. Soil samples to be analyzed for specific chlorinated hydrocarbons were collected at each location. Soil gas samples to be analyzed for C1-C4 hydrocarbons, were collected at six of the nine locations. In all, 165 soil samples and 130 soil gas samples were collected. The second phase consisted of two surveys, the Central Shops diesel loading area and a general S.R.P. 'fault' survey. At the Central Shops area 85 soil gas samples, analyzed for C1-C4 hydrocarbons, plus 30 soil samples, analyzed for diesel range hydrocarbons were collected. The fault survey is composed of 122 soil gas samples analyzed for C1-C4 hydrocarbons, helium and hydrogen. The sampling and analytical techniques are described herein and the data presented in tabular format. All analyses were performed on site in a laboratory provided by S.R.L. Magnetic diskettes containing data in spreadsheet format were given to S.R.L. personnel at the completion of the on-site work

  8. Wildflowers of the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seger, Tona [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). USDA Forest Service

    2015-08-01

    This guidebook is a resource to help field personnel (nonbotanists) identify plants on the Savannah River Site (SRS) premises. Although not a complete flora guide, this publication contains information about 123 plant species found on the SRS. Plants are listed by their common names and arranged by the color of the flower. The SRS supports a diverse array of plant communities. Land use history, the establishment of the SRS, and current land management practices have shaped the flora presently found on the SRS. Located south of Aiken, SC, SRS spans 198,344 acres with land covering Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties. Situated on the Upper Coastal Plain and Sandhills physiographic provinces, the SRS has more than 50 distinct soil types. The topography is rolling to flat with elevation ranges from 50 to 400 feet above sea level.

  9. Microcrustaceans (Branchiopoda and Copepoda) of Wetland Ponds and Impoundments on the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrienne E. DeBiase; Barbara E. Taylor

    2005-09-21

    The United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina, contains an abundance of freshwater wetlands and impoundments. Four large impoundments, as well as several small, abandoned farm and mill ponds, and about 400 Carolina bays and other small, isolated depression wetland ponds are located within the 893 km2 area of the SRS. Crustaceans of the orders Branchiopoda and Copepoda are nearly ubiquitous in these water bodies. Although small in size, these organisms are often very abundant. They consequently play an important trophic role in freshwater food webs supporting fish, larval salamanders, larval insects, and numerous other animals, aquatic and terrestrial. This report provides an introduction to the free-living microcrustaceans of lentic water bodies on the SRS and a comprehensive list of species known to occur there. Occurrence patterns are summarized from three extensive survey studies, supplemented with other published and unpublished records. In lieu of a key, we provide a guide to taxonomic resources and notes on undescribed species. Taxa covered include the orders Cladocera, Anostraca, Laevicaudata, and Spinicaudata of the Subclass Branchiopoda and the Superorders Calanoida and Cyclopoida of Subclass Copepoda. Microcrustaceans of the Superorder Harpacticoida of the Subclass Copepoda and Subclass Ostracoda are also often present in lentic water bodies. They are excluded from this report because they have not received much study at the species level on the SRS.

  10. Review of seismicity and ground motion studies related to development of seismic design at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, D.E.; Acree, J.R.

    1990-04-01

    The NRC response spectra developed in Reg. Guide 1.60 is being used in the studies related to restarting of the existing Savannah River Site (SRS) reactors. Because it envelopes all the other site specific spectra which have been developed for SRS, it provides significant conservatism in the design and analysis of the reactor systems for ground motions of this value or with these probability levels. This spectral shape is also the shape used for the design of the recently licensed Vogtle Nuclear Station, located south of the Savannah River from the SRS. This report provides a summary of the data base used to develop the design basis earthquake. This includes the seismicity, rates of occurrence, magnitudes, and attenuation relationships. A summary is provided for the studies performed and methodologies used to establish the design basis earthquake for SRS. The ground motion response spectra developed from the various studies are also summarized. The seismic hazard and PGA's developed for other critical facilities in the region are discussed, and the SRS seismic instrumentation is presented. The programs for resolving outstanding issues are discussed and conclusions are presented

  11. SRS Geology/Hydrogeology Environmental Information Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denham, M.E.

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of the Savannah River Site Geology and Hydrogeology Environmental Information Document (EID) is to provide geologic and hydrogeologic information to serve as a baseline to evaluate potential environmental impacts. This EID is based on a summary of knowledge accumulated from research conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and surrounding areas.

  12. SRS Geology/Hydrogeology Environmental Information Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, M.E.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the Savannah River Site Geology and Hydrogeology Environmental Information Document (EID) is to provide geologic and hydrogeologic information to serve as a baseline to evaluate potential environmental impacts. This EID is based on a summary of knowledge accumulated from research conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and surrounding areas

  13. Low-level siting, Edgemont, South Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    The siting of a low-level radwaste disposal facility and characterization activities to date, at Edgemont, South Dakota are given. Using past and present experience setting forth the major problem as viewed by the author, the social and political considerations, community acceptance, media and public officials' attitudes, criteria for acceptance and significance of countywide vote in support of facility are presented. Characterization activities, site selection planning and criteria, above-grade and below-grade technical evaluation, NRC interface, 10 CFR Part 61 related to technical work, as well as community acceptance and license application are included. The paper deals with specific problems, solutions and ongoing activities

  14. Low-level siting, Edgemont, South Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    The siting of a low-level radwaste disposal facility and characterization activities to date in Edgemont, South Dakota are discussed. By using past and present experience the author sets forth the major problem, the social and political considerations, community acceptance, media and public officials' attitudes, criteria for acceptance and significance of countywide vote in support of facility. Characterization activities, site selection planning and criteria, above-grade and below-grade technical evaluation, NRC interface, 10 CFR Part 61 related to technical work, as well as community acceptance and license application are covered. The paper deals with specific problems, solutions and ongoing activities

  15. Journal of the South African Society of Archivists: Site Map

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of the South African Society of Archivists: Site Map. Journal Home > About the Journal > Journal of the South African Society of Archivists: Site Map. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Significance of Soft Zone Sediments at the SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aadland, R.K.

    2000-02-03

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the origin, extent and stability of ''soft zones'' in the carbonate bearing strata at the Savannah River Site (SRS). As part of this study, a comprehensive historical compendium of how soft zones have been addressed during the past 47 years at SRS is reviewed.

  17. The SRS analytical laboratories strategic plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiland, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    There is an acute shortage of Savannah River Site (SRS) analytical laboratory capacity to support key Department of Energy (DOE) environmental restoration and waste management (EM) programs while making the transition from traditional defense program (DP) missions as a result of the cessation of the Cold War. This motivated Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) to develop an open-quotes Analytical Laboratories Strategic Planclose quotes (ALSP) in order to provide appropriate input to SRS operating plans and justification for proposed analytical laboratory projects. The methodology used to develop this plan is applicable to all types of strategic planning

  18. Savannah River Site environmental report for 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, M.W.; Mamatey, A. [eds.

    1995-12-31

    The 1990s have brought dramatic change to the Savannah River Site (SRS) in its role as a key part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) weapons complex. Shrinking federal budgets, sharp workforce reductions, the end of the Cold War, and a major shift in mission objectives have combined to severely test the mettle of SRS-South Carolina`s largest employer. But the sprawling 310-square-mile site`s employees have responded to the test in admirable fashion, effectively shifting their emphasis from weapons production to environmental restoration. This report describes the environmental report for the SRS for 1995.

  19. Reconnaissance survey of site 7 of the proposed Three Rivers Regional Landfill and Technology Center, Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabak, M.A.; Beck, M.L.; Gillam, C.; Sassaman, K.E.

    1996-02-01

    This report documents the archaeological investigation of Site 7 of the proposed Three Rivers Regional Landfill and Technology Center in Aiken County on the United States Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. Pedestrian and subsurface survey techniques were used to investigate the 1,403-acre project area. Survey resulted in the discovery of 23 previously unrecorded sites and 11 occurrences; six previously recorded sites were also investigated. These sites consist of six prehistoric sites, nine historic sites, and 14 sites with both prehistoric and historic components. Sites locations and project area boundaries are provided on a facsimile of a USGS 7.5 topographic map. The prehistoric components consist of very small, low-density lithic and ceramic scatters; most contain less than 10 artifacts. Six of the prehistoric components are of unknown cultural affiliation, the remaining prehistoric sites were occupied predominately in the Woodland period. The historic sites are dominated by postbellum/modem home places of tenant and yeoman farmers but four historic sites were locations of antebellum house sites (38AK136, 38AK613, 38AK660, and 38AK674). The historic sites also include an African-American school (38AK677).

  20. Roadmap to the SRS computing architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A.

    1994-07-05

    This document outlines the major steps that must be taken by the Savannah River Site (SRS) to migrate the SRS information technology (IT) environment to the new architecture described in the Savannah River Site Computing Architecture. This document proposes an IT environment that is {open_quotes}...standards-based, data-driven, and workstation-oriented, with larger systems being utilized for the delivery of needed information to users in a client-server relationship.{close_quotes} Achieving this vision will require many substantial changes in the computing applications, systems, and supporting infrastructure at the site. This document consists of a set of roadmaps which provide explanations of the necessary changes for IT at the site and describes the milestones that must be completed to finish the migration.

  1. Risk-Based Remediation Approach for Cs-137 Contaminated Sediment/Soils at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Lower Three Runs Tail (U) - 13348 - SRNS-RP-2012-00546

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Candice [Department of Energy- Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC (United States); Bergren, Christopher; Blas, Susan; Kupar, James [Area Completion Projects, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Lower Three Runs is a large blackwater stream that runs through the eastern and southern portion of the Savannah River Site. The Lower Three Runs watershed includes two SRS facility areas: P Area (P Reactor) and R Area (R Reactor) that provided effluent discharges to Lower Three Runs. During reactor operations, effluent discharges were well above natural (pre-industrial) or present day stream discharges. The watershed contains a 2,500-acre mainstream impoundment (PAR Pond), several smaller pre-cooler ponds, and a canal system that connects the pre-cooler ponds and discharges surface water to PAR Pond. From the PAR Pond dam, Lower Three Runs flows approximately 36 kilometers braiding through bottom-land/flood-plain forests before it enters the Savannah River. About eight kilometers downstream from the PAR Pond dam, the SRS boundary narrows (termed the Lower Three Runs tail) providing a limited buffer of DOE property for the Lower Three Runs stream and associated flood-plain. Previous screening characterization efforts revealed Cs-137 contamination in the sediment/soils of the flood-plain. As a part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act stimulus package, a comprehensive characterization effort was executed on the sediment/soils of the Lower Three Runs tail flood-plain providing a comprehensive look at the contaminant signature of the area. As a follow-up to that characterization, a regulatory decision Core Team, comprised of members of the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, Environmental Protection Agency - Region IV, and DOE, conducted negotiations on a risk-based approach to address the level of contamination found in the tail flood-plain as an early action that provided a long-term solution to exposure scenarios. For evaluation purposes, the adolescent trespasser was selected as the most likely human receptor for the Lower Three Runs tail portion because of the natural attractiveness of the area for recreational activities (i

  2. Mixing in SRS Closure Business Unit Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    POIRIER, MICHAELR.

    2004-01-01

    The following equipment is commonly used to mix fluids: mechanical agitators, jets (pumps), shrouded axial impeller mixers (Flygt mixers), spargers, pulsed jet mixers, boiling, static mixers, falling films, liquid sprays, and thermal convection. This discussion will focus on mechanical agitators, jets, shrouded axial impeller mixers, spargers, and pulsed jet mixers, as these devices are most likely to be employed in Savannah River Site (SRS) Closure Business applications. In addressing mixing problems in the SRS Tank Farm, one must distinguish between different mixing objectives. These objectives include sludge mixing (e.g., Extended Sludge Processing), sludge retrieval (e.g., sludge transfers between tanks), heel retrieval (e.g., Tanks 18F and 19F), chemical reactions (e.g., oxalic acid neutralization) and salt dissolution. For example, one should not apply sludge mixing guidelines to heel removal applications. Mixing effectiveness is a function of both the mixing device (e.g., slurry pump, agitator, air sparger) and the properties of the material to be mixed (e.g., yield stress, viscosity, density, and particle size). The objective of this document is to provide background mixing knowledge for the SRS Closure Business Unit personnel and to provide general recommendations for mixing in SRS applications

  3. Savannah River Site environmental report for 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnett, M.W.; Mamatey, A.

    1997-01-01

    The 1990s have brought dramatic change to the Savannah River Site (SRS) in its role as a key part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) weapons complex. Shrinking federal budgets, sharp workforce reductions, the end of the Cold War, and a major shift in mission objectives have combined to severely test the mettle of SRS-South Carolina's largest employer. But the sprawling 310-square-mile site's employees have responded to the test in admirable fashion, effectively shifting their emphasis from weapons production to environmental restoration. This report describes the environmental report for the SRS for 1995

  4. Effects of hydrologic connectivity and land use on floodplain sediment accumulation at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, Jeremy Edward [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2017-12-28

    Floodplains, and the sediment accumulating naturally on them,are important to maintain stream water quality and serve as sinks for organic and inorganic carbon. Newer theories contend that land use and hydrologic connectivity (water-mediated transport of matter, energy, and/or organisms within or between elements of the hydrologic cycle) play important roles in determining sediment accumulation on floodplains. This study hypothesizes that changes in hydrologic connectivity have a greater impact on floodplain sediment accumulation than changes in land use. Nine sediment cores from seven sub-basins were collected from the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, and processed for grain-size, radionuclide dating (7Be, 137Cs, 210Pb), particulate organic carbon (POC), and microscopy. Historical records, including aerial and satellite imagery,were used to identify anthropogenic disturbances in the sub-basins, as well as to calculate the percentages of natural vegetation land cover at the SRS in 1951, and 2014. LiDAR and field survey data identified 251 flow impediments, measured elevation, and recorded standard stream characteristics (e.g., bank height) that canaffect hydrologic connectivity. Radionuclide dating was used to calculate sediment mass accumulation rates (MARs) and linear accumulation rates (LARs) for each core. Results indicate that sedimentation rates have increased across all SRS sub-basins over the past 40-50 years, shortly after site restoration and recovery efforts began.Findings show that hydrologic connectivity proxies (i.e., stream characteristics and impediments) have stronger relationships to MARs and LARs than the land use proxy (i.e., vegetation cover), confirming the hypothesis. Asstream channel depth and the number of impediments increase,floodplain sedimentation rates also increase. This knowledge can help future stream restoration efforts by focusing resources to more efficiently attain stated goals, particularly in terms of floodplain

  5. Repackaging SRS Black Box TRU Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swale, D. J.; Stone, K.A.; Milner, T. N.

    2006-01-01

    Historically, large items of TRU Waste, which were too large to be packaged in drums for disposal have been packaged in various sizes of custom made plywood boxes at the Savannah River Site (SRS), for many years. These boxes were subsequently packaged into large steel ''Black Boxes'' for storage at SRS, pending availability of Characterization and Certification capability, to facilitate disposal of larger items of TRU Waste. There are approximately 107 Black Boxes in inventory at SRS, each measuring some 18' x 12' x 7', and weighing up to 45,000 lbs. These Black Boxes have been stored since the early 1980s. The project to repackage this waste into Standard Large Boxes (SLBs), Standard Waste Boxes (SWB) and Ten Drum Overpacks (TDOP), for subsequent characterization and WIPP disposal, commenced in FY04. To date, 10 Black Boxes have been repackaged, resulting in 40 SLB-2's, and 37 B25 overpack boxes, these B25's will be overpacked in SLB-2's prior to shipping to WIPP. This paper will describe experience to date from this project

  6. NESHAP Dose-Release Factor Isopleths for Five Source-to-Receptor Distances from the Center of Site and H-Area for all Compass Sectors at SRS using CAP88-PC Version 4.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trimor, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-09

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires the use of the computer model CAP88-PC to estimate the total effective doses (TED) for demonstrating compliance with 40 CFR 61, Subpart H (EPA 2006), the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) regulations. As such, CAP88 Version 4.0 was used to calculate the receptor dose due to routine atmospheric releases at the Savannah River Site (SRS). For estimation, NESHAP dose-release factors (DRFs) have been supplied to Environmental Compliance and Area Closure Projects (EC&ACP) for many years. DRFs represent the dose to a maximum receptor exposed to 1 Ci of a specified radionuclide being released into the atmosphere. They are periodically updated to include changes in the CAP88 version, input parameter values, site meteorology, and location of the maximally exposed individual (MEI). This report presents the DRFs of tritium oxide released at two onsite locations, center-of-site (COS) and H-Area, at 0 ft. elevation to maximally exposed individuals (MEIs) located 1000, 3000, 6000, 9000, and 12000 meters from the release areas for 16 compass sectors. The analysis makes use of area-specific meteorological data (Viner 2014).

  7. Contextualizing South Africa's participation in the SITES 2006 module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seugnet Blignaut

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA initiated the Second International Technology in Education Study (SITES 2006 - a large-scale comparative survey on the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs in schools. The goal was to understand the pedagogical use of ICTs in schools in 22 education systems. We aim to contextualize South Africa's participation in SITES 2006 on four levels: (i the nature and structure of the South African education system, (ii a review of South Africa's participation in SITES 2006, (iii ICT infrastructure, facilities and equipment, and (iv teachers' use of ICTs for teaching and learning. SITES 2006 administered three questionnaires to school principals, technology coordinators, and mathematics and science teachers. The final sample consisted of 666 mathematics and 622 science teachers. Although most education systems collected data via the internet, South Africa was the only country that used only a paper-and-pencil data collection strategy with an average return rate of 90%. South Africa scored low on most variables, e.g. ICT infrastructure, facilities, and equipment. A large percentage of South African teachers reported their ICT incompetence. South Africa's inability to cross the boundaries of traditional learning towards the development of 21st century teaching and learning skills inhibits social and economic growth for the development of human capital.

  8. Potential for erosion corrosion of SRS high level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapp, P.E.

    1994-01-01

    SRS high-level radioactive waste tanks will not experience erosion corrosion to any significant degree during slurry pump operations. Erosion corrosion in carbon steel structures at reported pump discharge velocities is dominated by electrochemical (corrosion) processes. Interruption of those processes, as by the addition of corrosion inhibitors, sharply reduces the rate of metal loss from erosion corrosion. The well-inhibited SRS waste tanks have a near-zero general corrosion rate, and therefore will be essentially immune to erosion corrosion. The experimental data on carbon steel erosion corrosion most relevant to SRS operations was obtained at the Hanford Site on simulated Purex waste. A metal loss rate of 2.4 mils per year was measured at a temperature of 102 C and a slurry velocity comparable to calculated SRS slurry velocities on ground specimens of the same carbon steel used in SRS waste tanks. Based on these data and the much lower expected temperatures, the metal loss rate of SRS tanks under waste removal and processing conditions should be insignificant, i.e. less than 1 mil per year

  9. Enterprise SRS: leveraging ongoing operations to advance nuclear fuel cycles research and development programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, A.M.; Marra, J.E.; Wilmarth, W.R.; McGuire, P.W.; Wheeler, V.B.

    2013-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is re-purposing its vast array of assets (including H Canyon - a nuclear chemical separation plant) to solve issues regarding advanced nuclear fuel cycle technologies, nuclear materials processing, packaging, storage and disposition. The vehicle for this transformation is Enterprise SRS which presents a new, radical view of SRS as a united endeavor for 'all things nuclear' as opposed to a group of distinct and separate entities with individual missions and organizations. Key among the Enterprise SRS strategic initiatives is the integration of research into SRS facilities but also in other facilities in conjunction with on-going missions to provide researchers from other national laboratories, academic institutions, and commercial entities the opportunity to demonstrate their technologies in a relevant environment and scale prior to deployment. To manage that integration of research demonstrations into site facilities, a center for applied nuclear materials processing and engineering research has been established in SRS

  10. Methodology for Estimating Ingestion Dose for Emergency Response at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpkins, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), emergency response computer models are used to estimate dose following releases of radioactive materials to the environment. Downwind air and ground concentrations and their associated doses from inhalation and ground shine pathways are estimated. The emergency response model (PUFF-PLUME) uses real-time data to track either instantaneous (puff) or continuous (plume) releases. A site-specific ingestion dose model was developed for use with PUFF-PLUME that includes the following ingestion dose pathways pertinent to the surrounding SRS area: milk, beef, water, and fish. The model is simplistic and can be used with existing code output

  11. ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF METALS IN STREAMS ON A DEFENSE MATERIALS PROCESSING SITE IN SOUTH CAROLINA, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M.; Dyer, S.

    2009-09-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a 780 km{sup 2} U.S. Department of Energy facility near Aiken SC established in 1950 to produce nuclear materials. SRS streams are 'integrators' that potentially receive water transportable contaminants from all sources within their watersheds necessitating a GIS-based watershed approach to organize contaminant distribution data and accurately characterize the effects of multiple contaminant sources on aquatic organisms. Concentrations of metals in sediments, fish, and water were elevated in streams affected by SRS operations, but contaminant exposure models for Lontra Canadensis and Ceryle alcyon indicated that toxicological reference values were exceeded only by Hg and Al. Macroinvertebrate community structure was unrelated to sediment metal concentrations. This study indicated that (1) modeling studies and field bioassessments provide a complementary basis for addressing the individual and cumulative effects of contaminants, (2) habitat effects must be controlled when assessing contaminant impacts, (3) sensitivity analyses of contaminant exposure models are helpful in apportioning sampling effort, and (4) contaminants released during fifty years of industrial operations have not resulted in demonstrable harm to aquatic organisms in SRS streams.

  12. Wastewaters at SRS where heavy metals are a potential problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, E.W.; Radway, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The principal objective of this report is to identify and prioritize heavy metal-containing wastewaters at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in terms of their suitability for testing of and clean-up by a novel bioremediation process being developed by SRTC. This process involves the use of algal biomass for sequestering heavy metal and radionuclides from wastewaters. Two categories of SRS wastewaters were considered for this investigation: (1) waste sites (primarily non-contained wastes managed by Environmental Restoration), and (2) waste streams (primarily contained wastes managed by Waste Management). An attempt was made to evaluate all sources of both categories of waste throughout the site so that rational decisions could be made with regard to selecting the most appropriate wastewaters for present study and potential future treatment. The investigation included a review of information on surface and/or groundwater associated with all known SRS waste sites, as well as waters associated with all known SRS waste streams. Following the initial review, wastewaters known or suspected to contain potentially problematic concentrations of one or more of the toxic metals were given further consideration

  13. Physiological and Comparative Genomic Analysis of Arthrobacter sp. SRS-W-1-2016 Provides Insights on Niche Adaptation for Survival in Uraniferous Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Ashvini; Pathak, Ashish; Jaswal, Rajneesh; Edwards, Bobby; Chappell, Demario; Ball, Christopher; Garcia-Sillas, Reyna; Stothard, Paul; Seaman, John

    2018-01-11

    Arthrobacter sp. strain SRS-W-1-2016 was isolated on high concentrations of uranium (U) from the Savannah River Site (SRS) that remains co-contaminated by radionuclides, heavy metals, and organics. SRS is located on the northeast bank of the Savannah River (South Carolina, USA), which is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) managed ecosystem left historically contaminated from decades of nuclear weapons production activities. Predominant contaminants within the impacted SRS environment include U and Nickel (Ni), both of which can be transformed microbially into less toxic forms via metal complexation mechanisms. Strain SRS-W-1-2016 was isolated from the uraniferous SRS soils on high concentrations of U (4200 μM) and Ni (8500 μM), but rapid growth was observed at much lower concentrations of 500 μM U and 1000 μM Ni, respectively. Microcosm studies established with strain SRS-W-1-2016 revealed a rapid decline in the concentration of spiked U such that it was almost undetectable in the supernatant by 72 h of incubation. Conversely, Ni concentrations remained unchanged, suggesting that the strain removed U but not Ni under the tested conditions. To obtain a deeper understanding of the metabolic potential, a draft genome sequence of strain SRS-W-1-2016 was obtained at a coverage of 90×, assembling into 93 contigs with an N50 contig length of 92,788 bases. The genomic size of strain SRS-W-1-2016 was found to be 4,564,701 bases with a total number of 4327 putative genes. An in-depth, genome-wide comparison between strain SRS-W-1-2016 and its four closest taxonomic relatives revealed 1159 distinct genes, representing 26.7% of its total genome; many associating with metal resistance proteins (e.g., for cadmium, cobalt, and zinc), transporter proteins, stress proteins, cytochromes, and drug resistance functions. Additionally, several gene homologues coding for resistance to metals were identified in the strain, such as outer membrane efflux pump proteins, peptide

  14. Physiological and Comparative Genomic Analysis of Arthrobacter sp. SRS-W-1-2016 Provides Insights on Niche Adaptation for Survival in Uraniferous Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashvini Chauhan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Arthrobacter sp. strain SRS-W-1-2016 was isolated on high concentrations of uranium (U from the Savannah River Site (SRS that remains co-contaminated by radionuclides, heavy metals, and organics. SRS is located on the northeast bank of the Savannah River (South Carolina, USA, which is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE managed ecosystem left historically contaminated from decades of nuclear weapons production activities. Predominant contaminants within the impacted SRS environment include U and Nickel (Ni, both of which can be transformed microbially into less toxic forms via metal complexation mechanisms. Strain SRS-W-1-2016 was isolated from the uraniferous SRS soils on high concentrations of U (4200 μM and Ni (8500 μM, but rapid growth was observed at much lower concentrations of 500 μM U and 1000 μM Ni, respectively. Microcosm studies established with strain SRS-W-1-2016 revealed a rapid decline in the concentration of spiked U such that it was almost undetectable in the supernatant by 72 h of incubation. Conversely, Ni concentrations remained unchanged, suggesting that the strain removed U but not Ni under the tested conditions. To obtain a deeper understanding of the metabolic potential, a draft genome sequence of strain SRS-W-1-2016 was obtained at a coverage of 90×, assembling into 93 contigs with an N50 contig length of 92,788 bases. The genomic size of strain SRS-W-1-2016 was found to be 4,564,701 bases with a total number of 4327 putative genes. An in-depth, genome-wide comparison between strain SRS-W-1-2016 and its four closest taxonomic relatives revealed 1159 distinct genes, representing 26.7% of its total genome; many associating with metal resistance proteins (e.g., for cadmium, cobalt, and zinc, transporter proteins, stress proteins, cytochromes, and drug resistance functions. Additionally, several gene homologues coding for resistance to metals were identified in the strain, such as outer membrane efflux pump proteins

  15. Continental margin neotectonics in South Africa: a nuclear siting approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreoli, M.A.G.; Hambleton-Jones, B.B.; Anderson, N.J.B.; Faurie, J.N.; Raubenheimer, E.; Antoine, L.; Von Veh, M.W.; McMillan, I.K.

    1990-01-01

    Neotectonic activity in South Africa has only recently received attention despite the fact that a rigorous knowledge of this phenomenon could have a major impact on industrial development within certain areas. Since the early 1980s the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa has addressed this specific problem in the process of detailed site investigations for the licensing of six facilities related to the nuclear industry. The data indicates that there is a general correspondence in five selected areas along the South African coast between the development of Quarternary joints/faults and the degree of seismic activity recorded in each geological domain. Finally, the results provide new data that may add to a recent survey of global tectonic stresses. 13 refs., 1 fig

  16. Integrated planning for nuclear siting - The South African experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, J.C.A.; Heidstra, N.; Graupner, O.F.; Hambleton-Jones, B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the process involved in the current national programme to identify potential sites for nuclear power development in South Africa. A description is given of the sensitivity studies - the evaluation of the potential perturbations to and opportunities for the biophysical and socioeconomic environments and the suitability studies - the evaluation of environmental influences on geotechnical, safety and financial considerations. This programme is divorced from any decision of whether or not to build further nuclear power station in South Africa. The programme described is a long range land-use planning exercise considered expedient in the face of competition for land that share similar requirements as those of nuclear power station sites. It is also designed to streamline nuclear power station lead times and to make national and regional planners aware of Eskom's requirements in the drafting of their policies and plans. (author)

  17. Management approaches for environmental restoration at the U.S. Department of Energy Weapons Complex, Savannah River Site: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.V.; Mayberry, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper introduces the management approaches for environmental restoration at the US Department of Energy Weapons Complex. A brief chronology of environmental restoration complex-wide is presented. This chronology, which focuses on the changing climate at DOE facilities, is then keyed to activities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina, USA. Past, present, and future environmental restoration activities at SRS are discussed, reflecting the change in emphasis at the site

  18. Synoptic surveys of major reservoirs in South Carolina, 1988--1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, J.A.

    1992-03-01

    Comprehensive synoptic surveys of ten South Carolina airs (L Lake, Savannah River Site (SRS), Par Pond, SRS, Pond B, SRS, Lake Moultrie, Lake Marion, Lake Murray, Lake Monticello, Lake Robinson, Lake Richard B. Russell, and Lake Greenwood) were performed to characterize and compare these basins with regard to water quality, trophic status, and community structure during September 1988 and September 1989. All of the reservoirs were mesoeutrophic to eutrophic having significantly greater productivity rates than oligotrophic ecosystems. This report presents and discusses the results of these surveys

  19. Assessment of SRS ambient air monitoring network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-03

    Three methodologies have been used to assess the effectiveness of the existing ambient air monitoring system in place at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC. Effectiveness was measured using two metrics that have been utilized in previous quantification of air-monitoring network performance; frequency of detection (a measurement of how frequently a minimum number of samplers within the network detect an event), and network intensity (a measurement of how consistent each sampler within the network is at detecting events). In addition to determining the effectiveness of the current system, the objective of performing this assessment was to determine what, if any, changes could make the system more effective. Methodologies included 1) the Waite method of determining sampler distribution, 2) the CAP88- PC annual dose model, and 3) a puff/plume transport model used to predict air concentrations at sampler locations. Data collected from air samplers at SRS in 2015 compared with predicted data resulting from the methodologies determined that the frequency of detection for the current system is 79.2% with sampler efficiencies ranging from 5% to 45%, and a mean network intensity of 21.5%. One of the air monitoring stations had an efficiency of less than 10%, and detected releases during just one sampling period of the entire year, adding little to the overall network intensity. By moving or removing this sampler, the mean network intensity increased to about 23%. Further work in increasing the network intensity and simulating accident scenarios to further test the ambient air system at SRS is planned

  20. Hurricane Hugo and its meteorological effects on the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, M.J.

    1990-03-26

    During its nine day existence, Hurricane Hugo tracked thousands of miles, caused millions of dollars in property damage, and took many lives. Puerto Rico, Guadeloupe, the Virgin Islands, and South Carolina took the brunt of the storm. The staff of meteorologists of the Environmental Technology Section (ETS) provided briefings and forecasts to assist Savannah River Site management in developing appropriate site-wide protective action plans. ``Loops`` created from infrared satellite imagery provided the most useful forecasting tool. Single-site, composite radar imagery and wind measurements from the nine 200 m towers provided real-time monitoring of the effects of Hugo at SRS. A peak wind gust of 64.9 mph and up to 5.05 inches of precipitation were recorded at SRS. An assessment of the potential for wind damage to selected SRS facilities, had Hugo passed over SRS, showed that little structural damage would have occurred with proper pre-storm preparation.

  1. Hurricane Hugo and its meteorological effects on the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, M.J.

    1990-03-26

    During its nine day existence, Hurricane Hugo tracked thousands of miles, caused millions of dollars in property damage, and took many lives. Puerto Rico, Guadeloupe, the Virgin Islands, and South Carolina took the brunt of the storm. The staff of meteorologists of the Environmental Technology Section (ETS) provided briefings and forecasts to assist Savannah River Site management in developing appropriate site-wide protective action plans. Loops'' created from infrared satellite imagery provided the most useful forecasting tool. Single-site, composite radar imagery and wind measurements from the nine 200 m towers provided real-time monitoring of the effects of Hugo at SRS. A peak wind gust of 64.9 mph and up to 5.05 inches of precipitation were recorded at SRS. An assessment of the potential for wind damage to selected SRS facilities, had Hugo passed over SRS, showed that little structural damage would have occurred with proper pre-storm preparation.

  2. Environmental Assessment for the off-site commercial cleaning of lead and asbestos contaminated laundry from the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the potential environmental impacts of off-site commercial cleaning of lead and asbestos contaminated laundry generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed action constitutes an addition to the already-implemented action of sending controlled and routine SRS laundry to an off-site commercial facility for cleaning. This already-implemented action was evaluated in a previous EA (i.e., DOE/EA-0990; DOE, 1994) prepared under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA)

  3. Final environmental impact statement, interim management of nuclear materials, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina (DOE/EIS-0220)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grainger, A R

    1995-10-01

    This document evaluates the potential environmental impacts of alternatives for the stabilization of nuclear materials currently stored at various locations on the Savannah River Site (SRS). These materials remain from past defense-related production, testing, and other activities at the SRS and from chemical separations and related activities that DOE suspended in 1992. The EIS analyzes the following alternatives: Continuing Storage (No Action), Processing to Metal, Processing to Oxide, Blending Down to Low Enriched Uranium, Processing and Storage for Vitrification in the Defense Waste Processing Facility, Vitrification (F-Canyon), and Improving Storage. The preferred alternatives cover a combination of these in relation to the different types of material.

  4. Analyses of SRS waste glass buried in granite in Sweden and salt in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.P.; Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Lodding, A.R.

    1991-01-01

    Simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) waste glass forms have been buried in the granite geology of the Stirpa mine in Sweden for two years. Analyses of glass surfaces provided a measure of the performance of the waste glasses as a function of time. Similar SRS waste glass compositions have also been buried in salt at the WIPP facility in Carlsbad, New Mexico for a similar time period. Analyses of the SRS waste glasses buried in-situ in granite will be presented and compared to the performance of these same compositions buried in salt at WIPP

  5. Hydrogeologic investigation and establishment of a permanent multi-observational well network in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. Eight-year interim report (1986-1994). Volume 1 cluster-site description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gellici, J.A.; Reed, R.H.; Logan, W.R.; Aadland, R.K.; Simones, G.C.

    1995-05-01

    The South Carolina Department of Natural Resources, Water Resources Division (SCWRD), in collaboration with the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) is conducting a hydrogeologic investigation of the ground-water system(s) peripheral to the Savannah River Site. The study area is located in the Southeastern Coastal Plain hydrogeologic province in Aiken, Allendale and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. Ground-water movement, quality, and availability are being evaluated in order to better protect and manage this valuable regional resource. The investigation involves a well-cluster system comparable to the one constructed on the SRS. Cluster sites are situated outside the SRS on the basis of study objectives, proximity to the plant`s borders, land availability, and for the optimization of hydrogeologic control. One to three wells are completed into each major aquifer, and at each cluster site, at least one borehole is continuously cored and geophysically logged from land surface to at least 10 feet into unweathered bedrock. Data collected from the ongoing study include 146 paleontologic and palynologic age dates, 100 x-ray diffraction analyses of clay and bulk mineralogy, 442 sieve analyses, 6,040 feet of detailed core description, mineral composition and porosity determined from thin-section analyses, and continuous water-level data. This report is a compilation and interpretation of the {open_quotes}C-well{close_quotes} data that have been generated from the project and that will be used to model and characterize the aquifers and confining units in the region.

  6. Ground motion following selection of SRS design basis earthquake and associated deterministic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    This report summarizes the results of a deterministic assessment of earthquake ground motions at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The purpose of this study is to assist the Environmental Sciences Section of the Savannah River Laboratory in reevaluating the design basis earthquake (DBE) ground motion at SRS during approaches defined in Appendix A to 10 CFR Part 100. This work is in support of the Seismic Engineering Section's Seismic Qualification Program for reactor restart

  7. Health effects of SRS non-radiological air emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, J.

    1997-06-16

    This report examines the potential health effects of non radiological emissions to the air resulting from operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The scope of this study was limited to the 55 air contaminants for which the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has quantified risk by determining unit risk factors (excess cancer risks) and/or reference concentrations (deleterious non cancer risks). Potential health impacts have been assessed in relation to the maximally exposed individual. This is a hypothetical person who resides for a lifetime at the SRS boundary. The most recent (1994) quality assured SRS emissions data available were used. Estimated maximum site boundary concentrations of the air contaminants were calculated using air dispersion modeling and 24-hour and annual averaging times. For the emissions studied, the excess cancer risk was found to be less than the generally accepted risk level of 1 in 100,000 and, in most cases, was less than 1 in 1,000,000. Deleterious non cancer effects were also found to be very unlikely.

  8. Electron beam measurements on the Daresbury SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laundy, D.; Cummings, S.

    1992-01-01

    Two experiments which use hard x-ray synchrotron radiation have been carried out to allow us to monitor the electron beam on the Daresbury SRS. The beam spatial and angular vertical position and size was determined over a period of time when the SRS was operating normally. From these measurements, the position and angular stability of the electron beam during the measurement period was assessed and correlation of the beam emittance to the electron current was determined

  9. Bald eagle site management plan for the Hanford Site, south-central Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzner, R.F.; Weiss, S.G.

    1994-12-01

    The CERCLA remedial investigations of waste sites on the Hanford Site will involve lands containing or adjacent to a bald eagle nest, winter concentration areas, or communal night roost. Because these CERCLA investigations may affect bald eagles, the DOE has prepared this Bald Eagle Site Management Plan (BESMP). However, it is intended that this BESMP be used or updated so as to be also applicable to future activities that affect bald eagles on the Hanford Site. Bald eagles regularly use the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in south-central Washington State during winter months for roosting, perching, and foraging. Each of these activities requires buffer zones to protect eagles from human disturbances. Buffer zones developed in this plan follow recommended guidelines and are intended to be used in planning. If Hanford Site activities in the vicinity of identified bald eagle use areas are carried out in accordance with this plan, such actions are not likely to adversely affect the eagles or their habitat. Activities that may be exceptions will involve informal or formal (whichever is appropriate) consultation with the US Fish and Wildlife Service as required by the Endangered Species Act

  10. Carnivoran remains from the Malapa hominin site, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian F Kuhn

    Full Text Available Recent discoveries at the new hominin-bearing deposits of Malapa, South Africa, have yielded a rich faunal assemblage associated with the newly described hominin taxon Australopithecus sediba. Dating of this deposit using U-Pb and palaeomagnetic methods has provided an age of 1.977 Ma, being one of the most accurately dated, time constrained deposits in the Plio-Pleistocene of southern Africa. To date, 81 carnivoran specimens have been identified at this site including members of the families Canidae, Viverridae, Herpestidae, Hyaenidae and Felidae. Of note is the presence of the extinct taxon Dinofelis cf. D. barlowi that may represent the last appearance date for this species. Extant large carnivores are represented by specimens of leopard (Panthera pardus and brown hyaena (Parahyaena brunnea. Smaller carnivores are also represented, and include the genera Atilax and Genetta, as well as Vulpes cf. V. chama. Malapa may also represent the first appearance date for Felis nigripes (Black-footed cat. The geochronological age of Malapa and the associated hominin taxa and carnivoran remains provide a window of research into mammalian evolution during a relatively unknown period in South Africa and elsewhere. In particular, the fauna represented at Malapa has the potential to elucidate aspects of the evolution of Dinofelis and may help resolve competing hypotheses about faunal exchange between East and Southern Africa during the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene.

  11. SRS BEDROCK PROBABILISTIC SEISMIC HAZARD ANALYSIS (PSHA) DESIGN BASIS JUSTIFICATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This represents an assessment of the available Savannah River Site (SRS) hard-rock probabilistic seismic hazard assessments (PSHAs), including PSHAs recently completed, for incorporation in the SRS seismic hazard update. The prior assessment of the SRS seismic design basis (WSRC, 1997) incorporated the results from two PSHAs that were published in 1988 and 1993. Because of the vintage of these studies, an assessment is necessary to establish the value of these PSHAs considering more recently collected data affecting seismic hazards and the availability of more recent PSHAs. This task is consistent with the Department of Energy (DOE) order, DOE O 420.1B and DOE guidance document DOE G 420.1-2. Following DOE guidance, the National Map Hazard was reviewed and incorporated in this assessment. In addition to the National Map hazard, alternative ground motion attenuation models (GMAMs) are used with the National Map source model to produce alternate hazard assessments for the SRS. These hazard assessments are the basis for the updated hard-rock hazard recommendation made in this report. The development and comparison of hazard based on the National Map models and PSHAs completed using alternate GMAMs provides increased confidence in this hazard recommendation. The alternate GMAMs are the EPRI (2004), USGS (2002) and a regional specific model (Silva et al., 2004). Weights of 0.6, 0.3 and 0.1 are recommended for EPRI (2004), USGS (2002) and Silva et al. (2004) respectively. This weighting gives cluster weights of .39, .29, .15, .17 for the 1-corner, 2-corner, hybrid, and Greens-function models, respectively. This assessment is judged to be conservative as compared to WSRC (1997) and incorporates the range of prevailing expert opinion pertinent to the development of seismic hazard at the SRS. The corresponding SRS hard-rock uniform hazard spectra are greater than the design spectra developed in WSRC (1997) that were based on the LLNL (1993) and EPRI (1988) PSHAs. The

  12. An Inverse Fault Detection From Shallow Geophysical Data at the P Reactor Area, Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, A. E.; Knapp, C. C.; Addison, A. D.; Waddel, M.

    2008-12-01

    Surface and borehole Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), a Shallow Seismic Reflection (SSR) as well as Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) surveys were conducted at Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, in order to investigate the shallow stratigraphy, hydrogeophysical zonation, and the applicability and performance of these imaging techniques. The study site is the P Reactor Area located within the Upper Atlantic Coastal Plain, with clastic sediments ranging from Late Cretaceous to Miocene age. Lithologies consist of sand, clayey sand, and clay with minor amounts of calcareous minerals. The target of this research is the delineation and prediction of migration pathways of a large contaminant plume including trichloroethylene (TCE) that originates from the northwest section of the reactor facility and discharges into the nearby Steel Creek. Here, we present results from stratigraphic and hydrogeophysical characterizations using (1) the GPR technique involving the PulseEKKO 100 GPR system with 50, 100, and 200 MHz antennas, (2) the SSR method with a Geometrics 120-channel seismograph, and (3) the ERT technique with the SuperSting R8 IP with 8-channel multi-electrode resistivity and IP imaging system. Faulting on the GPR, SSR and ERT profiles may be observed through offsets of reflecting interfaces, dipping discontinuities, or fault plane imaging, all leading to a constrained interpretation of a fault system at the study site. The simultaneous use of the 50, 100 and 200 MHz antennas with the SSR and ERT methods allows us to generate a geologic cross-section of the subsurface to perform analyes of the radar and acoustic reflection data as a function of frequency, conductivity and acoustic impedance to facilitate interpolation and extrapolation of the hydraulic properties such as hydraulic conductivity (K) and porosity of the study area.

  13. Geochemical and physical properties of wetland soils at the Savannah River site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, K.L; Rogers, V.A.; Conner, S.P.; Cummings, C.L.; Gladden, J.B.; Weber, J.M.

    1996-05-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), located in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina, is a nuclear production facility operated for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). To facilitate future human health and ecological risk assessments, treatability studies, remedial investigations, and feasibility studies for its wetland areas, SRS needs a database of background geochemical and physical properties of wetland soils. These data are needed for comparison to data collected from wetland soils that may have been affected by SRS operations. SRS contains 36,000 acres of wetlands and an additional 5,000 acres of bottom land soils subject to flooding. Recent studies of wetland soils near various waste units at SRS show that some wetlands have been impacted by releases of contaminants resulting from SRS operations (WSRC, 1992). Waste waters originating from the operations facilities typically have been discharged into seepage basins located in upland soils, direct discharge of waste water to wetland areas has been minimal. This suggests that impacted wetland areas have been affected indirectly as a result of transport mechanisms such as surface runoff, groundwater seeps, fluvial or sediment transport, and leaching. Looney et al. (1990) conducted a study to characterize the geochemical and physical properties of upland soils and shallow sediments on the SRS. A primary objective of the upland study was to collect the data needed to assess the qualitative and quantitative impacts of SRS operations on the environment. By comparing the upland soils data to data collected from waste units located in similar soils, SRS impacts could be assessed. The data were also intended to aid in selection of remediation alternatives. Because waste units at SRS have historically been located in upland areas, wetland soils were not sampled. (Abstract Truncated)

  14. Integration of Environmental Compliance at the Savannah River Site - 13024

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoel, David; Griffith, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a large federal installation hosting diverse missions and multiple organizations with competing regulatory needs. Accordingly, there was a need to integrate environmental compliance strategies to ensure the consistent flow of information between Department of Energy-Savannah River (DOE-SR), the regulatory agencies and other interested parties. In order to meet this objective, DOE and major SRS contractors and tenants have committed to a strategy of collaboratively working together to ensure that a consistent, integrated, and fully coordinated approach to environmental compliance and regulator relationships is maintained. DOE-SR and Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC, the SRS management and operations contractor, have established an environmental compliance integration process that provides for the consistent flow down of requirements to projects, facilities, SRS contractors, and subcontractors as well as the upward flow of information to assist in the early identification and resolution of environmental regulatory issues and enhancement of compliance opportunities. In addition, this process strongly fosters teamwork to collaboratively resolve complex regulatory challenges, promote pollution prevention and waste minimization opportunities to advance site missions in a manner that balances near-term actions with the long-term site vision, while being protective of human health and the environment. Communication tools are being utilized, some with enhancements, to ensure appropriate information is communicated to all levels with environmental responsibility at SRS. SRS internal regulatory integration is accomplished through a variety of informational exchange forums (e.g., Challenges, Opportunities and Resolution (COR) Team, DOE's Joint Site Regulatory Integration Team, and the Senior Environmental Managers Council (SEMC)). SRS communications and problem-solving with the regulatory agencies have been enhanced through formation of an

  15. Minimizing Characterization - Derived Waste at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Pelt, R. S.; Amidon, M. B.; Reboul, S. H.

    2002-02-25

    Environmental restoration activities at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS) utilize innovative site characterization approaches and technologies that minimize waste generation. Characterization is typically conducted in phases, first by collecting large quantities of inexpensive data, followed by targeted minimally invasive drilling to collect depth-discrete soil/groundwater data, and concluded with the installation of permanent multi-level groundwater monitoring wells. Waste-reducing characterization methods utilize non-traditional drilling practices (sonic drilling), minimally intrusive (geoprobe, cone penetrometer) and non-intrusive (3-D seismic, ground penetration radar, aerial monitoring) investigative tools. Various types of sensor probes (moisture sensors, gamma spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, laser induced and X-ray fluorescence) and hydrophobic membranes (FLUTe) are used in conjunction with depth-discrete sampling techniques to obtain high-resolution 3-D plume profiles. Groundwater monitoring (short/long-term) approaches utilize multi-level sampling technologies (Strata-Sampler, Cone-Sipper, Solinst Waterloo, Westbay) and low-cost diffusion samplers for seepline/surface water sampling. Upon collection of soil and groundwater data, information is portrayed in a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) format for interpretation and planning purposes. At the SRS, the use of non-traditional drilling methods and minimally/non intrusive investigation approaches along with in-situ sampling methods has minimized waste generation and improved the effectiveness and efficiency of characterization activities.

  16. Minimizing Characterization - Derived Waste at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Pelt, R. S.; Amidon, M. B.; Reboul, S. H.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental restoration activities at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS) utilize innovative site characterization approaches and technologies that minimize waste generation. Characterization is typically conducted in phases, first by collecting large quantities of inexpensive data, followed by targeted minimally invasive drilling to collect depth-discrete soil/groundwater data, and concluded with the installation of permanent multi-level groundwater monitoring wells. Waste-reducing characterization methods utilize non-traditional drilling practices (sonic drilling), minimally intrusive (geoprobe, cone penetrometer) and non-intrusive (3-D seismic, ground penetration radar, aerial monitoring) investigative tools. Various types of sensor probes (moisture sensors, gamma spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, laser induced and X-ray fluorescence) and hydrophobic membranes (FLUTe) are used in conjunction with depth-discrete sampling techniques to obtain high-resolution 3-D plume profiles. Groundwater monitoring (short/long-term) approaches utilize multi-level sampling technologies (Strata-Sampler, Cone-Sipper, Solinst Waterloo, Westbay) and low-cost diffusion samplers for seepline/surface water sampling. Upon collection of soil and groundwater data, information is portrayed in a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) format for interpretation and planning purposes. At the SRS, the use of non-traditional drilling methods and minimally/non intrusive investigation approaches along with in-situ sampling methods has minimized waste generation and improved the effectiveness and efficiency of characterization activities

  17. The ArcSDE GIS Dynamic Population Model Tool for Savannah River Site Emergency Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCLANE, TRACY; JONES, DWIGHT

    2005-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a 310-square-mile Department of Energy site located near Aiken, South Carolina. With a workforce of over 10,000 employees and subcontractors, SRS emergency personnel must be able to respond to an emergency event in a timely and effective manner, in order to ensure the safety and security of the Site. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) provides the technology needed to give managers and emergency personnel the information they need to make quick and effective decisions. In the event of a site evacuation, knowing the number of on-site personnel to evacuate from a given area is an essential piece of information for emergency staff. SRS has developed a GIS Dynamic Population Model Tool to quickly communicate real-time information that summarizes employee populations by facility area and building and then generates dynamic maps that illustrate output statistics

  18. Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar for Hydrogeologic Characterization at the P Reactor Area, Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, A. E.; Knapp, C. C.; Addison, A.; Waddell, M.

    2006-12-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques were implemented at Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, in order to develop new approaches for hydrogeophysical characterization in heterogeneous environments. The study site is the P Reactor Area located within the Upper Atlantic Coastal Plain, with clastic sediments ranging from Late Cretaceous to Miocene age. Lithologies consist of sand, clayey sand, and clay with minor amounts of calcareous minerals. Increasing interest in the P Reactor Area in recent years is the result of the presence of several contaminant plumes including trichloroethylene (TCE) that originates from the northwest section of the reactor facility and discharges into nearby Steel Creek. Here, we present the results from subsurface characterization using the GPR technique involving the PulseEKKO 100 GPR system with 50, 100, and 200 MHz antennas. Data acquisition included (1) several regional 2D common-offset GPR transects for general stratigraphic characterization, (2) a series of common-mid point (CMP) profiles for velocity estimation, (3) a set of vertical radar profiles (VRP) at an existing borehole in the vicinity of the study area, and (4) a 3D GPR survey for detailed subsurface lithostratigraphic characterization collected with the 50 MHz antenna. The ongoing GPR processing will map key dielectric interfaces from the ground surface to ~20 meters, and will be integrated with co-located surface and vertical seismic reflection data as well as with lithologic information obtained from Cone Penetrometer Technology (CPT) tests performed at the study area. This lithosptratigraphic zonation will provide the framework for subsequent hydrological parameter estimation, which will be performed using borehole hydrogeological and crosshole seismic and GPR methods. This research was supported by the Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02-06ER64210.

  19. TU-A-BRB-00: PANEL DISCUSSION: SBRT/SRS Case Studies - Brain and Spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Brain stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) are commonly treated by a multidisciplinary team of neurosurgeons, radiation oncologists, and medical physicists. However the treatment objectives, constraints, and technical considerations involved can be quite different between the two techniques. In this interactive session an expert panel of speakers will present clinical brain SRS and spine SBRT cases in order to demonstrate real-world considerations for ensuring safe and accurate treatment delivery and to highlight the significant differences in approach for each treatment site. The session will include discussion of topic such as clinical indications, immobilization, target definition, normal tissue tolerance limits, and beam arrangements. Learning Objectives: Understand the differences in indications and dose/fractionation strategies for intracranial SRS and spine SBRT. Describe the different treatment modalities which can be used to deliver intracranial SRS and spine SBRT. Cite the major differences in treatment setup and delivery principles between intracranial and spine treatments. Identify key critical structures and clinical dosimetric tolerance levels for spine SBRT and intracranial SRS. Understand areas of ongoing work to standardize intracranial SRS and spine SBRT procedures. Schlesinger: Research support: Elekta Instruments, AB; D. Schlesinger, Elekta Instruments, AB - research support; B. Winey, No relevant external funding for this subject.

  20. An aerial radiological survey of the Savannah River Site TNX facility and surrounding area, Aiken, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over a 3.8-square-kilometer (1.5-square-mile) area, centered on the Savannah River Site (SRS) TNX facility. The survey was flown on July 25, 1986, prior to the Steel Creek Corridor survey. Radiological measurements were used to determine the extent of man-made radionuclides in the TNX area. This survey area had been covered during previous site surveys of the Savannah River Floodplain. Higher than typical levels of thorium-232 daughters were detected in the survey area just west of the TNX facility. The natural terrestrial radiation levels were consistent with those measured during prior surveys of this and other SRS areas. 5 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Environmental review of the Radium hill mine site, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lottermoser, B.G.; Ashley, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    The Radium Hill uranium deposit, in semi-arid eastern South Australia, was discovered in 1906 and mined for radium between 1906 and 1931 and for uranium between 1954 and 1961 (production of 969,300 t of davidite ore averaging 0.12% U 3 O 8 ). Rehabilitation was limited to removal of mine facilities, sealing of underground workings and capping of selected waste repositories. In 2002, gamma-ray data, plus tailings, uncrushed and crushed waste rock, stream sediment, topsoil and vegetation samples were collected to assist in the examination of the current environmental status of the mine site. The preliminary data indicate that capping of tailings storage facilities did not ensure the long-term containment of the low-level radioactive wastes due to the erosion of sides of the impoundments. Moreover, active wind erosion of waste fines from various, physically unstable waste repositories causes increasing radiochemical (up to 0.94 μSv/h) and geochemical (Ce, La, Sc, Th, U, V, Y) impacts on local soils and sediments. However, measured radiation levels of soils and sediments are at or below Australian Radiation Protection Standards (20 mSv/a averaged over five consecutive years). Additional capping and landform design of the crushed waste and tailings repositories are required in order to minimise erosion and impacts on surrounding soils and sediments. (orig.)

  2. Environmental assessment for the domestic water supply upgrades and consolidation on the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The domestic water systems on the Savannah River Site (SRS) are currently in need of upgrading to ensure compliance with the Safe Drinking Water Act and South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Drinking Water Regulations. The SRS has 28 separate goundwater-based drinking water systems in use across the site. These aging systems were designed and constructed in the 1950s and are now facing increasing difficulties in meeting cur-rent regulations. Audits of the systems conducted by SCDHEC in 1986, 1988, 1991, and 1993 identified shortfalls in meeting the requirements for secondary maximum containment levels (MCLS) and SCDHEC design standards. Secondary MCLs are those items, such as odor or appearance, that do not pose a direct health impact. SRS has committed to SCDHEC to correct the drinking water discrepancies and construct two new consolidated inter-area drinking water systems. Upgrading the SRS drinking water systems would be necessary to support site activities regardless of the makeup or the mission at SRS. As such, the proposed upgrade and consolidation of SRS domestic water systems is treated as part of the ``No Action`` alternative for the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Reconfiguration of the Nuclear Weapons Complex .

  3. Trends in Attendance at Scoliosis Research Society Annual Meetings (SRS AM) and International Meeting on Advanced Spine Techniques (IMAST): Location, Location, Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Foster; Cho, Woojin; Kim, Han Jo; Levine, David B

    2017-07-01

    Descriptive, respective. Although overall membership in Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) has grown over the years, we were curious to see the effects of changing event venue location and timing on conference attendance. Every year, the SRS hosts two major meetings: the Annual Meeting (SRS AM) in the autumn, and the International Meeting on Advanced Spine Techniques (IMAST) in the summer. Sites have alternated from within and outside North America. Often, these meetings have also overlapped with several holidays in certain countries. This was an observational study of attendance from past SRS AM and IMAST meetings. Fourteen years of AM and 8 years of IMAST data were made available from the SRS. Participation based on delegate type and countries were tallied. Details from the 10 most represented nations and host nations per year were also tallied, and their national holidays were reviewed for overlaps with the AM. Membership in AM and IMAST increased from 820 in 2003 to 1,323 in 2016. Attendance at the AM has increased, whereas attendance at IMAST has declined, even after adjusting for membership size. Trends in participation were highly influenced by location. Participation by attendees from the host continent, and especially the host country, is generally high. The negative impact of distant meetings is profoundly seen with North Americans, whereas the positive impact of a nearby meeting was mostly clearly demonstrated by South Americans. Although SRS AM overlapped with holidays in China, Japan, or Korea nearly 50% of the time, this did not influence participation by delegates from these countries. Participation in the AM is highly influenced by location. Although North Americans represented the largest constituency, their presence was not needed to drive total attendance and was not sufficient to turn around the downturn in IMAST attendance. Choice of location can encourage the participation of delegates from the host and neighboring nations; through strategic

  4. Using site-selection model to identify suitable sites for seagrass transplantation in the west coast of South Sulawesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanuru, Mahatma; Mashoreng, S.; Amri, K.

    2018-03-01

    The success of seagrass transplantation is very much depending on the site selection and suitable transplantation methods. The main objective of this study is to develop and use a site-selection model to identify the suitability of sites for seagrass (Enhalus acoroides) transplantation. Model development was based on the physical and biological characteristics of the transplantation site. The site-selection process is divided into 3 phases: Phase I identifies potential seagrass habitat using available knowledge, removes unnecessary sites before the transplantation test is performed. Phase II involves field assessment and transplantation test of the best scoring areas identified in Phase I. Phase III is the final calculation of the TSI (Transplant Suitability Index), based on results from Phases I and II. The model was used to identify the suitability of sites for seagrass transplantation in the West coast of South Sulawesi (3 sites at Labakkang Coast, 3 sites at Awerange Bay, and 3 sites at Lale-Lae Island). Of the 9 sites, two sites were predicted by the site-selection model to be the most suitable sites for seagrass transplantation: Site II at Labakkang Coast and Site III at Lale-Lae Island.

  5. Flood frequency analysis at ungauged sites in the KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Thomas Rodding; Smithers, J.C.; Schulze, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    Use of the index-flood method at ungauged sites requires methods for estimation of the index-flood parameter at these sites. This study attempts to relate the mean annual flood to site characteristics of catchments in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The ordinary, weighted and generalised least square...

  6. SRS environmental air surveillance program 1954-2015: General trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-06-02

    The radiological monitoring program at SRS was established under the DuPont Company in June 1951 and was used as a measurement of the effectiveness of plant controls and as an authoritative record of environmental conditions surrounding the plant. It also served as a method of demonstrating compliance with applicable federal regulations and guidance. This document serves as a general summary of changes made specifically to the environmental air monitoring program since its inception, and a discussion of the general trends seen in the air monitoring program at SRS from 1954 to 2015. Initially, the environmental air surveillance program focused not only on releases from SRS but also on fallout from various weapons testing performed through the end of 1978. Flypaper was used to measure the amount of fallout in the atmosphere during this period, and was present at each of the 10 monitoring stations. By 1959, all site stacks were included in the air monitoring program to determine their contribution to the airborne radioactivity onsite, and the number of air surveillance samplers rose to 18. This trend of an increased number of sampling locations continued to a peak of 35 sampling locations before shifting to a downward trend in the mid-1990s. In 1962, 4 outer-range samplers were placed in Savannah and Macon, GA, and in Greenville and Columbia, SC. Until 1976, air samplers were simply placed around the perimeter of the various operation locations (after 1959, this included stacks to determine their contribution to the airborne radioactivity), with the intent of creating as representative a distribution as possible of the air surrounding operations.

  7. Wootz Crucible Steel: A Newly Discovered Production Site in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad Srinivasan

    1994-11-01

    Full Text Available During the course of field investigations of copper mining and smelting in South India, the author of this paper came across a previously unrecorded archaeometallurgical site in Mel-siruvalur, South Arcot district, Tamil Nadu, which investigations have confinned was a production centre for wootz crucible steel in the Deccan. The find of this production centre supports the idea that wootz steel production was relatiYely widespread in South India, and extends the known horizons of this technology further.

  8. Literature review of the potential impact of glycolic acid on the technetium chemistry of srs tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, Charles A.; McCabe, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    This document presents a literature study of the impact of glycolate on technetium chemistry in the Savannah River Site (SRS) waste system and specifically Saltstone. A predominant portion of the Tc at SRS will be sent to the Saltstone Facility where it will be immobilized. The Tc in the tank waste is in the highly soluble chemical form of pertechnetate ion (TcO 4 - ) which is reduced by blast furnace slag (BFS) in Saltstone, rendering it highly insoluble and resistant to leaching.

  9. SRS 2010 Vegetation Inventory GeoStatistical Mapping Results for Custom Reaction Intensity and Total Dead Fuels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Lloyd A. [Leading Solutions, LLC.; Paresol, Bernard [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, OR.

    2014-09-01

    This report of the geostatistical analysis results of the fire fuels response variables, custom reaction intensity and total dead fuels is but a part of an SRS 2010 vegetation inventory project. For detailed description of project, theory and background including sample design, methods, and results please refer to USDA Forest Service Savannah River Site internal report “SRS 2010 Vegetation Inventory GeoStatistical Mapping Report”, (Edwards & Parresol 2013).

  10. Thermodynamic Modeling of the SRS Evaporators: Part II. The 3H System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C.M.

    2001-10-02

    Accumulations of two solid phases have formed scale deposits in the Savannah River Site 2H Evaporator system since late 1996. The aluminosilicate scale deposits caused the evaporator pot to become inoperable in October 1999. Accumulations of the diuranate phase have caused criticality concerns in the SRS 2H Evaporator. In order to ensure that similar deposits are not and will not form in the SRS 3H Evaporator, thermodynamically derived activity diagrams specific to the feeds processed from Tanks 30 and 32 are evaluated in this report.

  11. Input to the PRAST computer code used in the SRS probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearnaghan, D.P.

    1992-01-01

    The PRAST (Production Reactor Algorithm for Source Terms) computer code was developed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company and Science Application International Corporation for the quantification of source terms for the SRS Savannah River Site (SRS) Reactor Probabilistic Risk Assessment. PRAST requires as input a set of release fractions, decontamination factors, transfer fractions and source term characteristics that accurately reflect the conditions that are evaluated by PRAST. This document links the analyses which form the basis for the PRAST input parameters. In addition, it gives the distribution of the input parameters that are uncertain and considered to be important to the evaluation of the source terms to the environment

  12. Screening dynamic evaluation of SRS cooling water line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezler, P.; Shteyngart, S.; Breidenbach, G.

    1991-01-01

    The production reactors at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have been shut down due to perceived safety concerns. A major concern is the seismic integrity of the plant. A comprehensive program is underway to assess the seismic capacity of the existing systems and components and to upgrade them to acceptable levels. The evaluation of the piping systems at the SRS is a major element of this program. Many of the piping systems at the production reactors were designed without performing dynamic analyses. Instead their design complied with good design practice for dead weight supported systems with proper accommodation of thermal expansion effects. In order to gain some insight as to the seismic capacity of piping installed in this fashion, dynamic analyses were performed for some lines. Since the piping was not seismically supported, the evaluations involved various approximations and the results are only used as a screening test of seismic adequacy. In this paper, the screening evaluations performed for the raw water inlet line are described. This line was selected for evaluation since it was considered typical of the smaller diameter piping systems at the plant. It is a dead weight supported system made up of a run of small diameter piping which extends for great distances over many dead weight supports and through wall penetrations. The results of several evaluations for the system using different approximations to represent the support system are described. 2 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Update to agency for toxic substances and disease registry 2012 report on assessment of biota exposure to mercury originating from Savannah River Site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhne, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-08-10

    The purpose of this report is to 1) update previous Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) assessment reports (Kvartek et al. 1994 and Halverson et al. 2008) on the fate of mercury in the Savannah River Site (SRS) environment and 2) address comments and recommendations from the review of SRS by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) concerning the evaluation of exposures to contaminants in biota originating from the SRS. The ATSDR reviewed and evaluated data from SRS, South Carolina Department of Health & Environmental Control (SCDHEC) and the Georgia Department of Natural Resources (GDNR) concerning the non-radioactive contaminant mercury. This report will provide a response and update to conclusions and recommendations made by the ATSDR.

  14. Demonstration of Eastman Christensen horizontal drilling system -- Integrated Demonstration Site, Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    An innovative horizontal drilling system was used to install two horizontal wells as part of an integrated demonstration project at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, South Carolina. The SRS is located in south-central South Carolina in the upper Coastal Plain physiographic province. The demonstration site is located near the A/M Area, and is currently known as the Integated Demonstration Site. The Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development initiated an integrated demonstration of innovative technologies for cleanup of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) in soils and groundwater at the SRS in 1989. The overall goal of the program is to demonstrate, at a single location, multiple technologies in the fields of drilling, characterization, monitoring, and remediation. Innovative technologies are compared to one another and to baseline technologies in terms of technical performance and cost effectiveness. Transfer of successfully demonstrated technologies and systems to DOE environmental restoration organizations, to other government agencies, and to industry is a critical part of the program

  15. South Turkwel: a new pliocene hominid site in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, C V; Leakey, M G; Brown, B; Brown, F; Harris, J; Walker, A

    1999-01-01

    New fossils discovered south of the Turkwel River in northern Kenya include an associated metacarpal, capitate, hamate, lunate, pedal phalanx, mandibular fragment, and teeth. These fossils probably date to around 3.5 m.y.a. Faunal information suggests that the environment at South Turkwel was predominantly bushland. The mandibular and dental remains are fragmentary, but the postcranial fossils are informative. Comparisons with Australopithecus, modern human, chimpanzee and gorilla hand bones suggest that the Turkwel hominid was most like Australopithecus afarensis and A. africanus. Carpometacarpal articulations are intermediate between those of modern humans and African apes, suggesting enhanced gripping capabilities compared with extant apes. The hamulus was strikingly large, similar in proportion only to Neandertals and some gorillas, suggesting the presence of powerful forearms and hands. There are no indicators of adaptations to knuckle-walking or suspensory locomotion in the hand, and the pedal phalanx suggests that this hominid was habitually bipedal. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  16. Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) Station and Site Description Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Hansen, Jens Carsten; Kelly, Mark C.

    As part of the “Wind Atlas for South Africa” project, site inspection trips were carried out by the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and Risø DTU in April and June of 2011. A total of 10 sites featuring instrumented 60-m masts were visited; the present report summarises...

  17. K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites Groundwater Monitoring Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1993-04-01

    During fourth quarter 1992, samples from the three monitoring wells at the K-Area site (KSS series) and the three monitoring wells at the Par Pond site (PSS series) were analyzed for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13, 173 and for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. This report describes monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the SRS flagging criteria. During fourth quarter 1992, no constituents analyzed exceeded the PDWS or the SRS Flag 2 criteria at the K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites. In the KSS well series, the field measurement for alkalinity ranged as high as 26 mg/L in well KSS 1D. Alkalinity measurements were zero in the PSS wells. Historical and current water-level elevations at the K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site indicate that the groundwater flow directions are south to southwest (SRS grid coordinates)

  18. Report on SRS activities to March, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, I.H.

    1981-10-01

    In this first Annual Report on synchrotron radiation research and related activities since the completion of the storage ring (the SRS) at Daresbury Laboratory a summary is given of progress on the storage ring itself, on beamlines, experimental stations, data acquisition and processing facilities and on the build-up of ancillary laboratories and equipment. In appendices a bibliography of synchrotron radiation research publications from March 1977 to March 1981 and a cumulative list of research grants and agreements approved by the SRFC from March 1977 to March 1981 are given. (U.K.)

  19. Initial mortality rates and extent of damage to loblolly and longleaf pine plantations affected by an ice storm in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don C. Bragg

    2016-01-01

    A major ice storm struck Georgia and the Carolinas in February of 2014, damaging or destroying hundreds of thousands of hectares of timber worth hundreds of millions of dollars. Losses were particularly severe in pine plantations in west-central South Carolina, including many on the Savannah River Site (SRS). An array of paired, mid-rotation loblolly (Pinus...

  20. Development of a Rotary Microfilter for SRS HLW Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MICHAEL, POIRIER

    2004-01-01

    The processing rate of Savannah River Site high level waste decontamination processes are limited by the flow rate of the solid-liquid separation. The baseline process, using a 0.1 micron cross flow filter, produces 0.02 gpm/ft2 of filtrate under expected operating conditions. Savannah River National Laboratory personnel identified the rotary microfilter as a technology that could significantly increase filter flux, with throughput improvements of as much as 10X for that specific operation. With funding from the Department of Energy Office of Cleanup Technologies, SRNL personnel are evaluating and developing the rotary microfilter for radioactive service at SRS. This work includes pilot-scale and actual waste testing to evaluate system reliability, the impact of radiation on system components, the filter flux for a variety of waste streams, and relative performance for alternative filter media

  1. Research in Support of Remediation Activities at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaman, J.C.; B.B. Looney and M.K. Harris

    2007-01-01

    The USDOE Savannah River Site (SRS), an 803-km 2 (310-mile 2 ) facility located south of Aiken, SC on the upper Atlantic Coastal Plain and bounded to the west by the Savannah River, was established in the 1950s for the production and refinement of nuclear materials. To fulfill this mission during the past 50 years SRS has operated five nuclear reactors, two large chemical separation areas, waste disposal facilities (landfills, waste ponds, waste tanks, and waste stabilization), and a large number of research and logistics support facilities. Contaminants of concern (COC) resulting from site operations include chlorinated solvents, radionuclides, metals, and metalloids, often found as complex mixtures that greatly complicate remediation efforts when compared with civilian industries. The objective of this article is to provide a description of the lithology and hydrostratigraphy of the SRS, as well as a brief history of site operations and research activities as a preface to the current special section of Vadose Zone Journal (VZJ) dedicated to SRS, focusing mainly on issues that are unique to the USDOE complex. Contributions to the special section reflect a diverse range of topics, from hydrologic tracer experiments conducted both within the vadose and saturated zones to studies specifically aimed at identifying geochemical processes controlling the migration and partitioning of specific contaminants (e.g., TCE, 137 Cs, U, and Pu) in SRS subsurface environments. Addressing the diverse environmental challenges of the SRS provides a unique opportunity to conduct both fundamental and applied research across a range of experimental scales. Hence, the SRS has been a pioneering force in several areas of environmental research and remediation, often through active interdisciplinary collaboration with researchers from other USDOE facilities, academic and federal institutions, and commercial entities

  2. 7Q10 flows for SRS streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.F.

    1996-01-01

    The Environmental Transport Group of the Environmental Technology Section was requested to predict the seven-day ten-year low flow (7Q10 flow) for the SRS streams based on historical stream flow records. Most of the historical flow records for the SRS streams include reactor coolant water discharged from the reactors and process water released from the process facilities. The most straight forward way to estimate the stream daily natural flow is to subtract the measured upstream reactor and/or facility daily effluents from the measured downstream daily flow. Unfortunately, this method does not always work, as indicated by the fact that sometimes the measured downstream volumetric flow rates are lower than the reactor effluent volumetric flow rates. For those cases that cannot be analyzed with the simple subtracting method, an alternative method was used to estimate the stream natural flows by statistically separating reactor coolant and process water flow data. The correlation between the calculated 7Q10 flows and the watershed areas for Four Mile Branch and Pen Branch agrees with that calculated by the USGS for Upper Three Runs and Lower Three Runs Creeks. The agreement between these two independent calculations lends confidence to the 7Q10 flow calculations presented in this report

  3. An aerial radiological survey of Par Pond and associated drainage pathways of the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    The first of a three-phase effort to radiologically monitor the lowering of Par Pond and associated drainage pathways was conducted over three areas of the Savannah River Site (SRS). The areas surveyed during this first phase included Par Pond, the Savannah River swamp from Steel Creek to Little Hell Landing, and Lower Three Runs Creek from the mouth of Lower Three Runs to the Highway 301 Bridge. The first phase was conducted to coincide with the lowering of the water level of Par Pond to an elevation of 190 feet above sea level. Additional surveys were conducted when the water level was at an elevation of 180 feet and prior to refill. The first survey began August 19, 1991, and was completed September 11, 1991. The second survey was conducted in October/November, 1991, during the SRS site-wide survey, and the third survey was conducted in August/September, 1992. Only the Par Pond area itself was surveyed during the third and final phase. The radiation detected over the Creek Plantation portion of the Savannah River swamp and Lower Three Runs areas during the August 1991 survey was consistent with the spatial distribution, quantity, and kinds of radionuclides detected during the 1983 and 1986 surveys. No migration of man-made gamma emitting materials was detected when compared to the prior surveys. The major differences occurred along the Par Pond shoreline where lowered water levels exposed the contaminated pond bed. The activity in the pond bed was attenuated by the water cover prior to the start of the lowering of Par Pond in June 1991. The data collected during each survey were processed in the field and were presented to SRS. A comparison report is being generated after the completion of each survey. A final report will be generated for the three surveys and will include a quantitative comparison of the three surveys in the Par Pond area only

  4. Comparison of Srs-24 And Srs-22 Scores in Thirty Eight Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Patients Who Had Undergone Surgical Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CYW Chan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a spinal deformity that affects patients’ self image and confidence. Surgery is offered when the curvature is greater than 50 degrees based on the likelihood of curvature progression. Outcome measures for scoliosis correction can be described in terms of radiological improvement or improvement of health related quality of life scores. The Scoliosis Research Society 22 (SRS-22 and Scoliosis Research Society 24 (SRS-24 questionnaires are widely accepted and used to characterize clinical results. Therefore, this prospective study of 38 patients aims to investigate how the SRS-24 and SRS-22 questionnaires compare to each other in terms of scoring when the same group of patients is evaluated. The SRS-22 questionnaire tends to give an inflated value in the overall score, pain and self image domain compared to the SRS-24 questionnaire.

  5. Simulation of ground-water flow and stream-aquifer relations in the vicinity of the Savannah River Site, Georgia and South Carolina, predevelopment through 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, John S.; West, Christopher T.

    1998-01-01

    Ground-water flow and stream-aquifer relations were simulated for seven aquifers in Coastal Plain sediments in the vicinity of the U.S. Department of Energy, Savannah River Site (SRS), in Georgia and South Carolina to evaluate the potential for ground water containing hazardous materials to migrate from the SRS into Georgia through aquifers underlying the Savannah River (trans-river flow). The work was completed as part of a cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey, the U.S. Department of Energy, and Georgia Department of Natural Resources. The U.S. Geological Survey three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW, was used to simulate ground-water flow in three aquifer systems containing seven discrete aquifers: (1) the Floridan aquifer system, consisting of the Upper Three Runs and Gordon aquifers in sediments of Eocene age; (2) the Dublin aquifer system, consisting of the Millers Pond, and upper and lower Dublin aquifers in sediments of Paleocene and Late Cretaceous age; and (3) the Midville aquifer system, consisting of the upper and lower Midville aquifers of sediments in Late Cretaceous age. Ground-water flow was simulated using a series of steady-state simulations of predevelopment (pre-1953) conditions and six pumping periods--1953-60, 1961-70, 1971-75, 1976-80, 1981-86, and 1987-92--results are presented for predevelopment (prior to 1953) and modern-day (1987-92) conditions. Total simulated predevelopment inflow is 1,023 million gallons per day (Mgal/d), of which 76 percent is contributed by leakage from the Upper Three Runs aquifer. Over most of the study area, pumpage induced changes in ground-water levels, ground-water discharge to streams, and water-budget components were small during 1953-92, and changes in aquifer storage were insignificant. Simulated drawdown between predevelopment and modern-day conditions is small (less than 7 feet) and of limited areal extent--the largest simulated declines occur in the upper and

  6. A molten salt tower model used for site selection in South Africa using SAURAN meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Ian Vincent; Dinter, Frank

    2017-06-01

    South Africa has become a hotspot for concentrating solar power (CSP) development in recent years. With an abundance of solar resource and an existing governmental framework for renewable energy development, the country has captured the attention of CSP developers worldwide. The primary limitations for CSP plants in South Africa are electrical transmission and water availability. While taking into account such infrastructure limitations, six sites were proposed. A purpose-built simulation model for a proposed 100 MWe (gross) tower plant with 12 hours of storage was developed. Using site South African Universities Radiometric Network (SAURAN) meteorological data with a resolution of up to 1 minute, each of the sites was evaluated in terms of electrical yield using the model. The investigation found that the site situated in Springbok will generate 450.8 GWhe per annum, and is the most advantageous site for the modeled plant. The most promising alternative site is situated in near Laingsburg in the Western Province. This site offered 413.7 GWhe per annum, and it is close to available transmission and surface water.

  7. DOE Research Set-Aside Areas of the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, C.E.; Janecek, L.L.

    1997-08-31

    Designated as the first of seven National Environmental Research Parks (NERPs) by the Atomic Energy Commission (now the Department of Energy), the Savannah River Site (SRS) is an important ecological component of the Southeastern Mixed Forest Ecoregion located along the Savannah River south of Aiken, South Carolina. Integral to the Savannah River Site NERP are the DOE Research Set-Aside Areas. Scattered across the SRS, these thirty tracts of land have been set aside for ecological research and are protected from public access and most routine Site maintenance and forest management activities. Ranging in size from 8.5 acres (3.44 ha) to 7,364 acres (2,980 ha), the thirty Set-Aside Areas total 14,005 acres (5,668 ha) and comprise approximately 7% of the Site`s total area. This system of Set-Aside Areas originally was established to represent the major plant communities and habitat types indigenous to the SRS (old-fields, sandhills, upland hardwood, mixed pine/hardwood, bottomland forests, swamp forests, Carolina bays, and fresh water streams and impoundments), as well as to preserve habitats for endangered, threatened, or rare plant and animal populations. Many long-term ecological studies are conducted in the Set-Asides, which also serve as control areas in evaluations of the potential impacts of SRS operations on other regions of the Site. The purpose of this document is to give an historical account of the SRS Set-Aside Program and to provide a descriptive profile of each of the Set-Aside Areas. These descriptions include a narrative for each Area, information on the plant communities and soil types found there, lists of sensitive plants and animals documented from each Area, an account of the ecological research conducted in each Area, locator and resource composition maps, and a list of Site-Use permits and publications associated with each Set-Aside.

  8. UTILIZING INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CLEAN-UP, SAVAHHAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergren, C

    2009-01-07

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a 310-square-mile United States Department of Energy nuclear facility located along the Savannah River near Aiken, South Carolina. During operations, which started in 1951, hazardous substances (chemicals and radionuclides) were released to the environment. The releases occurred as a result of inadvertent spills and waste disposal in unlined pits and basins which was common practice before environmental regulations existed. The hazardous substances have migrated to the vadose zone and groundwater in many areas of the SRS, resulting in 515 waste units and facilities that are required by environmental regulations, to undergo characterization and, if needed, remediation. In the initial years of the SRS environmental cleanup program (early 1990s), the focus was to use common technologies (such as pump and treat, air stripping, excavation and removal) that actively and tangibly removed contamination. Exclusive use of these technologies required continued and significant funding while often failing to meet acceptable clean-up goals and objectives. Recognizing that a more cost-effective approach was needed, SRS implemented new and complementary remediation methods focused on active and passive technologies targeted to solve specific remediation problems. Today, SRS uses technologies such as chemical/pH-adjusting injection, phytoremediation, underground cutoff walls, dynamic underground stripping, soil fracturing, microbial degradation, baroballs, electrical resistance heating, soil vapor extraction, and microblowers to more effectively treat contamination at lower costs. Additionally, SRS's remediation approach cost effectively maximizes cleanup as SRS works proactively with multiple regulatory agencies. Using GIS, video, animation, and graphics, SRS is able to provide an accurate depiction of the evolution of SRS groundwater and vadose zone cleanup activities to convince stakeholders and regulators of the effectiveness of various

  9. The chemical composition and fluxes of atmospheric wet deposition at four sites in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradie, E. H.; Van Zyl, P. G.; Pienaar, J. J.; Beukes, J. P.; Galy-Lacaux, C.; Venter, A. D.; Mkhatshwa, G. V.

    2016-12-01

    South Africa is the economic hub of southern Africa and is regarded as an important source region of atmospheric pollutants. A nitrogen dioxide (NO2) hotspot is clearly visible from space over the South African Mpumalanga Highveld, while South Africa is also regarded as the 9th largest anthropogenic sulphur (S) emitting country. Notwithstanding the importance of South Africa with regard to nitrogen (N) and S emissions, very limited data has been published on the chemical composition of wet deposition for this region. This paper presents the concentrations of sodium (Na+), ammonium (NH4+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), nitrate (NO3-), chloride (Cl-), sulphate (SO42-) and water-soluble organic acids (OA) in the wet deposition samples collected between 2009 and 2014 at four South African IDAF (IGAC DEBITS Africa) sites, which are regarded as regional representatives of the north-eastern interior. Also, wet deposition fluxes of the ten ions are calculated and presented in this paper. The results show that the total ionic concentrations and fluxes of wet deposition were much higher at the two sites closer to anthropogenic emissions, while the pH of wet deposition at these two sites were lower compared to that of the two sites that were less impacted by anthropogenic emissions. . The major sources of the ten ions included marine, terrigenous (crust), fossil fuel combustion, agriculture and biomass burning. Significant contributions from fossil fuel combustion were determined for the two sites in close proximity to anthropogenic source regions. The results of back trajectory analysis, however, did indicate that the two remote sites are also affected by air masses passing over the source region through anti-cyclonic recirculation. The largest contributions at the two sites distant from the anthropogenic source regions were marine sources, while the impact of biomass burning was also more significant at the remote sites. Comparison to previous wet

  10. Colloid and ionic tracer migration within SRS sediments: Final summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, R.N. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Seaman, J.C.; Bertsch, P.M. [Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States). Div. of Biogeochemistry; Miller, W.P. [Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States). Environmental Soil Science

    1996-04-09

    The generation of a stable colloidal suspension in geologic materials has a number of environmental implications. Mobile colloids may act as vectors for the transport of adsorbed contaminants through soils and within aquifers and can cause serious problems related to well monitoring and formation permeability in an injections well system. Colloid-facilitated transport has been implicated in the migration of contaminants from seepage basins on the Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site (SRS) at a rate greater than was predicted in two- phase transport models. From 1955 to 1988, seepage basins overlying the water-table aquifer received acidic wastes containing high levels of Na+ and nitric acid, as well as trace radionuclides and metals from the nuclear materials processing facilities. Numerical simulations predicted that metal contaminants would not reach the water table, but measurable quantities of these contaminants have been detected in monitoring wells down gradient from the basins. Lack of agreement between predicted and observed contaminant migration in this and other studies has been attributed to both local non equilibrium situation, preferential flow paths within the geologic material, and to transport of the contaminant in association with a mobile solid phase, i.e. dispersed colloids. Additionally, the association of contaminants with a mobile colloidal phase has important ramifications for groundwater sampling on SRS intended to evaluate the potential environmental hazards of a given contaminant. As part of the F- and H-Area reclamation project, the Department of Energy has proposed the capture and treatment of the contaminant plume followed by reinjection of the treated water into the water table and upper confined aquifers. (Abstract Truncated)

  11. Assessment of Radionuclides in the Savannah River Site Environment Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, W.H.

    1999-01-26

    This document summarizes the impact of radionuclide releases from Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities from 1954 through 1996. The radionuclides reported here are those whose release resulted in the highest dose to people living near SRS.

  12. Maxdose-SR and popdose-SR routine release atmospheric dose models used at SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, G. T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Trimor, P. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-28

    MAXDOSE-SR and POPDOSE-SR are used to calculate dose to the offsite Reference Person and to the surrounding Savannah River Site (SRS) population respectively following routine releases of atmospheric radioactivity. These models are currently accessed through the Dose Model Version 2014 graphical user interface (GUI). MAXDOSE-SR and POPDOSE-SR are personal computer (PC) versions of MAXIGASP and POPGASP, which both resided on the SRS IBM Mainframe. These two codes follow U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) Regulatory Guides 1.109 and 1.111 (1977a, 1977b). The basis for MAXDOSE-SR and POPDOSE-SR are USNRC developed codes XOQDOQ (Sagendorf et. al 1982) and GASPAR (Eckerman et. al 1980). Both of these codes have previously been verified for use at SRS (Simpkins 1999 and 2000). The revisions incorporated into MAXDOSE-SR and POPDOSE-SR Version 2014 (hereafter referred to as MAXDOSE-SR and POPDOSE-SR unless otherwise noted) were made per Computer Program Modification Tracker (CPMT) number Q-CMT-A-00016 (Appendix D). Version 2014 was verified for use at SRS in Dixon (2014).

  13. Enterprise SRS: leveraging ongoing operations to advance radioactive waste management technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, Alice M.; Wilmarth, William; Marra, John E.

    2013-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is re-purposing its vast array of assets to solve future national issues regarding environmental stewardship, national security, and clean energy. The vehicle for this transformation is Enterprise SRS which presents a new, strategic view of SRS as a united endeavor for 'all things nuclear' as opposed to a group of distinct and separate entities with individual missions and organizations. Key among the Enterprise SRS strategic initiatives is the integration of research into facilities in conjunction with ongoing missions to provide researchers from other national laboratories, academic institutions, and commercial entities the opportunity to demonstrate their technologies in a relevant environment and scale prior to deployment. To manage that integration of research demonstrations into site facilities, The DOE Savannah River Operations Office, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) have established a center for applied nuclear materials processing and engineering research (hereafter referred to as the Center). The key objective of this initiative is to bridge the gap between promising transformational nuclear materials management advancements and large-scale deployment of the technology by using SRS assets (e.g. facilities, staff, and property) for those critical engineering-scale demonstrations necessary to assure the successful deployment of new technologies. The Center will coordinate the demonstration of R and D technologies and serve as the interface between the engineering-scale demonstration and the R and D programs, essentially providing cradle-to-grave support to the R and D team during the demonstration. While the initial focus of the Center will be on the effective use of SRS assets for these demonstrations, the Center also will work with research teams to identify opportunities to perform R and D demonstrations at other facilities. Unique to this approach is the fact

  14. Usability evaluation of the South London and Maudsley NHS Trust Library web site

    OpenAIRE

    Ebenezer, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    A usability evaluation was carried out of the recently-launched South London and Maudsley NHS Trust library web site using a variety of standard methodologies: content and design evaluation of selected comparable sites, focus groups, a questionnaire survey of library and web development staff, heuristic evaluation, observation testing, card sorting/cluster analysis, and label intuitiveness/category membership testing. All test participants were staff of or providers of services to the trust. ...

  15. The Pacific Marine Energy Center - South Energy Test Site (PMEC-SETS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batten, Belinda [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Hellin, Dan [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2018-02-07

    The overall goal of this project was to build on existing progress to establish the Pacific Marine Energy Center South Energy Test Site (PMEC-SETS) as the nation's first fully permitted test site for wave energy converter arrays. Specifically, it plays an essential role in reducing levelized cost of energy for the wave energy industry by providing both the facility and resources to address the challenges of cost reduction.

  16. Savannah River site environmental report for 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, M.; Mamatey, A. [eds.

    1998-12-31

    The mission at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has changed from the production of nuclear weapons materials for national defense to the management of site-generated waste, restoration of the surrounding environment, and the development of industry in and around the site. However, SRS-through its prime operating contractor, Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC)-continues to maintain a comprehensive environmental monitoring program. In 1996, effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance were conducted within a 31,000-square-mile area in and around SRS that includes neighboring cities, towns, and counties in Georgia and South Carolina and extends up to 100 miles from the site. Though the environmental monitoring program was streamlined in 1996-to improve its cost-effectiveness without compromising data quality or reducing its overall ability to produce critical information-thousands of samples of air, surface water, groundwater, food products, drinking water, wildlife, rainwater, soil, sediment, and vegetation were collected and analyzed for radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants.

  17. Savannah River site environmental report for 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnett, M.; Mamatey, A.

    1998-01-01

    The mission at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has changed from the production of nuclear weapons materials for national defense to the management of site-generated waste, restoration of the surrounding environment, and the development of industry in and around the site. However, SRS-through its prime operating contractor, Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC)-continues to maintain a comprehensive environmental monitoring program. In 1996, effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance were conducted within a 31,000-square-mile area in and around SRS that includes neighboring cities, towns, and counties in Georgia and South Carolina and extends up to 100 miles from the site. Though the environmental monitoring program was streamlined in 1996-to improve its cost-effectiveness without compromising data quality or reducing its overall ability to produce critical information-thousands of samples of air, surface water, groundwater, food products, drinking water, wildlife, rainwater, soil, sediment, and vegetation were collected and analyzed for radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants

  18. Development and testing of a contamination potential mapping system for a portion of the General Separations Area, Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rine, J.M.; Berg, R.C.; Shafer, J.M.; Covington, E.R.; Reed, J.K.; Bennett, C.B.; Trudnak, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    A methodology was developed to evaluate and map the contamination potential or aquifer sensitivity of the upper groundwater flow system of a portion of the General Separations Area (GSA) at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to integrate diverse subsurface geologic data, soils data, and hydrology utilizing a stack-unit mapping approach to construct mapping layers. This is the first time that such an approach has been used to delineate the hydrogeology of a coastal plain environment. Unit surface elevation maps were constructed for the tops of six Tertiary units derived from over 200 boring logs. Thickness or isopach maps were created for five hydrogeologic units by differencing top and basal surface elevations. The geologic stack-unit map was created by stacking the five isopach maps and adding codes for each stack-unit polygon. Stacked-units were rated according to their hydrogeologic properties and ranked using a logarithmic approach (utility theory) to establish a contamination potential index. Colors were assigned to help display relative importance of stacked-units in preventing or promoting transport of contaminants. The sensitivity assessment included the effects of surface soils on contaminants which are particularly important for evaluating potential effects from surface spills. Hydrogeologic/hydrologic factors did not exhibit sufficient spatial variation to warrant incorporation into contamination potential assessment. Development of this contamination potential mapping system provides a useful tool for site planners, environmental scientists, and regulatory agencies.A methodology was developed to evaluate and map the contamination potential or aquifer sensitivity of the upper groundwater flow system of a portion of the General Separations Area (GSA) at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to

  19. Growth of longleaf and loblolly pine planted on South Carolina sandhill site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle M. Cram; Kenneth W. Outcalt; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2010-01-01

    Performance of longleaf (Pinus palustris Mill.) and loblolly pine (P. taeda L.) were compared 15–19 years after outplanting on 10 different sites in the sandhills of South Carolina. The study was established from 1988 to 1992 with bareroot seedlings artificially inoculated with Pisolithus tinctorius (Pt) or naturally inoculated with mycorrhizae in the nursery. A...

  20. Commercial Submersible Mixing Pump For SRS Tank Waste Removal - 15223

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, Mike; Herbert, James E.; Scheele, Patrick W.

    2015-01-01

    The Savannah River Site Tank Farms have 45 active underground waste tanks used to store and process nuclear waste materials. There are 4 different tank types, ranging in capacity from 2839 m 3 to 4921 m 3 (750,000 to 1,300,000 gallons). Eighteen of the tanks are older style and do not meet all current federal standards for secondary containment. The older style tanks are the initial focus of waste removal efforts for tank closure and are referred to as closure tanks. Of the original 51 underground waste tanks, six of the original 24 older style tanks have completed waste removal and are filled with grout. The insoluble waste fraction that resides within most waste tanks at SRS requires vigorous agitation to suspend the solids within the waste liquid in order to transfer this material for eventual processing into glass filled canisters at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). SRS suspends the solid waste by use of recirculating mixing pumps. Older style tanks generally have limited riser openings which will not support larger mixing pumps, since the riser access is typically 58.4 cm (23 inches) in diameter. Agitation for these tanks has been provided by four long shafted standard slurry pumps (SLP) powered by an above tank 112KW (150 HP) electric motor. The pump shaft is lubricated and cooled in a pressurized water column that is sealed from the surrounding waste in the tank. Closure of four waste tanks has been accomplished utilizing long shafted pump technology combined with heel removal using multiple technologies. Newer style waste tanks at SRS have larger riser openings, allowing the processing of waste solids to be accomplished with four large diameter SLPs equipped with 224KW (300 HP) motors. These tanks are used to process the waste from closure tanks for DWPF. In addition to the SLPs, a 224KW (300 HP) submersible mixer pump (SMP) has also been developed and deployed within older style tanks. The SMPs are product cooled and product lubricated canned

  1. Commercial Submersible Mixing Pump For SRS Tank Waste Removal - 15223

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, Mike [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Herbert, James E. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Scheele, Patrick W. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-01-12

    The Savannah River Site Tank Farms have 45 active underground waste tanks used to store and process nuclear waste materials. There are 4 different tank types, ranging in capacity from 2839 m3 to 4921 m3 (750,000 to 1,300,000 gallons). Eighteen of the tanks are older style and do not meet all current federal standards for secondary containment. The older style tanks are the initial focus of waste removal efforts for tank closure and are referred to as closure tanks. Of the original 51 underground waste tanks, six of the original 24 older style tanks have completed waste removal and are filled with grout. The insoluble waste fraction that resides within most waste tanks at SRS requires vigorous agitation to suspend the solids within the waste liquid in order to transfer this material for eventual processing into glass filled canisters at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). SRS suspends the solid waste by use of recirculating mixing pumps. Older style tanks generally have limited riser openings which will not support larger mixing pumps, since the riser access is typically 58.4 cm (23 inches) in diameter. Agitation for these tanks has been provided by four long shafted standard slurry pumps (SLP) powered by an above tank 112KW (150 HP) electric motor. The pump shaft is lubricated and cooled in a pressurized water column that is sealed from the surrounding waste in the tank. Closure of four waste tanks has been accomplished utilizing long shafted pump technology combined with heel removal using multiple technologies. Newer style waste tanks at SRS have larger riser openings, allowing the processing of waste solids to be accomplished with four large diameter SLPs equipped with 224KW (300 HP) motors. These tanks are used to process the waste from closure tanks for DWPF. In addition to the SLPs, a 224KW (300 HP) submersible mixer pump (SMP) has also been developed and deployed within older style tanks. The SMPs are product cooled and

  2. DOE Research Set-Aside Areas of the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.E.; Janecek, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    Designated as the first of seven National Environmental Research Parks (NERPs) by the Atomic Energy Commission (now the Department of Energy), the Savannah River Site (SRS) is an important ecological component of the Southeastern Mixed Forest Ecoregion located along the Savannah River south of Aiken, South Carolina. Integral to the Savannah River Site NERP are the DOE Research Set-Aside Areas. Scattered across the SRS, these thirty tracts of land have been set aside for ecological research and are protected from public access and most routine Site maintenance and forest management activities. Ranging in size from 8.5 acres (3.44 ha) to 7,364 acres (2,980 ha), the thirty Set-Aside Areas total 14,005 acres (5,668 ha) and comprise approximately 7% of the Site's total area. This system of Set-Aside Areas originally was established to represent the major plant communities and habitat types indigenous to the SRS (old-fields, sandhills, upland hardwood, mixed pine/hardwood, bottomland forests, swamp forests, Carolina bays, and fresh water streams and impoundments), as well as to preserve habitats for endangered, threatened, or rare plant and animal populations. Many long-term ecological studies are conducted in the Set-Asides, which also serve as control areas in evaluations of the potential impacts of SRS operations on other regions of the Site. The purpose of this document is to give an historical account of the SRS Set-Aside Program and to provide a descriptive profile of each of the Set-Aside Areas. These descriptions include a narrative for each Area, information on the plant communities and soil types found there, lists of sensitive plants and animals documented from each Area, an account of the ecological research conducted in each Area, locator and resource composition maps, and a list of Site-Use permits and publications associated with each Set-Aside

  3. Record of Decision; Continued operation of K, L, and P Reactors, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has considered the environmental impacts, benefits and costs, and institutional and programmatic needs associated with continued operation of the Savannah River Site (SRS) reactors, and has decided that it will continue to operate K and L Reactors at SRS, and will terminate operation of P Reactor in the immediate future and maintain it in cold standby. For P Reactor, this will involve the reactor's defueling; storage of its heavy water moderator in tanks in the reactor building; shutdown of reactor equipment and systems in a protected condition to prevent deterioration; and maintenance of the reactor in a defueled, protected status by a skeleton staff, which would permit any future decision to refuel and restart. Currently committed and planned upgrade activities will be discontinued for P Reactor. DOE will proceed with the safety upgrades and management system improvements currently scheduled for K Reactor in its program to satisfy the criteria of the Safety Evaluation Report (SER), and will conduct an Operational Readiness Review (ORR). The satisfaction of the SER criteria and completion of the ORR will demonstrate that the safety and health criteria for the resumption of production have been met. Reactor restart is expected to be in the third quarter of 1991 for K Reactor

  4. F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    Samples from the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents as required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076 and, as requested, for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permit. No constituent exceeded either the final Primary Drinking Water Standards or the SRS Flag 2 criteria during fourth quarter 1993. Iron, lead, and manganese were the only permit- required analytes that exceeded standards at the F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites in 1993. Tritium, aluminum, and other constituents not included in the permit have exceeded standards at this site previously, but only sporadically. These constituents were not analyzed fourth quarter 1993

  5. K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites Groundwater Monitoring Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    Samples from the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13,173 and, as requested, for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permit. Dichloromethane (methylene chloride) exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standard in a single well of the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site during fourth quarter 1993. Aluminum, iron, and lead, reported in excess of the SRS Flag 2 criteria at both the K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites during third quarter 1993, were not analyzed fourth quarter

  6. Population size, breeding habitat and nest site distribution of little penguins (Eudyptula minor) on Montague Island, New South Wales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerheim, M.S.; Klomp, N.I.; Brunsting, A.M.H.; Komdeur, J.

    2003-01-01

    The distribution of little penguin nest sites on Montague Island, New South Wales, was examined in relation to vegetation type, distance to landing sites and local footpaths. Nest site density was negatively correlated with distance to landing sites and positively correlated with distance to

  7. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT FOR 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamatey, A.; Dunaway-Ackerman, J.

    2011-08-16

    This report was prepared in accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, 'Environment, Safety and Health Reporting,' to present summary environmental data for the purpose of: (a) characterizing site's environmental management performance; (b) summarizing environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year; (c) describing compliance status with respect to environmental standards and requirements; and (d) highlighting significant site programs and efforts. This report is the principal document that demonstrates compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5400.5, 'Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment,' and is a key component of DOE's effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at Savannah River Site (SRS). SRS has four primary missions: (1) Environmental Management - Cleaning up the legacy of the Cold War efforts and preparing decommissioned facilities and areas for long-term stewardship; (2) Nuclear Weapons Stockpile Support - Meeting the needs of the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile through the tritium programs of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA); (3) Nuclear Nonproliferation Support - Meeting the needs of the NNSA's nuclear nonproliferation programs by safely storing and dispositioning excess special nuclear materials; and (4) Research and Development - Supporting the application of science by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to meet the needs of SRS, the DOE complex, and other federal agencies During 2010, SRS worked to fulfill these missions and position the site for future operations. SRS continued to work with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to find and implement solutions and schedules for waste management and disposition. As part of its mission to clean up the Cold War legacy, SRS will continue

  8. Food production and consumption near the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamby, D.M.

    1991-12-31

    Routine operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) result in the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. The resulting radiological doses to the off-site maximum individual and the 80-km population are estimated on a yearly basis. These estimates are generated using dose models prescribed in the NRC Reg. Guide 1.109 for the commercial nuclear power industry. A study of land and water usage characteristics in the region of the Savannah River Site has been conducted to determine site-specific values of the NRC dose model parameters. The study`s scope included local characteristics of meat, milk, vegetable production; Savannah River recreational activities and fish harvests; meat, milk, vegetable, and seafood consumption rates; and Savannah River drinking-water populations. Average and maximum consumption rates of beef, milk, vegetables, and fish have been determined for individuals residing in the southern United States. The study suggest that many of the consumption rates provided by the NRC may not be appropriate for residents of the South. Average consumption rates are slightly higher than the defaults provided by the NRC. Maximum consumption rates, however, are typically lower than NRC values. Agricultural productivity in the SRS region was found to be quite different than NRC recommendations. Off-site doses have been predicted using both NRC and SRS parameter values to demonstrate the significance of site-specific data.

  9. Food production and consumption near the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamby, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    Routine operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) result in the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. The resulting radiological doses to the off-site maximum individual and the 80-km population are estimated on a yearly basis. These estimates are generated using dose models prescribed in the NRC Reg. Guide 1.109 for the commercial nuclear power industry. A study of land and water usage characteristics in the region of the Savannah River Site has been conducted to determine site-specific values of the NRC dose model parameters. The study's scope included local characteristics of meat, milk, vegetable production; Savannah River recreational activities and fish harvests; meat, milk, vegetable, and seafood consumption rates; and Savannah River drinking-water populations. Average and maximum consumption rates of beef, milk, vegetables, and fish have been determined for individuals residing in the southern United States. The study suggest that many of the consumption rates provided by the NRC may not be appropriate for residents of the South. Average consumption rates are slightly higher than the defaults provided by the NRC. Maximum consumption rates, however, are typically lower than NRC values. Agricultural productivity in the SRS region was found to be quite different than NRC recommendations. Off-site doses have been predicted using both NRC and SRS parameter values to demonstrate the significance of site-specific data.

  10. Facility siting as a decision process at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wike, L.D.

    1995-01-01

    Site selection for new facilities at Savannah River Site (SRS) historically has been a process dependent only upon specific requirements of the facility. While this approach is normally well suited to engineering and operational concerns, it can have serious deficiencies in the modern era of regulatory oversight and compliance requirements. There are many issues related to the site selection for a facility that are not directly related to engineering or operational requirements; such environmental concerns can cause large schedule delays and budget impact,s thereby slowing or stopping the progress of a project. Some of the many concerns in locating a facility include: waste site avoidance, National Environmental Policy Act requirements, Clean Water Act, Clean Air Act, wetlands conservation, US Army Corps of Engineers considerations, US Fish and Wildlife Service statutes including threatened and endangered species issues, and State of South Carolina regulations, especially those of the Department of Health and Environmental Control. In addition, there are SRS restrictions on research areas set aside for National Environmental Research Park (NERP), Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Savannah River Forest Station, University of South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, Southeastern Forest Experimental Station, and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) programs. As with facility operational needs, all of these siting considerations do not have equal importance. The purpose of this document is to review recent site selection exercises conducted for a variety of proposed facilities, develop the logic and basis for the methods employed, and standardize the process and terminology for future site selection efforts

  11. Enterprise SRS: Leveraging Ongoing Operations To Advance Nuclear Fuel Cycles Research And Development Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Alice M.; Marra, John E.; Wilmarth, William R.; Mcguire, Patrick W.; Wheeler, Vickie B.

    2013-07-03

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is repurposing its vast array of assets to solve future national issues regarding environmental stewardship, national security, and clean energy. The vehicle for this transformation is Enterprise SRS which presents a new, radical view of SRS as a united endeavor for ''all things nuclear'' as opposed to a group of distinct and separate entities with individual missions and organizations. Key among the Enterprise SRS strategic initiatives is the integration of research into facilities in conjunction with on-going missions to provide researchers from other national laboratories, academic institutions, and commercial entities the opportunity to demonstrate their technologies in a relevant environment and scale prior to deployment. To manage that integration of research demonstrations into site facilities, The Department of Energy, Savannah River Operations Office, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) have established a center for applied nuclear materials processing and engineering research (hereafter referred to as the Center). The key proposition of this initiative is to bridge the gap between promising transformational nuclear fuel cycle processing discoveries and large commercial-scale-technology deployment by leveraging SRS assets as facilities for those critical engineering-scale demonstrations necessary to assure the successful deployment of new technologies. The Center will coordinate the demonstration of R&D technologies and serve as the interface between the engineering-scale demonstration and the R&D programs, essentially providing cradle-to-grave support to the research team during the demonstration. While the initial focus of the Center will be on the effective use of SRS assets for these demonstrations, the Center also will work with research teams to identify opportunities to perform research demonstrations at other facilities. Unique to this approach is the fact

  12. Environmental assessment for the construction, operation, and decommissioning of the Waste Segregation Facility at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the potential environmental impacts associated with the construction, operation and decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of the Waste Segregation Facility (WSF) for the sorting, shredding, and compaction of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) located near Aiken, South Carolina. The LLW to be processed consists of two waste streams: legacy waste which is currently stored in E-Area Vaults of SRS and new waste generated from continuing operations. The proposed action is to construct, operate, and D ampersand D a facility to process low-activity job-control and equipment waste for volume reduction. The LLW would be processed to make more efficient use of low-level waste disposal capacity (E-Area Vaults) or to meet the waste acceptance criteria for treatment at the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) at SRS

  13. Literature review of the potential impact of glycolic acid on the technetium chemistry of srs tank waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Charles A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-09

    This document presents a literature study of the impact of glycolate on technetium chemistry in the Savannah River Site (SRS) waste system and specifically Saltstone. A predominant portion of the Tc at SRS will be sent to the Saltstone Facility where it will be immobilized. The Tc in the tank waste is in the highly soluble chemical form of pertechnetate ion (TcO4 -) which is reduced by blast furnace slag (BFS) in Saltstone, rendering it highly insoluble and resistant to leaching.

  14. Habitat preferences of foraging red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E.

    2004-12-31

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E. 2004. Habitat preferences of foraging red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. In: Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 9. Habitat Management and Habitat Relationships. Pp 553-561. Abstract: I constructed a foraging study to examine habitat use of red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. Because much of the land had been harvested in the late 1940s and early 1950s prior to being sold to the Department of Energy, the available habitat largely consisted of younger trees (e.g., less than 40 years old). From 1992 to 1995, I examined the foraging behavior and reproductive success of 7 groups of red-cockaded woodpeckers.

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE NPDES STORM WATER COMPLIANCE ALTERNATIVES AT THE SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shedrow, C

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with proposed and alternative actions to achieve water quality permit compliance at 38 storm water outfalls located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) (Figure 1-1). Effluent monitoring data indicates that some of these outfalls may not presently comply with new National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Storm Water General Permit effluent standards that became effective July 1, 2005 (SCR000000). The NPDES permit requires that best management practices (BMPs) be implemented and maintained, as necessary, to ensure that storm water discharges at SRS do not cause or contribute to the contravention of applicable state water quality standards (WQS)

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE NPDES STORM WATER COMPLIANCE ALTERNATIVES AT THE SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shedrow, C

    2006-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with proposed and alternative actions to achieve water quality permit compliance at 38 storm water outfalls located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) (Figure 1-1). Effluent monitoring data indicates that some of these outfalls may not presently comply with new National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Storm Water General Permit effluent standards that became effective July 1, 2005 (SCR000000). The NPDES permit requires that best management practices (BMPs) be implemented and maintained, as necessary, to ensure that storm water discharges at SRS do not cause or contribute to the contravention of applicable state water quality standards (WQS).

  17. Selected hydrologic data from a wastewater spray disposal site on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speiran, G.K.; Belval, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    This study presents data collected during a study of the effects on the water table aquifer from wastewater application at rates of up to 5 inches per week on a wastewater spray disposal site on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina. The study was conducted from April 1982 through December 1983. The disposal site covers approximately 14 acres. Water level and water quality data from organic, inorganic, and nutrient analyses from the water table aquifer to a depth of 30 ft and similar water quality data from the wastewater treatment plant are included. (USGS)

  18. Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) Station and Site Description Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Hansen, Jens Carsten; Kelly, Mark C.

    As part of the “Wind Atlas for South Africa” project, site inspection trips were carried out by the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and Risø DTU in April and June of 2011. A total of 10 sites featuring instrumented 60-m masts were visited; the present report summarises the f...... constructed to show the surrounding terrain and photos taken to document the land cover. Finally, the observed wind roses and wind speed distribution as of 1 October 2013 are shown....

  19. Identification of an assembly site for migratory and tropical seabirds in the South Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. John Hughes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Seabirds are good indicators of wider biodiversity and where they assemble in large numbers signifies sites important to many marine faunal species. Few such large assemblage sites have been identified and none in pelagic waters has been identified in the tropical Atlantic Ocean despite their importance for resident seabirds and those ‘on passage’ during migration. Here, we identify the likely location of just such an assembly site and provide preliminary information about the distribution of pelagic seabirds around Ascension Island in the tropical South Atlantic Ocean using a combination of trans-equatorial seabird migrant tracking data, records of at-sea surveys and land counts of seabirds returning from foraging trips. We found that waters north–north-west of Ascension Island are used more often by seabirds than those south and east of the island. Three-fifths of the species recorded in the assembly site breed at mid- or high-latitudes and some of these migratory seabirds stopover possibly to wait for favourable winds that facilitate onward flight. Our findings are important because to the best of our knowledge no seabird assembly sites have previously been identified in tropical Atlantic Ocean pelagic waters. We provide evidence to support the aspirations of the Marine Reserves Coalition that waters in the vicinity of Ascension Island should be recognised as a sanctuary for marine wildlife and we highlight an area that is worthy of further targeted investigation.

  20. Technological pedagogical content knowledge in South African mathematics classrooms: A secondary analysis of SITES 2006 data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verona Leendertz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a secondary data analysis conducted on the South African mathematics teachers’ dataset of the Second Information Technology in Education Study (SITES 2006. The sample consisted of a stratified sample of 640 mathematics teachers from 504 randomly selected computer-using and non–computer-using schools that completed the SITES 2006 teachers’ questionnaire, which investigated their pedagogical use of Information Communication Technology (ICT. The purpose of the current investigation was to investigate the level of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK of mathematics teachers, and how TPACK attributes contribute towards more effective Grade 8 mathematics teaching in South African schools, using the TPACK conceptual framework. The findings are presented according to the three clusters identified through the association between the main variables of the TPACK model and other variables on the SITES 2006 teachers’ questionnaire: (1 impact of ICT use, (2 teacher practices and (3 barriers. A Cramér V of between 0.3 and 0.4 was considered to signal a medium effect that tended towards practically significant association, and a Cramér V of 0.4 or larger was considered to signal a large effect with practically significant association. The results indicate that the TPACK of mathematics teachers contributes towards more effective Grade 8 mathematics teaching in South African schools.

  1. Technological pedagogical content knowledge in South African mathematics classrooms: A secondary analysis of SITES 2006 data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verona Leendertz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a secondary data analysis conducted on the South African mathematics teachers’ dataset of the Second Information Technology in Education Study (SITES 2006. The sample consisted of a stratified sample of 640 mathematics teachers from 504 randomly selected computer-using and non–computer-using schools that completed the SITES 2006 teachers’ questionnaire, which investigated their pedagogical use of Information Communication Technology (ICT. The purpose of the current investigation was to investigate the level of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK of mathematics teachers, and how TPACK attributes contribute towards more effective Grade 8 mathematics teaching in South African schools, using the TPACK conceptual framework. The findings are presented according to the three clusters identified through the association between the main variables of the TPACK model and other variables on the SITES 2006 teachers’ questionnaire: (1 impact of ICT use, (2 teacher practices and (3 barriers. A Cramér V of between 0.3 and 0.4 was considered to signal a medium effect that tended towards practically significant association, and a Cramér V of 0.4 or larger was considered to signal a large effect with practically significant association. The results indicate that the TPACK of mathematics teachers contributes towards more effective Grade 8 mathematics teaching in South African schools.

  2. Introduction to: GTR-SRS-226

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin O. Sills; R. David Simpson; E. Evan Mercer

    2017-01-01

    Given the economic importance of wood products in the U.S. South, the value of southern forests as timberlands is well known and acknowledged in State policy decisions. However, timber represents only part of the value of forests, and forestry leaders are increasingly interested in quantifying the full value of the South’s forests, i.e., the value of all final...

  3. Alternate Approach To Hazard Categorization For Saltstone Facility At SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, B.

    2009-01-01

    The Saltstone Facility at Savannah River Site (SRS) was originally segmented into two segments: the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) and the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). Based on the inventory of radionuclides available for release the SPF and SDF were categorized as Nonreactor Hazard Category (HC)-3. The hazard categorization recognized the SDF will contain contributions of radionuclides which would exceed the HC-2 Threshold Quantity (TQ) in the form of grout. However it was determined not to impact the facility hazard categorization based on the grout being in a solid, monolithic form which was not easily dispersible. But, the impact of a quantity of unset grout expected to be present at the vault following operation of the process was not addressed. A Potential Inadequacy in Safety Analysis (PISA) was later issued based on the hazard categorization determination for the facility not addressing unset grout. This initiated a re-evaluation of the accident scenarios within the hazards analysis. During this re-evaluation, the segmentation of the facility was challenged based on the potential interaction between facility segments; specifically, the leachate return line and the grout transfer line, which were considered separate segments, are located in close proximity at one point. such that for certain events (NPH as well as External Vehicle Impact) both could be damaged simultaneously and spill contents on the ground that could commingle. This would violate the guideline for segmentation. Therefore, the Hazard Categorization (HC) was reevaluated based on the facility being a single segment and including the additional unset grout as part of total inventory. This total inventory far exceeded the limit for HC-2 TQ and made the facility's initial categorization as HC-2. However, alternative analysis methodology based on credible release fractions allowed in DOE-STD-1027-92 (Ref.1) showed that the Saltstone facility could still be categorized as Hazard Category

  4. Application of PSA to storage of Pu at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lux, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    Pu is stored in a wide variety of physical forms and containers at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) techniques are used to determine the risk associated with each of these storage modes and assist in identification of the controls necessary to minimize the risk. One storage method involves solids in exposed drum storage where the drums are vulnerable to external events, natural phenomena, and release of material due to weathering of the containers. Another storage method may involve liquids being processed inside the canyon facilities where the greatest risks are not from external events but from process upsets. PSA techniques have been particularly useful in the evaluation of criticality situations concerning Pu processing and storage. The applications include ''normal'' operating situations, problems following a seismic event, and the identification of potential problems during the decontamination and decommissioning of a facility. In this paper I would like to discuss two specific examples of the use of PSA techniques. The first involves the analysis of potential accidents in a Pu receipt and storage facility. The second example involves processing solutions that have the potential for experiencing an uncontrolled ''red oil'' reaction

  5. Scaling up kangaroo mother care in South Africa: 'on-site' versus 'off-site' educational facilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Rooyen Elise

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scaling up the implementation of new health care interventions can be challenging and demand intensive training or retraining of health workers. This paper reports on the results of testing the effectiveness of two different kinds of face-to-face facilitation used in conjunction with a well-designed educational package in the scaling up of kangaroo mother care. Methods Thirty-six hospitals in the Provinces of Gauteng and Mpumalanga in South Africa were targeted to implement kangaroo mother care and participated in the trial. The hospitals were paired with respect to their geographical location and annual number of births. One hospital in each pair was randomly allocated to receive either 'on-site' facilitation (Group A or 'off-site' facilitation (Group B. Hospitals in Group A received two on-site visits, whereas delegates from hospitals in Group B attended one off-site, 'hands-on' workshop at a training hospital. All hospitals were evaluated during a site visit six to eight months after attending an introductory workshop and were scored by means of an existing progress-monitoring tool with a scoring scale of 0–30. Successful implementation was regarded as demonstrating evidence of practice (score >10 during the site visit. Results There was no significant difference between the scores of Groups A and B (p = 0.633. Fifteen hospitals in Group A and 16 in Group B demonstrated evidence of practice. The median score for Group A was 16.52 (range 00.00–23.79 and that for Group B 14.76 (range 07.50–23.29. Conclusion A previous trial illustrated that the implementation of a new health care intervention could be scaled up by using a carefully designed educational package, combined with face-to-face facilitation by respected resource persons. This study demonstrated that the site of facilitation, either on site or at a centre of excellence, did not influence the ability of a hospital to implement KMC. The choice of outreach

  6. Instream biological assessment of NPDES point source discharges at the Savannah River Site, 1997-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    2000-02-28

    The Savannah River Site currently has 33 permitted NPDES outfalls that have been permitted by the South Carolina Department of Health an Environmental Control to discharge to SRS streams and the Savannah River. In order to determine the cumulative impacts of these discharges to the receiving streams, a study plan was developed to perform in-stream assessments of the fish assemblages, macroinvertebrate assemblages, and habitats of the receiving streams.

  7. Instream biological assessment of NPDES point source discharges at the Savannah River Site, 1997-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, W.L.

    2000-01-01

    The Savannah River Site currently has 33 permitted NPDES outfalls that have been permitted by the South Carolina Department of Health an Environmental Control to discharge to SRS streams and the Savannah River. In order to determine the cumulative impacts of these discharges to the receiving streams, a study plan was developed to perform in-stream assessments of the fish assemblages, macroinvertebrate assemblages, and habitats of the receiving streams

  8. SRS BEDROCK PROBABILISTIC SEISMIC HAZARD ANALYSIS (PSHA) DESIGN BASIS JUSTIFICATION (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    (NOEMAIL), R

    2005-12-14

    This represents an assessment of the available Savannah River Site (SRS) hard-rock probabilistic seismic hazard assessments (PSHAs), including PSHAs recently completed, for incorporation in the SRS seismic hazard update. The prior assessment of the SRS seismic design basis (WSRC, 1997) incorporated the results from two PSHAs that were published in 1988 and 1993. Because of the vintage of these studies, an assessment is necessary to establish the value of these PSHAs considering more recently collected data affecting seismic hazards and the availability of more recent PSHAs. This task is consistent with the Department of Energy (DOE) order, DOE O 420.1B and DOE guidance document DOE G 420.1-2. Following DOE guidance, the National Map Hazard was reviewed and incorporated in this assessment. In addition to the National Map hazard, alternative ground motion attenuation models (GMAMs) are used with the National Map source model to produce alternate hazard assessments for the SRS. These hazard assessments are the basis for the updated hard-rock hazard recommendation made in this report. The development and comparison of hazard based on the National Map models and PSHAs completed using alternate GMAMs provides increased confidence in this hazard recommendation. The alternate GMAMs are the EPRI (2004), USGS (2002) and a regional specific model (Silva et al., 2004). Weights of 0.6, 0.3 and 0.1 are recommended for EPRI (2004), USGS (2002) and Silva et al. (2004) respectively. This weighting gives cluster weights of .39, .29, .15, .17 for the 1-corner, 2-corner, hybrid, and Greens-function models, respectively. This assessment is judged to be conservative as compared to WSRC (1997) and incorporates the range of prevailing expert opinion pertinent to the development of seismic hazard at the SRS. The corresponding SRS hard-rock uniform hazard spectra are greater than the design spectra developed in WSRC (1997) that were based on the LLNL (1993) and EPRI (1988) PSHAs. The

  9. Comparison of Srs-24 And Srs-22 Scores in Thirty Eight Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Patients Who Had Undergone Surgical Correction

    OpenAIRE

    CYW Chan; LB Saw; MK Kwan

    2009-01-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a spinal deformity that affects patients’ self image and confidence. Surgery is offered when the curvature is greater than 50 degrees based on the likelihood of curvature progression. Outcome measures for scoliosis correction can be described in terms of radiological improvement or improvement of health related quality of life scores. The Scoliosis Research Society 22 (SRS-22) and Scoliosis Research Society 24 (SRS-24) questionnaires are widely accepted and ...

  10. Hanford Supplemental Treatment: Literature and Modeling Review of SRS HLW Salt Dissolution and Fractional Crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, A. S.; Flach, G. P.; Martino, C. J.; Zamecnik, J. R.; Harris, M. K.; Wilmarth, W. R.; Calloway, T. B.

    2005-03-23

    In order to accelerate waste treatment and disposal of Hanford tank waste by 2028, the Department of Energy (DOE) and CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CHG), Inc. are evaluating alternative technologies which will be used in conjunction with the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) to safely pretreat and immobilize the tank waste. Several technologies (Bulk Vitrification and Steam Reforming) are currently being evaluated for immobilizing the pretreated waste. Since the WTP does not have sufficient capacity to pretreat all the waste going to supplemental treatment by the 2028 milestone, two technologies (Selective Dissolution and Fractional Crystallization) are being considered for pretreatment of salt waste. The scope of this task was to: (1) evaluate the recent Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 41 dissolution campaign and other literature to provide a more complete understanding of selective dissolution, (2) provide an update on the progress of salt dissolution and modeling activities at SRS, (3) investigate SRS experience and outside literature sources on industrial equipment and experimental results of previous fractional crystallization processes, and (4) evaluate recent Hanford AP104 boildown experiments and modeling results and recommend enhancements to the Environmental Simulation Program (ESP) to improve its predictive capabilities. This report provides a summary of this work and suggested recommendations.

  11. Computationally based methodology for reengineering the high-level waste planning process at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, P.K.; Gregory, M.V.; Wells, M.N.

    1997-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has started processing its legacy of 34 million gallons of high-level radioactive waste into its final disposable form. The SRS high-level waste (HLW) complex consists of 51 waste storage tanks, 3 evaporators, 6 waste treatment operations, and 2 waste disposal facilities. It is estimated that processing wastes to clean up all tanks will take 30+ yr of operation. Integrating all the highly interactive facility operations through the entire life cycle in an optimal fashion-while meeting all the budgetary, regulatory, and operational constraints and priorities-is a complex and challenging planning task. The waste complex operating plan for the entire time span is periodically published as an SRS report. A computationally based integrated methodology has been developed that has streamlined the planning process while showing how to run the operations at economically and operationally optimal conditions. The integrated computational model replaced a host of disconnected spreadsheet calculations and the analysts' trial-and-error solutions using various scenario choices. This paper presents the important features of the integrated computational methodology and highlights the parameters that are core components of the planning process

  12. Autonomous Sampling Platform Development: Radiological Contamination Mapping at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moya, Nicholas; Whiteside, Tad

    2016-01-01

    From 1961 to 1964, radioactive elements were released from the Savannah River Site into local bodies of water via cooling water charges from the reactors on site. In 1983, the extent of the radioactive contamination was first studied, and elements such as 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 238 Pu, 241 Am, 244 Cm, and tritium were found to have seeped from local bodies of water into sediment and the surrounding flora and fauna. The current method of tracking and monitoring radioactive contamination at the SRS is to gather samples and conduct measurements in a laboratory. A cheaper, and safer, method to conduct such measurements would be to automate the process by using an autonomous boat that can travel to locations, conduct measurements, and return home all without human intervention. To introduce this idea, the construction of an autonomous boat prototype was completed to demonstrate the practicality and feasibility of such an idea. The prototype travels to a set of waypoints, stops at each waypoint, and returns when all waypoints have been reached. It does this by employing a simple battery-powered boat with an Arduino controller that steers the boat using a steering algorithm incorporated into a Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) function. A total of three tests were conducted at two different bodies of water; and after working out some hardware problems, the boat drone was able to successfully steer and reach all programmed waypoints. With the prototype complete, the next steps to realizing the final product of the boat drone will include adopting a processing unit with higher-bit architecture, using a bigger boat with a more powerful trolling motor, and incorporating a solar panel for continuous power and round-the-clock performance.

  13. Autonomous Sampling Platform Development: Radiological Contamination Mapping at SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moya, Nicholas [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Whiteside, Tad [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-07-01

    From 1961 to 1964, radioactive elements were released from the Savannah River Site into local bodies of water via cooling water charges from the reactors on site. In 1983, the extent of the radioactive contamination was first studied, and elements such as 137Cs, 90Sr, 238Pu, 241Am, 244Cm, and tritium were found to have seeped from local bodies of water into sediment and the surrounding flora and fauna. The current method of tracking and monitoring radioactive contamination at the SRS is to gather samples and conduct measurements in a laboratory. A cheaper, and safer, method to conduct such measurements would be to automate the process by using an autonomous boat that can travel to locations, conduct measurements, and return home all without human intervention. To introduce this idea, the construction of an autonomous boat prototype was completed to demonstrate the practicality and feasibility of such an idea. The prototype travels to a set of waypoints, stops at each waypoint, and returns when all waypoints have been reached. It does this by employing a simple battery-powered boat with an Arduino controller that steers the boat using a steering algorithm incorporated into a Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) function. A total of three tests were conducted at two different bodies of water; and after working out some hardware problems, the boat drone was able to successfully steer and reach all programmed waypoints. With the prototype complete, the next steps to realizing the final product of the boat drone will include adopting a processing unit with higher-bit architecture, using a bigger boat with a more powerful trolling motor, and incorporating a solar panel for continuous power and round-the-clock performance.

  14. Analysis of variable sites between two complete South China tiger (Panthera tigris amoyensis) mitochondrial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenping; Yue, Bisong; Wang, Xiaofang; Zhang, Xiuyue; Xie, Zhong; Liu, Nonglin; Fu, Wenyuan; Yuan, Yaohua; Chen, Daqing; Fu, Danghua; Zhao, Bo; Yin, Yuzhong; Yan, Xiahui; Wang, Xinjing; Zhang, Rongying; Liu, Jie; Li, Maoping; Tang, Yao; Hou, Rong; Zhang, Zhihe

    2011-10-01

    In order to investigate the mitochondrial genome of Panthera tigris amoyensis, two South China tigers (P25 and P27) were analyzed following 15 cymt-specific primer sets. The entire mtDNA sequence was found to be 16,957 bp and 17,001 bp long for P25 and P27 respectively, and this difference in length between P25 and P27 occurred in the number of tandem repeats in the RS-3 segment of the control region. The structural characteristics of complete P. t. amoyensis mitochondrial genomes were also highly similar to those of P. uncia. Additionally, the rate of point mutation was only 0.3% and a total of 59 variable sites between P25 and P27 were found. Out of the 59 variable sites, 6 were located in 6 different tRNA genes, 6 in the 2 rRNA genes, 7 in non-coding regions (one located between tRNA-Asn and tRNA-Tyr and six in the D-loop), and 40 in 10 protein-coding genes. COI held the largest amount of variable sites (9 sites) and Cytb contained the highest variable rate (0.7%) in the complete sequences. Moreover, out of the 40 variable sites located in 10 protein-coding genes, 12 sites were nonsynonymous.

  15. Lessons learned from bacterial transport research at the South Oyster Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheibe, T.; Hubbard, S.S.; Onstott, T.C.; DeFlaun, M.F.

    2011-04-01

    This paper provides a review of bacterial transport experiments conducted by a multi-investigator, multi-institution, multi-disciplinary team of researchers under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The experiments were conducted during the time period 1999-2001 at a field site near the town of Oyster, Virginia known as the South Oyster Site, and included four major experimental campaigns aimed at understanding and quantifying bacterial transport in the subsurface environment. Several key elements of the research are discussed here: (1) quantification of bacterial transport in physically, chemically and biologically heterogeneous aquifers, (2) evaluation of the efficacy of conventional colloid filtration theory, (3) scale effects in bacterial transport, (4) development of new methods for microbial enumeration and screening for low adhesion strains, (5) application of novel hydrogeophysical techniques for aquifer characterization, and (6) experiences regarding management of a large field research effort. Lessons learned are summarized in each of these areas. The body of literature resulting from South Oyster Site research has been widely cited and continues to influence research into the controls exerted by aquifer heterogeneity on reactive transport (including microbial transport). It also served as a model (and provided valuable experience) for subsequent and ongoing highly-instrumented field research efforts conducted by DOE-sponsored investigators.

  16. History of dams at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.P.; Wilson, C.B.

    1995-01-01

    Since the production of nuclear material at SRS for weapons required large quantities of cooling water, a series of canals, dikes, and dams were constructed to provide conveyance systems and reservoirs. This paper presents a brief overview of the history of the construction of the dams and dikes. Attention is given to the use of asphaltic concrete for 30 years (and its maintenance and repair) to line the banks of dikes and the upstream slopes of dams to prevent erosion and possible failure. The ability of asphaltic concrete in preventing dam/dike failure was proven. Benefits and drawbacks to the use of this material are discussed based on the extensive experience at SRS

  17. Insect community structure and function in Upper Three Runs, Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, J.C.; English, W.R. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Entomology; Looney, B.B. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-07-08

    A project to document the insect species in the upper reaches of Upper Three Runs at the Savannah River site was recently completed. This research was supported by the US Department of Energy under the National Environmental Research Park Program. The work was performed by the Department of Entomology at Clemson University in clemson, SC, by John C. Morse (principal investigator), William R. English and their colleagues. The major output from this study was the dissertation of Dr. William R. English entitled ``Ecosystem Dynamics of a South Carolina Sandhills Stream.`` He investigated selected environmental resources and determined their dynamics and the dynamics of the aquatic invertebrate community structure in response to them.

  18. Remedial technology and characterization development at the SRS F/H Retention Basins using the DOE SAFER methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, W.C. Jr.; Kuelske, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Streamlined Approach For Environmental Restoration (SAFER) is a strategy used to accelerate and improve the environmental assessment and remediation of the F/H Retention Basins at the Savannah River Site (SRS). TMs strategy combines the data quality objectives (DQO) process and the observational approach to focus on data collection and converge on a remedial action early. This approach emphasizes stakeholder involvement throughout the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) process. The SAFER methodology is being applied to the characterization, technology development, and remediation tasks for the F/H Retention Basins. This ''approach was initiated in the scoping phase of these projects through the involvment of major stakeholders; Department of Energy (DOE)-Savannah River Field Office, DOE-Headquarters, Westinghouse Savannah River Company, United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region IV, and the state of South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), in the development of the Remedial Investigation (RI) workplans. A major activity that has been initiated is the development and implementation of a phase I workplan to identify preliminary contaminants of concern (pCOCs). A sampling plan was developed and approved by the major stakeholders for preliminary characterization of wastes remaining in the F/H Retention Basins. The involvement of stakeholders, development of a site conceptual model, development of remedial objectives for probable conditions, identification of the problem and reasonable deviations, and development of initial decision rules in the planning stages will ensure that preliminary data needs are identified and obtained prior to the initiation of the assessment and implementation phases of the projects resulting in the final remediation of the sites in an accelerated and more cost effective manner

  19. Growth of longleaf and loblolly pine planted on South Carolina Sandhill sites.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cram, Michelle, M.; Outcalt, Kenneth, W.; Zarnoch, Stanley, J.

    2010-07-01

    Performance of longleaf (Pinus palustris Mill.) and loblolly pine (P. taeda L.) were compared 15–19 years after outplanting on 10 different sites in the sandhillsof South Carolina. The study was established from 1988 to 1992 with bareroot seedlings artificially inoculated with Pisolithus tinctorius (Pt) or naturally inoculated with mycorrhizae in the nursery. A containerized longleaf pine treatment with and without Pt inoculation was added to two sites in 1992. Effects of the Pt nursery treatment were mixed, with a decrease in survival of bareroot longleaf pine on two sites and an increase in survival on another site. The containerized longleaf pine treatment substantially increased survival, which led to greater volume compared with bareroot longleaf pine. Loblolly pine yielded more volume than longleaf pine on all sites but one, where survival was negatively affected by fire. Depth of sandy surface horizon affected mean annual height growth of both loblolly and longleaf pine. Height growth per year decreased with an increase in sand depth for both species. Multiple regression analysis of volume growth(ft3/ac per year) for both species indicated a strong relationship to depth of sandy soil and survival. After 15–19 years, loblolly pine has been more productive than longleaf pine, although longleaf pine productivity may be equal to or greater than that of loblolly pine on the soils with the deepest sandy surface layers over longer rotations.

  20. Savannah River Site Environmental Report for 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, M.W.; Mamatey, A.; Spitzer, D.

    1994-12-16

    The mission at the Savannah River Site has changed from producing nuclear weapons materials for national defense to managing the waste it has generated, restoring the environment, and enhancing industrial development in and around the site. But no matter what the site`s mission is, it will continue to maintain its comprehensive environmental monitoring and surveillance program. In 1994, effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance were conducted within a 30,000-square-mile area in and around SRS that includes neighboring cities, towns, and counties in Georgia and South Carolina and extends up to 100 miles from the site. Thousands of samples of air, surface water, groundwater, foodstuffs, drinking water, wildlife, rainwater, soil, sediment, and vegetation were collected and analyzed for radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants.

  1. Environmental assessment for the off-site volume reduction of low-level radioactive waste from the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1061) for the proposed off-site volume reduction of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  2. SRS Process Facility Significance Fire Frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarrack, A.G.

    1995-10-01

    This report documents the method and assumptions of a study performed to determine a site generic process facility significant fire initiator frequency and explains the proper way this value should be used

  3. SRS Process Facility Significance Fire Frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrack, A.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This report documents the method and assumptions of a study performed to determine a site generic process facility significant fire initiator frequency and explains the proper way this value should be used.

  4. User guide to the SRS data logging facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyson, B.E.

    1979-02-01

    The state of the SRS is recorded every two minutes, thus providing a detailed History of its parameters. Recording of History is done via the SRS Computer Network. This consists of a Master Computer, an Interdata 7/32, and three Minicomputers, Interdata 7/16s. Each of the Minicomputers controls one of the accelerators, Linac, Booster and Storage Ring. The Master Computer is connected to the Central Computer, an IBM 370/165, for jobs where greater computing power and storage are required. The Master Computer has a total of 20 Megabytes of fixed and movable disc space but only about 5 Megabytes are available for History storage. The Minicomputers have no storage facilities. The user guide is set out as follows: History filing system, History storage on the Master Computer, transfer of the History to the Central Computer, transferring History to tapes, job integrity, the SRS tape catalogue system. (author)

  5. RAMI modeling of F-Area ground water facility at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-01-01

    Reliability, availability, maintainability, and inspectability (RAMI) analysis tool has been used to help control life-cycle cost of several systems and facilities at Savannah River Site (SRS). Recently a RAMI assessment was performed to determine how well the installed F-Area Water Treatment Unit (WTU) will meet the established goal for plant availability committed to the State Regulatory Agency, South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The mission of F-Area ground water remediation facility at SRS is to reduce concentration of RCRA metals, radionuclides and other contaminants in ground water influents to a level where it can safely be returned to the aquifer. The process chosen for treatment of the ground water was determined by review of chemical data, published reports, bench testing as well as discharge requirements that meet commitments made to SCDHEC. Contaminated water is drawn from an underground aquifer located at the F-Area seepage basin, pre-filtered through sand filters and then passed through the Reverse Osmosis (RO) system where the ground water is separated into permeate and concentrate. The permeate will have 99% of all suspended solids removed and suitable for discharge to the injection well system. The concentrate is further processed to reduce volume and then disposed of in standard containers. Per agreement with SCDHEC the unit must operate with an availability of at least 85% including scheduled shutdowns. The unit experienced troubles in meeting this goal from the very beginning. A preliminary RAMI analysis performed after unit commissioning identified problem components and sub-systems and need for redundancy in design of certain systems. Some of these were resolved through procurement of better performing components and elimination of a poor-performing process sub-system that was found to be non-essential. Additionally some new equipment were added to provide for greater operational flexibility. Some

  6. Savannah River Site Waste Management Final Environmental Impact Statement Addendum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this environmental impact statement is to help DOE decide how to manage over the next 30 years liquid high-level radioactive, low-level radioactive, mixed, hazardous, and transuranic wastes generated during 40 years of past operations and on-going activities (including management of wastes received from offsite) at Savannah River Site (SRS) in southwestern South Carolina. The wastes are currently stored at SRS. DOE seeks to dispose of the wastes in a cost-effective manner that protects human health and the environment. In this document, DOE assesses the cumulative environmental impacts of storing, treating, and disposing of the wastes, examines the impacts of alternatives, and identifies measures available to reduce adverse impacts. Evaluations of impacts on water quality, air quality, ecological systems, land use, geologic resources, cultural resources, socio-economic, and the health and safety of onsite workers and the public are included in the assessment

  7. Nuclear engineering R ampersand D at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strosnider, D.R.; Ferrara, W.R.

    1991-01-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) is the prime operating contractor for the US Department of Energy at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. One division of WSRC, the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL), has the primary responsibility for research and development, which includes supporting the safe and efficient operation of the SRS production reactors. Several Sections of SRL, as well as other organization in WSRC, pursue R ampersand D and oversight activities related to nuclear engineering. The Sections listed below are described in more detail in this document: (SRL) nuclear reactor technology and scientific computations department; (SRL) safety analysis and risk management department; (WSRC) new production reactor program; and (WSRC) environment, safety, health, and quality assurance division

  8. Land Use Baseline Report Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noah, J.C.

    1995-06-29

    This document is to serve as a resource for Savannah River Site managers, planners, and SRS stakeholders by providing a general description of the site and land-use factors important to future use decisions and plans. The intent of this document is to be comprehensive in its review of SRS and the surrounding area.

  9. Land Use Baseline Report Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noah, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    This document is to serve as a resource for Savannah River Site managers, planners, and SRS stakeholders by providing a general description of the site and land-use factors important to future use decisions and plans. The intent of this document is to be comprehensive in its review of SRS and the surrounding area

  10. Intensive archaeological survey of the proposed Savannah River Ecology Laboratory Conference Center and Educational Facility, Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, K.; Crass, D.C.; Sassaman, K.E.

    1993-02-01

    Documented in this report are the methods and results of an intensive archaeological survey for the proposed University of Georgia Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) Conference Center and Educational Facility on the DOE Savannah River Site (SRS). Archaeological investigations conducted by the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) on the 70-acre project area and associated rights-of-way consisted of subsurface testing at two previously recorded sites and the discovery of one previously unrecorded site. The results show that 2 sites contain archaeological remains that may yield significant information about human occupations in the Aiken Plateau and are therefore considered eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. Adverse impacts to these sites can be mitigated through avoidance.

  11. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT SUMMARY FOR 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, M.; Meyer, A.

    2013-09-12

    This report's purpose is to: Present summary environmental data that characterize Site environmental management performance, Describe compliance status with respect to environmental standards and requirements, and Highlight significant programs and efforts. Environmental monitoring is conducted extensively with a 2,000-square-mile network extending 25 miles from SRS, with some monitoring performed as far as 100 miles from the Site. The area includes neighboring cities, towns, and counties in Georgia (GA) and South Carolina (SC). Thousands of samples of air, rainwater, surface water, drinking water, groundwater, food products, wildlife, soil, sediment, and vegetation are collected by SRS and analyzed for the presence of radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants. During 2012, SRS accomplished several significant milestones while maintaining its record of environmental excellence, as its operations continued to result in minimal impact to the public and the environment. The Site's radioactive and chemical discharges to air and water were well below regulatory standards for environmental and public health protection; its air and water quality met applicable requirements; and the potential radiation dose to the public was well below the DOE public dose limit.

  12. Durabilities and Microstructures of Radioactive Glasses to Immobilize Excess Actinides and Reprocessing Wastes at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents results of an investigation of the microstructures and durabilities of glasses for immobilization of excess Pu, Am, and Cm, and of the reprocessing wastes at Savannah River Site (SRS). The reprocessing wastes will be vitrified in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS. Another facility at SRS will be used for the Pu, Am, and Cm glasses. In this paper results are presented for a DWPF radioactive glass containing the actual fission product-actinide waste from one the million gallon storage tanks at SRS. This waste is the first radioactive sludge that will be processed in DWPF. The actinide glasses investigated had compositions based on a commercial borosilicate glass composition. All the glasses were so radioactive that they had to be prepared remotely in shielded cells and the analyses had to be performed in gloveboxes or radiobenches. Durabilities were measured using the ASTM C-1285 standard leach test. Results for four glasses are presented. The glasses are a DWPF type glass containing Tank 51 radioactive waste, two glasses containing 15 and 13 wt.percent Pu, respectively, and a glass containing Am and Cm. The radioactive DWPF glass contained 28 wtpercent waste from SRS Tank 51 and was homogeneous. The 15 wt percent Pu contained dissolved PuO2 and as well PuO2 crystals that were not dissolved but were trapped in the glass. The 13 wt percent Pu glass was homogenous. The Am/Cm glass contained <1 wt percent actinides and was homogenous. The PCT test indicated that B, Li, and Na were leaching congruently from the glass. Release rates for Tc-99 and Np-237 were also congruent while Cs-133, Th-232, U-238, and Pu-239 were slower. The two Pu glasses were 25 to 50 times more durable than the DWPF glass. B and Ba were leached congruently while Sm and Pu were lower. Release rates for B and Ba from the Am-Cm glass were equal and 27X lower than the DWPF glass

  13. Vadose Zone VOC Mass Transfer Testing At The SRS Miscellaneous Chemical Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riha, B

    2005-10-30

    Active remedial activities have been ongoing since 1996 to address low levels of solvent contamination at the Miscellaneous Chemical Basin at SRS. Contaminant levels in the subsurface may be approaching levels where mass transfer limitations are impacting the efficiency of the remedial action. Rate limited mass transfer effects have been observed at other sites in the vadose zone at the SRS, however, detailed measurements and evaluation has not been undertaken. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the mass transfer rates are very slow from the fine grain sediments. This conclusion is based on the observation that measured soil gas concentrations tend to be low in permeable zones relative to the higher concentrations found in fine grain zones. Decreasing soil gas concentration with depth below the ''upland unit'' at several areas at SRS is also evidence of slow diffusion rates. In addition, due to the length of time since disposal ceased at the MCB, we hypothesize that mobile solvents have migrated downward, and the solvent remaining in the upper fine grain zone (''upland unit'') are trapped in fine grain material and are primarily released by gas diffusion (Riha and Rossabi 2004). Natural weathering and other chemical solutions disposed with the solvents can further enhance this effect by increasing the micro-porosity in the clays (kaolinite). This microporosity can result in increased entrapment of water and solvents by capillary forces (Powers, et. al., 2003). Also supporting this conclusion is the observation that active SVE has proven ineffective on VOC removal from the fine grain zones at the SRS. Adsorption and the very slow release phenomenon have been documented similarly in the literature especially for old solvent spills such as at the SRS (Pavlostathis and Mathavan 1992; Oostrom and Lenhard 2003). Mass transfer relationships need to be developed in order to optimize remediation activities and to determine actual

  14. SRS waste removal and D and D program for underground waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Street, G.H.; McNatt, F.G.

    1991-01-01

    Removal of radioactive waste from 51 large underground storage tanks at Savannah River Site (SRS) has been planned. Waste removal equipment and techniques were demonstrated in one tank (Tank number-sign 16) in 1980. Remote inspection techniques were used to monitor the demonstration. This demonstration provided the basis for planning waste removal from the remaining tanks. Waste removal will allow decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of the tanks. Some alternatives for D ampersand D have been evaluated. Facilities are being installed on other tanks with completion of waste removal from problem tanks scheduled for 2001

  15. Impact of Degraded RA-3 Fuel Condition on Transportation to and Storage in SRS Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinson, D.

    2000-01-01

    Aluminum-clad, aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel from the RA-3 Research and Test Reactor at the CNEA Ezeiza Atomic Center near Buenos Aires, Argentina, presently in wet storage at the Central Storage Facility, contains extensive corrosion and mechanical damage. Plans are being developed to return the fuel to the Savannah River Site in Fall 2000. The condition of the fuel and its impact on shipping, handling, and Basin storage when the fuel is returned to SRS, is discussed in this report

  16. Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae of the Hanford Nuclear Site in south-central Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Looney

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report on ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae collected from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation and Hanford National Monument (together the Hanford Site, which is located in south-central Washington State. The Site is a relatively undisturbed relict of the shrub-steppe habitat present throughout much of the western Columbia Basin before the westward expansion of the United States. Species, localities, months of capture, and capture method are reported for field work conducted between 1994 and 2002. Most species were collected using pitfall traps, although other capture methods were employed. Trapping results indicate the Hanford Site supports a diverse ground beetle community, with over 90% of the 92 species captured native to North America. Four species collected during the study period are newly recorded for Washington State: Bembidion diligens Casey, Calosoma obsoletum Say, Pseudaptinus rufulus (LeConte, and Stenolophus lineola (Fabricius. Based on these data, the Site maintains a diverse ground beetle fauna and, due to its size and diversity of habitats, is an important repository of shrub-steppe biodiversity.

  17. Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) of the Hanford Nuclear Site in south-central Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Chris; Zack, Richard S; Labonte, James R

    2014-01-01

    Carabidae) collected from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation and Hanford National Monument (together the Hanford Site), which is located in south-central Washington State. The Site is a relatively undisturbed relict of the shrub-steppe habitat present throughout much of the western Columbia Basin before the westward expansion of the United States. Species, localities, months of capture, and capture method are reported for field work conducted between 1994 and 2002. Most species were collected using pitfall traps, although other capture methods were employed. Trapping results indicate the Hanford Site supports a diverse ground beetle community, with over 90% of the 92 species captured native to North America. Four species collected during the study period are newly recorded for Washington State: Bembidion diligens Casey, Calosoma obsoletum Say, Pseudaptinus rufulus (LeConte), and Stenolophus lineola (Fabricius). Based on these data, the Site maintains a diverse ground beetle fauna and, due to its size and diversity of habitats, is an important repository of shrub-steppe biodiversity.

  18. Plant species from coal mine overburden dumping site in Satui, South Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi Novianti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Coal mine overburden (OB materials were nutrient-poor, loosely adhered particles of shale, stones, boulders, and cobbles, also contained elevated concentration of trace metals. This condition cause OB substrate did not support plants growth. However, there were certain species that able to grow on overburden dumping site. This investigation sought to identify plants species that presence on coal mine overburden. The research was conducted on opencast coal mine OB dumping site in Satui, South Kalimantan. Vegetation sampling was carried out on six different ages of coal mine OB dumps (7, 10, 11, 42, 59 and 64 month using line transect. Species identification used information from local people, AMDAL report of PT Arutmin Indonesia-Satui mine project, and website. There were 123 plant species, consisted of 79 herbs (Cyperaceae, Poaceae and Asteraceae, 10 lianes, bryophyte, 9 ferns, 10 shrubs, and 14 trees. A number of Poaceae, i.e., Paspalumconjugatum, Paspalumdilatatum, and Echinochloacolona generally present among the stones, boulders, and cobbles. While Cyperaceae such as Fimbristylis miliaceae, Cyperus javanicus, Rhyncospora corymbosa and Scleria sumatrensis most often foundinand around thebasin/pond with its smooth and humid substrate characteristics. Certain species of shrubs and trees present on the 7 month OB dumping site. They wereChromolaena odorata, Clibadium surinamense, Melastoma malabathricum, Trema micrantha, and Solanum torvum (Shrubs, Ochroma pyramidale and Homalanthus populifolius (trees. This plant species could be used for accelerating primary succession purpose on coal mine overburden dumping site. Nevertheless, species selection was needed to avoid planting invasive species.

  19. Environmental assessment for DOE permission for the off-loading and transportation of commercial low-level radioactive waste across the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) to assess the potential environmental impacts associated with DOE allowing Chem-Nuclear Systems, L.L.C. (CNS) to off-load and transport low-level radioactive waste (LLW) packages across the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina, to the nearby CNS facility. The proposed action entails DOE granting permission to CNS to use SRS for landing shipping barges at the existing SRS boat ramp and off-loading trailered LLW packages for transportation across SRS to the CNS facility. Project activities would include modification of the SRS boat ramp on the Savannah River, as needed for off-loading activities, and construction of a bridge across Lower Three Runs. The proposed action also encompasses any similar future off-loading and transportation activities for LLW en route to the CNS facility. The National Environmental Policy Act requires the assessment of environmental consequences of Federal actions that may affect the quality of the human environment. Based on the potential for impacts described herein, DOE will either publish a Finding of No Significant Impact or prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)

  20. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT FOR 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamatey, A.; Fanning, R.

    2010-08-19

    extending 25 miles from SRS, with some monitoring performed as far as 100 miles from the site. The area includes neighboring cities, towns, and counties in Georgia and South Carolina. Thousands of samples of air, rainwater, surface water, drinking water, groundwater, food products, wildlife, soil, sediment, and vegetation are collected by SRS and state authorities and analyzed for the presence of radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants. Compliance with environmental regulations and with DOE orders related to environmental protection provides assurance that onsite processes do not impact the public or the environment adversely. Such compliance is documented in this report. SRS had a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) compliance rate of 99.92 percent in 2009, with only four of the 4,989 sample analyses performed exceeding permit limits. The NPDES program protects streams, reservoirs, and other wetlands by limiting the release of nonradiological pollution into surface waters. Discharge limits are set for each facility to ensure that SRS operations do not negatively impact aquatic life or degrade water quality.

  1. SRS environmental technology development field test platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riha, B.D.; Rossabi, J.; Eddy-Dilek, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    A critical and difficult step in the development and implementation of new technologies for environmental monitoring and characterization is successfully transferring these technologies to industry and government users for routine assessment and compliance activities. The Environmental Sciences Section of the DOE Savannah River Technology Center provides a forum for developers, potential users, and regulatory organizations to evaluate new technologies in comparison with baseline technologies in a well characterized field test bed. The principal objective of this project is to conduct comprehensive, objective field tests of monitoring and characterization technologies that are not currently used in EPA standard methods and evaluate their performance during actual operating conditions against baseline methods. This paper provides an overview of the field test site and a description of some of the technologies demonstrated at the site including their field applications

  2. A case of Silver–Russell syndrome (SRS): multiple pituitary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ham 1969; Albertsson-Wikland 1989; Chatelain 1993; Az- cona et al. 1998). The incidence of GHD, hypopituitarism in SRS is still controversial. GH insufficiency in low-birth weight syn- dromes has an incidence of 13–67% (Albertsson-Wikland. 1989; Rochiccioli et al. 1989; Stanhope et al. 1989; Bo- guszewski et al. 1995).

  3. VME applications to the Daresbury SRS control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martlew, B.G.; McCarthy, M.; Rawlinson, W.R.

    1992-01-01

    The control system for the Daresbury SRS has recently been extended with a VME based alarm system which is operational. A further development is a steering system to provide servo control of the electron beam orbit position in the storage ring. (author)

  4. Savannah River Site Environmental Report for 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnett, M.W.; Mamatey, A.; Spitzer, D.

    1994-01-01

    The mission at the Savannah River Site has changed from producing nuclear weapons materials for national defense to managing the waste it has generated, restoring the environment, and enhancing industrial development in and around the site. But no matter what the site's mission is, it will continue to maintain its comprehensive environmental monitoring and surveillance program. In 1994, effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance were conducted within a 30,000-square-mile area in and around SRS that includes neighboring cities, towns, and counties in Georgia and South Carolina and extends up to 100 miles from the site. Thousands of samples of air, surface water, groundwater, foodstuffs, drinking water, wildlife, rainwater, soil, sediment, and vegetation were collected and analyzed for radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants

  5. Probabilistic seismic hazard at the archaeological site of Gol Gumbaz in Vijayapura, south India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Shivakumar G.; Menon, Arun; Dodagoudar, G. R.

    2018-03-01

    Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) is carried out for the archaeological site of Vijayapura in south India in order to obtain hazard consistent seismic input ground-motions for seismic risk assessment and design of seismic protection measures for monuments, where warranted. For this purpose the standard Cornell-McGuire approach, based on seismogenic zones with uniformly distributed seismicity is employed. The main features of this study are the usage of an updated and unified seismic catalogue based on moment magnitude, new seismogenic source models and recent ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) in logic tree framework. Seismic hazard at the site is evaluated for level and rock site condition with 10% and 2% probabilities of exceedance in 50 years, and the corresponding peak ground accelerations (PGAs) are 0.074 and 0.142 g, respectively. In addition, the uniform hazard spectra (UHS) of the site are compared to the Indian code-defined spectrum. Comparisons are also made with results from National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA 2010), in terms of PGA and pseudo spectral accelerations (PSAs) at T = 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.25 s for 475- and 2475-yr return periods. Results of the present study are in good agreement with the PGA calculated from isoseismal map of the Killari earthquake, {M}w = 6.4 (1993). Disaggregation of PSHA results for the PGA and spectral acceleration ({S}a) at 0.5 s, displays the controlling scenario earthquake for the study region as low to moderate magnitude with the source being at a short distance from the study site. Deterministic seismic hazard (DSHA) is also carried out by taking into account three scenario earthquakes. The UHS corresponding to 475-yr return period (RP) is used to define the target spectrum and accordingly, the spectrum-compatible natural accelerograms are selected from the suite of recorded accelerograms.

  6. Comprehensive strategy for corrective actions at the Savannah River Site General Separations Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebra, M.A.; Lewis, C.M.; Amidon, M.B.; McClain, L.K.

    1991-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), operated by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company for the United States Department of Energy, contains a number of waste disposal units that are currently in various stages of corrective action investigations, closures, and postclosure corrective actions. Many of these sites are located within a 40-square-kilometer area called the General Separations Area (GSA). The SRS has proposed to the regulatory agencies, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), that groundwater investigations and corrective actions in this area be conducted under a comprehensive plan. The proposed plan would address the continuous nature of the hydrogeologic regime below the GSA and the potential for multiple sources of contamination. This paper describes the proposed approach

  7. Roles of Historical Photography in Waste Site Characterization, Closure, and Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.

    1998-07-01

    Over 40,000 frames of vertical historical photography from 1938 to 1996 and over 10,000 frames of oblique photography from 1981 to 1991 of the 777-square kilometer Savannah River Site in south central South Carolina were reviewed, cataloged, and referenced utilizing ARCView and associated ArcInfo tools. This allows environmental reviews of over 400 potential waste units on the SRS to be conducted in a rapid fashion to support preparation of work plans, characterization, risk assessments, and closure of the waste units in a more cost effective manner

  8. ANALYSIS OF SPECIAL WASTE CONFIGURATIONS AT THE SRS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casella, V; Raymond Dewberry, R

    2007-01-01

    Job Control Waste (JCW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Solid Waste Management Facilities (SWMF) may be disposed of in special containers, and the analysis of these containers requires developing specific analysis methodologies. A method has been developed for the routine assay of prohibited items (liquids, etc.) contained in a 30-gallon drum that is then placed into a 55-gallon drum. Method development consisted of system calibration with a NIST standard at various drum-to-detector distances, method verification with a liquid sample containing a known amount of Pu-238, and modeling the inner container using Ortec Isotopic software. Using this method for measurement of the known standard in the drum-in-drum configuration produced excellent agreement (within 15%) with the known value. Savannah River Site Solid Waste Management also requested analysis of waste contained in large black boxes (commonly 18-feet x 12-feet x 7-feet) stored at the SWMF. These boxes are frequently stored in high background areas and background radiation must be considered for each analysis. A detection limit of less than 150 fissile-gram-equivalents (FGE) of TRU waste is required for the black-box analyses. There is usually excellent agreement for the measurements at different distances and measurement uncertainties of about 50% are obtained at distances of at least twenty feet from the box. This paper discusses the experimental setup, analysis and data evaluation for drum-in-drum and black box waste configurations at SRS

  9. ANALYSIS OF SPECIAL WASTE CONFIGURATIONS AT THE SRS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casella, V; Raymond Dewberry, R

    2007-05-14

    Job Control Waste (JCW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Solid Waste Management Facilities (SWMF) may be disposed of in special containers, and the analysis of these containers requires developing specific analysis methodologies. A method has been developed for the routine assay of prohibited items (liquids, etc.) contained in a 30-gallon drum that is then placed into a 55-gallon drum. Method development consisted of system calibration with a NIST standard at various drum-to-detector distances, method verification with a liquid sample containing a known amount of Pu-238, and modeling the inner container using Ortec Isotopic software. Using this method for measurement of the known standard in the drum-in-drum configuration produced excellent agreement (within 15%) with the known value. Savannah River Site Solid Waste Management also requested analysis of waste contained in large black boxes (commonly 18-feet x 12-feet x 7-feet) stored at the SWMF. These boxes are frequently stored in high background areas and background radiation must be considered for each analysis. A detection limit of less than 150 fissile-gram-equivalents (FGE) of TRU waste is required for the black-box analyses. There is usually excellent agreement for the measurements at different distances and measurement uncertainties of about 50% are obtained at distances of at least twenty feet from the box. This paper discusses the experimental setup, analysis and data evaluation for drum-in-drum and black box waste configurations at SRS.

  10. Savannah River Site Spent Nuclear Fuel Management Final Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2000-04-14

    The proposed DOE action considered in this environmental impact statement (EIS) is to implement appropriate processes for the safe and efficient management of spent nuclear fuel and targets at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken County, South Carolina, including placing these materials in forms suitable for ultimate disposition. Options to treat, package, and store this material are discussed. The material included in this EIS consists of approximately 68 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM) of spent nuclear fuel 20 MTHM of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel at SRS, as much as 28 MTHM of aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel from foreign and domestic research reactors to be shipped to SRS through 2035, and 20 MTHM of stainless-steel or zirconium-clad spent nuclear fuel and some Americium/Curium Targets stored at SRS. Alternatives considered in this EIS encompass a range of new packaging, new processing, and conventional processing technologies, as well as the No Action Alternative. A preferred alternative is identified in which DOE would prepare about 97% by volume (about 60% by mass) of the aluminum-based fuel for disposition using a melt and dilute treatment process. The remaining 3% by volume (about 40% by mass) would be managed using chemical separation. Impacts are assessed primarily in the areas of water resources, air resources, public and worker health, waste management, socioeconomic, and cumulative impacts.

  11. SRS MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connor, D.G.; Fisher, S.E.; Holdaway, R. [and others

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program`s preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement. This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. DOE-MD requested that the DOE Site Operations Offices nominate DOE sites that meet established minimum requirements that could produce MOX LAs. Six initial site combinations were proposed: (1) Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) with support from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), (2) Hanford, (3) Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with support from Pantex, (4) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), (5) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and (6) Savannah River Site(SRS). After further analysis by the sites and DOE-MD, five site combinations were established as possible candidates for producing MOX LAs: (1) ANL-W with support from INEEL, (2) Hanford, (3) LANL, (4) LLNL, and (5) SRS. SRS has proposed an LA MOX fuel fabrication approach that would be done entirely inside an S and S Category 1 area. An alternate approach would allow fabrication of fuel pellets and assembly of fuel rods in an S and S Category 2 or 3 facility with storage of bulk PuO{sub 2} and assembly, storage, and shipping of fuel bundles in an S and S Category 1 facility. The total Category 1 approach, which is the recommended option, would be done in the 221-H Canyon Building. A facility that was never in service will be removed from one area, and a hardened wall will be constructed in another area to accommodate execution of the LA fuel fabrication. The non-Category 1 approach would require removal of process equipment in the FB-Line metal production and packaging glove boxes, which requires work in a contamination area. The Immobilization Hot Demonstration Program

  12. NEON Collaborative Data Collection Campaign at Pacific South West Site in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampe, T. U.; Leisso, N.; Krause, K.; Musinsky, J.; Petroy, S. B.; Wasser, L. A.; Cawse-Nicholson, K.; van Aardt, J. A.; Schaaf, C.; Strahler, A. H.; Serbin, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a continental-scale observatory that will collect biological, chemical and geophysical data over the continental United States in order to study biodiversity, landcover change, climate change and invasive species. In June 2013, a large-scale data collection took place over NEON's Pacific South West (PSW) site 17 in CA, USA. Data were collected in the San Joaquin Experimental Range and the Sierra National Forest. NEON's AOP (Airborne Observation Platform) acquired high spatial resolution hyperspectral data (~1m pixels), waveform lidar, discrete lidar, and RGB imagery over all three sites. A field team simultaneously collected atmospheric and vegetation inventory data, including tree locations, height, diameter-at-breast-height (DBH), species, and spectral data. The NEON collect was centered within a collaboration of multiple research entities, including NASA, Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), University of Massachusetts (Boston; UMB, and Lowell; UML), Boston University (BU), and the University of Wisconsin, Madison (UWM). NASA's AVIRIS and MASTER sensors were flown over a wider area encompassing the NEON sites, with AVIRIS acquiring hyperspectral data (224 bands) at approximately 30m spatial resolution, and MASTER acquiring multispectral thermal data (50 bands) at approximately 50m spatial resolution. These data will be downscaled to approximate theoretical HyspIRI data (60m spatial resolution) as part of a large collection of preparatory research. Concurrently, a variety of university teams were active in the field: RIT collected ground-based lidar, leaf area index (LAI), herbaceous biomass measurements, wide-angle photographs, and spectral measurements. Data were collected over 20 80x80m sites, centered on existing 20x20m NEON sites. This data set will be used to inform synthetic scene design and to study the impact of sub-pixel structural variation on pixel-level spectral response; The BU, UMB, and UML

  13. Climatology analysis of cirrus cloud in ARM site: South Great Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olayinka, K.

    2017-12-01

    Cirrus cloud play an important role in the atmospheric energy balance and hence in the earth's climate system. The properties of optically thin clouds can be determined from measurements of transmission of the direct solar beam. The accuracy of cloud optical properties determined in this way is compromised by contamination of the direct transmission by light that is scattered into the sensors field of view. With the forward scattering correction method developed by Min et al., (2004), the accuracy of thin cloud retrievals from MFRSR has been improved. Our result shows over 30% of cirrus cloud present in the atmosphere are within optical depth between (1-2). In this study, we do statistics studies on cirrus clouds properties based on multi-years cirrus cloud measurements from MFRSR at ARM site from the South Great Plain (SGP) site due to its relatively easy accessibility, wide variability of climate cloud types and surface flux properties, large seasonal variation in temperature and specific humidity. Through the statistic studies, temporal and spatial variations of cirrus clouds are investigated. Since the presence of cirrus cloud increases the effect of greenhouse gases, we will retrieve the aerosol optical depth in all the cirrus cloud regions using a radiative transfer model for atmospheric correction. Calculate thin clouds optical depth (COD), and aerosol optical depth (AOD) using a radiative transfer model algorithm, e.g.: MODTRAN (MODerate resolution atmospheric TRANsmission)

  14. Long-term monitoring of fleshy fruit and hard mast production and seasonal bird distribution at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Cathryn, H.; Levey, Douglas J.

    2009-06-15

    A final report of Fruit and hard mast production in five habitat types at SRS with a comparison of fruit consumption by fledgling versus adult birds at SRS and Relative importance of fruit, seeds, and insects in the diets of overwintering birds at SRS.

  15. The multidisciplinary, Seismic-Hydroacoustic-Infrasound, observatory in offshore site of the northeastern South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, H. M.; Che, I. Y.; Kim, G.; Lim, I. S.; Shin, I. C.; Kim, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The long-term seismic observation on the sea-floor is a challenging idea that can provide useful information in offshore area and help us to understand the tectonics better. Projects in the United States, Canada, Japan, and Europe were successfully implemented. We report on the installation of a long-term sea-floor multidisciplinary observatory in offshore site of the northeastern South Korea. The site is located 4.5 km from the shore, at a water depth of about 80 m. The novelty of our project is the development of an integrated detection system for earthquake combining seismic, hydroacoutic, and infrasound technologies. The observatory consists of three sea-floor seismometer modules and associated elastic beacon type buoys each of which is equipped with solar power supply, infrasound and meteorological sensors, RF and LTE network for continuous and real-time data transmission, and SOH system. Three elastic beacon type buoys were successfully deployed during July 29 - 31, 2015. The sea-floor seismometer module is equipped with a 3-component CMG-3T-OBS system with 24-bit 8-channel digitizer in titanium sphere. A current meter, a Differential Pressure Gauge, and a HTI hydrophone are mounted on the lifting frame. The whole module is covered and protected with Trawl resistant concrete dome. Three land broadband seismic stations nearby (land and ocean. We analyzed the seismic ambient noise characteristics on the offshore site from the data of temporary OBS operated for 4 months. The power spectral density was calculated and compared with the NLNM and NHNM. Now, we are preparing the installation of three seismometer modules scheduled to do in early September, 2016. The integrated data and the technique analyzing the Seismic-Hydroacoustic-Infrasound data will improve our detection system for earthquake in offshore.

  16. Savannah River Site Environmental Report for 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, M

    1999-06-09

    The mission at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is focused primarily on support of the national defense, nonproliferation, and environmental cleanup. SRS-through its prime operating contractor, Westinghouse Savannah River Company-continues to maintain a comprehensive environmental monitoring program.

  17. Wildflowers of the Savannah River Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Segar

    2015-01-01

    This guidebook is a resource to help field personnel (nonbotanists) identify plants on the Savannah River Site (SRS) premises. Although not a complete flora guide, this publication contains information about 123 plant species found on the SRS. Plants are listed by their common names and arranged by the color of the flower.

  18. Savannah River Site Environmental Report for 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnett, M.

    1999-01-01

    The mission at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is focused primarily on support of the national defense, nonproliferation, and environmental cleanup. SRS-through its prime operating contractor, Westinghouse Savannah River Company-continues to maintain a comprehensive environmental monitoring program

  19. Hybrid Microwave Treatment of SRS TRU and Mixed Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicks, G.G.

    1999-11-18

    A new process, using hybrid microwave energy, has been developed as part of the Strategic Research and Development program and successfully applied to treatment of a wide variety of non-radioactive materials, representative of SRS transuranic (TRU) and mixed wastes. Over 35 simulated (non-radioactive) TRU and mixed waste materials were processed individually, as well as in mixed batches, using hybrid microwave energy, a new technology now being patented by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC).

  20. Hybrid Microwave Treatment of SRS TRU and Mixed Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.

    1999-01-01

    A new process, using hybrid microwave energy, has been developed as part of the Strategic Research and Development program and successfully applied to treatment of a wide variety of non-radioactive materials, representative of SRS transuranic (TRU) and mixed wastes. Over 35 simulated (non-radioactive) TRU and mixed waste materials were processed individually, as well as in mixed batches, using hybrid microwave energy, a new technology now being patented by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC)

  1. The role of print advertising in clinical trial recruitment: Lessons from a South African site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley J Burgess

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Lesley J Burgess, Nicky U SulzerTREAD Research/Cardiology Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Tygerberg Hospital and Stellenbosch University, Parow, South AfricaObjective: To evaluate the effectiveness of print advertising in our setting in enrolling patients into a study and whether the associated costs are justified.Methods: This study was carried out by TREAD Research, based within an academic hospital in the Western Cape, South Africa, between January 2006 and June 2007. Newspaper advertising was used as a means of patient recruitment during this period. All advertisements published were summarized according to the total number of advertisements placed, patient response, and the number of patients enrolled compared to the number of patients enrolled from other recruitment methods.Results: A total of 53 print advertisements were placed over an 18-month period, with a response rate of 1,009 calls. The highest number of responses on average was received in response to the T2DM (type II diabetes mellitus advertisements (41.2%. Print advertising contributed more than 75% of the total number of patients randomized by the site. Apart from one study, print advertising contributed the majority of patients compared with other recruitment methods. The estimated cost of these print advertisements was ZAR 229,482.00 (USD 30,597.60, whereas the estimated income from the patients randomized from these advertisements was ZAR 4,534, 933.00 (USD 604,657.73.Conclusion: Print advertising, in this setting, was shown to be an expensive but highly effective recruitment method in comparison with other recruitment methods (550% yield. Its effectiveness is, however, dependent on therapeutic area and patient population.Keywords: print advertising, recruitment, costs, patient enrollment

  2. 75 FR 68605 - Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 125 Under Alternative Site Framework; South Bend, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Order No. 1720] Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 125 Under Alternative Site Framework; South Bend, Indiana Pursuant to its authority under the... establishment or reorganization of general-purpose zones; Whereas, the St. Joseph County Airport Authority...

  3. Atmospheric deposition at four forestry sites in the Alpine Region of Trentino- South Tyrol, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano MINERBI

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The Trentino-South Tyrol Region is located in the southern part of the Alpine Chain. The territory is largely mountainous with crystalline rock formations dominant in the north and limestone in the south-east. Most of the land is open to the climatic and atmospheric influence of the River Po, via the mainly N-S oriented valley of the River Adige. The forestry authorities of the region have since the 80s been making an annual assessment of forest decline, particularly as regards parasite attacks, defoliation and crown discoloration, and have found the situation to be better than in most other parts of Europe. The region's forest protection policy is administered by the two provinces of Bolzano/Bozen and Trento in the framework of the European convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution (UN-ECE LRTAP; each province operates two forestry sampling permanent plots. The sites are all constituted according to the standard recommendations, and are located in the central part of the region along the Adige Valley, where most of population live and where most of the agriculture and industry is. Two of the areas are in coniferous stands of the typical Alpine forest, mainly composed of Norway spruce; the other two are located in deciduous stands (both high forest and coppice and are closer to the urban centres than the first two. Concentration and deposition values for the main ionic components in bulk, wet, throughfall, stemflow and soil water are given separately for the four monitoring sites, with reference to the period 1996- 1999. The major acidifying component in atmospheric precipitation is still sulphate, but as other investigations confirm, the relative importance of the nitrate input is increasing all the time. The effect of these changes is probably positive for terrestrial ecosystems in the short term because of the decrease in total acidifying input and the increase in inorganic fertilisation. The absence of major "forest" damage

  4. Radionuclide field lysimeter experiment (RadFLEx): geochemical and hydrological data for SRS performance assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Powell, B. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Barber, K. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Devol, T. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Dixon, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Erdmann, B. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Maloubier, M. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Martinez, N. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Montgomery, D. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Peruski, K. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Roberts, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Witmer, M. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2017-12-12

    The SRNL Radiological Field Lysimeter Experiment (RadFLEx) is a one-of-a-kind test bed facility designed to study radionuclide geochemical processes in the Savannah River Site (SRS) vadose zone at a larger spatial scale (from grams to tens of kilograms of sediment) and temporal scale (from months to decade) than is readily afforded through laboratory studies. RadFLEx is a decade-long project that was initiated on July 5, 2012 and is funded by six different sources. The objective of this status report is as follows: 1) to report findings to date that have an impact on SRS performance assessment (PA) calculations, and 2) to provide performance metrics of the RadFLEx program. The PA results are focused on measurements of transport parameters, such as distribution coefficients (Kd values), solubility, and unsaturated flow values. As this is an interim report, additional information from subsequent research may influence our interpretation of current results. Research related to basic understanding of radionuclide geochemistry in these vadose zone soils and other source terms are not described here but are referenced for the interested reader.

  5. Performance Modeling Applied to the Treatment and Disposal of a Mixed Waste at the SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, J.B.; Jantzen, C.M.; Cook, J.R.; Whited, A.R.; Field, R.A.

    1997-05-01

    Performance modeling for Low Level Mixed Waste disposal was conducted using the measured leach rates from a number of vitrified waste formulations. The objective of the study was to determine if the improved durability of a vitrified mixed waste would allow trench disposal at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Leaching data were compiled from twenty-nine diverse reference glasses, encompassing a wide range of exposed glass surface area to leachant volume ratios (SA/V), and various leachant solutions; all of which had been leached at 90 degrees Celsius, using the MCC-1 or PCT procedures (ASTM Procedures C1220-92 and C1285-94, respectively). The normalized leach rates were scaled to the ambient disposal temperature of 25 degrees Celsius, and compared to the allowable leach rate of uranium - which would meet the performance assessment requirements. The results indicated that a glass of above average durability (vs. the reference glasses) would meet the uranium leaching concentration for direct SRS trench disposal

  6. Costs of promoting exclusive breastfeeding at community level in three sites in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lungiswa Leonora Nkonki

    Full Text Available Community-based peer support has been shown to be effective in improving exclusive breastfeeding rates in a variety of settings.We conducted a cost analysis of a community cluster randomised-controlled trial (Promise-EBF, aimed at promoting exclusive infant feeding in three sites in South Africa. The costs were considered from the perspective of health service providers. Peer supporters in this trial visited women to support exclusive infant feeding, once antenatally and four times postpartum.The total economic cost of the Promise-EBF intervention was US$393 656, with average costs per woman and per visit of US$228 and US$52, respectively. The average costs per woman and visit in an operational 'non research' scenario were US$137 and US$32 per woman and visit, respectively. Investing in the promotion of exclusive infant feeding requires substantial financial commitment from policy makers. Extending the tasks of multi-skilled community health workers (CHWs to include promoting exclusive infant feeding is a potential option for reducing these costs. In order to avoid efficiency losses, we recommend that the time requirements for delivering the promotion of exclusive infant feeding are considered when integrating it within the existing activities of CHWs.This paper focuses on interventions for exclusive infant feeding, but its findings more generally illustrate the importance of documenting and quantifying factors that affect the feasibility and sustainability of community-based interventions, which are receiving increased focus in low income settings.

  7. Diapause, pupation sites and parasitism of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans, in south-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, J; Linhares, A X

    1999-05-01

    In order to verify the occurrence of diapause, preference for pupation sites and hymenopteran parasitism, the pupae of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae), were collected from undisturbed cattle dung pats in pastures, and adults of the fly were sampled from cattle in São Paulo State, south-eastern Brazil, from April 1993 to July 1994. Diapause was verified in 7.7% of pupae sampled from pastures in June and July of 1993 and in 9.9% of those sampled in May, June and July of 1994 (overall rate of 9.1%). Approximately 8.3% of the pupae were parasitized by microhymenopterans, mostly Spalangia nigroaenea and S. cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Horn fly pupae were found almost exclusively inside the pat or in the soil immediately beneath and adjacent to it, and very few were collected elsewhere. Pupa mortality was 54.4% and did not change significantly during the year, but mortality was greater among pupae collected in pastures when compared to those obtained from experimental pats, lacking natural enemies.

  8. Soil degradation by sulfuric acid disposition on uranium producing sites in south Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atanasov, I.; Gribachev, P.

    1997-01-01

    This study assesses the damage of soils caused by spills of sulfuric acid solutions used for in situ leaching of uranium at eight uranium producing (by open-cast method) sites (total area of approximately 220 ha) in the region of Momino-Rakovski (South Bulgaria). The upper soil layer is cinnamonic pseudopodzolic ( or Eutric Planosols by FAO Legend, 1974). The results of the investigation show that the sulfuric acid spills caused strong acidification of upper (0-20 cm) and subsurface (20-60 cm) soil horizons which is expressed as decreasing of pH (H 2 O) to 2.9-3.5 and increasing of exchangeable H + and Al 3+ to 18 and 32% from CEC. Acid degradation of soils is combined with reducing of organic matter content. The average concentration of the total heavy metal content in the upper soil horizon (in ppm) is: Cd=1.5; Cu=30; Pb=25; Zn=40 and U=8. No significant differences were detected between the upper and subsurface soil layers . The heavy metal concentration did not exceed the Bulgarian standards for heavy metals and uranium content of soils. But the coarse texture of the top soil layers, the lack of carbonates, The low CEC and strong acidity determine a low buffering capacity of the investigated soils and this can be considered as hazardous for plants. This indicates that a future soil monitoring should be carried out in the region together with measures for neutralizing of soil acidity

  9. Characteristics and diurnal variations of NMHCs at urban, suburban, and rural sites in the Pearl River Delta and a remote site in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, J. H.; Chan, L. Y.; Chan, C. Y.; Li, Y. S.; Chang, C. C.; Liu, S. C.; Wu, D.; Li, Y. D.

    The Pearl River Delta (PRD) is one of the most industrialized and urbanized regions in China. With rapid growth of the economy, it is suffering from deteriorating air quality. Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were investigated at urban and suburban sites in Guangzhou (GZ), a rural site in PRD and a clean remote site in South China, in April 2005. Additional roadside samples in GZ and Qingxi (QX, a small industrial town in PRD), ambient air samples at the rooftop of a printing factory in QX and exhaust samples from liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)—fueled taxis in GZ were collected to help identify the source signatures of NMHCs. A large fraction of propane (47%) was found in exhaust samples from LPG-fueled taxis in GZ and extremely high levels of toluene (2.0-3.1 ppmv) were found at the rooftop of the printing factory in QX. Vehicular and industrial emissions were the main sources of NMHCs. The effect of vehicular emission on the ambient air varied among the three PRD sites. The impact of industrial emissions was widespread and they contributed greatly to the high levels of aromatic hydrocarbons, especially toluene, at the three PRD sites investigated. Leakage from vehicles fueled by LPG contributed mainly to the high levels of propane and n-butane at the urban GZ site. Ethane and ethyne from long-range transport and isoprene from local biogenic emission were the main contributors to the total hydrocarbons at the remote site. Diurnal variations of NMHCs showed that the contribution from vehicular emissions varied with traffic conditions and were more influenced by fresh emissions at the urban site and by aged air at the suburban and rural sites. Isoprene from biogenic emission contributed largely to the ozone formation potential (OFP) at the remote site. Ethene, toluene and m/ p-xylene were the main contributors to the OFP at the three PRD sites.

  10. Environmental assessment for the A-01 outfall constructed wetlands project at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to analyze the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed A-01 outfall constructed wetlands project at the Savannah River site (SRS), located near aiken, South Carolina. The proposed action would include the construction and operation of an artificial wetland to treat effluent from the A-01 outfall located in A Area at SRS. The proposed action would reduce the outfall effluent concentrations in order to meet future outfall limits before these go into effect on October 1, 1999. This document was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended; the requirements of the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing NEPA (40 CFR Parts 1500--1508); and the DOE Regulations for Implementing NEPA (10 CFR Part 1021).

  11. Environmental assessment for the A-01 outfall constructed wetlands project at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to analyze the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed A-01 outfall constructed wetlands project at the Savannah River site (SRS), located near aiken, South Carolina. The proposed action would include the construction and operation of an artificial wetland to treat effluent from the A-01 outfall located in A Area at SRS. The proposed action would reduce the outfall effluent concentrations in order to meet future outfall limits before these go into effect on October 1, 1999. This document was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended; the requirements of the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing NEPA (40 CFR Parts 1500--1508); and the DOE Regulations for Implementing NEPA (10 CFR Part 1021)

  12. Thirty-year solid waste generation forecast for facilities at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The information supplied by this 30-year solid waste forecast has been compiled as a source document to the Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement (WMEIS). The WMEIS will help to select a sitewide strategic approach to managing present and future Savannah River Site (SRS) waste generated from ongoing operations, environmental restoration (ER) activities, transition from nuclear production to other missions, and decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) programs. The EIS will support project-level decisions on the operation of specific treatment, storage, and disposal facilities within the near term (10 years or less). In addition, the EIS will provide a baseline for analysis of future waste management activities and a basis for the evaluation of the specific waste management alternatives. This 30-year solid waste forecast will be used as the initial basis for the EIS decision-making process. The Site generates and manages many types and categories of waste. With a few exceptions, waste types are divided into two broad groups-high-level waste and solid waste. High-level waste consists primarily of liquid radioactive waste, which is addressed in a separate forecast and is not discussed further in this document. The waste types discussed in this solid waste forecast are sanitary waste, hazardous waste, low-level mixed waste, low-level radioactive waste, and transuranic waste. As activities at SRS change from primarily production to primarily decontamination and decommissioning and environmental restoration, the volume of each waste s being managed will change significantly. This report acknowledges the changes in Site Missions when developing the 30-year solid waste forecast

  13. Ground motion for the design basis earthquake at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina based on a deterministic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngs, R.R.; Coppersmith, K.J.; Silva, W.J.; Stephenson, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    Ground motion assessments are presented for evaluation of the seismic safety of K-Reactor at the Savannah River Site. Two earthquake sources were identified as the most significant to seismic hazard at the site, a M 7.5 earthquake occurring at Charleston, South Carolina, and a M 5 event occurring in the site vicinity. These events control the low frequency and high frequency portions of the spectrum, respectively. Three major issues were identified in the assessment of ground motions for the Savannah River site; specification of the appropriate stress drop for the Charleston source earthquake, specification of the appropriate levels of soil damping at large depths for site response analyses, and the appropriateness of western US recordings for specification of ground motions in the eastern US

  14. Atmospheric trace metals measured at a regional background site (Welgegund) in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Andrew D.; van Zyl, Pieter G.; Beukes, Johan P.; Josipovic, Micky; Hendriks, Johan; Vakkari, Ville; Laakso, Lauri

    2017-03-01

    Atmospheric trace metals can cause a variety of health-related and environmental problems. Only a few studies on atmospheric trace metal concentrations have been conducted in South Africa. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine trace metal concentrations in aerosols collected at a regional background site, i.e. Welgegund, South Africa. PM1, PM1-2. 5 and PM2. 5-10 samples were collected for 13 months, and 31 atmospheric trace metal species were detected. Atmospheric iron (Fe) had the highest concentrations in all three size fractions, while calcium (Ca) was the second-most-abundant species. Chromium (Cr) and sodium (Na) concentrations were the third- and fourth-most-abundant species, respectively. The concentrations of the trace metal species in all three size ranges were similar, with the exception of Fe, which had higher concentrations in the PM1 size fraction. With the exception of titanium (Ti), aluminium (Al) and manganese (Mg), 70 % or more of the trace metal species detected were in the smaller size fractions, which indicated the influence of industrial activities. However, the large influence of wind-blown dust was reflected by 30 % or more of trace metals being present in the PM2. 5-10 size fraction. Comparison of trace metals determined at Welgegund to those in the western Bushveld Igneous Complex indicated that at both locations similar species were observed, with Fe being the most abundant. However, concentrations of these trace metal species were significantly higher in the western Bushveld Igneous Complex. Fe concentrations at the Vaal Triangle were similar to levels thereof at Welgegund, while concentrations of species associated with pyrometallurgical smelting were lower. Annual average Ni was 4 times higher, and annual average As was marginally higher than their respective European standard values, which could be attributed to regional influence of pyrometallurgical industries in the western Bushveld Igneous Complex. All three size

  15. Simulation and particle-tracking analysis of ground-water flow near the Savannah River site, Georgia and South Carolina, 2002, and for selected ground-water management scenarios, 2002 and 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Gregory S.

    2006-01-01

    Ground-water flow under 2002 hydrologic conditions was evaluated in an eight-county area in Georgia and South Carolina near the Savannah River Site (SRS), by updating boundary conditions and pumping rates in an existing U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) ground-water model. The original ground-water model, developed to simulate hydrologic conditions during 1987-92, used the quasi-three-dimensional approach by dividing the Floridan, Dublin, and Midville aquifer systems into seven aquifers. The hydrogeologic system was modeled using six active layers (A2-A7) that were separated by confining units with an overlying source-sink layer to simulate the unconfined Upper Three Runs aquifer (layer A1). Potentiometric- surface maps depicting September 2002 for major aquifers were used to update, evaluate, and modify boundary conditions used by the earlier ground-water flow model. The model was updated using the USGS finite-difference code MODFLOW-2000 for mean-annual conditions during 1987-92 and 2002. The specified heads in the source-sink layer A1 were lowered to reflect observed water-level declines during the 1998-2002 drought. These declines resulted in a decrease of 12.1 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) in simulated recharge or vertical inflow to the uppermost confined aquifer (Gordon, layer A2). Although ground-water pumpage in the study area has increased by 32 Mgal/d since 1995, most of this increase (17.5 Mgal/d) was from the unconfined Upper Three Runs aquifer (source-sink layer A1) with the remaining 14.5 Mgal/d assigned to the active layers within the model (A2-A7). The simulated water budget for 2002 shows a decrease from the 1987-92 model from 1,040 Mgal/d to 1,035 Mgal/d. The decreased ground-water inflows and increased ground-water withdrawal rates reduced the simulated ground-water outflow to river cells in the active layers of the model by 43 Mgal/d. The calibration statistics for all layers of the 2002 simulation resulted in a decrease in the root mean square

  16. Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Tank Closure Final Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) predecessor agency, established the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina, in the early 1950s. The primary mission of SRS was to produce nuclear materials for national defense. With the end of the Cold War and the reduction in the size of the United States stockpile of nuclear weapons, the SRS mission has changed. While national defense is still an important facet of the mission, SRS no longer produces nuclear materials and the mission is focused on material stabilization, environmental restoration, waste management, and decontamination and decommissioning of facilities that are no longer needed. As a result of its nuclear materials production mission, SRS generated large quantities of high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The HLW resulted from dissolving spent reactor fuel and nuclear targets to recover the valuable radioactive isotopes. DOE had stored the HLW in 51 large underground storage tanks located in the F- and H-Area Tank Farms at SRS. DOE has emptied and closed two of those tanks. DOE is treating the HLW, using a process called vitrification. The highly radioactive portion of the waste is mixed with a glass like material and stored in stainless steel canisters at SRS, pending shipment to a geologic repository for disposal. This process is currently underway at SRS in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The HLW tanks at SRS are of four different types, which provide varying degrees of protection to the environment due to different degrees of containment. The tanks are operated under the authority of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA) and DOE Orders issued under the AEA. The tanks are permitted by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) under South Carolina wastewater regulations, which require permitted facilities to be closed after they are removed from service. DOE has entered into an agreement with the U.S. Environmental

  17. Dechlorane Plus flame retardant in kingfishers (Alcedo atthis) from an electronic waste recycling site and a reference site, South China: influence of residue levels on the isomeric composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Ling; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Sun, Yu-Xin; Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Zhang, Qiang; Zou, Fa-Shen; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2013-03-01

    Dechlorane Plus (DP) isomers were examined in common kingfishers (Alcedo atthis) and their prey fishes collected from an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site and a reference site in South China, to investigate the possible influence of DP residue levels on the isomeric compositions. ∑DP (sum of syn-DP and anti-DP) concentrations in kingfishers from the e-waste recycling site ranged from 29 to 150 (median of 58) ng/g lipid weight (lw), which were one order of magnitude greater than those from the reference site (median = 3.9 ng/g lw). The isomer fractions of anti-DP (f(anti)) in kingfishers from the e-waste recycling site (mean of 0.65) were significantly smaller than those from the reference site (0.76). Additionally, the f(anti) values were negatively correlated to logarithm of ∑DP concentrations in the kingfishers (r(2) = 0.41, p < 0.0001). These results suggested that DP residue levels could influence its isomeric composition in the piscivorous bird. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dechlorane Plus flame retardant in kingfishers (Alcedo atthis) from an electronic waste recycling site and a reference site, South China: Influence of residue levels on the isomeric composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo, Ling; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Sun, Yu-Xin; Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Zhang, Qiang; Zou, Fa-Shen; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2013-01-01

    Dechlorane Plus (DP) isomers were examined in common kingfishers (Alcedo atthis) and their prey fishes collected from an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site and a reference site in South China, to investigate the possible influence of DP residue levels on the isomeric compositions. ∑DP (sum of syn-DP and anti-DP) concentrations in kingfishers from the e-waste recycling site ranged from 29 to 150 (median of 58) ng/g lipid weight (lw), which were one order of magnitude greater than those from the reference site (median = 3.9 ng/g lw). The isomer fractions of anti-DP (f anti ) in kingfishers from the e-waste recycling site (mean of 0.65) were significantly smaller than those from the reference site (0.76). Additionally, the f anti values were negatively correlated to logarithm of ∑DP concentrations in the kingfishers (r 2 = 0.41, p 11 -DP in the kingfishers is likely originated from the diet. ► The f anti values were negatively correlated to DP residue levels in the kingfishers. -- DP residue levels influence the isomeric compositions in the investigated kingfishers

  19. Site-specific parameter values for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's food pathway dose model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamby, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    Routine operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Western South Carolina result in radionuclide releases to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. The resulting radiation doses to the off-site maximum individual and the off-site population within 80 km of the SRS are estimated on a yearly basis. These estimates are currently generated using dose models prescribed for the commercial nuclear power industry by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The NRC provides default values for dose-model parameters for facilities without resources to develop site-specific values. A survey of land- and water-use characteristics for the Savannah River area has been conducted to determine site-specific values for water recreation, consumption, and agricultural parameters used in the NRC Regulatory Guide 1.109 (1977) dosimetric models. These site parameters include local characteristics of meat, milk, and vegetable production; recreational and commercial activities on the Savannah River; and meat, milk, vegetable, and seafood consumption rates. This paper describes how parameter data were obtained at the Savannah River Site and the impacts of such data on off-site dose. Dose estimates using site-specific parameter values are compared to estimates using the NRC default values

  20. Analysis Results for Sub-Samples of SRS Tanks 30, 32, and 39 to Support Evaluations of the I-129 Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-01-11

    In order to appropriately model and predict the chemical integrity and performance of cementitious materials used for waste immobilization at the Savannah River Site (SRS), it is critical to understand the I-129 solubility and distribution within the tank farm. Iodine in radioactive waste and in environmental media is typically highly mobile and long lived. Iodine is ubiquitous in SRS tank waste and waste forms. The iodine is assumed to be soluble and present at low levels in Performance Assessments (PAs) for SRS Tank Farms, and is one of the dose drivers in the PAs for both the SRS Salt Disposal Facility (SDF) and the H-Area Tank Farm (HTF). Analysis of tank waste samples is critical to understanding the Tank Farm iodine inventory and reducing disposal uncertainty. Higher than expected iodine levels have recently been observed in residual solids isolated from some SRS tanks prior to closure, indicating uncertainty regarding the chemical species involved. If the iodine inventory uncertainty is larger than anticipated, future work may be necessary to reduce the uncertainty. This memorandum satisfies a portion of the work scope identified in Task Plan SRNL-RP-2016-00651. A separate memorandum issued previously, reported historical unpublished I-129 data, a significant portion of which was below detectable analytical limits. This memorandum includes iodine and general chemical analysis results for six archived SRNL samples which were previously reported to have I-129 concentrations below detectable limits. Lower sample dilution factors were used for the current analyses in order to obtain concentrations above detection. The samples analyzed included surface and depth samples from SRS tanks 30, 32, and 39.

  1. Environmental Factors Affecting the Whale Shark Aggregation site in the South Central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Hozumi, Aya

    2015-12-01

    Motivation behind the spring whale shark (Rhincodon typus) aggregation in Al-Lith, on the Saudi Arabian coast of the South Central Red Sea, is uncertain. A plausible hypothesis is that whale sharks gather to feed on high prey density, leading to questions about the cause of the prey density. A bottom-up process fueled by nutrient input or accumulation from physical advection could create a peak in prey biomass. Wastewater discharged from an aquaculture facility could affect productivity or provide a chemosensory cue for whale sharks. Yet, basic physico-biological oceanography of this region is unresolved. Monthly profiles, long-term moorings, and spatial surveys were used to describe the temporal variability of potential prey biomass and water masses in this region for the first time. Plankton abundance of individuals larger than ~0.7 cm did not peak during whale shark season. Rather, a decrease coinciding the trailing end of whale shark detections was observed. Sites 180 m apart had differences in acoustic backscatter, suggesting small-scale biomass patchiness, supporting the small-scale variability in whale shark habitat selectivity. Red Sea Deep Water, a nutrient-rich water mass formed in the northern Red Sea, appeared in July at the same time the Tokar wind jet from the Sudanese mountain gap is the highest. Gulf of Aden Water, a nutrient-rich water mass from the Indian Ocean, arrived as episodes from May to September, contrary to previous expectations that the water arrives continuously. It is unlikely that these natural nutrient sources are directly responsible for the high prey density attracting the whale sharks. The aquaculture plume, observed at the aggregation site, had a distinct seasonality from the ambient waters. The plume’s highest salinity (>48) approached the extreme limits of coral tolerances. Nutrient concentrations (nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, silica), suspended particulate matter, phytoplankton biomass, bacteria and cyanobacteria cell counts

  2. Identification of vulnerable sites in salts affected agricultural soils from South-Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Jose A.; Faz, Angel; Kalbitz, Karsten; Jansen, Boris; Silvia, Martinez-Martinez

    2010-05-01

    Soil salinization is one of the main problems in many soils under intensive agricultural practices, especially in arid and semiarid zones. Two important reasons for the occurrence of salinization are i) the use of low quality irrigation water and ii) climatic conditions reducing soil quality. The results of salinization can be quite serious. It limits the growing of crops, constrains agricultural productivity, and in severe cases, leads to the abandonment of agricultural soils. There are mainly two kinds of soil salinity: naturally occurring dry-land salinity and human-induced salinity caused by the low quality of irrigation water, excessive water and fertilizer applications. In both cases the development of plants and soil organisms is limited. Natural occurrence of salts in soils is very difficult to handle and requires higher investments than the reduction of human-induced salinity. For these reasons, identification of vulnerable sites is essential for sustainable agricultural management, especially in these semiarid and arid environments. The main aim of this study was to examine spatial and vertical distribution pattern of salts in a semi-arid study site in South-Eastern Spain in order to identify vulnerable sites. In order to achieve this objective, surface soil samples were collected in January and July 2009 at 48 sites located in a representative lemon production area close to City of Murcia, covering a surface area of 44 km2. The area was divided using a square grid of 1000 m and the samples were taken from these squares. The ionic concentrations were used as the input data for distribution maps. The software used for the spatial analysis was Arcview 3.1. An interpolation method called the Inverse Distanced Weighted (IDW) method was adopted for the interpolation of the data. The results indicated that the concentrations of most anions are higher in summer. The difference was particularly large for chloride, most likely because of its high mobility and

  3. Groundwater flow and tritium migration from the SRS Old Burial Ground to Fourmile Branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flach, G.P.; Hamm, L.L.; Harris, M.K.

    1996-04-01

    The objectives of this investigation are twofold. The initial goal is to devise and demonstrate a technique for directly incorporating fine-scale lithologic data into heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity fields, for improved groundwater flow and contaminant transport model accuracy. The ultimate goal is to rigorously simulate past and future tritium migration from the SRS Old Burial Ground towards Fourmile Branch, to better understand the effects of various remediation alternatives such as no action and capping. Large-scale variability in hydraulic conductivity is usually the main influence on field-scale groundwater flow patterns and dispersive transport, following the relative locations of recharge and discharge areas. Incorporating realistic hydraulic conductivity heterogeneity into flow and transport models is paramount to accurate simulations, particularly for contaminant migration. Sediment lithologic descriptions and geophysical logs typically offer finer spatial resolution, and therefore more potential information about heterogeneity, than other site characterization data

  4. Behavior of mercury, lead, cesium, and uranyl ions on four SRS soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, J.P.; Marson, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    Samples of four Savannah River Site (SRS) soils were tested for sorption behavior with Hg 2+ , Pb 2+ , UO 2 2+ , and Cs + ions. The purpose of the study was to determine the selectivity of the different soils for these ions alone and in the presence of the competing cations, H + and Ca 2+ . Distribution constants, Kd's, for the test ions in various solutions have been determined for the four soils. In general, sorption by all of the soils appeared to be more complex than a simple ion exchange or adsorption process. In particular, the presence of organic matter in soil increased the capacity of the soil due to its chelating ability. Similar soils did not react similarly toward each metal cation

  5. Discovering Hominins - Application of Medical Computed Tomography (CT) to Fossil-Bearing Rocks from the Site of Malapa, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilg, Jacqueline S; Berger, Lee R

    2015-01-01

    In the South African context, computed tomography (CT) has been used applied to individually prepared fossils and small rocks containing fossils, but has not been utilized on large breccia blocks as a means of discovering fossils, and particularly fossil hominins. Previous attempts at CT imaging of rocks from other South African sites for this purpose yielded disappointing results. For this study, 109 fossil- bearing rocks from the site of Malapa, South Africa were scanned with medical CT prior to manual preparation. The resultant images were assessed for accuracy of fossil identification and characterization against the standard of manual preparation. The accurate identification of fossils, including those of early hominins, that were not visible on the surface of individual blocks, is shown to be possible. The discovery of unexpected fossils is reduced, thus lowering the potential that fossils could be damaged through accidental encounter during routine preparation, or even entirely missed. This study should significantly change the way fossil discovery, recovery and preparation is done in the South African context and has potential for application in other palaeontological situations. Medical CT imaging is shown to be reliable, readily available, cost effective and accurate in finding fossils within matrix conglomerates. Improvements in CT equipment and in CT image quality are such that medical CT is now a viable imaging modality for this palaeontological application.

  6. Discovering Hominins - Application of Medical Computed Tomography (CT to Fossil-Bearing Rocks from the Site of Malapa, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline S Smilg

    Full Text Available In the South African context, computed tomography (CT has been used applied to individually prepared fossils and small rocks containing fossils, but has not been utilized on large breccia blocks as a means of discovering fossils, and particularly fossil hominins. Previous attempts at CT imaging of rocks from other South African sites for this purpose yielded disappointing results. For this study, 109 fossil- bearing rocks from the site of Malapa, South Africa were scanned with medical CT prior to manual preparation. The resultant images were assessed for accuracy of fossil identification and characterization against the standard of manual preparation. The accurate identification of fossils, including those of early hominins, that were not visible on the surface of individual blocks, is shown to be possible. The discovery of unexpected fossils is reduced, thus lowering the potential that fossils could be damaged through accidental encounter during routine preparation, or even entirely missed. This study should significantly change the way fossil discovery, recovery and preparation is done in the South African context and has potential for application in other palaeontological situations. Medical CT imaging is shown to be reliable, readily available, cost effective and accurate in finding fossils within matrix conglomerates. Improvements in CT equipment and in CT image quality are such that medical CT is now a viable imaging modality for this palaeontological application.

  7. Monitoring of long-term pavement performance sites in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, the Department of Transport and Public Works of the Western Cape province in South Africa entered into a contract with the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) in South Africa to start a Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP...

  8. Savannah River Site. Environmental report for 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, Margaret W. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Site. ed; Mamatey, Albert R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Site. ed

    2001-12-31

    The goal of the Savannah River Site (SRS)—and that of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)—is positive environmental stewardship and full regulatory compliance, with zero violations. The site’s employees maintained progress toward achievement of this goal in 2001, as demonstrated by examples in this chapter. The site’s compliance efforts were near-perfect again in 2001. No notices of violation (NOVs) were issued in 2001 under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), or the Clean Water Act (CWA). Two NOVs were issued to SRS during 2001—one, associated with permit requirement compliance, was issued under the Clean Air Act (CAA); the other, related to an oil release, was issued under the South Carolina Pollution Control Act. Under the CWA, the site’s National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) compliance rate was 99.6 percent. Also, 274 National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) reviews of newly proposed actions were conducted and formally documented in 2001, and only one of the year’s 799 Site Item Reportability and Issues Management (SIRIM) program-reportable events was categorized as environmental; it was classified as an off-normal event.

  9. Post-fledging dispersal of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus from two breeding sites in the South Atlantic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemens Pütz

    Full Text Available Most studies concerning the foraging ecology of marine vertebrates are limited to breeding adults, although other life history stages might comprise half the total population. For penguins, little is known about juvenile dispersal, a period when individuals may be susceptible to increased mortality given their naïve foraging behaviour. Therefore, we used satellite telemetry to study king penguin fledglings (n = 18 from two sites in the Southwest Atlantic in December 2007. The two sites differed with respect to climate and proximity to the Antarctic Polar Front (APF, a key oceanographic feature generally thought to be important for king penguin foraging success. Accordingly, birds from both sites foraged predominantly in the vicinity of the APF. Eight king penguins were tracked for periods greater than 120 days; seven of these (three from the Falkland Islands and four from South Georgia migrated into the Pacific. Only one bird from the Falkland Islands moved into the Indian Ocean, visiting the northern limit of the winter pack-ice. Three others from the Falkland Islands migrated to the eastern coast of Tierra del Fuego before travelling south. Derived tracking parameters describing their migratory behaviour showed no significant differences between sites. Nevertheless, generalized linear habitat modelling revealed that juveniles from the Falkland Islands spent more time in comparatively shallow waters with low sea surface temperature, sea surface height and chlorophyll variability. Birds from South Georgia spent more time in deeper waters with low sea surface temperature and sea surface height, but high concentrations of chlorophyll. Our results indicate that inexperienced king penguins, irrespective of the location of their natal site in relation to the position of the APF, develop their foraging skills progressively over time, including specific adaptations to the environment around their prospective breeding site.

  10. Seismic site coefficients and acceleration design response spectra based on conditions in South Carolina : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-15

    The simplified procedure in design codes for determining earthquake response spectra involves : estimating site coefficients to adjust available rock accelerations to site accelerations. Several : investigators have noted concerns with the site coeff...

  11. Tiger Team Assessment of the Savannah River Site: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    This draft document contains findings identified during the Tiger Team Compliance Assessment of the US Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS), located in three countries (Aiken, Barnwell and Allendale), South Carolina. The Assessment was directed by the Department's Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health (ES ampersand H) and was conducted from January 29 to March 23, 1990. The Savannah River Site Tiger Team Compliance Assessment was broad in scope covering the Environment, Safety and Health, and Management areas and was designed to determine the site's compliance with applicable Federal (including DOE), state, and local regulations and requirements. The scope of the Environmental assessment was sitewide while the Safety and Health assessments included site operating facilities (except reactors), and the sitewide elements of Aviation Safety, Emergency Preparedness, Medical Services, and Packaging and Transportation. This report contains the appendices to the assessment

  12. Tiger Team Assessment of the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    This draft document contains findings identified during the Tiger Team Compliance Assessment of the US Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS), located in three counties (Aiken, Barnwell and Allendale), South Carolina. The Assessment was directed by the Department's Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health (ES ampersand H) and was conducted from January 29 to March 23, 1990. The Savannah River Site Tiger Team Compliance Assessment was broad in scope covering the Environment, Safety and Health, and Management areas and was designed to determine the site's compliance with applicable Federal (including DOE), state, and local regulations and requirements. The scope of the Environmental assessment was sitewide while the Safety and Health assessments included site operating facilities (except reactors), and the sitewide elements of Aviation Safety, Emergency Preparedness, Medical Services, and Packaging and Transportation

  13. Installation Restoration Program. Phase I. Records Search, Hazardous Materials Disposal Sites. Myrtle Beach Air Force Base, South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    specified, in the basis and will be based on biological, chemical, engineer- document, Stream Clasifications for the State of South ing and physical...7, 1972. 1955. STEEL CREEK: York County. The entire stream TOWN CREEK: Cherokee County. See Peoples tributary to Sugar Creek, Class B. Filed August 7...underground steel tnk t w = i-. SITE RATED BY QY\\ I. RECEPTORS Factor Max I ,%m Rating Factoz PossiDly Rating Factor (0-3) Multiplier Score score A

  14. Results of Macroinvertebrate Sampling Conducted at 33 SRS Stream Locations, July--August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1994-12-01

    In order to assess the health of the macroinvertebrate communities of SRS streams, the macroinvertebrate communities at 30 stream locations on SRS were sampled during the summer of 1993, using Hester-Dendy multiplate samplers. In addition, three off-site locations in the Upper Three Runs drainage were sampled in order to assess the potential for impact from off-site activities. In interpreting the data, it is important to recognize that these data were from a single set of collections. Macroinvertebrate communities often undergo considerable temporal variation, and are also greatly influenced by such factors as water depth, water velocity, and available habitat. These stations were selected with the intent of developing an on-going sampling program at a smaller number of stations, with the selection of the stations to be based largely upon the results of this preliminary sampling program. When stations within a given stream showed similar results, fewer stations would be sampled in the future. Similarly, if a stream appeared to be perturbed, additional stations or chemical analyses might be added so that the source of the perturbation could be identified. In general, unperturbed streams will contain more taxa than perturbed streams, and the distribution of taxa among orders or families will differ. Some groups of macroinvertebrates, such as Ephemeroptera (mayflies), Plecoptera (stoneflies) and Trichoptera (caddisflies), which are collectively called EPT taxa, are considered to be relatively sensitive to most kinds of stream perturbation; therefore a reduced number of EPT taxa generally indicates that the stream has been subject to chemical or physical stressors. In coastal plain streams, EPT taxa are generally less dominant than in streams with rocky substrates, while Chironomidae (midges) are more abundant. (Abstract Truncated)

  15. TESTING OF ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OF SRS ACTUAL WASTE TANK 5F AND TANK 12H SLUDGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C.; King, W.

    2011-08-22

    Forty three of the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have internal structures that hinder removal of the last approximately five thousand gallons of waste sludge solely by mechanical means. Chemical cleaning can be utilized to dissolve the sludge heel with oxalic acid (OA) and pump the material to a separate waste tank in preparation for final disposition. This dissolved sludge material is pH adjusted downstream of the dissolution process, precipitating the sludge components along with sodium oxalate solids. The large quantities of sodium oxalate and other metal oxalates formed impact downstream processes by requiring additional washing during sludge batch preparation and increase the amount of material that must be processed in the tank farm evaporator systems and the Saltstone Processing Facility. Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) was identified as a potential method for greatly reducing the impact of oxalate additions to the SRS Tank Farms without adding additional components to the waste that would extend processing or increase waste form volumes. In support of Savannah River Site (SRS) tank closure efforts, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted Real Waste Testing (RWT) to evaluate an alternative to the baseline 8 wt. % OA chemical cleaning technology for tank sludge heel removal. The baseline OA technology results in the addition of significant volumes of oxalate salts to the SRS tank farm and there is insufficient space to accommodate the neutralized streams resulting from the treatment of the multiple remaining waste tanks requiring closure. ECC is a promising alternative to bulk OA cleaning, which utilizes a more dilute OA (nominally 2 wt. % at a pH of around 2) and an oxalate destruction technology. The technology is being adapted by AREVA from their decontamination technology for Nuclear Power Plant secondary side scale removal. This report contains results from the SRNL small scale testing of the ECC process

  16. Pump spectral linewidth influence on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and self-termination behavior of SRS in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Guang S.; Kuzmin, Andrey; Prasad, Paras N. [The Institute for Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The threshold, temporal behavior, and conversion efficiency of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SBS) in three liquids (benzene, hexane, and dimethyl sulfoxide) and two crystals (calcite and barium nitrate) have been investigated under three largely different spectral linewidth conditions. Pumped with 532-nm and nanosecond duration laser pulses of ≤ 0.01 cm{sup -1} linewidth, only SBS can be generated in all tested liquids with a high nonlinear reflectivity. However when the pump spectral linewidth is ∝0.07 cm{sup -1} or ∝0.8 cm{sup -1}, both SBS and SRS can be observed in benzene while only SRS can be generated in dimethyl sulfoxide; in all these cases SRS is the dominant contribution to the stimulated scattering but the efficiency values are drastically decreased due to the self-termination behavior of SRS in liquids, which arises from the thermal self-defocusing of both pump beam and SRS beam owing to Stokes-shift related opto-heating effect. In contrast, for SRS process in the two crystals, the thermal self-defocusing influence is negligible benefitting from their much greater thermal conductivity, and a higher conversion efficiency of SRS generation can be retained under all three pump conditions. (copyright 2016 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. SU-E-T-48: A Multi-Institutional Study of Independent Dose Verification for Conventional, SRS and SBRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, R; Kamima, T; Tachibana, H; Baba, H; Itano, M; Yamazaki, T; Ishibashi, S; Higuchi, Y; Shimizu, H; Yamamoto, T; Yamashita, M; Sugawara, Y; Sato, A; Nishiyama, S; Kawai, D; Miyaoka, S

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To show the results of a multi-institutional study of the independent dose verification for conventional, Stereotactic radiosurgery and body radiotherapy (SRS and SBRT) plans based on the action level of AAPM TG-114. Methods: This study was performed at 12 institutions in Japan. To eliminate the bias of independent dose verification program (Indp), all of the institutions used the same CT-based independent dose verification software (Simple MU Analysis, Triangle Products, JP) with the Clarkson-based algorithm. Eclipse (AAA, PBC), Pinnacle 3 (Adaptive Convolve) and Xio (Superposition) were used as treatment planning system (TPS). The confidence limits (CL, Mean±2SD) for 18 sites (head, breast, lung, pelvis, etc.) were evaluated in comparison in dose between the TPS and the Indp. Results: A retrospective analysis of 6352 treatment fields was conducted. The CLs for conventional, SRS and SBRT were 1.0±3.7 %, 2.0±2.5 % and 6.2±4.4 %, respectively. In conventional plans, most of the sites showed within 5 % of TG-114 action level. However, there were the systematic difference (4.0±4.0 % and 2.5±5.8 % for breast and lung, respectively). In SRS plans, our results showed good agreement compared to the action level. In SBRT plans, the discrepancy between the Indp was variable depending on dose calculation algorithms of TPS. Conclusion: The impact of dose calculation algorithms for the TPS and the Indp affects the action level. It is effective to set the site-specific tolerances, especially for the site where inhomogeneous correction can affect dose distribution strongly

  18. Geomorphology and geologic characteristics of the Savannah River floodplain in the vicinity of the Savannah River Site, South Carolina and Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeth, D.C.; Nagle, D.D.

    1994-01-01

    The potential for migration of contaminated ground water from the US Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS) beneath the Savannah River into Georgia (trans-river flow) is a subject of recent environmental concern. The degree of incision of the ancestral Savannah River into the local hydrogeologic framework is a significant consideration in the assessment of trans-river flow. The objective of this investigation is to identify the geologic formations which subcrop beneath the alluvium and the extent to which the river has incised regional confining beds. To meet this objective 18 boreholes were drilled to depths of 25 to 100 feet along three transects across the present floodplain. These borings provided data on the hydrogeologic character of the strata that fill the alluvial valley. The profiles from the borehole transects were compared with electrical conductivity (EM-34) data to ascertain the applicability of this geophysical technique to future investigations

  19. Srs2: the "Odd-Job Man" in DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Victoria; Krejci, Lumir

    2010-03-02

    Homologous recombination plays a key role in the maintenance of genome integrity, especially during DNA replication and the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs). Just a single un-repaired break can lead to aneuploidy, genetic aberrations or cell death. DSBs are caused by a vast number of both endogenous and exogenous agents including genotoxic chemicals or ionizing radiation, as well as through replication of a damaged template DNA or the replication fork collapse. It is essential for cell survival to recognise and process DSBs as well as other toxic intermediates and launch most appropriate repair mechanism. Many helicases have been implicated to play role in these processes, however their detail roles, specificities and co-operativity in the complex protein-protein interaction networks remain unclear. In this review we summarize the current knowledge about Saccharomyces cerevisiae helicase Srs2 and its effect on multiple DNA metabolic processes that generally affect genome stability. It would appear that Srs2 functions as an "Odd-Job Man" in these processes to make sure that the jobs proceed when and where they are needed. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Environmental assessment for the reuse of TNX as a multi-purpose pilot plant campus at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to analyze the potential environmental and safety impacts of DOE planning to allow asset reuse of the TNX Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS) located near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed action would include providing for a location for the Centers of Excellence at or adjacent to SRS and entering into a cooperative agreement with a non-profit management and operations (management firm) contractor to operate and market the TNX facilities and equipment. The area (formerly TNX) would be called a Multi-Purpose Pilot Plant Campus (MPPC) and would be used: (1) as location for technology research, development, demonstration, and commercial operations; (2) to establish partnerships with industry to develop applied technologies for commercialization; and (3) serve as administrative headquarters for Centers of Excellence in the program areas of soil remediation, radioecology, groundwater contamination, and municipal solid waste minimization.

  1. Environmental assessment for the reuse of TNX as a multi-purpose pilot plant campus at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to analyze the potential environmental and safety impacts of DOE planning to allow asset reuse of the TNX Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS) located near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed action would include providing for a location for the Centers of Excellence at or adjacent to SRS and entering into a cooperative agreement with a non-profit management and operations (management firm) contractor to operate and market the TNX facilities and equipment. The area (formerly TNX) would be called a Multi-Purpose Pilot Plant Campus (MPPC) and would be used: (1) as location for technology research, development, demonstration, and commercial operations; (2) to establish partnerships with industry to develop applied technologies for commercialization; and (3) serve as administrative headquarters for Centers of Excellence in the program areas of soil remediation, radioecology, groundwater contamination, and municipal solid waste minimization

  2. Evaluation of the Validity of Groundwater Samples Obtained Using the Purge Water Management System at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beardsley, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the demonstration testing of the Purge Water Management System (PWMS) technology at the Savannah River Site (SRS), four wells were equipped with PWMS units in 1997 and a series of sampling events were conducted at each during 1997-1998. Three of the wells were located in A/M Area while the fourth was located at the Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground in the General Separations Area.The PWMS is a ''closed-loop'', non-contact, system used to collect and return purge water to the originating aquifer after a sampling event without having significantly altered the water quality. One of the primary concerns as to its applicability at SRS, and elsewhere, is whether the PWMS might resample groundwater that is returned to the aquifer during the previous sampling event. The purpose of the present investigation was to compare groundwater chemical analysis data collected at the four test wells using the PWMS vs. historical data collected using the standard monitoring program methodology to determine if the PWMS provides representative monitoring samples.The analysis of the groundwater chemical concentrations indicates that the PWMS sampling methodology acquired representative groundwater samples at monitoring wells ABP-1A, ABP-4, ARP-3 and BGO-33C. Representative groundwater samples are achieved if the PWMS does not resample groundwater that has been purged and returned during a previous sampling event. Initial screening calculations, conducted prior to the selection of these four wells, indicated that groundwater velocities were high enough under the ambient hydraulic gradients to preclude resampling from occurring at the time intervals that were used at each well. Corroborating evidence included a tracer test that was conducted at BGO-33C, the high degree of similarity between analyte concentrations derived from the PWMS samples and those obtained from historical protocol sampling, as well as the fact that PWMS data extend all previously existing concentration

  3. Srs2 and Mus81-Mms4 Prevent Accumulation of Toxic Inter-Homolog Recombination Intermediates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Keyamura

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Homologous recombination is an evolutionally conserved mechanism that promotes genome stability through the faithful repair of double-strand breaks and single-strand gaps in DNA, and the recovery of stalled or collapsed replication forks. Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATP-dependent DNA helicase Srs2 (a member of the highly conserved UvrD family of helicases has multiple roles in regulating homologous recombination. A mutation (srs2K41A resulting in a helicase-dead mutant of Srs2 was found to be lethal in diploid, but not in haploid, cells. In diploid cells, Srs2K41A caused the accumulation of inter-homolog joint molecule intermediates, increased the levels of spontaneous Rad52 foci, and induced gross chromosomal rearrangements. Srs2K41A lethality and accumulation of joint molecules were suppressed by inactivating Rad51 or deleting the Rad51-interaction domain of Srs2, whereas phosphorylation and sumoylation of Srs2 and its interaction with sumoylated proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA were not required for lethality. The structure-specific complex of crossover junction endonucleases Mus81 and Mms4 was also required for viability of diploid, but not haploid, SRS2 deletion mutants (srs2Δ, and diploid srs2Δ mus81Δ mutants accumulated joint molecule intermediates. Our data suggest that Srs2 and Mus81-Mms4 have critical roles in preventing the formation of (or in resolving toxic inter-homolog joint molecules, which could otherwise interfere with chromosome segregation and lead to genetic instability.

  4. Refinement of MLC modeling improves commercial QA dosimetry system for SRS and SBRT patient-specific QA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Yair; Kim, Josh; Chetty, Indrin; Wen, Ning

    2018-04-01

    Mobius 3D (M3D) provides a volumetric dose verification of the treatment planning system's calculated dose using an independent beam model and a collapsed cone convolution superposition algorithm. However, there is a lack of investigation into M3D's accuracy and effectiveness for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) quality assurance (QA). Here, we collaborated with the vendor to develop a revised M3D beam model for SRS/SBRT cases treated with a 6X flattening filter-free (FFF) beam and high-definition multiple leaf collimator (HDMLC) on an Edge linear accelerator. Eighty SRS/SBRT cases, planned with AAA dose algorithm and validated with Gafchromic film, were compared to M3D dose calculations using 3D gamma analysis with 2%/2 mm gamma criteria and a 10% threshold. A revised beam model was developed by refining the HD-MLC model in M3D to improve small field dose calculation accuracy and beam profile agreement. All cases were reanalyzed using the revised beam model. The impact of heterogeneity corrections for lung cases was investigated by applying lung density overrides to five cases. For the standard and revised beam models, respectively, the mean gamma passing rates were 94.6% [standard deviation (SD): 6.1%] and 98.0% [SD: 1.7%] (for the overall patient), 88.2% [SD: 17.3%] and 93.8% [SD: 6.8%] (for the brain PTV), 71.4% [SD: 18.4%] and 81.5% [SD: 14.3%] (for the lung PTV), 83.3% [SD: 16.7%] and 67.9% [SD: 23.0%] (for the spine PTV), and 78.6% [SD: 14.0%] and 86.8% [SD: 12.5%] (for the PTV of all other sites). The lung PTV mean gamma passing rates improved from 74.1% [SD: 7.5%] to 89.3% [SD: 7.2%] with the lung density overridden. The revised beam model achieved an output factor within 3% of plastic scintillator measurements for 2 × 2 cm 2 MLC field size, but larger discrepancies are still seen for smaller field sizes which necessitate further improvement of the beam model. Special attention needs to be paid to small field

  5. SRS Public Involvement in Waste Management Has Resulted in Effective Decisions Supported by the Public Including Disposal Changes and Top-to-Bottom Review Initiative Consensus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, W. T.; Villasor, H. P.

    2003-01-01

    In the Savannah River Site's (SRS') Solid Waste Management Program, a key to success is the Public Involvement Program. The Solid Waste Division at SRS manages the site's transuranic, low-level, mixed, and hazardous wastes. All decisions associated with management of this waste are of interest to the public and successful program implementation would be impossible without a vigorous public involvement program. The SRS Solid Waste Division (SWD) and its Department of Energy (DOE) customer developed, implemented, and maintain a comprehensive public participation and communications program. It is staffed by public participation and technical specialists to ensure information is presented in a manner that is technically accurate while being tailored for understanding by people without a technical background. The program provides the public with accurate, complete, timely information and early meaningful participation opportunities. It also fulfills the public participation activities required by laws, regulations, DOE Orders, and negotiated agreements. The primary goal of the SWD Public Participation Program is to fulfill the objectives of the SWD and SRS Strategic Plans to ''build trust and communicate openly, honestly, and responsibly with employees, customers, stakeholders, and regulators,'' and to ''work to extend the support of external stakeholders for the pursuit of SRS and DOE Complex business goals.'' This paper focuses on the public participation program goals, the implementation through formal plans and objectives, targeted waste management programs and specific audiences, and specific effects of the program on waste management activities. A discussion of the DOE and contractor teaming along with how plans are carried out is also included

  6. Evaluation of no-MST operations in the SRS ARP for Hanford LAWPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-11-14

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Actinide Removal Process has been processing salt waste since 2008. This process includes a filtration step in the 512-S facility. Initial operations included the addition, or strike, of monosodium titanate (MST) to remove soluble actinides and strontium. The added MST and any entrained sludge solids were then separated from the supernate by cross flow filtration. During this time, the filter operations have, on many occasions, been the bottleneck process limiting the rate of salt processing. Recently, 512-S- has started operations utilizing “No-MST” where the MST actinide removal strike was not performed and the supernate was simply pre-filtered prior to Cs removal processing. Direct filtration of decanted tank supernate, as demonstrated in 512-S, is the proposed method of operation for the Hanford Low Activity Waste Pretreatment System (LAWPS) facility. Processing decanted supernate without MST solids has been demonstrated for cross flow filtration to provide a significant improvement in production with the SRS Salt Batches 8 and 9 feed chemistries. The average filtration rate for the first 512-S batch processing cycle using No-MST has increased filtrate production by over 35% of the historical average. The increase was sustained for more than double the amount of filtrate batches processed before cleaning of the filter was necessary. While there are differences in the design of the 512-S and Hanford filter systems, the 512-S system should provide a reasonable indication of LAWPS filter performance with similar feed properties. Based on the data from the 512-S facility and with favorable feed properties, the LAWPS filter, as currently sized at over twice the size of the 512-S filter (532 square feet filtration area versus 235 square feet), has the potential to provide sustained filtrate production at the upper range of the planned LAWPS production rate of 17 gpm.

  7. BIGFOOT Meteorological Data for North and South American Sites, 1991-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The BigFoot Project has compiled daily meteorological measurements for nine EOS Land Validation Sites located from Alaska to Brazil from 1991 to 2004. Each site is...

  8. BigFoot Leaf Area Index Surfaces for North and South American Sites, 2000-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The BigFoot project gathered leaf area index (LAI) data for nine EOS Land Validation Sites located from Alaska to Brazil from 2000 to 2003. Each site is...

  9. BigFoot GPP Surfaces for North and South American Sites, 2000-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The BigFoot project gathered Gross Primary Production (GPP) data for nine EOS Land Validation Sites located from Alaska to Brazil from 2000 to 2004. Each site is...

  10. BigFoot Leaf Area Index Surfaces for North and South American Sites, 2000-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The BigFoot project gathered leaf area index (LAI) data for nine EOS Land Validation Sites located from Alaska to Brazil from 2000 to 2003. Each site is...

  11. BigFoot Land Cover Surfaces for North and South American Sites, 2000-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The BigFoot project gathered data for nine EOS Land Validation Sites located from Alaska to Brazil from 2000 to 2003. Each site is representative of one or...

  12. BigFoot NPP Surfaces for North and South American Sites, 2000-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The BigFoot project gathered Net Primary Production (NPP) data for nine EOS Land Validation Sites located from Alaska to Brazil from 2000 to 2004. Each site is...

  13. BigFoot Land Cover Surfaces for North and South American Sites, 2000-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The BigFoot project gathered data for nine EOS Land Validation Sites located from Alaska to Brazil from 2000 to 2003. Each site is representative of one or two...

  14. Constitutive expression and characterization of a surface SRS (NcSRS67) protein of Neospora caninum with no orthologue in Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Marcos Alexandre; Pereira, Luiz Miguel; Bononi, Aline; Biella, Carla Agostino; Baroni, Luciana; Pollo-Oliveira, Leticia; Yatsuda, Ana Patrícia

    2017-04-01

    Neospora caninum is a parasite of the Apicomplexa phylum responsible for abortion and losses of fertility in cattle. As part of its intracellular cycle, the first interaction of the parasite with the target cell is performed with the surface proteins known as the SRS superfamily (Surface Antigen Glycoprotein - Related Sequences). SAG related or SRS proteins have been a target of intense research due to its immunodominant pattern, exhibiting potential as diagnostic and/or vaccine candidates. The aim of this study was the cloning, expression and characterization of the gene NcSRS67 of N. caninum using a novel designed plasmid. The coding sequence of NcSRS67 (without the signal peptide and the GPI anchor) was cloned and expressed constitutively instead of the ccdB system of pCR-Blunt II-TOPO. The protein was purified in a nickel sepharose column and identified by mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The constitutive expression did not affect the final bacterial growth, with a similar OD 600nm compared to the non-transformed strains. The recombinant NcSRS67 was over expressed and the native form was detected by the anti-rNcSRS67 serum on 1D western blot as a single band of approximately 38kDa as predicted. On an in vitro assay, the inhibitory effect of the polyclonal antiserum anti-rNcSRS67 was nearly 20% on adhesion/invasion of host cells. The NcSRS67 native protein was localised on part of the surface of N. caninum tachyzoite when compared to the nucleus by confocal immunofluorescence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Corrective Action Plan for Expanded Bioventing System Site SS-41, Former Building 93 (Fuel Pumping Station Number 3), Charleston Air Force Base, South Carolina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    ... No. 93 Fuel Pumping Station throughout this report. Former Building No. 93 Fuel Pumping Station is the only area at Site SS-41 that failed two risk-based screening tiers using the South Carolina Risk- Based Corrective Action (RBCA...

  16. Clemson final report: High temperature formulations for SRS soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, R.F. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-03-11

    This study was undertaken to demonstrate the application of a DC arc melter to in-situ vitrification of SRS soils. The melter that was available at the DOE/Industrial Vitrification Laboratory at Clemson University was equipped with opposing solid electrodes. To simulate field conditions, two hollow electrode configurations were evaluated which allowed fluxes to be injected into the melter while the soils were being vitrified. the first 4 runs utilized pre-blended flux (two runs) and attempted flux injection (two runs). These runs were terminated prematurely due to offgas sampling problems and melt freezing. The remaining four runs utilized a different electrode geometry, and the runs were not interrupted to change out the offgas sampling apparatus. These runs were conducted successfully.

  17. Fall 1993 Hardwood Seed Collection Project for the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Boatwright, N.I. III [Canal Environmental Services (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Fall 1993 Hardwood Seed Collection Project was conducted as an initial step towards regenerating creek habitat on the Savannah River Site (SRS) that was damaged by past plant operating activities. Seed from various hardwood species was collected from the coastal plain of South Carolina (See Table 1). The contract required that seed collected from each tree be kept separate through processing and delivery. Height and dbh measurements and a photograph of each tree were also required. The contract procurement area was expanded eastward in an effort to alleviate problems associated with locating adequate seed sources in and around SRP.

  18. Questionário SRS-30 para adolescentes portadores de escoliose idiopática Cuestionario SRS-30 para adolescentes portadores de escoliosis idiopática SRS-30 Questionnaire for adolescents with idiophatic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Carriço de Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: a medição da qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde é uma prática comum na avaliação de doenças da coluna vertebral. O questionário SRS-30 (versão procedente do instrumento Scoliosis Research Society-22 é um instrumento válido para a avaliação clínica de pacientes portadores de escoliose idiopática nos Estados Unidos. Entretanto, sua adaptação em outros idiomas é necessária para uso multinacional. OBJETIVO: analisar os domínios e itens do questionário SRS-30 para adolescentes. Discutir a aplicação do questionário da Scoliosis Research Society (SRS em diversas versões. DESENHO DE ESTUDO: revisão narrativa da literatura sobre um questionário para mensurar a qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde e suas versões em diferentes idiomas. MÉTODOS: Foi conduzida uma revisão narrativa da literatura em relação à tradução e validação dos questionários SRS-22, SRS-24 e SRS-30. RESULTADOS: oito publicações descrevendo a tradução e validação do questionário SRS nos idiomas espanhol, japonês, turco, chinês, italiano e alemão foram identificadas na literatura. Nenhum artigo sobre o questionário SRS-30 na versão brasileira foi localizado na literatura. O conteúdo dos itens de cada domínio se refere tanto a dados concretos e fáceis de precisar como também às experiências subjetivas das pessoas e às reações emocionais diante de determinados fatos. A maioria dos instrumentos que avaliam qualidade de vida foi desenvolvida no idioma inglês e existe a necessidade da adaptação destes questionários para o uso em países cuja língua oficial não seja o inglês. CONCLUSÕES: questionários que avaliam qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde devem sofrer adaptações culturais para manter a validade interna do instrumento. Para isso, urge outro desenho de estudo para a validação do questionário SRS-30 em português brasileiro para que se determine sua validade em comparação aos question

  19. A Comprehensive Analysis of the SRS-Schwab Adult Spinal Deformity Classification and Confounding Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallager, Dennis Winge; Hansen, Lars Valentin; Dragsted, Casper Rokkjær

    2016-01-01

    hoc analyses were performed for each SRS-Schwab modifier. Age, history of spine surgery, and aetiology of spinal deformity were considered potential confounders and their influence on the association between SRS-Schwab modifiers and aggregated Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores was evaluated...

  20. Regulatory Support of Treatment of Savannah River Site Purex Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, L.T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the support given by federal and state regulatory agencies to Savannah River Site (SRS) during the treatment of an organic liquid mixed waste from the Plutonium Extraction (Purex) process. The support from these agencies allowed (SRS) to overcome several technical and regulatory barriers and treat the Purex waste such that it met LDR treatment standards. (authors)

  1. Blocking ELISA using recombinant NcSRS2 protein for diagnosing bovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnott, Francine A; Monte, Leonardo G; Collares, Thais F; De Matos, Bruno M; Pacheco, Diene B; Borsuk, Sibele; Andreotti, Renato; Hartleben, Cláudia P

    2015-03-01

    Neospora caninum is the etiologic agent of neosporosis, which leads to economic impacts on cattle industry. The reference method for serodiagnosis of neosporosis is the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). However, IFAT is laborious, expensive, and is not practicable in high throughput screening. In order to facilitate the serological diagnosis of neosporosis, we developed a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (b-ELISA) based on NcSRS2 recombinant protein (rNcSRS2) and polyclonal antibodies against rNcSRS2 (b-ELISA/rNcSRS2). Compared to IFAT, b-ELISA/rNcSRS2 showed 93.7 % accuracy (98.7 % sensitivity and 88.7 % specificity), suggesting its potential as diagnostic assay to detect N. caninum antibodies in cattle sera.

  2. RANGE AND DISTRIBUTION OF TECHNETIUM KD VALUES IN THE SRS SUBSURFACE ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, D.

    2008-01-01

    Performance assessments (PAs) are risk calculations used to estimate the amount of low-level radioactive waste that can be disposed at DOE sites. Distribution coefficients (K d values) are input parameters used in PA calculations to provide a measure of radionuclide sorption to sediment; the greater the K d value, the greater the sorption and the slower the estimated movement of the radionuclide through sediment. Understanding and quantifying K d value variability is important for estimating the uncertainty of PA calculations. Without this information, it is necessary to make overly conservative estimates about the possible limits of K d values, which in turn may increase disposal costs. Finally, technetium is commonly found to be amongst the radionuclides posing potential risk at waste disposal locations because it is believed to be highly mobile in its anionic form (pertechnetate, TcO 4 - ), it exists in relatively high concentrations in SRS waste, and it has a long half-life (213,000 years). The objectives of this laboratory study were to determine under SRS environmental conditions: (1) whether and to what extent TcO 4 - sorbs to sediments, (2) the range of Tc K d values, (3) the distribution (normal or log-normal) of Tc K d values, and (4) how strongly Tc sorbs to SRS sediments through desorption experiments. Objective 3, to identify the Tc K d distribution is important because it provides a statistical description that influences stochastic modeling of estimated risk. The approach taken was to collect 26 sediments from a non-radioactive containing sediment core collected from E-Area, measure Tc K d values and then perform statistical analysis to describe the measured Tc K d values. The mean K d value was 3.4 ± 0.5 mL/g and ranged from -2.9 to 11.2 mL/g. The data did not have a Normal distribution (as defined by the Shapiro-Wilk's Statistic) and had a 95-percentile range of 2.4 to 4.4 mL/g. The E-Area subsurface is subdivided into three hydrostratigraphic

  3. Estimation of net ecosystem exchange at the Skukuza flux site, Kruger National Park, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nickless, A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available reductions through forestry activities in sub-Saharan Africa ? evidence from Ghana Carbon storage and the health of cocoa agroforestry ecosystems 131 in south-eastern Ghana iv Land use and land cover impact on soil and vegetation carbon 145 in Nioro...

  4. Vegetation and soils of burrowing owl nest sites in Conata Basin, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    James G. MacCracken; Daniel W. Uresk; Richard M. Hansen

    1985-01-01

    Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia) in southwestern South Dakota frequently use the burrows of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) for nesting and escape cover. Coulombe (1971) emphasized the importance of understanding the role of burrow selection in relation to owl behavior, physiology, and overall ecology. He also...

  5. Insights into site formation at Rose Cottage Cave, South Africa, based on the analysis of sediment peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloos, Peter; Miller, Christopher E.; Kritikakis, Panagiotis; Wadley, Lyn

    2016-04-01

    Rose Cottage Cave (RCC), in South Africa, has been a key site for explaining the origins of modern human behaviour and movement of early modern humans out of Africa. Nine sediment peels were made previously from the profile sections, preserving original materials that provide a record of cultural and environmental change during the late Pleistocene and Holocene. Here, we present the preliminary results of the study of the RCC sediment peels which aims to investigate site formation processes and the implications for site interpretation. Methods used include micromorphology and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy coupled with detailed observations of the peels. The predominance of geogenic processes is demonstrated by the abundance of silt- and sand-sized quartz grains, which entered the site primarily through a crevice at the back of the cave. RCC lacks rich anthropogenic deposits as noted at other Middle Stone Age sites in southern Africa, but anthropogenic input to the sediment is indicated by the presence of charcoal, burnt bone, lithic fragments, fat-derived char and ashes. Clay coating fragments and chaotic microstructures demonstrate that bioturbation and colluvial reworking homogenised much of the deposit and may explain the absence of preserved bedding and rarity of combustion features. Downward movement of water through the sequence, indicated by clay coatings, is the likely cause for poor bone preservation and near lack of ashes at the site, as well as fluctuations in dose rate that have complicated luminescence dating studies. Evidence for diagenesis at the site is in the form of secondary apatite and gypsum. Sedimentary structures such as channel lag deposits and (silt and sand) laminae observed in peels dating between 60 and 35 ka BP suggest a high-energy sedimentary environment, which experienced flooding events that eroded underlying deposits and deposited large volumes of sediment. This explains why some of the post-Howiesons Poort layers contain

  6. Evaluation and Mitigation of the Risk Due to Climate Change at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, D. W.

    2016-12-01

    The state of South Carolina, home to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS), has been identified as facing an `above average' risk due to extreme heat, and the threat due to wildfire is expected to nearly double by 2050. To comply with DOE requirements that each of its sites prepares for climate change, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is involved in an ongoing process to evaluate the site vulnerability and establish policies to mitigate those effects. This requires close cooperation between the managers of various site facilities and on-site climate researchers. The Atmospheric Technologies Group at SRNL currently provides short-term weather forecasts to support outdoor activities on site, but is also now working with site decision-makers to achieve DOE's goals of climate change mitigation and adaptation. We will discuss the results of our climate vulnerability assessment, which includes the effects of climate change on the energy requirements for mission critical infrastructure, the health, safety and productivity of the outdoor workforce, the danger of fire in the SRS forest, and the levels of surface water impoundments. (The latter of which must be maintained to avoid the release of radioactive contaminants sequestered beneath them). For each of these, existing climate change projections were carefully studied and `translated' into numerical indices relevant to facility personnel at SRS, along with a vulnerability rating (also based on conversations with site workers) to estimate the most endangered `assets'. We will also explain the process we have developed to facilitate effective communication between researchers and managers - involving them both in the development of the climate vulnerability assessment and the next steps toward planning, resource allocation, actions to mitigate rising costs, and safety considerations as well as helping the site remain sustainable throughout the future of its missions.

  7. Screening and comparison of remedial alternatives for the South Field and flyash piles at the Fernald site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumb, A.C.; Jones, G.N.

    1996-05-01

    The South Field, the Inactive Flyash Pile, and the Active Flyash Pile are in close proximity to each other and are part of Operable Unit 2 (OU2) at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). The baseline risk assessment indicated that the exposure pathways which pose the most significant risk are external radiation from radionuclides in surface soils and use of uranium contaminated groundwater. This paper presents screening and comparison of various remedial alternatives considered to mitigate risks from the groundwater pathway. Eight remedial alternatives were developed which consisted of consolidation and capping, excavation and off-site disposal with or without treatment, excavation and on-site disposal with or without treatment and combinations of these. Risk-based source (soil) preliminary remediation levels (PRLs) and waste acceptance criteria (WACs) were developed for consolidation and capping, excavation, and on-site disposal cell. The PRLs and WACs were developed using an integrated modeling tool consisting of an infiltration model, a surface water model, a vadose zone model, and a three-dimensional contaminant migration model in saturated media. The PRLs and WACs were then used to determine need for soil treatment, determine excavation volumes, and screen remedial alternatives. The selected remedial alternative consisted of excavation and on-site disposal with off-site disposal of the fraction exceeding the WAC

  8. Random and systematic spatial variability of 137Cs inventories at reference sites in South-Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correchel Vladia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The precision of the 137Cs fallout redistribution technique for the evaluation of soil erosion rates is strongly dependent on the quality of an average inventory taken at a representative reference site. The knowledge of the sources and of the degree of variation of the 137Cs fallout spatial distribution plays an important role on its use. Four reference sites were selected in the South-Central region of Brazil which were characterized in terms of soil chemical, physical and mineralogical aspects as well as the spatial variability of 137Cs inventories. Some important differences in the patterns of 137Cs depth distribution in the soil profiles of the different sites were found. They are probably associated to chemical, physical, mineralogical and biological differences of the soils but many questions still remain open for future investigation, mainly those regarding the adsorption and dynamics of the 137Cs ions in soil profiles under tropical conditions. The random spatial variability (inside each reference site was higher than the systematic spatial variability (between reference sites but their causes were not clearly identified as possible consequences of chemical, physical, mineralogical variability, and/or precipitation.

  9. Combined use of stable isotopes and fallout radionuclides as soil erosion indicators in a forested mountain site, South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meusburger, K.; Mabit, L.; Alewell, C.; Park, J.H.; Sandor, T.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess and to validate the suitability of the stable nitrogen and carbon isotope signature as soil erosion indicators in a mountain forest site in South Korea. Our approach is based on the comparison of the isotope signature of ''stable'' landscape positions (reference sites), which are neither affected by erosion nor deposition, with eroding sites. For undisturbed soils we expect that the enrichment of δ 15 N and δ 13 C with soil depth, due to fractionation during decomposition, goes in parallel with a decrease in nitrogen and carbon content. Soil erosion processes potentially weaken this correlation. The 137 Cs method and the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) were applied for the soil erosion quantification. Erosion rates obtained with the 137 Cs method range from 0.9 t ha -1 yr -1 to 7 t ha -1 yr -1 . Considering the steep slopes of up to 40 and the erosive monsoon events (R factor of 6600 MJ mm ha -1 h -1 yr -1 ), the rates are plausible and within the magnitude of the RUSLE-modeled soil erosion rates, varying from 0.02 t ha -1 yr -1 to 5.1 t ha -1 yr -1 . The soil profiles of the reference sites showed significant (p < 0.0001) correlations between nitrogen and carbon content and its corresponding δ 15 N and δ 13 C signatures. In contrast, for the eroding sites this relationship was weaker and for the carbon not significant. These results confirm the usefulness of the stable carbon isotope signature as a qualitative indicator for soil disturbance. We could show further that the δ 15 N isotope signature can be used similarly for uncultivated sites. We thus propose that the stable δ 15 N and δ 13 C signature of soil profiles could serve as additional indicators confirming the accurate choice of the reference site in soil erosion studies using the 137 Cs method.

  10. VOCs in non-arid soils ID at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerdes, K.D.; Livnat, A.

    1994-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina, a nuclear materials production facility, was selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development in 1989 to evaluate innovative remediation technologies using the integrated demonstration (ID) approach. The contaminants targeted at the SRS are solvents (TCE and PCE) classified as Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). The principal objective of the ID at the SRS is to establish, validate and implement systems of technologies for full-scale use in the remediation of soils and groundwater contaminated with VOCS. This is accomplished through collaborative partnership with the DOE laboratories, universities, Federal Agencies, and private industries. Several remediation technologies involving the use of directionally drilled wells for extraction and delivery, innovative monitoring and characterization technologies, in-situ heating for the removal of adsorbed contaminants from clay-rich horizons, and off-gas treatment technologies have been successfully demonstrated, and their performance, safety, and cost effectiveness are evaluated against that of existing baseline technologies. To achieve these and similar projected savings, a critical step in the ID program is implementation of the successfully demonstrated technologies by DOE's Environmental Restoration organizations, and transfer of these technologies to other governmental agencies and the public sector. This has been accomplished by granting user licenses to the private industry in the areas of in situ air stripping via horizontal wells, sensors and bioremediation. Following the successful completion of its mission, the ID is slated for close-out at the end of Fiscal Year 1994

  11. Regulatory Requirements for Pollution Prevention for the Salt Waste Processing Facility at Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, N.P.

    1999-01-01

    Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Department of Energy facility for production of nuclear materials located near Aiken, South Carolina that is operated by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. Waste sludges and salts generated from the processing of nuclear materials have been stored in underground storage tanks since operations began in the 1950s. These sludges and salts contain high levels of long-lived and short-lived radionuclides. To ensure the long-term protection of human health and the environment, some tanks that do not comply with current regulatory requirements are to be emptied and closed per the SRS Federal Facilities Agreement . Sludge generated from these tanks is being immobilized in borosilicate glass through vitrification at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS. The remaining radioactive liquids have a high concentration of salts. For economic and practical purposes, the approach for processing salts is to separate the radionuclides from the non-radioactive salts and incidental wastes. The radionuclides are processed at the DWPF, while the salts and incidental wastes are disposed of as low level waste

  12. Savannah River Site environmental report for 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, C.L.; Hetrick, C.S.; Stevenson, D.A. (eds.); Davis, H.A.; Martin, D.K.; Todd, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    This volume of Savannah River Site Environmental report for 1988 (WSRC-RP-89-59-1) contains the figures and tables referenced in Volume 1. The figures contain graphic illustrations of sample locations and/or data. The tables contain summaries of the following types of data: Federal and State standards and guides applicable to SRS operations; concentrations of radioactivity in environmental media; the quantity of radioactivity released to the environment from SRS operations; offsite radiation dose commitments from SRS operations; measurements of physical properties, chemicals, and metals concentrations in environmental media; and interlaboratory comparison of analytical results.

  13. Applying the Uses and Gratifications Theory to Compare Higher Education Students' Motivation for Using Social Networking Sites: Experiences from Iran, Malaysia, United Kingdom, and South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Leila; Khodabandelou, Rouhollah; Ehsani, Maryam; Ahmad, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from the Uses and Gratifications Theory, this study examined the Gratification Sought and the Gratification Obtained from using Social Networking Sites among Iranian, Malaysian, British, and South African higher education students. This comparison allowed to drawing conclusions about how social networking sites fulfill users' needs with…

  14. Comparison of Ground-Based and Satellite-Derived Solar UV Index Levels at Six South African Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadet, Jean-Maurice; Bencherif, Hassan; Portafaix, Thierry; Lamy, Kévin; Ncongwane, Katlego; Coetzee, Gerrie J R; Wright, Caradee Y

    2017-11-14

    South Africa has been measuring the ground-based solar UV index for more than two decades at six sites to raise awareness about the impacts of the solar UV index on human health. This paper is an exploratory study based on comparison with satellite UV index measurements from the OMI/AURA experiment. Relative UV index differences between ground-based and satellite-derived data ranged from 0 to 45% depending on the site and year. Most of time, these differences appear in winter. Some ground-based stations' data had closer agreement with satellite-derived data. While the ground-based instruments are not intended for long-term trend analysis, they provide UV index information for public awareness instead, with some weak signs suggesting such long-term trends may exist in the ground-based data. The annual cycle, altitude, and latitude effects clearly appear in the UV index data measured in South Africa. This variability must be taken into account for the development of an excess solar UV exposure prevention strategy.

  15. Comparison of Ground-Based and Satellite-Derived Solar UV Index Levels at Six South African Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Maurice Cadet

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has been measuring the ground-based solar UV index for more than two decades at six sites to raise awareness about the impacts of the solar UV index on human health. This paper is an exploratory study based on comparison with satellite UV index measurements from the OMI/AURA experiment. Relative UV index differences between ground-based and satellite-derived data ranged from 0 to 45% depending on the site and year. Most of time, these differences appear in winter. Some ground-based stations’ data had closer agreement with satellite-derived data. While the ground-based instruments are not intended for long-term trend analysis, they provide UV index information for public awareness instead, with some weak signs suggesting such long-term trends may exist in the ground-based data. The annual cycle, altitude, and latitude effects clearly appear in the UV index data measured in South Africa. This variability must be taken into account for the development of an excess solar UV exposure prevention strategy.

  16. Optimizing Time Intervals of Meteorological Data Used with Atmospheric Dose Modeling at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpkins, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    Measured tritium oxide concentrations in air have been compared with calculated values using routine release Gaussian plume models for different time intervals of meteorological data. These comparisons determined an optimum time interval of meteorological data used with atmospheric dose models at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Meteorological data of varying time intervals (1-yr to 10-yr) were used for the comparison. Insignificant differences are seen in using a one-year database as opposed to a five-year database. Use of a ten-year database results in slightly more conservative results. For meteorological databases of length one to five years the mean ratio of predicted to measured tritium oxide concentrations is approximately 1.25 whereas for the ten-year meteorological database the ration is closer to 1.35. Currently at the Savannah River Site a meteorological database of five years duration is used for all dose models. This study suggests no substantially improved accuracy using meteorological files of shorter or longer time intervals

  17. Improving the measurement of health-related quality of life in adolescent with idiopathic scoliosis: the SRS-7, a Rasch-developed short form of the SRS-22 questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caronni, Antonio; Zaina, Fabio; Negrini, Stefano

    2014-04-01

    Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) questionnaire was developed to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQL) in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. Rasch analysis (RA) is a statistical procedure which turns questionnaire ordinal scores into interval measures. Measures from Rasch-compatible questionnaires can be used, similar to body temperature or blood pressure, to quantify disease severity progression and treatment efficacy. Purpose of the current work is to present Rasch analysis (RA) of the SRS-22 questionnaire and to develop an SRS-22 Rasch-approved short form. 300 SRS-22 were randomly collected from 2447 consecutive IS adolescents at their first evaluation (229 females; 13.9 ± 1.9 years; 26.9 ± 14.7 Cobb°) in a scoliosis outpatient clinic. RA showed both disordered thresholds and overall misfit of the SRS-22. Sixteen items were re-scored and two misfitting items (6 and 14) removed to obtain a Rasch-compatible questionnaire. Participants HRQL measured too high with the rearranged questionnaire, indicating a severe SRS-22 ceiling effect. RA also highlighted SRS-22 multidimensionality, with pain/function not merging with self-image/mental health items. Item 3 showed differential item functioning (DIF) for both curve and hump amplitude. A 7-item questionnaire (SRS-7) was prepared by selecting single items from the original SRS-22. SRS-7 showed fit to the model, unidimensionality and no DIF. Compared with the SRS-22, the short form scale shows better targeting of the participants' population. RA shows that SRS-22 has poor clinimetric properties; moreover, when used with AIS at first evaluation, SRS-22 is affected by a severe ceiling effect. SRS-7, an SRS-22 7-item short form questionnaire, provides an HRQL interval measure better tailored to these participants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Factors influencing choice of site for rural clinical placements by final year medical students in a South African university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nontsikelelo O. Mapukata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most of South Africa’s citizens who live in rural or underserved communities rely on the public health care sector to access quality health care. The value of rural exposure through clinical placements is well documented. Medical schools in South Africa have a responsibility to provide solutions that address the prevailing human resources challenges. Despite this commitment, medical students do not necessarily appreciate their role in resolving South Africa’s human resources challenges. This study aimed to assess the factors that influenced the choice of clinical learning sites in a self-selection process undertaken by Wits final year medical students for the compulsory 6-week integrated primary care block rotation.Methods: Qualitative data related to reasons for choice of service learning site were gathered from 524 pre-placement questionnaires completed by final year medical students entering the rotation over a 3-year period (2012–2014. Thematic analysis was performed using the MAXQDA software.Results: Eight themes emerged from the study indicating that the majority of participants were in favour of local urban underserved placement. Contextual factors, such as work commitments or family responsibilities, being compromised socially and losing academic standing were the main reasons for seeking urban placement. Good supervision, opportunistic learning, skills development and moral support were reasons for seeking rural placements. Previous voluntary exposure to rural practice or being of rural origin was a strong indicator for uptake of rural placement.Conclusion: This study has demonstrated the challenges faced by coordinators in balancing personal and institutional needs with country needs and the contextual factors that must be considered when implementing medical education programmes that respond to social challenges.

  19. Remedial actions at the former Vitro Chemical Company Site, south Salt Lake, Salt Lake County, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    The final version of the environmental impact statement (EPA No. 840333F) on a proposal to clean up hazardous mill tailing residues at an abandoned uranium mill in Utah describes the geographic character of the site, which contains about 2.5 million cubic yards of contaminated residues and soil. The preferred alternative would be to decontaminate and reclaim the site by excavation and removal of contaminated materials, followed by backfilling. The estimated cost range if $63.8 to $67.7 million. Positive impacts of off site stabilization would be to lower radiation levels to background levels, which would reduce cancer deaths, and to raise land values. Negative impacts would preclude any other use of the disposal site. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 requires the impact statement

  20. Qualitative study on software application usage and user behaviour at South African Digital Doorway sites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gush, K

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available -methods research approach provides a more comprehensive picture. Qualitative studies hold utility in complementing quantitative research, by providing data on the site environment, user interactions and perceptions, and stated requirements. This paper presents...

  1. High-Frequency Acoustic Imaging of L Lake, Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sjostrom, Keith

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the seismic reflection and side scan sonar survey is to determine the location, aerial extent, and depth of burial pits situated along the reservoir bottom of L lake, Savannah River Site, SC...

  2. BigFoot NPP Surfaces for North and South American Sites, 2000-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The BigFoot project gathered Net Primary Production (NPP) data for nine EOS Land Validation Sites located from Alaska to Brazil from 2000 to 2004. Each...

  3. BigFoot GPP Surfaces for North and South American Sites, 2000-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The BigFoot project gathered Gross Primary Production (GPP) data for nine EOS Land Validation Sites located from Alaska to Brazil from 2000 to 2004. Each...

  4. BIGFOOT Meteorological Data for North and South American Sites, 1991-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The BigFoot Project has compiled daily meteorological measurements for nine EOS Land Validation Sites located from Alaska to Brazil from 1991 to 2004. Each...

  5. Corrective Action Plan for Expanded Bioventing System Site FT-03, Charleston Air Force Base, South Carolina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    .... The primary objectives of the bioventing system upgrade are to: ̂ Deliver oxygen to additional areas of the site that have subsurface soils contaminated with fuel hydrocarbons that did not receive...

  6. Data Validation Package, July 2016 Groundwater Sampling at the Shirley Basin South, Wyoming, Disposal Site November 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazier, William [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Price, Jeffrey [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Sampling Period: July 14-15, 2016 The 2004 Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the Shirley Basin South (UMTRCA Title II) Disposal Site, Carbon County, Wyoming, requires annual monitoring to verify continued compliance with the pertinent alternate concentration limits (ACLs) and Wyoming Class III (livestock use) groundwater protection standards. Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. Point-of-compliance (POC) wells 19-DC, 5-DC, and 5-SC, and monitoring wells 10-DC, 110-DC, 112-DC, 113-DC, 40-SC, 54-SC, 100-SC, 102-SC, and K.G.S.#3 were sampled. POC well 51-SC and downgradient well 101-SC were dry at the time of sampling. The water level was measured at each sampled well. See Attachment 2, Trip Report for additional details. Sampling and analyses were conducted in accordance with the Sampling and Analysis Plan for the U S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and­ analysis-plan-us-department-energy-office-legacy-management-sites). ACLs are approved for cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, radium-226, radium-228, selenium, thorium-230, and uranium in site groundwater. Time-concentration graphs of the contaminants of concern in POC wells are included in Attachment 3, Data Presentation. The only ACL exceedance in a POC well was radium-228 in well 5-DC where the concentration was 30.7 picocuries per liter (pCi/L), exceeding the ACL of 25.7 pCi/L. Concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids continue to exceed their respective Wyoming Class III groundwater protection standards for livestock use in wells 5-DC, 5-SC, and 54-SC as they have done throughout the sampling history; however, there is no livestock use of the water from these aquifers at the site, and no constituent concentrations exceed groundwater protection standards at the wells near the site boundary.

  7. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Implementation of the Wetland Mitigation Bank Program at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-04-28

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1205) for the proposed implementation of a wetland mitigation bank program at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and Floodplain Statement of Findings.

  8. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Pond B Dam Repair Project at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-09-27

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1285) for the proposed repair of the Pond B dam at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and Floodplain Statement of Findings.

  9. Environmental Assessment for the centralization and upgrading of the sanitary wastewater system at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment for the proposed centralization and upgrading of the sanitary wastewater system on the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact and Floodplain Statement of Findings

  10. Quaternary palaeoceanographic changes in the northern South China Sea (ODP Site 1146): radiolarian evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rujian; Clemens, Steven; Huang, Baoqi; Chen, Muhong

    2003-12-01

    The abundance and accumulation rates of siliceous microfossils in the northern South China Sea, including radiolarians, diatoms and sponge spicules, increased during most glacial intervals within the past 1100 kyr. Similar trends are observed in the index of thermocline surface radiolarians (TSR), diatom accumulation rates (DAR), charcoal accumulation rates (CAR) and the abundance of radiolarian species Cycladophora davisiana davisiana. Decreasing sea-surface temperature accompanied by increased seasonality since 900 ka is indicated by a decline in the tropical radiolarian assemblage, including Tetrapyle octacantha and Octopyle stenozona, and by an increase in the subtropical assemblage, including Pterocorys zancleus, Peromelissa phalacra and Ommatartuts tetrathalamus tetrathalamus. Rapid increases at about 800 to 700 ka of siliceous microfossils, charcoal, subsurface and intermediate radiolarians, as well as the TSR index and the DAR, imply a fundamental shift in climate and a shoaling thermocline. Although these fundamental changes in the silicious fauna and flora of the South China Sea take place within the context of a developing 100-kyr cycle, they do not change in step with changing sea-level as indicated by marine 18O. This is most clearly illustrated by the step-like increase in silica accumulation (radiolaria, diatoms and sponge spicules) at 680 ka. Rather, these fundamental changes probably reflect intensified surface productivity associated with enhanced East Asian winter-monsoon circulation. Copyright

  11. The seasonal characteristics of the breeze circulation at a coastal Mediterranean site in South Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, S.; Pasqualoni, L.; Sempreviva, Anna Maria

    2010-01-01

    We present a study on the characteristics of the sea breeze flow at a coastal site located in the centre of the Mediterranean basin at the southern tip of Italy. This study is finalized to add new data on breeze circulations over a narrow peninsula and present a unique experimental coastal site...... at about 600 m from the coastline in a flat open area at the foot of a mountain chain located in a region of complex orography. We study the seasonal behaviour of the sea-land breeze circulation by analysing two years of hourly data of wind speed and direction, temperature, radiation and relative humidity...

  12. On-site screening for syphilis at an antenatal clinic | Delport | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the validity, predictive value and accuracy of the rapid plasma reagin card test performed on site to diagnose active syphilis in pregnant women so that immediate treatment can be offered to prevent congenital syphilis. Design. Open, descriptive study. Setting. Antenatal clinic, Mamelodi Hospital, ...

  13. Aesthetic consciousness of site-specifi c art | Kurg | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this article is to examine Edmund Husserl's theory of aesthetic consciousness and the possibility to apply it to site-specific art. The central focus will be on the idea of the limited synthetic unity of the aesthetic object that is introduced by Husserl in order to differentiate positional and aesthetic attitude towards the ...

  14. Seismic, satellite, and site observations of internal solitary waves in the NE South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qunshu; Wang, Caixia; Wang, Dongxiao; Pawlowicz, Rich

    2014-06-20

    Internal solitary waves (ISWs) in the NE South China Sea (SCS) are tidally generated at the Luzon Strait. Their propagation, evolution, and dissipation processes involve numerous issues still poorly understood. Here, a novel method of seismic oceanography capable of capturing oceanic finescale structures is used to study ISWs in the slope region of the NE SCS. Near-simultaneous observations of two ISWs were acquired using seismic and satellite imaging, and water column measurements. The vertical and horizontal length scales of the seismic observed ISWs are around 50 m and 1-2 km, respectively. Wave phase speeds calculated from seismic observations, satellite images, and water column data are consistent with each other. Observed waveforms and vertical velocities also correspond well with those estimated using KdV theory. These results suggest that the seismic method, a new option to oceanographers, can be further applied to resolve other important issues related to ISWs.

  15. Initial clinical results of linac stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsumori, Michihide; Shrieve, Dennis C.; Alexander, Eben; Kaiser, Ursula B.; Richardson, Gary E.; McL Black, Peter; Loeffler, Jay S.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the initial clinical results of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for pituitary adenomas with regard to tumor control and toxicity of the treatment, thus evaluate the feasibility of these technique for the treatment of pituitary adenomas. Subjects and Methods: 48 patients with either inoperable, recurrent or residual pituitary adenoma who underwent either SRS or SRT at the Brigham and Women's Hospital between 9/89 and 9/95 were analyzed. Of these, 18 received treatment with SRS, and 30 received SRT. SRS was contraindicated for the patients in whom the minimal distance of the target and optic chiasm or optic nerve was less than 5 mm. Patient characteristics were similar in the two groups, with the exception of tumor volume and previous irradiation. Median tumor volumes were 1.8 cm 3 and 7.7 cm 3 for SRS and SRT, respectively. Three of the SRS and none of the SRT patients had a history of previous external radiation therapy. Both SRS and SRT were performed by the use of dedicated stereotactic 6-MV linear accelerator with a treatment plan designed using a dedicated software. Doses were prescribed to the isodose distribution that covered the identified target. Dose and normalization used for SRS varied from 1000 cGy at 85 % isodose line to 1800 cGy at 80 % isodose line. For SRT patients, total dose of 4500 cGy was normalized at 90 or 95 % isodose line and this was delivered in 25 fractions of 180 cGy daily dose. Results: Local control: There was 1 case of local failure in each of SRS and SRT series (median follow up 42.5 months and 22 month, respectively). CNS adverse effects: There were 3 SRS cases in whom a ring enhancement in the temporal lobe was observed in follow-up MRI. (median follow up 32 months). Of these, one resolved spontaneously, whereas the other 2 lesion persisted and considered to be radiation necrosis. None of them required surgical intervention to date. These were observed in the

  16. Optical Properties of Rare Earth Doped SrS Phosphor: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Ayush; Mishra, Shubhra; Kshatri, D. S.; Tiwari, Sanjay

    2017-02-01

    Rare earth (RE) doped SrS phosphor has attracted a lot of attention on a wide range of photo-, cathodo-, thermo-, and electroluminescent applications. Upon doping with different RE elements (e.g., Ce, Pr, Eu, Yb), the luminescence from SrS can be varied over the entire visible region by appropriately choosing the composition of the strontium sulfide host. The main applications include flat panel displays and SrS-based powder electroluminescence (EL) for back lights. Sulfide materials known for providing Eu2+ based red emission band and preferred as a color conversion material in white light emitting diodes are discussed. Especially, the applications of RE doped SrS are described in light of their utility as conversion and storage phosphors. The effect of energy level splitting, EL efficiency, post-annealing, milling time, and impurity on luminescence properties for SrS are also discussed.

  17. Using remotely sensed imagery to monitor savanna rangeland deterioration through woody plant proliferation: a case study from communal and biodiversity conservation rangeland sites in Mokopane, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Munyati, C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available -1 Environ Monit Assess (2011) 176:293?311 Using remotely sensed imagery to monitor savanna rangeland deterioration through woody plant proliferation: a case study from communal and biodiversity conservation rangeland sites in Mokopane, South Africa... Christopher Munyati Ecosystems Earth Observation Research Group, Natural Resources and the Environment Unit, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), P.O. Box 395, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa, e-mail: cmunyati@csir.co.za, chrismunyati...

  18. The composition of ambient and fresh biomass burning aerosols at a savannah site, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Aurela

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosols play a key role in climate change, and have adverse effects on human health. Given South Africa�s status as a rapidly-developing country with increasing urbanisation and industrial growth, information on the quality of ambient air is important. In this study, the chemical composition of ambient particles and the particles in fresh biomass burning plumes were studied at a savannah environment in Botsalano, South Africa. The results showed that Botsalano was regularly affected by air masses that had passed over several large point sources. Air masses that had passed over the coal-fired Matimba power station in the Waterberg, or over the platinum group metal smelters in the western Bushveld Igneous Complex, contained high sulfate concentrations in the submicron ranges. These concentrations were 14 to 37 times higher compared with air masses that had passed only over rural areas. Because of the limited nature of this type of data in literature for the interior regions of southern Africa, our report serves as a valuable reference for future studies. In addition, our biomass burning study showed that potassium in the fresh smoke of burning savannah grass was likely to take the form of KCl. Clear differences were found in the ratios for potassium and levoglucosan in the smouldering and flaming phases. Our findings highlight the need for more comprehensive chamber experiments on various fuel types used in southern Africa, to confirm the ratio of important biomass burning tracer species that can be used in source apportionment studies in the future.

  19. Heavy metal removal and recovery using microorganisms. Volume 1, State-of-the-art and potential applications at the SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, E.W. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Benemann, J.R. [Benemann (J.R.), Pinole, CA (United States)

    1991-02-01

    Microorganisms -- bacteria, fungi, and microalgae -- can accumulate relatively large amounts of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from the environment. These organisms often exhibit specificity for particular metals. The metal content of microbial biomass can be a substantial fraction of total dry weight with concentration factors (metal in dry biomass to metal in solution) exceeding one million in some cases. Both living and inert (dead) microbial biomass can be used to reduce heavy metal concentrations in contaminated waters to very low levels -- parts per billion and even lower. In many respects (e.g. specificity, residual metal concentrations, accumulation factors, and economics) microbial bioremoval processes can be superior to conventional processes, such as ion exchange and caustic (lime or hydroxide) precipitation for heavy metals removal from waste and contaminated waters. Thus, bioremoval could be developed to contribute to the clean-up of wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and other DOE facilities. However, the potential advantages of bioremoval processes must still be developed into practical operating systems. A detailed review of the literature suggests that appropriate bioremoval processes could be developed for the SRS. There is great variability from one biomass source to another in bioremoval capabilities. Bioremoval is affected by pH, other ions, temperature, and many other factors. The biological (living vs. dead) and physical (immobilized vs. dispersed) characteristics of the biomass also greatly affect metal binding. Even subtle differences in the microbial biomass, such as the conditions under which it was cultivated, can have major effects on heavy metal binding.

  20. Alternative Chemical Cleaning Methods for High Level Waste Tanks: Actual Waste Testing with SRS Tank 5F Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, William D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, Michael S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-30

    Solubility testing with actual High Level Waste tank sludge has been conducted in order to evaluate several alternative chemical cleaning technologies for the dissolution of sludge residuals remaining in the tanks after the exhaustion of mechanical cleaning and sludge sluicing efforts. Tests were conducted with archived Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive sludge solids that had been retrieved from Tank 5F in order to determine the effectiveness of an optimized, dilute oxalic/nitric acid cleaning reagent toward dissolving the bulk non-radioactive waste components. Solubility tests were performed by direct sludge contact with the oxalic/nitric acid reagent and with sludge that had been pretreated and acidified with dilute nitric acid. For comparison purposes, separate samples were also contacted with pure, concentrated oxalic acid following current baseline tank chemical cleaning methods. One goal of testing with the optimized reagent was to compare the total amounts of oxalic acid and water required for sludge dissolution using the baseline and optimized cleaning methods. A second objective was to compare the two methods with regard to the dissolution of actinide species known to be drivers for SRS tank closure Performance Assessments (PA). Additionally, solubility tests were conducted with Tank 5 sludge using acidic and caustic permanganate-based methods focused on the “targeted” dissolution of actinide species.

  1. Savannah River Site environmental report for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnett, M.W.; Karapatakis, L.K.; Mamatey, A.R.

    1994-01-01

    Savannah River Site (SRS) conducts effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance to ensure the safety of the public and the well-being of the environment. DOE Order 5400,1, ''General Environmental Protection Program,'' requires the submission of an environmental report that documents the impact of facility operations on the environment and on public health. SRS has had an extensive environmental surveillance program in place since 1951 (before site startup). At that time, data generated by the on-site surveillance program were reported in site documents. Beginning in 1959, data from off-site environmental monitoring activities were presented in reports issued for public dissemination. Separate reporting of SRS's on- and off-site environmental monitoring activities continued until 1985, when data from both surveillance programs were merged into a single public document. The Savannah River Site Environmental Report for 1993 is an overview of effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance activities conducted on and in the vicinity of SRS from January 1 through December 31, 1993. For complete program descriptions, consult the ''SRS Environmental Monitoring Plan'' (WSRC-3Ql-2-1000). It documents the rationale and design criteria for the monitoring program, the frequency of monitoring and analysis, the specific analytical and sampling procedures, and the quality assurance requirements

  2. Savannah River Site environmental report for 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, M.W.; Karapatakis, L.K.; Mamatey, A.R. [eds.

    1994-08-01

    Savannah River Site (SRS) conducts effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance to ensure the safety of the public and the well-being of the environment. DOE Order 5400,1, ``General Environmental Protection Program,`` requires the submission of an environmental report that documents the impact of facility operations on the environment and on public health. SRS has had an extensive environmental surveillance program in place since 1951 (before site startup). At that time, data generated by the on-site surveillance program were reported in site documents. Beginning in 1959, data from off-site environmental monitoring activities were presented in reports issued for public dissemination. Separate reporting of SRS`s on- and off-site environmental monitoring activities continued until 1985, when data from both surveillance programs were merged into a single public document. The Savannah River Site Environmental Report for 1993 is an overview of effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance activities conducted on and in the vicinity of SRS from January 1 through December 31, 1993. For complete program descriptions, consult the ``SRS Environmental Monitoring Plan`` (WSRC-3Ql-2-1000). It documents the rationale and design criteria for the monitoring program, the frequency of monitoring and analysis, the specific analytical and sampling procedures, and the quality assurance requirements.

  3. Sustainable Site Selection for Offshore Wind Farms in the South Aegean—Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitra G. Vagiona

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present research study develops and implements an integrated methodology for the evaluation and prioritization of appropriate sites for sustainable offshore wind-farm development at a regional level. The methodological framework includes the application of several siting criteria (technical, spatial, economic, social and environmental proposed either by the national legislative framework (Specific Plan for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development for Renewable Energy or the international literature with the combined use of geographic information systems (GIS and multi-criteria decision methods, namely the analytical hierarchy process (AHP and technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS. The whole methodology provides a decision-making process for offshore wind-farm planning at regional level. The proposed methodology and the outputs of this work can be used to ensure the sustainable spatial development and policy of renewable energy resources.

  4. A molecular characterization of a newly discovered megafaunal fossil site in North Canterbury, South Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allentoft, M.E.; Scofield, R.P.; Oskam, C.L.; Hale, M.L.; Holdaway, R.N.; Bunce, M.

    2012-01-01

    In January 2008 an assemblage of large fossil bones was unearthed in a field near Waikari, North Canterbury, South Island, New Zealand. We describe this new fossil site, Rosslea, and provide an inventory of the excavated material. The bones were generally well preserved although stained deep brown, typical of peat preservation. Eight Rosslea bones were 14 C AMS dated and median calibrated ages ranged from 7839 to 1482 years BP. Ancient DNA was isolated from 14 bones and a single piece of eggshell. Genetic species identifications based on mitochondrial DNA matched those based on morphology, confirming that three species of extinct moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes) were present. Also, remains of an extinct South Island Adzebill (Aptornis defossor) were identified. The species composition in the Rosslea assemblage proved typical for the time and region but comparative analyses revealed that each of five major fossil deposits in the area displayed a significantly different relative abundance of moa taxa, despite their proximity and relative contemporaneity (all contain Holocene moa bones). Lastly, indications of DNA damage and failed attempts to amplify nuclear DNA indicated that DNA preservation at Rosslea was relatively poor compared to the preservation known from adjacent deposits. (author). 50 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Using Remote Sensing Data for Integrating different Renewable Energy Sources at Coastal Site in South Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaudi, Rosamaria; Feudo, Teresa Lo; Calidonna, Claudia Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Italian coastal sites have the advantage of favorable climatic conditions to use mixed renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind. Harbors are safe places to install wind turbines where wind conditions are almost offshore. Space-borne remote sensing can provide information to determine solar...... and wind energy production potential cheaper than usual observational activity to identify and assess suitable areas. Here, we present a case study for both energy resources assessment from satellite in harbors....

  6. One year of vertical wind profiles measurements at a Mediterranean coastal site of South Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calidonna, Claudia Roberta; Avolio, Elenio; Federico, Stefano; Gullì, Daniel; Lo Feudo, Teresa; Sempreviva, Anna Maria

    2015-04-01

    In order to develop wind farms projects is challenging to site them on coastal areas both onshore and offshore as suitable sites. Developing projects need high quality databases under a wide range of atmospheric conditions or high resolution models that could resolve the effect of the coastal discontinuity in the surface properties. New parametrizations are important and high quality databases are also needed for formulating them. Ground-based remote sensing devices such as lidars have been shown to be functional for studying the evolution of the vertical wind structure coastal atmospheric boundary layer both on- and offshore. Here, we present results from a year of vertical wind profiles, wind speed and direction, monitoring programme at a site located in the Italian Calabria Region, Central Mediterranean, 600m from the Thyrrenian coastline, where a Lidar Doppler, ZephIr (ZephIr ltd) has been operative since July 2013. The lidar monitors wind speed and direction from 10m up to 300m at 10 vertical levels with an average of 10 minutes and it is supported by a metmast providing: Atmospheric Pressure, Solar Radiation, Precipitation, Relative Humidity, Temperature,Wind Speed and Direction at 10m. We present the characterization of wind profiles during one year period according to the time of the day to transition periods night/day/night classified relating the local scale, breeze scale, to the large scale conditions. The dataset is also functional for techniques for short-term prediction of wind for the renewable energy integration in the distribution grids. The site infrastructure is funded within the Project "Infrastructure of High Technology for Environmental and Climate Monitoring" (I-AMICA) (PONa3_00363) by the Italian National Operative Program (PON 2007-2013) and European Regional Development Fund. Real-time data are show on http://www.i-amica.it/i-amica/?page_id=1122.

  7. Photograph use on social network sites among South Korean college students: the role of public and private self-consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Minsun; Lee, Min Ju; Park, Sang Hee

    2008-08-01

    This study challenges theories of computer-mediated communication (CMC) that typically assume a lack of visual cues in CMC and conceptualize them as a situational factor. We examine individual differences in photo use on social network sites and link them to the dispositional tendency of self-consciousness (SC). Included were 231 students from one university in South Korea, who owned and maintained Cyworld profiles (called "mini-homepages"). Findings suggest that public SC, but not private SC, was positively associated with the higher frequency of posting photos, replying to comments on the photos, and scrapping photos on their mini-homepages. The frequency of posting specific content types of photos (concerning social relationships or life events) was also determined by participants' public SC but not by private SC. Implications of the findings for CMC theories are discussed.

  8. Heavy metal contamination in soils and vegetables near an e-waste processing site, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chunling; Liu, Chuanping; Wang, Yan; Liu, Xiang; Li, Fangbai; Zhang, Gan; Li, Xiangdong

    2011-02-15

    Environmental pollution due to uncontrolled e-waste recycling activities has been reported in a number of locations of China. In the present study, metal pollution to the surrounding environment from a primitive e-waste processing facility was investigated. Soils at sites where e-waste is burned in the open air, those of surrounding paddy fields and vegetable gardens, as well as common vegetable samples were collected and analyzed for heavy metals. The results showed that the soils of former incineration sites had the highest concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn with mean values of 17.1, 11,140, 4500, and 3690 mg kg(-1), respectively. The soils of nearby paddy fields and vegetable gardens also had relatively high concentrations of Cd and Cu. In the edible tissues of vegetables, the concentrations of Cd and Pb in most samples exceeded the maximum level permitted for food in China. Sequential leaching tests revealed that the Cu, Pb, and Zn were predominantly associated with the residual fraction, followed by the carbonate/specifically adsorbed phases with the exception of Cd, which was mainly in the extractable form in paddy fields and vegetable soils. The data showed that uncontrolled e-waste processing operations caused serious pollution to local soils and vegetables. The cleaning up of former incineration sites should be a priority in any future remediation program. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Savannah River Site's Site Specific Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Site Specific Plan (SSP) has been prepared by the Savannah River Site (SRS) in order to show the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities that were identified during the preparation of the Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan (FYP) for FY 1992--1996. The SSP has been prepared in accordance with guidance received from DOE-HQ. DOE-SR is accountable to DOE-HQ for the implementation of this plan. The purpose of the SSP is to develop a baseline for policy, budget, and schedules for the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities. The plan explains accomplishments since the Fiscal Year (FY) 1990 plan, demonstrates how present and future activities are prioritized, identifies currently funded activities and activities that are planned to be funded in the upcoming fiscal year, and describes future activities that SRS is considering

  10. Regulatory Framework for Salt Waste Disposal and Tank Closure at the Savannah River Site - 13663

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Steve; Dickert, Ginger

    2013-01-01

    The end of the Cold War has left a legacy of approximately 37 million gallons of radioactive waste in the aging waste tanks at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). A robust program is in place to remove waste from these tanks, treat the waste to separate into a relatively small volume of high-level waste and a large volume of low-level waste, and to actively dispose of the low-level waste on-site and close the waste tanks and associated ancillary structures. To support performance-based, risk-informed decision making and to ensure compliance with all regulatory requirements, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its current and past contractors have worked closely with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to develop and implement a framework for on-site low-level waste disposal and closure of the SRS waste tanks. The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, provides DOE the authority to manage defense-related radioactive waste. DOE Order 435.1 and its associated manual and guidance documents detail this radioactive waste management process. The DOE also has a requirement to consult with the NRC in determining that waste that formerly was classified as high-level waste can be safely managed as either low-level waste or transuranic waste. Once DOE makes a determination, NRC then has a responsibility to monitor DOE's actions in coordination with SCDHEC to ensure compliance with the Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 61 (10CFR61), Subpart C performance objectives. The management of hazardous waste substances or components at SRS is regulated by SCDHEC and the EPA. The foundation for the interactions between DOE, SCDHEC and EPA is the SRS Federal Facility Agreement (FFA). Managing this array of requirements and successfully interacting with regulators, consultants and stakeholders is a challenging task but ensures

  11. Did opening of the South China Sea impact development of the Asian Monsoon? Results from Oligocene microfossils, IODP Site U1435, northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulhanek, Denise K.; Su, Xin; Li, Qianyu; Gregory, Mitch; Warny, Sophie; Clift, Peter D.

    2016-04-01

    Development of the Asian Monsoon is linked to uplift of the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau in the Cenozoic, with good evidence for a strong monsoon system by the late Oligocene to early Miocene (e.g., Guo et al., 2002; Clift et al., 2008). However, Licht et al. (2014) suggested the presence of an Asian Monsoon in the late Eocene. Recent scientific ocean drilling in the Indian Ocean and surrounding marginal seas gives us the opportunity to test this hypothesis with newly recovered Paleogene sediment cores. International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 349 to the South China Sea recovered a 30 m section of primarily lower Oligocene nannofossil-rich claystone at Site U1435, located near the northern continent/ocean boundary. A thick sandstone unit devoid of typical marine microfossils underlies the marine claystone. The sandstone is interpreted as a deltaic or restricted marine deposit and is dated to the Eocene based on the presence of organic-walled palynomorphs, suggesting that a hiatus of several million years likely separates the sandstone below from the Oligocene marine claystone. This hiatus is interpreted as the breakup unconformity, with paleodepths in the South China Sea increasing during the Oligocene. Thus, this claystone should record if opening of the South China Sea during the early Oligocene influenced development of the Asian Monsoon. Combined calcareous nannofossil and planktonic foraminifer biostratigraphy indicates that the 30 m section is primarily early Oligocene in age (~33.5-30 Ma) and was deposited on the middle slope, with paleodepths >500 m. Stable oxygen isotopes from planktonic foraminifers become heavier up-hole, suggestive of cooling/deepening in the region, whereas carbon isotopes record variable conditions with no distinct maxima or minima. Calcareous nannoplankton primarily live in the upper 50 m of the ocean and are sensitive to sea-surface temperature and nutrient conditions, thus making them useful recorders of paleoceanographic

  12. Savannah River Site Environmental Monitoring Plan. Volume 1, Section 1000 Addendum: Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannik, G.T.

    1994-01-01

    This document -- the Savannah River Site Environmental Monitoring Plan (SRS EM Plan) -- has been prepared according to guidance contained in the DOE 5400 Series orders, in 10 CFR 834, and in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and environmental Surveillance [DOE, 1991]. The SRS EM Plan's purpose is to define the criteria, regulations, and guideline requirements with which SRS will comply. These criteria and requirements are applicable to environmental monitoring activities performed in support of the SRS Environmental Monitoring Program (SRS EM Program), WSRC-3Q1-2, Volume 1, Section 1100. They are not applicable to monitoring activities utilized exclusively for process monitoring/control. The environmental monitoring program requirements documented in the SRS EM Plan incorporate all applicable should requirements of DOE/EH-0173T and expand upon them to include nonradiological environmental monitoring program requirements

  13. Environmental ALARA Program at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannik, G.T.

    1993-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) follows the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) philosophy of keeping radiation doses to the general public as low as practical by minimizing radioactive releases to the environment. SRS accomplishes this goal by establishing challenging sitewide and area-specific Environmental ALARA Release Guides and trending radioactive releases against these guides on a monthly basis. The SRS Environmental ALARA Program, mandated by DOE Order 5400.5, is a dose-based program that has gone through many changes and improvements in recent years. A description of the SRS Environmental ALARA Program and its performance is presented in this paper. Recent SRS studies of the ''Zero Release'' option also are described

  14. Does money empower the elderly? Evidence from the Agincourt demographic surveillance site, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Anne; Menendez, Alicia

    2007-08-01

    To quantify the impact of the South African old age (social) pension on outcomes for pensioners and the prime-aged adults and children who live with them, and to examine alternative means by which pensions affect household outcomes. We collected socioeconomic data on 290 households in the Agincourt demographic surveillance area (DSA), stratifying our sample on the presence of a household member age-eligible for the old-age pension (women aged 60 and older, men aged 65 and older). The presence of a pensioner significantly reduces household reports that adults and, separately, children missed meals because there was not enough money for food. In addition, girls are significantly more likely to be enrolled in school if they are living with a pensioner, an effect that is driven entirely by living with a female pensioner. Our results are consistent with a model in which pensioners have a greater say in household functioning once they begin to receive their pensions. We find a program targeted toward the elderly plays a significant role in children's health and development.

  15. Does money empower the elderly? Evidence from the Agincourt demographic surveillance site, South Africa1

    Science.gov (United States)

    CASE, ANNE; MENENDEZ, ALICIA

    2010-01-01

    Aims To quantify the impact of the South African old age (social) pension on outcomes for pensioners and the prime-aged adults and children who live with them, and to examine alternative means by which pensions affect household outcomes. Methods We collected socioeconomic data on 290 households in the Agincourt demographic surveillance area (DSA), stratifying our sample on the presence of a household member age-eligible for the old-age pension (women aged 60 and older, men aged 65 and older). Results The presence of a pensioner significantly reduces household reports that adults and, separately, children missed meals because there was not enough money for food. In addition, girls are significantly more likely to be enrolled in school if they are living with a pensioner, an effect that is driven entirely by living with a female pensioner. Our results are consistent with a model in which pensioners have a greater say in household functioning once they begin to receive their pensions. Conclusions We find a program targeted toward the elderly plays a significant role in children’s health and development. PMID:17676518

  16. Long-term climate stability and the integrity of a South African nuclear waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posnik, S.J.; Muller, M.J.; Levin, M.

    1990-01-01

    The length of time that radioisotopes buried in a radioactive waste repository could remain potentially hazardous necessitates performance assessments which take long-term environmental change into consideration. The variability of climate is a key factor in the determination of possible environments and so future scenario predictions must revolve around probabilities of climatic change. A conceptual model of present wet- and dry-spell analogues over southern Africa is extrapolated into the future, based on the knowledge of climatic fluctuations in the past. Three likely future climatic scenarios are formulated and their possible consequences on the shallow-land trench repository in Bushmanland in the north western part of South Africa are discussed. The possible removal of the trench cap by erosive processes is addressed in detail. The arid and semi-arid environment that has characterized the past, is expected to continue for the next 100,000 years. Under these conditions, the removal of the trench cap by erosive processes within the next 300 years is unlikely. 31 refs., 4 figs

  17. The terrestrial carbon inventory on the Savannah River Site: Assessing the change in Carbon pools 1951-2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Zhaohua; Trettin, Carl, C.; Parresol, Bernard, R.

    2011-11-30

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has changed from an agricultural-woodland landscape in 1951 to a forested landscape during that latter half of the twentieth century. The corresponding change in carbon (C) pools associated land use on the SRS was estimated using comprehensive inventories from 1951 and 2001 in conjunction with operational forest management and monitoring data from the site.

  18. High-frequency acoustic imaging of L Lake Phase 4 [Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, D.L.; Sjostrom, Keith J.; Leist, Rodney L.; Harmon, Thomas S. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the seismic reflection and side scan sonar survey is to determine the location, aerial extent, and depth of burial pits situated along the reservoir bottom of L Lake, Savannah River Site, SC. The results will be used in the overall characterization of L Lake by providing continuous profile line coverage of the bottom and subbottom sediment structure along the entire length of the project area. The results are also intended to supplement previous scientific information obtained from soil samples, aerial photography, and radiometric studies. Resultant information will be used as input for an Environmental Impact Statement of the site. Overall, the seismic reflection data will provide better descriptions of variations in the actual subbottom conditions and help identify the differing sediment layers. The side scan sonar will help identify the location of the burial pits and any other features on the bottom of the reservoir. A 3.5 kiloHertz (kHz), high resolution subbottom profiling system and an EG and G Model 260 side scan sonar system were used to meet the primary objectives of the investigation

  19. Thermohaline variability and mesoscale activities observed at the E2M3A deep site in the south Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensi, M.; Cardin, V.; Gačić, M.

    2012-04-01

    The south Adriatic Sea is recognized as a dense water formation site which is able to oxygenate the deep layer of the whole eastern Mediterranean Sea. The entrance of salty water from the Ionian Sea represents a preconditioning factor for the deep convection which can occur during winters characterized by particularly vigorous air-sea heat exchanges. Continuous sampling measurements are strictly essential to better understand the deep convection. For that reason, the south Adriatic Sea has been constantly monitored by means of the E2M3A deep mooring site located in its central part (Latitude 41° 50' N, Longitude 17° 45' E, maximum depth 1250m) since 2006. Temperature, salinity and currents time series at the E2M3A site from 2006 till 2010 are analyzed. They represent currently the longest timeseries available for this region. Moreover, their integration with data obtained from several oceanographic cruises provides the necessary spatial distribution of the thermohaline properties in the study area. Here we report on the abrupt temperature and salinity decrease particularly evident down to 600m depth from March 2008 on. In fact, the intermediate layer shows a maximum temperature and salinity decrease of ~0.3°C and ~0.06 respectively, clearly evident after each severe winter. The bottom layer (~1200m) shows an opposite behaviour: it suffered an unforeseen and continous temperature and salinity increase (linear trend of ~0.05 °C y-1 and ~0.004 psu y-1respectively) during the whole observational period. The results show a strong relationship between the recently discovered variability of the Ionian surface circulation (Gačić et al. 2010) and the thermohaline variability observed in the south Adriatic. In particular, we demonstrate here the role of the winter convection in trasferring fresher surface waters towards deeper layers triggering salt content changes in the Adriatic. The intrusion of fresher water at the depth of about 700-800m noticed in the mooring

  20. The results of spectrographic analysis of pigments from known aboriginal quarries and other outcrops in South Australia, and from painting sites in the Olary district of South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobbs, J.M.; Nobbs, M.F.; Moyle, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Pigments are minerals that provide the colour to paints and the pigments most commonly used by Aboriginal people are derived from red and yellow ochre and white minerals for example, gypsum and kaolin. During the early 1980s, the opportunity arose to collect pigments from many sources in South Australia. The sources included samples from known Aboriginal quarries and other outcrops. Pinhead-size samples of paint were collected from figures in some of the rock painting sites in the Olary District. These samples were analysed using Emission Spectrography with the aim of determining the nature of the pigments that is their constituent elements, and to investigate the possibility of finger-printing the sources of the pigments used by Aboriginal people. The ability of being able to source pigments found on the decorated surface of artefacts; pieces of ochre found in archaeological deposits or painted figures in a rock painting is important for understanding the trading and exchange network known to criss-cross Australia in the past. Facilities for Emission Spectrographic analyses were readily available and the capability to analyse (for twenty six elements) samples in milligram proportions suggested its use for the determination of the composition of material from unlimited sources and the compilation of a data-base detailing the results of the analyses in a form suitable for comparison. Examination of this database could then lead to further investigations with narrower and more specific aims. The results of the spectrographic analyses for red ochre from eighteen sources and yellow ochres from eight sources were tabulated as: strongly present >10%; present 1-10%; strong trace 0.1-1% ; trace 0.01-0.1%; faint trace <0.01%. Major elements, for example iron, aluminium, and silica showed in the Strongly Present and Present categories, while Trace and Faint Trace elements were variable. The results of the analyses of seventeen samples of red pigment and five

  1. Factors influencing the atmospheric concentrations of PCBs at an abandoned e-waste recycling site in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Wu, Xiaowei; Hou, Minmin; Zhao, Hongxia; Chen, Ruize; Luo, Chunling; Zhang, Gan

    2017-02-01

    The diurnal atmospheric concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated at an abandoned e-waste recycling site in South China during winter and summer. Total PCB concentrations during winter and summer were 27.6-212 and 368-1704pg/m 3 in the particulate phase and 270-697 and 3000-15,500pg/m 3 in the gaseous phase, respectively. Both gaseous and particulate PCB concentrations and compositions exhibited significant difference between winter and summer samples, but no diurnal variations during the measurement period. The correlation analysis between PCB concentrations and meteorological conditions, including atmospheric temperature, humidity, and mixing layer height, suggested that the seasonal variability of atmospheric PCB concentrations was strongly temperature-dependent, while the diurnal variability was probably source-dependent. The temperature-driven variations can also be proved by the significant linear correlation between ln P and 1/T in the Clausius-Clapeyron plot. Although government has implemented controls to reduce e-waste pollution, both the relatively high concentrations of PCBs and the diurnal variation in the air suggested that emissions from occasional e-waste recycling activities may still exist in this recycling area. These results underline the importance of continuing e-waste recycling site management long after abandonment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Savannah River Site environmental report for 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummins, C.L.; Martin, D.K.; Todd, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    this volume of Savannah River Site Environmental Report for 1989 (WSRC-IM-90-60) contains the figures and tables referenced in Volume I. The figures contain graphic illustrations of sample locations and/or data. The tables present summaries of the following types of data federal and state standards and guides applicable to SRS operations; concentrations of radioactivity in environmental media; the quantity of radioactivity released to the environment from SRS operations; offsite radiation committed dose from SRS operations; measurements of physical properties, chemicals, and metals concentrations in environmental media; and interlaboratory comparison of analytical results. The figures and tables in this report contain information about the routine environmental monitoring program at SRS unless otherwise indicated. No attempt has been made to include all data from environmental research programs. Variations in the report's content from year to year reflect changes in the routine environmental monitoring program or the inability to obtain certain samples from a specific location. 42 figs., 188 tabs

  3. UV biological dosimetry and ozone correlations for sites with similar latitudes at North and South Hemispheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrique Rampelotto, Pabulo; Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Zanandrea, Ademilson; Barcellos da Rosa, Marcelo; Makita, Kazuo

    As consequence of the increase interest in the monitoring of the UV radiation due a reduction of ozone, efforts have been made to compare data from different physical instruments to follow the solar radiation at different sites around the Earth's surface. However, the UV monitoring still have a lack of a global standardization. To complement such data from physical dosimeters, various biosensors have been developed. The spore dosimetry, based in the inactivation of spores of Bacillus subtilis TKJ6312 (SID, Spore Inactivation Dose) fulfill the criterions stabilized to its utilization as a biosensor. Furthermore, as it has the most global coverage, being the same method used in all sites, it's an adequate tool for the global monitoring of the UV solar radiation. These values reflect indirectly the ozone levels, because the biosensor translate the activity of UV-levels on life systems, which is the exponential decay of the Bacillus subtilis TKJ6312 as a function of the UV-levels and consequently anti-correlated with atmospheric ozone concentrations. In this work, SID data from four sites: Punta Arenas - Chile (53.2° S), Santa Maria - Brazil (29.5° S), Tokyo - Japan (35.7° N) and Brussels - Belgium (50.9° N), covering middle and high latitudes in both hemispheres, were compared with ozone data from TOMS, for the period 1999-2004. For a best visualization of the correlations between the spores dosimetry data with ozone data, wavelets analysis were used as mathematical tool. Seasonal variations of SID have been observed and present higher values for the summers: 1,031±113 for Punta Arenas - Chile and 4,798±1,723 for São Martinho da Serra - Brazil, as well 1,280±336 and a 2,270±563 for Brussels - Belgium and Tokyo - Japan, respectively. The lower values of SID were observed for the winters: 42.5±13, 401±171, 44±21 and 156±49 for Punta Arenas, Santa Maria, Brussels and Tokyo, respectively. The maximal seasonal ratio between SID(max) and SID(min) was obtained

  4. An aerial radiological survey of L Lake and Steel Creek, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feimster, E.L.

    1992-11-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over a portion of the Savannah River Site along the Steel Creek Corridor during the period of July 16--31, 1986. Similar surveys of this area were performed in 1974, 1979, 1982, 1983, and 1985. This survey was flown with the same survey parameters and coverage as the 1985 survey to obtain measurements of both natural and man-made gamma radiation. These radiological measurements were used to determine if there had been any changes in concentration, spatial distribution, or estimated equivalent annual dose (mrem/yr) of the natural terrestrial background or man-made contaminants detected during the 1985 survey and earlier. The 1986 data are presented as isodose rate contour maps with overlays of corresponding 1985 survey data

  5. Using remote sensing data for exploitation of integrated renewable energy at coastal site in South Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaudi, Rosamaria; Lo Feudo, Teresa; Calidonna, Claudia Roberta; Sempreviva, Anna Maria

    2016-04-01

    Renewable energy sources are major components of the strategy to reduce harmful emissions and to replace depleting fossil energy resources. Data from Remote Sensing can provide detailed information for analysis for sources of renewable energy and to determine the potential energy and socially acceptability of suggested location. Coastal sites of Southern Italy have the advantage of favorable climatic conditions to use renewable energy, such us cloud free days and local breeze phenomena. Many ports are located where they have opportunities for exploitation of renewable energy, by using existing port area and by taking advantage of their coastal locations. Policies of European-Committee and Global-Navigation-PIANC for a better use of energy and an efficient supply from renewable sources are also focused on the construction of port facilities in zero emissions. Using data from Remote Sensing, can reduce the financial resources currently required for finding and assessing suitable areas, we defined an integrated methodology for potential wind and solar energy in harbor areas. In this study we compared the hourly solar power energy using MSG-SEVIRI (Meteosat Second Generation Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared) data products DSSF (Down-welling Surface Short-wave-Flux), and PV-Plant measurements with Nominal Power Peak of 19,85 kWp. The PV Plant is situated at a coastal site in Calabrian region, located near Vibo Valentia harbor area. We estimate potential energy by using input solar radiation of Satellite data, with same characteristics of the PV-plant. The RMSE and BIAS for hourly averaged solar electrical reproducibility are estimated including clear and sky conditions. Comparison between energy reproducibility by using DSSF product and PV-plant measurements, made over the period October 2013-June 2014, showed a good agreement in our costal site and generally overestimate (RMSE(35W/m2) and BIAS(4W/m2)) electrical reproducibility from a PV-plant. For wind resource

  6. Geology and hydrology of the 300 Area and vicinity, Hanford Site, South-Central Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord, D. R.; Poeter, E. P.

    1991-10-01

    The following report summarizes the findings of a joint Washington State University (WSU) and Colorado School of Mines (CSM) research team that investigated the geology and hydrogeology of the 300 Area during FY 87-89. The primary goal of this research was to evaluate existing data and identify new and innovative techniques and/or methods necessary to characterize the 300 Area geology and hydrogeology. Site characterization of the 300 Area demands the close integration of geologic and hydrogeologic research to achieve the most meaningful results. Geologic aspects of the research focused on the identification and analysis of both small- (i.e., sedimentary-textural characteristics) and large-scale (i.e., lithofacies and architectural elements) aquifer heterogeneities and on the derivation of fundamental compositional (i.e., mineralogy and geochemistry) data to assist in identification of marker beds. Hydrogeologic aspects of the research focused on identification and refinement of hydraulically significant, three-dimensional aquifer units termed hydrofacies and on preliminary inverse modeling of ground water flow in the 300 Area. Hydrofacies are fundamental units that will aid in site characterization, development of monitoring programs, and design of remedial action. Inverse modeling is used to improve estimates of the values of hydraulic parameters associated with each hydrofacies. The WSU/CSM research team identified two major shortcomings of the geologic and hydrogeologic data base for the 300 Area. First, the quality of geologic data from 300 Area drilling is far below that necessary to characterize either the geology or hydrogeology of the suprabasalt strata. Second, the limited number of field-scale aquifer tests and the veritable lack of hydraulic testing of discrete aquifer intervals greatly limit attempts to accurately identify basic hydraulic parameters such as hydraulic conductivity and/or specific yield.

  7. The collection of clear-water contraction and abutment scour data at selected bridge sites in the coastal plain and piedmont of South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Stephen T.; Caldwell, Andy W.; Edited by Abt, S. R. and others

    1998-01-01

    Clear-water contraction and abutment scour data were collected at 128 bridge sites in South Carolina. In the sandy soils of the Coastal Plain, clear-water-scour data were collected at 63 sites (scour depths ranged from 0.4 to 7.2 meters.) In the clayey soils of the Piedmont, clear-water-scour data were collected at 47 sites (scour depths ranged from 0 to 1.4 meters.) In the sandy, clayey soils of the Piedmont, clear-water-scour data were collected at 18 sites (scour depths ranged from 0.9 to 5.5 meters.) The field data are to be compiled into a data base that will include bridge age; basin, soil and hydraulic characteristics; and theoretical scour data. The data are planned to be statistically analyzed for significant relations that may help explain and (or) predict maximum scour depths at bridges in South Carolina.

  8. Characterizing the Environmental Availability of Trace Metals in Savannah River Site Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkiz, S.M.

    1999-03-18

    An eight step sequential extraction technique was used to characterize the environmental availability of trace metals from background and waste site soil samples collected from the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS).

  9. Applying the Uses and Gratifications Theory to Compare Higher Education Students’ Motivation for Using Social Networking Sites: Experiences from Iran, Malaysia, United Kingdom, and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, Leila; Khodabandelou, Rouhollah; Ehsani, Maryam; Ahmad, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from the Uses and Gratifications Theory, this study examined the Gratification Sought and the Gratification Obtained from using Social Networking Sites among Iranian, Malaysian, British, and South African higher education students. This comparison allowed to drawing conclusions about how social networking sites fulfill users’ needs with different cultures. Data were collected through a quantitative study applying online and paper- based questionnaire carried out in 2013, using a repre...

  10. Chemical inventory control program for mixed and hazardous waste facilities at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ades, M.J.; Vincent, A.M. III.

    1997-01-01

    Mixed Waste (MW) and Hazardous Waste (HW) are being stored at the Savannah River Site (SRS) pending onsite and/or offsite treatment and disposal. The inventory control for these wastes has recently been brought under Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) in accordance with DOE Order 5480.22. With the TSRs was the question of the degree of rigor with which the inventory is to be tracked, considering that the variety of chemicals present, or that could be present, numbers in the hundreds. This paper describes the graded approach program to track Solid Waste (SW) inventories relative to TSRs. The approach uses a ratio of the maximum anticipated chemical inventory to the permissible inventory in accordance with Emergency Response Planning Guideline (ERPG) limits for on- and off-site receptors. A specific threshold ratio can then be determined. The chemicals above this threshold ratio are to be included in the chemical inventory control program. The chemicals that fall below the threshold ratio are managed in accordance with existing practice per State and RCRA hazardous materials requirements. Additionally, the facilities are managed in accordance with process safety management principles, specifically using process hazards analyses, which provides safety assurance for even the small quantities that may be excluded from the formal inventory control program. The method yields a practical approach to chemical inventory control, while maintaining appropriate chemical safety margins. The resulting number of specific chemicals that require inclusion in a rigorous inventory control program is greatly reduced by about 80%, thereby resulting in significant reduction in chemical data management while preserving appropriate safety margins

  11. Year-round radiocarbon-based source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosols at two background sites in South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheesley, Rebecca J.; Kirillova, Elena; Andersson, August; Krusâ, Martin; Praveen, P. S.; Budhavant, Krishnakant; Safai, P. D.; Rao, P. S. P.; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2012-05-01

    Atmospheric Brown Clouds (ABC), regional-scale haze events, are a significant concern for both human cardiopulmonary health and regional climate impacts. In order to effectively mitigate this pollution-based phenomenon, it is imperative to understand the magnitude, scope and source of ABC in regions such as South Asia. Two sites in S. Asia were chosen for a 15-month field campaign focused on isotope-based source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosols in 2008-2009. Both the Maldives Climate Observatory in Hanimaadhoo (MCOH) and a mountaintop site in Sinhagad, India (SINH) act as regionally mixed receptor sites. Annual radiocarbon-based source apportionment for soot elemental carbon (SEC) at MCOH and SINH revealed 73 ± 6% and 59 ± 5% contribution from biomass combustion, respectively (remainder from fossil fuel). The contributions from biogenic/biomass combustion to total organic carbon were similar between MCOH and SINH (69 ± 5% and 64 ± 5, respectively). The biomass combustion contribution for SEC in the current study, especially the results from MCOH, shows good agreement with published black carbon emissions inventories for India. Geographic source assessment, including clustered back trajectory analysis and carbon contribution by source region, indicated that the highest SEC/TOC loads originated from the W. Indian coastal margin, including the coastal city of Mumbai, India. The winter dry season 14C-based source apportionment of the BC-tracing SEC fraction for 2006, 2008, 2009 were not statistically different (p = 0.7) and point to a near-constant two-thirds contribution from biomass combustion practices, including wood and other biofuels as well as burning of agricultural crop residues.

  12. Environmental assessment operation of the HB-Line facility and frame waste recovery process for production of Pu-238 oxide at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0948, addressing future operations of the HB-Line facility and the Frame Waste Recovery process at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, DOE has concluded that, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

  13. Reprocessing and interpretation, seismic reflection data: Hanford Site, Pasco Basin, south central Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkman, E.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to reprocess, evaluate, and reinterpret 14 line miles of seismic reflection data acquired at the Hanford Site. Regional and area-specific geology has been reviewed, the data acquisition parameters as they relate to the limitations inherent in the data have been discussed, and the reprocessing procedures have been described in detail along with an evaluation of the original processing. After initial testing, the focus of the reprocessing was placed on resolution of the geologic horizons at and near the top of the basalt. The reprocessed seismic data shows significant improvement over the original processing. The improvement is the result of the integrated processing and interpretation approach where each processing step has been tested in sequence and the intermediate results examined carefully in accordance with the project goals. The interpretation procedure placed strong reliance upon synthetic seismograms and models calculated based upon the physical parameters of the subsurface materials, and upon associated geophysical (reflection, gravity, magnetic) data. The final interpretation of the seismic data is in agreement with the structural contour maps based primarily on borehole information. The seismic interpretation has added important detail concerning areas which should be considered for further study. 60 figs., 1 tab

  14. An investigation of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy for use as a control in the laser removal of rock from fossils found at the Malapa hominin site, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roberts, DE

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to study the spectra from fossils and surrounding rock recovered from the Cradle of Mankind site at Malapa, South Africa. The objective was to find a suitable spectral line(s), specific to fossils...

  15. The Lived Experience of Human Rights and Labour Violations in Select Artisanal Mining Sites in North and South Kivu of the Eastern DRC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Radley (Ben); D Rothenberg

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This report presents the findings of a documentary project on the lives of miners and others working in the artisanal mining industry in select sites in North Kivu and South Kivu in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). This work is part of a larger

  16. Proposed Site Treatment Plan (PSTP). STP reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is required by Section 3021(b) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended by the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct), to prepare a plan describing the development of treatment capacities and technologies for treating mixed waste (hazardous/radioactive waste). DOE decided to prepare its site treatment plan in a three phased approach. The first phase, called the Conceptual Site Treatment Plan (CSTP), was issued in October 1993. At the Savannah River Site (SRS) the CSTP described mixed waste streams generated at SRS and listed treatment scenarios for each waste stream utilizing an onsite, offsite DOE, and offsite or onsite commercial or vendor treatment option. The CSTP is followed by the Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP), due to be issued in August 1994. The DSTP, the current activity., will narrow the options discussed in the CSTP to a preferred treatment option, if possible, and will include waste streams proposed to be shipped to SRS from other DOE facilities as well as waste streams SRS may send offsite for treatment. The SRS DSTP process has been designed to address treatment options for each of the site's mixed waste streams. The SRS Proposed Site Treatment Plan (PSTP) is due to be issued in February 1995. The compliance order would be derived from the PSTP

  17. A comparison of three methods for determining the amount of nitric acid needed to treat HLW sludge at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegwald, S.F.; Ferrara, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    A comparison was made of three methods for determining the amount of nitric acid which will be needed to treat a sample of high-level waste (HLW) sludge from the Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank Farm. The treatment must ensure the resulting melter feed will have the necessary rheological and oxidation-reduction properties, reduce mercury and manganese in the sludge, and be performed in a fashion which does not produce a flammable gas mixture. The three methods examined where an empirical method based on pH measurements, a computational method based on known reactions of the species in the sludge and a titration based on neutralization of carbonate in the solution

  18. Savannah River Site dose control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.S.

    1992-01-01

    Health physicists from the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) visited the Savannah River Site (SRS) as one of 12 facilities operated by the Department of Energy (DOE) contractors with annual collective dose equivalents greater than 100 person-rem (100 person-cSv). Their charter was to review, evaluate and summarize as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) techniques, methods and practices as implemented. This presentation gives an overview of the two selected ALARA practices implemented at the SRS: Administrative Exposure Limits and Goal Setting. These dose control methods are used to assure that individual and collective occupational doses are ALARA and within regulatory limits

  19. The comparison of SRs' variation affected by solar events observed in America and in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H.; Williams, E.

    2017-12-01

    Schumann Resonances(SRs) are the electromagnetic resonance wave propagating in the earth-ionosphere cavity. Its characteristic of propagation are modified by the variation of ionosphere. So SRs can be the tools of monitoring the ionosphere which is often perturbed by solar events, x-ray emission and some other space-weather events (Roldugin et.al., 2004, De et al., 2010; Satori et.al., 2015). In present work, the amplitude and intrinsic frequencies of SRs observed at RID station in America and YSH station in China are compared. The variation of SRs during the solar flare on Feb. 15, 2011 are analyzed. Two-Dimensional Telegraph Equation(TDTE) method is used to simulate the perturbation of ionosphere by solar proton events. From the simulation and observation, the asymmetric construction of ionoshphere which is perturbed by the solar event will affect the amplitudes and frequencies of SRs. Due to the interfere influence of forward and backward propagation of electromagnetic field, the SR amplitude on different station will present different variation. The distance among the lightning source, observer and perturbed area will produce the different variation of amplitude and frequency for different station' SR.

  20. A screening procedure for selecting the most suitable dredged material placement site at the sea. The case of the South Euboean Gulf, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapsimalis, V; Panagiotopoulos, I P; Hatzianestis, I; Kanellopoulos, T D; Tsangaris, C; Kaberi, E; Kontoyiannis, H; Rousakis, G; Kyriakidou, C; Hatiris, G A

    2013-12-01

    The selection of the best site for the placement of dredged sedimentary material (∼7,000 m(3)) from the Aliveri coastal area in the adjacent South Euboean Gulf (Greece) was accomplished through a screening procedure. The initial stage comprised the determination of physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the dredged sediment before the commencement of any dredging operation. Grain size measurements, geochemical analyses together with the use of pollution/toxicity indices and empirical sediment quality guidelines, and the conduct of an acute toxicity test showed that the dredged material consisted of "unpolluted to slightly polluted" silty sands and sandy silts. However, the local authorities planned to place this sediment in the neighboring open sea area, i.e., the South Euboean Gulf, due to the absence of any beneficial use or alternative dumping option (i.e., dumping on public lands). Therefore, the next stage of the screening procedure, based on criteria such as the national legislation, seabed and seawater column characteristics, influence of the water mass circulation pattern on the post-placement migration of dredged sediment, impact on living resources and human activities (i.e., aquaculture and fishing), effect on significant marine sites (i.e., sites of scientific, ecological, and historical importance, navigation routes, military zones), and seafloor engineering uses, led to the evaluation of the suitability of the South Euboean Gulf as a potential dumping area. Then, the identification of the appropriate dredged material placement sites in the South Euboean Gulf was based on a cluster analysis, which tested the physicochemical resemblance of the dredged material and the surface sediments of 19 potential placement locations in the gulf. After the statistical process, only four sites situated near the north shoreline of the South Euboean Gulf were qualified as the best dredged material placement locations.

  1. Hydrogeologic and agricultural-chemical data for the South Skunk River alluvial aquifer at a site in Story County, Iowa, 1992-93

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmiller, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    A reconnaissance study was conducted during 1992-93 to collect background hydrogeologic and agricultural-chemical data for the South Skunk River alluvial aquifer near Ames, Iowa. Observation wells were drilled to characterize the surficial geologic materials of a field-scale study site and to provide locations for collecting waterlevel and agricultural-chemical data. Walnut Creek, a tributary to the South Skunk River, forms a lateral boundary on the northern edge of the field site. Water-level measurements showed a hydraulic-head gradient towards the South Skunk River under both wet and dry conditions at the study site. Walnut Creek appears to be losing water to the aquifer during most hydrologic conditions. More than 20 milligrams per liter of nitrate as nitrogen were present consistently in water from the southeastern part of the study site. Nitrate-as-nitrogen concentrations in water samples from other locations routinely did not exceed 10 milligrams per liter. The herbicide atrazine was detected most often, 36 of 38 times, in water samples collected from observation wells adjacent to Walnut Creek. Atrazine was not used on the study site during 1992-93 but was found frequently in water samples from Walnut Creek. Therefore, Walnut Creek appears to be a source of herbicide contamination to the alluvial aquifer.

  2. Lithic technological responses to Late Pleistocene glacial cycling at Pinnacle Point Site 5-6, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kyle S.; Oestmo, Simen; Pereira, Telmo; Ranhorn, Kathryn L.; Schoville, Benjamin J.; Marean, Curtis W.

    2017-01-01

    There are multiple hypotheses for human responses to glacial cycling in the Late Pleistocene, including changes in population size, interconnectedness, and mobility. Lithic technological analysis informs us of human responses to environmental change because lithic assemblage characteristics are a reflection of raw material transport, reduction, and discard behaviors that depend on hunter-gatherer social and economic decisions. Pinnacle Point Site 5–6 (PP5-6), Western Cape, South Africa is an ideal locality for examining the influence of glacial cycling on early modern human behaviors because it preserves a long sequence spanning marine isotope stages (MIS) 5, 4, and 3 and is associated with robust records of paleoenvironmental change. The analysis presented here addresses the question, what, if any, lithic assemblage traits at PP5-6 represent changing behavioral responses to the MIS 5-4-3 interglacial-glacial cycle? It statistically evaluates changes in 93 traits with no a priori assumptions about which traits may significantly associate with MIS. In contrast to other studies that claim that there is little relationship between broad-scale patterns of climate change and lithic technology, we identified the following characteristics that are associated with MIS 4: increased use of quartz, increased evidence for outcrop sources of quartzite and silcrete, increased evidence for earlier stages of reduction in silcrete, evidence for increased flaking efficiency in all raw material types, and changes in tool types and function for silcrete. Based on these results, we suggest that foragers responded to MIS 4 glacial environmental conditions at PP5-6 with increased population or group sizes, ‘place provisioning’, longer and/or more intense site occupations, and decreased residential mobility. Several other traits, including silcrete frequency, do not exhibit an association with MIS. Backed pieces, once they appear in the PP5-6 record during MIS 4, persist through MIS

  3. Lithic technological responses to Late Pleistocene glacial cycling at Pinnacle Point Site 5-6, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayne Wilkins

    Full Text Available There are multiple hypotheses for human responses to glacial cycling in the Late Pleistocene, including changes in population size, interconnectedness, and mobility. Lithic technological analysis informs us of human responses to environmental change because lithic assemblage characteristics are a reflection of raw material transport, reduction, and discard behaviors that depend on hunter-gatherer social and economic decisions. Pinnacle Point Site 5-6 (PP5-6, Western Cape, South Africa is an ideal locality for examining the influence of glacial cycling on early modern human behaviors because it preserves a long sequence spanning marine isotope stages (MIS 5, 4, and 3 and is associated with robust records of paleoenvironmental change. The analysis presented here addresses the question, what, if any, lithic assemblage traits at PP5-6 represent changing behavioral responses to the MIS 5-4-3 interglacial-glacial cycle? It statistically evaluates changes in 93 traits with no a priori assumptions about which traits may significantly associate with MIS. In contrast to other studies that claim that there is little relationship between broad-scale patterns of climate change and lithic technology, we identified the following characteristics that are associated with MIS 4: increased use of quartz, increased evidence for outcrop sources of quartzite and silcrete, increased evidence for earlier stages of reduction in silcrete, evidence for increased flaking efficiency in all raw material types, and changes in tool types and function for silcrete. Based on these results, we suggest that foragers responded to MIS 4 glacial environmental conditions at PP5-6 with increased population or group sizes, 'place provisioning', longer and/or more intense site occupations, and decreased residential mobility. Several other traits, including silcrete frequency, do not exhibit an association with MIS. Backed pieces, once they appear in the PP5-6 record during MIS 4, persist

  4. Compliance of the Savannah River Site D-Area cooling system with environmental regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.; Mackey, H.E.; Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.; Wilde, E.W. (eds.)

    1990-08-01

    This document presents information relating to a demonstration under Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act for the 400-D Area cooling system at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The demonstration was mandated because the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for SRS (SC0000175), granted on January 1, 1984, specified in-stream temperature limits in SRS streams of 32.2{degree}C and a {Delta}T limit of 2.8{degree}C above ambient. To achieve compliance with in-stream temperature limits, the Department of Energy (DOE) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) entered into a Consent Order (84-4-W) which temporarily superseded the temperature requirements and identified a process for attaining compliance. The preferred option for achieving thermal compliance in Beaver Dam Creek consisted of increased flow, with mixing of the raw water basin overflow with the cooling water discharge during the summer months. Although this action can achieve instream temperatures of less than 32.2{degree}C, {Delta}T's still exceed 2.8{degree}C. Therefore, a 316 (a) Demonstration was initiated to determine whether a balanced indigenous biological community can be supported in the receiving stream with {Delta}T's in excess of 2.8{degree}C. A Biological Monitoring Program for Beaver Dam Creek was approved by SCDHEC in June 1988 and implemented in September 1988. The program monitored the water quality, habitat formers, zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, fish, other vertebrate wildlife and threatened and endangered species in Beaver Dam Creek for an 18-month period (September 1988-February 1990). This document summarizes information collected during the monitoring program and evaluates the data to determine whether Beaver Dam Creek presently supports a balanced indigenous biological community. 97 refs., 32 figs., 51 tabs.

  5. Ecological studies related to the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site. Annual report, FY-1994 and FY-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory initiated ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF on the SRS in FY-1979. Two areas have been used for biological surveys and long-term monitoring: the DWPF construction site (S-Area and Z-Area), and two control sites (Rainbow Bay and Tinker Creek). The Rainbow Bay study area and S-Area are located within 5 km of each other on the SRS, and both once contained Carolina bays which were very similar ecologically. One goal of the SREL`s faunal studies is to compare the natural variation in amphibian populations at the Rainbow Bay control site to the variation observed at the human-altered site (Sun Bay, formerly on the DWPF construction site). Pre-construction biological surveys included data on vegetation, birds, mammals, amphibians, reptiles, fish and several invertebrate groups. No species on the Federal Endangered or Threatened lists were found on either site, but several plants and animals of threatened or special-concern status in South Carolina were present and the gopher frog (Rana areolata) currently is being considered for federal listing. Continuing studies are directed towards assessing construction impacts on the biota and towares modeling the effects of alteration of wetland hydroperiod on the biota. Primary emphasis is being paced on evaluation the effectiveness of mitigation measures undertaken by DOE.

  6. Forest science in the South - 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2008-01-01

    It is my pleasure to present the 2008 Forest Science in the South, a summary of accomplishments of the USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station (SRS). This annual report includes a CD with details about our research and products, as well as links for ordering or downloading publications.

  7. DDTs in rice frogs (Rana limnocharis) from an agricultural site, South China: tissue distribution, biomagnification, and potential toxic effects assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiang-Ping; Zhang, Ying; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Chen, She-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2012-04-01

    Contamination with agricultural pesticides such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), is among several proposed stressors contributing to the global declines in amphibian populations and species biodiversity. These chemicals were examined in insects and in the muscle, liver, and eggs of rice frogs (Rana limnocharis) from the paddy fields of an agricultural site in South China. The ΣDDT (sum of DDT, DDE, and DDD) concentrations ranged from 154 to 915, 195 to 1,400, and 165 to 1,930 ng/g lipid weight in the muscle, liver, and eggs, respectively. All the DDTs (DDT, DDE, and DDD) showed higher affinity for the liver relative to muscle tissue and can be maternally transferred to eggs in female frogs. The average biomagnification factors for DDTs ranged from 1.6 to 1.9 and 1.5 to 2.9 in female and male frogs, respectively, providing clear evidence of their biomagnification from insects to frogs. Compared with the reported DDT levels demonstrated to have toxic effects on frogs, DDTs in the present frogs are unlikely to constitute an immediate health risk. However, the adverse impacts of high DDT residues in eggs on the hatching success and their potential toxicity to the newly metamorphosed larval frogs should be assessed further. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  8. Fungi associated with chimney and sulfide samples from a South Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal site: Distribution, diversity and abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Guo, Shuangshuang; Pang, Ka-Lai; Luo, Zhu-Hua

    2017-05-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystems are known to support remarkably diverse microbial communities, ranging from chemoautotrophic prokaryotes to heterotrophic prokaryotes and microeukaryotes. While fungi have generally been identified as an important component of various microbial communities in the environment, little is known about the species richness and abundance of such microorganisms in deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystems. In this study, a combined culture-dependent and culture-independent sequence-based approach was used to investigate fungal distribution and diversity at a deep-sea hydrothermal vent site located at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge of the South Atlantic Ocean. Sequence analyses showed that the fungal community was dominated by members of the Ascomycota and the Basidiomycota. Several new phylotypes (28 of 65 total fungal OTUs and 2 of 19 culturable fungal phylotypes) were identified, contributing to the literally unknown diversity of fungi in this understudied habitat. The fungal community structures in the chimney samples were distinct from those in three sulfide samples. The qPCR results revealed that fungal LSU rRNA gene copy numbers ranged from 5.88×105 to 6.77×106 copies/gram rock (wet weight), and the Ascomycota was significantly more abundant 2-3 orders) than the Basidiomycota. Our findings provide new insights into the diversity and abundance of fungi in deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystems, which increases our knowledge and understanding of the fungal diversity in deep-sea environments.

  9. The Tumor Radiobiology of SRS and SBRT: Are More Than the 5 Rs Involved?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J. Martin, E-mail: mbrown@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Carlson, David J. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Brenner, David J. [Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), also known as stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR), are rapidly becoming accepted practice for the radiation therapy of certain tumors. Typically, SRS and SBRT involve the delivery of 1 or a few large-dose fractions of 8 to 30 Gy per fraction: a major paradigm shift from radiation therapy practice over the past 90 years, when, with relatively large amounts of normal tissues receiving high doses, the goal was to maximize tumor response for an acceptable level of normal tissue injury. The development of SRS and SBRT have come about because of technologic advances in image guidance and treatment delivery techniques that enable the delivery of large doses to tumors with reduced margins and high gradients outside the target, thereby minimizing doses to surrounding normal tissues. Because the results obtained with SRS and SBRT have been impressive, they have raised the question whether classic radiobiological modeling, and the linear-quadratic (LQ) model, are appropriate for large doses per fraction. In addition to objections to the LQ model, the possibility of additional biological effects resulting from endothelial cell damage, enhanced tumor immunity, or both have been raised to account for the success of SRS and SBRT. In this review, we conclude that the available preclinical and clinical data do not support a need to change the LQ model or to invoke phenomena over and above the classic 5 Rs of radiobiology and radiation therapy, with the likely exception that for some tumors high doses of irradiation may produce enhanced antitumor immunity. Thus, we suggest that for most tumors, the standard radiobiology concepts of the 5 Rs are sufficient to explain the clinical data, and the excellent results obtained from clinical studies are the result of the much larger biologically effective doses that are delivered with SRS and SBRT.

  10. Environmental assessment for the expansion and operation of the Central Shops Borrow Pit at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) to assess the potential environmental impacts of the proposed expansion and operation of an existing borrow pit at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. A borrow pit is defined as an excavated area where material has been dug for use as fill at another location. The proposed action would entail the areal enlargement, continued operation, and eventual close-out of the established facility known as the Central Shops Borrow Pit. Operations at SRS supporting waste site closure and the construction and maintenance of site facilities and infrastructure require readily available suitable soil for use as fill material. With the recent depletion of the other existing on-site sources for such material, DOE proposes to expand the existing facility. The National Environmental Policy Act requires the assessment of environmental consequences of Federal actions that may affect the quality of the human environment. Based on the potential for impacts described herein, DOE will either publish a Finding of No Significant Impact or prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

  11. Environmental assessment for the expansion and operation of the Central Shops Borrow Pit at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) to assess the potential environmental impacts of the proposed expansion and operation of an existing borrow pit at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. A borrow pit is defined as an excavated area where material has been dug for use as fill at another location. The proposed action would entail the areal enlargement, continued operation, and eventual close-out of the established facility known as the Central Shops Borrow Pit. Operations at SRS supporting waste site closure and the construction and maintenance of site facilities and infrastructure require readily available suitable soil for use as fill material. With the recent depletion of the other existing on-site sources for such material, DOE proposes to expand the existing facility. The National Environmental Policy Act requires the assessment of environmental consequences of Federal actions that may affect the quality of the human environment. Based on the potential for impacts described herein, DOE will either publish a Finding of No Significant Impact or prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)

  12. Macroencapsulated and elemental lead mixed waste sites report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalia, A.; Jacobson, R.

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compile a list of the Macroencapsulated (MACRO) and Elemental Lead (EL) Mixed Wastes sites that will be treated and require disposal at the Nevada Test Site within the next five to ten years. The five sites selected were: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington; Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Idaho Falls, Idaho; Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Rocky Flats Environmental Technology (RF), Golden, Colorado; and Savannah River (SRS), Charleston, South Carolina. A summary of total lead mixed waste forms at the five selected DOE sites is described in Table E-1. This table provides a summary of total waste and grand total of the current inventory and five-year projected generation of lead mixed waste for each site. This report provides conclusions and recommendations for further investigations. The major conclusions are: (1) the quantity of lead mixed current inventory waste is 500.1 m 3 located at the INEL, and (2) the five sites contain several other waste types contaminated with mercury, organics, heavy metal solids, and mixed sludges

  13. Factors limiting regeneration of Quercus alba and Cornus florida in formerly cultivated coastal plain sites, South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Joseph, M., Jr.; Jones, Robert, H.

    2003-01-01

    Riley, J.M. Jr., and R.H.Jones. 2003. Factors limiting regeneration of Quercus alba and Cornus florida in formerly cultivated coastal plain sites, South Carolina. For. Ecol., and Mgt. 177:571-586. To determine the extent that resources, conditions, and herbivoryy limit regeneration of Quercus alba L. and Cornus florida L. in formerly cultivated coastal plain uplands, we planted seedlings of the two species in two pine and one pine-hardwood forest understory and three adjacent clearcuts. Soil carbon and moisture, available nitrogen and phosphorous, and gap light index (GLI) were measured next to each seedling. Over two growing seasons, stem and leaf herbivory were estimated and survival was recorded. At the end of 2 years, all surviving stems were harvested to determine total leaf area and 2-year biomass growth. Survival to the end of the study was not significantly different between clearcuts and understories. However, clearcuts led to significantly greater biomass growth and leaf area for both Q. alba and C. florida. Soil moisture and available nutrients were also greater in the clearcuts. Using separate multiple linear (growth) or logistic (survival) regressions for each combination of three sites, two cutting treatments and two species, we found that soil moisture significantly affected survival in 12.5% and biomass growth in 8.3% of the regressions. Light availability significantly impacted biomass growth in 16.7% of the regressions. Stem and leaf herbivory had very little impact on survival (8.3%), but when combined, these two factors significantly impacted leaf area or biomass growth in 33.3% of the regressions. Seedling responses were highly variable, and no regression model accounted for more that 70.0% of this variation. In our study, stand-scalevariation in seedling responses (especially the difference between clearcut and understory) was much greater than within-stand variation. Of the within stand factors measured, herbivory was clearly the most

  14. Large break frequency for the SRS (Savannah River Site) production reactor process water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugherty, W.L.; Awadalla, N.G.; Sindelar, R.L.; Bush, S.H.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the results and conclusions of an evaluation of the large break frequency for the process water system (primary coolant system), including the piping, reactor tank, heat exchangers, expansion joints and other process water system components. This evaluation was performed to support the ongoing PRA effort and to complement deterministic analyses addressing the credibility of a double-ended guillotine break. This evaluation encompasses three specific areas: the failure probability of large process water piping directly from imposed loads, the indirect failure probability of piping caused by the seismic-induced failure of surrounding structures, and the failure of all other process water components. The first two of these areas are discussed in detail in other papers. This paper primarily addresses the failure frequency of components other than piping, and includes the other two areas as contributions to the overall process water system break frequency

  15. Towards frameless maskless SRS through real-time 6DoF robotic motion compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Andrew H; Liu, Xinmin; Chmura, Steven; Yenice, Kamil; Wiersma, Rodney D

    2017-11-13

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) uses precise dose placement to treat conditions of the CNS. Frame-based SRS uses a metal head ring fixed to the patient's skull to provide high treatment accuracy, but patient comfort and clinical workflow may suffer. Frameless SRS, while potentially more convenient, may increase uncertainty of treatment accuracy and be physiologically confining to some patients. By incorporating highly precise robotics and advanced software algorithms into frameless treatments, we present a novel frameless and maskless SRS system where a robot provides real-time 6DoF head motion stabilization allowing positional accuracies to match or exceed those of traditional frame-based SRS. A 6DoF parallel kinematics robot was developed and integrated with a real-time infrared camera in a closed loop configuration. A novel compensation algorithm was developed based on an iterative closest-path correction approach. The robotic SRS system was tested on six volunteers, whose motion was monitored and compensated for in real-time over 15 min simulated treatments. The system's effectiveness in maintaining the target's 6DoF position within preset thresholds was determined by comparing volunteer head motion with and without compensation. Comparing corrected and uncorrected motion, the 6DoF robotic system showed an overall improvement factor of 21 in terms of maintaining target position within 0.5 mm and 0.5 degree thresholds. Although the system's effectiveness varied among the volunteers examined, for all volunteers tested the target position remained within the preset tolerances 99.0% of the time when robotic stabilization was used, compared to 4.7% without robotic stabilization. The pre-clinical robotic SRS compensation system was found to be effective at responding to sub-millimeter and sub-degree cranial motions for all volunteers examined. The system's success with volunteers has demonstrated its capability for implementation with frameless and maskless SRS

  16. Direct experimental measurement of SRS-induced spectral tilt in multichannel multispan communication systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapin, Yu A; Nanii, Oleg E; Novikov, A G; Pavlov, V N; Plotskii, A Yu; Treshchikov, V N

    2012-09-30

    Nonlinear SRS-induced tilt of the spectrum of a multichannel DWDM signal is studied experimentally in standard singlemode fibreoptic communication lines. It is found that at a fixed spectral bandwidth and total power the nonlinear SRS tilt is independent of the number of channels, radiation source type, and the initial tilt (positive or negative). In a multispan line consisting of identical spans the total nonlinear tilt of the spectrum (in dB) is proportional to the number of spans, spectral width and total power. (optical fibres, lasers and amplifiers. properties and applications)

  17. SU-F-T-638: Is There A Need For Immobilization in SRS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masterova, K; Sethi, A; Anderson, D; Prabhu, V; Rusu, I; Gros, S; Melian, E

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Frameless Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is increasingly used in the clinic. Cone-Beam CT (CBCT) to simulation-CT match has replaced the 3-dimensional coordinate based set up using a stereotactic localizing frame. The SRS frame however served as both a localizing and immobilizing device. We seek to measure the quality of frameless (mask based) and frame based immobilization and evaluate its impact on target dose. Methods: Each SRS patient was set up by kV on-board imaging (OBI) and then fine-tuned with CBCT. A second CBCT was done at treatment-end to ascertain intrafraction motion. We compared pre- vs post-treatment CBCT shifts for both frameless and frame based SRS patients. CBCT to sim-CT fusion was repeated for each patient off-line to assess systematic residual image registration error. Each patient was re-planned with measured shifts to assess effects on target dose. Results: We analyzed 11 patients (12 lesions) treated with frameless SRS and 6 patients (11 lesions) with a fixed frame system. Average intra-fraction iso-center positioning errors for frameless and frame-based treatments were 1.24 ± 0.57 mm and 0.28 ± 0.08 mm (mean ± s.d.) respectively. Residual error in CBCT registration was 0.24 mm. The frameless positioning uncertainties led to target dose errors in Dmin and D95 of 15.5 ± 18.4% and 6.6 ± 9.1% respectively. The corresponding errors in fixed frame SRS were much lower with Dmin and D95 reduced by 4.2 ± 6.5% and D95 2.5 ± 3.8% respectively. Conclusion: Frameless mask provides good immobilization with average patient motion of 1.2 mm during treatment. This exceeds MRI voxel dimensions (∼0.43mm) used for target delineation. Frame-based SRS provides superior patient immobilization with measureable movement no greater than the background noise of the CBCT registration. Small lesions requiring submm precision are better served with a frame based SRS.

  18. SU-F-T-638: Is There A Need For Immobilization in SRS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masterova, K; Sethi, A; Anderson, D; Prabhu, V; Rusu, I; Gros, S; Melian, E [Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Frameless Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is increasingly used in the clinic. Cone-Beam CT (CBCT) to simulation-CT match has replaced the 3-dimensional coordinate based set up using a stereotactic localizing frame. The SRS frame however served as both a localizing and immobilizing device. We seek to measure the quality of frameless (mask based) and frame based immobilization and evaluate its impact on target dose. Methods: Each SRS patient was set up by kV on-board imaging (OBI) and then fine-tuned with CBCT. A second CBCT was done at treatment-end to ascertain intrafraction motion. We compared pre- vs post-treatment CBCT shifts for both frameless and frame based SRS patients. CBCT to sim-CT fusion was repeated for each patient off-line to assess systematic residual image registration error. Each patient was re-planned with measured shifts to assess effects on target dose. Results: We analyzed 11 patients (12 lesions) treated with frameless SRS and 6 patients (11 lesions) with a fixed frame system. Average intra-fraction iso-center positioning errors for frameless and frame-based treatments were 1.24 ± 0.57 mm and 0.28 ± 0.08 mm (mean ± s.d.) respectively. Residual error in CBCT registration was 0.24 mm. The frameless positioning uncertainties led to target dose errors in Dmin and D95 of 15.5 ± 18.4% and 6.6 ± 9.1% respectively. The corresponding errors in fixed frame SRS were much lower with Dmin and D95 reduced by 4.2 ± 6.5% and D95 2.5 ± 3.8% respectively. Conclusion: Frameless mask provides good immobilization with average patient motion of 1.2 mm during treatment. This exceeds MRI voxel dimensions (∼0.43mm) used for target delineation. Frame-based SRS provides superior patient immobilization with measureable movement no greater than the background noise of the CBCT registration. Small lesions requiring submm precision are better served with a frame based SRS.

  19. Aquatic biological communities and associated habitats at selected sites in the Big Wood River Watershed, south-central Idaho, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCoy, Dorene E.; Short, Terry M.

    2016-09-28

    Assessments of streamflow (discharge) parameters, water quality, physical habitat, and biological communities were completed between May and September 2014 as part of a monitoring program in the Big Wood River watershed of south-central Idaho. The sampling was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Blaine County, Trout Unlimited, the Nature Conservancy, and the Wood River Land Trust to help identify the status of aquatic resources at selected locations in the watershed. Information in this report provides a basis with which to evaluate and monitor the long-term health of the Big Wood River and its major tributaries. Sampling sites were co-located with existing U.S. Geological Survey streamgaging stations: three on the main stem Big Wood River and four on the North Fork Big Wood River (North Fork), Warm Springs Creek (Warm Sp), Trail Creek (Trail Ck), and East Fork Big Wood River (East Fork) tributaries.The analytical results and quality-assurance information for water quality, physical habitat, and biological community samples collected at study sites during 2 weeks in September 2014 are summarized. Water-quality data include concentrations of major nutrients, suspended sediment, dissolved oxygen, and fecal-coliform bacteria. To assess the potential effects of nutrient enrichment on algal growth, concentrations of periphyton biomass (chlorophyll-a and ash free dry weight) in riffle habitats were determined at each site. Physical habitat parameters include stream channel morphology, habitat volume, instream structure, substrate composition, and riparian vegetative cover. Biological data include taxa richness, abundance, and stream-health indicator metrics for macroinvertebrate and fish communities. Statistical summaries of the water-quality, habitat, and biological data are provided along with discussion of how these findings relate to the health of aquatic resources in the Big Wood River watershed.Seasonal discharge patterns using statistical

  20. Environmental restoration: Integrating hydraulic control of groundwater, innovative contaminant removal technologies and wetlands restoration--A case study at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C.M.; Serkiz, S.M.; Adams, J.; Welty, M.

    1992-01-01

    The groundwater remediation program at the F and H Seepage Basins, Savannah River Sits (SRS) is a case study of the integration of various environmental restoration technologies at a single waste site. Hydraulic control measures are being designed to mitigate the discharge of groundwater plumes to surface water. One of the primary constituents of the plumes is tritium. An extraction and reinjection scenario is being designed to keep the tritium in circulation in the shallow groundwater, until it can naturally decay. This will be accomplished by extracting groundwater downgradient of the waste sites, treatment, and reinjection of the tritiated water into the water table upgradient of the basins. Innovative in-situ technologies, including electrolytic migration, are being field tested at the site to augment the pump-treat-reinject system. The in-situ technologies target removal of contaminants which are relatively immobile, yet represent long term risks to human health and the environment. Wetland restoration is an integral part of the F and H remediation program. Both in-situ treatment of the groundwater discharging the wetlands to adjust the pH, and replacement of water loss due to the groundwater extraction program ar being considered. Toxicity studies indicate that drought and the effects of low pH groundwater discharge have been factors in observed tree mortality in wetlands near the waste sites

  1. Intensive archaeological survey of the F/H Surface Enhancement Project Area, Savannah River Site, Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sassaman, K.E.; Gillam, J.C.

    1993-08-01

    Twelve archaeological sites and four artifact occurrences were located by intensive survey of two tracts of land for the F and H Surface Enhancement Project on the Savannah River Site, Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. Fieldwork in the 480-acre project area included surface reconnaissance of 3.6 linear kilometers of transects, 140 shovel tests along 4.2 linear kilometers of transects, an additional 162 shovel tests at sites and occurrences, and the excavation of six l {times} 2 m test units. All but one of the sites contained artifacts of the prehistoric era; the twelfth site consists of the remains of a twentieth-century home place. The historic site and six of the prehistoric sites consist of limited and/or disturbed contexts of archaeological deposits that have little research potential and are therefore considered ineligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). The remaining five sites have sufficient content and integrity to yield information important to ongoing investigations into upland site use. These sites (38AK146, 38AK535, 38AK539, 38AK541, and 38AK543) are thus deemed eligible for nomination to the NRHP and the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) recommends that they be preserved through avoidance or data recovery.

  2. The understanding of the formation of valleys and its implication on site characterization: Moredalen and Pukedalen, south-eastern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiren, Sven A.; Waenstedt, Stefan; Straeng, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    In south-eastern Sweden, there are a number of over-deepened narrow valleys, more than 20 m deep, formed in Precambrian bedrock located above the highest post-glacial shoreline. Canyon-like valleys, called 'kursu' or kursu valleys, are generally interpreted to be formed by glaciofluvial erosion. An example of such a valley is Moredalen, a canyon in the Fennoscandian Shield, which has an implication on site selection for radioactive waste disposal. There are also more open over-deepened valleys along which sub-glacial flow has occurred, e.g. Pukedalen. The main part of this paper discusses a combined geological and geophysical investigation of Moredalen, with the aim to investigate possible reasons for the formation of such an unusual feature formed in acid vulcanite and foliated tonalitic to granodioritic rocks. Moredalen is a marked, approximately 7 km long, E-W striking valley that cuts through a plateau (c. 140 m a.s.l.), and an elevated block of the sub-Cambrian peneplain. Glaciofluvial sediments can be found up-streams where the canyon widens to the west. Just east of the valley is a larger delta deposited at the highest post-glacial shoreline (c. 105 m a.s.l). Further east of, and in line with the Moredalen valley there is an esker. Rock debris in the valley is angular. Pukedalen is a northwest-southeast trending valley incised in massive granite. The valley is in its northern parts relatively open and becomes narrow in its south-eastern part having partly a vertical south-western wall. Rock surfaces are smooth along the valley and rock debris in the valley consists generally of rounded blocks. In line with Pukedalen, on both sides at great distances though, there are eskers. Geomorphological features of this kind indicate certain characteristics of the bedrock that need to be considered during safety analysis of repositories for nuclear waste. The distinct weakness zones along which the kursu-valleys are formed create prominent transport paths for

  3. EVALUATION OF THE DURABILITY OF THE STRUCTURAL CONCRETE OF REACTOR BUILDINGS AT SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, A.; Reigel, M.

    2011-02-28

    The Department of Energy (DOE) intends to close 100-150 facilities in the DOE complex using an in situ decommissioning (ISD) strategy that calls for grouting the below-grade interior volume of the structure and leaving the above-grade interior open or demolishing it and disposing of it in the slit trenches in E Area. These closures are expected to persist and remain stable for centuries, but there are neither facility-specific monitoring approaches nor studies on the rate of deterioration of the materials used in the original construction or on the ISD components added during closure (caps, sloped roofs, etc). This report will focus on the evaluation of the actual aging/degradation of the materials of construction used in the ISD structures at Savannah River Site (SRS) above grade, specifically P & R reactor buildings. Concrete blocks (six 2 to 5 ton blocks) removed from the outer wall of the P Reactor Building were turned over to SRNL as the first source for concrete cores. Larger cores were received as a result of grouting activities in P and R reactor facilities. The cores were sectioned and evaluated using microscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), ion chromatography (IC) and thermal analysis. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the aggregate and cement phases present in the concrete are consistent with the mix design and no degradation mechanisms are evident at the aggregate-cement interfaces. Samples of the cores were digested and analyzed for chloride ingress as well as sulfate attack. The concentrations of chloride and sulfate ions did not exceed the limits of the mix design and there is no indication of any degradation due to these mechanisms. Thermal analysis on samples taken along the longitudinal axis of the cores show that there is a 1 inch carbonation layer (i.e., no portlandite) present in the interior wall of the reactor building and a negligible carbonation layer in the exterior wall. A mixed layer of carbonate and portlandite extends deeper into the

  4. EVALUATION OF ENHANCED VOC REMOVAL WITH SOIL FRACTURING IN THE SRS UPLAND UNIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riha, B

    2005-10-31

    The Environmental Restoration Technology Section (ERTS) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted pilot scale testing to evaluate the effectiveness of using hydraulic fracturing as a means to improve soil vapor extraction (SVE) system performance. Laboratory and field research has shown that significant amounts of solvents can be entrapped in low permeability zones by capillary forces and removal by SVE can be severely limited due to low flow rates, mass transfer resistance of the hydrophobic compounds by trapped interparticle water, and diffusion resistance. Introducing sand-filled fractures into these tight zones improves the performance of SVE by (1) increasing the overall permeability of the formation and thereby increasing SVE flow rates, (2) shortening diffusion pathways, and (3) increasing air permeability by improving pore water removal. The synergistic effect of the fracture well completion methods, fracture and flow geometry, and pore water removal appears to increase the rate of solvent mass removal over that of increasing flow rate alone. A field test was conducted where a conventional well in the SRS Upland Unit was tested before and after hydraulic fracturing. ERTS teamed with Clemson University through the South Carolina University and Education Foundation (SCUREF) program utilizing their expertise in fracturing and fracture modeling. The goals of the fracturing pilot testing were to evaluate the following: (1) The effect of hydraulic fractures on the performance of a conventional well. This was the most reliable way to remove the effects of spatial variations in permeability and contaminant distribution on relative well performance. It also provided data on the option of improving the performance of existing wells using hydraulic fractures. (2) The relative performance of a conventional SVE well and isolated hydraulic fractures. This was the most reliable indicator of the performance of hydraulic fractures that could be created in a

  5. Genetic labelling and application of the isoproturon-mineralizing Sphingomonas sp. strain SRS2 in soil and rhizosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, K.E.; Jacobsen, C.S.; Hansen, L.H.

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: To construct a luxAB-labelled Sphingomonas sp. strain SRS2 maintaining the ability to mineralize the herbicide isoproturon and usable for monitoring the survival and distribution of strain SRS2 on plant roots in laboratory systems. METHODS AND RESULTS: We inserted the mini-Tn5-luxAB marker ...

  6. Remote video radioactive systems evaluation, Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Robinson, C.W.

    1991-01-01

    Specialized miniature low cost video equipment has been effectively used in a number of remote, radioactive, and contaminated environments at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The equipment and related techniques have reduced the potential for personnel exposure to both radiation and physical hazards. The valuable process information thus provided would not have otherwise been available for use in improving the quality of operation at SRS

  7. Remediation of SRS Basins by In Situ Stabilization/Solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, A.

    1999-01-01

    In the late summer of 1998, the Savannah River Site began remediation of two radiologically contaminated basins using in situ stabilization. These two high-risk, unlined basins contain radiological contaminants, which potentially pose significant risks to human health and the environment. The selected remedy involves in situ stabilization/solidification of the contaminated wastes (basin and pipeline soils, pipelines, vegetation, and other debris) followed by installation of a low permeability soil cover

  8. SRS-A leukotrienes decrease the activity of human respiratory cilia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Pedersen, M

    1987-01-01

    We have studied the effects of the slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS-A) constituents leukotrienes (LT) C4 and D4 on the ciliary activity of human respiratory cells. The ciliary beat frequency on human nasal cells harvested by cell scraping from the inferior turbinate was measured...

  9. Electron momentum density, band structure, and structural properties of SrS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, G., E-mail: gsphysics@gmail.com [University of Kota, Department of Pure and Applied Physics (India); Munjal, N.; Vyas, V. [Banasthali University, Department of Physics (India); Kumar, R.; Sharma, B. K. [University of Rajasthan, Department of Physics (India); Joshi, K. B. [MLS University, Department of Physics (India)

    2013-10-15

    The electron momentum density, the electronic band structure, and the structural properties of SrS are presented in this paper. The isotropic Compton profile, anisotropies in the directional Compton profiles, the electronic band structure and density of states are calculated using the ab initio periodic linear combination of atomic orbitals method with the CRYSTAL06 code. Structural parameters of SrS-lattice constants and bulk moduli in the B1 and B2 phases-are computed together with the transition pressure. The computed parameters are well in agreement with earlier investigations. To compare the calculated isotropic Compton profile, measurement on polycrystalline SrS is performed using 5Ci-{sup 241}Am Compton spectrometer. Additionally, charge transfer is studied by means of the Compton profiles computed from the ionic model. The nature of bonding in the isovalent SrS and SrO compounds is compared on the basis of equal-valenceelectron-density profiles and the bonding in SrS is found to be more covalent than in SrO.

  10. Exploratory Factor Analysis of SRS-2 Teacher Ratings for Youth with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Andrew T.; Lopata, Christopher; Volker, Martin A.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Toomey, Jennifer A.; Dua, Elissa

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure and internal consistency of special education teaching staff ratings on the Social Responsiveness Scale-2 (SRS-2; Constantino and Gruber 2012), as well as the percentage of ratings falling above pre-established cut scores, for a sample of lower-functioning youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 264).…

  11. Reliability and Validity Study of the Finnish Adaptation of Scoliosis Research Society Questionnaire Version SRS-30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrölä, Kati; Järvenpää, Salme; Ylinen, Jari; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka; Repo, Jussi Petteri; Häkkinen, Arja

    2017-06-15

    A prospective clinical study to test and adapt a Finnish version of the Scoliosis Research Society 30 (SRS-30) questionnaire. The aim of this study was to perform cross-cultural adaptation and evaluate the validity of the adapted Finnish version of the SRS-30 questionnaire. The SRS-30 questionnaire has proved to be a valid instrument in evaluating health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adolescent and adult population with spine deformities in the United States. Multinational availability requires cross-cultural and linguistic adaptation and validation of the instrument. The SRS-30 was translated into Finnish using accepted methods for translation of quality-of-life questionnaires. A total of 274 adult patients with degenerative radiographic sagittal spinal disorder answered the questionnaire with sociodemographic data, RAND 36-item health survey questionnaire (RAND Corp. Health, Santa Monica, CA, US), Oswestry disability index, DEPS depression scale, and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) back and leg pain scales within 2 weeks' interval. The cohort included patients with and without previous spine surgery. Internal consistency and validity were tested with Cronbach α, intraclass correlation (ICC), standard error of measurement, and Spearman correlation coefficient with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The internal consistency of SRS-30 was good in both surgery and nonsurgery groups, with Cronbach α 0.853 (95% CI, 0.670 to 0.960) and 0.885 (95% CI, 0.854 to 0.911), respectively. The test-retest reproducibility ICC of the SRS-30 total and subscore domains of patients with stable symptoms was 0.905 (95% CI, 0.870-0.930) and 0.904 (95% CI, 0.871-0.929), respectively. The questionnaire had discriminative validity in the pain, self-image, and satisfaction with management domains compared with other questionnaires. The SRS-30 questionnaire proved to be valid and applicable in evaluating HRQoL in Finnish adult spinal deformity patients. It has two domains related to deformity

  12. Environmental Assessment for the construction and operation of the Three Rivers Solid Waste Authority regional waste management center at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the potential environmental impacts associated with the construction and operation of a landfill and technology center for regionally-generated municipal solid waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The facility would serve the municipal solid waste disposal needs for SRS and at least nine of the surrounding counties who currently comprise the Three Rivers Solid Waste Authority (TRSWA). Additional counties could become included in the proposed action at some future date. Current Federal and state requirements do not afford individual counties and municipalities within the region encompassing SRS the ability to efficiently or economically operate modern waste management facilities. In addition, consolidation of regional municipal solid waste at one location would have the benefit of reducing the duplicity of environmental consequences associated with the construction and operation of county-level facilities. The option to seek a combined disposal and technology development facility based on a regionally-cooperative effort was selected as a viable alternative to the existing individual SRS or county disposal activities. This document was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended, the requirements of the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing NEPA (40 CFR Part 1021). NEPA requires the assessment of environmental consequences of Federal actions that may affect the quality of the human environment. Based on the potential for impacts described for impacts described herein, DOE will either publish a Finding of No Significant Impact or prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS)

  13. Environmental Assessment for the construction and operation of the Three Rivers Solid Waste Authority regional waste management center at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the potential environmental impacts associated with the construction and operation of a landfill and technology center for regionally-generated municipal solid waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The facility would serve the municipal solid waste disposal needs for SRS and at least nine of the surrounding counties who currently comprise the Three Rivers Solid Waste Authority (TRSWA). Additional counties could become included in the proposed action at some future date. Current Federal and state requirements do not afford individual counties and municipalities within the region encompassing SRS the ability to efficiently or economically operate modern waste management facilities. In addition, consolidation of regional municipal solid waste at one location would have the benefit of reducing the duplicity of environmental consequences associated with the construction and operation of county-level facilities. The option to seek a combined disposal and technology development facility based on a regionally-cooperative effort was selected as a viable alternative to the existing individual SRS or county disposal activities. This document was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended, the requirements of the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing NEPA (40 CFR Part 1021). NEPA requires the assessment of environmental consequences of Federal actions that may affect the quality of the human environment. Based on the potential for impacts described for impacts described herein, DOE will either publish a Finding of No Significant Impact or prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS).

  14. A RECOMMENDED PASQUILL-GIFFORD STABILITY CLASSIFICATION METHOD FOR SAFETY BASIS ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION MODELING AT SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, C.

    2012-03-28

    Several of the most common methods for estimating Pasquill-Gifford (PG) stability (turbulence) class were evaluated for use in modeling the radiological consequences of SRS accidental releases using the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System, Ver. 2 (MACCS2). Evaluation criteria included: (1) the ability of the method to represent diffusion characteristics above a predominantly forested landscape at SRS, (2) suitability of the method to provide data consistent with the formulation of the MACCS2 model, and (3) the availability of onsite meteorological data to support implementation of the method The evaluation resulted in a recommendation that PG stability classification for regulatory applications at SRS should be based on measurements of the standard deviation of the vertical component of wind direction fluctuations, {sigma}{sub e}, collected from the 61-m level of the SRS meteorological towers, and processed in full accordance with EPA-454/R-99-005 (EPA, 2000). This approach provides a direct measurement that is fundamental to diffusion and captures explicitly the turbulence generated by both mechanical and buoyant forces over the characteristic surface (forested) of SRS. Furthermore, due to the potentially significant enhancement of horizontal fluctuations in wind direction from the occurrence of meander at night, the use of {sigma}{sub e} will ensure a reasonably conservative estimate of PG stability class for use in dispersion models that base diffusion calculations on a single value of PG stability class. Furthermore, meteorological data bases used as input for MACCS2 calculations should contain hourly data for five consecutive annual periods from the most recent 10 years.

  15. TRANSFORMING THE SRS ENVIRONMENTAL BUSINESS: COMMUNICATION AND APPLIED PROJECT MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldivar, E.

    2010-01-20

    A process for communicating information relating to core business functions that also encourages improving internal communications has been established at SRS. This process continues to grow and strengthen as the multiple Contractors, Regulators and DOE-SR relationships mature. A number of management communication tools have been initiated, retooled, rebooted or continued with enhancements to ensure appropriate information is communicated to all levels with environmental responsibility at SRS. The types of information that are the focus of this improved process are feedback from the customer and from informational exchange forums (i.e., Challenge Opportunity and Resolution (COR), SRS Regulatory Integration Team (SRIT), Environmental Quality Management Division (EQMD), Senior Environmental Managers Council (SEMC), etc.). These forums, SRS environmental functions centralization, and the creation of a Regulatory Integration process allows for cross-functional decision making, problem solving and information sharing that involves the field organizations, Environmental Compliance Authorities (ECA), Subject Matter Experts (SME), DOE and the Regulators. Numerous examples of effective decision-making and problem solving will be shared. Lessons Learned involving inadequate communications and the resulting impacts on the environment, customer satisfaction, and relationships will also be discussed. Additionally, the focus on improved communications also includes maintaining awareness of business activities. The tools being utilized to facilitate the continuing improvement of internal communications include weekly staff meetings for all individuals within the organization, quarterly ECA and SME meeting, quarterly Regulatory Integration & Environmental Services (RI&ES) All-Hands meetings hosted by the Director, bi-weekly EQMD and EQMD Lite meetings with the customer, bi-annual SRIT meetings, and COR meetings on an as need basis. In addition, an existing Required Reading Program

  16. SRS ES and H Standards Compliance Program Implementation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hearn, W.H.

    1993-01-01

    On March 8, 1990, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) issued Recommendation 90-2 to the Secretary of Energy. This recommendation, based upon the DNFSB's initial review and evaluation of the content and implementation of standards relating to the design, construction, operations, and decommissioning of defense nuclear facilities of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), called for three actions: identification of specific standards that apply to design, construction, operation and decommissioning of DOE facilities; assessment of the adequacy of those standards for protecting public health and safety; and determination of the extent to which they have and are being implemented. The purpose of this Implementation Plan is to define the single program for all sitewide and facility 90-2 ES and H Standards Compliance efforts, which will satisfy the HQ Implementation Plan, avoid duplicate efforts, be as simple and achievable as possible, include cost-saving innovations, use a graded approach based on facility hazards and future needs of facilities, and support configuration control for facility requirements. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been designated a pilot facility for the 90-2 program and has progressed with their facility program ahead of the site-level program. The DWPF, and other Government-Owned Contractor-Operated (GOCO) facilities that progress on an enhanced schedule, will serve as pilot facilities for the site-level program. The lessons learned with their requirement identifications, and their assessments of the adequacy of and their compliance with these requirements will be used to improve the efficiency of the site-level and subsequent programs

  17. An assessment of flow data from Klamath River sites between Link River Dam and Keno Dam, south-central Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley, John C.; Hess, Glen W.; Fisher, Bruce J.

    2006-01-01

    Records of diversion and return flows for water years 1961?2004 along a reach of the Klamath River between Link River and Keno Dams in south-central Oregon were evaluated to determine the cause of a water-balance inconsistency in the hydrologic data. The data indicated that the reach was losing flow in the 1960s and 1970s and gaining flow in the 1980s and 1990s. The absolute mean annual net water-balance difference in flows between the first and second half of the 44-year period (1961-2004) was approximately 103,000 acre-feet per year (acre-ft/yr). The quality of the diversion and return-flow records used in the water balance was evaluated using U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) criteria for accuracy. With the exception of the USGS Klamath River at Keno record, which was rated as 'good' or 'excellent,' the eight other flow records, all from non-USGS flow-measurement sites, were rated as 'poor' by USGS standards due to insufficient data-collection documentation and a lack of direct discharge measurements to verify the rating curves. The record for the Link River site, the most upstream in the study area, included both river and westside power canal flows. Because of rating curve biases, the river flows might have been overestimated by 25,000 acre-ft/yr on average from water years 1961 to 1982 and underestimated by 7,000 acre-ft/yr on average from water years 1983 to 2004. For water years 1984-2004, westside power canal flows might have been underestimated by 11,000 acre-ft/yr. Some diversion and return flows (for mostly agricultural, industrial, and urban use) along the Klamath River study reach, not measured continuously and not included in the water-balance equation, also were evaluated. However, the sum of these diversion and return flows was insufficient to explain the water-balance inconsistency. The possibility that ground-water levels in lands adjacent to the river rose during water years 1961-2004 and caused an increase in ground-water discharge to the river

  18. SRS K-area material storage. Expanding capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.

    2013-01-01

    In support of the Department of Energy’s continued plans to de-inventory and reduce the footprint of Cold War era weapons’ material production sites, the K-Area Material Storage (KAMS) facility, located in the K-Area Complex (KAC) at the Savannah River Site reservation, has expanded since its startup authorization in 2000 to accommodate DOE’s material consolidation mission. During the facility’s growth and expansion, KAMS will have expanded its authorization capability of material types and storage containers to allow up to 8200 total shipping containers once the current expansion effort completes in 2014. Recognizing the need to safely and cost effectively manage other surplus material across the DOE Complex, KAC is constantly evaluating the storage of different material types within K area. When modifying storage areas in KAC, the Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) must undergo extensive calculations and reviews; however, without an extensive and proven security posture the possibility for expansion would not be possible. The KAC maintains the strictest adherence to safety and security requirements for all the SNM it handles. Disciplined Conduct of Operations and Conduct of Projects are demonstrated throughout this historical overview highlighting various improvements in capability, capacity, demonstrated cost effectiveness and utilization of the KAC as the DOE Center of Excellence for safe and secure storage of surplus SNM.

  19. Online analytical systems for the uranium solidification facility at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salaymeh, S.R.; O'Rourke, P.E.; Van Hare, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    A new Uranium Solidification Facility (USF) is scheduled for completion in the latter part of 1990. This facility will convert liquid uranyl nitrate product from the Savannah River Site reactor reprocessing plant to solid uranium trioxide for shipment to Oak Ridge Y-12 plant. High- and low-level online uranium measurement systems have been developed to provide nuclear safety, process control, material control, and accountability information to the facility operator. The low level uranium concentration will be determined by an improved online alpha monitoring system for aqueous streams developed at the Savannah River Site. High uranium concentrations will be measured by a fiber-optic-based diode array absorption spectrophotometer. The online alpha monitor (OLAM-100S) consists of a 5-in. circular sample chamber and an alpha particle detector (a thin film of polyvinyl toluene plastic scintillation material) attached to a light guide and processing electronics. The light guide is optically coupled to a photomultiplier tube. Processing electronics include: amplifier/single channel analyzer, a dual counter/timer, and a high and low level alarm module. In order to implement the system online, a cell drain, automatic flushing mechanism, heat exchanger, temperature readout, and flow monitor will be used. The absorption spectrophotometer system consists of a xenon arc lamp, a nine-position fiber optic multiplexer (to allow a single system to monitor up to nine process locations), automated process samplers, diode array spectrometer, and a central computer system. 5 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  20. The steam explosion potential for an unseated SRS reactor septifoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, D.K.; Hyder, M.L.; Yau, W.W.F. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Smith, D.C. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-09-01

    Control rods in the Savannah River Site`s K Reactor are contained within housings composed of seven channels (``septifoils``). Each septifoil is suspended from the top of the reactor and is normally seated on an upflow pin that channels coolant to the septifoil. Forced flow to the septifoil would be eliminated in the unlikely event of a septifoil unseated upon installation, i.e., if the septifoil is not aligned with its upflow pin. If this event were not detected, control rod melting and the interaction of molten metal with water might occur. This paper describes a methodology used to address the issue of steam explosions that might arise by this mechanism. The probability of occurrence of a damaging steam explosion given an unseated septifoil was found to be extremely low. The primary reasons are: (1) the high probability that melting will not occur, (2) the possibility of material holdup by contact with the outer septifoil housing, (3) the relative shallowness of the pool `Of water into which molten material might fall, (4) the probable absence of a trigger, and (5) the relatively large energy release required to damage a nearby fuel assembly. The methodology is based upon the specification of conditions prevailing within the septifoil at the time molten material is expected to contact water, and upon information derived from the available experimental data base, supplemented by recent prototypic experiments.

  1. Savannah River Site Environmental Implementation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Formal sitewide environmental planning at the . Savannah River Site (SRS) began in 1986 with the development and adoption of the Strategic Environmental Plan. The Strategic Environmental Plan describes the philosophy, policy, and overall program direction of environmental programs for the operation of the SRS. The Strategic Environmental Plan (Volume 2) provided the basis for development of the Environmental Implementation Plan (EIP). The EIP is the detailed, comprehensive environmental master plan for operating contractor organizations at the SRS. The EIP provides a process to ensure that all environmental requirements and obligations are being met by setting specific measurable goals and objectives and strategies for implementation. The plan is the basis for justification of site manpower and funding requests for environmental projects and programs over a five-year planning period

  2. Savannah River Site Environmental Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-08-01

    Formal sitewide environmental planning at the . Savannah River Site (SRS) began in 1986 with the development and adoption of the Strategic Environmental Plan. The Strategic Environmental Plan describes the philosophy, policy, and overall program direction of environmental programs for the operation of the SRS. The Strategic Environmental Plan (Volume 2) provided the basis for development of the Environmental Implementation Plan (EIP). The EIP is the detailed, comprehensive environmental master plan for operating contractor organizations at the SRS. The EIP provides a process to ensure that all environmental requirements and obligations are being met by setting specific measurable goals and objectives and strategies for implementation. The plan is the basis for justification of site manpower and funding requests for environmental projects and programs over a five-year planning period.

  3. Savannah River Site environmental implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Formal sitewide environmental planning at the Savannah River Site (SRS) began in 1986 with the development and adoption of the Strategic Environmental Plan. The Strategic Environmental Plan describes the philosophy, policy, and overall program direction of environmental programs for the operation of the SRS. The Strategic Environmental Plan provided the basis for development of the Environmental Implementation Plan (EIP). The EIP is the detailed, comprehensive environmental master plan for operating contractor organizations at the SRS. The EIP provides a process to ensure that all environmental requirements and obligations are being met by setting specific measurable goals and objectives and strategies for implementation. The plan is the basis for justification of site manpower and funding requests for environmental projects and programs over a five-year planning period

  4. Savannah River Site environmental report for 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, C.L.; Hetrick, C.S.; Stevenson, D.A. (eds.); Davis, H.A.; Martin, D.K.; Todd, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    During 1988, as in previous years, Savannah River Site operations had no adverse impact on the general public or the environment. Based on the SRS site-specific code, the maximum radiation dose commitment to a hypothetical individual at the SRS boundary from 1988 SRS atmospheric releases of radioactive materials was 0.46 millirem (mrem) (0.0046 millisievert (mSv)). To obtain the maximum dose, an individual would have had to reside on the SRS boundary at the location of highest dose for 24 hours per day, 365 days per year, consume a maximum amount of foliage and meat which originated from the general vicinity of the plant boundary, and drink a maximum amount of milk from cows grazing at the plant boundary. The average radiation dose commitment from atmospheric releases to the hypothetical individual on the SRS boundary in 1988 was 0.18 mrem (0. 0018 mSv). This person, unlike the maximumly exposed individual, consumes an average amount of foliage, meat, and milk which originated from the foliage and animals living at the plant boundary.

  5. The Savannah River site`s groundwater monitoring program: second quarter 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1997, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. A detailed explanation of the flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from second quarter 1997 are included in this report.

  6. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program, third quarter 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-17

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1991, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. Analytical results from third quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  7. Characterization of PM10 and PM2.5 and Their Metals Content in Different Typologies of Sites in South-Eastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Contini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Samples of PM10 and PM2.5 were collected discontinuously between 2003 and 2010 at fifteen monitoring sites (urban, background, industrial in the south-eastern part of Italy using a mobile laboratory. In total, 483 PM10 and 154 PM2.5 samples were collected and chemically analyzed for the determination of metal content. Data were used to investigate concentration differences among the typologies of sites, the seasonal patterns, and the influence of advection of Saharan dust (SD. PM10 and PM2.5 average concentrations increase from background to industrial and urban sites but the ratio PM2.5/PM10 is significantly lower (0.61 ± 0.10 in background sites. The average metals concentrations in PM10 and in PM2.5 do not show a clear dependence on site typology apart an increase in crustal elements in background sites and an increase in the enrichment factors of Ni and of Cr in PM10 in industrial sites. Urban sites show a statistically significant increase of PM10 average concentration during the cold seasons (autumn and winter, likely associated with the anthropogenic urban emissions, instead, the background sites show a decrease in concentrations during the cold seasons. This could be due to more frequent cases of SD observed in spring and summer periods that mainly influence background sites. The seasonal difference on the average concentration for industrial sites is not statistically significant. The SD cases influence both PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations but their effect is significantly larger on PM10. Over the studied area, the effect is relatively limited on long-term average PM10 (estimated increase of 3.2% and PM2.5 (estimated increase of 1.5% concentrations but it is significant on daily concentrations. It is estimated an increase of 22% of the probability to overcome the air quality standard daily threshold for PM10.

  8. A paired benthic and bulk stable-isotope record for the Late Paleocene from the South Atlantic: new data from Site 1263

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, S.; Littler, K.; Zachos, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    The Late Paleocene, just prior to the hyperthermal event known as the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), is generally accepted to have been a greenhouse world characterized by high global temperatures, elevated pCO2 levels and a lack of large ice-sheets. As such, this event provides an opportunity to investigate how the carbon-cycle and climate operated in a much warmer world, such as that anticipated for the near future. A high-resolution stable-isotope record already exists for this time period from the South Atlantic, based on bulk carbonate and benthic foraminifera from the deep-sea Site 1262 on Walvis Ridge. However, complimentary data is lacking from Site 1263, which is at a similar location but ~2000 m shallower. Isotope data from this shallower site is necessary in order to establish a fuller picture of the changes to the climate and carbon-cycle in the South Atlantic intermediate water, leading up to the PETM. To this end, we have generated both bulk carbonate and benthic isotope data, based on the cosmopolitan deep-water species Nuttallides truempyi, from the latest Paleocene at Site 1263, which allows us to look at the surface-deep gradient in carbon-isotopes. The oxygen-isotope data from the new benthic record at Site 1263 also permits computation of changes in intermediate water temperature during the Late Paleocene. Furthermore, using the coarse fraction (%CF) data obtained from the sediment washing process, we can see the changes in the calcite compensation depth (CCD) during this critical interval. Additionally, by comparing the carbon-isotope records from the two Walvis Ridge sites, we were able to transfer orbitally-tuned ages from Site 1262 to the Late Paleocene sediments at 1263 for the first time.

  9. Organic acids in cloud water and rainwater at a mountain site in acid rain areas of South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; Wang, Yan; Li, Haiyan; Yang, Xueqiao; Sun, Lei; Wang, Xinfeng; Wang, Tao; Wang, Wenxing

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the chemical characteristics of organic acids and to identify their source, cloud water and rainwater samples were collected at Mount Lu, a mountain site located in the acid rain-affected area of south China, from August to September of 2011 and March to May of 2012. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentration of organic acids in cloud water was 38.42 μeq/L, ranging from 7.45 to 111.46 μeq/L, contributing to 2.50 % of acidity. In rainwater samples, organic acid concentrations varied from 12.39 to 68.97 μeq/L (VWM of 33.39 μeq/L). Organic acids contributed significant acidity to rainwater, with a value of 17.66 %. Formic acid, acetic acid, and oxalic acid were the most common organic acids in both cloud water and rainwater. Organic acids had an obviously higher concentration in summer than in spring in cloud water, whereas there was much less discrimination in rainwater between the two seasons. The contribution of organic acids to acidity was lower during summer than during spring in both cloud water (2.20 % in summer vs 2.83 % in spring) and rainwater (12.24 % in summer vs 19.89 % in spring). The formic-to-acetic acid ratio (F/A) showed that organic acids were dominated by primary emissions in 71.31 % of the cloud water samples and whole rainwater samples. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis determined four factors as the sources of organic acids in cloud water, including biogenic emissions (61.8 %), anthropogenic emissions (15.28 %), marine emissions (15.07 %) and soil emissions (7.85 %). The findings from this study imply an indispensable role of organic acids in wet deposition, but organic acids may have a limited capacity to increase ecological risks in local environments.

  10. Geology and taphonomy of the L'Espinau dinosaur bonebed, a singular lagoonal site from the Maastrichtian of South-Central Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondevilla, V.; Vicente, A.; Battista, F.; Sellés, A. G.; Dinarès-Turell, J.; Martín-Closas, C.; Anadón, P.; Vila, B.; Razzolini, N. L.; Galobart, À.; Oms, O.

    2017-06-01

    The L'Espinau site is a dinosaur bonebed from the Upper Cretaceous of the South-Central Pyrenees (north-eastern Spain) that have provided hundreds of bone remains attributed to hadrosauroids, together with a rich assemblage of herpetofauna, fish and microflora. Magnetostratigraphy calibrated the site with the early late Maastrichtian, and the combined sedimentology, stable isotope geochemistry and palaeoecology revealed that this fossil site formed in a lagoon, in which a mixed freshwater-brackish palaeoenvironment was developed. This setting displays a south-north charophyte zonation from freshwater (Clavator brachycerus-dominated assemblage) to brackish or eurihaline conditions (Feistiella malladae-dominated assemblage), revealing a palaeoenvironment change towards the coast. Sedimentology and taphonomy (bidirectional arrangement of long bones, abrasion and disarticulation) indicate that the L'Espinau site is the result of a cohesive mass flow event originated very close to the sea. This process entrained and mixed fauna from both the terrestrial and the brackish/marine environment of a lagoon. An increasing of the water runoff (e.g. by intense rainfall) reworking poorly consolidated sediments is considered here as the most probable triggering mechanism. Mass flow-hosted bonebeds are commonly linked to fluvial palaeoenvironments, so our study case is a rare example of bones accumulating near the sea. This study adds evidence that hadrosauroids inhabited littoral environments during the Maastrichtian in the southern Pyrenean area.

  11. Ecological evaluation of proposed reference sites in the New York Bight, Great South Bay, and Ambrose Light, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardiner, W.W.; Barrows, E.S.; Word, J.Q. [Battelle Marine Research Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The current reference site used in evaluations of dredged material proposed for open water disposal in the New York Bight is the Mud Dump Reference Site. The sediment at this reference site is predominantly sand. The US Army Corps of Engineers New York District is considering designation of a new reference site that (1) includes a fine-grained component, believed to be necessary for adequate amphipod survival in laboratory tests, (2) better reflects the physical characteristics of the fine-grained sediment dredged from the New York/New Jersey Harbor and (3) is further removed from the Mud Dump Site than the current Mud Dump Reference Site. The Battelle Marine Science Laboratory was requested to characterize sediment collected from seven candidate reference sites during two study phases. This report presents the results of physical, chemical, and toxicological characterizations of sediment from these sites in comparisons with those of the original Mud Dump Reference Site.

  12. Applied environmental technology development at the Savannah River Site: A retrospective on the last half of the 20th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, B.B.

    2000-01-01

    Fifty years ago, the Savannah River Site (SRS) was built to produce nuclear materials. These operations impacted air, soil, groundwater, ecology and the local environment. Throughout its history, SRS has addressed these contamination issues directly and has maintained a strong commitment to environmental stewardship. The site boasts many environmental firsts. Notably, SRS was the first major DOE facility to perform a baseline ecological assessment. This pioneering effort, by Ruth Patrick and the Philadelphia Academy of Sciences, was performed during SRS planning and construction in the early 1950's. This unique early example sets the stage for subsequent efforts. Since that time, the scientists and engineers at SRS have proactively identified environmental problems as they occurred and have skillfully developed elegant and efficient solutions

  13. HB-Line Material Control and Accountability Measurements at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casella, V.R.

    2003-01-01

    Presently, HB-Line work at the Savannah River Site consists primarily of the stabilization and packaging of nuclear materials for storage and the characterization of materials for disposition in H-Area. In order to ensure compliance with Material Control and Accountability (MC and A) Regulations, accountability measurements are performed throughout the HB-Line processes. Accountability measurements are used to keep track of the nuclear material inventory by constantly updating the amount of material in the MBAs (Material Balance Area) and sub-MBAs. This is done by subtracting the amount of accountable material that is added to a process and by adding the amount of accountable material that is put back in storage. A Physical Inventory is taken and compared to the ''Book Value'' listed in the Nuclear Material Accounting System. The difference (BPID) in the Book Inventory minus the Physical Inventory of a sub-account for bulk material must agree within the measurement errors combined in quadrature to provide assurance that nuclear material is accounted for. This work provides an overview of HB-Line processes and accountability measurements. The Scrap Recovery Line and Neptunium-237/Plutonium-239 Oxide Line are described and sampling and analyses for Phase II are provided. Recommendations for improvements are provided to improve efficiency and cost effectiveness

  14. SRS scientific and technical abstracts, July--September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This document focuses on the scientific and technical information (STT) reports, articles, and presentations generated at the site by various authors and organizations of Westinghouse Savannah River Company and its subcontractors. Abstracts of these STI products are contained within this document. The abstracts have been compiled as they originally appeared in the source reports. No changes to the content have been made except as necessary to correct errors of spelling, to reduce abstract length, or to ensure that the information is unclassified. The abstracts are organized according to information categories (``UC`` categories) established by the Department of Energy`s Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI). When reports fall into more than one category, their abstract is included as an entry in the most applicable section of this document. UC-700 General, Miscellaneous, and Progress Reports, UC-701 Chemistry, UC-702 Environmental Sciences, UC-703 Geosciences, UC-704 Materials, UC-705 Mathematics and Computer Sciences, UC-706 Engineering, Equipment, and Instruments, UC-707 Health and Safety, UC-708 Biological Sciences, UC-711 Chemical Separation Processes for Plutonium and Uranium, UC-712 Inertial Confinement Fusion, UC-713 Radioisotope and Radiation Applications, UC-714 Criticality Studies, UC-715 Technology - Feed Materials, UC-721 Defense Waste Management, UC-722 Transportation of Nuclear Materials, UC-731 Nuclear Materials Production, UC-732 Special Isotope Separation (Plutonium), UC-733 Nuclear Raw Materials, UC-741 Chemical High Explosives, UC-742 Applications of Explosions, UC-743 Nuclear Propulsion Systems, UC-744 Aerospace Nuclear Safety, and Index 91.

  15. SRS scientific and technical abstracts, July--September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This document focuses on the scientific and technical information (STT) reports, articles, and presentations generated at the site by various authors and organizations of Westinghouse Savannah River Company and its subcontractors. Abstracts of these STI products are contained within this document. The abstracts have been compiled as they originally appeared in the source reports. No changes to the content have been made except as necessary to correct errors of spelling, to reduce abstract length, or to ensure that the information is unclassified. The abstracts are organized according to information categories ( UC'' categories) established by the Department of Energy's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI). When reports fall into more than one category, their abstract is included as an entry in the most applicable section of this document. UC-700 General, Miscellaneous, and Progress Reports, UC-701 Chemistry, UC-702 Environmental Sciences, UC-703 Geosciences, UC-704 Materials, UC-705 Mathematics and Computer Sciences, UC-706 Engineering, Equipment, and Instruments, UC-707 Health and Safety, UC-708 Biological Sciences, UC-711 Chemical Separation Processes for Plutonium and Uranium, UC-712 Inertial Confinement Fusion, UC-713 Radioisotope and Radiation Applications, UC-714 Criticality Studies, UC-715 Technology - Feed Materials, UC-721 Defense Waste Management, UC-722 Transportation of Nuclear Materials, UC-731 Nuclear Materials Production, UC-732 Special Isotope Separation (Plutonium), UC-733 Nuclear Raw Materials, UC-741 Chemical High Explosives, UC-742 Applications of Explosions, UC-743 Nuclear Propulsion Systems, UC-744 Aerospace Nuclear Safety, and Index 91.

  16. The steam explosion potential for an unseated SRS reactor septifoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, D.K.; Hyder, M.L.; Yau, W.W.F. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Smith, D.C. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Control rods in the Savannah River Site's K Reactor are contained within housings composed of seven channels ( septifoils''). Each septifoil is suspended from the top of the reactor and is normally seated on an upflow pin that channels coolant to the septifoil. Forced flow to the septifoil would be eliminated in the unlikely event of a septifoil unseated upon installation, i.e., if the septifoil is not aligned with its upflow pin. If this event were not detected, control rod melting and the interaction of molten metal with water might occur. This paper describes a methodology used to address the issue of steam explosions that might arise by this mechanism. The probability of occurrence of a damaging steam explosion given an unseated septifoil was found to be extremely low. The primary reasons are: (1) the high probability that melting will not occur, (2) the possibility of material holdup by contact with the outer septifoil housing, (3) the relative shallowness of the pool 'Of water into which molten material might fall, (4) the probable absence of a trigger, and (5) the relatively large energy release required to damage a nearby fuel assembly. The methodology is based upon the specification of conditions prevailing within the septifoil at the time molten material is expected to contact water, and upon information derived from the available experimental data base, supplemented by recent prototypic experiments.

  17. Waterborne Release Monitoring and Surveillance Programs at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-03-26

    This report documents the liquid release environmental compliance programs currently in place at the Savannah river Site (SRS). Included are descriptions of stream monitoring programs, which measure chemical parameters and radionuclides in site streams and the Savannah river and test representative biological communities within the streams for chemical and radiological uptake. This report also explains the field sampling and analytical capabilities that are available at SRS during both normal and emergency conditions.

  18. Waterborne Release Monitoring and Surveillance Programs at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-01-01

    This report documents the liquid release environmental compliance programs currently in place at the Savannah river Site (SRS). Included are descriptions of stream monitoring programs, which measure chemical parameters and radionuclides in site streams and the Savannah river and test representative biological communities within the streams for chemical and radiological uptake. This report also explains the field sampling and analytical capabilities that are available at SRS during both normal and emergency conditions

  19. SU-F-T-647: Linac-Based Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) in the Treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia: Detailed Description of SRS Procedural Technique and Reported Clinical Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokhrel, D; Sood, S; Badkul, R; Jiang, H; Stepp, T; Camarata, P; Wang, F [University of Kansas Hospital, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: SRS is an effective non-invasive alternative treatment modality with minimal-toxicity used to treat patients with medically/surgically refractory trigeminal neuralgia root(TNR) or those who may not tolerate surgical intervention. We present our linac-based SRS procedure for TNR treatment and simultaneously report our clinical outcomes. Methods: Twenty-eight TNR-patients treated with frame-based SRS at our institution (2009–2015) with a single-fraction point-dose of 60-80Gy to TNR were included in this IRB-approved study. Experienced neurosurgeon and radiation oncologist delineated the TNR on 1.0mm thin 3D-FIESTA-MRI that was co-registered with 0.7mm thin planning-CT. Treatment plans were generated in iPlan (BrainLAB) with a 4-mm diameter cone using 79 arcs with differential-weighting for Novalis-TX 6MV-SRS(1000MU/min) beam and optimized to minimize brainstem dose. Winston-Lutz test was performed before each treatment delivery with sub-millimeter isocenter accuracy. Quality assurance of frame placement was maintained by helmet-bobble-measurement before simulation-CT and before patient setup at treatment couch. OBI-CBCT scan was performed for patient setup verification without applying shifts. On clinical follow up, treatment response was assessed using Barrow Neurological Institute Pain Intensity Score(BNI-score:I–V). Results: 26/28 TNR-patients (16-males/10-females) who were treated with following single-fraction point-dose to isocenter: 80Gy(n=22),75Gy(n=1),70Gy(n=2) and 60Gy(n=1, re-treatment) were followed up. Median follow-up interval was 8.5-months (ranged:1–48.5months). Median age was 70-yr (ranged:43–93-yr). Right/left TNR ratio was 15/11. Delivered total # of average MUs was 19034±1204. Average beam-on-time: 19.0±1.3min. Brainstem max-dose and dose to 0.5cc were 13.3±2.4Gy (ranged:8.1–16.5Gy) and 3.6±0.4Gy (ranged:3.0–4.9Gy). On average, max-dose to optic-apparatus was ≤1.2Gy. Mean value of max-dose to eyes/lens was 0.26Gy/0.11Gy

  20. High-sensitivity chemical imaging for biomedicine by SRS microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Wei

    2017-02-01

    Innovations in spectroscopy principles and microscopy technology have significantly impacted modern biology and medicine. While most of the contemporary bio-imaging modalities harness electronic transition, nuclear spin or radioactivity, vibrational spectroscopy has not been widely used yet. Here we will discuss an emerging chemical imaging platform, stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy, which can enhance the otherwise feeble spontaneous Raman eight orders of magnitude by virtue of stimulated emission. When coupled with stable isotopes (e.g., deuterium and 13C) or bioorthogonal chemical moieties (e.g., alkynes), SRS microscopy is well suited for probing in vivo metabolic dynamics of small bio-molecules which cannot be labeled by bulky fluorophores. Physical principle of the underlying optical spectroscopy and exciting biomedical applications such as imaging lipid metabolism, protein synthesis, DNA replication, protein degradation, RNA synthesis, glucose uptake, drug trafficking and tumor metabolism will be presented.

  1. Localization of recombination proteins and Srs2 reveals anti-recombinase function in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgess, Rebecca C; Lisby, Michael; Altmannova, Veronika

    2009-01-01

    Homologous recombination (HR), although an important DNA repair mechanism, is dangerous to the cell if improperly regulated. The Srs2 "anti-recombinase" restricts HR by disassembling the Rad51 nucleoprotein filament, an intermediate preceding the exchange of homologous DNA strands. Here, we...... removes Rad51 indiscriminately from DNA, while the Rad52 protein coordinates appropriate filament reformation. This constant breakdown and rebuilding of filaments may act as a stringent quality control mechanism during HR....

  2. SRS SLUDGE BATCH QUALIFICATION AND PROCESSING; HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AND LESSONS LEARNED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cercy, M.; Peeler, D.; Stone, M.

    2013-09-25

    This report provides a historical overview and lessons learned associated with the SRS sludge batch (SB) qualification and processing programs. The report covers the framework of the requirements for waste form acceptance, the DWPF Glass Product Control Program (GPCP), waste feed acceptance, examples of how the program complies with the specifications, an overview of the Startup Program, and a summary of continuous improvements and lessons learned. The report includes a bibliography of previous reports and briefings on the topic.

  3. Measurement of dosimetric parameters and dose verification in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reduan Abdullah; Nik Ruzman Nik Idris; Ahmad Lutfi Yusof; Mazurawati Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: The purpose of this study was to measure the dosimetric parameters for small photon beams to be used as input data treatment planning computer system (TPS) and to verify dose calculated by TPS in Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) procedure. The beam data required were Percentage Depth Dose (PDD), Off-axis Ratio (OAR), and Scatter Factor of Relative Output Factor. Small beams of 5 mm to 45 mm diameter circular cone collimators used in SRS were utilized for beam data measurements measured using pinpoint 3D ionization chamber (0.016 cc). For second part of this study, we reported the important quality assurance (QA) procedures before SRS treatment that influenced the dose delivery. These QA procedures consist of measurements on the accuracy in target localization and room laser alignment. The dose calculated to be delivered for treatment was verified using pinpoint 3D ionization chamber and TLD 100H. The mean deviation of measured dose using TLD 100H compared to calculated dose was 3.37 %. Beside that, pinpoint ionization 3D chamber give more accurate results of dose compared to TLD 100H. The measured dose using pinpoint 3D ionization chamber are good agreement with calculated dose by TPS with deviation of 2.17 %. The results are acceptable such as recommended by International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) Report No. 50 (1993) that dose delivered to the target volume must be within ±5 % error. (author)

  4. Shedding new light on lipid functions with CARS and SRS microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yong; Ramachandran, Prasanna V.; Wang, Meng C.

    2014-01-01

    Modern optical microscopy has granted biomedical scientists unprecedented access to the inner workings of a cell, and revolutionized our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying physiological and disease states. In spite of these advances, however, visualization of certain classes of molecules (e.g. lipids) at the sub-cellular level has remained elusive. Recently developed chemical imaging modalities – Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) microscopy and Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) microscopy – have helped bridge this gap. By selectively imaging the vibration of a specific chemical group, these non-invasive techniques allow high-resolution imaging of individual molecules in vivo, and circumvent the need for potentially perturbative extrinsic labels. These tools have already been applied to the study of fat metabolism, helping uncover novel regulators of lipid storage. Here we review the underlying principle of CARS and SRS microscopy, and discuss the advantages and caveats of each technique. We also review recent applications of these tools in the study of lipids as well as other biomolecules, and conclude with a brief guide for interested researchers to build and use CARS/SRS systems for their own research. PMID:24576891

  5. Postoperative Perfection: Ceiling Effects and Lack of Discrimination With Both SRS-22 and -24 Outcomes Instruments in Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastrom, Tracey P; Bartley, Carrie; Marks, Michelle C; Yaszay, Burt; Newton, Peter O

    2015-12-01

    Review of a prospective database registry. To compare the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22 and SRS-24 outcomes instruments in terms of scores, rate of ceiling effects, and discriminant ability in patients with pre- and postoperative adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Despite improvements noted with the SRS-22, the SRS-24 is still occasionally used prospectively and for comparisons with previous studies reporting SRS-24 scores. Previous work has demonstrated that postoperative scores from the 2 versions are not interchangeable. A multicenter prospective registry of patients who underwent surgical correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis was queried for preoperative and 2-year postoperative SRS-22 and SRS-24 scores. Scores were compared between versions and ceiling effects were identified. Groups of deformity severity were created to evaluate discriminant ability. 829 patients were identified. The SRS-22 scores for pain and general function were significantly greater than SRS-24 scores (P self-image (P self-image domain was able to discriminate between large (29°+) and small (≤11°) residual curves (P < 0.05). Scores obtained by the SRS-22 and the SRS-24 are not translatable despite shared domains. Whereas both versions demonstrated preoperative discriminant ability, postoperative discrimination of residual deformity is lacking in both. Patient-reported outcomes of treatment are crucial in advancing treatment, and improvement in the ability to assess subjective outcomes is essential. 3.

  6. Statistical Sampling For In-Service Inspection Of Liquid Waste Tanks At The Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, S.

    2011-01-01

    Savannah River Remediation, LLC (SRR) is implementing a statistical sampling strategy for In-Service Inspection (ISI) of Liquid Waste (LW) Tanks at the United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina. As a component of SRS's corrosion control program, the ISI program assesses tank wall structural integrity through the use of ultrasonic testing (UT). The statistical strategy for ISI is based on the random sampling of a number of vertically oriented unit areas, called strips, within each tank. The number of strips to inspect was determined so as to attain, over time, a high probability of observing at least one of the worst 5% in terms of pitting and corrosion across all tanks. The probability estimation to determine the number of strips to inspect was performed using the hypergeometric distribution. Statistical tolerance limits for pit depth and corrosion rates were calculated by fitting the lognormal distribution to the data. In addition to the strip sampling strategy, a single strip within each tank was identified to serve as the baseline for a longitudinal assessment of the tank safe operational life. The statistical sampling strategy enables the ISI program to develop individual profiles of LW tank wall structural integrity that collectively provide a high confidence in their safety and integrity over operational lifetimes.

  7. Savannah River Site environmental report for 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, M.W.; Karapatakis, L.K.; Mamatey, A.R.; Todd, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes environmental activities conducted on and in the vicinity of the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, S.C., from Jan. 1 to Dec. 31, 1991, with an update on compliance activities through April 1, 1992. The report is a single volume with a separate summary pamphlet highlighting the major findings for 1991. The report is divided into an executive summary and 14 chapters containing information on environmental compliance issues, environmental monitoring methods and programs, and environmental research activities for 1991, as well as historical data from previous years. Analytical results, figures, charts, and data tables relevant to the environmental monitoring program for 1991 at SRS are included.

  8. Savannah River Site environmental report for 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnett, M.W.; Karapatakis, L.K.; Mamatey, A.R.; Todd, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes environmental activities conducted on and in the vicinity of the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, S.C., from Jan. 1 to Dec. 31, 1991, with an update on compliance activities through April 1, 1992. The report is a single volume with a separate summary pamphlet highlighting the major findings for 1991. The report is divided into an executive summary and 14 chapters containing information on environmental compliance issues, environmental monitoring methods and programs, and environmental research activities for 1991, as well as historical data from previous years. Analytical results, figures, charts, and data tables relevant to the environmental monitoring program for 1991 at SRS are included

  9. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted during the first quarter of 1992. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official document of the analytical results

  10. The Savannah River Site's groundwater monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted by EPD/EMS in the first quarter of 1991. In includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program's activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results

  11. Savannah River Site Environmental Report for 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnett, M.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present summary environmental data that characterize site environmental management performance, confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, highlight significant programs and efforts, and assess the impact of SRS operations on the public and the environment

  12. Savannah River Site Environmental Report for 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, M.

    2000-06-30

    The purpose of this report is to present summary environmental data that characterize site environmental management performance, confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, highlight significant programs and efforts, and assess the impact of SRS operations on the public and the environment.

  13. Savannah River Site Environmental report for 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Michael; Jannik, Timothy; Cauthen, Kim; Bryant, Tracy; Coward, Lori; Eddy, Teresa; Vangelas, Karen; O' Quinn, Sadika; Meyer, Amy; Ackerman, Jana D.; Adams, John; Fanning, Greta; Thompson, Martha; Farfan, Eduardo B.; Dixon, Kenneth L.; Kemmerlin, Robert; Millings, Ted; Maxwell, Sherrod; Blas, Susan; Looney, Brian; Jackson, Dennis; Paller, Michael; Wabbersen, William

    2013-09-12

    This report is an overview of effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance activities conducted on and in the vicinity of SRS from January 1 through December 31, 2012 - including the Site's performance against applicable standards and requirements. Details are provided on major programs such as the Environmental Management System (EMS) and permit compliance.

  14. Savannah River Site's Site Specific Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-08-01

    This Site Specific Plan (SSP) has been prepared by the Savannah River Site (SRS) in order to show the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities that were identified during the preparation of the Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan (FYP) for FY 1992--1996. The SSP has been prepared in accordance with guidance received from DOE-HQ. DOE-SR is accountable to DOE-HQ for the implementation of this plan. The purpose of the SSP is to develop a baseline for policy, budget, and schedules for the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities. The plan explains accomplishments since the Fiscal Year (FY) 1990 plan, demonstrates how present and future activities are prioritized, identifies currently funded activities and activities that are planned to be funded in the upcoming fiscal year, and describes future activities that SRS is considering.

  15. Presence and absence of bats across habitat scales in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, W.Mark; Menzel, Jennifer M.; Menzel, Michael A.: Edwards, John W.; Kilgo, John C.

    2006-10-01

    Abstract During 2001, we used active acoustical sampling (Anabat II) to survey foraging habitat relationships of bats on the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Using an a priori information-theoretic approach, we conducted logistic regression analysis to examine presence of individual bat species relative to a suite of microhabitat, stand, and landscape-level features such as forest structural metrics, forest type, proximity to riparian zones and Carolina bay wetlands, insect abundance, and weather. There was considerable empirical support to suggest that the majority of the activity of bats across most of the 6 species occurred at smaller, stand-level habitat scales that combine measures of habitat clutter (e.g., declining forest canopy cover and basal area), proximity to riparian zones, and insect abundance. Accordingly, we hypothesized that most foraging habitat relationships were more local than landscape across this relatively large area for generalist species of bats. The southeastern myotis (Myotis austroriparius) was the partial exception, as its presence was linked to proximity of Carolina bays (best approximating model) and bottomland hardwood communities (other models with empirical support). Efforts at SRS to promote open longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) and loblolly pine (P. taeda) savanna conditions and to actively restore degraded Carolina bay wetlands will be beneficial to bats. Accordingly, our results should provide managers better insight for crafting guidelines for bat habitat conservation that could be linked to widely accepted land management and environmental restoration practices for the region.

  16. 25 Years Of Environmental Remediation In The General Separations Area Of The Savannah River Site: Lessons Learned About What Worked And What Did Not Work In Soil And Groundwater Cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blount, Gerald [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS), Aiken, SC (United States); Thibault, Jeffrey [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS), Aiken, SC (United States); Millings, Margaret [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS), Aiken, SC (United States); Prater, Phil [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-03-16

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is owned and administered by the US Department of Energy (DOE). SRS covers an area of approximately 900 square kilometers. The General Separation Area (GSA) is located roughly in the center of the SRS and includes: radioactive material chemical separations facilities, radioactive waste tank farms, a variety of radioactive seepage basins, and the radioactive waste burial grounds. Radioactive wastes were disposed in the GSA from the mid-1950s through the mid-1990s. Radioactive operations at the F Canyon began in 1954; radioactive operations at H Canyon began in 1955. Waste water disposition to the F and H Seepage Basins began soon after operations started in the canyons. The Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground (ORWBG) began operations in 1952 to manage solid waste that could be radioactive from all the site operations, and ceased receiving waste in 1972. The Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) and Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (LLRWDF) received radioactive solid waste from 1969 until 1995. Environmental legislation enacted in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s led to changes in waste management and environmental cleanup practices at SRS. The US Congress passed the Clean Air Act in 1970, and the Clean Water Act in 1972; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) was enacted in 1976; the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) was enacted by Congress in 1980; the Federal Facilities Compliance Act (FFCA) was signed into law in 1992. Environmental remediation at the SRS essentially began with a 1987 Settlement Agreement between the SRS and the State of South Carolina (under the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control - SCDHEC), which recognized linkage between many SRS waste management facilities and RCRA. The SRS manages several of the larger groundwater remedial activities under RCRA for facilities recognized early on as environmental problems. All subsequent

  17. 25 Years Of Environmental Remediation In The General Separations Area Of The Savannah River Site: Lessons Learned About What Worked And What Did Not Work In Soil And Groundwater Cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blount, Gerald; Thibault, Jeffrey; Millings, Margaret; Prater, Phil

    2015-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is owned and administered by the US Department of Energy (DOE). SRS covers an area of approximately 900 square kilometers. The General Separation Area (GSA) is located roughly in the center of the SRS and includes: radioactive material chemical separations facilities, radioactive waste tank farms, a variety of radioactive seepage basins, and the radioactive waste burial grounds. Radioactive wastes were disposed in the GSA from the mid-1950s through the mid-1990s. Radioactive operations at the F Canyon began in 1954; radioactive operations at H Canyon began in 1955. Waste water disposition to the F and H Seepage Basins began soon after operations started in the canyons. The Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground (ORWBG) began operations in 1952 to manage solid waste that could be radioactive from all the site operations, and ceased receiving waste in 1972. The Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) and Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (LLRWDF) received radioactive solid waste from 1969 until 1995. Environmental legislation enacted in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s led to changes in waste management and environmental cleanup practices at SRS. The US Congress passed the Clean Air Act in 1970, and the Clean Water Act in 1972; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) was enacted in 1976; the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) was enacted by Congress in 1980; the Federal Facilities Compliance Act (FFCA) was signed into law in 1992. Environmental remediation at the SRS essentially began with a 1987 Settlement Agreement between the SRS and the State of South Carolina (under the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control - SCDHEC), which recognized linkage between many SRS waste management facilities and RCRA. The SRS manages several of the larger groundwater remedial activities under RCRA for facilities recognized early on as environmental problems. All subsequent

  18. Community Security and Justice under United Nations Governance: Lessons from Chiefs’ Courts in South Sudan’s Protection of Civilians Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Ibreck

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the public authority of chiefs’ courts within the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS Protection of Civilians Sites (PoCs. After December 2013, UNMISS peacekeepers opened the gates of their bases to around 200,000 civilians fleeing war. This unintentionally created a legal and political anomaly. Over time, conflicts and crimes rose within the sites, and UNMISS improvised a form of administration. But while the internationals sought technical solutions, people displaced within the sites turned to familiar ‘customary’ methods to manage problems of insecurity, establishing chiefs’ courts. The PoC sites became an arena of plural authorities, with chiefs working alongside camp administrators, peacekeepers and humanitarian actors. We explore how and why the chiefs responded to insecurity within the sites and whether they engaged with, or diverged from United Nations actors and international norms. We demonstrate that justice remains central to the provision of security in contexts of war and displacement. International peace interventions are rightly wary of ‘customary’ justice processes that prioritise communities and families at the expense of individual rights, but this unique case shows that they are sources of trust and consistency that are resilient, adaptable and can contribute to human security.

  19. TU-FG-201-07: Development of SRS Conical Collimator Collision Prediction Software for Radiation Treatment Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutti, V; Morrow, A; Kim, S; Patel, M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) treatments using conical collimators can potentially result in gantry collision with treatment table due to limited collision-clear spaces. An in-house software was developed to help the SRS treatment planner mitigate potential SRS conical collimator (Varian Medical System, Palo Alto, CA) collisions with the treatment table. This software was designed to remove treatment re-planning secondary to unexpected collisions. Methods: A BrainLAB SRS ICT Frameless Extension used for SRS treatments in our clinic was mathematically modelled using surface points registered to the 3D co-ordinate space of the couch extension. The surface points are transformed based on the treatment isocenter point and potential collisions are determined in 3D space for couch and gantry angle combinations. The distance between the SRS conical collimators and LINAC isocenter is known. The collision detection model was programmed in MATLAB (Mathwork, Natick, MA) to display graphical plots of the calculations, and the plotted data is used to avoid the gantry and couch angle combinations that would likely result in a collision. We have utilized the cone collision tool for 23 SRS cone treatment plans (8 retrospective and 15 prospective for 10 patients). Results: Twenty one plans strongly agreed with the software tool prediction for collision. However, in two plans, a collision was observed with a 0.5 cm margin when the software predicted no collision. Therefore, additional margins were added to the clearance criteria in the program to achieve a lower risk of actual collisions. Conclusion: Our in-house developed collision check software successfully avoided SRS cone re-planning by 91.3% due to a reduction in cone collisions with the treatment table. Future developments to our software will include a CT image data set based collision prediction model as well as a beam angle optimization tool to avoid normal critical tissues as well as previously treated lesions.

  20. Reliability and validity of adapted French Canadian version of Scoliosis Research Society Outcomes Questionnaire (SRS-22) in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauséjour, Marie; Joncas, Julie; Goulet, Lise; Roy-Beaudry, Marjolaine; Parent, Stefan; Grimard, Guy; Forcier, Martin; Lauriault, Sophie; Labelle, Hubert

    2009-03-15

    Prospective validation study of a cross-cultural adaptation of the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) Outcomes Questionnaire. To provide a French Canadian version of the SRS Outcomes Questionnaire and to empirically test its response in healthy adolescents and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients in Québec. The SRS Outcomes Questionnaire is widely used for the assessment of health-related quality of life in AIS patients. French translation and back-translation of the SRS-22 (SRS-22-fv) were done by an expert committee. Its reliability was measured using the coefficient of internal consistency, construct validity with a factorial analysis, concurrent validity by using the short form-12 and discriminant validity using ANOVA and multivariate linear regression, on 145 AIS patients, 44 patients with non clinically significant scoliosis (NCSS), and 64 healthy patients. The SRS-22-fv showed a good global internal consistency (AIS: Cronbach alpha = 0.86, NCSS: 0.81, and controls: 0.79) and in all of its domains for AIS patients. The factorial structure was coherent with the original questionnaire (47.4% of explained variance). High correlation coefficients were obtained between SRS-22-fv and short form-12 corresponding domains. Boys had higher scores than girls, scores worsened with age, and with increasing body mass index. Mean Total, Pain, Self-image, and Satisfaction scores, were correlated with Cobb angle. Adjusted regression models showed statistically significant differences between the AIS, NCSS, and control groups in the Total, Pain, and Function scores. The SRS-22-fv showed satisfactory reliability, factorial, concurrent, and discriminant validity. This study provides scores in a significant group of healthy adolescents and demonstrates a clear gradient in response between subjects with AIS, NCSS, and controls.

  1. Environmental Assessment for the Health Protection Instrument Calibration Facility at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to review the possible environmental consequences associated with the construction and operation of a Health Protection Instrument Calibration Facility on the Savannah River Site (SRS). The proposed replacement calibration facility would be located in B Area of SRS and would replace an inadequate existing facility currently located within A Area of SRS (Building 736-A). The new facility would provide laboratories, offices, test equipment and the support space necessary for the SRS Radiation Monitoring Instrument Calibration Program to comply with DOE Orders 5480.4 (Environmental Protection, Safety and Health Protection Standards) and 5480.11 (Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers). The proposed facility would serve as the central site source for the evaluation, selection, inspection, testing, calibration, and maintenance of all SRS radiation monitoring instrumentation. The proposed facility would be constructed on a currently undeveloped portion in B Area of SRS. The exact plot associated with the proposed action is a 1.2 hectare (3 acre) tract of land located on the west side of SRS Road No. 2. The proposed facility would lie approximately 4.4 km (2.75 mi) from the nearest SRS site boundary. The proposed facility would also lie within the confines of the existing B Area, and SRS safeguards and security systems. Archaeological, ecological, and land use reviews have been conducted in connection with the use of this proposed plot of land, and a detailed discussion of these reviews is contained herein. Socioeconomic, operational, and accident analyses were also examined in relation to the proposed project and the findings from these reviews are also contained in this EA.

  2. Environmental Assessment for the Health Protection Instrument Calibration Facility at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to review the possible environmental consequences associated with the construction and operation of a Health Protection Instrument Calibration Facility on the Savannah River Site (SRS). The proposed replacement calibration facility would be located in B Area of SRS and would replace an inadequate existing facility currently located within A Area of SRS (Building 736-A). The new facility would provide laboratories, offices, test equipment and the support space necessary for the SRS Radiation Monitoring Instrument Calibration Program to comply with DOE Orders 5480.4 (Environmental Protection, Safety and Health Protection Standards) and 5480.11 (Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers). The proposed facility would serve as the central site source for the evaluation, selection, inspection, testing, calibration, and maintenance of all SRS radiation monitoring instrumentation. The proposed facility would be constructed on a currently undeveloped portion in B Area of SRS. The exact plot associated with the proposed action is a 1.2 hectare (3 acre) tract of land located on the west side of SRS Road No. 2. The proposed facility would lie approximately 4.4 km (2.75 mi) from the nearest SRS site boundary. The proposed facility would also lie within the confines of the existing B Area, and SRS safeguards and security systems. Archaeological, ecological, and land use reviews have been conducted in connection with the use of this proposed plot of land, and a detailed discussion of these reviews is contained herein. Socioeconomic, operational, and accident analyses were also examined in relation to the proposed project and the findings from these reviews are also contained in this EA

  3. SRS Tank 38H and 43H Supernate Foaming Studies and Tank 38H Reel Tape Solids Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Restivo, M. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Martino, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-12-04

    Radioactive waste samples retrieved from Savannah River Site (SRS) Tanks 38H and 43H (concentrate receipt and feed tanks, respectively, for the 2H Evaporator system) were evaluated with regard to their tendency to form foams during air sparging. This work was conducted due to recent processing issues and outages in the evaporator that were believed to have resulted from sample foaming. The samples evaluated for foam formation included supernate collected in April of 2014 (near the time of the evaporator outage) as well as historical samples available within the SRNL shielded cells facility. The April samples included one Tank 43H surface sample (HTF-43-14-42), one Tank 43H sub-surface sample (HTF-43-14-43), and one Tank 38H (HTF-38-14-41) surface sample. In addition, two Tank 43H samples (HTF-43-14-8 and HTF-43-14-9) and one Tank 38H sample (HTF-38-14-6) were also evaluated along with a blended sample of various historical Tank 38H and 43H samples. Characterization results for the April samples are also provided. The composition of the samples was similar to historical evaporator system samples received at SRNL.

  4. Development of SRS.php, a Simple Object Access Protocol-based library for data acquisition from integrated biological databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa-Silva, A; Pafilis, E; Ortega, J M; Schneider, R

    2007-12-11

    Data integration has become an important task for biological database providers. The current model for data exchange among different sources simplifies the manner that distinct information is accessed by users. The evolution of data representation from HTML to XML enabled programs, instead of humans, to interact with biological databases. We present here SRS.php, a PHP library that can interact with the data integration Sequence Retrieval System (SRS). The library has been written using SOAP definitions, and permits the programmatic communication through webservices with the SRS. The interactions are possible by invoking the methods described in WSDL by exchanging XML messages. The current functions available in the library have been built to access specific data stored in any of the 90 different databases (such as UNIPROT, KEGG and GO) using the same query syntax format. The inclusion of the described functions in the source of scripts written in PHP enables them as webservice clients to the SRS server. The functions permit one to query the whole content of any SRS database, to list specific records in these databases, to get specific fields from the records, and to link any record among any pair of linked databases. The case study presented exemplifies the library usage to retrieve information regarding registries of a Plant Defense Mechanisms database. The Plant Defense Mechanisms database is currently being developed, and the proposal of SRS.php library usage is to enable the data acquisition for the further warehousing tasks related to its setup and maintenance.

  5. Label-free biomolecular characterization of human breast cancer tissue with stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) spectral imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fa-Ke F.; Calligaris, David; Suo, Yuanzhen; Santagata, Sandro; Golby, Alexandra J.; Xie, X. Sunney; Mallory, Melissa A.; Golshan, Mehra; Dillon, Deborah A.; Agar, Nathalie Y. R.

    2017-02-01

    Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy has been used for rapid label-free imaging of various biomolecules and drugs in living cells and tissues (Science, doi:10.1126/science.aaa8870). Our recent work has demonstrated that lipid and protein mapping of cancer tissue renders pathology-like images, providing essential histopathological information with subcellular resolution of the entire specimen (Cancer Research, doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-16-027). We have also established the first SRS imaging Atlas of human brain tumors (Harvard Dataverse, doi: (doi:10.7910/DVN/EZW4EK). SRS imaging of tissue could provide invaluable information for cancer diagnosis and surgical guidance in two aspects: rapid surgical pathology and quantitative biomolecular characterization. In this work, we present the use of SRS microscopy for characterization of a few essential biomolecules in breast cancer. Human breast cancer tissue specimens at the tumor core, tumor margin and normal area (5 cm away from the tumor) from surgical cases will be imaged with SRS at multiple Raman shifts, including the peaks for lipid, protein, blood (absorption), collagen, microcalcification (calcium phosphates and calcium oxalate) and carotenoids. Most of these Raman shifts have relatively strong Raman cross sections, which ensures high-quality and fast imaging. This proof-of-principle study is sought to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of SRS imaging for ambient diagnosis and surgical guidance of breast cancer.

  6. Cloning, Nucleotide Sequencing and Bioinformatics Study of NcSRS2 Gene, an Immunogen from Iranian Isolate of Neospora Caninum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Soltani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neosporosis is caused by an obligate intracellular parasitic protozoa Neospora caninum which infect variety of hosts. NcSRS2 is an immuno-dominant antigen of N. caninum which is consi­dered as one of the most promising targets for a recombinant or DNA vaccine against neosporosis. As no study has been carried out to identify the molecular structure of N. caninum in Iran, as first step, we prepared a scheme to identify this gene in this parasite in Iran.Methods: Tachyzoite total RNA was extracted and cDNA was synthesized and NcSRS2 gene was amplified using cDNA as template. Then the PCR product was cloned into pTZ57R/T vector and transformed into E. coli (DH5α strain. Finally, the recombinant plasmid was extracted from trans­formed E. coli and sequenced. Bioinformatics analysis also carried out.Results: The PCR product of NcSRS2 gene was sequenced and recorded in GenBank. The deduced amino acid sequence of NcSRS2 in current study was compared with other N. caninum NcSRS2 and showed some identities and differences.Conclusion: NcSRS2 gene of N. caninum successfully cloned in pTZ57R/T. Recombinant plasmid was confirmed by sequencing, colony PCR and enzymatic digestion. It is ready to express recombi­nant protein for further studies.

  7. REVIEW OF ALTERNATIVE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OPTIONS FOR SRS WASTE TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M.; Koopman, D.

    2009-08-01

    A literature review was conducted to support the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan for Alternative Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (AECC) for sludge heel removal funded as part of the EM-21 Engineering and Technology program. The goal was to identify potential technologies or enhancements to the baseline oxalic acid cleaning process for chemically dissolving or mobilizing Savannah River Site (SRS) sludge heels. The issues with the potentially large volume of oxalate solids generated from the baseline process have driven an effort to find an improved or enhanced chemical cleaning technology for the tank heels. This literature review builds on a previous review conducted in 2003. A team was charged with evaluating the information in these reviews and developing recommendations of alternative technologies to pursue. The new information in this report supports the conclusion of the previous review that oxalic acid remains the chemical cleaning agent of choice for dissolving the metal oxides and hydroxides found in sludge heels in carbon steel tanks. The potential negative impact of large volumes of sodium oxalate on downstream processes indicates that the amount of oxalic acid used for chemical cleaning needs to be minimized as much as possible or the oxalic acid must be destroyed prior to pH adjustment in the receipt tank. The most straightforward way of minimizing the volume of oxalic acid needed for chemical cleaning is through more effective mechanical cleaning. Using a mineral acid to adjust the pH of the sludge prior to adding oxalic acid may also help to minimize the volume of oxalic acid used in chemical cleaning. If minimization of oxalic acid proves insufficient in reducing the volume of oxalate salts, several methods were found that could be used for oxalic acid destruction. For some waste tank heels, another acid or even caustic treatment (or pretreatment) might be more appropriate than the baseline oxalic acid cleaning process. Caustic treatment of high

  8. Concentration and transportation of heavy metals in vegetables and risk assessment of human exposure to bioaccessible heavy metals in soil near a waste-incinerator site, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Kang, Yuan; Pan, Weijian; Zeng, Lixuan; Zhang, Qiuyun; Luo, Jiwen

    2015-07-15

    There is limited study focusing on the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in vegetables and human exposure to bioaccessible heavy metals in soil. In the present study, heavy metal concentrations (Cr, Ni, Cu, Pb and Cd) were measured in five types of vegetables, soil, root, and settled air particle samples from two sites (at a domestic waste incinerator and at 20km away from the incinerator) in Guangzhou, South China. Heavy metal concentrations in soil were greater than those in aerial parts of vegetables and roots, which indicated that vegetables bioaccumulated low amount of heavy metals from soil. The similar pattern of heavy metal (Cr, Cd) was found in the settled air particle samples and aerial parts of vegetables from two sites, which may suggest that foliar uptake may be an important pathway of heavy metal from the environment to vegetables. The highest levels of heavy metals were found in leaf lettuce (125.52μg/g, dry weight) and bitter lettuce (71.2μg/g) for sites A and B, respectively, followed by bitter lettuce and leaf lettuce for sites A and B, respectively. Swamp morning glory accumulated the lowest amount of heavy metals (81.02μg/g for site A and 53.2μg/g for site B) at both sites. The bioaccessibility of heavy metals in soil ranged from Cr (2%) to Cu (71.78%). Risk assessment showed that Cd and Pb in soil samples resulted in the highest non-cancer risk and Cd would result in unacceptable cancer risk for children and risk. The non-dietary intake of soil was the most important exposure pathway, when the bioaccessibility of heavy metals was taken into account. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Savannah River Site`s Site Specific Plan. Environmental restoration and waste management, fiscal year 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-08-01

    This Site Specific Plan (SSP) has been prepared by the Savannah River Site (SRS) in order to show the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities that were identified during the preparation of the Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan (FYP) for FY 1992--1996. The SSP has been prepared in accordance with guidance received from DOE-HQ. DOE-SR is accountable to DOE-HQ for the implementation of this plan. The purpose of the SSP is to develop a baseline for policy, budget, and schedules for the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities. The plan explains accomplishments since the Fiscal Year (FY) 1990 plan, demonstrates how present and future activities are prioritized, identifies currently funded activities and activities that are planned to be funded in the upcoming fiscal year, and describes future activities that SRS is considering.

  10. Bone taphonomy of the Schöningen "Spear Horizon South" and its implications for site formation and hominin meat provisioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkovich, Britt M; Conard, Nicholas J

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the faunal remains from the new excavation area at the Lower Paleolithic site of Schöningen. The focus of the study is on the southern extension of the main find horizon (Spear Horizon South), which includes the layer that yielded the famous Schöningen spears (13 II-4). Taxonomic data corroborate previous studies, that hominins primarily hunted Equus mosbachensis, a large Pleistocene horse. Equid body part representation at the site suggests that the animals were hunted and butchered locally. There is no evidence for density-mediated attrition in the assemblage. Weathering damage is uncommon, though there is ample evidence that carnivores had access to the bone. Carnivore bite sizes were measured and compared to experimental data provided by previous authors. Based on relationships between bite size and carnivore behavior and body size, we conclude that the primary modifying agents were large carnivores (i.e., wolves or saber-toothed cats). Previous studies show that carnivores often had secondary access to the remains, after hominins. Cut marks are commonly arranged haphazardly on the bones. This may indicate that multiple hominins participated in the butchery of horse skeletons, or that they were butchered over the course of hours or days. Cut marks on axial elements are more "orderly," which probably reflects the physical logistics of orienting one's body in relation to a large carcass. These data differ from sites formed by Middle and Upper Paleolithic hominins, which might suggest that in later times, a system of organized meat provisioning was already in place. Taken together, the faunal evidence from the Spear Horizon South indicates that late Lower Paleolithic hominins using the site understood the behaviors of different prey species, hunted socially to take down large game, and successfully competed with large carnivores on the landscape for primary access to ungulate remains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization, Long-Range Transport and Source Identification of Carbonaceous Aerosols during Spring and Autumn Periods at a High Mountain Site in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-yan Jia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available PM10 (particulate matter samples were collected at Mount Lu, a high elevation mountain site in south China (August and September of 2011; and March, April and May of 2012. Eight carbonaceous fractions of particles were analyzed to characterize the possible carbonaceous emission sources. During the sampling events, daily average concentrations of PM10 at Mount Lu were 97.87 μg/m3 and 73.40 μg/m3 in spring and autumn, respectively. The observed mean organic carbon (OC and element carbon (EC concentrations during spring in PM10 were 10.58 μg/m3 and 2.58 μg/m3, respectively, and those in autumn were 6.89 μg/m3 and 2.40 μg/m3, respectively. Secondary organic carbon concentration was 4.77 μg/m3 and 2.93 μg/m3 on average, accounting for 28.0% and 31.0% of the total OC in spring and autumn, respectively. Relationships between carbonaceous species and results of principal component analysis showed that there were multiple sources contributing to the carbonaceous aerosols at the observation site. Through back trajectory analysis, it was found that air masses in autumn were mainly transported from the south of China, and these have the highest OC but lowest EC concentrations. Air masses in spring transported from northwest China bring 7.77 μg/m3 OC and 2.28 μg/m3 EC to the site, with lower levels coming from other sites. These air mass sources were featured by the effective carbon ratio (ECR.

  12. Final Review of Safety Assessment Issues at Savannah River Site, August 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Bixler, Nathan E.

    2011-12-15

    At the request of Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS) management, a review team composed of experts in atmospheric transport modeling for environmental radiation dose assessment convened at the Savannah River Site (SRS) on August 29-30, 2011. Though the meeting was prompted initially by suspected issues related to the treatment of surface roughness inherent in the SRS meteorological dataset and its treatment in the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System Version 2 (MACCS2), various topical areas were discussed that are relevant to performing safety assessments at SRS; this final report addresses these topical areas.

  13. To Kill, Stay or Flee: The Effects of Lions and Landscape Factors on Habitat and Kill Site Selection of Cheetahs in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostro-García, Susana; Kamler, Jan F.; Hunter, Luke T. B.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how animals utilize available space is important for their conservation, as it provides insight into the ecological needs of the species, including those related to habitat, prey and inter and intraspecific interactions. We used 28 months of radio telemetry data and information from 200 kill locations to assess habitat selection at the 3rd order (selection of habitats within home ranges) and 4th order (selection of kill sites within the habitats used) of a reintroduced population of cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus in Phinda Private Game Reserve, South Africa. Along with landscape characteristics, we investigated if lion Panthera leo presence affected habitat selection of cheetahs. Our results indicated that cheetah habitat selection was driven by a trade-off between resource acquisition and lion avoidance, and the balance of this trade-off varied with scale: more open habitats with high prey densities were positively selected within home ranges, whereas more closed habitats with low prey densities were positively selected for kill sites. We also showed that habitat selection, feeding ecology, and avoidance of lions differed depending on the sex and reproductive status of cheetahs. The results highlight the importance of scale when investigating a species’ habitat selection. We conclude that the adaptability of cheetahs, together with the habitat heterogeneity found within Phinda, explained their success in this small fenced reserve. The results provide information for the conservation and management of this threatened species, especially with regards to reintroduction efforts in South Africa. PMID:25693067

  14. To kill, stay or flee: the effects of lions and landscape factors on habitat and kill site selection of cheetahs in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostro-García, Susana; Kamler, Jan F; Hunter, Luke T B

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how animals utilize available space is important for their conservation, as it provides insight into the ecological needs of the species, including those related to habitat, prey and inter and intraspecific interactions. We used 28 months of radio telemetry data and information from 200 kill locations to assess habitat selection at the 3rd order (selection of habitats within home ranges) and 4th order (selection of kill sites within the habitats used) of a reintroduced population of cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus in Phinda Private Game Reserve, South Africa. Along with landscape characteristics, we investigated if lion Panthera leo presence affected habitat selection of cheetahs. Our results indicated that cheetah habitat selection was driven by a trade-off between resource acquisition and lion avoidance, and the balance of this trade-off varied with scale: more open habitats with high prey densities were positively selected within home ranges, whereas more closed habitats with low prey densities were positively selected for kill sites. We also showed that habitat selection, feeding ecology, and avoidance of lions differed depending on the sex and reproductive status of cheetahs. The results highlight the importance of scale when investigating a species' habitat selection. We conclude that the adaptability of cheetahs, together with the habitat heterogeneity found within Phinda, explained their success in this small fenced reserve. The results provide information for the conservation and management of this threatened species, especially with regards to reintroduction efforts in South Africa.

  15. To kill, stay or flee: the effects of lions and landscape factors on habitat and kill site selection of cheetahs in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Rostro-García

    Full Text Available Understanding how animals utilize available space is important for their conservation, as it provides insight into the ecological needs of the species, including those related to habitat, prey and inter and intraspecific interactions. We used 28 months of radio telemetry data and information from 200 kill locations to assess habitat selection at the 3rd order (selection of habitats within home ranges and 4th order (selection of kill sites within the habitats used of a reintroduced population of cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus in Phinda Private Game Reserve, South Africa. Along with landscape characteristics, we investigated if lion Panthera leo presence affected habitat selection of cheetahs. Our results indicated that cheetah habitat selection was driven by a trade-off between resource acquisition and lion avoidance, and the balance of this trade-off varied with scale: more open habitats with high prey densities were positively selected within home ranges, whereas more closed habitats with low prey densities were positively selected for kill sites. We also showed that habitat selection, feeding ecology, and avoidance of lions differed depending on the sex and reproductive status of cheetahs. The results highlight the importance of scale when investigating a species' habitat selection. We conclude that the adaptability of cheetahs, together with the habitat heterogeneity found within Phinda, explained their success in this small fenced reserve. The results provide information for the conservation and management of this threatened species, especially with regards to reintroduction efforts in South Africa.

  16. Bioremediation of mixed microbial mats: System development of mixed contaminants for application at the Savannah River Site. Annual technical progress report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, J.; Phillips, P.

    1996-01-01

    The fundamental objective of this project is to develop and field test the mixed microbial mat bioremediation system for decontamination of target sites at SRS. Although microbial mats have performed well in several pilot projects in the past, atypical problems and site characteristics at SRS demand special field designs. In the interest of designing a pilot and locating it at an appropriate site, the project investigators have worked closely with the technical staff at the SREL. We have concluded that the diverse characteristics of contaminations at SRS may dictate testing several pilot designs during the course of this project

  17. Effects of Reforestation and Site Preparation Methods on Early Growth and Survival of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L. in South-Eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Aleksandrowicz-Trzcińska

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Successful tree regeneration is a key process in ensuring forest sustainability and one of the most crucial investments made in silviculture. This study compared the effects of three reforestation methods (planting, direct seeding, and natural regeneration and three mechanical site preparation methods (double mould-board forest plough (FP; active plough (AP; and forest mill (FM on biometric parameters, survival, and density of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings in the first 4 years of growth in a clear-cut area in south-eastern Poland. Planted seedlings were higher, thicker in root collar, and had higher survival rates after the fourth growing season than trees from natural regeneration and direct seeding. Site preparation methods did not affect the density of planted seedlings. After natural regeneration and direct seeding, seedling density was lower and less homogeneous (plots with no seedlings in FM soil preparation in comparison to other methods. The survival of pines in all reforestation methods was not affected significantly by site preparation methods. Our results indicate that the best mechanical site preparation method for planting is FM, as this is the one that least disturbs the soil environment. For direct seeding the best results were achieved after AP preparation. Natural regeneration of Scots pine was most effective after FP use, and in relatively wet years also after AP use.

  18. NESHAP Area-Specific Dose-Release Factors for Potential Onsite Member-of-the-Public Locations at SRS using CAP88-PC Version 4.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trimor, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-09

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires the use of the computer model CAP88-PC to estimate the total effective doses (TED) for demonstrating compliance with 40 CFR 61, Subpart H (EPA 2006), the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) regulations. As such, CAP88 Version 4.0 was used to calculate the receptor dose due to routine atmospheric releases at the Savannah River Site (SRS). For estimation, NESHAP dose-release factors (DRFs) have been supplied to Environmental Compliance and Area Closure Projects (EC&ACP) for many years. DRFs represent the dose to a maximum receptor exposed to 1 Ci of a specified radionuclide being released into the atmosphere. They are periodically updated to include changes in the CAP88 version, input parameter values, site meteorology, and location of the maximally exposed individual (MEI). In this report, the DRFs were calculated for potential radionuclide atmospheric releases from 13 SRS release points. The three potential onsite MEI locations to be evaluated are B-Area, Three Rivers Landfill (TRL), and Savannah River Ecology Lab Conference Center (SRELCC) with TRL’s onsite workers considered as members-of-the-public, and the potential future constructions of dormitories at SRELCC and Barracks at B-Area. Each MEI location was evaluated at a specified compass sector with different area to receptor distances and was conducted for both ground-level and elevated release points. The analysis makes use of area-specific meteorological data (Viner 2014). The resulting DRFs are compared to the 2014 NESHAP offsite MEI DRFs for three operational areas; A-Area, H-Area, and COS for a release rate of 1 Ci of tritium oxide at 0 ft. elevation. CAP88 was executed again using the 2016 NESHAP MEI release rates for 0 and 61 m stack heights to determine the radionuclide dose at TRL from the center-of-site (COS).

  19. Characterization of PM2.5-bound nitrated and oxygenated PAHs in two industrial sites of South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shilong; Huang, Bo; Liu, Ming; Bi, Xinhui; Ren, Zhaofang; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2012-06-01

    Daytime and nighttime PM2.5 samples were collected between August 5 and 16, 2009 and between January 24 and February 4, 2010 in an industrial complex site (site A) and an e-waste recycling site (site B) to determine the seasonal and diurnal variations of nitrated (nitro-) and oxygenated (oxy-) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The two sites show similar composition for nitro- and oxy-PAHs although the composition of parent PAHs was quite different. 3 + 2-Nitrofluoranthene (3 + 2NFL) was the most abundant nitro-PAH, while 9,10-anthraquinone (Anquin), benzanthrone (Bzone) and 6H-benzo[cd]pyrene-6-one (Bpone) were the three major oxy-PAHs species. The concentrations of Σnitro-PAHs and Σoxy-PAHs were about 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than those of Σparent PAHs. Most of the nitro- and oxy-PAHs show notable seasonal variation. 7-Nitrobenz[a]anthracene (7NBaA), Bzone and benzo[a]anthrancene-7,12-dione (Bzdion) demonstrated a pronounced diurnal variation. The occurrence of nitro- and oxy-PAHs in the two sites can be accounted by direct emission and atmospheric secondary formation.

  20. Environmental justice at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flemming, R.; Hooker, K.L.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental justice is the conscious commitment to ensure that poor and/or minority communities are not disproportionately bearing adverse human health and environmental effects from the production, processing, or disposal of hazardous or toxic waste. To focus federal attention on assessing the environmental and human health conditions in minority and/or low-income communities surrounding federal facilities, on February 11, 1994, President Clinton signed Executive Order (EO) 12898. As part of the strategy to comply with EO 12898, the President required all federal agencies to develop localized strategies to ensure that their programs and policies are consistent with EO 12898. This would incorporate mechanisms for increasing public participation opportunities for involvement in the decision making, easier access to information, and the collection and analysis of economic, demographic, and food consumption data in surrounding communities. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) responded by issuing its Environmental Justice Strategy 2 (April 1995), although many of its field offices had been actively implementing activities in support of the executive order since its issuance. One DOE facility, the Savannah River Site (SRS), which is located in west central South Carolina, is making great strides toward implementing a successful public participation program, which includes environmental justice initiatives

  1. Intensive archaeological survey of the proposed Central Sanitary Wastewater Treatment Facility, Savannah River Site, Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, D.K.; Sassaman, K.E.

    1993-11-01

    The project area for the proposed Central Sanitary Wastewater Treatment Facility on the Savannah River Site includes a six-acre tract along Fourmile Branch and 18 mi of trunk line corridors. Archaeological investigations of the six-acre parcel resulted in the discovery of one small prehistoric site designated 38AK465. This cultural resource does not have the potential to add significantly to archaeological knowledge of human occupation in the region. The Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) therefore recommends that 38AK465 is not eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) and further recommends a determination of no effect. Archaeological survey along the trunk line corridors implicated previously recorded sites 38AK92, 38AK145, 38AK415, 38AK417, 38AK419, and 38AK436. Past disturbance from construction had severely disturbed 38AK92 and no archaeological evidence of 38AK145, 38AK419, and 38AK436 was recovered during survey. Lacking further evidence for the existence of these sites, the SRARP recommends that 38AK92, 38AK145, 38AK419, and 38AK436 are not eligible for nomination to the NRHP and thus warrant a determination of no effect. Two of these sites, 38Ak415 and 38AK417, required further investigation to evaluate their archaeological significance. Both of the sites have the potential to yield significant data on the prehistoric period occupation of the Aiken Plateau and the SRARP recommends that they are eligible for nomination to the NRHP. The Savannah River Archaeological Research Program recommends that adverse effects to sites 38AK415 and 38AK417 from proposed construction can be mitigated through avoidance.

  2. Reliability and validity of adapted Turkish Version of Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanay, Ahmet; Cil, Akin; Berk, Haluk; Acaroglu, R Emre; Yazici, Muharrem; Akcali, Omer; Kosay, Can; Genc, Yasemin; Surat, Adil

    2005-11-01

    Outcome study to determine the internal consistency, and validity of adapted Turkish version of Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) Instrument. To evaluate the validity and reliability of adapted Turkish Version of SRS-22 questionnaire. The SRS-22 questionnaire is a widely accepted questionnaire to assess the health-related quality of life for scoliotic patients in the United States. However, its adaptation in languages other than the source language is necessary for its multinational use. Translation/retranslation of the English version of the SRS-22 was done, and all steps for cross-cultural adaptation process were performed properly by an expert committee. Later, SRS-22 questionnaires and previously validated Short Form-36 (SF-36) outcome instruments were mailed to 82 patients who had been surgically treated for idiopathic scoliosis. All patients had a minimum of 2 years follow-up. Fifty-four patients (66%) responded to the first set of questionnaires. Forty-seven of the first time respondents returned their second survey. The average age of the 47 patients (12 male, 35 female) was 19.8 years (range, 14-31 years). The two measures of reliability as internal consistency and reproducibility were determined by Cronbach alpha statistics and intraclass correlation coefficient, respectively. Concurrent validity was measured by comparing with an already validated questionnaire (SF-36). Measurement was made using the Pearson correlation coefficient (r). The study demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency with high Cronbach alpha values for the four of the corresponding domains (pain, 0.72; self-image, 0.80; mental health, 0.72; and satisfaction, 0.83). However, the Cronbach alpha value for function/activity domain (0.48) was considerably lower than the original questionnaire. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the same domains was 0.80, 0.82, 0.78, 0.81, and 0.76, respectively, demonstrating a satisfactory test/retest reproducibility. Considering

  3. Plutonium working group report on environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities associated with the department's plutonium storage. Volume II, part 4: Savannah River Site working group assessment team report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of a plutonium ES ampersand H vulnerability assessment at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The assessment at SRS is part of a broader plutonium ES ampersand H vulnerability assessment being made by the DOE, encompassing all DOE sites with plutonium holdings. Vulnerabilities across all the sites will be identified and prioritized as a basis for determining the necessity and schedule for taking corrective action

  4. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. First quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-03

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted during the first quarter of 1992. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program`s activities; and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  5. The Savannah River Site`s groundwater monitoring program. First quarter 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted by EPD/EMS in the first quarter of 1991. In includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program`s activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  6. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program, First Quarter 1996, Volumes I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1996-10-22

    This report summarizes the Savanna River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by EPD/EMS during the first quarter 1996. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program. It also provides a record of the program`s activities and serves as an official record of the analytical results.

  7. Incidence of spinal deformity in adults and its distribution according SRS-Schwab classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Amaral Barreto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of spinal deformity in adults, as well as its distribution according the curve type and the occurrence of sagittal modifiers of the SRS-Schwab classification..METHODS: Radiographs in frontal and lateral views of the entire column were performed and radiographic parameters were used to diagnose the vertebral deformity for the classification according to the SRS-Schwab system.RESULTS: We included 302 patients in the study, 236 (78.1% women and 66 (21.9% men. Fifty-six of the participants were diagnosed with ASD, 50 women and 6 men. The incidence of ASD was 18.5% in the total population, ranging from 9.1% in males and 21.2% in females (p=0.04. As to age group, the incidence was 11.9% in patients between 18 and 39 years, 12% between 40 and 59 years and 28.8% in patients with 60 years of age or older, significantly higher in the oldest group (p=0.002. When analyzing the correlation between age and progression of sagittal modifiers, there was no significant difference in the PI-LL and PT modifiers, but there was significant difference of SVA modifier (p=0.008, with a higher age in individuals "++".CONCLUSION: This study presented demographic data on ASD in a Brazilian population sample. There was a higher incidence of ASD in females and individuals aged ≥ 60 years. As for the sagittal modifiers of SRS-Schwab classification, there was a correlation between increasing age and degree of progression of SVA.

  8. SU-F-T-589: HybridArc Planning Criteria for Brain SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, K; Basavatia, A; Mynampati, D; Garg, M; Kalnicki, S; Tome, W [Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To compare VMAT SRS plans, dynamic conformal arc (DCA) plans, and Brainlab iPlan’s capability of planning and delivering brain SRS plans by employing HybridArc. HybridArc utilizes both DCA and IMRT. Using HybridArc, the amount of DCA versus IMRT needs to be optimized. Methods: Four SRS patients with the aim of reducing brainstem dose were selected for this study. All patients were contoured in iPlan and transferred to Eclipse for VMAT planning. In iPlan, DCA plans were created for each case. Moreover, nine HybridArc plans with DCA-IMRT ratios between 9:1 through 1:9 were created with a single ring structure generated by subtracting 3 mm expansion of target from a 10 mm expansion of the target. Two static IMRT beams were used in each of the five DCA arcs for HybridArc. The dose was prescribed to DCA only and HybridArc plans and normalized so that the target volume (TV) receives 100% dose to 99.5% of the TV to achieve 120% ∼ 130% max dose within targets. Following metrics were compared: PITV, V12Gy, CGIc, CGIg, CGI, brainstem max dose, and total monitor units (MUs). Results: A brainstem max dose comparable with VMAT from 30% IMRT and less with 50% or more IMRT could be achieved. PITV decreased with increasing IMRT portion and begins to saturate past an IMRT portion of 30%. The CGIg index, which represents how fast the dose falls off, was better with HybridArc in all HybridArc plans. Total MUs increased with increasing IMRT but less than VMAT in all cases. Conclusion: Overall, a lower brainstem max dose and a lower V12Gy with fewer MUs can be achieved with HybridArc. Considering all factors, it would be best to use a DCA-IMRT ratio of either 7:3 or 6:4.

  9. SU-F-T-589: HybridArc Planning Criteria for Brain SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, K; Basavatia, A; Mynampati, D; Garg, M; Kalnicki, S; Tome, W

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To compare VMAT SRS plans, dynamic conformal arc (DCA) plans, and Brainlab iPlan’s capability of planning and delivering brain SRS plans by employing HybridArc. HybridArc utilizes both DCA and IMRT. Using HybridArc, the amount of DCA versus IMRT needs to be optimized. Methods: Four SRS patients with the aim of reducing brainstem dose were selected for this study. All patients were contoured in iPlan and transferred to Eclipse for VMAT planning. In iPlan, DCA plans were created for each case. Moreover, nine HybridArc plans with DCA-IMRT ratios between 9:1 through 1:9 were created with a single ring structure generated by subtracting 3 mm expansion of target from a 10 mm expansion of the target. Two static IMRT beams were used in each of the five DCA arcs for HybridArc. The dose was prescribed to DCA only and HybridArc plans and normalized so that the target volume (TV) receives 100% dose to 99.5% of the TV to achieve 120% ∼ 130% max dose within targets. Following metrics were compared: PITV, V12Gy, CGIc, CGIg, CGI, brainstem max dose, and total monitor units (MUs). Results: A brainstem max dose comparable with VMAT from 30% IMRT and less with 50% or more IMRT could be achieved. PITV decreased with increasing IMRT portion and begins to saturate past an IMRT portion of 30%. The CGIg index, which represents how fast the dose falls off, was better with HybridArc in all HybridArc plans. Total MUs increased with increasing IMRT but less than VMAT in all cases. Conclusion: Overall, a lower brainstem max dose and a lower V12Gy with fewer MUs can be achieved with HybridArc. Considering all factors, it would be best to use a DCA-IMRT ratio of either 7:3 or 6:4.

  10. Biological monitoring of Upper Three Runs Creek, Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina, March 1990--July 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    In anticipation of the fall 1988 start up of effluent discharges into Upper Three Runs Creek by the F/H Area Effluent Treatment Facility of the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC, a two and one half year biological study was initiated in June 1987. Upper Three Runs Creek is an intensively studied fourth order stream known for its high species richness. Designed to assess the potential impact of F/H area effluent on the creek, the study included qualitative and quantitative macroinvertebrate stream surveys at five sites (see map), chronic toxicity testing of the effluent, water chemistry and bioaccumulation analysis. In a March 1990 study of the potential impact of F/H Area effluent on the macroinvertebrate communities of Upper Three Runs Creek was extended, with reductions in the number of sites to be sampled and in the frequency of water chemistry sampling. This report presents the results of macroinvertebrate stream surveys at three sites, chronic toxicity testing of the effluent and water chemistry analysis of the three stream sites and the effluent from March 1990 to July 1991.

  11. Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS): Software requirements specification (SRS). Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasscock, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) database, an Impact Level 3Q system. SACS stores information on tank temperatures, surface levels, and interstitial liquid levels. This information is retrieved by the customer through a PC-based interface and is then available to a number of other software tools. The software requirements specification (SRS) describes the system requirements for the SACS Project, and follows the Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Software Practices (WHC-CM-3-10) and Quality Assurance (WHC-CM-4-2, QR 19.0) policies

  12. Integrated use of SRS Data &GIS Technique for Monitoring Changes in Riverine Forest of Sindh, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, M.; Ali, Z.

    Deforestation / depletion in forest area threaten the sustainability of agricultural production systems and en-danger the economy of the country. Every year extensive areas of arable agricultural and forestlands are degraded and turned into wastelands, due to natural causes or human interventions. There are several causes of deforestation, such as expansion in agricultural area, urban development, forest fires, commercial logging, illicit cutting, grazing, constructions of dams / reservoirs and barrages, com munication links, etc. Depletion in forest cover, therefore, has an important impact on socio - economic development and ecological balance. High population growth rate in Pakistan is one of the main causes for the rapid deterioration of physical environment and natural resource base. In view of this, it is felt necessary to carryout land -u s e studies focusing on strategies for mapping the past and present conditions and extent of forests and rangelands using Satellite Remote Sensing (SRS) data and GIS t echnology. The SRS and GIS technology provides a possible means of monitoring and mapping changes occurring in natural resources and the environment on a continuing basis. The riverine forests of Sindh mostly grow along the River Indus in the flood plains, spread over an area of 241,000 ha are disappearing very rapidly. Construction of dams / barrages on the upper reaches of the River Indus for hydroelectric power and irrigation works have significantly reduced the discharge of fresh water into the lower Indus basin and as a result, 100,000 acres of forests have disappeared. Furthermore, the heavy floods that occurred in 1978, 1988, 1992 and 1997, altered the course of the River Indus in many places, especially in the lower reaches, this has also damaged the riverine forests of Sindh. An integrated approach involving analysis of SRS data from 1977 to 1998 and GIS technique have been used to evaluate the geographic ex-tent and distribution of the riverine

  13. Transportation infrastructure upgrades in the South: A compilation of state plans for construction near nuclear reactor sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    There are currently 27 nuclear reactor sites located in the southern region. In many instances, the most practicable modes of transportation of spent nuclear fuel from these sites we through the use of highway and rail systems. These two transportation modes have important differences that affect their applicability; chief among these, perhaps, is the fact that while highway systems are publicly owned and maintained rail lines are owned by private entities. For this reason, track condition and maintenance, usage rates and other aspects of rail transport can vary widely. This report reviews southern state, department plans for infrastructure upgrades in the vicinity of nuclear reactor sites. This report includes a summary of planned modifications to bridges, access highways, and rail spurs (where applicable) over the next five years. The information contained herein was gathered from interviews with officials within state departments of transportation. With few exceptions, the contact person was an official within the departmental planning division

  14. Transportation infrastructure upgrades in the South: A compilation of state plans for construction near nuclear reactor sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    There are currently 27 nuclear reactor sites located in the southern region. In many instances, the most practicable modes of transportation of spent nuclear fuel from these sites we through the use of highway and rail systems. These two transportation modes have important differences that affect their applicability; chief among these, perhaps, is the fact that while highway systems are publicly owned and maintained rail lines are owned by private entities. For this reason, track condition and maintenance, usage rates and other aspects of rail transport can vary widely. This report reviews southern state, department plans for infrastructure upgrades in the vicinity of nuclear reactor sites. This report includes a summary of planned modifications to bridges, access highways, and rail spurs (where applicable) over the next five years. The information contained herein was gathered from interviews with officials within state departments of transportation. With few exceptions, the contact person was an official within the departmental planning division.

  15. Replacement Power Facility site selection report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wike, L.D.; Toole, G.L.; Specht, W.L.

    1992-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has proposed the construction and operation of a Replacement Power Facility (RPF) for supplementing and replacing existing sources of steam and possibly electricity at the Savannah River Site (SRS). DOE is preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for this project As part of the impact analysis of the proposed action, the EIS will include a detailed description of the environment where the RPF will be constructed. This description must be specific to the recommended site at SRS, which contains more than 300 square miles of land including streams, lakes, impoundments, wetlands, and upland areas. A formal site-selection process was designed and implemented to identify the preferred RPF site

  16. Subsurface stratigraphy and structure of A/M area at the Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallaw, W.C.; Sims, W.R.; Haselow, J.S.

    1991-08-01

    This report is a study of the stratigraphy and structure of the A/M Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility Post-Closure Care Permit process on the Savannah River Site. The data from the lithologic and geophysical logs of 93 wells is the basis of this analysis.

  17. Subsurface stratigraphy and structure of A/M area at the Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallaw, W.C.; Sims, W.R.; Haselow, J.S.

    1991-08-01

    This report is a study of the stratigraphy and structure of the A/M Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility Post-Closure Care Permit process on the Savannah River Site. The data from the lithologic and geophysical logs of 93 wells is the basis of this analysis.

  18. Interpreting human behavior from depositional rates and combustion features through the study of sedimentary microfacies at site Pinnacle Point 5-6, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkanas, Panagiotis; Brown, Kyle S; Fisher, Erich C; Jacobs, Zenobia; Marean, Curtis W

    2015-08-01

    Using fine and coarse resolution geoarchaeological studies at the Middle Stone Age site of PP5-6 at Pinnacle Point, Mossel Bay, South Africa, we discovered different patterns of anthropogenic input and changes in behavior through time. Through the microfacies approach, we documented the various geogenic and anthropogenic processes that formed the deposits of the site. By deciphering large scale rate differences in the production of these microfacies we estimated anthropogenic input rates and therefore gained understanding of occupational duration and intensity. The PP5-6 sediments document occupations characterized by small groups and short visits during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5. This part of the sequence is characterized by numerous single (and mostly intact) hearth structures in a roofspall-rich matrix. During this time the sea was very close to the site and the people were focused on exploiting the rocky shores. With the advent of the glacial conditions of MIS4, the occupation of the site became much more intense. The occurrence of thick palimpsests of burnt remains, sometimes disturbed by small-scale sedimentary gravity processes, supports this conclusion. As sea level dropped and the coastline retreated, the geogenic input shifted to predominately aeolian sediments, implying an exposed shelf probably associated with a rich but more distant coastal environment. The occupants of PP5-6 turned their preference to silcrete as a raw material and they began to make microlithic stone tools. Since sites dating to MIS4 are abundant in the Cape, we suggest that populations during MIS4 responded to glacial conditions with either demographic stability or growth as well as technological change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Site Formation Processes and Hunter-Gatherers Use of Space in a Tropical Environment: A Geo-Ethnoarchaeological Approach from South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesem, David E.; Lavi, Noa; Madella, Marco; Ajithprasad, P.; French, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Hunter-gatherer societies have distinct social perceptions and practices which are expressed in unique use of space and material deposition patterns. However, the identification of archaeological evidence associated with hunter-gatherer activity is often challenging, especially in tropical environments such as rainforests. We present an integrated study combining ethnoarchaeology and geoarchaeology in order to study archaeological site formation processes related to hunter-gatherers’ ways of living in tropical forests. Ethnographic data was collected from an habitation site of contemporary hunter-gatherers in the forests of South India, aimed at studying how everyday activities and way of living dictate patterns of material deposition. Ethnoarchaeological excavations of abandoned open-air sites and a rock-shelter of the same group located deep in the forests, involved field observations and sampling of sediments from the abandoned sites and the contemporary site. Laboratory analyses included geochemical analysis (i.e., FTIR, ICP-AES), phytolith concentration analysis and soil micromorphology. The results present a dynamic spatial deposition pattern of macroscopic, microscopic and chemical materials, which stem from the distinctive ways of living and use of space by hunter-gatherers. This study shows that post-depositional processes in tropical forests result in poor preservation of archaeological materials due to acidic conditions and intensive biological activity within the sediments. Yet, the multiple laboratory-based analyses were able to trace evidence for activity surfaces and their maintenance practices as well as localized concentrations of activity remains such as the use of plants, metals, hearths and construction materials. PMID:27783683

  20. The effect of hospital infection control policy on the prevalence of surgical site infection in a tertiary hospital in South-South Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisibe, Seiyefa Fun-Akpa; Ordinioha, Best; Gbeneolol, Precious K

    2015-01-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a significant cause of morbidity, emotional stress and financial cost to the affected patients and health care institutions; and infection control policy has been shown to reduce the burden of SSIs in several health care institutions. This study assessed the effects of the implementation of the policy on the prevalence of SSI in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. A review of the records of all Caesarean sections carried out in the hospital, before and 2 years after the implementation of the infection control policy was conducted. Data collected include the number and characteristics of the patients that had Caesarean section in the hospital during the period and those that developed SSI while on admission. The proportion of patients with SSI decreased from 13.33% to 10.34%, 2 years after the implementation of the policy (P-value = 0.18). The implementation of the policy did not also result in any statistically significant change in the nature of the wound infection (P-value = 0.230), in the schedule of the operations (P-value = 0.93) and in the other predisposing factors of the infections (P-value = 0.72); except for the significant decrease in the infection rate among the un-booked patients (P-value = 0.032). The implementation of the policy led to a small decrease in SSI, due to the non-implementation of some important aspects of the WHO policy. The introduction of surveillance activities, continuous practice reinforcing communications and environmental sanitation are recommended to further decrease the prevalence of SSI in the hospital.

  1. Assessment of plutonium in the Savannah River Site environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlton, W.H.; Evans, A.G.; Geary, L.A.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Pinder, J.E.; Strom, R.N.

    1992-01-01

    Plutonium in the Savannah River Site Environment is published as a part of the Radiological Assessment Program (RAP). It is the fifth in a series of eight documents on individual radioisotopes released to the environment as a result of Savannah River Site (SRS) operations. These are living documents, each to be revised and updated on a two-year schedule. This document describes the sources of plutonium in the environment, its release from SRS, environmental transport and ecological concentration of plutonium, and the radiological impact of SRS releases to the environment. Plutonium exists in the environment as a result of above-ground nuclear weapons tests, the Chernobyl accident, the destruction of satellite SNAP 9-A, plane crashes involving nuclear weapons, and small releases from reactors and reprocessing plants. Plutonium has been produced at SRS during the operation of five production reactors and released in small quantities during the processing of fuel and targets in chemical separations facilities. Approximately 0.6 Ci of plutonium was released into streams and about 12 Ci was released to seepage basins, where it was tightly bound by clay in the soil. A smaller quantity, about 3.8 Ci, was released to the atmosphere. Virtually all releases have occurred in F- and H-Area separation facilities. Plutonium concentration and transport mechanisms for the atmosphere, surface water, and ground water releases have been extensively studied by Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and ecological mechanisms have been studied by Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL). The overall radiological impact of SRS releases to the offsite maximum individual can be characterized by a total dose of 15 mrem (atmospheric) and 0.18 mrem (liquid), compared with the dose of 12,960 mrem from non-SRS sources during the same period of time (1954--1989). Plutonium releases from SRS facilities have resulted in a negligible impact to the environment and the population it supports

  2. An investigation of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy for use as a control in the laser removal of rock from fossils found at the Malapa hominin site, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, D.E.; Plessis, A. du; Steyn, J.; Botha, L.R.; Pityana, S.; Berger, L.R.

    2012-01-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to study the spectra from fossils and surrounding rock recovered from the Cradle of Mankind site at Malapa, South Africa. The objective was to find a suitable spectral line(s), specific to fossils, which could be used as a control signal to limit damage to fossils during high speed laser removal of the encasing rock. The calcified clastic matrix (rock) encasing the fossils was found to emit a variety of complex LIBS spectra. Nevertheless, it was found possible to distinguish fossils in a single LIBS pulse, and without significant damage to the fossil, using spectral lines of neutral phosphorus. - Highlights: ► LIBS used to discriminate fossils from rock as potential processing control mechanism. ► 2 million year old fossils from Malapa hominin site found to be high in phosphorus. ► Rock spectral lines from silicon, iron and manganese, but no phosphorus. ► Holds great promise for process control in laser preparation of fossils. ► Also promising for accurate identification of fossils at excavation sites.

  3. An investigation of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy for use as a control in the laser removal of rock from fossils found at the Malapa hominin site, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, D.E., E-mail: troberts@csir.co.za [CSIR National Laser Centre, PO Box 395, Meiring Naude Road, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Plessis, A. du [CSIR National Laser Centre, PO Box 395, Meiring Naude Road, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Steyn, J.; Botha, L.R.; Pityana, S. [CSIR National Laser Centre, PO Box 395, Meiring Naude Road, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Berger, L.R. [Institute for Human Evolution, School of GeoSciences, University of Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa)

    2012-07-15

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to study the spectra from fossils and surrounding rock recovered from the Cradle of Mankind site at Malapa, South Africa. The objective was to find a suitable spectral line(s), specific to fossils, which could be used as a control signal to limit damage to fossils during high speed laser removal of the encasing rock. The calcified clastic matrix (rock) encasing the fossils was found to emit a variety of complex LIBS spectra. Nevertheless, it was found possible to distinguish fossils in a single LIBS pulse, and without significant damage to the fossil, using spectral lines of neutral phosphorus. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LIBS used to discriminate fossils from rock as potential processing control mechanism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 2 million year old fossils from Malapa hominin site found to be high in phosphorus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rock spectral lines from silicon, iron and manganese, but no phosphorus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Holds great promise for process control in laser preparation of fossils. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Also promising for accurate identification of fossils at excavation sites.

  4. Monitoring-well installation, slug testing, and groundwater quality for selected sites in South Park, Park County, Colorado, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Larry R. Rick

    2015-01-01

    During May–June, 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Park County, Colorado, drilled and installed four groundwater monitoring wells in areas identified as needing new wells to provide adequate spatial coverage for monitoring water quality in the South Park basin. Lithologic logs and well-construction reports were prepared for each well, and wells were developed after drilling to remove mud and foreign material to provide for good hydraulic connection between the well and aquifer. Slug tests were performed to estimate hydraulic-conductivity values for aquifer materials in the screened interval of each well, and groundwater samples were collected from each well for analysis of major inorganic constituents, trace metals, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, volatile organic compounds, ethane, methane, and radon. Documentation of lithologic logs, well construction, well development, slug testing, and groundwater sampling are presented in this report.

  5. Short-chain chlorinated paraffins in terrestrial bird species inhabiting an e-waste recycling site in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao-Jun; Sun, Yu-Xin; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Chen, She-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2015-03-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are under review by the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. Currently, limited data are available about SCCPs in terrestrial organisms. In the present study, SCCP concentration in the muscles of seven terrestrial bird species (n = 38) inhabiting an e-waste recycling area in South China was determined. This concentration varied from 620 to 17,000 ng/g lipid. Resident birds accumulated significantly higher SCCP concentrations than migratory birds (p e-waste area. Two different homologue group patterns were observed in avian samples. The first pattern was found in five bird species dominated by C10 and C11 congeners, while the second was found in the remains, which show rather equal abundance of homologue groups. This may be caused by two sources of SCCPs (local and e-waste) in the study area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of biomass burning from South Asia at a high-altitude mountain receptor site in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jing; Hu, Min; Du, Zhuofei; Shang, Dongjie; Gong, Zhaoheng; Qin, Yanhong; Fang, Jingyao; Gu, Fangting; Li, Mengren; Peng, Jianfei; Li, Jie; Zhang, Yuqia; Huang, Xiaofeng; He, Lingyan; Wu, Yusheng; Guo, Song

    2017-06-01

    Highly time-resolved in situ measurements of airborne particles were conducted at Mt. Yulong (3410 m above sea level) on the southeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau in China from 22 March to 14 April 2015. The detailed chemical composition was measured by a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer together with other online instruments. The average mass concentration of the submicron particles (PM1) was 5.7 ± 5.4 µg m-3 during the field campaign, ranging from 0.1 up to 33.3 µg m-3. Organic aerosol (OA) was the dominant component in PM1, with a fraction of 68 %. Three OA factors, i.e., biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA), biomass-burning-influenced oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA-BB) and oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA), were resolved using positive matrix factorization analysis. The two oxygenated OA factors accounted for 87 % of the total OA mass. Three biomass burning events were identified by examining the enhancement of black carbon concentrations and the f60 (the ratio of the signal at m/z 60 from the mass spectrum to the total signal of OA). Back trajectories of air masses and satellite fire map data were integrated to identify the biomass burning locations and pollutant transport. The western air masses from South Asia with active biomass burning activities transported large amounts of air pollutants, resulting in elevated organic concentrations up to 4-fold higher than those of the background conditions. This study at Mt. Yulong characterizes the tropospheric background aerosols of the Tibetan Plateau during pre-monsoon season and provides clear evidence that the southeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau was affected by the transport of anthropogenic aerosols from South Asia.

  7. Influence of biomass burning from South Asia at a high-altitude mountain receptor site in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zheng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Highly time-resolved in situ measurements of airborne particles were conducted at Mt. Yulong (3410 m above sea level on the southeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau in China from 22 March to 14 April 2015. The detailed chemical composition was measured by a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer together with other online instruments. The average mass concentration of the submicron particles (PM1 was 5.7 ± 5.4 µg m−3 during the field campaign, ranging from 0.1 up to 33.3 µg m−3. Organic aerosol (OA was the dominant component in PM1, with a fraction of 68 %. Three OA factors, i.e., biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA, biomass-burning-influenced oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA-BB and oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA, were resolved using positive matrix factorization analysis. The two oxygenated OA factors accounted for 87 % of the total OA mass. Three biomass burning events were identified by examining the enhancement of black carbon concentrations and the f60 (the ratio of the signal at m∕z 60 from the mass spectrum to the total signal of OA. Back trajectories of air masses and satellite fire map data were integrated to identify the biomass burning locations and pollutant transport. The western air masses from South Asia with active biomass burning activities transported large amounts of air pollutants, resulting in elevated organic concentrations up to 4-fold higher than those of the background conditions. This study at Mt. Yulong characterizes the tropospheric background aerosols of the Tibetan Plateau during pre-monsoon season and provides clear evidence that the southeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau was affected by the transport of anthropogenic aerosols from South Asia.

  8. Immunogenicity and protective effect against murine cerebral neosporosis of recombinant NcSRS2 in different iscom formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinitkiatisakul, Sunan; Friedman, Mikaela; Wikman, Maria; Mattsson, Jens G; Lövgren-Bengtsson, Karin; Ståhl, Stefan; Lundén, Anna

    2007-05-04

    Recombinant NcSRS2, a major immunodominant surface antigen of the intracellular protozoan parasite Neospora caninum, was used as a model antigen to compare the immunogenicity of iscoms prepared according to three different methods. Two NcSRS2 fusion proteins were used, one that was biotinylated upon expression in Escherichia coli and linked to Ni2+-loaded iscom matrix (iscom without any protein) via a hexahistidyl (His6)-tagged streptavidin fusion protein, and another that contained both a His6-tag and streptavidin (His6-SA-SRS2') and was coupled to either Ni2+-loaded or biotinylated matrix. While all three iscom preparations induced N. caninum specific antibodies at similar levels, His6-SA-SRS2' coupled to biotinylated matrix generated the strongest cellular responses measured as in vitro proliferation and production of interferon-gamma and interleukin-4 after antigen stimulation of spleen cells. However, the relationship between the levels of these cytokines as well as between IgG1 and IgG2a titres in serum induced by the three iscom preparations were similar, indicating that the balance between Th1 and Th2 responses did not differ. After challenge infection, mice immunised with His6-SA-SRS2' coupled to biotinylated matrix had significantly lower amounts of parasite DNA in their brains compared to the other immunised groups. Possible reasons for the performance of the different iscom formulations are discussed.

  9. Peri-SRS Administration of Immune Checkpoint Therapy for Melanoma Metastatic to the Brain: Investigating Efficacy and the Effects of Relative Treatment Timing on Lesion Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Mehran B; Amsbaugh, Mark J; Burton, Eric; Chesney, Jason; Woo, Shiao

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the efficacy of immune checkpoint therapy (ICT) administered with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and determine the effects of relative treatment timing on lesion response. A prospective institutional database of all patients with intact brain metastases treated with SRS from 2008 to 2015 was reviewed for patients diagnosed with malignant melanoma. Lesion response was determined using a modified RECIST v1.1 criteria. Patients were grouped according to if they received ICT and the timing of ICT relative to SRS. Cox regression was used to identify predictors of lesion failure (LF) and distant brain failure (DBF). The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare median lesion regression after SRS between treatment groups. Fifty-one patients with 167 metastases were evaluated. Eighteen patients (59 lesions) were treated with peri-SRS ICT with anticytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 or antiprogrammed cell death protein 1 therapy. Peri-SRS ICT was a significant favorable predictor for reduced hazard of LF (hazard ratio, 0.131; confidence interval, 0.028-0.610). Concurrent ICT given with SRS (hazard ratio, 0.364; confidence interval, 0.161-0.825) significantly predicted freedom from DBF. When quantitative lesion response was examined, peri-SRS ICT resulted in a significantly greater median percent lesion regression than did SRS alone at 1.5 (-30.7% vs. -14.6%; P = 0.018), 4 (-42.3% vs. -18.8%; P = 0.031), and 5 months after SRS (-52.01 vs. -14.9%; P = 0.002). ICT combined with SRS was associated with greater lesion regression of melanoma brain metastases and decreased LF. When given concurrently, combined SRS and ICT may result in improved freedom from DBF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Feasibility study of the usefulness of SRS thermoplastic mask for head and neck cancer in tomotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Seong Jin; Kim, Chul Jong; Kwon, Dong Yeol; Kim, Jong Sik [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Sam Sung Seoul hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    When head and neck cancer radiation therapy, thermoplastic mask is applied for patients with fixed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate usefulness of thermoplastic mask for SRS in tomotherapy by conparison with the conventional mask. Typical mask(conventional mask, C-mask) and mask for SRS are used to fix body phantom(rando phantom) on the same iso centerline, then simulation is performed. Tomotherapy plan for orbit and salivary glands is made by treatment planning system(TPS). A thick portion and a thin portion located near the treatment target relative to the mask S-mask are defined as region of interest for surface dose dosimetry. Surface dose variation depending on the type of mask was analyzed by measuring the TPS and EBT film. Surface dose variation due to the type of mask from the TPS is showed in orbit and salivary glands 0.65-2.53 Gy, 0.85-1.84 Gy, respectively. In case of EBT film, -0.2-3.46 Gy, 1.04-3.02 Gy. When applied to the S-mask, in TPS and Gafchromic EBT3 film, substrantially 4.26%, 5.82% showed maximum changing trend, respectively. To apply S-mask for tomotherapy, surface dose is changed, but the amount is insignificant and be useful when treatment target is close critical organs because decrease inter and intra fractional variation.

  11. Phenotype classification of single cells using SRS microscopy, RNA sequencing, and microfluidics (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streets, Aaron M.; Cao, Chen; Zhang, Xiannian; Huang, Yanyi

    2016-03-01

    Phenotype classification of single cells reveals biological variation that is masked in ensemble measurement. This heterogeneity is found in gene and protein expression as well as in cell morphology. Many techniques are available to probe phenotypic heterogeneity at the single cell level, for example quantitative imaging and single-cell RNA sequencing, but it is difficult to perform multiple assays on the same single cell. In order to directly track correlation between morphology and gene expression at the single cell level, we developed a microfluidic platform for quantitative coherent Raman imaging and immediate RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of single cells. With this device we actively sort and trap cells for analysis with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy (SRS). The cells are then processed in parallel pipelines for lysis, and preparation of cDNA for high-throughput transcriptome sequencing. SRS microscopy offers three-dimensional imaging with chemical specificity for quantitative analysis of protein and lipid distribution in single cells. Meanwhile, the microfluidic platform facilitates single-cell manipulation, minimizes contamination, and furthermore, provides improved RNA-Seq detection sensitivity and measurement precision, which is necessary for differentiating biological variability from technical noise. By combining coherent Raman microscopy with RNA sequencing, we can better understand the relationship between cellular morphology and gene expression at the single-cell level.

  12. Ichthyoplankton entrainment study at the SRS Savannah River water intakes for Westinghouse Savannah River Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1992-03-26

    Cooling water for L and K Reactors and makeup water for Par Pond is pumped from the Savannah River at the 1G, 3G, and 5G pump houses. Ichthyoplankton (drifting fish larvae and eggs) from the river are entrained into the reactor cooling systems with the river water and passed through the reactor's heat exchangers where temperatures may reach 70[degrees]C during full power operation. Ichthyoplankton mortality under such conditions is assumed to be 100 percent. The number of ichthyoplankton entrained into the cooling system depends on a variety of variables, including time of year, density and distribution of ichthyoplankton in the river, discharge levels in the river, and the volume of water withdrawn by the pumps. Entrainment at the 1 G pump house, which is immediately downstream from the confluence of Upper Three Runs Creek and the Savannah River, is also influenced by discharge rates and ichthyoplankton densities in Upper Three Runs Creek. Because of the anticipated restart of several SRS reactors and the growing concern surrounding striped bass and American shad stocks in the Savannah River, the Department of Energy requested that the Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of the Savannah River Laboratory sample ichthyoplankton at the SRS Savannah River intakes. Dams Moore, Inc., under a contract with Westinghouse Savannah River Company performed the sampling and data analysis for the ESS.

  13. Improved measurement of aluminum in irradiated fuel reprocessed at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, S.L. III.

    1991-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), irradiated fuel from research reactor operators or their contract fuel service companies is reprocessed in the H-Canyon Separations Facility. Final processing costs are based on analytical measurements of the amount of total metal dissolved. Shipper estimates for uranium and uranium-235 and measured values at SRS have historically agreed very well. There have occasionally been significant differences between shipper estimates for aluminum and the aluminum content determined at SRS. To minimize analytical error that might contribute to poor shipper-receiver agreement for the reprocessing of off-site fuel, a new analytical method to measure aluminum was developed by SRS Analytical Laboratories at the Central Laboratory Facilities. An EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) titration method, subject to dissolver matrix interferences, was previously used at SRS to measure aluminum in H-Canyon dissolver during the reprocessing of offsite fuel. The new method combines rapid ion exchange technology with direct current argon plasma spectrometry to enhance the reliability of aluminum measurements for off-site fuel. The technique rapidly removes spectral interferences such as uranium and significantly lowers gamma levels due to fission products. Aluminium is separated quantitatively by using an anion exchange technique that employs oxalate complexing, small particle size resin and rapid flow rates. The new method, which has eliminated matrix interference problems with these analyses and improved the quality of aluminum measurements, has improved the overall agreement between shipper-receiver values for offsite fuel processed SRS

  14. Determination of dechlorane flame retardants in soil and fish at Guiyu, an electronic waste recycling site in south China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wuqun; Zhou, Zhiguang; Shen, Li; Zhao, Bin

    2015-11-01

    Dechlorane 602 (Dec 602), Dechlorane 603 (Dec 603), Dechlorane 604 (Dec 604), Dechlorane 604 component B (Dec 604 CB) and Dechlorane Plus (DP) were analyzed in soil and fish collected across e-waste recycling sites in Guiyu. The results indicate that soil and fish are contaminated with dechlorane compounds especially Dec 602 and DP which show high concentrations in the samples near recycling sites. Dec 604 and Dec 604 CB are not detected. The photo-degradation experiment indicates that Dec 604 and Dec 604 CB have much faster degradation rates compared to other dechloranes, suggesting they might be more vulnerable to degradation during recycling processes and further studies are needed for assessing the environmental fate and persistence of their degradation products. Dec 602 has not been manufactured in China, the detection of Dec 602 in soil and fish implies that it might be from imports of recyclable materials from developed countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Results of the 1987 Archeological Investigations at the Travis 2 Site, 39WW15, Walworth County, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    68 Figure 7.24. Pollen diagram from the Travis 2 site, 39WW15 ......... 74 Figure 7.25. Light micrographs of trichome (a) and...there subsequent differences in cultural material (e.g., tool types, lithic resource utilization, features, faunal or floral remains) which would...the components within the regional cultural chronology. 2) Analysis of feature fill for faunal and floral remains, possible indicators of

  16. Savannah River Site Environmental Implementation Plan. Volume 2, Protection programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-08-01

    Formal sitewide environmental planning at the . Savannah River Site (SRS) began in 1986 with the development and adoption of the Strategic Environmental Plan. The Strategic Environmental Plan describes the philosophy, policy, and overall program direction of environmental programs for the operation of the SRS. The Strategic Environmental Plan (Volume 2) provided the basis for development of the Environmental Implementation Plan (EIP). The EIP is the detailed, comprehensive environmental master plan for operating contractor organizations at the SRS. The EIP provides a process to ensure that all environmental requirements and obligations are being met by setting specific measurable goals and objectives and strategies for implementation. The plan is the basis for justification of site manpower and funding requests for environmental projects and programs over a five-year planning period.

  17. Savannah River Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Our Mission: SRS's mission is to safely and efficiently operate SRS to protect the public health and the environment while supporting the nation's nuclear deterrent...

  18. Receptor modelling and risk assessment of volatile organic compounds measured at a regional background site in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaars, Kerneels; Vestenius, Mika; van Zyl, Pieter G.; Beukes, Johan P.; Hellén, Heidi; Vakkari, Ville; Venter, Marcell; Josipovic, Miroslav; Hakola, Hannele

    2018-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can have significant impacts on climate and human health. Certain VOCs are proven to be carcinogenic and toxic, which can affect human health directly and indirectly. In order to develop climate change reduction strategies and to assess the impacts of VOCs on human health, it is crucial to determine the sources of VOCs, which can be emitted from biogenic and anthropogenic sources. The aim of this study was to perform source apportionment using positive matrix factorisation (PMF) analysis on VOC data collected at a regional background location affected by the major sources in the interior of South Africa, which include the western- and eastern Bushveld Igneous Complex, the Johannesburg-Pretoria metropolitan conurbation, the Vaal Triangle, the Mpumalanga Highveld and also a region of anti-cyclonic recirculation of air mass over the interior of South Africa. In addition, a risk assessment study was also performed in view of the major source regions affecting Welgegund in order to quantify the impacts of anthropogenic VOCs measured at Welgegund on human health. Measurements were conducted at the Welgegund measurement station located on a commercial farm approximately 100 km west of Johannesburg for a period of more than two years. PMF analysis revealed ten meaningful factor solutions, of which five factors were associated with biogenic emissions and five with anthropogenic sources. Three of the biogenic factors were characterised by a specific biogenic species, i.e. isoprene, limonene and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO), while the other two biogenic factors comprised mixtures of biogenic species with different tracer species. The temporal factor contribution for the isoprene, limonene and MBO factors correlated relatively well with the seasonal wet pattern. One anthropogenic factor was associated with emissions from a densely populated anthropogenic source region to the east of Welgegund with a large number of industrial activities, while

  19. Flame retardants and organochlorines in indoor dust from several e-waste recycling sites in South China: composition variations and implications for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaobo; Xu, Fuchao; Chen, Kehui; Zeng, Yanhong; Luo, Xiaojun; Chen, Shejun; Mai, Bixian; Covaci, Adrian

    2015-05-01

    Several classes of flame retardants, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs), dechlorane plus (DPs), and organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs), together with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in indoor dust from five villages located in three e-waste recycling regions in Guangdong Province, South China. The medians of PBDEs, NBFRs, and PFRs in dust in five sites ranged from 685-67,500, 1460-50,010, and 2180-29,000ng/g, respectively. These concentrations were much higher than the medians of PCBs (52-2900ng/g). BDE 209 and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) were the two major halogen flame retardants in dust, while tris-(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) were the major PFRs. Principle component analysis revealed the different pollutant patterns among different sites. The estimated median human exposures of PBDEs, NBFRs, PFRs, and PCBs via dust ingestion were 1.1-24.1, 0.73-20.3, 1.36-23.5, and 0.04-0.93ng/kgbw/day for adults, and 16.2-352, 10.7-296, 19.9-343, 0.05-0.61, 0.65-13.6ng/kgbw/day for toddlers, respectively. Residents from Site 5 had the highest exposure (95 percentile levels and high dust ingestion for toddlers) of PBDEs (3920ng/kgbw/day), NBFRs (3200ng/kgbw/day), and PFRs (5280ng/kgbw/day). More attention should be paid to the contamination with NBFRs and PFRs, instead of PCBs, in these e-waste recycling regions, and local public health threat from PBDE alternatives should remain of concern. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on human exposure assessment of PFRs at e-waste sites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The role of a fertilizer trial in reconciling agricultural expectations and landscape ecology requirements on an opencast coal site in South Wales, United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, C.E.L.; Humphries, R.N.; Wesemann, H.

    1999-01-01

    Since the 1940s the restoration of opencast coal sites in the UK has been predominantly to productive agriculture and forestry. With new UK government policies on sustainability and biodiversity such land uses may be no longer be acceptable or appropriate in the upland areas of South Wales. A scheme was prepared for the upland Nant Helen site with the objective of restoring the landscape ecology of the site; it included acid grassland to provide the landscape setting and for grazing. The scheme met with the approval of the planning authority. An initial forty hectares (about 13% of the site) was restored between 1993 and 1996. While the approved low intensity grazing and low fertilizer regime met the requirements of the planning authority and the statutory agencies, it was not meeting the expectations of the grazers who had grazing rights to the land. To help reconcile the apparent conflict a fertilizer trial was set up. The trial demonstrated that additional fertilizer and intensive grazing was required to meet the nutritional needs of sheep. It also showed typical upland stocking densities of sheep could be achieved with the acid grassland without the need for reseeding with lowland types. However this was not acceptable to the authority and agencies as such fertilizer and grazing regimes would be detrimental to the landscape and ecological objectives of the restoration scheme. A compromise was agreed whereby grazing intensity and additional fertilizer have been zoned. This has been implemented and is working to the satisfaction of all parties. Without the fertilizer trial it is unlikely that the different interests could have been reconciled

  1. The diets of ungulates from the hominid fossil-bearing site of Elandsfontein, Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stynder, Deano D.

    2009-01-01

    The dietary regimes of 15 ungulate species from the middle Pleistocene levels of the hominid-bearing locality of Elandsfontein, South Africa, are investigated using the mesowear technique. Previous studies, using taxonomic analogy, classified twelve of the studied species as grazers ( Redunca arundinum, Hippotragus gigas, Hippotragus leucophaeus, Antidorcas recki, Homoiceras antiquus, Damaliscus aff. lunatus, Connochaetes gnou laticornutus, Rabaticerus arambourgi, Damaliscus niro, Damaliscus sp. nov., an unnamed "spiral horn" antelope and Equus capensis), one as a mixed feeder ( Taurotragus oryx) and two as browsers ( Tragelaphus strepsiceros and Raphicerus melanotis). Although results from mesowear analysis sustain previous dietary classifications in the majority of cases, five species were reclassified. Three species previously classified as grazers, were reclassified as mixed feeders ( H. gigas, D. aff. lunatus and R. arambourgi), one previously classified as a grazer, was reclassified as a browser (the "spiral horn" antelope), and one previously classified as a mixed feeder, was reclassified as a browser ( T. oryx). While current results broadly support previous reconstructions of the Elandsfontein middle Pleistocene environment as one which included a substantial C 3 grassy component, the reclassifications suggest that trees, broad-leaved bush and fynbos were probably more prominent than what was previously thought.

  2. Fossil Suidae (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) from Aves Cave I and nearby sites in Bolt’s Farm Palaeokarst System, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickford, M.; Gommery, D.

    2016-07-01

    Excavations carried out since 2011 at Bolt’s Farm Palaeokarst System, South Africa, have led to the recovery of interesting remains of suids, notably from Aves Cave I. The taxa present are Potamochoeroides hypsodon and Notochoerus capensis, the same as those that occur at Makapansgat. The new Notochoerus material, which includes an upper third molar and a lower fourth premolar, strengthens the conclusion that this genus is a suine and not a tetraconodont as thought for the past half century. Potamochoeroides has thickened mandibular rami indicating that it descended from the genus Dasychoerus that dispersed into Africa from Eurasia about 5 million years ago. Other karst deposits at Bolt’s Farm have yielded a younger suid fauna comprising Metridiochoerus andrewsi and Phacochoerus modestus, indicating that the Bolt’s Farm Karst System was active for a considerable period of time (ca 4.5 Ma - 1.8 Ma). The fact that all the suid taxa from Bolt’s Farm are hypsodont indicates that the palaeoenvironment contained abundant grass. (Author)

  3. CRITICAL RADIONUCLIDE AND PATHWAY ANALYSIS FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, T.

    2011-08-30

    This report is an update to the analysis, Assessment of SRS Radiological Liquid and Airborne Contaminants and Pathways, that was performed in 1997. An electronic version of this large original report is included in the attached CD to this report. During the operational history (1954 to the present) of the Savannah River Site (SRS), many different radionuclides have been released to the environment from the various production facilities. However, as will be shown by this updated radiological critical contaminant/critical pathway analysis, only a small number of the released radionuclides have been significant contributors to potential doses and risks to offsite people. The analysis covers radiological releases to the atmosphere and to surface waters, the principal media that carry contaminants offsite. These releases potentially result in exposure to offsite people. The groundwater monitoring performed at the site shows that an estimated 5 to 10% of SRS has been contaminated by radionuclides, no evidence exists from the extensive monitoring performed that groundwater contaminated with these constituents has migrated off the site (SRS 2011). Therefore, with the notable exception of radiological source terms originating from shallow surface water migration into site streams, onsite groundwater was not considered as a potential exposure pathway to offsite people. In addition, in response to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Order 435.1, several Performance Assessments (WSRC 2008; LWO 2009; SRR 2010; SRR 2011) and a Comprehensive SRS Composite Analysis (SRNO 2010) have recently been completed at SRS. The critical radionuclides and pathways identified in these extensive reports are discussed and, where applicable, included in this analysis.

  4. Impacts of glycolate and formate radiolysis and thermolysis on hydrogen generation rate calculations for the Savannah River Site tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-14

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) personnel requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluate available data and determine its applicability to defining the impact of planned glycolate anion additions to Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) on Tank Farm flammability (primarily with regard to H2 production). Flammability evaluations of formate anion, which is already present in SRS waste, were also needed. This report describes the impacts of glycolate and formate radiolysis and thermolysis on Hydrogen Generation Rate (HGR) calculations for the SRS Tank Farm.

  5. Rough order of magnitude cost estimate for immobilization of 50 MT of plutonium using existing facilities at the Savannah River site: alternative 12B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiSabatino, A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Cost Estimate Report is to identify preliminary capital and operating costs for a facility to immobilize 50 metric tons of plutonium using ceramic in an existing facility (221-F) at an Savannah River Site (SRS)

  6. Rough order of magnitude cost estimate for immobilization of 50MT of plutonium using new facilities at the Savannah River site: alternative 12A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiSabatino, A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Cost Estimate Report is to identify preliminary capital and operating costs for a facility to immobilize 50 metric tons of plutonium using ceramic in a new facility at Savannah River Site (SRS)

  7. Assessment of waters and sediments impacted by drainage at the Young Dong coal mine site, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Kwangje; Lee, Ju Y; Ji, Won H; Khim, Jeehyeong

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the assessment of the geochemistry and hydrology of the Imgok Creek-Young Dong tributary for the design of a field coal mine drainage treatment system. Examination of this site showed that the pH was greatly lowered by the addition of the Young Dong water, except in the month of March. The alkalinity was also affected; the concentrations of iron, aluminum, and sulfate were elevated at sites below the confluence; of these, iron was particularly problematic. High iron concentrations were primarily restricted to the acid rock drainage (ARD) (YD-9) water sources, whereas high aluminum concentrations were seen in both the ARD and in some of the upstream water sources. The acidity was primarily due to ferrous and ferric iron with a lesser amount of aluminum acidity. Except for the sampling in March, the flow was dominated by the ARD. This hydrologic condition resulted from the loads of iron, aluminum, sulfate, and acidity, among other constituents, that were dominated by the ARD. Finally, treatment activities should primarily focus on the ARD and specifically seek to remove ferrous and ferric iron from the treatment system.

  8. Evaluation of geologic structure guiding ground water flow south and west of Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, E.H.

    1998-01-01

    Ground water flow through the region south and west of Frenchman Flat, in the Ash Meadows subbasin of the Death Valley ground water flow system, is controlled mostly by the distribution of permeable and impermeable rocks. Geologic structures such as faults are instrumental in arranging the distribution of the aquifer and aquitard rock units. Most permeability is in fractures caused by faulting in carbonate rocks. Large faults are more likely to reach the potentiometric surface about 325 meters below the ground surface and are more likely to effect the flow path than small faults. Thus field work concentrated on identifying large faults, especially where they cut carbonate rocks. Small faults, however, may develop as much permeability as large faults. Faults that are penetrative and are part of an anastomosing fault zone are particularly important. The overall pattern of faults and joints at the ground surface in the Spotted and Specter Ranges is an indication of the fracture system at the depth of the water table. Most of the faults in these ranges are west-southwest-striking, high-angle faults, 100 to 3500 meters long, with 10 to 300 /meters of displacement. Many of them, such as those in the Spotted Range and Rock Valley are left-lateral strike-slip faults that are conjugate to the NW-striking right-lateral faults of the Las Vegas Valley shear zone. These faults control the ground water flow path, which runs west-southwest beneath the Spotted Range, Mercury Valley and the Specter Range. The Specter Range thrust is a significant geologic structure with respect to ground water flow. This regional thrust fault emplaces siliceous clastic strata into the north central and western parts of the Specter Range

  9. Influences of social network sites on the occupational performance of adolescents in a secondary school in Cape Town, South Africa: a phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mthembu, Thuli G; Beets, Charmaine; Davids, Gafeedha; Malyon, Kelly; Pekeur, Marchelle; Rabinowitz, Avital

    2014-06-01

    The habit of using social networking sites among adolescents has grown exponentially; there is little accompanying research to understand the influences on adolescents' occupational performance with this technology. The majority of adolescents are engaging in social network as part of their daily routines. Occupational performance is the act of doing and accomplishing a selected occupation that results from the dynamic transaction among the person, the environment and the occupation components. This study aimed to explore the influences of social networking on occupational performance of adolescents in a high school in Western Cape Province, South Africa. A phenomenological approach was used. Adolescents aged 13-17 years in a high school were purposively recruited for the study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with four participants (two adolescents and two teachers) and two focus groups were undertaken with adolescents, analysed using thematic analysis. Four major themes emerged: 'It's a good way to keep in touch', 'It's part of me and it's not a bad thing', 'There is a time and place for it' and 'There's an urgency to be on the phone'. This study highlighted that social networking sites play a major role in the social life of adolescents, though it can result in occupational imbalance on their occupational performance. Furthermore, this study contributes to the knowledge of occupational therapists who work with adolescents in communities and health promoting school settings. Thus, collaboration between teachers, parents and occupational therapists can help to develop adolescents' time management and learning skills. © 2013 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  10. SU-F-T-613: Multi-Lesion Cranial SRS VMAT Plan Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballangrud, A; Kuo, L; Happersett, L; Lim, S; Li, X; Beal, K; Yamada, Y; LoSasso, T; Mechalakos, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Cranial SRS VMAT plans must have steep dose gradient around each target to reduce dose to normal brain. This study reports on the correlation between gradient index (GI=V50%/V100%), target size and target dose heterogeneity index (HI=PTV Dmax/prescription dose) for multi-lesion cranial SRS VMAT plans. Methods: VMAT plans for 10 cranial cases with 3 to 6 lesions (total 39 lesions) generated in Varian Eclipse V11.0.47 with a fine-tuned AAA beam model and 0.125 cm dose grid were analyzed. One or two iso centers were used depending on the spatial distribution of lesions. Two to nine coplanar and non-coplanar arcs were used per isocenter. Conformity index (CI= V100%/VPTV), HI, and GI were determined for each lesion. Dose to critical structures were recorded. Results: Lesion size ranged from 0.05–11.00 cm3. HI ranged from 1.2–1.4, CI ranged from 1.0–2.8 and GI from 3.1–8.4. Maximum dose to brainstem, chiasm, lenses, optic nerves and eyes ranged from 120–1946 cGy, 47–463 cGy, 9–121 cGy, 14–512 cGy, and 17–294 cGy, respectively. Brain minus PTV (Brain-PTV) V7Gy was in the range 1.1–6.5%, and Brain-PTV Dmean was in the range 94–324 cGy. Conclusion: This work shows that a GI < 5 can be achieved for lesions > 0.4cc. For smaller lesions, GI increases rapidly. GI is lower when HI is increased. Based on this study, recommend HI is 1.4, and recommended GI is for volumes <0.1cc GI<9, 0.1–0.4cc GI<6, 0.4–0.1.0cc GI<5, and for volumes >1.0cc GI<4. CI is < 1.3 for all lesions except for targets < 0.1cc. Cranial SRS VMAT plans must be optimized to lower the GI to reduce the dose to normal brain tissue.

  11. Experimental Determination and Thermodynamic Modeling of Electrical Conductivity of SRS Waste Tank Supernate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Reboul, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-06-01

    SRS High Level Waste Tank Farm personnel rely on conductivity probes for detection of incipient overflow conditions in waste tanks. Minimal information is available concerning the sensitivity that must be achieved such that that liquid detection is assured. Overly sensitive electronics results in numerous nuisance alarms for these safety-related instruments. In order to determine the minimum sensitivity required of the probe, Tank Farm Engineering personnel need adequate conductivity data to improve the existing designs. Little or no measurements of liquid waste conductivity exist; however, the liquid phase of the waste consists of inorganic electrolytes for which the conductivity may be calculated. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Tank Farm Facility Engineering requested SRNL to determine the conductivity of the supernate resident in SRS waste Tank 40 experimentally as well as computationally. In addition, SRNL was requested to develop a correlation, if possible, that would be generally applicable to liquid waste resident in SRS waste tanks. A waste sample from Tank 40 was analyzed for composition and electrical conductivity as shown in Table 4-6, Table 4-7, and Table 4-9. The conductivity for undiluted Tank 40 sample was 0.087 S/cm. The accuracy of OLI Analyzer™ was determined using available literature data. Overall, 95% of computed estimates of electrical conductivity are within ±15% of literature values for component concentrations from 0 to 15 M and temperatures from 0 to 125 °C. Though the computational results are generally in good agreement with the measured data, a small portion of literature data deviates as much as ±76%. A simplified model was created that can be used readily to estimate electrical conductivity of waste solution in computer spreadsheets. The variability of this simplified approach deviates up to 140% from measured values. Generally, this model can be applied to estimate the conductivity within a factor of two. The comparison of the

  12. SU-F-T-613: Multi-Lesion Cranial SRS VMAT Plan Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballangrud, A; Kuo, L; Happersett, L; Lim, S; Li, X; Beal, K; Yamada, Y; LoSasso, T; Mechalakos, J [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Cranial SRS VMAT plans must have steep dose gradient around each target to reduce dose to normal brain. This study reports on the correlation between gradient index (GI=V50%/V100%), target size and target dose heterogeneity index (HI=PTV Dmax/prescription dose) for multi-lesion cranial SRS VMAT plans. Methods: VMAT plans for 10 cranial cases with 3 to 6 lesions (total 39 lesions) generated in Varian Eclipse V11.0.47 with a fine-tuned AAA beam model and 0.125 cm dose grid were analyzed. One or two iso centers were used depending on the spatial distribution of lesions. Two to nine coplanar and non-coplanar arcs were used per isocenter. Conformity index (CI= V100%/VPTV), HI, and GI were determined for each lesion. Dose to critical structures were recorded. Results: Lesion size ranged from 0.05–11.00 cm3. HI ranged from 1.2–1.4, CI ranged from 1.0–2.8 and GI from 3.1–8.4. Maximum dose to brainstem, chiasm, lenses, optic nerves and eyes ranged from 120–1946 cGy, 47–463 cGy, 9–121 cGy, 14–512 cGy, and 17–294 cGy, respectively. Brain minus PTV (Brain-PTV) V7Gy was in the range 1.1–6.5%, and Brain-PTV Dmean was in the range 94–324 cGy. Conclusion: This work shows that a GI < 5 can be achieved for lesions > 0.4cc. For smaller lesions, GI increases rapidly. GI is lower when HI is increased. Based on this study, recommend HI is 1.4, and recommended GI is for volumes <0.1cc GI<9, 0.1–0.4cc GI<6, 0.4–0.1.0cc GI<5, and for volumes >1.0cc GI<4. CI is < 1.3 for all lesions except for targets < 0.1cc. Cranial SRS VMAT plans must be optimized to lower the GI to reduce the dose to normal brain tissue.

  13. Savannah River Site management response plan for chemical safety vulnerability field assessment. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahal, E.J.; Murphy, S.L.; Salaymeh, S.R.

    1994-09-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) initiative to identify potential chemical safety vulnerabilities in the DOE complex, the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Core Working Group issued a field verification assessment report. While the report concluded that Savannah River Site (SRS) is moving in a positive direction, the report also identified five chemical safety vulnerabilities with broad programmatic impact that are not easily nor quickly remedied. The May 1994 SRS Management Response Plan addressed the five SRS vulnerabilities identified in the field assessment report. The SRS response plan listed observations supporting the vulnerabilities and any actions taken or planned toward resolution. Many of the observations were resolved by simple explanations, such as the existence of implementation plans for Safety Analysis Report updates. Recognizing that correcting individual observations does not suffice in remedying the vulnerabilities, a task team was assembled to address the broader programmatic issues and to recommend corrective actions

  14. The Elizabeth Lake paleoseismic site: Rupture pattern constraints for the past ~800 years for the Mojave section of the south-central San Andreas Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemis, Sean; Scharer, Katherine M.; Dolan, James F.; Rhodes, Ed

    2016-01-01

    . These trenches reveal that the thickest section of young stratigraphy occurs at the southeastern end of the site where the fault zone projects through an area of relatively continuous sediment accumulation from a northeast-flowing drainage. This portion of the site contains a 3-m-wide pop-up structure within the fault zone that separates alternating alluvial and paludal deposits south of the fault zone from a thick organic-rich loam on the north side of the fault zone. Faults, fissures, and tilted blocks provide evidence for 4 to 5 paleoearthquakes since ca. 1250 A.D. Radiocarbon dating established that the site has a significant component of detrital charcoal producing an age spread of up to 500 years. To supplement our age chronology we incorporated ages from collections of micro-scale organic fractions and post-IR infrared stimulated luminescence dating in order to better estimate true layer ages.

  15. Long-Term Assessment of Critical Radionuclides and Associated Environmental Media at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, G. T.; Baker, R. A.; Lee, P. L.; Eddy, T. P.; Blount, G. C.; Whitney, G. R.

    2012-11-06

    During the operational history of the Savannah River Site (SRS), many different radionuclides have been released from site facilities. However, only a relatively small number of the released radionuclides have been significant contributors to doses and risks to the public. At SRS dose and risk assessments indicate tritium oxide in air and surface water, and Cs-137 in fish and deer have been, and continue to be, the critical radionuclides and pathways. In this assessment, indepth statistical analyses of the long-term trends of tritium oxide in atmospheric and surface water releases and Cs-137 concentrations in fish and deer are provided. Correlations also are provided with 1) operational changes and improvements, 2) geopolitical events (Cold War cessation), and 3) recent environmental remediation projects and decommissioning of excess facilities. For example, environmental remediation of the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins and the Solid Waste Disposal Facility have resulted in a measurable impact on the tritium oxide flux to the onsite Fourmile Branch stream. Airborne releases of tritium oxide have been greatly affected by operational improvements and the end of the Cold War in 1991. However, the effects of SRS environmental remediation activities and ongoing tritium operations on tritium concentrations in the environment are measurable and documented in this assessment. Controlled hunts of deer and feral hogs are conducted at SRS for approximately six weeks each year. Before any harvested animal is released to a hunter, SRS personnel perform a field analysis for Cs-137 concentrations to ensure the hunter's dose does not exceed the SRS administrative game limit of 0.22 millisievert (22 mrem). However, most of the Cs-137 found in SRS onsite deer is not from site operations but is from nuclear weapons testing fallout from the 1950's and early 1960's. This legacy source term is trended in the SRS deer, and an assessment of the ''effective'' half-life of Cs-137 in deer