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Sample records for site soils collected

  1. Application of PXAMS technique for 36Cl analysis in soil collected at Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolmachyov, S.; Maeda, Y.; Mitarai, S.; Nakashima, T.; Momoshima, N.; Yamamoto, M.

    2001-01-01

    36 Cl in soil samples from the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (former USSR) was measured at Kyushu University Tandem Laboratory (KUTL) by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) coupled with projectile X-ray detection (PXD) technique. The separation of competing 36 S and 3 6Cl atomic isobars, was satisfactory by PXD technique. Measured 36 Cl/Cl atom ratio was (5.0 ± 0.6) x 10 -10 and an average activity of 36 Cl was calculated as (2.0 ± 0.2) mBq/g, which is in a good agreement with that obtained by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) method previously. Currently developed AMS system at the Kyushu University can be applied for routine 36 Cl analysis at 36 Cl/Cl = 10 -11 atom ratio level. (author)

  2. Source Identification and Sequential Leaching of Heavy Metals in Soil Samples Collected from Selected Dump Sites in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    , E.E. Awokunmi; , S.S. Asaolu; , O.O Ajayi; , A.O. Adebayo

    2011-01-01

    Ten heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb, Ni, Co, Cd, Cr and Sn) in fractioned and bulk soil samples collected from four dump sites located in AdoEkiti and Ikere -Ekiti, South western Nigeria were analysed using a modified Tessier’s procedure and acid digestion to obtain the distribution pattern of metal in this region. The metals were found to have been distributed in all phases with Fe, Cr, and Sn dominating the residual fraction (90.12 - 94.88%), Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn were found in all the extrac...

  3. Heavy element radionuclides (Pu, Np, U) and 137Cs in soils collected from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and other sites in Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beasley, T.M.; Rivera, W. Jr.; Liszewski, M.J.; Orlandini, K.A.

    1998-10-01

    The isotopic composition of Pu in soils on and near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been determined in order to apportion the sources of the Pu into those derived from stratospheric fallout, regional fallout from the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and facilities on the INEEL site. Soils collected offsite in Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming were collected to further characterize NTS fallout in the region. In addition, measurements of 237 Np and 137 Cs were used to further identify the source of the Pu from airborne emissions at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) or fugitive releases from the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) in the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). There is convincing evidence from this study that 241 Am, in excess of that expected from weapons-grade Pu, constituted a part of the buried waste at the SDA that has subsequently been released to the environment. Measurements of 236 U in waters from the Snake River Plain aquifer and a soil core near the ICPP suggest that this radionuclide may be a unique interrogator of airborne releases from the ICPP. Neptunium-237 and 238 Pu activities in INEEL soils suggest that airborne releases of Pu from the ICPP, over its operating history, may have recently been overestimated

  4. Biological Soil Crust Web Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    www.soilcrust.org Crust 101 Advanced Gallery References CCERS site Links Biological Soil Crusts Textbook Corrections Level of Development Index Biological soil crusts are the community of organisms , mosses, liverworts and lichens. A Field Guide to Biological Soil Crusts of Western U.S. Drylands: Common

  5. Measurement of Iodine-129 in surface soil collected near the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Yasuto; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Saito, Takumi; Yamagata, Takeyasu; Honda, Maki

    2013-01-01

    Iodine-129 in soil around Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant were measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry and isotopic ratio of radioiodine was estimated. Surface deposition amount of Iodine-129 resulted in 6.7 to 5500 mBq/m"2. The mean isotopic ratio between Iodine-129 and Iodine-131 at the accident was estimated that "1"2"9"I"/"1"3"1I = 26±6 as of March 11 2011. This result was compared to the calculation result of ORIGEN2 code to test the validity of this estimation. (author)

  6. Residual neutron-induced radionuclides in a soil sample collected in the vicinity of the criticality accident site in Tokai-mura, Japan: A Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Takashi; Hosotani, Risa; Komura, Kazuhisa; Muroyama, Toshiharu; Kofuji, Hisaki; Murata, Yoshimasa; Kimura, Shinzo; Kumar Sahoo, Sarata; Yonehara, Hidenori; Watanabe, Yoshito; Ban-nai, Tada-aki

    2000-01-01

    Residual neutron-induced radionuclides were measured in a soil sample collected in the vicinity of the location where a criticality accident occurred (in Tokai-mura, from 30 September to 1 October, 1999). Concentrations of 24 Na, 140 La, 122 Sb, 59 Fe, 124 Sb, 46 Sc, 65 Zn, 134 Cs and 60 Co in the soil sample were determined by γ-ray spectrometry, and neutron activation analysis was carried out for selected target elements in the sample. Tentative estimates of the apparent thermal and epithermal neutron fluences which reached the sample were obtained through combined analyses of 59 Fe/ 58 Fe, 124 Sb/ 123 Sb, 46 Sc/ 45 Sc, 65 Zn/ 64 Zn, 134 Cs/ 133 Cs and 60 Co/ 59 Co

  7. Heavy element radionuclides (Pu, Np, U) and {sup 137}Cs in soils collected from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and other sites in Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beasley, T.M.; Rivera, W. Jr. [Dept. of Energy, New York, NY (United States). Environmental Measurements Lab.; Kelley, J.M.; Bond, L.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Liszewski, M.J. [Bureau of Reclamation (United States); Orlandini, K.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1998-10-01

    The isotopic composition of Pu in soils on and near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been determined in order to apportion the sources of the Pu into those derived from stratospheric fallout, regional fallout from the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and facilities on the INEEL site. Soils collected offsite in Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming were collected to further characterize NTS fallout in the region. In addition, measurements of {sup 237}Np and {sup 137}Cs were used to further identify the source of the Pu from airborne emissions at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) or fugitive releases from the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) in the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). There is convincing evidence from this study that {sup 241}Am, in excess of that expected from weapons-grade Pu, constituted a part of the buried waste at the SDA that has subsequently been released to the environment. Measurements of {sup 236}U in waters from the Snake River Plain aquifer and a soil core near the ICPP suggest that this radionuclide may be a unique interrogator of airborne releases from the ICPP. Neptunium-237 and {sup 238}Pu activities in INEEL soils suggest that airborne releases of Pu from the ICPP, over its operating history, may have recently been overestimated.

  8. Data Collection and Analysis of Moisture and Soil Strength Information for Validation of New State-of-the-Ground Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mason, George

    2003-01-01

    .... Data collection teams were sent to the site intermittently to collect soil moisture, soil strength, and other related soils data for calibration with the weather station probes and support of input...

  9. Analyses of soils at commercial radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piciulo, P.L.; Shea, C.E.; Barletta, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory, in order to provide technical assistance to the NRC, has measured a number of physical and chemical characteristics of soils from three commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Samples were collected from an area adjacent to the disposal site at Sheffield, IL, and from two operating sites: one at Barnwell, SC, and the other near Richland, WA. The soil samples, which were analyzed from each site, were believed to include soil which was representative of that in contact with buried waste forms. Results of field measurements of earth resistivity and of soil pH will be presented. Additionally, the results of laboratory measurements of resistivity, moisture content, pH, exchange acidity and the soluble ion content of the soils will be discussed. The soluble ion content of the soils was determined by analysis of aqueous extracts of saturated soil pastes. The concentrations of the following ions were determined: Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , K + , Na + , HCO 3 - , CO 3 2- , SO 4 2- , Cl - , S 2-

  10. Site Study Plan for laboratory soil mechanics, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This Site Study Plan for laboratory soil mechanics describes the laboratory testing to be conducted on soil samples collected as part of the characterization of the Deaf Smith County site, Texas. This study provides for measurements of index, mechanical, thermal, hydrologic, chemical, and mineral properties of soils from boring throughout the site. Samples will be taken from Playa Borings/Trenching, Transportation/Utilities Foundation Borings, Repository Surface Facilities Design Foundation Borings, and Exploratory Shaft Facilities Design Foundation Borings. Data from the laboratory tests will be used for soil strata characterization, design of foundations for surface structures, design of transportation facilities and utility structures, design of impoundments, design of shaft lining, design of the shaft freeze wall, shaft permitting, performance assessment calculations, and other program requirements. A tentative testing schedule and milestone log are given. A quality assurance program will be utilized to assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that appropriate documentation is maintained. 18 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Soil microbiota of Area 13 of the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au, F.H.F.; Leavitt, V.D.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of two desert plants, Atriplex canescens and Eurotia lanata, on kind and abundance of soil microbiota was determined in soil samples collected from Area 13 of the Nevada Test Site. This study was part of a larger research program to elucidate the role of soil microorganisms on the biological availability and the mobility of soil-deposited plutonium. The fungi identified in the soil samples included Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Stachybotrys, stysanus, Circinella, Cheaetomium, and Fusarium. The numbers of bacteria and fungi were generally highest at the 2.5- to 5.0-cm soil depth at both the mound and the interspace sampling sites. The highest numbers of fungi were found around the mound. The relative abundance of Aspergillus increased with increasing distance from the plants, whereas that of Penicillium decreased. Dematiaceae and chaetomium, both cellulose decomposers, were highest in the 0- to 2.5-cm soil segment. The abundance and distribution of soil microorganisms capable of incorporating plutonium (and probably other radionuclides as well) around the plants investigated indicate that this may be a factor in the bioavailability and movement of plutonium in the edaphic system. 17 references, 1 figure, 27 tables

  12. Analyses of soils at commercial radioactive-waste-disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piciulo, P.L.; Shea, C.E.; Barletta, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory, in order to provide technical assistance to the NRC, has measured a number of physical and chemical characteristics of soils from two currently operating commercial radioactive waste disposal sites; one at Barnwell, SC, and the other near Richland, WA. Soil samples believed to be representative of the soil that will contact the buried waste were collected and analyzed. Earth resistivities (field measurements), from both sites, supply information to identify variations in subsurface material. Barnwell soil resistivities (laboratory measurements) range from 3.6 x 10 5 ohm-cm to 8.9 x 10 4 ohm-cm. Soil resistivities of the Hanford sample vary from 3.0 x 10 5 ohm-cm to 6.6 x 10 3 ohm-cm. The Barnwell and Hanford soil pH ranges from 4.8 to 5.4 and from 4.0 to 7.2 respectively. The pH of a 1:2 mixture of soil to 0.01 M CaCl 2 resulted in a pH for the Barnwell samples of 3.9 +- 0.1 and for the Hanford samples of 7.4 +- 0.2. These values are comparable to the pH measurements of the water extract of the soils used for the analyses of soluble ion content of the soils. The exchange acidity of the soils was found to be approximately 7 mg-eq per 100 g of dry soil for clay material from Barnwell, whereas the Hanford soils showed an alkaline reaction. Aqueous extracts of saturated pastes were used to determine the concentrations of the following ions: Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , K + , Na + , HCO 3 - , SO 4 /sup =/, and Cl - . The sulfide content of each of the soils was measured in a 1:2.5 mixture of soil to an antioxidant buffer solution. The concentrations of soluble ions found in the soils from both sites are consistent with the high resistivities

  13. Hanford Site background: Evaluation of existing soil radionuclide data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This report is an evaluation of the existing data on radiological background for soils in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. The primary purpose of this report is to assess the adequacy of the existing data to serve as a radiological background baseline for use in environmental restoration and remediation activities at the Hanford Site. The soil background data compiled and evaluated in this report were collected by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Washington State Department of Health (DOH) radiation surveillance programs in southeastern Washington. These two programs provide the largest well-documented, quantitative data sets available to evaluate background conditions at the Hanford Site. The data quality objectives (DQOs) considered in this evaluation include the amount of data, number of sampling localities, spatial coverage, number and types of radionuclides reported, frequency of reporting, documentation and traceability of sampling and laboratory methods used, and comparability between sets of data. Although other data on soil radionuclide abundances around the Hanford Site exist, they are generally limited in scope and lack the DQOs necessary for consideration with the PNL and DOH data sets. Collectively, these two sources provide data on the activities of 25 radionuclides and four other parameters (gross alpha, gross beta, total uranium, and total thorium). These measurements were made on samples from the upper 2.5 cm of soil at over 70 localities within the region

  14. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    Volume two contains the following appendices: Description of soil sampling sites; sampling narrative; raw data soil background; background data analysis; sitewide background soil sampling plan; and use of soil background data for the detection of contamination at waste management unit on the Hanford Site

  15. Soil Characterization at the Linde FUSRAP Site and the Impact on Soil Volume Estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, J.; Kenna, T.; Pilon, R.

    2002-01-01

    The former Linde site in Tonawanda, New York is currently undergoing active remediation of Manhattan Engineering District's radiological contamination. This remediation is authorized under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The focus of this paper will be to describe the impact of soil characterization efforts as they relate to soil volume estimates and project cost estimates. An additional objective is to stimulate discussion about other characterization and modeling technologies, and to provide a ''Lessons Learned'' scenario to assist in future volume estimating at other FUSRAP sites. Initial soil characterization efforts at the Linde FUSRAP site in areas known to be contaminated or suspected to be contaminated were presented in the Remedial Investigation Report for the Tonawanda Site, dated February 1993. Results of those initial characterization efforts were the basis for soil volume estimates that were used to estimate and negotiate the current remediation contract. During the course of remediation, previously unidentified areas of contamination were discovered, and additional characterization was initiated. Additional test pit and geoprobe samples were obtained at over 500 locations, bringing the total to over 800 sample locations at the 135-acre site. New data continues to be collected on a routine basis during ongoing remedial actions

  16. Remediation of Soil at Nuclear Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, R.; Boardman, C.; Robbins, R; Fox, Robert Vincent; Mincher, Bruce Jay

    2000-01-01

    As the major nuclear waste and decontamination and decommissioning projects progress, one of the remaining problems that faces the nuclear industry is that of site remediation. The range of contamination levels and contaminants is wide and varied and there is likely to be a significant volume of soil contaminated with transuranics and hazardous organic materials that could qualify as mixed TRU waste. There are many technologies that offer the potential for remediating this waste but few that tackle all or most of the contaminants and even fewer that have been deployed with confidence. This paper outlines the progress made in proving the ability of Supercritical Fluid Extraction as a method of remediating soil, classified as mixed (TRU) transuranic waste

  17. Sorption of BTX mixtures to contaminated and uncontaminated site soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchrin, C.G.; Koshy, K.; Wojtenko, I.

    1995-01-01

    Both adsorption and desorption studies are being performed examining benzene, toluene, and meta-xylene (BTX) as single components, binary mixtures, and trinary mixture onto both existing contaminated soils as well as some uncontaminated reference soils. The contaminated soils were obtained from an oil refinery site and another industrial site in New Jersey. The oil refinery site soil did not exhibit significant amounts of either benzene, toluene or xylene but was contaminated with other compounds while the other industrial site soil was contaminated with toluene among other compounds. The organic carbon content of the soils ranged from 0.14 to 2.91 percent. Preliminary adsorption studies showed BTX to strongly sorb to these soils. The adsorption studies onto the reference soils also demonstrated the effect of organic matter on adsorption. Sequential batch desorption studies show the BTX to desorb quickly, reaching equilibrium within 48 hours. Long-term uptake and release were not noted with these soil/contaminant systems

  18. Managing soil moisture on waste burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.E.; Ratzlaff, T.D.

    1991-11-01

    Shallow land burial is a common method of disposing of industrial, municipal, and low-level radioactive waste. The exclusion of water from buried wastes is a primary objective in designing and managing waste disposal sites. If wastes are not adequately isolated, water from precipitation may move through the landfill cover and into the wastes. The presence of water in the waste zone may promote the growth of plant roots to that depth and result in the transport of toxic materials to above-ground foliage. Furthermore, percolation of water through the waste zone may transport contaminants into ground water. This report presents results from a field study designed to assess the the potential for using vegetation to deplete soil moisture and prevent water from reaching buried wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Our results show that this approach may provide an economical means of limiting the intrusion of water on waste sites

  19. Soil attributes drive nest-site selection by the campo miner Geositta poeciloptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, João Paulo Gusmão; Solar, Ricardo; Vasconcelos, Bruno Nery F.; Fernandes, Raphael B. A.; Lopes, Leonardo Esteves

    2018-01-01

    Substrate type is a key-factor in nest-site selection and nest architecture of burrowing birds. However, little is known about which factors drive nest-site selection for these species, especially in the tropics. We studied the influence of soil attributes on nest-site selection by the campo miner Geositta poeciloptera, an open grassland bird that builds its nests within soil cavities. For all nests found, we measured the depth of the nest cavity and the resistance of the soil to penetration, and identified the soil horizon in which the nest was located. In soil banks with nests, we collected soil samples for granulometric analysis around each nest cavity, while in soil banks without nests we collected these samples at random points. From 43 nests found, 86% were located in the deeper soil horizons (C-horizon), and only 14% in the shallower horizons (B-horizon). Granulometric analysis showed that the C-horizons possessed a high similar granulometric composition, with high silt and low clay contents. These characteristics are associated with a low degree of structural development of the soil, which makes it easier to excavate. Contrarily, soil resistance to penetration does not seem to be an important criterion for nest site selection, although nests in more resistant the soils tend to have shallower nest cavities. Among the soil banks analyzed, 40% of those without cavities possessed a larger proportion of B-horizon relative to the C-horizon, and their texture was more clayey. On the other hand, almost all soil banks containing nest cavities had a larger C-horizon and a silty texture, indicating that soil attributes drive nest-site selection by G. poeciloptera. Thus, we conclude that the patchy distribution of G. poeciloptera can attributed to the infrequent natural exposure of the C-horizon in the tropical region, where well developed, deep and permeable soils are more common. PMID:29381768

  20. Soil attributes drive nest-site selection by the campo miner Geositta poeciloptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meireles, Ricardo Camargos de; Teixeira, João Paulo Gusmão; Solar, Ricardo; Vasconcelos, Bruno Nery F; Fernandes, Raphael B A; Lopes, Leonardo Esteves

    2018-01-01

    Substrate type is a key-factor in nest-site selection and nest architecture of burrowing birds. However, little is known about which factors drive nest-site selection for these species, especially in the tropics. We studied the influence of soil attributes on nest-site selection by the campo miner Geositta poeciloptera, an open grassland bird that builds its nests within soil cavities. For all nests found, we measured the depth of the nest cavity and the resistance of the soil to penetration, and identified the soil horizon in which the nest was located. In soil banks with nests, we collected soil samples for granulometric analysis around each nest cavity, while in soil banks without nests we collected these samples at random points. From 43 nests found, 86% were located in the deeper soil horizons (C-horizon), and only 14% in the shallower horizons (B-horizon). Granulometric analysis showed that the C-horizons possessed a high similar granulometric composition, with high silt and low clay contents. These characteristics are associated with a low degree of structural development of the soil, which makes it easier to excavate. Contrarily, soil resistance to penetration does not seem to be an important criterion for nest site selection, although nests in more resistant the soils tend to have shallower nest cavities. Among the soil banks analyzed, 40% of those without cavities possessed a larger proportion of B-horizon relative to the C-horizon, and their texture was more clayey. On the other hand, almost all soil banks containing nest cavities had a larger C-horizon and a silty texture, indicating that soil attributes drive nest-site selection by G. poeciloptera. Thus, we conclude that the patchy distribution of G. poeciloptera can attributed to the infrequent natural exposure of the C-horizon in the tropical region, where well developed, deep and permeable soils are more common.

  1. Foliar and soil chemistry at red spruce sites in the Monongahela National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanie J. Connolly

    2010-01-01

    In 2005, soil and foliar chemistry were sampled from 10 sites in the Monongahela National Forest which support red spruce. Soils were sampled from hand-dug pits, by horizon, from the O-horizon to bedrock or 152 cm, and each pit was described fully. Replicate, archived samples also were collected.

  2. Waste site grouping for 200 Areas soil investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify logical waste site groups for characterization based on criteria established in the 200 Areas Soil Remediation Strategy (DOE-RL 1996a). Specific objectives of the document include the following: finalize waste site groups based on the approach and preliminary groupings identified in the 200 Areas Soil Remediation Strategy; prioritize the waste site groups based on criteria developed in the 200 Areas Soil Remediation Strategy; select representative site(s) that best represents typical and worse-case conditions for each waste group; develop conceptual models for each waste group. This document will serve as a technical baseline for implementing the 200 Areas Soil Remediation Strategy. The intent of the document is to provide a framework, based on waste site groups, for organizing soil characterization efforts in the 200 Areas and to present initial conceptual models

  3. Forest Soil Productivity on the Southern Long-Term Soil Productivity Sites at Age 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Andrew Scott; Allan E. Tiarks; Felipe G. Sanchez; Michael Elliott-Smith; Rick Stagg

    2004-01-01

    Forest management operations have the potential to reduce soil productivity through organic matter and nutrient removal and soil compaction. We measured pine volume, bulk density, and soil and foliar nitrogen and phosphorus at age 5 on the 13 southern Long-Term Soil Productivity study sites. The treatments were organic matter removal [bole only (BO), whole tree (WT),...

  4. Remaining Sites Verification Package for 100-F-38 Stained Soil Site. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-093

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    The 100-F-38 Stained Soil site was an area of yellow stained soil that was discovered while excavating a trench for the placement of electrical conduit. The 100-F-38 Stained Soil site meets the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations support future unrestricted land uses that can be represented by a rural-residential scenario. The results also show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils and the contaminant concentrations remaining in the soil are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  5. Soil moisture datasets at five sites in the central Sierra Nevada and northern Coast Ranges, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Michelle A.; Anderson, Frank A.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Flint, Alan L.

    2018-05-03

    In situ soil moisture datasets are important inputs used to calibrate and validate watershed, regional, or statewide modeled and satellite-based soil moisture estimates. The soil moisture dataset presented in this report includes hourly time series of the following: soil temperature, volumetric water content, water potential, and total soil water content. Data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey at five locations in California: three sites in the central Sierra Nevada and two sites in the northern Coast Ranges. This report provides a description of each of the study areas, procedures and equipment used, processing steps, and time series data from each site in the form of comma-separated values (.csv) tables.

  6. Reconnaissance soil geochemistry at the Riverton Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Site, Fremont County, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David B.; Sweat, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Soil samples were collected and chemically analyzed from the Riverton Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Site, which lies within the Wind River Indian Reservation in Fremont County, Wyoming. Nineteen soil samples from a depth of 0 to 5 centimeters were collected in August 2011 from the site. The samples were sieved to less than 2 millimeters and analyzed for 44 major and trace elements following a near-total multi-acid extraction. Soil pH was also determined. The geochemical data were compared to a background dataset consisting of 160 soil samples previously collected from the same depth throughout the State of Wyoming as part of another ongoing study by the U.S. Geological Survey. Risk from potentially toxic elements in soil from the site to biologic receptors and humans was estimated by comparing the concentration of these elements with soil screening values established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. All 19 samples exceeded the carcinogenic human health screening level for arsenic in residential soils of 0.39 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg), which represents a one-in-one-million cancer risk (median arsenic concentration in the study area is 2.7 mg/kg). All 19 samples also exceeded the lead and vanadium screening levels for birds. Eighteen of the 19 samples exceeded the manganese screening level for plants, 13 of the 19 samples exceeded the antimony screening level for mammals, and 10 of 19 samples exceeded the zinc screening level for birds. However, these exceedances are also found in soils at most locations in the Wyoming Statewide soil database, and elevated concentrations alone are not necessarily cause for alarm. Uranium and thorium, two other elements of environmental concern, are elevated in soils at the site as compared to the Wyoming dataset, but no human or ecological soil screening levels have been established for these elements.

  7. Soil sorting, new approach to site remediation management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramlitt, E.T.; Woods, J.A.; Dillon, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Soil sorting is the technology which conveys soil beneath contaminant detectors and, based on contaminant signal, automatically toggles a gate at the conveyor end to send soil with contamination above a guideline to a separate location from soil which meets the guideline. The technology was perfected for remediation of sites having soils with radioactive contamination, but it is applicable to other contaminants when instrumental methods exist for rapid contaminant detection at levels of concern. This paper examines the three methods for quantifying contamination in soil in support of site remediation management. Examples are discussed where the primary contaminant is plutonium, a radioactive substance and source of nuclear energy which can be hazardous to health when in the environment without controls. Field survey instruments are very sensitive to plutonium and can detect it in soil at levels below a part per billion, and there are a variety of soils which have been contaminated by plutonium and thoroughly investigated. The lessons learned with plutonium are applicable to other types of contaminants and site remediations. The paper concludes that soil sorting can be the most cost effective approach to site remediation, and it leads to the best overall cleanup

  8. Evaluation of soil radioactivity data from the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    Since 1951, 933 nuclear tests have been conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and test areas on the adjacent Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR). Until the early 1960s. the majority of tests were atmospheric, involving detonation of nuclear explosive devices on the ground or on a tower, suspended from a balloon or dropped from an airplane. Since the signing of the Limited Test Ban Treaty in 1963, most tests have been conducted underground, although several shallow subsurface tests took place between 1962 and 1968. As a result of the aboveground and near-surface nuclear explosions, as well as ventings of underground tests, destruction of nuclear devices with conventional explosives, and nuclear-rocket engine tests, the surface soil on portions of the NTS has been contaminated with radionuclides. Relatively little consideration was given to the environmental effects of nuclear testing during the first two decades of operations at the NTS. Since the early 1970s, however, increasingly strict environmental regulations have forced greater attention to be given to contamination problems at the site and how to remediate them. One key element in the current environmental restoration program at the NTS is determining the amount and extent of radioactivity in the surface soil. The general distribution of soil radioactivity on the NTS is already well known as a result of several programs carried out in the 1970s and 1980s. However, questions have been raised as to whether the data from those earlier studies are suitable for use in the current environmental assessments and risk analyses. The primary purpose of this preliminary data review is to determine to what extent the historical data collected at the NTS can be used in the characterization/remediation process

  9. Soil formation and soil biological properties post mining sites after coal mining in central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaneda, Satoshi; Frouz, Jan; Krištůfek, Václav; Elhottová, Dana; Pižl, Václav; Starý, Josef; Háněl, Ladislav; Tajovský, Karel; Chroňáková, Alica

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 53, - (2007), s. 13 ISSN 0288-5840. [Annual Meeting Japanese Society of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition . 22.08.2007, Setagaya city] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : soil formation * soil biological properties * post mining sites Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  10. Soil water repellency at old crude oil spill sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, J.L.

    1999-08-01

    This thesis presents the current state of knowledge regarding the cause of soil water repellency and characterizes disaggregated nonwettable surface soils found at old crude oil spill sites. Pollution-induced water repellency generally develops following prolonged exposures of soil to liquid- or vapour-phase petroleum hydrocarbons. The condition varies significantly in terms of severity and persistence. Soil water repellency retards plant growth and disturbs the hydrological balance of ecosystems. Disaggregated water-repellent soils are also very susceptible to dispersal by erosion, posing a threat to the productivity of surrounding soils. The author described the probable causes of soil water repellency under the following three main themes: (1) accumulation of hydrophobic organic material in soil, (2) redistribution and re-organisation of this material in soil, and (3) stabilisation of the hydrophobic organic material. This final process is necessary to ensure persistence of induced water repellency symptoms. Petroleum residues as water-repellent substances in weathered nonwettable oil-contaminated soils were also discussed and a hypothesis about soil water repellency was presented which deals with flexible conformation in organic matter coatings. Processes leading to the development of soil water repellency following crude oil contamination were also described. It was determined that soil water repellency is a function of the packing density and the chain conformation of amphiphilic organic molecules in the outermost layer of soil organic matter coatings. This research suggests that the fractional coverage of alkyl chains on soil particle surfaces determines the degree of water repellency that is displayed by soil. It was shown that prompt remediation of some oil-contaminated plots can effectively prevent the development of soil water repellency. 4 refs., 32 tabs., 22 figs., 5 appendices

  11. Ground Truth Collections at the MTI Core Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, A.J.

    2001-01-01

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) selected 13 sites across the continental US and one site in the western Pacific to serve as the primary or core site for collection of ground truth data for validation of MTI science algorithms. Imagery and ground truth data from several of these sites are presented in this paper. These sites are the Comanche Peak, Pilgrim and Turkey Point power plants, Ivanpah playas, Crater Lake, Stennis Space Center and the Tropical Western Pacific ARM site on the island of Nauru. Ground truth data includes water temperatures (bulk and skin), radiometric data, meteorological data and plant operating data. The organizations that manage these sites assist SRTC with its ground truth data collections and also give the MTI project a variety of ground truth measurements that they make for their own purposes. Collectively, the ground truth data from the 14 core sites constitute a comprehensive database for science algorithm validation

  12. PAH loss during bioremediation of manufactured gas plant site soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, D C [and others

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory studies using soil samples from a former gas works site showed that PAH in the soil were present in a form resistant to biodegradation, whereas added naphthalene and phenanthrene were quickly degraded. The PAH already present were not extractable into water, and were not toxic to bacteria.

  13. EDRXF measurements of heavy elements in soil samples from some potentially polluted sites in zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayumbu, P.; Phiri, L.K.; Mambo, A.; Sokotela, S.B.

    2001-01-01

    A survey of heavy element levels in top soils collected around four industrial plants and along four highway stretches demonstrated that there was significant pollution only around an abandoned Pb/Zn mine. Sample collection in a rectangular grid encompassing each source sought to depict the spatial extent of pollution. Ascertaining levels of heavy elements in potentially polluted soils in urban areas of Zambia and along major highways was deemed desirable because it is common practice to grow maize and vegetables in lots adjacent to accessible industrial sites and highways. Pb is a heavy element of interest for all sampled sites whose distribution at the abandoned mine ranged from 13 to 2028 ppm

  14. Enhanced bioremediation of PAH contaminated soils from coal processing sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, M.M.; Lee, S.

    1995-01-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are a potential hazard to health due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic nature and acute toxicity and there is an imminent need for remediation of PAH contaminated soils abounding the several coke oven and town gas sites. Aerobic biological degradation of PAHs is an innovative technology and has shown high decontamination efficiencies, complete mineralization of contaminants, and is environmentally safe. The present study investigates the remediation of PAH contaminated soils achieved using Acinetobacter species and fungal strain Phanerochaete Chrysosporium. The soil used for the experiments was an industrially contaminated soil obtained from Alberta Research Council (ARC) primary cleanup facility, Alberta, Canada. Soil characterization was done using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to qualitatively and quantitatively determine the contaminants in the soil. Artificially contaminated soil was also used for some experiments. All the experiments were conducted under completely mixed conditions with suitable oxygen and nutrient amendments. The removal efficiency obtained for various PAHs using the two microorganisms was compared

  15. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The determination of soil background is one of the most important activities supporting environmental restoration and waste management on the Hanford Site. Background compositions serve as the basis for identifying soil contamination, and also as a baseline in risk assessment processes used to determine soil cleanup and treatment levels. These uses of soil background require an understanding of the extent to which analytes of concern occur naturally in the soils. This report documents the results of sampling and analysis activities designed to characterize the composition of soil background at the Hanford Site, and to evaluate the feasibility for use as Sitewide background. The compositions of naturally occurring soils in the vadose Zone have been-determined for-nonradioactive inorganic and organic analytes and related physical properties. These results confirm that a Sitewide approach to the characterization of soil background is technically sound and is a viable alternative to the determination and use of numerous local or area backgrounds that yield inconsistent definitions of contamination. Sitewide soil background consists of several types of data and is appropriate for use in identifying contamination in all soils in the vadose zone on the Hanford Site. The natural concentrations of nearly every inorganic analyte extend to levels that exceed calculated health-based cleanup limits. The levels of most inorganic analytes, however, are well below these health-based limits. The highest measured background concentrations occur in three volumetrically minor soil types, the most important of which are topsoils adjacent to the Columbia River that are rich in organic carbon. No organic analyte levels above detection were found in any of the soil samples

  16. Successful Implementation of Soil Segregation Technology at the Painesville FUSRAP Site - 12281

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechi, Stephen P.; Andrews, Shawn M. [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Buffalo District, Buffalo, New York (United States); Lombardo, Andrew J. [Safety and Ecology Corporation, Beaver, Pennsylvania (United States); Lively, Jeffrey W. [AMEC Environment and Infrastructure, Grand Junction, Colorado (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Typically the highest cost component of the radiological soils remediation of Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) sites is the cost to transport and dispose of the excavated soils, typically contaminated with naturally occurring isotopes of uranium, thorium and radium, at an appropriately permitted off-site disposal facility. The heterogeneous nature of the contamination encountered at these sites makes it difficult to accurately delineate the extent of contaminated soil using the limited, discrete sampling data collected during the investigation phases; and difficult to precisely excavate only the contaminated soil that is above the established cleanup limits using standard in-field scanning and guiding methodologies. This usually results in a conservative guided excavation to ensure cleanup criteria are met, with the attendant transportation and disposal costs for the larger volumes of soil excavated. To address this issue during the remediation of the Painesville FUSRAP Site, located in Painesville, Ohio, the Buffalo District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and its contractor, Safety and Ecology Corporation (SEC), employed automatic soil segregation technology provided by MACTEC (now AMEC) to reduce the potential for transportation and disposal of soils that met the cleanup limits. This waste minimization technology utilized gamma spectroscopy of conveyor-fed soils to automatically segregate the material into above and below criteria discharge piles. Use of the soil segregation system resulted in cost savings through the significant reduction of the volume of excavated soil that required off-site transportation and disposal, and the reduction of the amount of imported clean backfill required via reuse of 'below criteria' segregated soil as place back material in restoring the excavations. Measurements taken by the soil segregation system, as well as results of quality control sampling of segregated soils, confirmed that soils

  17. Disposal of the radioactive contaminated soils from the NPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matusek, I.; Plsko, J.; Sajtlava, M.; Hulla, J.; Kovacs, T.

    2004-01-01

    Disposal of contaminated soils at site of NPP is one of the most important task within the frame of research and development tasks of the NPP decommissioning. The works within this field can be seen in several areas. Considered soil activity monitoring, observation of its geo-technical and geo-chemical parameters, volume balance, research of the radio nuclides behaviour in the soil and simulation of their influence on the surrounding environment with special emphasis on underground water, project studies and construction of the disposal facility for contaminated soils. This work presents overview of gained results in the mentioned areas of the research and development. (author)

  18. Large zero-tension plate lysimeters for soil water and solute collection in undisturbed soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Peters

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Water collection from undisturbed unsaturated soils to estimate in situ water and solute fluxes in the field is a challenge, in particular if soils are heterogeneous. Large sampling devices are required if preferential flow paths are present. We present a modular plate system that allows installation of large zero-tension lysimeter plates under undisturbed soils in the field. To investigate the influence of the lysimeter on the water flow field in the soil, a numerical 2-D simulation study was conducted for homogeneous soils with uni- and bimodal pore-size distributions and stochastic Miller-Miller heterogeneity. The collection efficiency was found to be highly dependent on the hydraulic functions, infiltration rate, and lysimeter size, and was furthermore affected by the degree of heterogeneity. In homogeneous soils with high saturated conductivities the devices perform poorly and even large lysimeters (width 250 cm can be bypassed by the soil water. Heterogeneities of soil hydraulic properties result into a network of flow channels that enhance the sampling efficiency of the lysimeter plates. Solute breakthrough into zero-tension lysimeter occurs slightly retarded as compared to the free soil, but concentrations in the collected water are similar to the mean flux concentration in the undisturbed soil. To validate the results from the numerical study, a dual tracer study with seven lysimeters of 1.25×1.25 m area was conducted in the field. Three lysimeters were installed underneath a 1.2 m filling of contaminated silty sand, the others deeper in the undisturbed soil. The lysimeters directly underneath the filled soil material collected water with a collection efficiency of 45%. The deeper lysimeters did not collect any water. The arrival of the tracers showed that almost all collected water came from preferential flow paths.

  19. BOREAS TGB-6 Soil Methane Oxidation and Production from NSA BP and Fen Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deck, Bruce; Wahlen, Martin; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Conrad, Sara K. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study Trace Gas Biogeochemistry (BOREAS TGB-6) team collected soil methane measurements at several sites in the Southern Study Area (SSA) and Northern Study Area (NSA). This data set contains soil methane consumption (bacterial CH4 oxidation) and associated C-13 fractionation effects in samples that were collected at various sites in 1994 and 1996 from enclosures (chambers). Methane C-13 data in soil gas samples from the NSA Young Jack Pine (YJP) and Old Jack Pine (OJP) sites for 1994 and 1996 are also given. Additional data on the isotopic composition of methane (carbon and hydrogen isotopes) produced in the NSA beaver ponds and fen bog in 1993 and 1994 are given as well. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  20. Decontamination of soil from the research reactor site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, H. Z.; Kim, K. N.; Choi, W. K.; Jeong, J. H.; Oh, W. J.

    2002-01-01

    The two research reactors (TRIGA MARK II and III) in Korea are to be decommissioned in the near future. When the reactors are completely dismantled, the site may remain contaminated due to the long period of operation. We assume that the site is radioactively contaminated by Co-60. Soils gathered from the research reactor site were artificially contaminated with Co 2+ ion. The desorption characteristics of Co 2+ ion from the soil surface by citric acid solution were investigated. Decontamination performances of citric acid and EDTA on soil stored in the radioactive waste drums was examined. The feasibility test of recycling the citric acid was also performed. We concluded that the radioactive waste volume could be reduced significantly by soil washing with a citric acid solution

  1. Site Study Plan for soils, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The Soils Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of a soil characterization survey, impact monitoring of soils, predisturbance soil salinity survey, and a reclamation suitability study. This information will be used to plan for soil stripping, stockpiling, and replacement; reclamation of soils; determining predisturbance chemical and physical characteristics of the soils; including salinity levels; and monitoring for changes in chemical and physical characteristics of the soil. The SSP describes for each study the need for the study, the study design, data management and use, schedule of proposed activities, and the quality assurance program. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Project Requirements Document. 75 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs

  2. USDA soil classification system dictates site surface management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowmer, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Success or failure of site surface management practices greatly affects long-term site stability. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) soil classification system best documents those parameters which control the success of installed practices for managing both erosion and surface drainage. The USDA system concentrates on soil characteristics in the upper three meters of the surface that support the associated flora both physically and physiologically. The USDA soil survey first identifies soil series based on detailed characteristics that are related to production potential. Using the production potential, land use capability classes are developed. Capability classes reveal the highest and best agronomic use for the site. Lower number classes are considered arable while higher number classes are best suited for grazing agriculture. Application of ecological principles based on the USDA soil survey reveals the current state of the site relative to its ecological potential. To assure success, site management practices must be chosen that are compatible with both production capability and current state of the site

  3. Engineered soil covers for management of salt impacted sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, D.A.; Tratch, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    The use of engineered soil cover systems to mitigate environmental impacts from tailings and waste rock piles is becoming an accepted practice. This paper presented design concepts for soil covers related to reclamation practices in the mining industry as an effective risk management practice at salt impacted sites. Research and field programs have demonstrated that a layered engineered soil cover can reduce or eliminate infiltration. Key components of the system included re-establishing surface vegetation to balance precipitation fluxes with evapotranspiration potential, and design of a capillary break below the rooting zone to minimize deeper seated infiltration. It was anticipated that the incorporation of a vegetation cover and a capillary break would minimize infiltration into the waste rock or tailing pile and reduce the generation of acid rock drainage (ARD). Design of a layered soil cover requires the incorporation of meteorological data, moisture retention characteristics of the impacted soils, and proposed engineered cover materials. Performance of the soil cover was predicted using a finite element model combined with meteorological data from the site area, unsaturated soil properties of the parent sub-surface soils and potential covered materials. The soil cover design consisted of re-vegetation and a loose clay cover overlying a compacted till layer. The design was conducted for an off site release of salt impacted pasture land adjacent to a former highway maintenance yard. The model predicted minimal infiltration during high precipitation events and no infiltration during low precipitation events. Results indicated that the proposed soil cover would enable re-establishment of a productive agricultural ground cover, as well as minimizing the potential for additional salt migration. It was concluded that further research and development is needed to ensure that the cover system is an acceptable method for long-term risk management. 17 refs., 5 figs

  4. Interaction of Sr-90 with site candidate soil for demonstration disposal facility at Serpong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setiawan, Budi, E-mail: bravo@batan.go.id [Radwaste Technology Center-National Nuclear Energy Agency, PUSPIPTEK, Serpong-Tangerang 15310 (Indonesia); Mila, Oktri; Safni [Dept. of Chemistry, Fac. of Math. and Nat. Sci., Andalas University, Kampus Limau Manis, Padang-West Sumatra 25163 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Interaction of radiostrontium (Sr-90) with site candidate soil for demonstration disposal facility to be constructed in the near future at Serpong has been done. This activity is to anticipate the interim storage facility at Serpong nuclear area becomes full off condition, and show to the public how radioactive waste can be well managed with the existing technology. To ensure that the location is save, a reliability study of site candidate soil becomes very importance to be conducted through some experiments consisted some affected parameters such as contact time, effect of ionic strength, and effect of Sr{sup +} ion in solution. Radiostrontium was used as a tracer on the experiments and has role as radionuclide reference in low-level radioactive waste due to its long half-live and it's easy to associate with organism in nature. So, interaction of radiostrontium and soil samples from site becomes important to be studied. Experiment was performed in batch method, and soil sample-solution containing radionuclide was mixed in a 20 ml of PE vial. Ratio of solid: liquid was 10{sup −2} g/ml. Objective of the experiment is to collect the specific characteristics data of radionuclide sorption onto soil from site candidate. Distribution coefficient value was used as indicator where the amount of initial and final activities of radiostrontium in solution was compared. Result showed that equilibrium condition was reached after contact time 10 days with Kd values ranged from 1600-2350 ml/g. Increased in ionic strength in solution made decreased of Kd value into soil sample due to competition of background salt and radiostrontium into soil samples, and increased in Sr ion in solution caused decreased of Kd value in soil sample due to limitation of sorption capacity in soil samples. Fast condition in saturated of metal ion into soil samples was reached due to a simple reaction was occurred.

  5. CHARACTERISTIC OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER SAMPLES COLLECTED FROM TWO SEMI INDUSTRIAL SITES IN BANDUNG, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Dwiana Lestiani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Air particulate matter concentrations, black carbon as well as elemental concentrations in two semi industrial sites were investigated as a preliminary study for evaluation of air quality in these areas. Sampling of airborne particulate matter was conducted in July 2009 using a Gent stacked filter unit sampler and a total of 18 pairs of samples were collected. Black carbon was determined by reflectance measurement and elemental analysis was performed using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE. Elements Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and As were detected. Twenty four hour PM2.5 concentration at semi industrial sites Kiaracondong and Holis ranged from 4.0 to 22.2 µg m-3, while the PM10 concentration ranged from 24.5 to 77.1 µg m-3. High concentration of crustal elements, sulphur and zinc were identified in fine and coarse fractions for both sites. The fine fraction data from both sites were analyzed using a multivariate principal component analysis and for Kiaracondong site, identified factors are attributed to sea-salt with soil dust, vehicular emissions and biomass burning, non ferrous smelter, and iron/steel work industry, while for Holis site identified factors are attributed to soil dust, industrial emissions, vehicular emissions with biomass burning, and sea-salt. Although particulate samples were collected from semi industrial sites, vehicular emissions constituted with S, Zn and BC were identified in both sites.

  6. Overview of JGC soil washing and site stabilization (SWSS) concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetsch, S.; Fujimura, Y.; Sauda, K.; Yagi, T.; Suzuki, K.

    1991-01-01

    The JGC Soil Washing and Site Stabilization (SWSS) concept is to wash heavy metal and uranium-contaminated soils using well demonstrated techniques, and to follow that process with its innovative stabilization process, to fix the remaining contaminates within a stable matrix. In addition, the solution used to wash the soil is stripped of contaminates, so that it can be reused. This process reduces the total amount of wastes generated from washing the soil, since not only can the solution be reused, but often the extracted contaminates can be recovered for industrial use. The stabilization portion of the concept is based on a family of proprietary fixing agents which can render the remaining contaminates insoluble. These agents are significantly different from other (generally silicate) agents used for stabilizing contaminated soils in that they appear to bond more strongly to heavy metal contaminants than the silicate-based reagents, resulting in improved leach-rate performance when combined with bentonite or portland cement stabilization

  7. Designing chemical soil characterization programs for mixed waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, K.A. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project is a remedial action effort funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The Weldon Spring Site, a former uranium processing facility, is located in east-central Missouri on a portion of a former ordnance works facility which produced trinitrotoluene during World War II. As a result of both uranium and ordnance production, the soils have become both radiologically and chemically contaminated. As a part of site characterization efforts in support of the environmental documentation process, a chemical soil characterization program was developed. This program consisted of biased and unbiased sampling program which maximized areal coverage, provided a statistically sound data base and maintained cost effectiveness. This paper discusses how the general rationale and processes used at the Weldon Spring Site can be applied to other mixed and hazardous waste sites

  8. Lodgepole pine site index in relation to synoptic measures of climate, soil moisture and soil nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Geoff Wang; Shongming Huang; Robert A. Monserud; Ryan J. Klos

    2004-01-01

    Lodgepole pine site index was examined in relation to synoptic measures of topography, soil moisture, and soil nutrients in Alberta. Data came from 214 lodgepole pine-dominated stands sampled as a part of the provincial permanent sample plot program. Spatial location (elevation, latitude, and longitude) and natural subregions (NSRs) were topographic variables that...

  9. Methods for the collection of subsurface samples during environmental site assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstock, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses numerous sample collection techniques that have been successfully employed during Phase 2 Assessments and presents case histories of their application. Pollutants of concern include PCE and petroleum. The collection of shallow soil samples is described using commercially available hand augers and hand-driven core samplers. These devices are modified with extensions to collect deeper samples from storm drains and leaching pools. The performance of soil gas surveys are described using both hand-driven sample probes and vehicle-mounted, hydraulically driven vapor probes. Once the soil vapor is collected at the ground surface, a sample of the media is either analyzed on-site using a field-operated detection device or delivered to a laboratory for analysis. Application and case histories of the Geoprobe(trademark)sampling system, a form of direct push technology, are described. This device uses vehicle-mounted, hydraulically-driven sample probes. The probe can be advanced to depths as great as 100 feet below grade and can retrieve soil, soil gas and groundwater samples

  10. Use of Electronic Hand-held Devices for Collection of Savannah River Site Environmental Data - 13329

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marberry, Hugh [SRNS Savannah River Site 730-4B Room 3043 Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Moore, Winston [SRNS Savannah River Site 735B Room 116 Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Savannah River Nuclear Solutions has begun using Xplore Tablet PC's to collect data in the field for soil samples, groundwater samples, air samples and round sheets at the Savannah River Site (SRS). EPA guidelines for groundwater sampling are incorporated into the application to ensure the sample technician follows the proper protocol. The sample technician is guided through the process for sampling and round sheet data collection by a series of menus and input boxes. Field measurements and well stabilization information are entered into the tablet for uploading into Environmental Restoration Data Management System (ERDMS). The process helps to eliminate input errors and provides data integrity. A soil sample technician has the ability to collect information about location of sample, field parameter, describe the soil sample, print bottle labels, and print chain of custody for the sample that they have collected. An air sample technician has the ability to provide flow, pressure, hours of operation, print bottle labels and chain of custody for samples they collect. Round sheets are collected using the information provided in the various procedures. The data are collected and uploaded into ERDMS. The equipment used is weather proof and hardened for the field use. Global Positioning System (GPS) capabilities are integrated into the applications to provide the location where samples were collected and to help sample technicians locate wells that are not visited often. (authors)

  11. Use of Electronic Hand-held Devices for Collection of Savannah River Site Environmental Data - 13329

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marberry, Hugh; Moore, Winston

    2013-01-01

    Savannah River Nuclear Solutions has begun using Xplore Tablet PC's to collect data in the field for soil samples, groundwater samples, air samples and round sheets at the Savannah River Site (SRS). EPA guidelines for groundwater sampling are incorporated into the application to ensure the sample technician follows the proper protocol. The sample technician is guided through the process for sampling and round sheet data collection by a series of menus and input boxes. Field measurements and well stabilization information are entered into the tablet for uploading into Environmental Restoration Data Management System (ERDMS). The process helps to eliminate input errors and provides data integrity. A soil sample technician has the ability to collect information about location of sample, field parameter, describe the soil sample, print bottle labels, and print chain of custody for the sample that they have collected. An air sample technician has the ability to provide flow, pressure, hours of operation, print bottle labels and chain of custody for samples they collect. Round sheets are collected using the information provided in the various procedures. The data are collected and uploaded into ERDMS. The equipment used is weather proof and hardened for the field use. Global Positioning System (GPS) capabilities are integrated into the applications to provide the location where samples were collected and to help sample technicians locate wells that are not visited often. (authors)

  12. Contamination valuation of soil and groundwater source at anaerobic municipal solid waste landfill site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Shuokr Qarani; Maulood, Yousif Ismael

    2015-12-01

    The present work aimed to determine the risks that formed landfill leachate from anaerobic Erbil Landfill Site (ELS) poses on groundwater source and to observe the effects of disposed municipal solid waste (MSW) on soil properties. The study further aims to fill the gap in studies on the effects of disposed MSW and produced leachate on the groundwater characteristics and soil quality at ELS, Iraq. Soil, leachate, and groundwater samples were collected from ELS for use as samples in this study. Unpolluted groundwater samples were collected from an area outside of the landfill. Field and laboratory experiments for the soil samples were conducted. Chemical analyses for the soil samples such as organic matter, total salts, and SO4 (=) were also performed. Raw leachate and groundwater samples were analyzed using physical and chemical experiments. The yields for sorptivity, steady-state infiltration rate, and hydraulic conductivity of the soil samples were 0.0006 m/√s, 0.00004 m/s, and 2.17 × 10(-5) m/s, respectively. The soil at ELS was found to be light brown clayey gravel with sand and light brown gravely lean clay layers with low permeability. Unprocessed leachate analysis identified the leachate as stabilized. Findings showed that the soil and groundwater at the anaerobic ELS were contaminated.

  13. Managing soil moisture on waste burial sites in arid regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.E.; Ratzlaff, T.D.; Nowak, R.S.; Markham, O.D.

    1993-01-01

    In semiarid regions, where potential evapotranspiration greatly exceeds precipitation, it is theoretically possible to preclude water form reaching interred wastes by (i) providing a sufficient cap of soil to store precipitation that falls while plants are dormant and (ii) establishing sufficient plant cover to deplete soil moisture during the growing season, thereby emptying the water storage reservoir of the soil. Here the authors discuss the theory and rationale for such an approach and then present the results of a field study to test its efficacy at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). They examined the capacity of four species of perennial plants to deplete soil moisture on simulated waste trenches and determined the effective water storage capacity of the soil. Those data enabled them to estimate the minimum depth of fill soil required to prevent deep drainage. Any of the species studied can use all of the plant-available soil water, even during a very wet growing season. The water storage capacity of the soil studied is 17% by volume, so a trench cap of 1.6 m of soil should be adequate to store precipitation received at the INEL while plants are dormant. They recommend a fill soil depth of 2 m to provide a margin of safety in case water accumulates in local areas as a result of heavy snow accumulation, subsidence, or runoff. Fill soil requirements and choice of plant species will vary, but the concepts and general approach are applicable to other shallow land burial sites in arid or semiarid regions. 23 refs., 5 figs

  14. Changes of the soil environment affected by fly ash dumping site of the electric power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jerzy; Gwizdz, Marta; Jamroz, Elzbieta; Debicka, Magdalena; Kocowicz, Andrzej

    2014-05-01

    In this study the effect of fly ash dumping site of the electric power plant on the surrounding soil environment was investigated. The fly ash dumping site collect wastes form brown coal combustion of Belchatow electric power station, central Poland. The dumping site is surrounding by forest, where pine trees overgrow Podzols derived from loose quartz sands. The soil profiles under study were located at a distance of 50, 100, 400 and 500 m from the dumping site, while control profiles were located 8 km away from the landfill. In all horizons of soil profiles the mpain hysico-chemical and chemical properties were determined. The humic substances were extracted from ectohumus horizons by Shnitzer's method, purified using XAD resin and freeze-dried. The fulvic acids were passed through a cation exchange column and freeze-dried. Optical density, elemental composition and atomic ratios were determined in the humic and fulvic acids. Organic carbon by KMnO4 oxidation was also determined in the organic soil horizons. The fly ash from the landfill characterized by high salinity and strong alkaline reaction (pH=10), which contributed significantly to the changes of the pH values in soils horizons. The alkalization of soils adjacent to the landfill was found, which manifested in increasing of pH values in the upper soil horizons. The impact of the landfill was also noted in the changes of the soil morphology of Podzols analysed. As a result of the alkalization, Bhs horizons have been converted into a Bs horizons. Leaching of low molecular humus fraction - typical for podzolization - has been minimized as a result of pH changes caused by the impact of the landfill, and originally occurring humic substances in the Bhs horizon (present in the control profiles) have been probably transported out of the soil profile and then into the groundwater.

  15. Soils and site types in the Forsmark area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundin, Lars; Lode, Elve; Stendahl, Johan; Melkerud, Per-Arne; Bjoerkvald, Louise; Thorstensson, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Investigations to give prerequisites for long-term storage of nuclear waste are made by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB AB). Ecosystem functions are crucial in this management. The range of the scope is wide including bedrock, regolith, hydrosphere and biosphere. The interface between deep geological formations and surface systems is then considered very important. This would be the top of the regolith, where soils are developed. Special attention has been paid to these layers with fairly comprehensive investigations. Field investigations were made for one of the candidate areas, the Forsmark area, in 2002 by the Department of Forest Soils, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. In these ecosystem functions, the upper part of the regolith is one crucial component and the focus in the investigations was on the upper metre of the soil. Variables determined include vegetation, hydrology, soil parent material, textural composition, soil type and physical and chemical properties of relevant soil layers. Methods used in the investigation coincide with those of the Swedish Forest Soil Inventory, which provide possibilities to compare properties in the Forsmark area with those of total Sweden and regions of the country. Soil properties were determined thoroughly on eight site types in two replicates to provide statistical significance. However, this meant that the investigation did not have a total spatial coverage. Instead, the spatial distribution of soils in the area was determined from a GIS based on the inventory made and information on vegetation types, distribution of Quaternary deposits and a hydrological index. From this GIS, distributions were compared with other parts of the country. The geographical location of the Forsmark area (N 60 deg 22 min; E 18 deg 13 min) is on the northeast coast of central Sweden bordering to the Bothnian Sea. The area is low-lying, reaching only up to 15 m above the sea, which means that the soils are

  16. Validation of site-specific soil Ni toxicity thresholds with independent ecotoxicity and biogeochemistry data for elevated soil Ni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Beverley; Gopalapillai, Yamini; Pellegrino, Amanda; Jennett, Tyson; Kikkert, Julie; Lau, Wilson; Schlekat, Christian; McLaughlin, Mike J

    2017-12-01

    The Existing Substances Regulation Risk Assessments by the European Union (EU RA) generated new toxicity data for soil organisms exposed to Ni added to sixteen field-collected soils with low background concentration of metals and varying physico-chemical soil characteristics. Using only effective cation exchange capacity (eCEC) as a bioavailability correction, chronic toxicity of Ni in soils with a wide range of characteristics could be predicted within a factor of two. The objective of the present study was to determine whether this was also the case for three independent data sets of Ni toxicity thresholds. Two of the data sets were from Community Based Risk Assessments in Port Colborne ON, and Sudbury ON (Canada) for soils containing elevated concentrations of Ni, Co and Cu arising from many decades of Ni mining, smelting and refining. The third data set was the Metals in Asia study of soluble Ni added to field soils in China. These data yielded 72 leached and aged EC 10 /NOEC values for soil Ni, for arthropods, higher plants and woodlot structure and function. These were reduced to nine most sensitive single or geometric mean species/function endpoints, none of which were lower than the HC 5 predicted for a soil with an eCEC of 20 cmol/kg. Most of these leached and aged EC 10 /NOEC values were from soils co-contaminated with Cu, in some cases at its median HC 5 as predicted by the EU RA from soil characteristics. We conclude that the EU RA is protective of Ni toxicity to higher-tier ecological endpoints, including in mixture with Cu, before the assessment factor of 2 is applied. We suggest that for prospective risk assessment, the bioavailability based PNEC (HC 5 /2) be used as a conservative screen, but for retrospective and site-specific risk assessment, the bioavailability based HC 5 is sufficient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Empirical Site Amplification Factors Incorporating Soil Nonlinearity in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, C. H.; Chung, C. H.; Che-Min, L.; Huang, J. Y.; Wen, K. L.

    2017-12-01

    Characteristics of site amplifications caused by both crustal and subduction earthquakes are important in Taiwan. For example, seismic waves were amplified and led to significant building damages in the Taipei Basin by the 1986 Hualien offshore (subduction interface) and the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquakes (crustal), for which the epicentral distances were about 100 km. To understand local site amplifications in Taiwan, empirical site amplification factors for horizontal ground motions are studied using recently constructed strong motion and site databases for the free-field TSMIP stations in Taiwan. Records of large magnitude earthquakes of ML larger than six from 1994 to 2014 were selected for this study. Site amplification factors at site conditions with Vs30 of 120 m/s to 1500 m/s and base accelerations up to 0.7g were inferred from intensity ratios of station pairs within specific distances. The reference site condition is assumed as Vs30 of 760 m/s (B/C boundary). Preliminary results indicate: 1. Soil nonlinearity is more obviously at short periods (PGA, Sa0.3) than long periods (PGV, Sa1.0). 2. Soil nonlinearity is significant for stations belong to site classes of B, C, D, and E in Taiwan. 3. Effect of station-pair distance is seen at short periods (PGA and Sa0.3). 4. No significant different is found in site amplifications of crustal and subduction earthquakes. The result could be a reference for the Fa and Fv in Taiwan's building code.

  18. Removal of arsenic from Janghang smelter site and energy crops-grown soil with soil washing using magnetic iron oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jaemaro; Zhao, Xin; Lee, Jong Keun; Kim, Jae Young

    2014-05-01

    Arsenic compounds are considered carcinogen and easily enter drinking water supplies with their natural abundance. US Environmental Protection Agency is finalizing a regulation to reduce the public health risks from arsenic in drinking water by revising the current drinking water standard for arsenic from 50 ppb to 10 ppb in 2001 (USEPA, 2001). Therefore, soil remediation is also growing field to prevent contamination of groundwater as well as crop cultivation. Soil washing is adjusted as ex-situ soil remediation technique which reduces volume of the contaminated soil. The technique is composed of physical separation and chemical extraction to extract target metal contamination in the soil. Chemical extraction methods have been developed solubilizing contaminants containing reagents such as acids or chelating agents. And acid extraction is proven as the most commonly used technology to treat heavy metals in soil, sediment, and sludge (FRTR, 2007). Due to the unique physical and chemical properties, magnetic iron oxide have been used in diverse areas including information technology and biomedicine. Magnetic iron oxides also can be used as adsorbent to heavy metal enhancing removal efficiency of arsenic concentration. In this study, magnetite is used as the washing agent with acid extraction condition so that the injected oxide can be separated by magnetic field. Soil samples were collected from three separate areas in the Janghang smelter site and energy crops-grown soil to have synergy effect with phytoremediation. Each sample was air-dried and sieved (2mm). Soil washing condition was adjusted on pH in the range of 0-12 with hydrogen chloride and sodium hydroxide. After performing soil washing procedure, arsenic-extracted samples were analyzed for arsenic concentration by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). All the soils have exceeded worrisome level of soil contamination for region 1 (25mg/kg) so the soil remediation techniques are

  19. Spectral shapes for accelerograms recorded at soil sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, A.K.; Sharma, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    Earthquake accelerograms recorded on soil sites have been analysed to develop site-specific response spectra. This report presents the normalised pseudo-absolute acceleration spectra for various values of damping and ground motion parameters viz. v/a, ad/v 2 and the ratios of peak accelerations in the three orthogonal directions. These results will be useful in the earthquake resistant design of structures. 4 tables, 14 figures. (author)

  20. Soils and site types in the Forsmark area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundin, Lars; Lode, Elve; Stendahl, Johan; Melkerud, Per-Arne; Bjoerkvald, Louise; Thorstensson, Anna [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Soils

    2004-01-01

    Investigations to give prerequisites for long-term storage of nuclear waste are made by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB AB). Ecosystem functions are crucial in this management. The range of the scope is wide including bedrock, regolith, hydrosphere and biosphere. The interface between deep geological formations and surface systems is then considered very important. This would be the top of the regolith, where soils are developed. Special attention has been paid to these layers with fairly comprehensive investigations. Field investigations were made for one of the candidate areas, the Forsmark area, in 2002 by the Department of Forest Soils, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. In these ecosystem functions, the upper part of the regolith is one crucial component and the focus in the investigations was on the upper metre of the soil. Variables determined include vegetation, hydrology, soil parent material, textural composition, soil type and physical and chemical properties of relevant soil layers. Methods used in the investigation coincide with those of the Swedish Forest Soil Inventory, which provide possibilities to compare properties in the Forsmark area with those of total Sweden and regions of the country. Soil properties were determined thoroughly on eight site types in two replicates to provide statistical significance. However, this meant that the investigation did not have a total spatial coverage. Instead, the spatial distribution of soils in the area was determined from a GIS based on the inventory made and information on vegetation types, distribution of Quaternary deposits and a hydrological index. From this GIS, distributions were compared with other parts of the country. The geographical location of the Forsmark area (N 60 deg 22 min; E 18 deg 13 min) is on the northeast coast of central Sweden bordering to the Bothnian Sea. The area is low-lying, reaching only up to 15 m above the sea, which means that the soils are

  1. Development of site-specific soil cleanup criteria: New Brunswick Laboratory, New Jersey site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veluri, V.R.; Moe, H.J.; Robinet, M.J.; Wynveen, R.A.

    1983-03-01

    The potential human exposure which results from the residual soil radioactivity at a decommissioned site is a prime concern during D and D projects. To estimate this exposure, a pathway analysis approach is often used to arrive at the residual soil radioactivity criteria. The development of such a criteria for the decommissioning of the New Brunswick Laboratory, New Jersey site is discussed. Contamination on this site was spotty and located in small soil pockets spread throughout the site area. Less than 1% of the relevant site area was contaminated. The major contaminants encountered at the site were /sup 239/Pu, /sup 241/Am, normal and natural uranium, and natural thorium. During the development of the pathway analysis to determine the site cleanup criteria, corrections for the inhomogeneity of the contamination were made. These correction factors and their effect upon the relevant pathway parameters are presented. Major pathways by which radioactive material may reach an individual are identified and patterns of use are specified (scenario). Each pathway is modeled to estimate the transfer parameters along the given pathway, such as soil to air to man, etc. The transfer parameters are then combined with dose rate conversion factors (ICRP 30 methodology) to obtain soil concentration to dose rate conversion factors (pCi/g/mrem/yr). For an appropriate choice of annual dose equivalent rate, one can then arrive at a value for the residual soil concentration. Pathway modeling, transfer parameters, and dose rate factors for the three major pathways; inhalation, ingestion and external exposure, which are important for the NBL site, are discussed.

  2. Herbage Dynamics and Soils of two Different Sites of Calotropis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine herbage dynamics, herbs in each quadrat of the experimental sites were harvested, sorted out according to species, counted and identified in the herbarium. Simpson's index, D = ∑Pi2 was used to obtain relative frequencies and abundance of species. Soil samples were derived from the quadrats and ...

  3. Use of Magnetic Parameters to Asses Soil Erosion Rates on Agricultural Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovsky, E.; Kapicka, A.; Dlouha, S.; Jaksik, O.; Grison, H.; Kodesova, R.

    2014-12-01

    A detailed field study on a small test site of agricultural land situated in loess region in Southern Moravia (Czech Republic) and laboratory analyses were carried out in order to test the applicability of magnetic methods in assessing soil erosion. Haplic Chernozem, the original dominant soil unit in the area, is nowadays progressively transformed into different soil units along with intense soil erosion. As a result, an extremely diversified soil cover structure has developed due to the erosion. The site was characterized by a flat upper part while the middle part, formed by a substantive side valley, is steeper. We carried out field measurements of magnetic susceptibility on a regular grid, resulting in 101 data points. The bulk soil material for laboratory investigation was gathered from all the grid points. Values of the magnetic susceptibility are spatially distributed depending on the terrain. Higher values were measured in the flat upper part (where the original top horizon remained). The lowest values of were obtained on the steep valley sides. Here the original topsoil was eroded and mixed by tillage with the soil substrate (loess). A soil profile unaffected by erosion was investigated in detail. The vertical distribution of magnetic susceptibility along this "virgin" profile was measured in laboratory on the samples collected with 2-cm spacing. The undisturbed profile shows several soil horizons. Horizons Ac and A show a slight increase in magnetic susceptibility up to a depth of about 70 cm. Horizon A/Ck is characterized by a decrease in susceptibility, and the underlying C horizon (h > 103 cm) has a very low value of magnetic susceptibility. The differences between the values of susceptibility in the undisturbed soil profile and the magnetic signal after uniform mixing the soil material as a result of tillage and erosion are fundamental for the estimation of soil loss in the studied test field. Using the uneroded profile from the studied locality as a

  4. Assessment of Soil Erosion Methods for Sludge Recovery, Savannah River Site

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Lawson

    1997-01-01

    ...) from selected storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) was assessed conceptually. Soil erosion methods are defined as the processes of soil detachment, entrainment, transport, and deposition...

  5. Distribution coefficient Kd in surface soils collected in Aomori prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, Hirofumi; Hasegawa, Hidenao; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Inaba, Jiro

    2000-01-01

    Soil-solution distribution coefficients (Kds), which are the ratio of an element concentration in a soil solid phase to that in a solution phase, for 32 elements in Andosols, Wet Andosols and Gleyed Andosols collected throughout Aomori Prefecture were determined. A dried soil sample was mixed with a 10-fold amount of pure water in a PPCO centrifuge tube, and then gently shaken for 24 h. The Kd values were obtained by measurement of element concentrations in solid and solution phases (batch method). The Kd values in this work were up to three orders of magnitude higher than the IAEA reported values, and their 95% confidence intervals were within two orders of magnitude. Most Kd values of elements were decreasing with increasing electrical conductivity of the solution phase. The Kd of Ca had a good correlation with that of Sr. However, the correlation between the Kds of K and Cs was not good. The Kd values were also determined by another method. The soil solutions were separated from the fresh soil samples by means of high speed centrifuging. The Kd values were calculated from the element concentration in solid phase and soil solution (centrifugation method). The Kd values obtained by the centrifugation method agreed within one order of magnitude with those by the batch method, and both variation patterns in elements correlated well. (author)

  6. Radionuclide concentrations in terrestrial vegetation and soil on and around the Hanford Site, 1983 through 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, T.M.; Antonio, E.J.; Cooper, A.T.

    1995-08-01

    This report reviews concentrations of 60 Co, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, U isotopes, 238 Pu, 239,240 Pu, and 241 Am in soil and vegetation samples collected from 1983 through 1993 during routine surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling locations were grouped in study areas associated with operational areas on the Site. While radionuclide concentrations were very low and representative of background concentrations from historic fallout, some study areas on the Site contained slightly elevated concentrations compared to other study areas onsite and offsite. The 100 Areas had concentrations of 60 Co comparable to the minimum detectable concentration of 0.02 pCi/g in soil. Concentrations of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239,240 Pu, and 241 Am in 200 Area soils were slightly elevated. The 300 Area had a slight elevation of U in soil. These observations were expected because many of the sampling locations were selected to monitor specific facilities or operations at the operational areas. Generally, concentrations of the radionuclides studied were greater and more readily measured in soil samples compared to vegetation samples. The general pattern of concentrations of radionuclide concentrations in vegetation by area mirrored that observed in soil. Declines in 90 Sr in soil appear to be attributed to radioactive decay and possibly downward migration out of the sampling horizon. The other radionuclides addressed in this report strongly sorb to soil and are readily retained in surface soil. Because of their long half-lives compared to the length of the study period, there was no significant indication that concentrations of U isotopes and Pu isotopes were decreasing over time

  7. Event-based soil loss models for construction sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenouth, William R.; Gharabaghi, Bahram

    2015-05-01

    The elevated rates of soil erosion stemming from land clearing and grading activities during urban development, can result in excessive amounts of eroded sediments entering waterways and causing harm to the biota living therein. However, construction site event-based soil loss simulations - required for reliable design of erosion and sediment controls - are one of the most uncertain types of hydrologic models. This study presents models with improved degree of accuracy to advance the design of erosion and sediment controls for construction sites. The new models are developed using multiple linear regression (MLR) on event-based permutations of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and artificial neural networks (ANN). These models were developed using surface runoff monitoring datasets obtained from three sites - Greensborough, Cookstown, and Alcona - in Ontario and datasets mined from the literature for three additional sites - Treynor, Iowa, Coshocton, Ohio and Cordoba, Spain. The predictive MLR and ANN models can serve as both diagnostic and design tools for the effective sizing of erosion and sediment controls on active construction sites, and can be used for dynamic scenario forecasting when considering rapidly changing land use conditions during various phases of construction.

  8. Radon exhalation rates from soil and sand samples collected from the vicinity of Yamuna river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, A.K.; Sushil Kumar; Chauhan, Pooja; Chauhan, R.P.

    2011-01-01

    Soil, sand and stones are the most popular building materials for Indian dwellings. Radon is released into ambient air from these materials due to ubiquitous uranium and radium in them, thus increasing the airborne radon concentration. The radioactivity in sand and soils is related to radioactivity in the rocks from which they are formed. These materials contain varying amount of uranium. In the present investigation, the radon emanated from soil and sand samples from different locations in the vicinity of Yamuna river has been estimated. The samples have been collected from different locations near the Yamuna river. The samples collecting sites are from Yamunanagar in Haryana to Delhi. The radon concentration in different samples has been calculated, based upon the data, the mass and the surface exhalation rates of radon emanated from them have also been calculated

  9. Soil-moisture transport in arid site vadose zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacson, R.E.; Brownell, L.E.; Nelson, R.W.; Roetman, E.L.

    1974-01-01

    Soil-moisture transport processes in the arid soils of the United States Atomic Energy Commission's Hanford site are being evaluated. The depth of penetration of meteoric precipitation has been determined by profiling fall-out tritium at two locations where the water table is about 90 m below ground surface. In situ temperatures and water potentials were measured with temperature transducers and thermocouple psychrometers at the same location to obtain thermodynamic data for identifying the factors influencing soil-moisture transport. Neutron probes are being used to monitor soil-moisture changes in two lysimeters, three metres in diameter by 20 metres deep. The lysimeters are also equipped to measure pressure, temperature and relative humidity as a function of depth and time. Theoretical models based on conservation of momentum expressions are being developed to analyse non-isothermal soil-moisture transport processes. Future work will be concerned with combining the theoretical and experimental work and determining the amount of rainfall required to cause migration of soil-moisture to the water table. (author)

  10. Soil organic matter status in forest soils - possible indicators for climate change induced site shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Nadine; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören

    2010-05-01

    The quantity and quality of soil organic matter (SOM) and SOM pools and thus the soil properties related to carbon sequestration and water retention are not constant but exhibit considerable variation through changing climate. In total changes in soil fertility and an increase in plant stress are expected. This is relevant for northwest Europe as well and may have economic and social impacts since functions of forests for wood production, groundwater recharge, soil protection and recreation might be affected. The study is done by comparative investigation of selected sites at four watersheds that represent typical forest stands in the region of Luxembourg and South West Germany. The aim is to identify SOM storage and stability in forest soils and its dependence on site properties and interaction with tree stand conditions. According to state of the art fractionation schemes functional C pools in forest soils and their stabilization mechanisms are investigated. In particular, distribution patterns are determined depending on location, tree stand and climatic conditions. Aim is to identify characteristics of SOM stability through fractionation of SOM according to density, particle size and chemical extractability and their subsequent analytical characterization. So far, reasons about the origin, composition and stabilization mechanisms underlying the different SOM pools are not fully understood. Presented are different patterns of distribution of SOM in relation to land use and site conditions, as well as similarities and differences between the different forest soils and results in addition to passive OM pool, which is mainly responsible for long-term stabilization of carbon in soils. These are aligned with selected general' soil properties such as pH, CEC and texture.

  11. Site Response Analysis Using DeepSoil: Case Study of Bangka Site, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iswanto, Eko Rudi; Yee, Eric [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Indonesia government declared through Act No. 17 year 2007 on the National Long-Term Development Plant Year 2005-2025 and Presidential Decree No. 5 year 2006 on the National Energy Policy (Indonesia 2007; Indonesia 2006), that nuclear energy is stated as a part of the national energy system. In order to undertake the above national policy, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia, as the promotor for the utilization of nuclear energy will conduct site study, which is a part of infrastructure preparation for NPP construction. Thorough preparation and steps are needed to operate an NPP and it takes between 10 to 15 years from the preliminary study (site selection, financial study, etc.) up to project implementation (manufacturing, construction, commissioning). During project implementation, it is necessary to prepare various documents relevant for permit application such as Safety Evaluation Report for site permit, Preliminary Safety Analysis Report and Environment Impact Assessment Report for construction permit. Considering the continuously increasing electricity energy demand, it is necessary to prepare for alternative NPP sites. The safety requirements of NPP's are stringent; amongst the various requirements is the ability to safely shut down in the wake of a possible earthquake. Ground response analysis of a potential site therefore needs to be carried out, parameter that affect the resistance of an NPP to earthquakes such as peak strain profiles is analysed. The objective of this paper is to analyse the ground response of the selected site for a NPP, using The Mw 7.9 in Sikuai Island, West Sumatra on September 12, 2007 as present input motion. This analysis will be carried out using a ground response analysis program, DeepSoil. In addition to this, an attempt was made to define the site specific input motion characteristics of the selected site for use in DeepSoil (DeepSoil 5.0). A site investigation at the WB site was performed primarily on the PS

  12. Vadose zone characterization of highly radioactive contaminated soil at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckmaster, M.A.

    1993-05-01

    The Hanford Site in south-central Washington State contains over 1500 identified waste sites and numerous groundwater plumes that will be characterized and remediated over the next 30 years. As a result of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the US Department of Energy has initiated a remedial investigation/feasibility study at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 remedial investigation is the first Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 investigation on the Hanford Site that involves drilling into highly radioactive and chemically contaminated soils. The initial phase of site characterization was designed to assess the nature and extent of contamination associated with the source waste site within the 200-BP-1 operable unit. Characterization activities consisted of drilling and sampling the waste site, chemical and physical analysis of samples, and development of a conceptual vadose zone model. Predicted modeling concentrations compared favorably to analytical data collected during the initial characterization activities

  13. 1996 Phase 2 soil sampling at the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basin site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, C.D.

    1996-10-01

    This report consolidates 1996 soil sampling data collected from the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basin Site. This report is intended to be a data reference and does not make comparisons or conclusions regarding specific regulatory criteria. Chemical and radiological data were collected to support cleanup activities at the Hanford Site; soil sampling occurred beneath and next to the former basin structures. The 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins, which consisted of four adjoining concrete basins, were located in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site, north of the retired 105-H Reactor. Originally, the basins were built as part of the 100-H water treatment structures. The four basins were inactive from the mid-1960's until 1973 when radioactive and dangerous (mixed) waste from the 300 Area Fuel Fabrication Facility was shipped to the basins for storage and treatment. The basins were used for solar evaporation of the waste. The last shipment of waste to the 183-H Basins took place in November 1985. Decontamination of the cement structure took place in 1995. The structure has subsequently been dismantled and disposed. Chapters 2.0 through 4.0 present summary information about sampling (1) beneath the loading ramp and berm piles, (2) in shallow soils beneath the former basin floor, and (3) deep vadose soils. Detailed data are provided in the appendices

  14. Laboratory study on metal attenuation capacity of fine grained soil near ash pond site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sudipta; Mukherjee, Somnath; Sarkar, Sujoy; Kumar, Sunil

    2008-10-01

    Waste settling tanks of earthen containment nature are common in India for disposal of solid waste in slurry form. For a large pond system, e.g. ash slurry disposal tank of coal base thermal power plant, leachate generation and its migration pose a serious problem. A natural attenuation of controlling the migratory leachate is to use locally available clay material as lining system due to the adsorption properties of soil for reducing some metallic ions. The present investigation was carried out to explore the Ni2+ and Cr6+ removal capacity of surrounding soil of the ash pond site of Super Thermal Power Plant in West Bengal, India through some laboratory scale and field studies. The soil and water samples collected from the site showed the existence of Ni2+ and Cr6+ in excess to permissible limit. A two-dimensional adsorption behaviour of these pollutants through soil was assessed. The results showed that more than 80% of nickel and 72% of chromium were found to be sorbed by the soil corresponding to initial concentrations of two ions, i.e. 1.366 mg/L and 0.76 mg/L respectively. The batch adsorption data are tested Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and found reasonably fit. Breakthrough adsorption study uptake also showed a good adsorption capacity of the soil. The experimental results found to fit well with the existing two dimensional (2D) mathematical models as proposed by Fetter (1999).

  15. Radon Emanation from NORM-Contaminated Pipe Scale, Soil, and Sediment at Petroleum Industry Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rood, A.S.; White, G.J.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes a study of radon (Rn) emanation from pipe scale and soil samples contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Samples were collected at petroleum production sites in Oklahoma, Michigan, Kentucky, and Illinois. For comparison, data are also presented from preliminary studies conducted at sites in Texas and Wyoming. All samples collected were analyzed for their Rn emanation fraction, defined as the fraction of 222Rn produced that enters the interconnected pore space within a medium contaminated with 226Ra before the 222Rn undergoes radioactive decay. This measure represents one of the important parameters that determine the overall Rn activity flux from any solid medium. The goal of this project was to determine whether Rn emanation from pipe scale and soil is similar to emanation from uranium mill tailings

  16. Heavy metal contamination in soils and vegetables near an e-waste processing site, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chunling; Liu, Chuanping; Wang, Yan; Liu, Xiang; Li, Fangbai; Zhang, Gan; Li, Xiangdong

    2011-02-15

    Environmental pollution due to uncontrolled e-waste recycling activities has been reported in a number of locations of China. In the present study, metal pollution to the surrounding environment from a primitive e-waste processing facility was investigated. Soils at sites where e-waste is burned in the open air, those of surrounding paddy fields and vegetable gardens, as well as common vegetable samples were collected and analyzed for heavy metals. The results showed that the soils of former incineration sites had the highest concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn with mean values of 17.1, 11,140, 4500, and 3690 mg kg(-1), respectively. The soils of nearby paddy fields and vegetable gardens also had relatively high concentrations of Cd and Cu. In the edible tissues of vegetables, the concentrations of Cd and Pb in most samples exceeded the maximum level permitted for food in China. Sequential leaching tests revealed that the Cu, Pb, and Zn were predominantly associated with the residual fraction, followed by the carbonate/specifically adsorbed phases with the exception of Cd, which was mainly in the extractable form in paddy fields and vegetable soils. The data showed that uncontrolled e-waste processing operations caused serious pollution to local soils and vegetables. The cleaning up of former incineration sites should be a priority in any future remediation program. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Forming artificial soils from waste materials for mine site rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellishetty, Mohan; Wong, Vanessa; Taylor, Michael; Li, Johnson

    2014-05-01

    Surface mining activities often produce large volumes of solid wastes which invariably requires the removal of significant quantities of waste rock (overburden). As mines expand, larger volumes of waste rock need to be moved which also require extensive areas for their safe disposal and containment. The erosion of these dumps may result in landform instability, which in turn may result in exposure of contaminants such as trace metals, elevated sediment delivery in adjacent waterways, and the subsequent degradation of downstream water quality. The management of solid waste materials from industrial operations is also a key component for a sustainable economy. For example, in addition to overburden, coal mines produce large amounts of waste in the form of fly ash while sewage treatment plants require disposal of large amounts of compost. Similarly, paper mills produce large volumes of alkaline rejected wood chip waste which is usually disposed of in landfill. These materials, therefore, presents a challenge in their use, and re-use in the rehabilitation of mine sites and provides a number of opportunities for innovative waste disposal. The combination of solid wastes sourced from mines, which are frequently nutrient poor and acidic, with nutrient-rich composted material produced from sewage treatment and alkaline wood chip waste has the potential to lead to a soil suitable for mine rehabilitation and successful seed germination and plant growth. This paper presents findings from two pilot projects which investigated the potential of artificial soils to support plant growth for mine site rehabilitation. We found that pH increased in all the artificial soil mixtures and were able to support plant establishment. Plant growth was greatest in those soils with the greatest proportion of compost due to the higher nutrient content. These pot trials suggest that the use of different waste streams to form an artificial soil can potentially be used in mine site rehabilitation

  18. Control of Eolian soil erosion from waste site surface barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligotke, M.W.

    1994-11-01

    Physical models were tested in a wind tunnel to determine optimum surface-ravel admixtures for protecting silt-loam soil from erosion by, wind and saltating, sand stresses. The tests were performed to support the development of a natural-material surface barrier for and waste sites. Plans call for a 2-m deep silt-loam soil reservoir to retain infiltrating water from rainfall and snowmelt. The objective of the study was to develop a gravel admixture that would produce an erosion-resistant surface layer during, periods of extended dry climatic stress. Thus, tests were performed using simulated surfaces representing dry, unvegetated conditions present just after construction, after a wildfire, or during an extended drought. Surfaces were prepared using silt-loam soil mixed with various grades of sand and Travel. Wind-induced surface shear stresses were controlled over the test surfaces, as were saltating, sand mass flow rates and intensities. Tests were performed at wind speeds that approximated and exceeded local 100-year peak gust intensities. Surface armors produced by pea gravel admixtures were shown to provide the best protection from wind and saltating sand stresses. Compared with unprotected silt-loam surfaces, armored surfaces reduced erosion rates by more than 96%. Based in part on wind tunnel results, a pea gravel admixture of 15% will be added to the top 1 in of soil in a prototype barrier under construction in 1994. Field tests are planned at the prototype site to provide data for comparison with wind tunnel results

  19. Validation of site-specific soil Ni toxicity thresholds with independent ecotoxicity and biogeochemistry data for elevated soil Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, Beverley; Gopalapillai, Yamini; Pellegrino, Amanda; Jennett, Tyson; Kikkert, Julie; Lau, Wilson; Schlekat, Christian; McLaughlin, Mike J.

    2017-01-01

    The Existing Substances Regulation Risk Assessments by the European Union (EU RA) generated new toxicity data for soil organisms exposed to Ni added to sixteen field-collected soils with low background concentration of metals and varying physico-chemical soil characteristics. Using only effective cation exchange capacity (eCEC) as a bioavailability correction, chronic toxicity of Ni in soils with a wide range of characteristics could be predicted within a factor of two. The objective of the present study was to determine whether this was also the case for three independent data sets of Ni toxicity thresholds. Two of the data sets were from Community Based Risk Assessments in Port Colborne ON, and Sudbury ON (Canada) for soils containing elevated concentrations of Ni, Co and Cu arising from many decades of Ni mining, smelting and refining. The third data set was the Metals in Asia study of soluble Ni added to field soils in China. These data yielded 72 leached and aged EC 10 /NOEC values for soil Ni, for arthropods, higher plants and woodlot structure and function. These were reduced to nine most sensitive single or geometric mean species/function endpoints, none of which were lower than the HC 5 predicted for a soil with an eCEC of 20 cmol/kg. Most of these leached and aged EC 10 /NOEC values were from soils co-contaminated with Cu, in some cases at its median HC 5 as predicted by the EU RA from soil characteristics. We conclude that the EU RA is protective of Ni toxicity to higher-tier ecological endpoints, including in mixture with Cu, before the assessment factor of 2 is applied. We suggest that for prospective risk assessment, the bioavailability based PNEC (HC 5 /2) be used as a conservative screen, but for retrospective and site-specific risk assessment, the bioavailability based HC 5 is sufficient. - Highlights: • Higher-tier ecotoxicity thresholds calculated for field soils with elevated Ni. • Adjusted for Ni bioavailability using soil eCEC and species

  20. Soil Water Balance and Recharge Monitoring at the Hanford Site - FY09 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockhold, Mark L.; Saunders, Danielle L.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Waichler, Scott R.; Clayton, Ray E.

    2009-09-28

    Recharge provides the primary driving force for transporting contaminants from the vadose zone to underlying aquifer systems. Quantification of recharge rates is important for assessing contaminant transport and fate and for evaluating remediation alternatives. This report describes the status of soil water balance and recharge monitoring performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory at the Hanford Site for Fiscal Year 2009. Previously reported data for Fiscal Years 2004 - 2008 are updated with data collected in Fiscal Year 2009 and summarized.

  1. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes. Revision 1, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    Volume two contains the following appendices: Description of soil sampling sites; sampling narrative; raw data soil background; background data analysis; sitewide background soil sampling plan; and use of soil background data for the detection of contamination at waste management unit on the Hanford Site.

  2. Soil pollution with trace elements at selected sites in Romania studied by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantelica, A.; Carmo Freitas, M. do; Ene, A.; Steinnes, E.

    2013-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine concentrations of 42 elements in samples of surface soil collected at seven sites polluted from various anthropogenic activities and a control site in a relatively clean area. Elements studied were Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Gd, Hf, Hg, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, W, Yb, Zn, and Zr. The results are compared with data for trace elements atmospheric deposition in lichen transplants from the same sites. The most severe soil contamination was observed at Copsa Mica from non-ferrous metallurgy. Appreciable soil contamination was also indicated at Baia Mare (non-ferrous mining and metallurgy), Deva (coal-fired power plant, cement and building materials industry), Galati (ferrous metallurgy), Magurele and Afumati (general urban pollution), and Oradea (chemical and light industries). In most cases excessive levels of toxic metals in soils matched correspondingly high values in lichen transplants. Compared to Romanian norms, legal upper limits were exceeded for Zn and Cd at Copsa Mica. Also, As and Sb occurred in excessive levels at given sites. (orig.)

  3. Soil pollution with trace elements at selected sites in Romania studied by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantelica, A. [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), Magurele, Ilfov County (Romania); Carmo Freitas, M. do [Technological and Nuclear Institute (ITN), Sacavem (Portugal); Ene, A. [Dunarea de Jos Univ. of Galati (Romania). Dept. of Chemistry, Physics and Environment; Steinnes, E. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Chemistry

    2013-03-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine concentrations of 42 elements in samples of surface soil collected at seven sites polluted from various anthropogenic activities and a control site in a relatively clean area. Elements studied were Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Gd, Hf, Hg, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, W, Yb, Zn, and Zr. The results are compared with data for trace elements atmospheric deposition in lichen transplants from the same sites. The most severe soil contamination was observed at Copsa Mica from non-ferrous metallurgy. Appreciable soil contamination was also indicated at Baia Mare (non-ferrous mining and metallurgy), Deva (coal-fired power plant, cement and building materials industry), Galati (ferrous metallurgy), Magurele and Afumati (general urban pollution), and Oradea (chemical and light industries). In most cases excessive levels of toxic metals in soils matched correspondingly high values in lichen transplants. Compared to Romanian norms, legal upper limits were exceeded for Zn and Cd at Copsa Mica. Also, As and Sb occurred in excessive levels at given sites. (orig.)

  4. Passive soil venting at the Chemical Waste Landfill Site at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelan, J.M.; Reavis, B.; Cheng, W.C.

    1995-05-01

    Passive Soil Vapor Extraction was tested at the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) site at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNLIW). Data collected included ambient pressures, differential pressures between soil gas and ambient air, gas flow rates into and out of the soil and concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) in vented soil gas. From the differential pressure and flow rate data, estimates of permeability were arrived at and compared with estimates from other studies. Flow, differential pressure, and ambient pressure data were collected for nearly 30 days. VOC data were collected for two six-hour periods during this time. Total VOC emissions were calculated and found to be under the limit set by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Although a complete process evaluation is not possible with the data gathered, some of the necessary information for designing a passive venting process was determined and the important parameters for designing the process were indicated. More study is required to evaluate long-term VOC removal using passive venting and to establish total remediation costs when passive venting is used as a polishing process following active soil vapor extraction

  5. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 107: Low Impact Soil Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 107 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as 'Low Impact Soil Sites' and consists of the following 15 Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site: CAS 01-23-02, Atmospheric Test Site - High Alt; CAS 02-23-02, Contaminated Areas (2); CAS 02-23-03, Contaminated Berm; CAS 02-23-10, Gourd-Amber Contamination Area; CAS 02-23-11, Sappho Contamination Area; CAS 02-23-12, Scuttle Contamination Area; CAS 03-23-24, Seaweed B Contamination Area; CAS 03-23-27, Adze Contamination Area; CAS 03-23-28, Manzanas Contamination Area; CAS 03-23-29, Truchas-Chamisal Contamination Area; CAS 04-23-02, Atmospheric Test Site T4-a; CAS 05-23-06, Atmospheric Test Site; CAS 09-23-06, Mound of Contaminated Soil; CAS 10-23-04, Atmospheric Test Site M-10; and CAS 18-23-02, U-18d Crater (Sulky). Closure activities were conducted from February through April 2009 according to the FFACO (1996; as amended February 2008) and Revision 1 of the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 107 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2009). The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Closure activities are summarized.

  6. Temporal dynamics in microbial soil communities at anthrax carcass sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valseth, Karoline; Nesbø, Camilla L; Easterday, W Ryan; Turner, Wendy C; Olsen, Jaran S; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Haverkamp, Thomas H A

    2017-09-26

    Anthrax is a globally distributed disease affecting primarily herbivorous mammals. It is caused by the soil-dwelling and spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. The dormant B. anthracis spores become vegetative after ingestion by grazing mammals. After killing the host, B. anthracis cells return to the soil where they sporulate, completing the lifecycle of the bacterium. Here we present the first study describing temporal microbial soil community changes in Etosha National Park, Namibia, after decomposition of two plains zebra (Equus quagga) anthrax carcasses. To circumvent state-associated-challenges (i.e. vegetative cells/spores) we monitored B. anthracis throughout the period using cultivation, qPCR and shotgun metagenomic sequencing. The combined results suggest that abundance estimation of spore-forming bacteria in their natural habitat by DNA-based approaches alone is insufficient due to poor recovery of DNA from spores. However, our combined approached allowed us to follow B. anthracis population dynamics (vegetative cells and spores) in the soil, along with closely related organisms from the B. cereus group, despite their high sequence similarity. Vegetative B. anthracis abundance peaked early in the time-series and then dropped when cells either sporulated or died. The time-series revealed that after carcass deposition, the typical semi-arid soil community (e.g. Frankiales and Rhizobiales species) becomes temporarily dominated by the orders Bacillales and Pseudomonadales, known to contain plant growth-promoting species. Our work indicates that complementing DNA based approaches with cultivation may give a more complete picture of the ecology of spore forming pathogens. Furthermore, the results suggests that the increased vegetation biomass production found at carcass sites is due to both added nutrients and the proliferation of microbial taxa that can be beneficial for plant growth. Thus, future B. anthracis transmission events at carcass sites may be

  7. Nonlinear Time Domain Seismic Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) Deep Soil Site Methodology Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spears, Robert Edward; Coleman, Justin Leigh

    2015-01-01

    Currently the Department of Energy (DOE) and the nuclear industry perform seismic soil-structure interaction (SSI) analysis using equivalent linear numerical analysis tools. For lower levels of ground motion, these tools should produce reasonable in-structure response values for evaluation of existing and new facilities. For larger levels of ground motion these tools likely overestimate the in-structure response (and therefore structural demand) since they do not consider geometric nonlinearities (such as gaping and sliding between the soil and structure) and are limited in the ability to model nonlinear soil behavior. The current equivalent linear SSI (SASSI) analysis approach either joins the soil and structure together in both tension and compression or releases the soil from the structure for both tension and compression. It also makes linear approximations for material nonlinearities and generalizes energy absorption with viscous damping. This produces the potential for inaccurately establishing where the structural concerns exist and/or inaccurately establishing the amplitude of the in-structure responses. Seismic hazard curves at nuclear facilities have continued to increase over the years as more information has been developed on seismic sources (i.e. faults), additional information gathered on seismic events, and additional research performed to determine local site effects. Seismic hazard curves are used to develop design basis earthquakes (DBE) that are used to evaluate nuclear facility response. As the seismic hazard curves increase, the input ground motions (DBE's) used to numerically evaluation nuclear facility response increase causing larger in-structure response. As ground motions increase so does the importance of including nonlinear effects in numerical SSI models. To include material nonlinearity in the soil and geometric nonlinearity using contact (gaping and sliding) it is necessary to develop a nonlinear time domain methodology. This

  8. Radioactivity in Soil Samples Collected in Southern Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankovic, M.; Nikolic, J.; Pantelic, G.; Rajacic, M.; Sarap, N.; Todorovic, D.

    2013-01-01

    In the attack on the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (the focus effect was of Kosovo and Metohija and southern Serbia) in 1999, NATO forces used ammunition containing depleted uranium. Cleaning action of depleted uranium was performed by Radiation and Environmental Protection Department of the Vinca Institute of Nuclear Science, during 2002?2007 at locations: Pljackovica, Bratoselce, Borovac and Reljan. At all locations underwent detailed dosimetric screening and decontamination was performed. Because of the loose soil, DU projectils were found to a depth of 1 m. Found missiles, contaminated soil and radioactive material has been collected and stored on radioactive waste. After cleaning the ground is leveled and another dosimetric prospecting was performed. Monitoring of radioactivity in southern Serbia included determination of gamma emitters as well as determination of gross alpha and beta activities in soil, water and plant. Sampling was carried out at Pljackovica, Borovac, Bratoselce and Reljan in July 2011. This paper presents only the results of measurement of gamma emitters in soil samples and showed the presence of natural radionuclides: 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, 235U, 238U and the produced radionuclide 137Cs (from the Chernobyl accident). Also, the ratio between the 235U and 238U is given. In order to evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity, the gamma-absorbed dose rate and the external hazard index have been calculated. (author)

  9. Quantitative imaging of cation adsorption site densities in undisturbed soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, Hannes; Strobel, Bjarne W.; Gustafsson, Jon-Petter; Koestel, John

    2017-04-01

    The vast majority of present soil system models assume a homogeneous distribution and accessibility of cation adsorption sites (CAS) within soil structural units like e.g. soil horizons. This is however in conflict with several recent studies finding that CAS in soils are not uniformly but patchily distributed at and below the cm-scale. It is likely that the small-scale distribution of CAS has significant impact on the performance of these models. However, systematic approaches to map CAS densities in undisturbed soil with 3-D resolution that could lead to respective model improvements are still lacking. We therefore investigated the 3-D distribution of the CAS in undisturbed soils using X-ray scanning and barium ions as a contrast agent. We appraised the validity of the approach by comparing X-ray image-derived cation exchange coefficients (CEC) with ones obtained using the ammonium acetate method. In the process, we evaluated whether there were larger CAS concentrations at aggregate and biopore boundaries as it is often hypothesized. We sampled eight small soil cores (approx. 10 ccm) from different locations with contrasting soil texture and organic matter contents. The samples were first saturated with a potassium chloride solution (0.1 mol per liter), whereupon a 3-D X-ray image was taken. Then, the potassium chloride solution was flushed out with a barium chloride solution (0.3 mol per liter) with barium replacing the potassium from the CAS due to its larger exchange affinity. After X-ray images as well as electrical conductivity in the effluent indicated that the entire sample had been saturated with the barium chloride, the sample was again rinsed using the potassium chloride solution. When the rinsing was complete a final 3-D X-ray image was acquired. The difference images between final and initial 3-D X-ray images were interpreted as depicting the adsorbed barium as the density of barium exceeds the one of potassium by more than 2 times. The X-ray image

  10. Bioavailability and bioaccessibility of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated site soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, G.; Angell, R.; Strive, E.; Ma, W.

    2010-01-01

    Although the bioavailability and/or bioaccessibility of contaminants in soil can be measured by various ecological receptors, the methods that are suitable for metals do not necessarily work well for petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs). In this study, several biological and chemical methods were used at various PHC contaminated sites to find the most fitting method for different soil types in terms of predicting the biological responses of organisms as measured by standard single species toxicity tests. Organisms such as plants, earthworms, and collembolan were exposed to soils with different PHC concentrations. Multiple endpoints were then measured to evaluate the biological responses. The exposure concentrations for the 4 CCME hydrocarbon fractions were measured using hexane:acetone extraction as well as extractions with cyclodextrin, and a mixture of enzymes to simulate the gastro-intestinal fluid of an earthworm. The estimated exposure concentrations depended on the extraction method. The study showed that existing methodologies must be modified in order to better estimate the biological effect of PHCs in soil. Comparative data was presented and discussed along with proposed methodological modifications.

  11. Bioavailability and bioaccessibility of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated site soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, G.; Angell, R.; Strive, E.; Ma, W. [Stantec Consulting Ltd., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Although the bioavailability and/or bioaccessibility of contaminants in soil can be measured by various ecological receptors, the methods that are suitable for metals do not necessarily work well for petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs). In this study, several biological and chemical methods were used at various PHC contaminated sites to find the most fitting method for different soil types in terms of predicting the biological responses of organisms as measured by standard single species toxicity tests. Organisms such as plants, earthworms, and collembolan were exposed to soils with different PHC concentrations. Multiple endpoints were then measured to evaluate the biological responses. The exposure concentrations for the 4 CCME hydrocarbon fractions were measured using hexane:acetone extraction as well as extractions with cyclodextrin, and a mixture of enzymes to simulate the gastro-intestinal fluid of an earthworm. The estimated exposure concentrations depended on the extraction method. The study showed that existing methodologies must be modified in order to better estimate the biological effect of PHCs in soil. Comparative data was presented and discussed along with proposed methodological modifications.

  12. Estimation of distribution coefficient for uranium in soil around a waste disposal site at Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, S.; Chaudhary, D.K.; Sandeep, P.; Pandit, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    Soil contamination arising from the disposed waste from industrial origin is of major concern now a days. There is a possibility of run off as well as Ieaching of contaminants from the sites to nearby aquatic bodies through rain water. Distribution coefficient, K d in soil is an important parameter to predict the migration of contaminants. However it requires precise measurement not only for the accurate prediction of contaminant transport but also for describing the sorption behavior in a particular environment. The variation of K d values for a radionuclide is due to differences in geochemical conditions, soil materials, nature of water and methods used for the measurements. For the present study soil samples have been collected near a waste disposal site at Trombay and the sorption of uranium has been studied by measuring the distribution coefficient (K d ) by laboratory batch method. In our earlier studies, we could notice substantial effect of ionic composition of ground water on the K d values of uranium. In this study we have used rain water as the sorption media and the measured K d value s were compared with previous values for different soil and water characteristics from different regions of India

  13. Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals in Soils of Past Coking Sites: Distribution and Stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hanzhong; Zhao, Song; Nulaji, Gulimire; Tao, Kelin; Wang, Fu; Sharma, Virender K; Wang, Chuanyi

    2017-06-06

    This study presents the existence of environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) in soils of past coking sites, mainly contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Measurements of EPFRs were conducted by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique with numerous soil samples, which were collected from different distances (0-1000 m) and different depths (0-30 cm) of three contaminant sources. EPR signals with ∼3 × 10 17 radicals/g of the soil samples were obtained, which are very similar to that generated in PAHs contaminated clays, that is, g = 2.0028-2.0036. Concentrations of PAHs and soil components were determined to understand their role in producing EPFRs. PAHs, clay, and iron predominately contributed to generating EPRFs. Meanwhile, organic matter negatively influenced the production of EPRFs. The effects of environmental factors (moisture and oxic/anoxic) were also studied to probe the persistency of EPFRs under various simulated conditions. The EPFRs are stable under relatively dry and oxic conditions. Under anoxic conditions without O 2 and H 2 O, the spin densities decrease initially, followed by gradual increase before attaining constant values in two months period time. The present work implies that continuous formation of EPFRs induced by PAHs is largely responsible for the presence of relatively stable radicals in soils of coking sites.

  14. Hazard evaluation of soil contaminants from an abandoned oil refinery site with chemical and biological assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanathan, A.; Yates, C.W.; Burks, S.L.

    1993-01-01

    The phytotoxic characteristics of soil and leachates of soil from an abandoned oil refinery site were evaluated with rice (Oryza sativa L.) seed germinations and root elongation assays. Toxicity of soil leachates to aquatic animals was determined with acute and martial chronic toxicity tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia, fathead minnows, and Microtox reg-sign. Soil samples from uncontaminated (control) and selected contaminated areas within the old refinery were extracted with Toxic Characteristics Leachate Procedure (TCLP), an aqueous procedure and a supercritical carbon dioxide method. Aqueous extracts of soil from the oil leaded gasoline storage area exhibited greatest effects in all tests. Aqueous extracts from this site also caused a significant reduction in rice root development. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction proved to be a quick and non-toxic procedure for isolating non-polar organics for assay with aquatic toxicity tests. Subsequent supercritical extracts collected in solvent can help characterize the class of toxicants through HPLC and Gas Chromatography. The toxic constituents were characterized with a Toxicity Identification/Toxicity Reduction Evaluation protocol to fractionate the contaminants into conventional non-polar organics, weak acids, base-neutrals, or heavy metals for subsequent analysis

  15. Visible and infrared spectroscopy to evaluate soil quality in degraded sites: an applicative study in southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancona, Valeria; Matarrese, Raffaella; Salvatori, Rosamaria; Salzano, Roberto; Regano, Simona; Calabrese, Angelantonio; Campanale, Claudia; Felice Uricchio, Vito

    2014-05-01

    Land degradation processes like organic matter impoverishment and contamination are growing increasingly all over the world due to a non-rational and often sustainable spread of human activities on the territory. Consequently the need to characterize and monitor degraded sites is becoming very important, with the aim to hinder such main threats, which could compromise drastically, soil quality. Visible and infrared spectroscopy is a well-known technique/tool to study soil properties. Vis-NIR spectral reflectance, in fact, can be used to characterize spatial and temporal variation in soil constituents (Brown et al., 2006; Viscarra Rossel et al., 2006), and potentially its surface structure (Chappell et al., 2006, 2007). It is a rapid, non-destructive, reproducible and cost-effective analytical method to analyse soil properties and therefore, it can be a useful method to study land degradation phenomena. In this work, we present the results of proximal sensing investigations of three degraded sites (one affected by organic and inorganic contamination and two affected by soil organic matter decline) situated southern Italy close to Taranto city (in Apulia Region). A portable spectroradiometer (ASD-FieldSpec) was used to measure the reflectance properties in the spectral range between 350-2500 nm of the soil, in the selected sites, before and after a recovery treatment by using compost (organic fertilizer). For each measurement point the soil was sampled in order to perform chemical analyses to evaluate soil quality status. Three in-situ campaigns have been carried out (September 2012, June 2013, and September 2013), collecting about 20 soil samples for each site and for each campaign. Chemical and spectral analyses have been focused on investigating soil organic carbon, carbonate content, texture and, in the case of polluted site, heavy metals and organic toxic compounds. Statistical analyses have been carried out to test a prediction model of different soil quality

  16. Monitoring Soil Erosion of a Burn Site in the Central Basin and Range Ecoregion: Final Report on Measurements at the Gleason Fire Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Julianne [DRI; Etyemezian, Vicken [DRI; Shillito, Rose [DRI; Cablk, Mary [DRI; Fenstermaker, Lynn [DRI; Shafer, David [DOE Legacy Management

    2013-10-01

    The increase in wildfires in arid and semi-arid parts of Nevada and elsewhere in the southwestern United States has implications for post-closure management and long-term stewardship for Soil Corrective Action Units (CAUs) on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) for which the Nevada Field Office of the United States Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration has responsibility. For many CAUs and Corrective Action Sites, where closure-in-place alternatives are now being implemented or considered, there is a chance that these sites could burn over at some time while they still pose a risk to the environment or human health, given the long half lives of some of the radionuclide contaminants. This study was initiated to examine the effects and duration of wildfire on wind and water erodibility on sites analogous to those that exist on the NNSS. The data analyzed herein were gathered at the prescribed Gleason Fire site near Ely, Nevada, a site comparable to the northern portion of the NNSS. Quantification of wind erosion was conducted with a Portable In-Situ Wind ERosion Lab (PI-SWERL) on unburned soils, and on interspace and plant understory soils within the burned area. The PI-SWERL was used to estimate emissions of suspendible particles (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than or equal to 10 micrometers) at different wind speeds. Filter samples, collected from the exhaust of the PI-SWERL during measurements, were analyzed for chemical composition. Based on nearly three years of data, the Gleason Fire site does not appear to have returned to pre burn wind erosion levels. Chemical composition data of suspendible particles are variable and show a trend toward pre-burn levels, but provide little insight into how the composition has been changing over time since the fire. Soil, runoff, and sediment data were collected from the Gleason Fire site to monitor the water erosion potential over the nearly three-year period. Soil

  17. Studies of infiltration and lead-soil interactions at the Radioactive Waste Management Site in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, C.M.; Davis, J.O.; Heidker, J.C.; Whitbeck, M.R.

    1992-07-01

    Several studies were conducted to investigate the possibility of buried lead being transported by water in the unsaturated zone at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada Test Site. All involved soil from a 37-m soil core collected at the RWMS. The core consisted primarily of sand and small pebbles, with occasional layers of loose rocks. Few buried soil horizons were observed, and the core showed no evidence of a carbonate layer that would act as a barrier to infiltration. Samples chosen from various depths in the soil core were analyzed chemically. Calcium and sulfate occurred in a prominent layer about 5 m below the surface. The concentration of soluble carbonate increased gradually with depth, while chloride concentrations decreased. Lead concentrations ranged from 1 to 2 mg/kg. Additional data from the soil core were combined with results of earlier field infiltration studies at two sites near the RWMS to estimate flow velocities for water in the unsaturated zone. Under normal (dry) conditions, the degree of saturation is so small that gravity drainage does not occur; water moves by vapor transport and capillary action. Significant water movement occurs only if the soil is at or near saturation. The results suggest that even continuously ponded water at the RWMS would take several months to infiltrate to the water table. Seven samples from the soil core were tested for their ability to adsorb lead. All took up lead with about the same intensity and capacity. Adsorption of lead by insoluble carbonate minerals and precipitation of lead by soluble carbonate in the soil at the RWMS should provide a barrier to lead migration. Finally, measurements were made of the corrosion rates of lead and steel in contact with soil samples from the core. Corrosion rates generally increased with increasing soil saturation at all depths. Under ambient soil conditions at the RWMS, corrosion rates would be low

  18. Extensive management of field margins enhances their potential for off-site soil erosion mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hamada E; Reineking, Björn

    2016-03-15

    Soil erosion is a widespread problem in agricultural landscapes, particularly in regions with strong rainfall events. Vegetated field margins can mitigate negative impacts of soil erosion off-site by trapping eroded material. Here we analyse how local management affects the trapping capacity of field margins in a monsoon region of South Korea, contrasting intensively and extensively managed field margins on both steep and shallow slopes. Prior to the beginning of monsoon season, we equipped a total of 12 sites representing three replicates for each of four different types of field margins ("intensive managed flat", "intensive managed steep", "extensive managed flat" and "extensive managed steep") with Astroturf mats. The mats (n = 15/site) were placed before, within and after the field margin. Sediment was collected after each rain event until the end of the monsoon season. The effect of management and slope on sediment trapping was analysed using linear mixed effects models, using as response variable either the sediment collected within the field margin or the difference in sediment collected after and before the field margin. There was no difference in the amount of sediment reaching the different field margin types. In contrast, extensively managed field margins showed a large reduction in collected sediment before and after the field margins. This effect was pronounced in steep field margins, and increased with the size of rainfall events. We conclude that a field margin management promoting a dense vegetation cover is a key to mitigating negative off-site effects of soil erosion in monsoon regions, particularly in field margins with steep slopes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 78 FR 18576 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Experimental Sites Data Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... and provide the requested data in the desired format. ED is soliciting comments on the proposed... specific information/performance data for analysis of the experiments. This effort will assist the...; Comment Request; Experimental Sites Data Collection Instrument AGENCY: Department of Education (ED...

  20. The Influences of Soil Characteristics on Nest-Site Selection in Painted Turtles (Chrysemys picta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, R.

    2017-12-01

    A variety of animals dig nests and lay their eggs in soil, leaving them to incubate and hatch without assistance from the parents. Nesting habitat is important for these organisms many of which exhibit temperature dependent sex determination (TSD) whereby the incubation temperature determines the sex of each hatchling. However, suitable nesting habitat may be limited due to anthropogenic activities and global temperature increases. Soil thermal properties are critical to these organisms and are positively correlated with water retention and soil carbon; carbon-rich soils result in higher incubation temperatures. We investigated nest-site selection in painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) inhabiting an anthropogenic pond in south central Pennsylvania. We surveyed for turtle nests and documented location, depth, width, temperature, canopy coverage, clutch size, and hatch success for a total of 31 turtle nests. To address the influence of soil carbon and particle size on nest selection, we analyzed samples collected from: 1) actual nests that were depredated, 2) false nests, incomplete nests aborted during digging prior to nest completion, and 3) randomized locations. Soil samples were separated into coarse, medium, and fine grain size fractions through a stack of sieves. Samples were combusted in a total carbon analyzer to measure weight percent organic carbon. We found that anthropogenic activity at this site has created homogenous, sandy, compacted soils at the uppermost layer that may limit females' access to appropriate nesting habitat. Turtle nesting activity was limited to a linear region north of the pond and was constrained by an impassable rail line. Relative to other studies, turtle nests were notably shallow (5.8±0.9 cm) and placed close to the pond. Compared to false nests and random locations, turtle-selected sites averaged greater coarse grains (35% compared to 20.24 and 20.57%) and less fine grains (47% compared to 59 and 59, respectively). Despite

  1. Decision support for the selection of reference sites using 137Cs as a soil erosion tracer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Arata

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The classical approach of using 137Cs as a soil erosion tracer is based on the comparison between stable reference sites and sites affected by soil redistribution processes; it enables the derivation of soil erosion and deposition rates. The method is associated with potentially large sources of uncertainty with major parts of this uncertainty being associated with the selection of the reference sites. We propose a decision support tool to Check the Suitability of reference Sites (CheSS. Commonly, the variation among 137Cs inventories of spatial replicate reference samples is taken as the sole criterion to decide on the suitability of a reference inventory. Here we propose an extension of this procedure using a repeated sampling approach, in which the reference sites are resampled after a certain time period. Suitable reference sites are expected to present no significant temporal variation in their decay-corrected 137Cs depth profiles. Possible causes of variation are assessed by a decision tree. More specifically, the decision tree tests for (i uncertainty connected to small-scale variability in 137Cs due to its heterogeneous initial fallout (such as in areas affected by the Chernobyl fallout, (ii signs of erosion or deposition processes and (iii artefacts due to the collection, preparation and measurement of the samples; (iv finally, if none of the above can be assigned, this variation might be attributed to turbation processes (e.g. bioturbation, cryoturbation and mechanical turbation, such as avalanches or rockfalls. CheSS was exemplarily applied in one Swiss alpine valley where the apparent temporal variability called into question the suitability of the selected reference sites. In general we suggest the application of CheSS as a first step towards a comprehensible approach to test for the suitability of reference sites.

  2. Micrometeorological, evapotranspiration, and soil-moisture data at the Amargosa Desert Research site in Nye County near Beatty, Nevada, 2006-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Jonathan M.; Johnson, Michael J.; Mayers, C. Justin; Andraski, Brian J.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes micrometeorological, evapotranspiration, and soil-moisture data collected since 2006 at the Amargosa Desert Research Site adjacent to a low-level radio-active waste and hazardous chemical waste facility near Beatty, Nevada. Micrometeorological data include precipitation, solar radiation, net radiation, air temperature, relative humidity, saturated and ambient vapor pressure, wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, near-surface soil temperature, soil-heat flux, and soil-water content. Evapotranspiration (ET) data include latent-heat flux, sensible-heat flux, net radiation, soil-heat flux, soil temperature, air temperature, vapor pressure, and other principal energy-budget data. Soil-moisture data include periodic measurements of volumetric water-content at experimental sites that represent vegetated native soil, devegetated native soil, and simulated waste disposal trenches - maximum measurement depths range from 5.25 to 29.25 meters. All data are compiled in electronic spreadsheets that are included with this report.

  3. Determination of heavy metals in soils from dump site of tanneries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metals were determined in soil samples at the dump site, Challawa town, Karfi Irrigation site and farmlands near the dump site by flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The results showed that soil at the dump site contains significant amount of toxic elements. Hence remediation processes were ...

  4. Maize (Zea mays L.) performance in organically amended mine site soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladipo, Oluwatosin Gbemisola; Olayinka, Akinyemi; Awotoye, Olusegun Olufemi

    2016-10-01

    Organic amendments play an important role in the eco-friendly remediation of degraded mine site soils. This study investigated the quality (essential nutrients and heavy metal content) of maize grown on organically amended soils from three active mines in Nigeria. Soil samples were collected randomly at 0-15 cm depth, air-dried and sieved. Five kg of soil were amended with poultry manure and sawdust (poultry manure only, sawdust only, poultry manure-sawdust mixtures in 3:1, 2:1 and 1:1 ratios) at 10 g kg(-1). Maize (Zea mays L.) seeds were planted and watered for two consecutive periods of 8 weeks, with the control and treatment experiments set up in the screenhouse in quadruples. Harvested tissues were weighed, dried, ground and digested. Chemical properties were determined using standard methods while atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to determine total metal concentrations (Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd and Cu). ANOVA was used to test for significant differences among treatment groups in the various parameters. Application of poultry manure-sawdust mixtures significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced tissue dry matter yield, as well as N, P, K, and Na contents while Zn, Cd, Cu and Pb were immobilized to approximately 50-100%. Treatment with sawdust alone reduced tissue nutrient content resulting in depressed plant yield while poultry manure only though enhanced crop yield, contained higher heavy metal contents. Soil amendments comprised of poultry manure-sawdust mixtures can be effective remediation strategy for mine site soils, as these organic materials help replenish soil nutrients, immobilize heavy metals, and enhance food productivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effects of copper oxy chloride waste contamination on selected soil biochemical properties at disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaka, J.; Muunganirwa, M.

    2007-01-01

    A study was carried out at a sanitary waste disposal site for Kutsaga Tobacco Research Station, Zimbabwe, which uses large amounts of copper oxy chloride for sterilization of recycled float trays in flooded bench tobacco seedling production systems. Soil samples randomly collected from six stream bank zones (bands up the valley slope) varying in their distance ranges from the centre of both the wastewater-free and wastewater-affected paths [0-5 m (B1); 6-10 m (B2); 11-15 m (B3); 16-20 m (B4); 21-25 m (B5) and 26-30 m (B6)] in two sample depths (0-15; 15-30 cm) were analysed for metal copper, organic matter contents, and soil pH and subjected to agarized incubation for microbial counts. Results suggest that the repeated disposals of copper oxy chloride waste from tobacco float tray sanitation sinks into a creek amplify metal copper loads in the soil by 500 fold. The greatest concentrations of copper in both the topsoil and upper subsoil were recorded in the B3, B4 and B5 stream bank zones of the wastewater path. The concentration of copper was significantly lower in the middle of the waste-affected creek than that in the stream bank zones. This trend in the copper concentration coincided with the lowest acidity of the soil. Overloading the soil with copper, surprisingly, enhances the content of soil organic matter. The repeated release of copper oxy chloride waste into a stream causes an accelerated build-up of metal copper and soil acidity in the stream bank on-site while contamination is translocated to either underground water reserve or surface stream water flow in the middle of the wastewater path

  6. Polluted sites and soils - Management of environmental liabilities; Sites et sols pollues - Gestion des passifs environnementaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Corfec, Y.

    2011-07-01

    This book presents in a synthetic and structured way the essential notions for the understanding of the stakes of polluted sites and soils management. In particular: the regulatory context, the environmental considerations (toxicological constraints, indeterminations), the conditions of environments characterization and cleansing (interventions typology, properties of contaminants (metal trace amounts, organic compounds), decontamination and cleansing logics), and the essential conditions of risk management in an industrial or urban context. (J.S.)

  7. Site-specific analysis of the cobbly soils at the Grand Junction processing site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This report describes a recent site-specific analysis to evaluate the necessity of a recommendation to install a slurry trench around the Grand Junction processing site. The following analysis addresses the cobbly nature of the site's radiologically contaminated foundation soil, reassesses the excavation depths based on bulk radionuclide concentrations, and presents data-based arguments that support the elimination of the initially proposed slurry trench. The slurry trench around the processing site was proposed by the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) to minimize the amount of water encountered during excavation. The initial depths of excavation developed during conceptual design, which indicated the need for a slurry wall, were reexamined as part of this analysis. This reanalysis, based on bulk concentrations of a cobbly subsoil, supports decreasing the original excavation depth, limiting the dewatering quantities to those which can be dissipated by normal construction activities. This eliminates the need for a slurry trench andseparate water treatment prior to permitted discharge

  8. Optimizing detection of noble gas emission at a former UNE site: sample strategy, collection, and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, R.; Olsen, K.; Hayes, J. C.; Emer, D. F.

    2013-12-01

    Underground nuclear tests may be first detected by seismic or air samplers operated by the CTBTO (Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization). After initial detection of a suspicious event, member nations may call for an On-Site Inspection (OSI) that in part, will sample for localized releases of radioactive noble gases and particles. Although much of the commercially available equipment and methods used for surface and subsurface environmental sampling of gases can be used for an OSI scenario, on-site sampling conditions, required sampling volumes and establishment of background concentrations of noble gases require development of specialized methodologies. To facilitate development of sampling equipment and methodologies that address OSI sampling volume and detection objectives, and to collect information required for model development, a field test site was created at a former underground nuclear explosion site located in welded volcanic tuff. A mixture of SF-6, Xe127 and Ar37 was metered into 4400 m3 of air as it was injected into the top region of the UNE cavity. These tracers were expected to move towards the surface primarily in response to barometric pumping or through delayed cavity pressurization (accelerated transport to minimize source decay time). Sampling approaches compared during the field exercise included sampling at the soil surface, inside surface fractures, and at soil vapor extraction points at depths down to 2 m. Effectiveness of various sampling approaches and the results of tracer gas measurements will be presented.

  9. Soil contamination by brominated flame retardants in open waste dumping sites in Asian developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Akifimi; Isobe, Tomohiko; Ramu, Karri; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Sudaryanto, Agus; Devanathan, Gnanasekaran; Viet, Pham Hung; Tana, Rouch Seang; Takahashi, Shin; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-03-01

    In Asian developing countries, large amounts of municipal wastes are dumped into open dumping sites each day without adequate management. This practice may cause several adverse environmental consequences and increase health risks to local communities. These dumping sites are contaminated with many chemicals including brominated flame retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs). BFRs may be released into the environment through production processes and through the disposal of plastics and electronic wastes that contain them. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the status of BFR pollution in municipal waste dumping sites in Asian developing countries. Soil samples were collected from six open waste dumping sites and five reference sites in Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Vietnam from 1999 to 2007. The results suggest that PBDEs are the dominant contaminants in the dumping sites in Asian developing countries, whereas HBCD contamination remains low. Concentrations of PBDEs and HBCDs ranged from ND to 180 μg/kg dry wt and ND to 1.4 μg/kg dry wt, respectively, in the reference sites and from 0.20 to 430 μg/kg dry wt and ND to 2.5 μg/kg dry wt, respectively, in the dumping sites. Contamination levels of PBDEs in Asian municipal dumping sites were comparable with those reported from electronic waste dismantling areas in Pearl River delta, China. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Structure, Variation, and Co-occurrence of Soil Microbial Communities in Abandoned Sites of a Rare Earth Elements Mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yuanqing; Liu, Wenshen; Chen, Yanmei; Chen, Wenhui; Zhao, Lihua; Ding, Qiaobei; Wang, Shizhong; Tang, Ye-Tao; Zhang, Tong; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2016-11-01

    Mining activity for rare earth elements (REEs) has caused serious environmental pollution, particularly for soil ecosystems. However, the effects of REEs on soil microbiota are still poorly understood. In this study, soils were collected from abandoned sites of a REEs mine, and the structure, diversity, and co-occurrence patterns of soil microbiota were evaluated by Illumina high-throughput sequencing targeting 16S rRNA genes. Although microbiota developed significantly along with the natural restoration, the microbial structure on the site abandoned for 10 years still significantly differed from that on the unmined site. Potential plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) were identified by comparing 16S sequences against a self-constructed PGPB database via BLAST, and it was found that siderophore-producing and phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria were more abundant in the studied soils than in reference soils. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that species richness of plant community was the prime factor affecting microbial structure, followed by limiting nutrients (total carbon and total nitrogen) and REEs content. Further co-occurring network analysis revealed nonrandom assembly patterns of microbiota in the studied soils. These results increase our understanding of microbial variation and assembly pattern during natural restoration in REE contaminated soils.

  11. Quantifying accelerated soil erosion through ecological site-based assessments of wind and water erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work explores how organising soil erosion assessments using established groupings of similar soils (ecological sites) can inform systems for managing accelerated soil erosion. We evaluated aeolian sediment transport and fluvial erosion rates for five ecological sites in southern New Mexico, USA...

  12. Soil characterization methods for unsaturated low-level waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierenga, P.J.; Young, M.H.; Hills, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    To support a license application for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), applicants must characterize the unsaturated zone and demonstrate that waste will not migrate from the facility boundary. This document provides a strategy for developing this characterization plan. It describes principles of contaminant flow and transport, site characterization and monitoring strategies, and data management. It also discusses methods and practices that are currently used to monitor properties and conditions in the soil profile, how these properties influence water and waste migration, and why they are important to the license application. The methods part of the document is divided into sections on laboratory and field-based properties, then further subdivided into the description of methods for determining 18 physical, flow, and transport properties. Because of the availability of detailed procedures in many texts and journal articles, the reader is often directed for details to the available literature. References are made to experiments performed at the Las Cruces Trench site, New Mexico, that support LLW site characterization activities. A major contribution from the Las Cruces study is the experience gained in handling data sets for site characterization and the subsequent use of these data sets in modeling studies

  13. [PHAHs levels in soil samples from the E-waste disassembly sites and their sources allocation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gao-Feng; Wang, Zi-Jian

    2009-06-15

    Soil samples (each with 3 replicates of - 1 kg, at the top 0-5 cm layer) were collected from each of the e-waste disassembly sites and the control site. Also obtained from each disassembly site were samples (each weighing - 0.2 kg) of cable coating,stuffing powder, and circuit boards chipping. The contents of 23 PBB congeners, 12 PBDE congeners, and 27 PCB congeners in soil and in their potential sources, including e-waste residues, were measured using the GC-MS5975B technique. The highest level of PBBs was found in the cable coating among the three e-waste residues, with a concentration of 35.25 ng x g(-1). The contents of low-brominated PBBs (including monobromobiphenyls and dibromobiphenyls) accounted for 38% of the total PBBs concentration observed in cable coating sample. The highest levels of PBDEs and PBDE209 were found in the stuffing powder for electronic component among the collected e-waste residues, with a concentration of 29.71 and 4.19 x 10(3) ng x g(-1). PBDE153 and PBDE183 were the most predominant PBDE congeners, with their concentration accounting for 43% and 24% of the total PBDEs concentration observed in the stuffing powder sample, respectively. Levels of PCBs in cable coating were the highest in these e-waste residues, with a concentration of 680.02 ngx g(-1). The observed values of the three PHAHs in soils from the disassembly site were considerably higher than their corresponding values observed in the control site (p < 0.05), which indicates that these PHAHs from e-waste is the pollution source of local environment.

  14. Heavy Metal Contamination of Soils around a Hospital Waste Incinerator Bottom Ash Dumps Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste incineration is the main waste management strategy used in treating hospital waste in many developing countries. However, the release of dioxins, POPs, and heavy metals in fly and bottom ash poses environmental and public health concerns. To determine heavy metal (Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ag in levels in incinerator bottom ash and soils 100 m around the incinerator bottom ash dump site, ash samples and surrounding soil samples were collected at 20 m, 40 m, 60 m, 80 m, 100 m, and 1,200 m from incinerator. These were analyzed using the absorption spectrophotometer method. The geoaccumulation (Igeo and pollution load indices (PLI were used to assess the level of heavy metal contamination of surrounding soils. The study revealed high concentrations in mg/kg for, Zn (16417.69, Pb (143.80, Cr (99.30, and Cd (7.54 in bottom ash and these were above allowable limits for disposal in landfill. The study also found soils within 60 m radius of the incinerator to be polluted with the metals. It is recommended that health care waste managers be educated on the implication of improper management of incinerator bottom ash and regulators monitor hospital waste incinerator sites.

  15. Heavy Metal Contamination of Soils around a Hospital Waste Incinerator Bottom Ash Dumps Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adama, M; Esena, R; Fosu-Mensah, B; Yirenya-Tawiah, D

    2016-01-01

    Waste incineration is the main waste management strategy used in treating hospital waste in many developing countries. However, the release of dioxins, POPs, and heavy metals in fly and bottom ash poses environmental and public health concerns. To determine heavy metal (Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ag) in levels in incinerator bottom ash and soils 100 m around the incinerator bottom ash dump site, ash samples and surrounding soil samples were collected at 20 m, 40 m, 60 m, 80 m, 100 m, and 1,200 m from incinerator. These were analyzed using the absorption spectrophotometer method. The geoaccumulation (I geo) and pollution load indices (PLI) were used to assess the level of heavy metal contamination of surrounding soils. The study revealed high concentrations in mg/kg for, Zn (16417.69), Pb (143.80), Cr (99.30), and Cd (7.54) in bottom ash and these were above allowable limits for disposal in landfill. The study also found soils within 60 m radius of the incinerator to be polluted with the metals. It is recommended that health care waste managers be educated on the implication of improper management of incinerator bottom ash and regulators monitor hospital waste incinerator sites.

  16. Heavy Metal Contamination of Soils around a Hospital Waste Incinerator Bottom Ash Dumps Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adama, M.; Esena, R.; Fosu-Mensah, B.; Yirenya-Tawiah, D.

    2016-01-01

    Waste incineration is the main waste management strategy used in treating hospital waste in many developing countries. However, the release of dioxins, POPs, and heavy metals in fly and bottom ash poses environmental and public health concerns. To determine heavy metal (Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ag) in levels in incinerator bottom ash and soils 100 m around the incinerator bottom ash dump site, ash samples and surrounding soil samples were collected at 20 m, 40 m, 60 m, 80 m, 100 m, and 1,200 m from incinerator. These were analyzed using the absorption spectrophotometer method. The geoaccumulation (I geo) and pollution load indices (PLI) were used to assess the level of heavy metal contamination of surrounding soils. The study revealed high concentrations in mg/kg for, Zn (16417.69), Pb (143.80), Cr (99.30), and Cd (7.54) in bottom ash and these were above allowable limits for disposal in landfill. The study also found soils within 60 m radius of the incinerator to be polluted with the metals. It is recommended that health care waste managers be educated on the implication of improper management of incinerator bottom ash and regulators monitor hospital waste incinerator sites. PMID:27034685

  17. Phthalate esters contamination in soil and plants on agricultural land near an electronic waste recycling site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ting Ting; Christie, Peter; Luo, Yong Ming; Teng, Ying

    2013-08-01

    The accumulation of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in soil and plants in agricultural land near an electronic waste recycling site in east China has become a great threat to the neighboring environmental quality and human health. Soil and plant samples collected from land under different utilization, including fallow plots, vegetable plots, plots with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) as green manure, fallow plots under long-term flooding and fallow plots under alternating wet and dry periods, together with plant samples from relative plots were analyzed for six PAE compounds nominated as prior pollutants by USEPA. In the determined samples, the concentrations of six target PAE pollutants ranged from 0.31-2.39 mg/kg in soil to 1.81-5.77 mg/kg in various plants (dry weight/DW), and their bioconcentration factors (BCFs) ranged from 5.8 to 17.9. Health risk assessments were conducted on target PAEs, known as typical environmental estrogen analogs, based on their accumulation in the edible parts of vegetables. Preliminary risk assessment to human health from soil and daily vegetable intake indicated that DEHP may present a high-exposure risk on all ages of the population in the area by soil ingestion or vegetable consumption. The potential damage that the target PAE compounds may pose to human health should be taken into account in further comprehensive risk assessments in e-waste recycling sites areas. Moreover, alfalfa removed substantial amounts of PAEs from the soil, and its use can be considered a good strategy for in situ remediation of PAEs.

  18. Characterization of Pu-contaminated soils from Nuclear Site 201 at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Tamura, T.; Larsen, I.L.

    1983-01-01

    Distribution and characteristics of Pu-bearing radioactive particles throughout five soil profiles from Nuclear Site (NS) 201 were investigated. Concentrations of 239 240 Pu and 241 Am decreased with depth and most of the contamination was contained in the top 5 cm except in profile 4 where it extended to 10 cm. The mean activity ratio of 239 240 Pu to 241 Am and its standard error were 5.8 +- 0.3 (N=42). Most of the total radioactivity of the soils was contributed by 0.25 to 2 mm sand size fraction which comprised 20 to 50% by weight of the soils. The radioactive particles in the 0.25 to 2 mm size fraction occurred as spherical glass particles or as glass coatings on sand particles. The glass coatings had gas voids in the matrix but were not as porous as the radioactive particles from NS 219. After impact grinding the >0.25-mm size fractions for one hour, 85% of the initial activity in a NS 201 sample remained with the particles on the 0.25 mm sieve, whereas in the NS 219 sample only 10% remained. The results show that the radioactive particles from NS 201 were much more stable against the impact grinding force than those from NS 219. Therefore, the NS 201 soils would be expected to have a lower probability of producing respirable-size radioactive particles by saltation during wind erosion. 19 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  19. Off-Site Radiation Exposure Review Project: Phase 2 soils program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArthur, R.D.; Miller, F.L. Jr.

    1989-12-01

    To help estimate population doses of radiation from fallout originating at the Nevada Test Site, soil samples were collected throughout the western United States. Each sample was prepared by drying and ball-milling, then analyzed by gamma-spectrometry to determine the amount of {sup 137}Cs it contained. Most samples were also analyzed by chemical separation and alpha-spectrometry to determine {sup 239 + 240}Pu and by isotope mass spectroscopy to determine the ratios of {sup 240}Pu to {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Pu to {sup 239}Pu. The total inventories of cesium and plutonium at 171 sites were computed from the results. This report describes the sample collection, processing, and analysis, presents the analytical results, and assesses the quality of the data. 10 refs., 9 figs., 12 tabs.

  20. Time-dependent performance of soil mix technology stabilized/solidified contaminated site soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Wang, Hailing; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2015-04-09

    This paper presents the strength and leaching performance of stabilized/solidified organic and inorganic contaminated site soil as a function of time and the effectiveness of modified clays applied in this project. Field trials of deep soil mixing application of stabilization/solidification (S/S) were performed at a site in Castleford in 2011. A number of binders and addictives were applied in this project including Portland cement (PC), ground granulated blastfurnace slag (GGBS), pulverised fuel ash (PFA), MgO and modified clays. Field trial samples were subjected to unconfined compressive strength (UCS), BS CN 12457 batch leaching test and the extraction of total organics at 28 days and 1.5 years after treatment. The results of UCS test show that the average strength values of mixes increased from 0-3250 kPa at 28 days to 250-4250 kPa at 1.5 years curing time. The BS EN 12457 leachate concentrations of all metals were well below their drinking water standard, except Ni in some mixes exceed its drinking water standard at 0.02 mg/l, suggesting that due to varied nature of binders, not all of them have the same efficiency in treating contaminated soil. The average leachate concentrations of total organics were in the range of 20-160 mg/l at 28 days after treatment and reduced to 18-140 mg/l at 1.5 years. In addition, organo clay (OC)/inorgano-organo clay (IOC) slurries used in this field trial were found to have a negative effect on the strength development, but were very effective in immobilizing heavy metals. The study also illustrates that the surfactants used to modify bentonite in this field trail were not suitable for the major organic pollutants exist in the site soil in this project. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment Method for Nonlinear Soil Sites based on the Hazard Spectrum of Bedrock Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahm, Dae Gi; Seo, Jeong Moon; Choi, In Kil

    2011-01-01

    For the probabilistic safety assessment of the nuclear power plants (NPP) under seismic events, the rational probabilistic seismic hazard estimation should be performed. Generally, the probabilistic seismic hazard of NPP site is represented by the uniform hazard spectrum (UHS) for the specific annual frequency. In most case, since that the attenuation equations were defined for the bedrock sites, the standard attenuation laws cannot be applied to the general soft soil sites. Hence, for the probabilistic estimation of the seismic hazard of soft soil sites, a methodology of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) coupled with nonlinear dynamic analyses of the soil column are required. Two methods are commonly used for the site response analysis considering the nonlinearity of sites. The one is the deterministic method and another is the probabilistic method. In the analysis of site response, there exist many uncertainty factors such as the variation of the magnitude and frequency contents of input ground motion, and material properties of soil deposits. Hence, nowadays, it is recommended that the adoption of the probabilistic method for the PSHA of soft soil deposits considering such uncertainty factors. In this study, we estimated the amplification factor of the surface of the soft soil deposits with considering the uncertainties of the input ground motions and the soil material properties. Then, we proposed the probabilistic methodology to evaluate the UHS of the soft soil site by multiplying the amplification factor to that of the bedrock site. The proposed method was applied to four typical target sites of KNGR and APR1400 NPP site categories

  2. Geochemical and isotopic study of soils and waters from an Italian contaminated site: Agro Aversano (Campania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, M.A.; Ayuso, R.A.; de Vivo, B.; Lima, A.; Albanese, S.

    2011-01-01

    Lead isotope applications have been widely used in recent years in environmental studies conducted on different kinds of sampled media. In the present paper, Pb isotope ratios have been used to determine the sources of metal pollution in soils and waters in the Agro Aversano area. During three different sampling phases, a total of 113 surface soils (5-20. cm), 20 samples from 2 soil profiles (0-1. m), 11 stream waters and 4 groundwaters were collected. Major element concentrations in sampled media have been analyzed by the ICP-MS technique. Surface soils (20 samples), all soil profiles and all waters have been also analyzed for Pb isotope compositions by thermal ionization (TIMS). The geochemical data were assessed using statistic methods and cartographically elaborated in order to have a clear picture of the level of disturbance of the area. Pb isotopic data were studied to discriminate between anthropogenic and geologic sources. Our results show that As (5.6-25.6. mg/kg), Cu (9-677. mg/kg), Pb (22-193. mg/kg), Tl (0.53-3.62. mg/kg), V (26-142. mg/kg) and Zn (34-215. mg//kg) contents in analyzed soils, exceed the intervention limits fixed by the Italian Environmental Law for residential areas in some of the sampled sites, while intervention limit for industrial areas is exceeded only for Cu concentrations. Lead isotopic data, show that there is a high similarity between the ratios measured in the leached soil samples and those deriving from anthropic activities. This similarity with anthropogenic Pb is also evident in the ratios measured in both groundwater and stream water samples. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  3. ICP-AES Determination of Mineral Content in Boletus tomentipes Collected from Different Sites of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-mei; Zhang, Ji; Li, Tao; Li, Jie-qing; Wang, Yuan-zhong; Liu, Hong-gao

    2015-05-01

    P, Na, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Zn, As, Cd, Co, Cr and Ni, contents have been examined in caps and stipes of Boletus tomentipes collected from different sites of Yunnan province, southwest China. The elements were determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) with microwave digestion. P, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn and Cu were the most abundant amongst elements determined in Boletus tomentipes. The caps were richer in P, Mg, Zn and Cd, and the stipes in Ca, Co and Ni. Cluster analysis showed a difference between Puer (BT7 and BT8) and other places. The PCA explained about 77% of the total variance, and the minerals differentiating these places were P (PC1) together with Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, As and Ni, Na (PC2) together with Cd, and Zn (PC3). The results of this study imply that element concentrations of a mushroom are mutative when collected from the different bedrock soil geochemistry.

  4. Site-specific analysis of radiological and physical parameters for cobbly soils at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    The remedial action at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site is being performed under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 [Public Law (PL) 95-6041]. Under UMTRCA, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is charged with the responsibility of developing appropriate and applicable standards for the cleanup of radiologically contaminated land and buildings at 24 designated sites, including the Gunnison, Colorado, inactive processing site. The remedial action at the processing site will be conducted to remove the tailings and contaminated materials to meet the EPA bulk soil cleanup standards for surface and subsurface soils. The site areas disturbed by remedial action excavation will be either contoured or backfilled with radiologically uncontaminated soil and contoured to restore the site. The final contours will produce a final surface grade that will create positive drainage from the site

  5. Selected micrometeorological and soil-moisture data at Amargosa Desert Research Site, an arid site near Beatty, Nye County, Nevada, 1998-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael J.; Mayers, Charles J.; Andraski, Brian J.

    2002-01-01

    Selected micrometeorological and soil-moisture data were collected at the Amargosa Desert Research Site adjacent to a low-level radioactive waste and hazardous chemical waste facility near Beatty, Nev., 1998-2000. Data were collected in support of ongoing research studies to improve the understanding of hydrologic and contaminant-transport processes in arid environments. Micrometeorological data include precipitation, air temperature, solar radiation, net radiation, relative humidity, ambient vapor pressure, wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, soil temperature, and soil-heat flux. All micrometeorological data were collected using a 10-second sampling interval by data loggers that output daily mean, maximum, and minimum values, and hourly mean values. For precipitation, data output consisted of daily, hourly, and 5-minute totals. Soil-moisture data included periodic measurements of soil-water content at nine neutron-probe access tubes with measurable depths ranging from 5.25 to 29.75 meters. The computer data files included in this report contain the complete micrometeorological and soil-moisture data sets. The computer data consists of seven files with about 14 megabytes of information. The seven files are in tabular format: (1) one file lists daily mean, maximum, and minimum micrometeorological data and daily total precipitation; (2) three files list hourly mean micrometeorological data and hourly precipitation for each year (1998-2000); (3) one file lists 5-minute precipitation data; (4) one file lists mean soil-water content by date and depth at four experimental sites; and (5) one file lists soil-water content by date and depth for each neutron-probe access tube. This report highlights selected data contained in the computer data files using figures, tables, and brief discussions. Instrumentation used for data collection also is described. Water-content profiles are shown to demonstrate variability of water content with depth. Time-series data are

  6. BOREAS TE-20 Soils Data Over the NSA-MSA and Tower Sites in Raster Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Veldhuis, Hugo; Knapp, David; Veldhuis, Hugo

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-20 team collected several data sets for use in developing and testing models of forest ecosystem dynamics. This data set was gridded from vector layers of soil maps that were received from Dr. Hugo Veldhuis, who did the original mapping in the field during 1994. The vector layers were gridded into raster files that cover the NSA-MSA and tower sites. The data are stored in binary, image format files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Center (DAAC).

  7. BOREAS TE-20 Soils Data Over the NSA-MSA and Tower Sites in Vector Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Veldhuis, Hugo; Knapp, David

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-20 team collected several data sets for use in developing and testing models of forest ecosystem dynamics. This data set contains vector layers of soil maps that were received from Dr. Hugo Veldhuis, who did the original mapping in the field during 1994. The vector layers were converted to ARCANFO EXPORT files. These data cover 1-kilometer diameters around each of the NSA tower sites, and another layer covers the NSA-MSA. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Center (DAAC).

  8. Identification of vulnerable sites in salts affected agricultural soils from South-Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Jose A.; Faz, Angel; Kalbitz, Karsten; Jansen, Boris; Silvia, Martinez-Martinez

    2010-05-01

    Soil salinization is one of the main problems in many soils under intensive agricultural practices, especially in arid and semiarid zones. Two important reasons for the occurrence of salinization are i) the use of low quality irrigation water and ii) climatic conditions reducing soil quality. The results of salinization can be quite serious. It limits the growing of crops, constrains agricultural productivity, and in severe cases, leads to the abandonment of agricultural soils. There are mainly two kinds of soil salinity: naturally occurring dry-land salinity and human-induced salinity caused by the low quality of irrigation water, excessive water and fertilizer applications. In both cases the development of plants and soil organisms is limited. Natural occurrence of salts in soils is very difficult to handle and requires higher investments than the reduction of human-induced salinity. For these reasons, identification of vulnerable sites is essential for sustainable agricultural management, especially in these semiarid and arid environments. The main aim of this study was to examine spatial and vertical distribution pattern of salts in a semi-arid study site in South-Eastern Spain in order to identify vulnerable sites. In order to achieve this objective, surface soil samples were collected in January and July 2009 at 48 sites located in a representative lemon production area close to City of Murcia, covering a surface area of 44 km2. The area was divided using a square grid of 1000 m and the samples were taken from these squares. The ionic concentrations were used as the input data for distribution maps. The software used for the spatial analysis was Arcview 3.1. An interpolation method called the Inverse Distanced Weighted (IDW) method was adopted for the interpolation of the data. The results indicated that the concentrations of most anions are higher in summer. The difference was particularly large for chloride, most likely because of its high mobility and

  9. Determination of heavy metal pollution in soils from selected potentially contaminated sites in Tema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyaaba, A.K.L.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the concentration and determine the level of pollution by harmful heavy metals in soils from selected potentially contaminated sites in Tema. The metals of interest include; mercury, lead, cadmium, cobalt zinc, arsenic, nickel, copper and chromium. A total of forty seven (47) samples comprising thirty eight sub-samples (38) and nine (9) composite samples were collected from nine (9) different locations. These included playgrounds, steel processing factories, used Lead Acid Battery (ULAB) recycling plant, mechanic workshops and the municipal waste disposal site. The samples were prepared after which the elemental concentrations were determined using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) with a secondary target excitation arrangement (5.9 keV). The analysis of the samples yielded the following mean heavy metal concentrations in mg/kg: 424.38 (Cr); 408.68 (Ni); 14427 (Cu); 4129.87 (Zn); 1580.68 (As); 647.48 (Hg); 73361.51 (Pb) and 1176.16 (Co). The mean concentrations of heavy metals in the soils were in the following order Pb>Zn>As>Co>Cu>Hg>Cr>Ni. Mercury was detected at only two of the sites. The average heavy metals in the soils from the sites were generally high since most of them exceeded the optimum and action values of the New Dutch List. The Enrichment Factor (EF) ratios show that the enrichment of the elements in the soils ranged from deficiently to extremely highly enriched. The contamination factor show that the contamination by the heavy metals were low at some of the sites and very high at others. The geoaccumulation indices indicated that the playground (PG) has not been contaminated by any of the metals, C8 is contaminated strongly by mercury only and the contamination at the remaining sites varied from moderately contaminated to extremely contaminated by the metals. The Igeo also indicated that the elements accounting for extreme contamination are lead, arsenic, copper, zinc mercury and chromium. Lead

  10. Soil change induced by prairie dogs across three ecological sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) can influence vegetation dynamics and landscape hydrology by altering soil properties, yet few studies have evaluated soil responses to prairie dog activities across a range of soil types. This study was conducted to quantify prairie dog effects on soil properties within...

  11. Geochemical and radiological characterization of soils from former radium processing sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, E R

    1984-02-01

    Soil samples were collected from former radium processing sites in Denver, CO, and East Orange, NJ. Particle-size separations and radiochemical analyses of selected samples showed that while the greatest contents of both 226Ra and U were generally found in the finest (less than 45 micron) fraction, the pattern was not always of progressive increase in radionuclide content with decreasing particle size. Leaching tests on these samples showed a large portion of the 226Ra and U to be soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid. Radon-emanation coefficients measured for bulk samples of contaminated soil were about 20%. Recovery of residual uranium and vanadium, as an adjunct to any remedial action program, appears unlikely due to economic considerations.

  12. Can standard sequential extraction determinations effectively define heavy metal species in superfund site soils?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlin, Cheryl L.; Williamson, Connie A.; Collins, Wesley K.; Dahlin, David C.

    2001-01-01

    Speciation and distribution of heavy metals in soils controls the degree to which metals and their compounds are mobile, extractable, and plant-available. Consequently, speciation impacts the success of remediation efforts both by defining the relationship of the contaminants with their environment and by guiding development and evaluation of workable remediation strategies. The U.S. Department of Energy, Albany Research Center (Albany, OR), under a two-year interagency project with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), examined the suitability of sequential extraction as a definitive means to determine species of heavy metals in soil samples. Representative soil samples, contaminated with lead, arsenic, and/or chromium, were collected by EPA personnel from two Superfund sites, the National Lead Company site in Pedricktown, NJ, and the Roebling Steel, Inc., site in Florence, NJ. Data derived from Tessier=s standard three-stage sequential-extraction procedure were compared to data from a comprehensive characterization study that combined optical- and scanning-electron microscopy (with energy-dispersive x-ray and wavelength-dispersive x-ray analyses), x-ray diffraction, and chemical analyses. The results show that standard sequential-extraction procedures that were developed for characterizing species of contaminants in river sediments may be unsuitable for sole evaluation of contaminant species in industrial-site materials (particularly those that contain larger particles of the contaminants, encapsulated contaminants, and/or man-made materials such as slags, metals, and plastics). However, each sequential extraction or comprehensive characterization procedure has it=s own strengths and weaknesses. Findings of this study indicate that the use of both approaches, during the early stages of site studies, would be a best practice. The investigation also highlights the fact that an effective speciation study does not simply identify metal contaminants as

  13. Soil stabilization mat for lunar launch/landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acord, Amy L.; Cohenour, Mark W.; Ephraim, Daniel; Gochoel, Dennis; Roberts, Jefferson G.

    1990-01-01

    Facilities which are capable of handling frequent arrivals and departures of spaceships between Earth and a lunar colony are necessary. The facility must be able to provide these services with minimal interruption of operational activity within the colony. The major concerns associated with the space traffic are the dust and rock particles that will be kicked up by the rocket exhaust. As a result of the reduced gravitation of the Moon, these particles scatter over large horizontal distances. This flying debris will not only seriously interrupt the routine operations of the colony, but could cause damage to the equipment and facilities surrounding the launch site. An approach to overcome this problem is presented. A proposed design for a lunar take-off/landing mat is presented. This proposal goes beyond dealing with the usual problems of heat and load resistances associated with take-off and landing, by solving the problem of soil stabilization at the site. Through adequate stabilization, the problem of flying debris is eliminated.

  14. [The assessment of radionuclide contamination and toxicity of soils sampled from "experimental field" site of Semipalatinsk nuclear test site].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evseeva, T I; Maĭstrenko, T A; Belykh, E S; Geras'kin, S A; Kriazheva, E Iu

    2009-01-01

    Large-scale maps (1:25000) of soil contamination with radionuclides, lateral distribution of 137Cs, 90Sr, Fe and Mn water-soluble compounds and soil toxicity in "Experimental field" site of Semipalatinsk nuclear test site were charted. At present soils from studied site (4 km2) according to basic sanitary standards of radiation safety adopted in Russian Federation (OSPORB) do not attributed to radioactive wastes with respect to data on artificial radionuclide concentration, but they do in compliance with IAEA safety guide. The soils studied can not be released from regulatory control due to radioactive decay of 137Cs and 90Sr and accumulation-decay of 241Am up to 2106 year according to IAEA concept of exclusion, exemption and clearance. Data on bioassay "increase of Chlorella vulgaris Beijer biomass production in aqueous extract from soils" show that the largest part of soils from the studied site (74%) belongs to stimulating or insignificantly influencing on the algae reproduction due to water-soluble compounds effect. Toxic soils occupy 26% of the territory. The main factors effecting the algae reproduction in the aqueous extracts from soil are Fe concentration and 90Sr specific activity: 90Sr inhibits but Fe stimulates algae biomass production.

  15. Plutonium, americium, and uranium concentrations in Nevada Test Site soil profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essington, E.H.; Gilbert, R.O.; Eberhardt, L.L.; Fowler, E.B.

    1975-01-01

    Many soil profile samples were collected by the Nevada Applied Ecology Group from five nuclear safety test sites on the Nevada Test Site and Tonopah Test Range in Nevada, U.S.A. The profile samples were analyzed for 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 241 Am, and in some cases 235 U and 238 U, in order to estimate the depth of radionuclide penetration and level of contamination at specific sampling depths after an extended period of time since deposition on the surface. Nearly 70 individual profiles were examined. About one-half of the profiles exhibited a smooth leaching pattern with more than 95 percent of the plutonium in the top 5 cm. Other profile patterns are discussed relative to mechanical disturbance of the profile after the initial deposition, accumulation of plutonium in specific zones within the soil profile, and occurrence of large amounts of plutonium in the deepest parts of the soil profile. The implications of these observations are discussed with respect to redistribution of radioactivity by wind, water, and burrowing animals, ingestion by burrowing and grazing animals, uptake by vegetation, and cleanup operations. (auth)

  16. Tree mycorrhizal type predicts within-site variability in the storage and distribution of soil organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Matthew E; Turner, Benjamin L; Liang, Chao; Clay, Keith; Johnson, Daniel J; Phillips, Richard P

    2018-03-24

    Forest soils store large amounts of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N), yet how predicted shifts in forest composition will impact long-term C and N persistence remains poorly understood. A recent hypothesis predicts that soils under trees associated with arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) store less C than soils dominated by trees associated with ectomycorrhizas (ECM), due to slower decomposition in ECM-dominated forests. However, an incipient hypothesis predicts that systems with rapid decomposition-e.g. most AM-dominated forests-enhance soil organic matter (SOM) stabilization by accelerating the production of microbial residues. To address these contrasting predictions, we quantified soil C and N to 1 m depth across gradients of ECM-dominance in three temperate forests. By focusing on sites where AM- and ECM-plants co-occur, our analysis controls for climatic factors that covary with mycorrhizal dominance across broad scales. We found that while ECM stands contain more SOM in topsoil, AM stands contain more SOM when subsoil to 1 m depth is included. Biomarkers and soil fractionations reveal that these patterns are driven by an accumulation of microbial residues in AM-dominated soils. Collectively, our results support emerging theory on SOM formation, demonstrate the importance of subsurface soils in mediating plant effects on soil C and N, and indicate that shifts in the mycorrhizal composition of temperate forests may alter the stabilization of SOM. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Actinide migration from contaminated soil to surface water at the rocky flats environmental technology site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santschi, Peter H.; Roberts, Kimberly

    2002-01-01

    Surficial soils of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) contain elevated levels of 239,240 Pu and 241 Am due to wind dispersal of soil particles, contaminated in the 1960's by leaking drums stored on the 903 Pad. Over the past 4 years, actinide mobility in the surface environment at RFETS, Golden, Colorado, USA, was examined through field and laboratory experiments. From measurements of total 239,240 Pu and 241 Am concentrations in storm runoff and pond discharge samples, collected during spring and summer times, it was established that most of the actinide transport from contaminated soils to streams occurred in the particulate (0.45μm) and colloidal (3kDa - 0.45μm) phases. Controlled laboratory investigations of soil resuspension, indicated that remobilization of colloid-bound Pu during soil erosion events can be enhanced by humic acids. 2-D Polyacrylamide Gel electrophoresis (PAGE) experiments of radiolabeled colloidal organic and inorganic matter, extracted from RFETS soils, suggested that colloidal Pu, which was focused at pH IEP of 4.5, is mainly associated with organic (humic acids) colloids of 10-15 kDa molecular weight. Pu(IV) oxide and inorganic colloids such as iron and aluminum oxides have pH IEP of 8-10. While some clay minerals also have pH IEP of 3-5, no Al was found coincident with Pu. This finding has important ramifications for possible remediation, erosion controls, and land-management strategies. (author)

  18. Assessing NIR & MIR Spectral Analysis as a Method for Soil C Estimation Across a Network of Sampling Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, S.; Ogle, S.; Borch, T.; Rock, B.

    2008-12-01

    Monitoring soil C stocks is critical to assess the impact of future climate and land use change on carbon sinks and sources in agricultural lands. A benchmark network for soil carbon monitoring of stock changes is being designed for US agricultural lands with 3000-5000 sites anticipated and re-sampling on a 5- to10-year basis. Approximately 1000 sites would be sampled per year producing around 15,000 soil samples to be processed for total, organic, and inorganic carbon, as well as bulk density and nitrogen. Laboratory processing of soil samples is cost and time intensive, therefore we are testing the efficacy of using near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) spectral methods for estimating soil carbon. As part of an initial implementation of national soil carbon monitoring, we collected over 1800 soil samples from 45 cropland sites in the mid-continental region of the U.S. Samples were processed using standard laboratory methods to determine the variables above. Carbon and nitrogen were determined by dry combustion and inorganic carbon was estimated with an acid-pressure test. 600 samples are being scanned using a bench- top NIR reflectance spectrometer (30 g of 2 mm oven-dried soil and 30 g of 8 mm air-dried soil) and 500 samples using a MIR Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) with a DRIFT reflectance accessory (0.2 g oven-dried ground soil). Lab-measured carbon will be compared to spectrally-estimated carbon contents using Partial Least Squares (PLS) multivariate statistical approach. PLS attempts to develop a soil C predictive model that can then be used to estimate C in soil samples not lab-processed. The spectral analysis of soil samples either whole or partially processed can potentially save both funding resources and time to process samples. This is particularly relevant for the implementation of a national monitoring network for soil carbon. This poster will discuss our methods, initial results and potential for using NIR and MIR spectral

  19. Growth of plants on soils from two metalliferous sites in Rhodesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltshire, G H

    1974-07-01

    A study to determine whether species and ecotypes from metalliferous areas (copper-lead and nickel-chromium sites) have a greater tolerance of metalliferous soils than species and ecotypes from non-metalliferous sites is reported. Populations from metalliferous sites usually appeared to grow better in the copper-lead and nickel-chromium test soils than populations from non-metalliferous sites but the differences were statistically significant in only a few cases.

  20. Application of a visual soil examination and evaluation technique at site and farm level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, M.P.W.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.; Moolenaar, S.W.

    2014-01-01

    Visual soil examination and evaluation (VSEE) techniques are semi-quantitative methods that provide rapid and cost-effective information on soil quality. These are mostly applied at site or field level, but there is an increased need for soil quality indicators at farm level to allow integration

  1. Evidence that soil aluminum enforces site fidelity of southern New England forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. W. Bigelow; C. D. Canham

    2010-01-01

    Tree species composition of hardwood forests of the northeastern United States corresponds with soil chemistry, and differential performance along soil calcium (Ca) gradients has been proposed as a mechanism for enforcing this fidelity of species to site. We conducted studies in a southern New England forest to test if surface-soil Ca is more important than other...

  2. Variation of the rare earth element concentrations in the soil, soil extract and in individual plants from the same site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyttenbach, A.; Tobler, L.; Furrer, V.; Schleppi, P.

    1998-01-01

    Samples of various types (spruce needles, blackberry leaves, soils, and soil extracts) have each been taken at 6 places from the same site. In addition, 4 whirls each from 2 spruce trees were sampled. Rare earth elements (REEs) were determined in these samples by neutron activation analysis with a chemical group separation. Variations between places were found to be small with soils and soil extracts, but large with plants. Variations between whirls were small. Plants neither reflected the soil nor the soil extract. Both plant species were dissimilar, but the logarithm of their ratio was a linear function of the atomic number of the REE. A negative Ce anomaly (with respect to soil) was found in both plant species. (author)

  3. In situ bioventing in deep soils at arid sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frishmuth, R.A.; Ratz, J.W.; Blicker, B.R.; Hall, J.F.; Downey, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    In situ bioventing has been shown to be a cost-effective remedial alternative for vadose zone soils. The success of the technology relies on the ability of indigenous soil microorganisms to utilize petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants as a primary metabolic substrate. Soil microbial populations are typically elevated in shallow soils due to an abundance of naturally occurring substrates and nutrients, but may be limited at greater depths due to a lack of these constituents. Therefore, the effectiveness of in situ bioventing is questionable in contaminated soil zones that extend far below the ground surface. Also, because the soil microbial population relies on soil moisture to sustain hydrocarbon degradation, the viability of bioventing is questionable in arid climates, where the soil moisture content is suspected to be minimal

  4. Assessment of mycorrhizal colonisation and soil nutrients in unmanaged fire-impacted soils from two target restoration sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, J. M.; Oliveira, R. S.; Franco, A. R.; Ritz, K.; Nunan, N.; Castro, P. M. L.

    2010-07-01

    The mycorrhizal colonisation of plants grown in unmanaged soils from two restoration sites with a fire history in Northern Portugal was evaluated from the perspective of supporting restoration programmes. To promote restoration of original tree stands, Quercus ilex L. and Pinus pinaster Ait. were used as target species on two sites, denoted Site 1 and 2 respectively. The aim of the study was to assess whether mycorrhizal propagules that survived fire episodes could serve as in situ inoculum sources, and to analyse the spatial distribution of soil nutrients and mycorrhizal parameters. In a laboratory bioassay, P. pinaster and Q. ilex seedlings were grown on soils from the target sites and root colonisation by ectomycorrhizal (ECM) and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi was determined. The ECM root colonisation levels found indicated that soil from Site 2 contained sufficient ECM propagules to serve as a primary source of inoculum for P. pinaster. The low levels of ECM and AM colonisation obtained on the roots of plants grown in soil from Site 1 indicated that the existing mycorrhizal propagules might be insufficient for effective root colonisation of Q. ilex. Different ECM morphotypes were found in plants grown in soil from the two sites. At Site 2 mycorrhizal parameters were found to be spatially structured, with significant differences in ECM colonisation and soil P concentrations between regions of either side of an existing watercourse. The spatial distribution of mycorrhizal propagules was related to edaphic parameters (total C and extractable P), and correlations between soil nutrients and mycorrhizal parameters were found. (Author) 31 refs.

  5. Ultrasonic Sorter for Handling and Collecting Dust or Soil Particles Separated by Size/Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, I.; Pinto, A.

    2018-04-01

    A new device is proposed consisting of an endless screw attached to a small sorter actuated by ultrasounds where particles collect from soil or dust to be separated and collected in different reservoirs for their return to the Earth.

  6. Site Specific Waste Management Instruction for the 116-F-4 soil storage unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, G.G.

    1996-08-01

    This Site Specific Waste Management Instruction provides guidance for management of waste generated during the excavation and remediation of soil and debris from the 116-4 soil storage unit located at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. This document outlines the waste management practices that will be performed in the field to implement federal, state, and US Department of Energy requirements

  7. Open dumping of municipal solid waste and its hazardous impacts on soil and vegetation diversity at waste dumping sites of Islamabad city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Maria Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deteriorating soil quality and decrease in vegetation abundance are grave consequences of open waste dumping which have resulted in growing public concern. The focus of this study is to assess the contribution of open waste dumping in soil contamination and its effect on plant diversity in one of the renowned green cities of Pakistan. Surface soil samples (n = 12 + 12 were collected from both the open waste dumping areas allocated by Capital Development Authority (CDA and sub- sectors of H-belt of Islamabad city (representative of control site. The diversity of vegetation was studied at both sampling sites. Significant modifications were observed in the soil properties of the dumping sites. Soils at the disposal sites showed high pH, TDS and EC regime in comparison to control sites. Various heavy metal concentrations i.e., Lead (Pb, Copper (Cu, Nickel (Ni, Chromium (Cr and Zinc (Zn were also found to be higher at the dumping sites except for Cadmium (Cd which had a higher value in control site. A similar trend was observed in plant diversity. Control sites showed diversified variety of plants i.e., 44 plant species while this number reduced to only 32 plant species at the disposal sites. This is attributed to changes in soil characteristics at disposal sites and in its vicinity areas.

  8. Heavy Metals in the Vegetables Collected from Production Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Taghipour

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contamination of vegetable crops (as an important part of people's diet with heavy metals is a health concern. Therefore, monitoring levels of heavy metals in vegetables can provide useful information for promoting food safety. The present study was carried out in north-west of Iran (Tabriz on the content of heavy metals in vegetable crops. Methods: Samples of vegetables including kurrat (n=20 (Allium ampeloprasumssp. Persicum, onion (n=20 (Allium cepa and tomato (n=18 (Lycopersiconesculentum var. esculentum, were collected from production sites in west of Tabriz and analyzed for presence of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS after extraction by aqua regia method (drying, grounding and acid digestion. Results: Mean ± SD (mg/kg DW concentrations of Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni and Zn were 0.32 ± 0.58, 28.86 ± 28.79, 1.75 ± 2.05, 6.37± 5.61 and 58.01 ± 27.45, respectively. Cr, Cu and Zn were present in all the samples and the highest concentrations were observed in kurrat (leek. Levels of Cd, Cr and Cu were higher than the acceptable limits. There was significant difference in levels of Cr (P<0.05 and Zn (P<0.001 among the studied vegetables. Positive correlation was observed between Cd:Cu (R=0.659, P<0.001 Cr:Ni (R=0.326, P<0.05 and Cr:Zn (R=0.308, P<0.05. Conclusion: Level of heavy metals in some of the analyzed vegetables, especially kurrat samples, was higher than the standard levels. Considering the possible health outcomes due to the consumption of contaminated vegetables, it is required to take proper actions for avoiding people's chronic exposure.

  9. Monitoring Soil Erosion on a Burned Site in the Mojave-Great Basin Transition Zone: Final Report for the Jacob Fire Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Julianne [DRI; Etyemezian, Vic [DRI; Cablk, Mary E. [DRI; Shillito, Rose [DRI; Shafer, David [DOE Grand Junction, Colorado

    2013-06-01

    A historic return interval of 100 years for large fires in the U.S. southwestern deserts is being replaced by one where fires may reoccur as frequently as every 20 to 30 years. The shortened return interval, which translates to an increase in fires, has implications for management of Soil Corrective Action Units (CAUs) and Corrective Action Sites (CASs) for which the Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office has responsibility. A series of studies was initiated at uncontaminated analog sites to better understand the possible impacts of erosion and transport by wind and water should contaminated soil sites burn. The first of these studies was undertaken at the Jacob Fire site approximately 12 kilometers (7.5 miles) north of Hiko, Nevada. A lightning-caused fire burned approximately 200 hectares during August 6-8, 2008. The site is representative of a transition between Mojave and Great Basin desert ecoregions on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), where the largest number of Soil CAUs/CASs are located. The area that burned at the Jacob Fire site was primarily a Coleogyne ramosissima (blackbrush) and Ephedra nevadensis (Mormon tea) community, also an abundant shrub assemblage in the similar transition zone on the NNSS. This report summarizes three years of measurements after the fire. Seven measurement campaigns at the Jacob Fire site were completed. Measurements were made on burned ridge (upland) and drainage sites, and on burned and unburned sites beneath and between vegetation. A Portable In-Situ Wind Erosion Lab (PI-SWERL) was used to estimate emissions of suspended particles at different wind speeds. Context for these measurements was provided through a meteorological tower that was installed at the Jacob Fire site to obtain local, relevant environmental parameters. Filter samples, collected from the exhaust of the PI-SWERL during measurements, were analyzed for chemical composition. Runoff and water erosion were

  10. Geochemical controls on the composition of soil pore waters beneath a mixed waste disposal site in the unsaturated zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawson, S.A.; Hubbell, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Soil pore waters are collected routinely to monitor a thick unsaturated zone that separates a mixed waste disposal site containing transuranic and low-level radioactive wastes from the Snake River Plain aquifer. The chemistry of the soil pore waters has been studied to evaluate the possible control on the water composition by mineral equilibria and determine the extent, if any, of migration of radionuclides from the disposal site. Geochemical codes were used to perform speciation calculations for the waters. The results of speciation calculations suggest that the installation of the lysimeters affects the observed silica contents of the soil pore waters. The results also establish those chemical parameters that are controlled by secondary mineral precipitation. 15 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  11. EPA RREL's mobile volume reduction unit advances soil washing at four Superfund sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaire, R.; Borst, M.

    1994-01-01

    Research testing of the US. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory's (RREL) Volume Reduction Unit (VRU), produced data helping advance soil washing as a remedial technology for contaminated soils. Based on research at four Superfund sites, each with a different matrix of organic contaminants, EPA evaluated the soil technology and provided information to forecast realistic, full-scale remediation costs. Primarily a research tool, the VRU is RREL's mobile test unit for investigating the breadth of this technology. During a Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Demonstration at Escambia Wood Treating Company Site, Pensacola, FL, the VRU treated soil contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon-laden creosote (PAH). At Montana Pole and Treatment Plant Site, Butte, MT, the VRU treated soil containing PCP mixed with diesel oil (measured as total petroleum hydrocarbons) and a trace of dioxin. At Dover Air Force Base Site, Dover, DE, the VRU treated soil containing JP-4 jet fuel, measured as TPHC. At Sand Creek Site, Commerce City, CO, the feed soil at this site was contaminated with two pesticides: heptachlor and dieldrin. Less than 10 percent of these pesticides remained in the treated coarse soil fractions

  12. Contaminant transport in the sub-surface soil of an uncontrolled landfill site in China: site investigation and two-dimensional numerical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Haijian; Chen, Yunmin; Thomas, Hywel R; Sedighi, Majid; Masum, Shakil A; Ran, Qihua

    2016-02-01

    A field investigation of contaminant transport beneath and around an uncontrolled landfill site in Huainan in China is presented in this paper. The research aimed at studying the migration of some chemicals present in the landfill leachate into the surrounding clayey soils after 17 years of landfill operation. The concentrations of chloride and sodium ions in the pore water of soil samples collected at depths up to 15 m were obtained through an extensive site investigation. The contents of organic matter in the soil samples were also determined. A two-dimensional numerical study of the reactive transport of sodium and chloride ion in the soil strata beneath and outside the landfill is also presented. The numerical modelling approach adopted is based on finite element/finite difference techniques. The domain size of approximately 300 × 30 m has been analysed and major chemical transport parameters/mechanisms are established via a series of calibration exercises. Numerical simulations were then performed to predict the long-term behaviour of the landfill in relation to the chemicals studied. The lateral migration distance of the chloride ions was more than 40 m which indicates that the advection and mechanical dispersion are the dominant mechanism controlling the contaminant transport at this site. The results obtained from the analysis of chloride and sodium migration also indicated a non-uniform advective flow regime of ions with depth, which were localised in the first few metres of the soil beneath the disposal site. The results of long-term simulations of contaminant transport indicated that the concentrations of ions can be 10 to 30 times larger than that related to the allowable limit of concentration values. The results of this study may be of application and interest in the assessment of potential groundwater and soil contamination at this site with a late Pleistocene clayey soil. The obtained transport properties of the soils and the contaminant transport

  13. Characteristics of particulate matter collected at an urban background site and a roadside site in Birmingham, United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Taiwo, Adewale M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study was conducted to investigate the compositional characteristics of particulate matter (PM) collected both at an urban background site (Elms Road observational site, EROS) and a roadside site (Bristol Road observational site, BROS). PM samples were collected at the receptor sites between March 28 and April 11, 2012. Observed parameters included water-soluble ions (Cl-, NO- 3, SO4 2-, Na+, NH4 +, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+) and trace metals (V, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu, Sb, Ba, Pb). Result...

  14. Soil Characterization Database for the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remortel, R. D. Van; Lee, Y. J.; Snyder, K. E.

    2005-01-01

    Soils were characterized in an investigation at the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nevada. Data from the investigation are presented in four parameter groups: sample and site characteristics, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) particle size fractions, chemical parameters, and American Society for Testing Materials-Unified Soil Classification System (ASTM-USCS) particle size fractions. Spread-sheet workbooks based on these parameter groups are presented to evaluate data quality, conduct database updates, and set data structures and formats for later extraction and analysis. This document does not include analysis or interpretation of presented data

  15. Soil Characterization Database for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y. J.; Remortel, R. D. Van; Snyder, K. E.

    2005-01-01

    Soils were characterized in an investigation at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nevada. Data from the investigation are presented in four parameter groups: sample and site characteristics, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) particle size fractions, chemical parameters, and American Society for Testing Materials-Unified Soil Classification System (ASTM-USCS) particle size fractions. Spread-sheet workbooks based on these parameter groups are presented to evaluate data quality, conduct database updates,and set data structures and formats for later extraction and analysis. This document does not include analysis or interpretation of presented data

  16. Physico-chemical Status of Soil at the Site of UKM Research Centre, Tasik Chini, Pahang, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahibin Abdul Rahim; Wan Mohd Razi Idris; Zulfahmi Ali Rahman

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the physico-chemical properties, nutrient and heavy metal contents in soil within the UKM Tasik Chini Research Centre. Top-soil samples were collected from three sampling transect namely T1, T2 and T3. Two soil profiles from transect 1 (T1S1and T1S3) were observed and soil samples were collected from the profiles as well as top-soil for physico-chemical, nutrient and heavy metal determination. For topsoil samples, four top-soil sampling stations (S1, S2, S3, S4) were chosen along T1, two sampling stations (S1 and S2) along T2 and three sampling stations (S1, S2, S3) along T3. The soil physical properties determined were particle size and organic matter, whereas chemical properties determined were pH, electrical conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), available phosphorus, potassium and magnesium, soluble nutrient, and selected heavy metals. All physico-chemical, nutrient and heavy metal determinations follow the normal standard procedures. Results showed that the textures of the soil were dominated by clay size particle. Organic matter content was high in the top-soil and decreased with depth. The average soil pH in the studied profile and in the top-soil was very acidic with values from 3.66 to 4.73. The average range of electrical conductivity in soil profile and top-soil was between 2412 μScm -1 and 2742 μScm -1 . The average CEC was low with a range between 4.86 and 12.58 meq/ 100 g. The concentration of available phosphorus, magnesium and potassium was between 1.76 and 3.32 μg/ g, 16.80 and 122.23 μg/ g, and 20.09 and 30.50 μg/ g, respectively. The concentration of soluble sulphate, nitrate-nitrogen, ammonium-nitrogen and phosphorus was between 37.50 and 1350 μg/ g, 12.17 and 90.00 μg/ g, 12.17 to 53.17 μg/ g and 0.05 to 0.62 μg/ g, respectively. The concentration of iron and lead was very high in T1S1 and in the lower horizon of profile T1S3. In general the soil of the PPTC site was very acidic and

  17. Concentrations of major and trace elements in polished rice and paddy soils collected in Aomori, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, H.; Hasegawa, H.; Takeda, A.; Hisamatsu, S.

    2005-01-01

    Rice is a staple food in most Asian countries including Japan, and it is important to evaluate the intake of elements through polished rice ingestion in daily life. Rice grain samples and surface paddy soil samples were collected from 20 sites throughout Aomori Prefecture, Japan. Rice grains were threshed and then polished to 90% of the total weight of brown rice. The polished rice samples for the determination of the neutron activation analysis (NAA) were dried at 50 degree C and those of the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) were ashed at a temperature below 450 degree C to avoid loss of alkali metals. The soil samples were dried at 50 degree C and were pulverized with an agate ball mill. The concentrations of As, Cl and I in the polished rice and As, Cl, I, Ti and Zr in the soils were determined by the NAA. The concentrations of 22 elements in the polished rice and 28 elements in the soils were determined by the ICP-MS. The mean concentrations of essential elements in the polished rice such as K, Mg, Cl, Ca, Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu and Mo were 720, 270, 160, 54, 16, 9.7, 2.3, 21 and 0.47 mg kg -1 dry weight, respectively, and the range of each element was within one order of magnitude. However, the ranges of most trace elements in the polished rice including Al, Ni, Ba, Cd, Pb, Cr, I, Ag and Cs were more than one order of magnitude. The mean concentrations of non-essential elements in the polished rice were as follows: Na, 11; Al, 3.9; Rb, 1.2; Ni, 0.11; As, Sr, Ba, Cd, V and Pb, 0.1-0.01; Cr, I, Co, Ag, Se and Cs, O.Ol-0.001 mg kg -1 dry weight. The concentration ranges of elements, except for I, in the paddy soils were within one order of magnitude. The mean concentrations of elements in the soils were as follows: Al, Fe, Ca and Na, 100000-10000; Mg, K and Ti, 10000-1000; Mn, Ba, Cl, Zr, Sr and Zn, 1000-100; V, Ce, Cr, Rb, Cu, Pb, Sc, La, As and Ni, 100-10; Co, Th, Cs, I, U, Mo and Se, 10-1; Sb, Cd and Ag, 1-0.1 mg kg -1 . The mean concentrations of

  18. Site geological and geotechnical studies, determination of soil characteristics and soil response studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    RFS or Regles Fondamentales de Surete (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety, while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires, or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary, any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. The purpose of this RFS is to specify the soil characteristics to be determined and the soil response studies to be performed as part of site geological and geotechnical studies

  19. Nitrogen in soil water at five nitrogen-enriched forest sites in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ring, Eva

    2001-01-01

    Increased inputs of N to forest land may increase acidification and eutrophication. This thesis deals with N in soil water at 50 cm depth in N-enriched coniferous forests in Sweden. The experimental sites were enriched in N, either by fertilization or deposition. Soil water was collected by suction cups at varying degrees of N enrichment, after clear felling at two sites in central (Billingsjoen) and S Sweden (Farabol), and in three closely situated Norway spruce stands in SW Sweden. Billingsjoen was fertilized with ammonium nitrate at totals of 360-1800 kg N ha -1 , and Farabol with urea at totals of 600 kg N ha -1 . At clearfelling, which was performed six and seven years after the last fertilization, the soil N storage was increased by fertilization at Billingsjoen but not at Farabol. At Billingsjoen, the soil-water concentration of nitrate increased with increasing N dose. The increased nitrate concentrations reduced pH by up to nearly two units. In the eighth year after clear felling, the effects on all major cations and anions in the control, the 360 and 1800 kg N ha -1 treatments were examined. At the high N dose, nitrate and aluminium had significantly increased, and the pH and acid-neutralizing capacity had decreased, compared with the control and the low N dose. At Farabol, the estimated total leaching of nitrate-N in the control surpassed that of the N treatment by approximately 40%. The difference in leaching appears attributable to the greater biomass and N storage of the field-layer vegetation in the N treatment than in the control. At Farabol, the field-layer vegetation seems to have acted as an important sink for N as opposed to the Billingsjoen clearcut where the field layer was sparse. The Norway spruce stands in SW Sweden had a similar N deposition, but the concentrations of nitrate in soil water and estimated leaching rates differed substantially. In the soil with the highest leaching rate, potential nitrification was largest and the C to N

  20. Soil structural analysis tools and properties for Hanford site waste tank evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, C.J.; Holtz, R.D.; Wagenblast, G.R.; Weiner, E.D.; Marlow, R.S.

    1995-09-01

    As Hanford Site contractors address future structural demands on nuclear waste tanks, built as early as 1943, it is necessary to address their current safety margins and ensure safe margins are maintained. Although the current civil engineering practice guidelines for soil modeling are suitable as preliminary design tools, future demands potentially result in loads and modifications to the tanks that are outside the original design basis and current code based structural capabilities. For example, waste removal may include cutting a large hole in a tank. This report addresses both spring modeling of site soils and finite-element modeling of soils. Additionally seismic dynamic modeling of Hanford Site soils is also included. Of new and special interest is Section 2.2 that Professor Robert D. Holtz of the University of Washington wrote on plane strain soil testing versus triaxial testing with Hanford Site application to large buried waste tanks

  1. Soil structural analysis tools and properties for Hanford site waste tank evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, C.J.; Holtz, R.D.; Wagenblast, G.R.; Weiner, E.D.; Marlow, R.S.

    1995-09-01

    As Hanford Site contractors address future structural demands on nuclear waste tanks, built as early as 1943, it is necessary to address their current safety margins and ensure safe margins are maintained. Although the current civil engineering practice guidelines for soil modeling are suitable as preliminary design tools, future demands potentially result in loads and modifications to the tanks that are outside the original design basis and current code based structural capabilities. For example, waste removal may include cutting a large hole in a tank. This report addresses both spring modeling of site soils and finite-element modeling of soils. Additionally seismic dynamic modeling of Hanford Site soils is also included. Of new and special interest is Section 2.2 that Professor Robert D. Holtz of the University of Washington wrote on plane strain soil testing versus triaxial testing with Hanford Site application to large buried waste tanks.

  2. Radionuclide characterization of subsurface soil on the site of building 3505 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, W.A.; Oakes, T.W.; Eldridge, J.S.; Huang, S.; Hubbard, H.M.

    1982-12-01

    Ninety-two samples at varying depths were collected from 25 cores. Sample tubes were driven into the ground and segments of soil cores were retrieved at depths from the ground surface to subsurface consolidated material. forty samples of the 92 collected had detectable gamma activities [i.e., > 2 x 10 - 2 Bq/g (0.5 pCi/g)] of 137 Cs. However, only four samples, all from the same borehole, were found to have significant amounts of 137 Cs with a maximum of 1.7 x 10 3 Bq/g (4.6 x 10 4 pCi/g). These four samples also contained the highest activities of other radionuclides ( 60 Co, 90 Sr, 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu, and 241 Am). These subsamples came from core number 4DD, which was the deepest core collected. Core 4DD was taken at the southwest corner of the site, which is at the lower elevation of the site. Since most of the activity in this core was found below the bedrock (or shale) in the groundwater region, the contamination is probably not from Building 3505. Additional investigation in the area around core location 4DD will be required to determine the extent of contamination

  3. Removal of overburden soils from buried waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    Transuranic (TRU) waste buried in pits and trenches is covered with a soil cap, or overburden, to shed water. During retrieval operations, the overburden (expected to be clean) must be removed carefully to avoid breaching the soil/waste matrix within a pit or trench and to confine any possible local spot contamination. This necessitates removal in precise (7.6- to 15.25-cm) increments with a high degree of accuracy. In addition, during overburden removal the overburden must be characterized to a depth that exceeds each cut of soil. A field demonstration was conducted to evaluate a technology for removing overburden soils a the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC), Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The demonstration evaluated equipment performance and techniques for removing overburden soil and controlling contamination and dust. To evaluate the performance of these techniques during removal operations, personnel took air particulate samples, physical measurements of the soil cuts, maneuverability measurements, and rate of soil removal data. The overburden was spiked at specific locations and depths with rare earth tracers to provide a medium for evaluating samples. Analysis to determine the precision and accuracy of the soil removal, amount of dust generated, and potential spread of contamination was performed

  4. [Assessment of soil degradation in regions of nuclear power explosions at Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evseeva, T I; Geras'kin, S A; Maĭstrenko, T A; Belykh, E S

    2011-01-01

    Degree of the soil cover degradation at the "Balapan" and "Experimental field" test sites was assessed based on Allium-test of soil toxicity results and international guidelines on radioactive restriction of solid materials (IAEA, 2004) and environment (Smith, 2005). Soil cover degradation maps of large-scale (1 : 25000) were made. The main part of the area mapped belongs to high-contaminated toxic degraded soil. A relationship between the soil toxicity and the total radionuclide activity concentrations was found to be described by power functions. When the calculated value (equal to 413-415 Bq/kg of air dry soil) increases, the soil becomes toxic for plants. This value is 7.8 times higher than the maximal value for background territories (53 Bq/kg) surrounding SNTS. Russian sanitary and hygienic guidelines (Radiation safety norms, 2009; Sanitary regulations of radioactive waste management, 2003) underestimate the degree of soil radioactive contamination for plants.

  5. 218 E-8 Borrow Pit Demolition Site clean closure soil evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korematsu-Olund, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the sampling activities undertaken and the analytical results obtained in a soil sampling and analyses study performed for the 218 E-8 Borrow Pit Demolition Site (218 E-8 Demolition Site). The 218 E-8 Demolition Site is identified as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) treatment unit that will be closed in accordance with the applicable laws and regulations. The site was used for the thermal treatment of discarded explosive chemical products. No constituents of concern were found in concentrations indicating contamination of the soil by 218 E-8 Demolition Site activities

  6. Soil Stabilization Methods with Potential for Application at the Nevada National Security Site: A Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shillito, Rose [DRI; Fenstermaker, Lynn [DRI

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear testing at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) has resulted in large areas of surficial radionuclide-contaminated soils. Much of the radionuclide contamination is found at or near the soil surface, and due to the dry climate setting, and the long half-life of radioactive isotopes, soil erosion poses a long-term health risk at the NNSS. The objective of this literature review is to present a survey of current stabilization methods used for minimizing soil erosion, both by water and wind. The review focuses on in situ uses of fundamental chemical and physical mechanisms for soil stabilization. A basic overview of the physical and chemical properties of soil is also presented to provide a basis for assessing stabilization methods. Some criteria for stabilization evaluation are identified based on previous studies at the NNSS. Although no specific recommendations are presented as no stabilization method, alone or in combination, will be appropriate in all circumstances, discussions of past and current stabilization procedures and specific soil tests that may aid in current or future soil stabilization activities at the NNSS are presented. However, not all Soils Corrective Action Sites (CASs) or Corrective Action Units (CAUs) will require stabilization of surficial radionuclide-contaminated soils. Each Soils CAS or CAU should be evaluated for site-specific conditions to determine if soil stabilization is necessary or practical for a given specific site closure alternative. If stabilization is necessary, then a determination will be made as to which stabilization technique is the most appropriate for that specific site.

  7. Health Risk-Based Assessment and Management of Heavy Metals-Contaminated Soil Sites in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zueng-Sang Chen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Risk-based assessment is a way to evaluate the potential hazards of contaminated sites and is based on considering linkages between pollution sources, pathways, and receptors. These linkages can be broken by source reduction, pathway management, and modifying exposure of the receptors. In Taiwan, the Soil and Groundwater Pollution Remediation Act (SGWPR Act uses one target regulation to evaluate the contamination status of soil and groundwater pollution. More than 600 sites contaminated with heavy metals (HMs have been remediated and the costs of this process are always high. Besides using soil remediation techniques to remove contaminants from these sites, the selection of possible remediation methods to obtain rapid risk reduction is permissible and of increasing interest. This paper discusses previous soil remediation techniques applied to different sites in Taiwan and also clarified the differences of risk assessment before and after soil remediation obtained by applying different risk assessment models. This paper also includes many case studies on: (1 food safety risk assessment for brown rice growing in a HMs-contaminated site; (2 a tiered approach to health risk assessment for a contaminated site; (3 risk assessment for phytoremediation techniques applied in HMs-contaminated sites; and (4 soil remediation cost analysis for contaminated sites in Taiwan.

  8. Health Risk-Based Assessment and Management of Heavy Metals-Contaminated Soil Sites in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hung-Yu; Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Chen, Ting-Chien; Chen, Bo-Ching; Guo, Horng-Yuh; Chen, Zueng-Sang

    2010-01-01

    Risk-based assessment is a way to evaluate the potential hazards of contaminated sites and is based on considering linkages between pollution sources, pathways, and receptors. These linkages can be broken by source reduction, pathway management, and modifying exposure of the receptors. In Taiwan, the Soil and Groundwater Pollution Remediation Act (SGWPR Act) uses one target regulation to evaluate the contamination status of soil and groundwater pollution. More than 600 sites contaminated with heavy metals (HMs) have been remediated and the costs of this process are always high. Besides using soil remediation techniques to remove contaminants from these sites, the selection of possible remediation methods to obtain rapid risk reduction is permissible and of increasing interest. This paper discusses previous soil remediation techniques applied to different sites in Taiwan and also clarified the differences of risk assessment before and after soil remediation obtained by applying different risk assessment models. This paper also includes many case studies on: (1) food safety risk assessment for brown rice growing in a HMs-contaminated site; (2) a tiered approach to health risk assessment for a contaminated site; (3) risk assessment for phytoremediation techniques applied in HMs-contaminated sites; and (4) soil remediation cost analysis for contaminated sites in Taiwan. PMID:21139851

  9. Applying Nitrogen Site-Specifically Using Soil Electrical Conductivity Maps and Precision Agriculture Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.D. Lund

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil texture varies significantly within many agricultural fields. The physical properties of soil, such as soil texture, have a direct effect on water holding capacity, cation exchange capacity, crop yield, production capability, and nitrogen (N loss variations within a field. In short, mobile nutrients are used, lost, and stored differently as soil textures vary. A uniform application of N to varying soils results in a wide range of N availability to the crop. N applied in excess of crop usage results in a waste of the grower’s input expense, a potential negative effect on the environment, and in some crops a reduction of crop quality, yield, and harvestability. Inadequate N levels represent a lost opportunity for crop yield and profit. The global positioning system (GPS-referenced mapping of bulk soil electrical conductivity (EC has been shown to serve as an effective proxy for soil texture and other soil properties. Soils with a high clay content conduct more electricity than coarser textured soils, which results in higher EC values. This paper will describe the EC mapping process and provide case studies of site-specific N applications based on EC maps. Results of these case studies suggest that N can be managed site-specifically using a variety of management practices, including soil sampling, variable yield goals, and cropping history.

  10. Historical review of long-term soil sampling for environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site and vicinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, K.R.; Rickard, W.H.

    1997-08-01

    Soil samples have been collected routinely from the environs of the Hanford Site and analyzed since 1971. Correct interpretation of results depends on samples being collected from the same locations, the locations remaining relatively undisturbed, and collection and analytical procedures remaining the same or being equivalent. Historical files, documents, and annual environmental reports were reviewed to evaluate these factors. It was determined that 20 soil sampling locations, 11 onsite and 9 offsite, were established between 1971 and 1977 and represent long-term sampling locations. Sample collection and analytical procedures have remained essentially the same since 1971. The physical ecological attributes of each long-term soil sampling location were evaluated. During the review of historical records, a few results for 1970, 1971, and 1972 were noted as previously unreported in annual or special reports. These results are included in Appendix A. To complete the record, results previously reported in annual environmental reports are given in Appendix B. Global Positioning System (GPS) reading for 20 long-term soil sampling locations are provided in Appendix C.

  11. Historical review of long-term soil sampling for environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site and vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, K.R.; Rickard, W.H.

    1997-08-01

    Soil samples have been collected routinely from the environs of the Hanford Site and analyzed since 1971. Correct interpretation of results depends on samples being collected from the same locations, the locations remaining relatively undisturbed, and collection and analytical procedures remaining the same or being equivalent. Historical files, documents, and annual environmental reports were reviewed to evaluate these factors. It was determined that 20 soil sampling locations, 11 onsite and 9 offsite, were established between 1971 and 1977 and represent long-term sampling locations. Sample collection and analytical procedures have remained essentially the same since 1971. The physical ecological attributes of each long-term soil sampling location were evaluated. During the review of historical records, a few results for 1970, 1971, and 1972 were noted as previously unreported in annual or special reports. These results are included in Appendix A. To complete the record, results previously reported in annual environmental reports are given in Appendix B. Global Positioning System (GPS) reading for 20 long-term soil sampling locations are provided in Appendix C

  12. Soil Contamination at the Historical Zn-Pb Ore Mining Sites (Southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander-Kwaterczak U.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Results of metals analyses in soil profiles sampled at two 18/19th century mine shafts of the Trzebinia lead-zinc ore mining region in southern Poland are presented. Waste dump sites located at these shafts exhibit initial pedogenesis with clear differences in zinc and cadmium content between soil horizons which changes in depth across each of the investigated dump. The highest metal concentrations occur in horizons containing excavated ore-bearing Triassic dolomites, soils buried beneath are less polluted whereas, initial A0 soil horizons are virtually unpolluted. Relatively low downward metal migration in profiles to the horizons underlying the dumps is related to alkaline pH of soils. Migration appear to be important in the more acidic soils of outer zones in the two dump sites overgrown either with coniferous and deciduous trees.

  13. A soil sampling reference site: The challenge in defining reference material for sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Zorzi, Paolo; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria; Fajgelj, Ales; Jacimovic, Radojko; Jeran, Zvonka; Sansone, Umberto; Perk, Marcel van der

    2008-01-01

    In the frame of the international SOILSAMP project, funded and coordinated by the Italian Environmental Protection Agency, an agricultural area was established as a reference site suitable for performing soil sampling inter-comparison exercises. The reference site was characterized for trace element content in soil, in terms of the spatial and temporal variability of their mass fraction. Considering that the behaviour of long-lived radionuclides in soil can be expected to be similar to that of some stable trace elements and that the distribution of these trace elements in soil can simulate the distribution of radionuclides, the reference site characterised in term of trace elements, can be also used to compare the soil sampling strategies developed for radionuclide investigations

  14. A soil sampling reference site: The challenge in defining reference material for sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Zorzi, Paolo [Agenzia per la Protezione dell' Ambiente e per i Servizi Tecnici (APAT), Servizio Metrologia Ambientale, Via di Castel Romano, Rome 100-00128 (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.dezorzi@apat.it; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria [Agenzia per la Protezione dell' Ambiente e per i Servizi Tecnici (APAT), Servizio Metrologia Ambientale, Via di Castel Romano, Rome 100-00128 (Italy); Fajgelj, Ales [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, Vienna A-1400 (Austria); Jacimovic, Radojko; Jeran, Zvonka; Sansone, Umberto [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, Ljubljana 1000 (Slovenia); Perk, Marcel van der [Department of Physical Geography, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, TC Utrecht 3508 (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    In the frame of the international SOILSAMP project, funded and coordinated by the Italian Environmental Protection Agency, an agricultural area was established as a reference site suitable for performing soil sampling inter-comparison exercises. The reference site was characterized for trace element content in soil, in terms of the spatial and temporal variability of their mass fraction. Considering that the behaviour of long-lived radionuclides in soil can be expected to be similar to that of some stable trace elements and that the distribution of these trace elements in soil can simulate the distribution of radionuclides, the reference site characterised in term of trace elements, can be also used to compare the soil sampling strategies developed for radionuclide investigations.

  15. A soil sampling reference site: the challenge in defining reference material for sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zorzi, Paolo; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria; Fajgelj, Ales; Jacimovic, Radojko; Jeran, Zvonka; Sansone, Umberto; van der Perk, Marcel

    2008-11-01

    In the frame of the international SOILSAMP project, funded and coordinated by the Italian Environmental Protection Agency, an agricultural area was established as a reference site suitable for performing soil sampling inter-comparison exercises. The reference site was characterized for trace element content in soil, in terms of the spatial and temporal variability of their mass fraction. Considering that the behaviour of long-lived radionuclides in soil can be expected to be similar to that of some stable trace elements and that the distribution of these trace elements in soil can simulate the distribution of radionuclides, the reference site characterised in term of trace elements, can be also used to compare the soil sampling strategies developed for radionuclide investigations.

  16. [Study on Tritium Content in Soil at Sites of Nuclear Explosions on the Territory of Semipalatinsk Test Site].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonova, L V; Lyakhova, O N; Lukashenko, S N; Aidarkhanov, A O

    2015-01-01

    As a result of investigations carried out on the territory of Semipalatinsk Test Site, tritium was found in different environmental objects--surface and ground waters, vegetation, air environment, and snow cover. The analysis of the data obtained has shown that contamination of environmental objects at the Semipalatinsk Test Site with tritium is associated with the places where underground nuclear tests were performed. Since tritium can originate from an activation reaction and be trapped by pock particles during a test, it was decided to examine the soil in the sites where surface and excavation tests took place. It was found that the concentration of tritium in soil correlates with the concentration of europium. Probably, the concentration of tritium in the soil depends on the character and yield of the tests performed. Findings of the study have revealed that tritium can be found in soil in significant amounts not only in sites where underground nuclear tests took place but also in sites where surface and excavation nuclear tests were carried out.

  17. Soils and hydrology of the Ranger uranium mine land application site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willett, I.R.; Charters, C.J.; Bond, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the soils and hydrology of an area between Ranger Uranium Mine and Magela Creek, Northern Territory, which is being used for the disposal of retention pond water by irrigation. The soils of an alternative site are also described in less detail. The soil survey of the irrigated area indicated three mapping units differentiated on the basis of texture, colour depth, drainage and the presence of absence of ferricrete. The predominant soils in each unit were yellow earths, red earths and siliceous sands. All the soils had high (20-50%) gravel contents consisting of quartz and ferruginous materials. The gavel is expected to have little ability to retain solutes and therefore reduces the effectiveness of the bulk soil to retain solutes. The soils are generally low in clay (<20%) and organic matter <1%) and are acidic. The clay minerals were of the low activity types, predominantly kaolinite. Consequently the cation exchange capacities of the soils were very low indicating a limited capacity to retain cations. Preliminary calculations showed that the soils would be unable to retain all the cations in the applied water. In order to assess whether redox reactions are likely to be involved in the retention of radionuclides, the responses of the soils to saturation were tested in a laboratory experiment. The implications of these results for the retention of metals and radionuclides were discussed. All soils were found to have high permeabilities. Preliminary calculations showed that transmission of irrigation water to the water table would be rapid (less than 6 weeks). The soils of the alternative site were generally heavier and contained less gravel than those of the current irrigation site. They are likely to retain more solutes than the soils of the current irrigated area and may be better suited to land disposal of retention pond water. 20 refs., 6 tabs., 5 figs

  18. The influence of site factors on nitrogen mineralization in forest soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of site factors on nitrogen mineralization in forest soils of the ... on N mineralization, as well as the effect of N mineralization on forest productivity. ... of the natural log of mean annual temperature, geological substrate and total N ...

  19. BIOREMEDIATION TREATABILITY STUDIES OF CONTAMINATED SOILS AT WOOD PRESERVING SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioremediationis used frequently at sites contaminated with organic hazardous chemical where releases from processing vessels and the mismanagement of reagents and generated waste have contributed to significant impairment of the environment. At wood treater sites, process reagen...

  20. Soil erosion from harvested sites versus streamside management zone sediment deposition in the Piedmont of Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    William A. Lakel; W. Michael Aust; C. Andrew Dolloff; Amy W. Easterbrook

    2006-01-01

    Forestry best management practices were primarily developed to address two major issues related to soil erosion: water quality and site productivity. Sixteen watersheds managed as loblolly pine plantations in the piedmont region were monitored for soil erosion and water quality prior to treatment. Subsequently, all watersheds were harvested with clearcutting, ground-...

  1. Radioactive contamination of soil-vegetation cover in some southern areas of Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuleubaev, B.A.; Zharikov, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    The nature of radioactive contamination of meadow-pasture lands in the south of the Semipalatinsk test site (STS) has been studied using experimental data. Individual parameters of radionuclide transport from soil into plants depending upon soil type and sub-type, extent of land use for hay-making and pasturing, and other nature-climatic and anthropogenic factors have been determined. (author)

  2. Quantifying effects of soil heteogeneity on groundwater pollution at four sites in USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuurens, S.H.; Stagnitti, F.; Rooij, de G.H.; Boll, J.; Ling, Li; LeBlanc, M.; Ierodiaconou, D.; Versace, V.; Salzman, S.

    2005-01-01

    Four sites located in the north-eastern region of the United States of America have been chosen to investigate the impacts of soil heterogeneity in the transport of solutes (bromide and chloride) through the vadose zone (the zone in the soil that lies below the root zone and above the permanent

  3. Development and application of bioassays for a site-specific risk assessment of contaminated soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rila, J.-P.

    2008-01-01

    Soil risk assessment based on generic approaches is accompanied by a large number of uncertainties. In site-specific risk assessment aimed at identifying the actual effects on the ecosystem by using e.g. bioassays in soil elutriates and taking into account land-use these uncertainties can be largely

  4. Soil physical property changes at the North American long-term soil productivity study sites: 1 and 5 years after compaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Martin F. Jurgensen; Allan E. Tiarks; Felix Ponder; Felipe G. Sanchez; Robert L. Fleming; J. Marty Kranabetter; Robert F. Powers; Douglas M. Stone; John D. Elioff; D. Andrew. Scott

    2006-01-01

    The impact of forest management operations on soil physical properties is important to understand, since management can significantly change site productivity by altering root growth potential, water infiltration and soil erosion, and water and nutrient availability. We studied soil bulk density and strength changes as indicators of soil compaction before harvesting...

  5. Biodegradation of organ chlorine pesticides in contaminated soil collected from Yen Tap, Cam Khe, Phu Tho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thuy Binh; Nguyen Van Toan; Pham Thi Thai; Dinh Thi Thu Hang

    2007-01-01

    Biodegradation of POPs contaminant in soil collected from Phu Tho province and Nghe An province had carried out. The process comprises treating soil, which contains anaerobic and aerobic microbes capable of transforming lindane and DDT into harmless material and being under anaerobic and aerobic steps. Significant biodegradation of POPs contaminants occurred in there tests. But some of toxic organic compounds remained. (author)

  6. Field testing a soil site field guide for Allegheny hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.B. Jones

    1991-01-01

    A site quality evaluation decision model, developed for Allegheny hardwoods on the non-glaciated Allegheny Plateau of Pennsylvania and New York, was field tested by International Paper (IP) foresters and the author, on sites within the region of derivation and on glaciated sites north and west of the Wisconsin drift line. Results from the field testing are presented...

  7. Hazardous waste shipment data collection from DOE sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, L.A.; Kirkpatrick, T.D.; Stevens, L.

    1992-01-01

    Past practices at the US Department of Energy (DOE) sites for offsite release of hazardous waste are being reviewed to determine if radioactively contaminated hazardous wastes were released to commercial treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. Records indicating the presence of radioactivity in waste shipped to and treated at a commercial incineration facility led to a ban on offsite hazardous waste shipments and investigation of past practices for offsite release of hazardous waste from the DOE sites. A House of Representatives Interior and Insular Affairs Committee oversight hearing on potentially contaminated waste shipments to commercial facilities concluded that the main issue was the lack of a uniform national standard to govern disposal of mixed waste

  8. A review of the Hanford Site soil corrosion applicable to solid waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divine, J.R.

    1991-05-01

    The first phase of the assessment of the soil corrosion in the solid waste burial grounds of the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site is completed with this review of both existing information developed at the site and relevant offsite information. Detailed soil corrosion data are needed for several reasons: (1) the possibility of predicting the damage to the containers of the retrievable stored transuranic waste that are under soil cover, (2) the feasibility of forecasting the state of waste containers being retrieved in remedial investigation/feasibility studies, (3) the capability of predicting subsidence of the soil over the waste containers, and (4) the capability of forecasting when stored lead shielding or hazardous chemicals might be exposed to the environment. Because corrosion in soils is dependent on the soil type, site-specific data are required even though offsite data can provide guidance on the type and the approximate extent of corrosion to expect. These data permit rough estimations of the corrosion rates of a variety of materials -- including carbon steels, cast irons, stainless steels, and lead -- in the Hanford Site soils. This report attempts to compile these data to facilitate current estimates of waste container longevity. However, because of the lack of well-documented, site-specific data, it is difficult to provide a definite life expectancy for waste containers and other structures. Consequently, additional data are essential for reliable container life estimates. 36 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs

  9. Quantifying and modeling soil erosion and sediment export from construction sites in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, A. K.; Beighley, R. E.

    2006-12-01

    Soil erosion is a power process that continuously alters the Earth's landscape. Human activities, such as construction and agricultural practices, and natural events, such as forest fires and landslides, disturb the landscape and intensify erosion processes leading to sudden increases in runoff sediment concentrations and degraded stream water quality. Understanding soil erosion and sediment transport processes is of great importance to researchers and practicing engineers, who routinely use models to predict soil erosion and sediment movement for varied land use and climate change scenarios. However, existing erosion models are limited in their applicability to constructions sites which have highly variable soil conditions (density, moisture, surface roughness, and best management practices) that change often in both space and time. The goal of this research is to improve the understanding, predictive capabilities and integration of treatment methodologies for controlling soil erosion and sediment export from construction sites. This research combines modeling with field monitoring and laboratory experiments to quantify: (a) spatial and temporal distribution of soil conditions on construction sites, (b) soil erosion due to event rainfall, and (c) potential offsite discharge of sediment with and without treatment practices. Field sites in southern California were selected to monitor the effects of common construction activities (ex., cut/fill, grading, foundations, roads) on soil conditions and sediment discharge. Laboratory experiments were performed in the Soil Erosion Research Laboratory (SERL), part of the Civil and Environmental Engineering department at San Diego State University, to quantify the impact of individual factors leading to sediment export. SERL experiments utilize a 3-m by 10-m tilting soil bed with soil depths up to 1 m, slopes ranging from 0 to 50 percent, and rainfall rates up to 150 mm/hr (6 in/hr). Preliminary modeling, field and laboratory

  10. The influence of soil organic carbon on interactions between microbial parameters and metal concentrations at a long-term contaminated site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhlbachova, G. [Crop Research Institute, Drnovska 507, 161 06 Prague 6, Ruzyne (Czech Republic); Sagova-Mareckova, M., E-mail: sagova@vurv.cz [Crop Research Institute, Drnovska 507, 161 06 Prague 6, Ruzyne (Czech Republic); Omelka, M. [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Dept. of Probability and Mathematical Statistics, Prague 8, Karlin (Czech Republic); Szakova, J.; Tlustos, P. [Czech University of Life Sciences, Department of Agroenvironmental Chemistry and Plant Nutrition, Prague 6, Suchdol (Czech Republic)

    2015-01-01

    The effects of lead, zinc, cadmium, arsenic and copper deposits on soil microbial parameters were investigated at a site exposed to contamination for over 200 years. Soil samples were collected in triplicates at 121 sites differing in contamination and soil organic carbon (SOC). Microbial biomass, respiration, dehydrogenase activity and metabolic quotient were determined and correlated with total and extractable metal concentrations in soil. The goal was to analyze complex interactions between toxic metals and microbial parameters by assessing the effect of soil organic carbon in the relationships. The effect of SOC was significant in all interactions and changed the correlations between microbial parameters and metal fractions from negative to positive. In some cases, the effect of SOC was combined with that of clay and soil pH. In the final analysis, dehydrogenase activity was negatively correlated to total metal concentrations and acetic acid extractable metals, respiration and metabolic quotient were to ammonium nitrate extractable metals. Dehydrogenase activity was the most sensitive microbial parameter correlating most frequently with contamination. Total and extractable zinc was most often correlated with microbial parameters. The large data set enabled robust explanation of discrepancies in organic matter functioning occurring frequently in analyzing of contaminated soil processes. - Highlights: • Soil organic carbon affected all interactions between metals and microorganisms. • Soil organic carbon adjustment changed correlations from positive to negative. • Ammonium nitrate extractable metals were the most influencing fraction. • Dehydrogenase activity was the most affected soil parameter. • Zinc was the most toxic metal among studied metals.

  11. The influence of soil organic carbon on interactions between microbial parameters and metal concentrations at a long-term contaminated site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhlbachova, G.; Sagova-Mareckova, M.; Omelka, M.; Szakova, J.; Tlustos, P.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of lead, zinc, cadmium, arsenic and copper deposits on soil microbial parameters were investigated at a site exposed to contamination for over 200 years. Soil samples were collected in triplicates at 121 sites differing in contamination and soil organic carbon (SOC). Microbial biomass, respiration, dehydrogenase activity and metabolic quotient were determined and correlated with total and extractable metal concentrations in soil. The goal was to analyze complex interactions between toxic metals and microbial parameters by assessing the effect of soil organic carbon in the relationships. The effect of SOC was significant in all interactions and changed the correlations between microbial parameters and metal fractions from negative to positive. In some cases, the effect of SOC was combined with that of clay and soil pH. In the final analysis, dehydrogenase activity was negatively correlated to total metal concentrations and acetic acid extractable metals, respiration and metabolic quotient were to ammonium nitrate extractable metals. Dehydrogenase activity was the most sensitive microbial parameter correlating most frequently with contamination. Total and extractable zinc was most often correlated with microbial parameters. The large data set enabled robust explanation of discrepancies in organic matter functioning occurring frequently in analyzing of contaminated soil processes. - Highlights: • Soil organic carbon affected all interactions between metals and microorganisms. • Soil organic carbon adjustment changed correlations from positive to negative. • Ammonium nitrate extractable metals were the most influencing fraction. • Dehydrogenase activity was the most affected soil parameter. • Zinc was the most toxic metal among studied metals

  12. The Distribution and Health Risk Assessment of Metals in Soils in the Vicinity of Industrial Sites in Dongguan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Exponential industrialization and rapid urbanization have resulted in contamination of soil by metals from anthropogenic sources in Dongguan, China. The aims of this research were to determine the concentration and distribution of various metals (arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, copper (Cu, mercury (Hg, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn in soils and identify their potential health risks for local residents. A total of 106 soil samples were collected from the vicinity of industrial sites in Dongguan. Two types of samples were collected from each site: topsoil (0–20 cm, TS and shallow soil (20–50 cm, SS. Results showed that the soils were contaminated by metals and pollution was mainly focused on TS. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo and pollution indexes (PI implied that there was a slight increase in the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, and Pb, but the metal pollution caused by industrial activities was less severe, and elements of As and Cr exhibited non-pollution level. The risk assessment results suggested that there was a potential health risk associated with As and Cr exposure for residents because the carcinogenic risks of As and Cr via corresponding exposure pathways exceeded the safety limit of 10−6 (the acceptable level of carcinogenic risk for humans. Furthermore, oral ingestion and inhalation of soil particles are the main exposure pathways for As and Cr to enter the human body. This study may provide basic information of metal pollution control and human health protection in the vicinity of industrial regions.

  13. Dating by thermoluminescence 127 pottery fragments collected from 4 archaeological sites in Taquari valley, Rio grande do Sul state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shigueo; Cano, Nilo F.; Gennari, R.F.; Goncalves, D.C.; Machado, Neli T.G.

    2011-01-01

    127 fragments of pottery from excavation of four archaeological sites in Taquari Valley, close to Lajeado, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil have been dated by thermoluminescence. After usual crushing, sieving, immersing in HCl solution and then in HF solution, accumulated dose, Dac, (or equivalent or paleodose) has been measured using additive method. The annual dose rate of natural radiation was estimated from uranium, thorium and potassium content in both soil from where these fragments have been collected and in fragments itselves. Cosmic ray contribution was added. The interesting finding is that the glow curves of quartz grains from sites enumerated 101, 110 and 114 indicated rare variety of quartz known as reddish quarts, whereas the glow curves of quartz grains, from the site numbered 107 are equal to these of usual quartz (hyaline). Results of dating and the properties of reddish quartz will be discussed. (author)

  14. The measurement of radon concentration of soil in a civil construction site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hanbin; Fan Guang

    2004-01-01

    Radon is one of radioactive resources which do harm to human body. Therefore, its concentration in the soil should be measured before the civil construction works. Code for Indoor Environmental Pollution Control of Civil Building Engineering (GB50325-2001) is the main norm used for soil radon concentration measurement. By using FD-3017 RaA radon measuring equipment, the soil radon concentration in a civil building engineering site has been measured, the result shows that the concentration is lower than the regional average value, radon protective measures should not be installed in that site. (authors)

  15. Site-specific analysis of radiological and physical parameters for cobbly soils at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The remedial action at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site is being performed under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978. Under UMTRCA, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is charged with the responsibility of developing appropriate and applicable standards for the cleanup of radiologically contaminated land and buildings at 24 designated sites, including the Gunnison, Colorado, inactive processing site. Section 108 of Public Law 95-604 states that the US Department of Energy (DOE) shall ''select and perform remedial actions at the designated processing sites and disposal sites in accordance with the general standards'' prescribed by the EPA. Regulations governing the required remedial action at inactive uranium processing sites were promulgated by the EPA in 1983 and are contained in 40 CFR Part 192 (1993), Health and Environmental Protection Standards for Uranium and Thorium Mill Tailings. This document describes the radiological and physical parameters for the remedial action of the soil

  16. Radionuclide Concentrations in Terrestrial Vegetation and Soil Samples On and Around the Hanford Site, 1971 Through 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Mary Ann; Poston, Ted M.; Fritz, Brad G.; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2011-07-29

    Environmental monitoring is conducted on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site to comply with DOE Orders and federal and state regulations. Major objectives of the monitoring are to characterize contaminant levels in the environment and to determine site contributions to the contaminant inventory. This report focuses on surface soil and perennial vegetation samples collected between 1971 and 2008 as part of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Surface Environmental Surveillance Project performed under contract to DOE. Areas sampled under this program are located on the Hanford Site but outside facility boundaries and on public lands surrounding the Hanford Site. Additional samples were collected during the past 8 years under DOE projects that evaluated parcels of land for radiological release. These data were included because the same sampling methodology and analytical laboratory were used for the projects. The spatial and temporal trends of six radionuclides collected over a 38-year period were evaluated. The radionuclides----cobalt-60, cesium-137, strontium-90, plutonium-238, plutonium-239/240, and uranium (reported either as uranium-238 or total uranium)----were selected because they persist in the environment and are still being monitored routinely and reported in Hanford Site environmental reports. All these radionuclides were associated with plutonium production and waste management of activities occurring on the site. Other sources include fallout from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, which ended in 1980, and the Chernobyl explosion in 1986. Uranium is also a natural component of the soil. This assessment of soil and vegetation data provides important information on the distribution of radionuclides in areas adjacent to industrial areas, established perimeter locations and buffer areas, and more offsite nearby and distant locations. The concentrations reflect a tendency for detection of some radionuclides close to where they were

  17. Characterisation of a reference site for quantifying uncertainties related to soil sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbizzi, Sabrina; Zorzi, Paolo de; Belli, Maria; Pati, Alessandra; Sansone, Umberto; Stellato, Luisa; Barbina, Maria; Deluisa, Andrea; Menegon, Sandro; Coletti, Valter

    2004-01-01

    An integrated approach to quality assurance in soil sampling remains to be accomplished. - The paper reports a methodology adopted to face problems related to quality assurance in soil sampling. The SOILSAMP project, funded by the Environmental Protection Agency of Italy (APAT), is aimed at (i) establishing protocols for soil sampling in different environments; (ii) assessing uncertainties associated with different soil sampling methods in order to select the 'fit-for-purpose' method; (iii) qualifying, in term of trace elements spatial variability, a reference site for national and international inter-comparison exercises. Preliminary results and considerations are illustrated

  18. The risk implications of approaches to setting soil remediation goals at hazardous waste contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labieniec, Paula Ann [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    An integrated exposure and carcinogenic risk assessment model for organic contamination in soil, SoilRisk, was developed and used for evaluating the risk implications of both site-specific and uniform-concentration approaches to setting soil remediation goals at hazardous-waste-contaminated sites. SoilRisk was applied to evaluate the uncertainty in the risk estimate due to uncertainty in site conditions at a representative site. It was also used to evaluate the variability in risk across a region of sites that can occur due to differences in site characteristics that affect contaminant transport and fate when a uniform concentration approach is used. In evaluating regional variability, Ross County, Ohio and the State of Ohio were used as examples. All analyses performed considered four contaminants (benzene, trichloroethylene (TCE), chlordane, and benzo[a]pyrene (BAP)) and four exposure scenarios (commercial, recreational and on- and offsite residential). Regardless of whether uncertainty in risk at a single site or variability in risk across sites was evaluated, the exposure scenario specified and the properties of the target contaminant had more influence than variance in site parameters on the resulting variance and magnitude of the risk estimate. In general, variance in risk was found to be greater for the relatively less degradable and more mobile of the chemicals studied (TCE and chlordane) than for benzene which is highly degradable and BAP which is very immobile in the subsurface.

  19. Procedures for evaluation of vibratory ground motions of soil deposits at nuclear power plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    According to USNRC requirements set forth in Appendix A, 10 CFR, Part 100, vibratory ground motion criteria for a nuclear plant must be based on local soil conditions, as well as on the seismicity, geology, and tectonics of the region. This report describes how such criteria can be developed by applying the latest technology associated with analytical predictions of site-dependent ground motions and with the use of composite spectra obtained from the current library of strong motion records. Recommended procedures for defining vibratory ground motion criteria contain the following steps: (1) geologic and seismologic studies; (2) site soils investigations; (3) site response sensitivity studies; (4) evaluation of local site response characteristics; (5) selection of site-matched records; and (6) appraisal and selection of seismic input criteria. An in-depth discussion of the engineering characteristics of earthquake ground motions including parameters used to characterize earthquakes and strong motion records, geologic factors that influence ground shaking, the current strong motion data base, and case histories of the effects of past earthquake events is presented. Next, geotechnical investigations of the seismologic, geologic, and site soil conditions required to develop vibratory motion criteria are briefly summarized. The current technology for establishing vibratory ground motion criteria at nuclear plant sites, including site-independent and site-dependent procedures that use data from strong motion records and from soil response analyses is described. (auth)

  20. The risk implications of approaches to setting soil remediation goals at hazardous waste contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labieniec, P.A.

    1994-08-01

    An integrated exposure and carcinogenic risk assessment model for organic contamination in soil, SoilRisk, was developed and used for evaluating the risk implications of both site-specific and uniform-concentration approaches to setting soil remediation goals at hazardous-waste-contaminated sites. SoilRisk was applied to evaluate the uncertainty in the risk estimate due to uncertainty in site conditions at a representative site. It was also used to evaluate the variability in risk across a region of sites that can occur due to differences in site characteristics that affect contaminant transport and fate when a uniform concentration approach is used. In evaluating regional variability, Ross County, Ohio and the State of Ohio were used as examples. All analyses performed considered four contaminants (benzene, trichloroethylene (TCE), chlordane, and benzo[a]pyrene (BAP)) and four exposure scenarios (commercial, recreational and on- and offsite residential). Regardless of whether uncertainty in risk at a single site or variability in risk across sites was evaluated, the exposure scenario specified and the properties of the target contaminant had more influence than variance in site parameters on the resulting variance and magnitude of the risk estimate. In general, variance in risk was found to be greater for the relatively less degradable and more mobile of the chemicals studied (TCE and chlordane) than for benzene which is highly degradable and BAP which is very immobile in the subsurface

  1. Characterization of culturable heterotrophic bacteria in hydrocarbon-contaminated soil from an alpine former military site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dechao; Margesin, Rosa

    2014-06-01

    We characterized the culturable, heterotrophic bacterial community in soil collected from a former alpine military site contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. The physiologically active eubacterial community, as revealed by fluorescence-in situ-hybridization, accounted for 14.9 % of the total (DAPI-stained) bacterial community. 4.0 and 1.2 % of the DAPI-stained cells could be attributed to culturable, heterotrophic bacteria able to grow at 20 and 10 °C, respectively. The majority of culturable bacterial isolates (23/28 strains) belonged to the Proteobacteria with a predominance of Alphaproteobacteria. The remaining isolates were affiliated with the Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Five strains could be identified as representatives of novel species. Characterization of the 28 strains demonstrated their adaptation to the temperature and nutrient conditions prevailing in the studied soil. One-third of the strains was able to grow at subzero temperatures (-5 °C). Studies on the effect of temperature on growth and lipase production with two selected strains demonstrated their low-temperature adaptation.

  2. Identification and selection of benchmark sites on litholitic soils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An approach to identify benchmarks for different ecological situations in the grassland biome is described. The approach is illustrated by using information on vegetation change, role of habitat factors and the relative palatability differences between the species of the vegetation on shallow soils of the litholitic complexes in ...

  3. Amounts of mercury in soil of some golf course sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLean, A J; Stone, B; Cordukes, W E

    1973-01-01

    Mercurial compounds are widely used for controlling diseases of turfgrass of golf courses, but the fungicides are usually confined to the greens. Composite soil samples were obtained from three golf courses in the Ottawa and Ontario region of Canada. Samples from the turf and surface layer of soil were analyzed and high amounts of mercury were found. The soil of No.I course was a sand; No.II was a sandy loam in the surface and a loam below; and No. III was a loam in the surface layer and a clay loam below. The pH of the surface layer was 6.4 in No. I, 7.5 in No. II, and 6.0 in No. III. The amounts of Hg in the turf were high near the green but they decreased with distance. Fairway III contained the highest amounts of Hg and there was evidence of it leaching to a depth of 90 cm at the edge of the green. The particularly high amounts of Hg in no III were in accord with the liberal use of mercurial fungicides on this course in the period 1912-64. The leaching of Hg depends on amounts of organic matter and the clay in the soil.

  4. Measurements of mirror soiling at a candidate CSP site

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Griffith, DJ

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Loss of mirror reflectivity due to soiling at Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants is a significant consideration for design and operation of the plant. Increasingly, a bankable case for establishment of a new plant will include an evaluation...

  5. Erodibility of waste (Loess) soils from construction sites under water and wind erosional forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Smadar; Katra, Itzhak; Argaman, Eli; Ben-Hur, Meni

    2018-03-01

    Excess soils from construction sites (waste soils) become a problem when exposed to soil erosion by water or wind. Understanding waste soil erodibility can contribute to its proper reuse for various surface applications. The general objective of the study was to provide a better understanding of the effects of soil properties on erodibility of waste soils excavated from various depths in a semiarid region under rainfall and wind erosive forces. Soil samples excavated from the topsoil (0-0.3m) and subsoil layers (0.3-0.9 and >1m depths) were subjected to simulated rainfall and wind. Under rainfall erosive forces, the subsoils were more erodible than the topsoil, in contrast to the results obtained under wind erosive forces. Exchangeable sodium percentage was the main factor controlling soil erodibility (K i ) under rainfall, and a significant logarithmic regression line was found between these two parameters. In addition, a significant, linear regression was found between K i and slaking values for the studied soil samples, suggesting that the former can be predicted from the latter. Soil erodibility under wind erosion force was controlled mainly by the dry aggregate characteristics (mean weight diameter and aggregate density): their higher values in the subsoil layers resulted in lower soil erodibility compared to the topsoil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Soil degradation by sulfuric acid disposition on uranium producing sites in south Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atanasov, I.; Gribachev, P.

    1997-01-01

    This study assesses the damage of soils caused by spills of sulfuric acid solutions used for in situ leaching of uranium at eight uranium producing (by open-cast method) sites (total area of approximately 220 ha) in the region of Momino-Rakovski (South Bulgaria). The upper soil layer is cinnamonic pseudopodzolic ( or Eutric Planosols by FAO Legend, 1974). The results of the investigation show that the sulfuric acid spills caused strong acidification of upper (0-20 cm) and subsurface (20-60 cm) soil horizons which is expressed as decreasing of pH (H 2 O) to 2.9-3.5 and increasing of exchangeable H + and Al 3+ to 18 and 32% from CEC. Acid degradation of soils is combined with reducing of organic matter content. The average concentration of the total heavy metal content in the upper soil horizon (in ppm) is: Cd=1.5; Cu=30; Pb=25; Zn=40 and U=8. No significant differences were detected between the upper and subsurface soil layers . The heavy metal concentration did not exceed the Bulgarian standards for heavy metals and uranium content of soils. But the coarse texture of the top soil layers, the lack of carbonates, The low CEC and strong acidity determine a low buffering capacity of the investigated soils and this can be considered as hazardous for plants. This indicates that a future soil monitoring should be carried out in the region together with measures for neutralizing of soil acidity

  7. [Soil moisture dynamics of artificial Caragana microphylla shrubs at different topographical sites in Horqin sandy land].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gang; Zhao, Xue-yong; Huang, Ying-xin; Su, Yan-gui

    2009-03-01

    Based on the investigation data of vegetation and soil moisture regime of Caragana microphylla shrubs widely distributed in Horqin sandy land, the spatiotemporal variations of soil moisture regime and soil water storage of artificial sand-fixing C. microphylla shrubs at different topographical sites in the sandy land were studied, and the evapotranspiration was measured by water balance method. The results showed that the soil moisture content of the shrubs was the highest in the lowland of dunes, followed by in the middle, and in the crest of the dunes, and increased with increasing depth. No water stress occurred during the growth season of the shrubs. Soil moisture content of the shrubs was highly related to precipitation event, and the relationship of soil moisture content with precipitation was higher in deep soil layer (50-180 cm) than in shallow soil layer (0-50 cm). The variation coefficient of soil moisture content was also higher in deep layer than in shallow layer. Soil water storage was increasing in the whole growth season of the shrubs, which meant that the accumulation of soil water occurred in this area. The evapotranspiriation of the shrubs occupied above 64% of the precipitation.

  8. Soil microbial diversity, site conditions, shelter forest land, saline water drip-irrigation, drift desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhengzhong; Lei, Jiaqiang; Li, Shengyu; Xu, Xinwen

    2013-10-01

    Soil microbes in forest land are crucial to soil development in extreme areas. In this study, methods of conventional culture, PLFA and PCR-DGGE were utilized to analyze soil microbial quantity, fatty acids and microbial DNA segments of soils subjected to different site conditions in the Tarim Desert Highway forest land. The main results were as follows: the soil microbial amount, diversity indexes of fatty acid and DNA segment differed significantly among sites with different conditions (F 84%), followed by actinomycetes and then fungi (<0.05%). Vertical differences in the soil microbial diversity were insignificant at 0-35 cm. Correlation analysis indicated that the forest trees grew better as the soil microbial diversity index increased. Therefore, construction of the Tarim Desert Highway shelter-forest promoted soil biological development; however, for enhancing sand control efficiency and promoting sand development, we should consider the effects of site condition in the construction and regeneration of shelter-forest ecological projects. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Cleanup protocol for 226Ra-contaminated cobbly soil at UMTRA Project sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, D.E.; Millard, J.B.; Miller, M.L.; Metzler, D.

    1994-01-01

    The nonuniform distribution of 226Ra and other radiological contamination of cobbly soil encountered on several Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project sites is presented and discussed, and the concomitant challenges to the intent and implementation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's soil cleanup standards are noted. In response to technical assessments and information presented to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission by the U.S. Department of Energy, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has recently resolved the dilemma by concluding that compliance with Environmental Protection Agency soil cleanup standards for cobby soil at Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project sites would be adequately attained using bulk radionuclide concentrations, instead of requiring that the radionuclide concentration of the finer soil fraction passing a No. 4 mesh sieve met the standards. A Nuclear Regulatory Commission-approved procedure developed for cobbly soil remediation is outlined and discussed. The site-specific implementation of this procedure at Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project sites containing cobbly soil is estimated to save millions of dollars

  10. Heavy metals contamination of air and soil in Karak solid waste disposal site, Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiries, A. G.; Jaradat, Q. M.; Momani, K. A.

    1996-01-01

    The level of air and soil pollution in the municipal solid waste disposal site of Karak(Jordan) were investigated during spring of 1995 by monitoring the amounts of heavy metals. The concentration (mg/kg)of Cu, Pb, and Zn in the upper soil were found to have a range of 15.3-39.3, 21.2-38.0 and 60.0-127.0 respectively. However, for the lower soil, the ranges are 13.4-18.9, 18.5-23.7, and 50.6-90.4, respectively. The soil contamination with heavy metals was almost confined to the upper soil in the locations closely surrounding the burning site, which could be accounted to the arid climate conditions of the area. (authors). 20 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  11. On-site Determination of Trace Arsenic by Reflection-Absorption Colorimetry of Molybdenum Blue Collected on a Membrane Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yuya; Suzuki, Yasutada; Kawakubo, Susumu

    2017-01-01

    An on-site determination method for trace arsenic has been developed by collecting it as molybdenum blue (MB) in the presence of tetradecyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride on a mixed cellulose ester membrane filter and by measuring reflection absorbance (RA) of MB on the filter using a laboratory-made palm-top size reflection-absorbance colorimeter with a red light-emitting diode. The value of RA was proportional to the amount of arsenic up to 0.5 μg with a detection limit of 0.01 μg. The proposed method was successfully applied to soil extract and hot-spring water samples.

  12. One year continuous soil gas monitoring above an EGR test site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furche, Markus; Schlömer, Stefan; Faber, Eckhard; Dumke, Ingolf

    2010-05-01

    Setup and first results of an ongoing research activity are presented, which is funded by the German Geotechnologien program within in the joint project CLEAN (CO2 Large Scale Enhanced Gas Recovery in the Altmark Natural Gas Field). The task is to establish several soil gas monitoring stations above a partly exhausted gas field in the Altmark which will be used for an enhanced gas recovery (EGR) test by injecting CO2 into the reservoir. The aim is to optimize the monitoring technique including automatic data transfer and data exploitation and to understand mechanisms of natural variations of soil gas concentrations in the specific area. Furthermore the suitability of these measurements as a contribution to leakage detection shall be evaluated. A network of 13 gauging stations for the measurement of CO2 is working continuously for about one year. They are spread over an area of 8 x 3 km and are situated in direct vicinity of existing deep boreholes as the most likely locations for possible leakage. In addition one station is placed far outside the gasfield as a reference point. The technique applied to measure soil gas concentrations uses a gas stream circulating in a tube going down a shallow borehole where the circulating gas is in contact with the soil gas phase via a gas permeable membrane. Above surface, moisture is removed from the gas stream before it reaches several gas sensors for CO2. Besides these, several other parameters are determined as well, e.g. soil moisture and soil temperature, water level, gas flow and gas moisture. In addition a meteorological station gives information about precipitation, air humidity, temperature and pressure, global radiation, wind direction and velocity in the area. Data are continuously collected by dataloggers at each station (5 minutes interval), transferred via GSM routers to the BGR server in Hannover and are stored in a specially designed database. The database does not only contain the measurements but also

  13. Runoff and soil erosion from two rangeland sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historically over 50 years of rainfall/runoff research using rainfall simulators has been conducted at various rangeland sites in the West, however these sites rarely have consecutive yearly measurements. This limits the understanding of dynamic annual conditions and the interactions of grazing, pla...

  14. Soil an-d nutrient loss following site preparation burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.A. Carter; J.P. Field; K.W. Farrish

    2000-01-01

    Sediment loss and nutrient cpncentrations in runoff were evaluated to determine the effects of site preparation burning on a recently harvested loblolly pine (Pinur taeda L.) site in east Texas. Sediment and nutrient losses prior to treatment were approximately the same from control plots and pretreatment burn plots. Nutrient analysis of runoff samples indicated that...

  15. Soil and Nutrient Loss Following Site Preparation Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.P. Field; E.A. Carter

    2000-01-01

    Sediment loss and nutrient cpncentrations in runoff were evaluated to determine the effects of site preparation burning on a recently harvested loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) site in east Texas. Sediment and nutrient losses prior to treatment were approximately the same from control plots and pretreatment burn plots. Nutrient analysis of runoff...

  16. Soil and Groundwater Characteristics of a Legacy Spill Site AKURO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    significant environmental consequences that occur. ... increasing production of crude oil and discovery of ... occurred in the mangrove swamps zones and near off shores areas of the Niger Delta which was shown in ... Assessment of the spill site had been carried out ... data and risks about the site, an intrusive ground.

  17. Pathogenic and Saprophytic Leptospira Species in Water and Soils from Selected Urban Sites in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacer, Douadi; Woh, Pei Yee; Mohd Zain, Siti Nursheena; Amran, Fairuz; Thong, Kwai Lin

    2013-01-01

    Leptospira species were studied in water and soils from selected urban sites in Malaysia. A total of 151 water (n=121) and soil (n=30) samples were collected from 12 recreational lakes and wet markets. All samples were filtered and inoculated into semi-solid Ellinghausen and McCullough modified by Johnson and Harris (EMJH) media supplemented with additional 5-fluorouracil. The cultures were then incubated at 30°C and observed under a dark field microscope with intervals of 10 days. A PCR assay targeting the rrs gene was used to confirm the genus Leptospira among the isolates. Subsequently, the pathogenic status of the isolates was determined using primer sets G1/G2 and Sapro1/Sapro2, which target the secY and rrs genes, respectively. The isolates were identified at serogroup level using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) while their genetic diversity was assessed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Based on dark field microscopy, 23.1% (28/121) water and 23.3% (7/30) soil cultures were positive for Leptospira spp. Of the 35 positive cultures, only 8 were pure and confirmed as Leptospira genus by PCR assay. Two out of 8 isolates were confirmed as pathogenic, 5 were saprophytic and one was intermediate. These 8 isolates were negative for the 25 reference hyperimmune rabbit sera tested in the MAT. PFGE showed that all 8 of these environmental Leptospira spp. were genetically diverse. In conclusion, the presence of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in the urban Malaysian environment may indicate and highlight the importance of water screening, especially in recreational lakes, in order to minimize any chance of Leptospira infection. PMID:23363618

  18. Investigation of soil fertility at a remote site in karachi, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirin, K.; Shafiq, S.; Imad, S.; Alvi, S.K.; Khan, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    This study reveals chemical and physical properties of soils collected from a remote site at Karachi, Pakistan. Altogether 23 parameters were determined. Out of 12 soil samples 11 were categorised as sand or sandy barns, p1-I varied between 7.35-8.49, density ranged between 1.61-2.39 gm/cm3, the conductivity of 1:2 water extracts varied up to a great extent i.e., between 0.437-16.47 MS/M3. Sodium (Na) contents were higher in ammonium acetate extract when compared with 1:2 water extract. The bicarbonate (HCO/sub 3/) contents were ranged between 0. 17-1.73 ppm. The organic matter contents were low (0.81 -2,21%), these soils were also deficient in their macronutrient contents. Specifically, the ranges of nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and sulphur (S) were 0.04-i. 16%, 0.25-15.99 ppm, 4.40-135.89 ppm, 0.001-0.199%, 0.001-0.019% and 0.01-0.143%, respectively. Heavy metals were determined in diethylene--triamine-pentaacctic acid (DTPA) extracts and the levels of iron (Fe), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn). and zinc (Zn) in these samples were I.86-3280 ppm, 1.68-7.69 ppm, 16.51-75.28 and 0.25-20.75 ppm, respectively. Toxic heavy metals, lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni) contents were also estimated and their concentration was found low ranging between 0.91-563 ppm and 0.32-1.26 ppm, respectively. (author)

  19. 76 FR 81959 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Homelessness Prevention Study Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... Information Collection: Comment Request; Homelessness Prevention Study Site Visits AGENCY: Office of the Chief.... This Notice also lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Homelessness Prevention Study Site... of the Paperwork Reduction Act requirements associated with HUD's Homelessness Prevention Study Site...

  20. Evaluation of Co and Cr mobility in soil profiles collected in a scrapyard of impounded vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Camila N.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G., E-mail: clange@usp.br, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Enzweiler, Jacinta, E-mail: jacinta@ige.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias

    2015-07-01

    The number of motor vehicles in urban environments has increased dramatically in the past years. As a result, so has the number of impounded and end-of-life vehicles. Car wastes can have a very high metal content, which can cause important environmental impacts to the soil where these vehicles are kept. Most Brazilian vehicle impound scrapyards are currently operating at their maximum capacity and soils may have become contaminated by past or current vehicle handling practices. Most of these areas do not present an impermeable surface. The level of soil contamination with heavy metals depends on the type of soil, climate and management practices. Metals, such as Co and Cr, that are present in many auto-parts, may be considered potentially toxic elements in these areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate Co and Cr levels and behavior in soil profiles located in a scrapyard of impounded vehicles of Ribeirao Pires-SP city. For this purpose, samples from distinct horizons of three soil profiles were collected. Element concentrations were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Soil parameters such as pH, organic matter content and clay, silt and sand percentage were also determined. The obtained data were statistically analyzed in order to establish correlations between elemental concentrations and the impounded vehicles scrapyard soil. Soil acidity showed to be the most remarkable property for Cr and Co mobility through soil profile. (author)

  1. Evaluation of Co and Cr mobility in soil profiles collected in a scrapyard of impounded vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, Camila N.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.; Enzweiler, Jacinta

    2015-01-01

    The number of motor vehicles in urban environments has increased dramatically in the past years. As a result, so has the number of impounded and end-of-life vehicles. Car wastes can have a very high metal content, which can cause important environmental impacts to the soil where these vehicles are kept. Most Brazilian vehicle impound scrapyards are currently operating at their maximum capacity and soils may have become contaminated by past or current vehicle handling practices. Most of these areas do not present an impermeable surface. The level of soil contamination with heavy metals depends on the type of soil, climate and management practices. Metals, such as Co and Cr, that are present in many auto-parts, may be considered potentially toxic elements in these areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate Co and Cr levels and behavior in soil profiles located in a scrapyard of impounded vehicles of Ribeirao Pires-SP city. For this purpose, samples from distinct horizons of three soil profiles were collected. Element concentrations were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Soil parameters such as pH, organic matter content and clay, silt and sand percentage were also determined. The obtained data were statistically analyzed in order to establish correlations between elemental concentrations and the impounded vehicles scrapyard soil. Soil acidity showed to be the most remarkable property for Cr and Co mobility through soil profile. (author)

  2. Sediment and Runoff Losses following Harvesting/Site Prep Operations on a Piedmont Soil in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnny M. III Grace; Emily A. Carter

    2001-01-01

    Impacts of soil erosion on water quality from forest harvesting and site preparation have received increased concern in recent years. The study presented here was performed in Lee County, Alabama to investigate the impact of harvesting and site preparation on a 20-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation on sediment and runoff yield....

  3. Physicochemical and mineralogical characterization of uranium-contaminated soils from the Fernald Integrated Demonstration Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elless, M.P.; Lee, S.Y.; Timpson, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    An integrated approach that utilizes various characterization technologies has been developed for the Uranium Soil Integrated Demonstration program. The Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation site near Cincinnati, Ohio, was selected as the host facility for this demonstration. Characterization of background, untreated contaminated, and treated contaminated soils was performed to assess the contamination and the effect of treatment efforts to remove uranium from these soils. Carbonate minerals were present in the contaminated soils (added for erosion control) but were absent in the nearby background soils. Because of the importance of the carbonate anion to uranium solubility, the occurrence of carbonate minerals in these soils will be an important factor in the development of a successful remediation technology. Uranium partitioning data among several particle-size fractions indicate that conventional soil washing will be ineffective for remediation of these soils and that chemical extraction will be necessary to lower the uranium concentration to the target level (52 mg/kg). Carbonate-based (sodium carbonate/bicarbonate) and acid-based (sulfuric and citric acids) lixiviants were employed for the selective removal of uranium from these soils. Characterization results have identified uranium phosphate minerals as the predominant uranium mineral form in both the untreated and treated soils. The low solubility associated with phosphate minerals is primarily responsible for their occurrence in the posttreated soils. Artificial weathering of the treated soils caused by the treatments, particularly acid-based lixiviants, was documented by their detrimental effects on several physicochemical characteristics of these soils (e.g., soil pH, particle-size distribution, and mineralogy)

  4. The 7Be profiles in the undisturbed soil used for reference site to estimate the soil erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raksawong, S; Bhongsuwan, T; Krmar, M

    2017-01-01

    The cosmogenic radionuclide 7 Be is increasingly used to obtain information on event-related soil erosion rates within agricultural landscapes. In this study, we select two undisturbed and flat areas to calculate the reference inventory and relaxation mass depth by using 7 Be technique to document short-term erosion. Our results showed that the depth distribution of 7 Be in undisturbed soil profiles was 1.0 cm in sites S02 and S03; the initial activities were 31.6 and 38.8 Bq.kg -1 , respectively. The relaxation mass depths were 5.4 and 7.2 kg.m -2 and the measured reference 7 Be inventories were 71 and 110 Bq.m -2 for sites S02 and S03, respectively. The difference values of the relaxation mass depth and the reference inventory of both sites implied that for determining a short term soil erosion using 7 Be, the reference site was suggested to be selected as close as possible to the study site. (paper)

  5. Residual radioactivity in the soil of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site in the former USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Tsukatani, Tsuneo; Katayama, Yukio

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with our efforts to survey residual readioactivity in the soil sampled at teh Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site and at off-site areas in Kazakhstan. The soil sampled at the hypocenter where the first Soviet nuclear explosion was carried out on 29 August 1949, and at the bank of the crater called open-quotes Bolapan,close quotes which was formed by an underground nuclear detonation on 15 January 1965 along the Shagan River. As a comparison, other soil was also sampled in the cities of Kurchatov and Almaty. These data have allowed a preliminary evaluation of the contemporary radioactive contamination of the land in and around the test site. At the first nuclear explosion site and at Bolapan, higher than background levels of 239,240 Pu with weapons-grade plutonium were detected together with fission and activation products such as 137 Cs, 60 Co, 152 Eu, and 154 Eu. 20 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  6. Residual radioactivity in the soil of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site in the former USSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, M; Tsukatani, T; Katayama, Y

    1996-08-01

    This paper deals with our efforts to survey residual radioactivity in the soil sampled at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site and at off-site areas in Kazakhstan. The soil was sampled at the hypocenter where the first Soviet nuclear explosion was carried out on 29 August 1949, and at the bank of the crater called "Bolapan," which was formed by an underground nuclear detonation on 15 January 1965 along the Shagan River. As a comparison, other soil was also sampled in the cities of Kurchatov and Almaty. These data have allowed a preliminary evaluation of the contemporary radioactive contamination of the land in and around the test site. At the first nuclear explosion site and at Bolapan, higher than background levels of 239,240Pu with weapons-grade plutonium were detected together with fission and activation products such as 137Cs, 60Co, 152Eu, and 154Eu.

  7. Bio indication of soil samples from contaminated military sites in Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakariadze, N.; Gagelidze, N.; Amiranashvili, L.; Nabakhtiani, G.; Tsigroshvili, Z.

    2005-01-01

    State of environment in Georgia is influenced significantly by political and economic situation of the last several years.The consequences of these conditions are pollution of water, air, and soil with health-hazardous emissions, dissemination of uncontrolled waste, highly toxic substances and unfit military and industrial materials in civil, agricultural, and military sites and respective facilities. In Georgia the specific problems of soil contamination are: spot type distribution of contaminants; simultaneous (synergetic) impacts of various pollutants; chronic and enduring impacts; pollution of moderate or low intensity. Pollutants, at low doses, may not cause immediate changes; however in some time they can create danger and become the risk factors for acquired lethal diseases developed in living organisms and accumulated in environment. Several cases of contamination with radionuclide substances distribution have been detected on in a number of regions in Georgia, which became the range for investigation of specific, spot type of pollution. The soil samples contaminated with following nuclides were studied: Single sources 226 Ra, Dust 226 Ra, Single sources 90 Sr, Single sources 137 Cs. The main goal of the team is complex study of contaminated territories. In parallel with polluted spots' indication, the investigation of ecological systems' reactions to diverse impacts is carried out. Bioassays application significantly increases quality and reliability of: assessment of contaminated territories; selection of optimal and available technologies for sanation and remediation; recommendations on urgent measures. As bio-indicators the main groups of microorganisms were studied: Bacteria, Actinomycetes and Microphyte fungi. The primary results showed that behaviour of observed microorganisms colonies could be satisfactorily described with the following parameters: CCU; Meeting factor; Diameter of colonies; Morphological similarity and difference. Simultaneous study

  8. Post-fire interactions between soil water repellency, soil fertility and plant growth in soil collected from a burned piñon-juniper woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernelius, Kaitlynn J.; Madsen, Matthew D.; Hopkins, Bryan G.; Bansal, Sheel; Anderson, Val J.; Eggett, Dennis L.; Roundy, Bruce A.

    2017-01-01

    Woody plant encroachment can increase nutrient resources in the plant-mound zone. After a fire, this zone is often found to be water repellent. This study aimed to understand the effects of post-fire water repellency on soil water and inorganic nitrogen and their effects on plant growth of the introduced annual Bromus tectorum and native bunchgrass Pseudoroegneria spicata. Plots centered on burned Juniperus osteosperma trees were either left untreated or treated with surfactant to ameliorate water repellency. After two years, we excavated soil from the untreated and treated plots and placed it in zerotension lysimeter pots. In the greenhouse, half of the pots received an additional surfactant treatment. Pots were seeded separately with B. tectorum or P. spicata. Untreated soils had high runoff, decreased soilwater content, and elevated NO3eN in comparison to surfactant treated soils. The two plant species typically responded similar to the treatments. Above-ground biomass and microbial activity (estimated through soil CO2 gas emissions) was 16.8-fold and 9.5-fold higher in the surfactant-treated soils than repellent soils, respectably. This study demonstrates that water repellency can influence site recovery by decreasing soil water content, promoting inorganic N retention, and impairing plant growth and microbial activity.

  9. Opportune Landing Site Program: Opportune Landing Site Southeastern Indiana Field Data Collection and Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barna, Lynette A; Ryerson, Charles C; Affleck, Rosa T

    2008-01-01

    .... The opportune landing site (OLS) program utilized existing technologies to rapidly accelerate the process of selecting OLSs using remote sensing technology and state-of-the-ground forecast tools...

  10. Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenschuss, A.; Huber, S.; Riss, A.; Schwarz, S.; Tulipan, M.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental soil surveys in each province of Austria have been performed, soils of about 5,000 sites were described and analyzed for nutrients and pollutants, the majority of these data are recorded in the soil information system of Austria (BORIS) soil database, http://www.ubavie.gv.at/umweltsituation/boden/boris), which also contains a soil map of Austria, data from 30 specific investigations mainly in areas with industry and results from the Austria - wide cesium investigation. With respect to the environmental state of soils a short discussion is given, including two geographical charts, one showing which sites have soil data (2001) and the other the cadmium distribution in top soils according land use (forest, grassland, arable land, others). Information related to the soil erosion, Corine land cover (Europe-wide land cover database), evaluation of pollutants in soils (reference values of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Se, Pb, Tl, Va, Zn, AOX, PAH, PCB, PCDD/pcdf, dioxin), and relevant Austrian and European standards and regulations is provided. Figs. 2, Tables 4. (nevyjel)

  11. Geochemical and physical properties of soils and shallow sediments at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, B.B.; Eddy, C.A.; Ramdeen, M.; Pickett, J.; Rogers, V.; Scott, M.T.; Shirley, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    A program to characterize the geochemical and physical properties of the unimpacted soils and shallow sediments at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has been completed. The maximum, minimum, median, standard deviation, and mean values for metals, radionuclides, inorganic anions, organic compounds, and agricultural indicator parameters are summarized for six soil series that were identified as representative of the 29 soil series at SRS. The soils from unimpacted areas of SRS are typical of soils found in moderately aggressive weathering environments, including the southeastern United States. Appendix 8 organic compounds were detected in all samples. Since these constituents are not generally present in soil, this portion of the investigation was intended to assess possible laboratory artifacts. An additional objective of the SRS Soil Study was to determine if the composition of the split spoon sampler biased chemical analysis of the soils. Twenty-five duplicate samples were analyzed for a number of metals, radiological and agricultural parameters, and organics by two laboratories currently contracted with to analyze samples during waste site characterization. In all cases, the absolute values of the average differences are relatively small compared to the overall variability in the population. 31 refs., 14 figs., 48 tabs

  12. Geochemical and physical properties of soils and shallow sediments at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B.B.; Eddy, C.A.; Ramdeen, M.; Pickett, J. (Savannah River Lab., Aiken, SC (USA)); Rogers, V. (Soil Conservation Service, Aiken, SC (USA). Savannah River Site Savannah River Lab., Aiken, SC (USA)); Scott, M.T.; Shirley, P.A. (Sirrine Environmental Consultants, Greenville, SC (USA))

    1990-08-31

    A program to characterize the geochemical and physical properties of the unimpacted soils and shallow sediments at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has been completed. The maximum, minimum, median, standard deviation, and mean values for metals, radionuclides, inorganic anions, organic compounds, and agricultural indicator parameters are summarized for six soil series that were identified as representative of the 29 soil series at SRS. The soils from unimpacted areas of SRS are typical of soils found in moderately aggressive weathering environments, including the southeastern United States. Appendix 8 organic compounds were detected in all samples. Since these constituents are not generally present in soil, this portion of the investigation was intended to assess possible laboratory artifacts. An additional objective of the SRS Soil Study was to determine if the composition of the split spoon sampler biased chemical analysis of the soils. Twenty-five duplicate samples were analyzed for a number of metals, radiological and agricultural parameters, and organics by two laboratories currently contracted with to analyze samples during waste site characterization. In all cases, the absolute values of the average differences are relatively small compared to the overall variability in the population. 31 refs., 14 figs., 48 tabs.

  13. Soil biological attributes in arsenic-contaminated gold mining sites after revegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Jessé Valentim; de Melo Rangel, Wesley; Azarias Guimarães, Amanda; Duque Jaramillo, Paula Marcela; Rufini, Márcia; Marra, Leandro Marciano; Varón López, Maryeimy; Pereira da Silva, Michele Aparecida; Fonsêca Sousa Soares, Cláudio Roberto; de Souza Moreira, Fatima Maria

    2013-12-01

    Recovery of arsenic contaminated areas is a challenge society faces throughout the world. Revegetation associated with microbial activity can play an essential role in this process. This work investigated biological attributes in a gold mining area with different arsenic contents at different sites under two types of extant revegetation associated with cover layers of the soil: BS, Brachiaria sp. and Stizolobium sp., and LEGS, Acacia crassicarpa, A. holosericea, A. mangium, Sesbania virgata, Albizia lebbeck and Pseudosamanea guachapele. References were also evaluated, comprising the following three sites: B1, weathered sulfide substrate without revegetation; BM, barren material after gold extraction and PRNH (private reserve of natural heritage), an uncontaminated forest site near the mining area. The organic and microbial biomass carbon contents and substrate-induced respiration rates for these sites from highest to lowest were: PRNH > LEGS > BS > B1 and BM. These attributes were negatively correlated with soluble and total arsenic concentration in the soil. The sites that have undergone revegetation (LEGS and BS) had higher densities of bacteria, fungi, phosphate solubilizers and ammonium oxidizers than the sites without vegetation. Principal component analysis showed that the LEGS site grouped with PRNH, indicating that the use of leguminous species associated with an uncontaminated soil cover layer contributed to the improvement of the biological attributes. With the exception of acid phosphatase, all the biological attributes were indicators of soil recovery, particularly the following: microbial carbon, substrate-induced respiration, density of culturable bacteria, fungi and actinobacteria, phosphate solubilizers and metabolic quotient.

  14. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF SOIL SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.20)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP describes the method for collecting soil samples from the child's outdoor play area to measure for persistent organic pollutants. Soil samples are collected by scraping up the top 0.5 cm of soil in a 0.095 m2 (1 ft2) area in the middle of the child's play area.

  15. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction as a predictor of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon bioaccumulation and toxicity by earthworms in manufactured-gas plant site soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitinger, Joseph P; Quiñones-Rivera, Antonio; Neuhauser, Edward F; Alexander, Martin; Hawthorne, Steven B

    2007-09-01

    The toxicity and uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by earthworms were measured in soil samples collected from manufactured-gas plant sites having a wide range in PAH concentrations (170-42,000 mg/kg) and soil characteristics. Samples varied from vegetated soils to pure lampblack soot and had total organic carbon contents ranging from 3 to 87%. The biota-soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) observed for individual PAHs in field-collected earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa) were up to 50-fold lower than the BSAFs predicted using equilibrium-partitioning theory. Acute toxicity to the earthworm Eisenia fetida was unrelated to total PAH concentration: Mortality was not observed in some soils having high concentrations of total PAHs (>42,000 mg/kg), whereas 100% mortality was observed in other soils having much lower concentrations of total PAHs (1,520 mg/kg). Instead, toxicity appeared to be related to the rapidly released fraction of PAHs determined by mild supercritical CO2 extraction (SFE). The results demonstrate that soils having approximately 16,000 mg rapidly released total PAH/kg organic carbon can be acutely toxic to earthworms and that the concentration of PAHs in soil that is rapidly released by SFE can estimate toxicity to soil invertebrates.

  16. Comparing measured and modelled soil carbon: which site-specific variables are linked to high stability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Andy; Schipanski, Meagan; Ma, Liwang; Ahuja, Lajpat; McNamara, Niall; Smith, Pete; Davies, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Changes in soil carbon (C) stocks have been studied in depth over the last two decades, as net greenhouse gas (GHG) sinks are highlighted to be a partial solution to the causes of climate change. However, the stability of this soil C is often overlooked when measuring these changes. Ultimately a net sequestration in soils is far less beneficial if labile C is replacing more stable forms. To date there is no accepted framework for measuring soil C stability, and as a result there is considerable uncertainty associated with the simulated impacts of land management and land use change when using process-based systems models. However, a recent effort to equate measurable soil C fractions to model pools has generated data that help to assess the impacts of land management, and can ultimately help to reduce the uncertainty of model predictions. Our research compiles this existing fractionation data along with site metadata to create a simplistic statistical model able to quantify the relative importance of different site-specific conditions. Data was mined from 23 published studies and combined with original data to generate a dataset of 100+ land use change sites across Europe. For sites to be included they required soil C fractions isolated using the Zimmermann et al. (2007) method and specific site metadata (mean annual precipitation, MAP; mean annual temperature, MAT; soil pH; land use; altitude). Of the sites, 75% were used to develop a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) to create coefficients where site parameters can be used to predict influence on the measured soil fraction C stocks. The remaining 25% of sites were used to evaluate uncertainty and validate this empirical model. Further, four of the aforementioned sites were used to simulate soil C dynamics using the RothC, DayCent and RZWQM2 models. A sensitivity analysis (4096 model runs for each variable applying Latin hypercube random sampling techniques) was then used to observe whether these models place

  17. Summary of Inorganic Compositional Data for Groundwater, Soil-Water, and Surface-Water Samples at the Headgate Draw Subsurface Drip Irrigation Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geboy, Nicholas J.; Engle, Mark A.; Schroeder, Karl T.; Zupanic, John W.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a 5-year project on the impact of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) application of coalbed-methane (CBM) produced waters, water samples were collected from the Headgate Draw SDI site in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA. This research is part of a larger study to understand short- and long-term impacts on both soil and water quality from the beneficial use of CBM waters to grow forage crops through use of SDI. This document provides a summary of the context, sampling methodology, and quality assurance and quality control documentation of samples collected prior to and over the first year of SDI operation at the site (May 2008-October 2009). This report contains an associated database containing inorganic compositional data, water-quality criteria parameters, and calculated geochemical parameters for samples of groundwater, soil water, surface water, treated CBM waters, and as-received CBM waters collected at the Headgate Draw SDI site.

  18. TL dating of pottery sherds and baked soil from the Xian Terracotta Army Site, Shaanxi Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yanchou; Zhang Jingzhao; Xie Jun

    1988-01-01

    Six ceramics and two baked soil samples collected from the famous Xian Terracotta Army Site have been dated by using fine grain (2-8 μ) thermoluminescence (TL) technique. Five samples of pottery sherds exhibited peak TL at about 275 0 C and 395 0 C gave the TL age ranges from 2.13 ± 0.14 ka to 2.25 ± 0.14 ka and a mean TL age of 2.20 ± 0.15 ka, with a good plateau in the range of 290-400 0 C. Another sample, however, showed a larger peak at 365 0 C and could not be dated because of serious fading. TL ages of 1.93 ± 0.13 ka and 2.20 ± 0.19 ka have been also obtained from the baked soil samples with a plateau between 300 and 350 0 C. The TL dates of the ceramics and baked soil are consistent with C-14 dates on charcoal samples taken from the same layer in Xian Terracotta Army Site. It is consistent with other evidence that the Terracotta Army figures were made about 2200 yr ago and that the site burned down soon afterwards. (author)

  19. Physical and hydraulic characteristics of bentonite-amended soil from Area 5, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, W.

    1995-08-01

    Radioactive waste requires significant isolation from the biosphere. Shallow land burial using low-permeability covers are often used to prevent the release of impounded material. This report details the characterization of a soil mixture intended for use as the low-permeability component of a radioactive waste disposal site. The addition of 6.5 percent bentonite to the sandy soils of the site reduced the value of saturated hydraulic conductivity (K s ) by more than two orders of magnitude to 7.6 x 10- 8 cm/sec. Characterization of the soil mixture included measurements of grain density, grain size distribution, compaction, porosity, dry bulk density, shear strength, desiccation shrinkage, K s , vapor conductivity, air permeability, the characteristic water retention function, and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity by both experimental and numerical estimation methods. The ability of the soil layer to limit infiltration in a simulated application was estimated in a one-dimensional model of a landfill cover

  20. The use of NTA for lead phytoextraction from soil from a battery recycling site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Eriberto Vagner de Souza; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo

    2009-11-15

    The application of synthetic aminopolycarboxylic acids to soil increases metal solubility, and therefore enhances phytoextraction. However, synthetic chelants degrade poorly in soil, and metal leaching threatens human and animal health. The aim of this study is to assess the use of a biodegradable chelant (NTA) for Pb phytoextraction from a soil contaminated by battery-casing disposal. EDTA was also included in the experiment to assess the behavior of a non-degradable chelant. Each synthetic chelant was applied to soil pots cultivated with maize plants at rates of 0, 2, 5, 10, and 20 mmol kg(-1). Soil samples were extracted with CaCl(2) and by sequential extraction for Pb. In addition, a soil column experiment was set up to study the leaching of Pb from the chelant-amended soil. The results showed that both NTA and EDTA were highly effective in solubilizing Pb from soil. The Pb distribution into soil fractions after chelant addition followed the sequence: Ex (exchangeable)>OM (organic matter)>AFeOx (amorphous iron oxides)>CFeOx (crystalline iron oxides). The 5 mmol kg(-1) dose of EDTA increased the Pb concentration in maize shoots to 1.1%, but it promoted unacceptable Pb leaching rates. On the other hand, the results showed that phytoremediating the site using 5 mmol kg(-1) NTA could be feasible with no environmental effects due to Pb leaching over a five-year period.

  1. Interactions between soil development, vegetation and soil fauna during spontaneous succession in post mining sites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frouz, Jan; Prach, Karel; Pižl, Václav; Háněl, Ladislav; Starý, Josef; Tajovský, Karel; Materna, J.; Balík, Vladimír; Kalčík, Jiří; Řehounková, K.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2008), s. 109-121 ISSN 1164-5563 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/01/1055; GA ČR(CZ) GA526/06/0728; GA AV ČR 1QS600660505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521; CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : succession * soil microstructure * soil formation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.888, year: 2008

  2. Arsenic speciation in arsenic-rich Brazilian soils from gold mining sites under anaerobic incubation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mello, J. W. V.; Talbott, J.L.; Scott, J.; Roy, W.R.; Stucki, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    Background. Arsenic speciation in environmental samples is essential for studying toxicity, mobility and bio-transformation of As in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Although the inorganic species As(III) and As(V) have been considered dominant in soils and sediments, organisms are able to metabolize inorganic forms of arsenic into organo-arsenic compounds. Arsenosugars and methylated As compounds can be found in terrestrial organisms, but they generally occur only as minor constituents. We investigated the dynamics of arsenic species under anaerobic conditions in soils surrounding gold mining areas from Minas Gerais State, Brazil to elucidate the arsenic biogeochemical cycle and water contamination mechanisms. Methods. Surface soil samples were collected at those sites, namely Paracatu Formation, Banded Iron Formation and Riacho dos Machados Sequence, and incubated in CaCl2 2.5 mmol L-1 suspensions under anaerobic conditions for 1, 28, 56 and 112 days. After that, suspensions were centrifuged and supernatants analyzed for soluble As species by IC-ICPMS and HPLC-ICPMS. Results. Easily exchangeable As was mainly arsenite, except when reducible manganese was present. Arsenate was mainly responsible for the increase in soluble arsenic due to the reductive dissolution of either iron or manganese in samples from the Paracatu Formation and Riacho dos Machados Sequence. On the other hand, organic species of As dominated in samples from the Banded Iron Formation during anaerobic incubation. Discussion. Results are contrary to the expectation that, in anaerobic environments, As release due to the reductive dissolution of Fe is followed by As(V) reduction to As(III). The occurrence of organo-arsenic species was also found to be significant to the dynamics of soluble arsenic, mainly in soils from the Banded Iron Formation (BIF), under our experimental conditions. Conclusions. In general, As(V) and organic As were the dominant species in solution, which is surprising

  3. Soil and Groundwater Characteristics of a Legacy Spill Site | Adoki ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main crops grown include yams, cassava, maize, sugarcane, plantain, banana, oil palm, coconut, raffia palm. Families own the land and this ownership is by inheritance. In recent times, people can purchase land for use and others can also hire. The stratigraphy of the subsurface at the study site is closely related to the ...

  4. Soil monitoring in Pavlodar region adjoining to Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuleubaev, B.A.; Ramazanov, Zh.R.; Askarov, E.V.

    2004-01-01

    A problem of territory study and rehabilitation contaminated with man-caused radionuclides is an important task and it has economic, social, and ecology aspects. The problem is crucial for Pavlodar region due to real proximity and to partial location of Semipalatinsk Test Site on its territory. (author)

  5. On site remediation of a fuel spill and soil reuse in Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWatters, R S; Wilkins, D; Spedding, T; Hince, G; Raymond, B; Lagerewskij, G; Terry, D; Wise, L; Snape, I

    2016-11-15

    The first large-scale remediation of fuel contamination in Antarctica treated 10000L of diesel dispersed in 1700t of soil, and demonstrated the efficacy of on-site bioremediation. The project progressed through initial site assessment and natural attenuation, passive groundwater management, then active remediation and the managed reuse of soil. Monitoring natural attenuation for the first 12years showed contaminant levels in surface soil remained elevated, averaging 5000mg/kg. By contrast, in five years of active remediation (excavation and biopile treatment) contaminant levels decreased by a factor of four. Chemical indicators showed hydrocarbon loss was apportioned to both biodegradation and evaporative processes. Hydrocarbon degradation rates were assessed against biopile soil temperatures, showing a phase of rapid degradation (first 100days above soil temperature threshold of 0°C) followed by slower degradation (beyond 100days above threshold). The biopiles operated successfully within constraints typical of harsh climates and remote sites, including limitations on resources, no external energy inputs and short field seasons. Non-native microorganisms (e.g. inoculations) and other organic materials (e.g. bulking agents) are prohibited in Antarctica making this cold region more challenging for remediation than the Arctic. Biopile operations included an initial fertiliser application, biannual mechanical turning of the soil and minimal leachate recirculation. The biopiles are a practical approach to remediate large quantities of contaminated soil in the Antarctic and already 370t have been reused in a building foundation. The findings presented demonstrate that bioremediation is a viable strategy for Antarctica and other cold regions. Operators can potentially use the modelled relationship between days above 0°C (threshold temperature) and the change in degradation rates to estimate how long it would take to remediate other sites using the biopile technology

  6. Screening Approach to the Activation of Soil and Contamination of Groundwater at Linear Proton Accelerator Sites

    CERN Document Server

    Otto, Thomas

    The activation of soil and the contamination of groundwater at proton accelerator sites with the radionuclides 3H and 22Na are estimated with a Monte-Carlo calculation and a conservative soil- and ground water model. The obtained radionuclide concentrations show that the underground environment of future accelerators must be adequately protected against a migration of activation products. This study is of particular importance for the proton driver accelerator in the planned EURISOL facility.

  7. Summary of recent studies of soil plutonium in the Los Alamos and Trinity Site environs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Hakonson, T.E.

    1976-01-01

    The first plutonium was sent to the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) in 1944 from the Oak Ridge and Hanford reactors for use in synthesizing the first atomic bomb, which was subsequently detonated at Trinity Site in New Mexico. During the last 32 years the LASL has developed an outstanding capability in many scientific fields required to support research in weapons technology and in other uses of nuclear energy. The fabrication and experimental activities required for this effort have resulted in additions of plutonium in industrial effluents to Los Alamos soils, just as the Trinity soils received fallout plutonium after the 1945 Trinity detonation. Formal radioecology-soils studies relative to soil-actinide relationships has been mainly field-oriented and complements transuranic research dealing with the biota of several study areas. The current soil actinide research performed within three liquid effluent-receiving areas at Los Alamos and along the fallout pathway of Trinity, the first nuclear detonation, are summarized

  8. Trace element analysis of soil type collected from the Manjung and central Perak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azman, Muhammad Azfar, E-mail: m-azfar@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Hamzah, Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Abdul; Elias, Md Suhaimi; Abdullah, Nazaratul Ashifa; Hashim, Azian; Shukor, Shakirah Abd; Kamaruddin, Ahmad Hasnulhadi Che [Blok 18, Makmal Analisis Kimia (Aca/Bas), Agensi Nuklear Malaysia, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    Trace elements in soils primarily originated from their parent materials. Parents’ material is the underlying geological material that has been undergone different types of chemical weathering and leaching processes. Soil trace elements concentrations may be increases as a result of continuous input from various human activities, including power generation, agriculture, mining and manufacturing. This paper describes the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) method used for the determination of trace elements concentrations in part per million (ppm) present in the terrestrial environment soil in Perak. The data may indicate any contamination of trace elements contributed from human activities in the area. The enrichment factors were used to check if there any contamination due to the human activities (power plants, agricultural, mining, etc.) otherwise the values would serve as a baseline data for future study. The samples were collected from 27 locations of different soil series in the area at two different depths: the top soil (0-15cm) and the sub soil (15-30cm). The collected soil samples were air dried at 60°C and passed through 2 µm sieve. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been used for the determination of trace elements. Samples were activated in the Nuclear Malaysia TRIGA Mark II reactor followed by gamma spectrometric analysis. By activating the stable elements in the samples, the elements can be determined from the intensities of gamma energies emitted by the respected radionuclides.

  9. Comparison of tree coring and soil gas sampling for screening of contaminated sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Algreen; Stalder, Marcel; Riis, Charlotte

    and then identify high risk areas. The uptake of BTEX into trees varies to a greater extent with the tree species and the site conditions than chlorinated solvents, which lead to greater uncertainty. Both methods have their advantages and disadvantages. Hence, the methods supplement each other. Based on results......Site characterization is often time consuming and a financial burden for the site owners, which raises a demand for rapid and inexpensive (pre)screening methods. Phytoscreening by tree coring has shown to be a useful tool to detect subsurface contamination, especially of chlorinated solvents...... suitable as initial screening methods for site characterization. The aim of this study is to compare tree coring and soil gas sampling to evaluate to which extent tree coring may supplement or substitute soil gas sampling as a site contaminant screening tool. And where both methods are feasible, evaluate...

  10. Real-Time Soils Characterization and Analyses Systems Used at Ohio Closure Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, Lyle Gene; Carpenter, Michael Vance; Giles, John Robert; Hartwell, John Kelvin; Danahy, R.

    2003-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) have jointly developed a field-deployed analytical system to rapidly scan, characterize, and analyze surface soil contamination. The basic system consists of a sodium iodide (NaI) spectrometer and global positioning system (GPS) hardware. This hardware can be deployed from any of four different platforms depending on the scope of the survey at hand. These platforms range from a large tractor-based unit (the RTRAK) used to survey large, relatively flat areas to a hand-pushed unit where maneuverability is important, to an excavator mounted system used to scan pits and trenches. The mobile sodium iodide concept was initially developed by the FEMP to provide pre-screening analyses for soils contaminated with uranium, thorium, and radium. The initial study is documented in the RTRAK Applicability Study and provides analyses supporting the field usage of the concept. The RTRAK system produced data that required several days of post-processing and analyses to generate an estimation of field coverage and activity levels. The INEEL has provided integrated engineering, computer hardware and software support to greatly streamline the data acquisition and analysis process to the point where real-time activity and coverage maps are available to the field technicians. On-line analyses have been added to automatically convert GPS data to Ohio State-Plane coordinates, examine and correct collected spectra for energy calibration drifts common to NaI spectrometers, and strip spectra in regions of interest to provide moisture corrected activity levels for total uranium, thorium-232, and radium-226. Additionally, the software provides a number of checks and alarms to alert operators that a hand-examination of spectral data in a particular area may be required. The FEMP has estimated that this technology has produced projected site savings in excess of $34M

  11. Radionuclide sorption on low-exchange capacity Hanford site soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Routson, R.C.; Barney, G.S.; Smith, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    Trace Distribution Coefficients (Kd values) for 134 Cs, 85 Sr, and 60 Co sorption were found to be a function of sediment type (soil type) and of the solution concentration of macroions including NA + , K + , and Ca +2 over wide macroion concentration ranges. These Kd value functions are required as input sorption parameters to a mass transport model. Four methods were evaluated for measuring the Kd value macroion functional relationships for each sediment type. Precision, bias, and cost effectiveness were compared for choosing a preferred method. The prefered method, an empirical-statistical method (Box-Behnken method), was found to be as precise and unbiased as the other methods and the most cost effective. 12 references, 7 figures, 10 tables

  12. Local site effect of soil slope based on microtremor measurement in Samigaluh, Kulon Progo Yogyakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabowo, U. N.; Amalia, A. F.; Wiranata, F. E.

    2018-03-01

    This paper investigated soil slope-local site effect of earthquake inducing landslide by using microtremor Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) method. Microtremor measurements of 15 sites which were recorded for 45 minutes at each site were carried out in Ngargosari village, Samigaluh, Kulon Progo-Indonesia. Microtremor analysis using HVSR method was performed using Geopsy software. HVSR method resulted in predominant frequency values that ranges between 2,77 to 13,82 Hz and amplification factors varied from 0,46 to 5,70. The predominant frequency is associated with the depth of bedrock and the amplification factor reflects the geological condition of soil (sedimentary layer). The soil vulnerability index (Kg) varied from 0,08 to 5,77 and the higher value (Kg>3,4) in the south of the research area was identified as the weak zone of earthquake inducing landslide.

  13. Y-12 site-specific earthquake response analysis and soil liquefaction assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.B.; Hunt, R.J.; Manrod, W.E. III.

    1995-01-01

    A site-specific earthquake response analysis and soil liquefaction assessment were performed for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The main purpose of these studies was to use the results of the analyses for evaluating the safety of the performance category -1, -2, and -3 facilities against the natural phenomena seismic hazards. Earthquake response was determined for seven (7), one dimensional soil columns (Fig. 12) using two horizontal components of the PC-3 design basis 2000-year seismic event. The computer program SHAKE 91 (Ref. 7) was used to calculate the absolute response accelerations on top of ground (soil/weathered shale) and rock outcrop. The SHAKE program has been validated for horizontal response calculations at periods less than 2.0 second at several sites and consequently is widely accepted in the geotechnical earthquake engineering area for site response analysis

  14. Distribution of 137Cs in the Surface Soil of Serpong Nuclear Site

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, E

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of 137Cs in the surface soil layer of Serpong Nuclear Site (SNS) was investigated by field sampling. The Objectives of the investigation is finding the profile of 137Cs distribution in the surface soil and the Tf value that can be used for estimation of radiation dose from livestock product-man pathways. The results indicates that the 137Cs activity in surface soil of SNS is 0.80 ± 0,29 Bq/kg, much lower than in the Antarctic. The contribution value of 137Cs from the operatio...

  15. Unit soil loss rate from various construction sites during a storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniquiz, Marla C; Lee, Soyoung; Lee, Eunju; Kong, Dong-Soo; Kim, Lee-Hyung

    2009-01-01

    The Korean Ministry of Environment (MOE) opts to establish an ordinance having a standard specifying an allowable soil loss rate applicable to construction projects. The predicted amount of soil loss from a construction site exceeding the standard can be used to calculate the percent reduction necessary to comply with the ordinance. This research was conducted to provide a basis to establish a standard by investigating the unit soil loss rates in the three phases of development: pre-construction, active construction and post construction based from 1,036 Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) reports within the six-year period (2000-2005). Based on the findings, several factors affect the magnitude of soil loss rates particularly storm characteristics, site slope, soil type, location from rivers, as well as the type of construction activity. In general, the unit soil loss rates during the active construction phase are extremely higher in comparison to undisturbed areas; in magnitude of 7 to 80 times larger in urban areas and 18 to 585 times in rural areas. Only between 20 to 40 percent of the soil loss rates was contributed at pre- and post- construction phases indicating that the active construction phase is the most important phase to control.

  16. Utilizing of magnetic parameters for evaluation of soil erosion rates on two different agricultural sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapicka, A.; Grison, H.; Petrovsky, E.; Jaksik, O.; Kodesova, R.

    2015-12-01

    Field measurements of magnetic susceptibility were carried out on regular grid, resulting in 101 data points at Brumovice and 65 at Vidim locality. Mass specific magnetic susceptibility χ and its frequency dependence χFD was used to estimate the significance of SP ferrimagnetic particles of pedogenic origin in topsoil horizons. The lowest magnetic susceptibility was obtained on the steep valley sides. Here the original topsoil was eroded and mixed by tillage with the soil substrate (loess). Soil profiles unaffected by erosion were investigated in detail. The vertical distribution of magnetic susceptibility along these "virgin" profiles was measured in laboratory on samples collected with 2-cm spacing. The differences between the distribution of susceptibility in the undisturbed soil profiles and the magnetic signal after uniform mixing of the soil material as a result of erosion and tillage are fundamental for the estimation of soil loss in the studied test fields. Maximum cumulative soil erosion depth in Brumovice and Vidim is around 100 cm and 50 cm respectively. The magnetic method is suitable for mapping at the chernozem localities and measurement of soil magnetic susceptibility is in this case useful and fast technique for quantitative estimation of soil loss caused by erosion. However, it is less suitable (due to lower magnetic differentiation with depth) in areas with luvisol as dominant soil unit. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by NAZV Agency of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic through grant No QJ1230319.

  17. Petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation under seasonal freeze-thaw soil temperature regimes in contaminated soils from a sub-Arctic site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wonjae; Klemm, Sara; Beaulieu, Chantale; Hawari, Jalal; Whyte, Lyle; Ghoshal, Subhasis

    2011-02-01

    Several studies have shown that biostimulation in ex situ systems such as landfarms and biopiles can facilitate remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils at sub-Arctic sites during summers when temperatures are above freezing. In this study, we examine the biodegradation of semivolatile (F2: C10-C16) and nonvolatile (F3: C16-C34) petroleum hydrocarbons and microbial respiration and population dynamics at post- and presummer temperatures ranging from -5 to 14 °C. The studies were conducted in pilot-scale tanks with soils obtained from a historically contaminated sub-Arctic site in Resolution Island (RI), Canada. In aerobic, nutrient-amended, unsaturated soils, the F2 hydrocarbons decreased by 32% during the seasonal freeze-thaw phase where soils were cooled from 2 to -5 °C at a freezing rate of -0.12 °C d(-1) and then thawed from -5 to 4 °C at a thawing rate of +0.16 °C d(-1). In the unamended (control) tank, the F2 fraction only decreased by 14% during the same period. Biodegradation of individual hydrocarbon compounds in the nutrient-amended soils was also confirmed by comparing their abundance over time to that of the conserved diesel biomarker, bicyclic sesquiterpanes (BS). During this period, microbial respiration was observed, even at subzero temperatures when unfrozen liquid water was detected during the freeze-thaw period. An increase in culturable heterotrophs and 16S rDNA copy numbers was noted during the freezing phase, and the (14)C-hexadecane mineralization in soil samples obtained from the nutrient-amended tank steadily increased. Hydrocarbon degrading bacterial populations identified as Corynebacterineae- and Alkanindiges-related strains emerged during the freezing and thawing phases, respectively, indicating there were temperature-based microbial community shifts.

  18. Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenschuss, A.; Huber, S.; Riss, A.; Schwarz, S.; Tulipan, M.

    2001-01-01

    For Austria there exists a comprehensive soil data collection, integrated in a GIS (geographical information system). The content values of pollutants (cadmium, mercury, lead, copper, mercury, radio-cesium) are given in geographical charts and in tables by regions and by type of soil (forests, agriculture, greenland, others) for the whole area of Austria. Erosion effects are studied for the Austrian region. Legal regulations and measures for an effective soil protection, reduction of soil degradation and sustainable development in Austria and the European Union are discussed. (a.n.)

  19. About condition of soil ground at locations of the former Azgir nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmetov, E.Z.; Adymov, Zh.I.; Ermatov, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Soil condition after underground nuclear explosions at locations of the test sites is considered. The region is situated in the zone of northern deserts and characterized by prevalence of greyish-brown soils in conditions of sharply continental climate and presence of salt in soil-formative complex including tertiary clays, loess-like loam, loam sands and sands. There are small quantity of humus in such soil. During investigation of soil characteristics and ability of soil particles to form conglomerates, possessing of different properties, it is necessary to know both element and phase composition, determining, in the most extent, such physical and mechanical macro-characteristics as: density, stickiness, air and water penetrability, solubility, chemical resistance, granulometric set and others. Phase composition of soil samples can be, to a sufficient extent, determined by the X-ray diffractometry methods using ordinary X-ray experimental facilities. Phase composition of soil includes gypsum, quartz, calcium, potash feldspar hematite, kaolin, peach and mica in different quantities. Data on element composition of soil samples were obtained from the territory of technological locations of test site using the method of X-ray-fluorescent analysis. Granulometric composition of soil ground has been investigated using the methods of dry sieving and wet sieving for determination of radionuclide distribution in different fractions of soil particles. By the method of the dry sieving of soil ground samples there are taken place a sticking the small together of fine fractions and an adhesion of stuck-together particles to more large ones. Therefore, fine fractions cannot be separate completely at dry sieving. As distinct from the dry sieving an use of water jet in the sieving allows to overcome defects of the dry method and, by a sufficiently effective separation of granulometric fractions, to obtain more precise results of investigations of granulometric

  20. Advanced Soil Moisture Network Technologies; Developments in Collecting in situ Measurements for Remote Sensing Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, M.; Silva, A. R. D.; Akbar, R.; Clewley, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Soil moisture Sensing Controller And oPtimal Estimator (SoilSCAPE) wireless sensor network has been developed to support Calibration and Validation activities (Cal/Val) for large scale soil moisture remote sensing missions (SMAP and AirMOSS). The technology developed here also readily supports small scale hydrological studies by providing sub-kilometer widespread soil moisture observations. An extensive collection of semi-sparse sensor clusters deployed throughout north-central California and southern Arizona provide near real time soil moisture measurements. Such a wireless network architecture, compared to conventional single points measurement profiles, allows for significant and expanded soil moisture sampling. The work presented here aims at discussing and highlighting novel and new technology developments which increase in situ soil moisture measurements' accuracy, reliability, and robustness with reduced data delivery latency. High efficiency and low maintenance custom hardware have been developed and in-field performance has been demonstrated for a period of three years. The SoilSCAPE technology incorporates (a) intelligent sensing to prevent erroneous measurement reporting, (b) on-board short term memory for data redundancy, (c) adaptive scheduling and sampling capabilities to enhance energy efficiency. A rapid streamlined data delivery architecture openly provides distribution of in situ measurements to SMAP and AirMOSS cal/val activities and other interested parties.

  1. Inacessible Andean sites reveal land-use induced stabilisation of soil organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitkamp, Felix; Maqsood, Shafique; Sylvester, Steven; Kessler, Michael; Jungkunst, Hermann

    2015-04-01

    Human activity affects properties and development of ecosystems across the globe to such a degree that it is challenging to get baseline values for undisturbed ecosystems. This is especially true for soils, which are affected by land-use history and hold a legacy of past human interventions. Therefore, it is still largely unknown how soil would have developed "naturally" and if processes of organic matter stabilisation would be different in comparison to managed soils. Here, we show undisturbed soil development, i.e., the processes of weathering and accumulation of soil organic carbon (SOC), by comparing pristine with grazed sites in the high Andes (4500 m) of southern Peru. We located study plots on a large ledge (0.2 km²) that is only accessible with mountaineering equipment. Plots with pristine vegetation were compared to rangeland plots that were constantly under grazing management for at least four millennia. All "state factors"; climate, potential biota, topography, parent material and time; besides "land-use" were, therefore, identical. Vegetation change, induced by grazing management, led to lower vegetation cover of the soil, thereby increasing soil surface temperatures and soil acidification. Both factors increased weathering in rangeland soils, as indicated by the presence of pedogenic oxides, especially amorphous Al-(oxy)hydroxides (oxalate-extractable Al). Higher losses of base cations (K, Na, Ca) and lower pH-values were related to a low base saturation of exchange sites in rangelands. Therefore, rangeland soils were classified as Umbrisol, whereas soils under pristine vegetation were classified as Phaeozeme. All profiles were rich in SOC (100 to 126 g kg-1) with no significant differences in concentrations or stocks. SOC of rangeland soils was, however, less available for microorganisms (proportion of microbial C on SOC: 1.8 vs. 0.6% in pristine and rangeland soils, respectively) and showed higher stability against thermal degradation. Reasons for

  2. Soil-biological, soil-chemical and soil-physical parameters along a pollutant gradient on grassland sites in the vicinity o Brixlegg (Tyrol) - a pilot project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohla, H.; Palzenberger, M.; Krassnigg, F.; Kandeler, E.; Schwarz, S.; Kasperowski, E.

    1992-01-01

    It was the main aim of this pilot project to check the indicator value of soil organisms by means of distinct pollutant gradients - heavy metals, organic compounds (PCB, dioxins) -. On the basis of available results (1/2/3/), 4 grassland sites at increasing distances from a local emission source (copper production from scrap metal) were selected. Physical and chemical analyses as well as the quantification of habitat structures were used for the characterization of the sites. The following analyses were carried out accompanyingly: The performances of soil microorganisms under pollutant load, the accumulation of pollutants, and the structures of plants and animal communities (macro, meso and microfauna). The investigation area and the examined parameters are introduced, as well as first result on soil chemistry and enzymatics as well as for the accumulation of heavy metals in an earthworm species are introduced. (orig.) [de

  3. BOREAS TGB-1 Soil CH4 and CO2 Profile Data from NSA Tower Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crill, Patrick; Varner, Ruth K.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Conrad, Sara K. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TGB-1 team made numerous measurements of trace gas concentrations and fluxes at various NSA sites. This data set contains methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in soil profiles from the NSA-OJP, NSA-OBS, NSA-YJP, and NSA-BP sites during the period of 23-May to 20-Sep-1994. The soil gas sampling profiles of CH 4 and CO 2 were completed to quantify controls on CO2 and CH4 fluxes in the boreal forest. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files.

  4. Effect of saline soil parameters on endo mycorrhizal colonisation of dominant halophytes in four Hungarian sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuzy, A.; Biro, B.; Toth, T.

    2010-07-01

    Soil and root samples were collected from the rhizosphere of dominant halophytes (Artemisia santonicum, Aster tripolium, Festuca pseudovina, Lepidium crassifolium, Plantago maritima and Puccinellia limosa) at four locations with saline soils in Hungary. The correlations- between arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungal colonisation parameters (% colonisation, % arbuscules) and soil physical, chemical and biological parameters were determined Endomycorrhiza colonisation was found to be negatively correlated with the electric conductivity of the soil paste, the salt-specific ion concentrations and the cation exchange capacity, showing the sensitivity of AM fungi at increasing salt concentrations, independently of the types of salt-specific anions. A positive correlation was detected between the mycorrhiza colonisation and the abundance of oligotroph bacteria known to be the less variable and more stable (k-strategist) group. This fact and the negative correlation found with the humus content underlines the importance of nutrient availability and the limitations of the symbiotic interactions in stressed saline or sodic soils. (Author) 29 refs.

  5. Collection and processing of plant, animal and soil samples from Bikini, Enewetak and Rongelap Atolls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, M.L.

    1995-09-01

    The United States used the Marshall Islands for its nuclear weapons program testing site from 1946 to 1958. The BRAVO test was detonated at Bikini Atoll on March 1, 1954. Due to shifting wind conditions at the time of the nuclear detonation, many of the surrounding Atolls became contaminated with fallout (radionuclides carried by the wind currents). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) Marshall Islands Project has been responsible for the collecting, processing, and analyzing of food crops, vegetation, soil, water, animals, and marine species to characterize the radionuclides in the environment, and to estimate dose at atolls that may have been contaminated. Tropical agriculture experiments reducing the uptake of {sup 137}Cs have been conducted on Bikini Atoll. The Marshall Islands field team and laboratory processing team play an important role in the overall scheme of the Marshall Islands Dose Assessment and Radioecology Project. This report gives a general description of the Marshall Islands field sampling and laboratory processing procedures currently used by our staff.

  6. Collection and processing of plant, animal and soil samples from Bikini, Enewetak and Rongelap Atolls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, M.L.

    1995-09-01

    The United States used the Marshall Islands for its nuclear weapons program testing site from 1946 to 1958. The BRAVO test was detonated at Bikini Atoll on March 1, 1954. Due to shifting wind conditions at the time of the nuclear detonation, many of the surrounding Atolls became contaminated with fallout (radionuclides carried by the wind currents). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Marshall Islands Project has been responsible for the collecting, processing, and analyzing of food crops, vegetation, soil, water, animals, and marine species to characterize the radionuclides in the environment, and to estimate dose at atolls that may have been contaminated. Tropical agriculture experiments reducing the uptake of 137 Cs have been conducted on Bikini Atoll. The Marshall Islands field team and laboratory processing team play an important role in the overall scheme of the Marshall Islands Dose Assessment and Radioecology Project. This report gives a general description of the Marshall Islands field sampling and laboratory processing procedures currently used by our staff

  7. Methods to ensure the quality of excavated soil material from geogenically metalliferous sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebhard, Peter; Sager, Manfred

    2017-04-01

    Soils at geogenically metalliferous sites might exceed heavy metal threshold levels with respect to agricultural use, apart from anthropogenic contamination sources. As a fundamental substrate for green plants and green plant production, soil is not easily renewable, its formation needs long time (e.g. 500 years for 20 mm). In Austria, about 10ha of soil get sealed every day, resulting in complete loss of its biological functions. Excavated soil material has been classified as waste from a legal point of view, which made 33 mill. tons resp. 48% of total waste in Austria in 2010. Recycling of excavated soil material for agricultural use will be an important task to reduce future waste and to enlarge agricultural substrate volumes, but methods to ensure proper qualities are needed to improve regulations. Within this investigation, the transfer of various metals from geogenically metalliferous soils to various crop plants will be investigated, and correlated with various simple soil test methods. Four excavated soil materials from the metalliferous schist zone within the Austrian province of Styria (Kraubath/Mur, Übelbach) and a low-metal reference sample have been taken as substrates to grow raygrass (lolium multiflorum) as a green cover, salad (Lactuca sativa) as a vegetable food item, oats (Avena sativa), maize (Zea mais) and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) as a hyperaccumulating species. Results and recommendations will be presented.

  8. Acid leaching of heavy metals from contaminated soil collected from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: kinetic and thermodynamics studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shorouq I. Alghanmi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Urban soils polluted with heavy metals are of increasing concern because it is greatly affecting human health and the ecological systems. Hence, it is mandatory to understand the reasons behind this pollution and remediate the contaminated solid. The removal of heavy metals from contaminated soil samples collected from the vicinity of the sewage lake in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, was explored. The leaching process was studied kinetically and thermodynamically for better understanding of the remediation process. The results showed that the soil samples were slightly basic in nature, and tend to be more neutral away from the main contaminated sewage lake area. The total metal content in the soil samples was measured using the aqua regia extractions by ICP-OES and the results showed that many of the heavy metals present have significant concentrations above the tolerable limits. In general, the metal concentrations at different sites indicated that the heavy metal pollution is mainly due to the sewage discharge to the lake. The results showed excellent correlation between the concentrations of Co, As, and Hg with the distance from the main contaminated area. The leaching of Co, As, and Hg using 1.0 M hydrochloric acid from the soil was studied kinetically at different temperatures and the experimental results were fitted using different kinetics models. The experimental data were best described with two-constant rate and Elovich equation kinetic models. Also, the thermodynamic study showed that the leaching process was spontaneous, endothermic and accompanied with increase in the entropy. In general, the polluted soil could be remediated successfully from the heavy metals using the acid leaching procedure in a short period of time.

  9. Air-soil exchange of PCBs: levels and temporal variations at two sites in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolsal, Didem; Salihoglu, Güray; Tasdemir, Yücel

    2014-03-01

    Seasonal distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at the air-soil intersection was determined for two regions: one with urban characteristics where traffic is dense (BUTAL) and the other representing the coastal zone (Mudanya). Fifty-one air and soil samples were simultaneously collected. Total PCB (Σ82 PCB) levels in the soil samples collected during a 1-year period ranged between 105 and 7,060 pg/g dry matter (dm) (BUTAL) and 110 and 2,320 pg/g dm (Mudanya). Total PCB levels in the gaseous phase were measured to be between 100 and 910 pg/m(3) (BUTAL) and 75 and 1,025 pg/m(3) (Mudanya). Variations in the concentrations were observed depending on the season. Though the PCB concentrations measured in the atmospheres of both regions in the summer months were high, they were found to be lower in winter. However, while soil PCB levels were measured to be high at BUTAL during summer months, they were found to be high during winter months in Mudanya. The direction and amount of the PCB movement were determined by calculating the gaseous phase change fluxes at air-soil intersection. While a general PCB movement from soil to air was found for BUTAL, the PCB movement from air to soil was calculated for the Mudanya region in most of the sampling events. During the warmer seasons PCB movement towards the atmosphere was observed due to evaporation from the soil. With decreases in the temperature, both decreases in the number of PCB congeners occurring in the air and a change in the direction of some congeners were observed, possibly caused by deposition from the atmosphere to the soil. 3-CB and 4-CB congeners were found to be dominant in the atmosphere, and 4-, 5-, and 6-CBs were found to dominate in the surface soils.

  10. Lots of legacy soil data are available, but which data do we need to collect for regional land use analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Chantal; Stoorvogel, Jetse; Claessens, Lieven

    2015-04-01

    In the past, soil surveying techniques were mainly developed for qualitative regional land use analysis (RLUA) like land evaluation and land use planning. Conventional soil survey techniques usually describe soil types according to a soil classification scheme (e.g. Soil Taxonomy and World Reference Base). These soil surveys met the requirements of qualitative land evaluation and land use planning. However, during the last decades there is an increased need for quantitative RLUA resulting in an increased demand for quantitative soil data. The rapid developments in computing technology and the availability of auxiliary information (e.g. remote sensing and digital elevation models) allowed for the development of new soil surveying techniques like digital soil mapping. These new soil surveying techniques aim to produce continuous maps of quantitative functional soil properties. However, RLUA nowadays requires soil data that include a description of the spatial variability of the entire pedon in which correlations between soil properties are retained. Current surveying techniques do not fully fulfil these requirements resulting in a gap between the supply and demand of soil data in RLUA. The gap is caused by the fact that legacy soil data are collected for different purposes and inherently have different assumptions on e.g., soil variability. In this study, some of these assumptions are tested and verified using primary soil data collected during a recent field survey in Machakos and Makueni County (Kenya). Subsequently an ongoing RLUA, the Global Yield Gap Atlas (GYGA) project, is taken as a case study to evaluate the effect of different sources of soil data on the results of the RLUA. The results of the study show that various assumptions underlying the soil survey hamper the quality requirements of soil data for the specific objectives of the RLUA. To give a few examples: mapping soil properties individually ignores correlations between them, soil properties

  11. Intra- versus inter-site macroscale variation in biogeochemical properties along a paddy soil chronosequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mueller-Niggemann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the intrinsic heterogeneity of paddy soils, a set of biogeochemical soil parameters was investigated in five field replicates of seven paddy fields (50, 100, 300, 500, 700, 1000, and 2000 yr of wetland rice cultivation, one flooded paddy nursery, one tidal wetland (TW, and one freshwater site (FW from a coastal area at Hangzhou Bay, Zhejiang Province, China. All soils evolved from a marine tidal flat substrate due to land reclamation. The biogeochemical parameters based on their properties were differentiated into (i a group behaving conservatively (TC, TOC, TN, TS, magnetic susceptibility, soil lightness and colour parameters, δ13C, δ15N, lipids and n-alkanes and (ii one encompassing more labile properties or fast cycling components (Nmic, Cmic, nitrate, ammonium, DON and DOC. The macroscale heterogeneity in paddy soils was assessed by evaluating intra- versus inter-site spatial variability of biogeochemical properties using statistical data analysis (descriptive, explorative and non-parametric. Results show that the intrinsic heterogeneity of paddy soil organic and minerogenic components per field is smaller than between study sites. The coefficient of variation (CV values of conservative parameters varied in a low range (10% to 20%, decreasing from younger towards older paddy soils. This indicates a declining variability of soil biogeochemical properties in longer used cropping sites according to progress in soil evolution. A generally higher variation of CV values (>20–40% observed for labile parameters implies a need for substantially higher sampling frequency when investigating these as compared to more conservative parameters. Since the representativeness of the sampling strategy could be sufficiently demonstrated, an investigation of long-term carbon accumulation/sequestration trends in topsoils of the 2000 yr paddy chronosequence under wetland rice cultivation

  12. Clay slurry and engineered soils as containment technologies for remediation of contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.R.; Dudka, S.; Miller, W.P.; Johnson, D.O.

    1997-01-01

    Clay Slurry and Engineered Soils are containment technologies for remediation of waste disposal sites where leaching, groundwater plumes and surface runoff of contaminants are serious ecological hazards to adjacent environments. This technology is a patent-pending process which involves the use of conditioned clay materials mixed with sand and water to form a readily pourable suspension, a clay slurry, which is either placed into a trench barrier system or allowed to de-water to create Engineered Soils. The Engineered Soil forms a layer impervious to water and air, therefore by inhibiting both water and oxygen from penetrating through the soil the material. This material can be installed in layers and as a vertical barrier to create a surface barrier containment system. The clay percentage in the clay slurry and Engineered Soils varies depending on site characteristics and desired performance standards. For example Engineered Soils with 1-2% of clay (dry wt.) had a hydraulic conductivity (K) of 10 -8 to 10 -1 cm/sec. Tests of tailing materials from a kyanite and pyrite mine showed that the clay slurry was effective not only in reducing the permeability of the treated tailings, but also in decreasing their acidity due to the inherent alkalinity of the clay. The untreated tailings had pH values in the range of 2.4 - 3.1; whereas, the effluent from clay and tailings mixtures had pH values in a slightly alkaline range (7.7-7.9). Pug-mills and high volume slurry pumps can be readily adapted for use in constructing and placing caps and creating Engineered Soils. Moreover, material on site or from a local sand supply can be used to create clay slurries and engineered soils. Clay materials used in cap construction are likewise readily available commercially. As a result, the clay slurry system is very cost effective compared to other capping systems, including the commonly used High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) liner systems

  13. Microanalysis of casuarina, Eucalyptus, Pine tissue and mycorrhizal mycelium collected from mines soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Viveros, G.; Zavaleta-Mancera, H. A.; Arenas-Alatorre, J.; Ruvalcaba-Sil, J. L.; Gonzalez-Chavez, C.

    2009-01-01

    Potentially toxic elements (PTE) deposition in soils due to mine exploitation has been recorded since XVI century for Mexico. Plants established in such environments have developed tolerance and adaption to PTE. The objective of this study was to determine the accumulation sites and spatial distribution of PTE. (Author)

  14. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 107: Low Impact Soil Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan covers activities associated with Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 107 of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996 (as amended February 2008)). CAU 107 consists of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site. (1) CAS 01-23-02, Atmospheric Test Site - High Alt; (2) CAS 02-23-02, Contaminated Areas (2); (3) CAS 02-23-03, Contaminated Berm; (4) CAS 02-23-10, Gourd-Amber Contamination Area; (5) CAS 02-23-11, Sappho Contamination Area; (6) CAS 02-23-12, Scuttle Contamination Area; (7) CAS 03-23-24, Seaweed B Contamination Area; (8) CAS 03-23-27, Adze Contamination Area; (9) CAS 03-23-28, Manzanas Contamination Area; (10) CAS 03-23-29, Truchas-Chamisal Contamination Area; (11) CAS 04-23-02, Atmospheric Test Site T4-a; (12) CAS 05-23-06, Atmospheric Test Site; (13) CAS 09-23-06, Mound of Contaminated Soil; (14) CAS 10-23-04, Atmospheric Test Site M-10; and (15) CAS 18-23-02, U-18d Crater (Sulky). Based on historical documentation, personnel interviews, site process knowledge, site visits, photographs, engineering drawings, field screening, analytical results, and the results of data quality objectives process (Section 3.0), closure in place with administrative controls or no further action will be implemented for CAU 107. CAU 107 closure activities will consist of verifying that the current postings required under Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835 are in place and implementing use restrictions (URs) at two sites, CAS 03-23-29 and CAS 18-23-02. The current radiological postings combined with the URs are adequate administrative controls to limit site access and worker dose

  15. Americium-241 in surface soil associated with the Hanford site and vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, K.R.; Gilbert, R.O.; Gano, K.A.

    1981-05-01

    Various kinds of surface soil samples were collected and analyzed for Americium-241 ( 241 Am) to examine the feasibility of improving soil sample data for the Hanford Surface Environmental Surveillance Program. Results do not indicate that a major improvement would occur if procedures were changed from the current practices. Conclusions from this study are somewhat tempered by the very low levels of 241 Am ( 241 Am in soil crust (0 to 1.0 cm deep) was greater than the corresponding subsurface layer (1.0 to 2.5 cm deep), and the average concentration of 241 Am in some onsite samples collected near the PUREX facility was greater than comparable samples collected 60 km upwind at an offsite location

  16. Soil class around me Serpong experimental power reactor (EPR) site plan base on micro tremor data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marjiyono; Soehaimi A; Hadi Suntoko; Yuliastuti; Syaeful H

    2015-01-01

    Surface geological characteristics has an important role on site response analysis in a region. In regard with experimental power reactor (EPR) construction plan in Serpong, the subsurface modeling from combination array and single station micro tremor data was done. The array and single station micro tremor measurement were performed in 9 and 90 sites, respectively, at ± 1 km radius around the EPR site plan. The Vs30 value was calculated from shear wave velocity structure around the investigated area. The soil classification based on Vs30 in the investigated area generally consists of SD (medium soil) and SC (soft rock) class. The EPR site plan its self in the SD class region. (author)

  17. Seismically-induced soil amplification at the DOE Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykora, D.W.; Haynes, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    A site-specific earthquake site response (soil amplification) study is being conducted for the Department of Energy (DOE), Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). This study is pursuant to an upgraded Final Safety Analysis Report in accordance with requirements specified by DOE. The seismic hazard at PGDP is dominated by the New Madrid Seismic Zone. Site-specific synthetic earthquake records developed by others were applied independently to four soil columns with heights above baserock of about 325 ft. The results for the 1000-year earthquake event indicate that the site period is between 1.0 and 1.5 sec. Incident shear waves are amplified at periods of motion greater than 0.15 sec. The peak free-field horizontal acceleration, occurring at very low periods, is 0.28 g. 13 refs., 13 figs

  18. Seismically-induced soil amplification at the DOE Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykora, D.W.; Hynes, M.E.; Brock, W.R.; Hunt, R.J.; Shaffer, K.E.

    1991-01-01

    A site-specific earthquake site response (soil amplification) study is being conducted for the Department of Energy (DOE), Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). This study is pursuant to an upgraded Final Safety Analysis Report in accordance with requirements specified by DOE. The seismic hazard at PGDP is dominated by the New Madrid Seismic Zone. Site-specific synthetic earthquake records developed by others were applied independently to four soil columns with heights above baserock of about 325 ft. The results for the 1000-year earthquake event indicate that the site period is between 1.0 and 1.5 sec. Incident shear waves are strongly amplified at periods of motion greater than 0.3 sec. The peak free-field horizontal acceleration, occurring at very low periods, is 0.28 g

  19. 78 FR 54241 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; BroadbandMatch Web Site Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... goal of increased broadband deployment and use in the United States. The BroadbandMatch Web site began... proposed collection of information is necessary for the proper performance of the functions of the agency... the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be collected; and (d) ways to minimize the...

  20. Mapping Soil Water-Holding Capacity Index to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Phytoremediation Protocols and ExposureRisk to Contaminated Soils in a National Interest Priority Site of the Campania Region (Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, N.

    2015-12-01

    Soil moisture is an important state variable that influences water flow and solute transport in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system, and plays a key role in securing agricultural ecosystem services for nutrition and food security. Especially when environmental studies should be carried out at relatively large spatial scales, there is a need to synthesize the complex interactions between soil, plant behavior, and local atmospheric conditions. Although it relies on the somewhat loosely defined concepts of "field capacity" and "wilting point", the soil water-holding capacity seems a suitable indicator to meet the above-mentioned requirement, yet easily understandable by the public and stakeholders. This parameter is employed in this work to evaluate the effectiveness of phytoremediation protocols funded by the EU-Life project EcoRemed and being implemented to remediate and restore contaminated agricultural soils of the National Interest Priority Site Litorale Domizio-Agro Aversano. The study area is located in the Campania Region (Southern Italy) and has an extent of about 200,000 hectares. A high-level spotted soil contamination is mostly due to the legal or outlaw industrial and municipal wastes, with hazardous consequences also on groundwater quality. With the availability of soil and land systems maps for this study area, disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were collected at two different soil depths to determine basic soil physico-chemical properties for the subsequent application of pedotransfer functions (PTFs). Soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity functions were determined for a number of soil cores, in the laboratory with the evaporation experiments, and used to calibrate the PTFs. Efficient mapping of the soil hydraulic properties benefitted greatly from the use of the PTFs and the physically-based scaling procedure developed by Nasta et al. (2013, WRR, 49:4219-4229).

  1. PIXE Analysis of Aerosol and Soil Samples Collected in the Adirondack Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoskowitz, Joshua; Ali, Salina; Nadareski, Benjamin; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

    2014-09-01

    We have performed an elemental analysis of aerosol and soil samples collected at Piseco Lake in Upstate New York using proton induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE). This work is part of a systematic study of airborne pollution in the Adirondack Mountains. Of particular interest is the sulfur content that can contribute to acid rain, a well-documented problem in the Adirondacks. We used a nine-stage cascade impactor to collect the aerosol samples near Piseco Lake and distribute the particulate matter onto Kapton foils by particle size. The soil samples were also collected at Piseco Lake and pressed into cylindrical pellets for experimentation. PIXE analysis of the aerosol and soil samples were performed with 2.2-MeV proton beams from the 1.1-MV Pelletron accelerator in the Union College Ion-Beam Analysis Laboratory. There are higher concentrations of sulfur at smaller particle sizes (0.25-1 μm), suggesting that it could be suspended in the air for days and originate from sources very far away. Other elements with significant concentrations peak at larger particle sizes (1-4 μm) and are found in the soil samples, suggesting that these elements could originate in the soil. The PIXE analysis will be described and the resulting data will be presented.

  2. Development of a combined soil-wash/in-furnace vitrification system for soil remediation at DOE sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pegg, I.L.; Guo, Y.; Lahoda, E.J.; Lai, Shan-Tao; Muller, I.S.; Ruller, J.; Grant, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    This report addresses research and development of technologies for treatment of radioactive and hazardous waste streams at DOE sites. Weldon Spring raffinate sludges were used in a direct vitrification study to investigate their use as fluxing agents in glass formulations when blended with site soil. Storm sewer sediments from the Oak Ridge, TN, Y-12 facility were used for soil washing followed by vitrification of the concentrates. Both waste streams were extensively characterized. Testing showed that both mercury and uranium could be removed from the Y-12 soil by chemical extraction resulting in an 80% volume reduction. Thermal desorption was used on the contaminant-enriched minority fraction to separate the mercury from the uranium. Vitrification tests demonstrated that high waste loading glasses could be produced from the radioactive stream and from the Weldon Spring wastes which showed very good leach resistance, and viscosities and electrical conductivities in the range suitable for joule-heated ceramic melter (JHCM) processing. The conceptual process described combines soil washing, thermal desorption, and vitrification to produce clean soil (about 90% of the input waste stream), non-radioactive mercury, and a glass wasteform; the estimated processing costs for that system are about $260--$400/yd 3 . Results from continuous melter tests performed using Duratek's advanced JHCM (Duramelter) system are also presented. Since life cycle cost estimates are driven largely by volume reduction considerations, the large volume reductions possible with these multi-technology, blended waste stream approaches can produce a more leach resistant wasteform at a lower overall cost than alternative technologies such as cementation

  3. Investigation of nonlinear dynamic soil property at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.C.

    2000-01-01

    This document summarizes laboratory dynamic soil testing investigations conducted by the University of Texas at Austin (UTA) for the Savannah River Site (SRS) (Stokoe et al., 1995a, Stokoe et al., 1995b, Sponseller and Stokoe, 1995). The purpose of the investigation is to provide an evaluation of past testing results in the context of new test data and the development of consistent site wide models of material strain dependencies based upon geologic formation, depth, and relevant index properties

  4. Pilot-scale incineration of comtaminated soils from the drake chemical superfund site. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.; Lee, J.W.; Waterland, L.R.

    1993-03-01

    A series of pilot-scale incineration tests were performed at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the potential of incineration as an option to treat contaminated soils from the Drake Chemical Superfund site in Lock Haven, Pennsylvania. The soils at the Drake site are reported to be contaminated to varying degrees with various organic constituents and several hazardous constituent trace metals. The purpose of the test program was to evaluate the incinerability of selected site soils in terms of the destruction of contaminant organic constituents and the fate of contaminant trace metals. All tests were conducted in the rotary kiln incineration system at the IRF. Test results show that greater than 99.995 percent principal organic hazardous constituent (POHC) destruction and removal efficiencies (DRE) can be achieved at kiln exit gas temperatures of nominally 816 C (1,500 F) and 538 C (1,000 F). Complete soil decontamination of semivolatile organics was achieved; however, kiln ash levels of three volatile organic constituents remained comparable to soil levels

  5. Effects of initial nitrogen addition on deep-soils bioventing at a fuel-contaminated site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratz, J.W.; Guest, P.R.; Downey, D.C.

    1994-01-01

    A ruptured pipe at a Burlington Northern Railroad (BNRR) fueling pump house resulted in over 60,000 gallons of No. 2 diesel fuel spilling onto the surrounding soil. An initial investigation of site conditions indicated that subsurface soils were contaminated with diesel fuel to ground water, which was observed approximately 70 feet below the ground surface. State regulatory agencies requested that BNRR develop and implement a remedial action plan to treat these diesel-contaminated soils and protect local ground waters. Engineering-Science, Inc. (ES) was retained for this work and, after evaluating a variety of remediation technologies recommended using soil venting methods to enhance the immediate volatilization and long-term biodegradation of fuel residuals. ES designed and implemented a ''bioventing'' pilot test to determine soil properties such as air permeability, and to assess the potential for partial volatilization and long-term biodegradation of diesel fuel residuals at the site. Hydrocarbon concentrations, carbon dioxide, and oxygen levels were monitored at a vapor extraction well (VEW) and six vapor monitoring points (VMPs) to determine the rates of volatilization and biological degradation of fuel residuals. Pilot test results confirmed that full-scale bioventing was feasible for the remediation of this site

  6. Radiostrontium contamination of soil and vegetation within the Semipalatinsk test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, B J; Semioschkina, N; Voigt, G; Mukusheva, M; Clifford, J

    2004-12-01

    The Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (STS) in the Republic of Kazakhstan was an important site for testing atomic bombs and other civil and military nuclear devices of the former Soviet Union. Results are presented from investigations on the extent of radiostrontium contamination in soils and vegetation at the technical areas of the STS, where the tests were conducted and in pastures used by farmers for grazing animals or for hay production. Our data are compared with those reported largely in the recent Russian language literature that has been reviewed. The extent of (90)Sr contamination of soil is highly variable over the STS with the highest values associated with the technical areas, particularly the Degelen mountains. Recently measured values in both the present data and the Russian language literature confirm the relatively high current contamination of soil and vegetation in the vicinity of tunnels and associated watercourses in the Degelen area. The proportion of (90)Sr in soil which could not be extracted with 6 M HCl was only an average of 20%, which is low compared to other test site areas and possibly indicates a relatively high mobility in this area, because the (90)Sr is derived from leakage from explosion tunnels along watercourses rather than being associated with fused silicates. A comparison of relative activity concentrations in soil and vegetation suggests that the transfer of (90)Sr to vegetation on the STS is high compared to that of (137)Cs and plutonium.

  7. Planning Considerations Related to Collecting and Analyzing Samples of the Martian Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Mellon, Mike T.; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Noble, Sarah K.; Sullivan, Robert J.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Beaty, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Sample Return (MSR) End-to-End International Science Analysis Group (E2E-iSAG [1]) established scientific objectives associ-ated with Mars returned-sample science that require the return and investigation of one or more soil samples. Soil is defined here as loose, unconsolidated materials with no implication for the presence or absence of or-ganic components. The proposed Mars 2020 (M-2020) rover is likely to collect and cache soil in addition to rock samples [2], which could be followed by future sample retrieval and return missions. Here we discuss key scientific consid-erations for sampling and caching soil samples on the proposed M-2020 rover, as well as the state in which samples would need to be preserved when received by analysts on Earth. We are seeking feedback on these draft plans as input to mission requirement formulation. A related planning exercise on rocks is reported in an accompanying abstract [3].

  8. Increased soil organic carbon stocks under agroforestry: A survey of six different sites in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinael, Rémi; Chevallier, Tiphaine; Cambou, Aurélie; Beral, Camille; Barthes, Bernard; Dupraz, Christian; Kouakoua, Ernest; Chenu, Claire

    2017-04-01

    Introduction: Agroforestry systems are land use management systems in which trees are grown in combination with crops or pasture in the same field. In silvoarable systems, trees are intercropped with arable crops, and in silvopastoral systems trees are combined with pasture for livestock. These systems may produce forage and timber as well as providing ecosystem services such as climate change mitigation. Carbon (C) is stored in the aboveground and belowground biomass of the trees, and the transfer of organic matter from the trees to the soil can increase soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. Few studies have assessed the impact of agroforestry systems on carbon storage in soils in temperate climates, as most have been undertaken in tropical regions. Methods: This study assessed five silvoarable systems and one silvopastoral system in France. All sites had an agroforestry system with an adjacent, purely agricultural control plot. The land use management in the inter-rows in the agroforestry systems and in the control plots were identical. The age of the study sites ranged from 6 to 41 years after tree planting. Depending on the type of soil, the sampling depth ranged from 20 to 100 cm and SOC stocks were assessed using equivalent soil masses. The aboveground biomass of the trees was also measured at all sites. Results: In the silvoarable systems, the mean organic carbon stock accumulation rate in the soil was 0.24 (0.09-0.46) Mg C ha-1 yr-1 at a depth of 30 cm and 0.65 (0.004-1.85) Mg C ha-1 yr-1 in the tree biomass. Increased SOC stocks were also found in deeper soil layers at two silvoarable sites. Young plantations stored additional SOC but mainly in the soil under the rows of trees, possibly as a result of the herbaceous vegetation growing in the rows. At the silvopastoral site, the SOC stock was significantly greater at a depth of 30-50 cm than in the control. Overall, this study showed the potential of agroforestry systems to store C in both soil and biomass in

  9. Research and systematization of 'hot' particles in the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site soils - methodology and first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorlachev, I.D.; Knyazev, B.B.; Kvochkina, T.N.; Lukashenko, S.N.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Sources of soil activity in Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) could be both 'hot' particles dimensions from tens microns to units millimeters and sub-microns particles determining a matrix activity of soil samples. The fractionating of radionuclides and formation of 'hot' particles radionuclide composition arose from temperature changes and complicated nuclear-physical and thermodynamics processes occurring in a fire ball and cloud of nuclear explosion. Knowledge of 'hot' particles physical-chemical properties is needed for evaluation of radioactive products migration in the environment and danger level of the people external and internal exposure. Moreover, minute information about the structure and compound of 'radioactive' particles can be useful for specification of processes occurring in a fiery sphere when conducting explosions of different phylum and also for specification of radioactive fallout forming mechanism. The main polluted spots of SNTS could be divided into the four the species depending on nuclear explosion phylum. Species of radionuclide and their distribution for the different nuclear explosions are able to differ considerably. Therefore, several most typical areas for the each phylum test were selected and twenty soil samples were collected to reveal their radionuclide pollution peculiarities. Collected soil samples were separated into the five granulometric fractions: 1 mm - 2 mm, 0.5 mm - 1 mm. 0.28 mm-0.5 mm, 0.112 mm - 0.28 mm and 1 mm), 210 'hot' particles of second fraction (1>f>0.5 mm) and 154 'hot' particles of third fraction (0.5>f>0.28 mm) have been selection from the twelve SNTS soil samples by the compelled fission and visual identification methods. Main sources of soil samples and 'hot' particles activities are 239+240 Pu, 241 Am, 137 Cs and 152 Eu isotopes.In addition to the described works the special sampling of large 'hot' particles (dimension more than 2 mm) was carried out in areas of the ground and air tests

  10. Comparison of soil sampling and analytical methods for asbestos at the Sumas Mountain Asbestos Site-Working towards a toolbox for better assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroble, Julie; Frederick, Timothy; Frame, Alicia; Vallero, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Established soil sampling methods for asbestos are inadequate to support risk assessment and risk-based decision making at Superfund sites due to difficulties in detecting asbestos at low concentrations and difficulty in extrapolating soil concentrations to air concentrations. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s Office of Land and Emergency Management (OLEM) currently recommends the rigorous process of Activity Based Sampling (ABS) to characterize site exposures. The purpose of this study was to compare three soil analytical methods and two soil sampling methods to determine whether one method, or combination of methods, would yield more reliable soil asbestos data than other methods. Samples were collected using both traditional discrete ("grab") samples and incremental sampling methodology (ISM). Analyses were conducted using polarized light microscopy (PLM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods or a combination of these two methods. Data show that the fluidized bed asbestos segregator (FBAS) followed by TEM analysis could detect asbestos at locations that were not detected using other analytical methods; however, this method exhibited high relative standard deviations, indicating the results may be more variable than other soil asbestos methods. The comparison of samples collected using ISM versus discrete techniques for asbestos resulted in no clear conclusions regarding preferred sampling method. However, analytical results for metals clearly showed that measured concentrations in ISM samples were less variable than discrete samples.

  11. Artificial neural network for on-site quantitative analysis of soils using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Haddad, J. [Univ. Bordeaux, LOMA, UMR 5798, F-33400 Talence (France); CNRS, LOMA, UMR 5798, F-33400 Talence (France); Villot-Kadri, M.; Ismaël, A.; Gallou, G. [IVEA Solution, Centre Scientifique d' Orsay, Bât 503, 91400 Orsay (France); Michel, K.; Bruyère, D.; Laperche, V. [BRGM, Service Métrologie, Monitoring et Analyse, 3 avenue Claude Guillemin, B.P 36009, 45060 Orléans Cedex (France); Canioni, L. [Univ. Bordeaux, LOMA, UMR 5798, F-33400 Talence (France); CNRS, LOMA, UMR 5798, F-33400 Talence (France); Bousquet, B., E-mail: bruno.bousquet@u-bordeaux1.fr [Univ. Bordeaux, LOMA, UMR 5798, F-33400 Talence (France); CNRS, LOMA, UMR 5798, F-33400 Talence (France)

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, due to environmental concerns, fast on-site quantitative analyses of soils are required. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy is a serious candidate to address this challenge and is especially well suited for multi-elemental analysis of heavy metals. However, saturation and matrix effects prevent from a simple treatment of the LIBS data, namely through a regular calibration curve. This paper details the limits of this approach and consequently emphasizes the advantage of using artificial neural networks well suited for non-linear and multi-variate calibration. This advanced method of data analysis is evaluated in the case of real soil samples and on-site LIBS measurements. The selection of the LIBS data as input data of the network is particularly detailed and finally, resulting errors of prediction lower than 20% for aluminum, calcium, copper and iron demonstrate the good efficiency of the artificial neural networks for on-site quantitative LIBS of soils. - Highlights: ► We perform on-site quantitative LIBS analysis of soil samples. ► We demonstrate that univariate analysis is not convenient. ► We exploit artificial neural networks for LIBS analysis. ► Spectral lines other than the ones from the analyte must be introduced.

  12. Artificial neural network for on-site quantitative analysis of soils using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Haddad, J.; Villot-Kadri, M.; Ismaël, A.; Gallou, G.; Michel, K.; Bruyère, D.; Laperche, V.; Canioni, L.; Bousquet, B.

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, due to environmental concerns, fast on-site quantitative analyses of soils are required. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy is a serious candidate to address this challenge and is especially well suited for multi-elemental analysis of heavy metals. However, saturation and matrix effects prevent from a simple treatment of the LIBS data, namely through a regular calibration curve. This paper details the limits of this approach and consequently emphasizes the advantage of using artificial neural networks well suited for non-linear and multi-variate calibration. This advanced method of data analysis is evaluated in the case of real soil samples and on-site LIBS measurements. The selection of the LIBS data as input data of the network is particularly detailed and finally, resulting errors of prediction lower than 20% for aluminum, calcium, copper and iron demonstrate the good efficiency of the artificial neural networks for on-site quantitative LIBS of soils. - Highlights: ► We perform on-site quantitative LIBS analysis of soil samples. ► We demonstrate that univariate analysis is not convenient. ► We exploit artificial neural networks for LIBS analysis. ► Spectral lines other than the ones from the analyte must be introduced

  13. Characterization of soil and plant-associated bacteria on a metal contaminated site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulet, J.; Weyens, N.; Barac, T.; Dupae, J.; Lelie, D. van der; Taghavi, S.; Vaqngronsveld, J.

    2009-01-01

    Conventional methods for the remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils and ground water are very expensive and often damaging to the environment. Complementary to these traditional methods, especially for sites with a diffuse contamination in relatively low concentrations, phyto extraction is proposed as a promising technology for effective and inexpensive radiation. (Author)

  14. Photometric Observations of Soils and Rocks at the Mars Exploration Rover Landing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. R.; Arvidson, R. A.; Bell, J. F., III; Farrand, W.; Guinness, E.; Johnson, M.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Lemmon, M.; Morris, R. V.; Seelos, F., IV

    2005-01-01

    The Panoramic Cameras (Pancam) on the Spirit and Opportunity Mars Exploration Rovers have acquired multispectral reflectance observations of rocks and soils at different incidence, emission, and phase angles that will be used for photometric modeling of surface materials. Phase angle coverage at both sites extends from approx. 0 deg. to approx. 155 deg.

  15. Associative diazotrophic bacteria in grass roots and soils from heavy metal contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Fátima M S; Lange, Anderson; Klauberg-Filho, Osmar; Siqueira, José O; Nóbrega, Rafaela S A; Lima, Adriana S

    2008-12-01

    This work aimed to evaluate density of associative diazotrophic bacteria populations in soil and grass root samples from heavy metal contaminated sites, and to characterize isolates from these populations, both, phenotypically (Zinc, Cadmium and NaCl tolerance in vitro, and protein profiles) and genotypically (16S rDNA sequencing), as compared to type strains of known diazotrophic species. Densities were evaluated by using NFb, Fam and JNFb media, commonly used for enrichment cultures of diazotrophic bacteria. Bacterial densities found in soil and grass root samples from contaminated sites were similar to those reported for agricultural soils. Azospirillum spp. isolates from contaminated sites and type strains from non-contaminated sites varied substantially in their in vitro tolerance to Zn+2 and Cd+2, being Cd+2 more toxic than Zn+2. Among the most tolerant isolates (UFLA 1S, 1R, S181, S34 and S22), some (1R, S34 and S22) were more tolerant to heavy metals than rhizobia from tropical and temperate soils. The majority of the isolates tolerant to heavy metals were also tolerant to salt stress as indicated by their ability to grow in solid medium supplemented with 30 g L(-1) NaCl. Five isolates exhibited high dissimilarity in protein profiles, and the 16S rDNA sequence analysis of two of them revealed new sequences for Azospirillum.

  16. The economic value of detailed soil survey in a drinking water collection area in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knotters, M.; Vroon, H.R.J.

    2015-01-01

    In large parts of the Netherlands crop growth depends on the water table. If groundwater is withdrawn the water table is lowered and agricultural crop production may be reduced. Farmers in drinking water collection areas are legally compensated for these crop yield reductions. Soil maps are used to

  17. Soil sample collection and analysis for the Fugitive Dust Characterization Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbaugh, Lowell L.; Carvacho, Omar F.; Brown, Michael S.; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Magliano, Karen C.

    A unique set of soil samples was collected as part of the Fugitive Dust Characterization Study. The study was carried out to establish whether or not source profiles could be constructed using novel analytical methods that could distinguish soil dust sources from each other. The soil sources sampled included fields planted in cotton, almond, tomato, grape, and safflower, dairy and feedlot facilities, paved and unpaved roads (both urban and rural), an agricultural staging area, disturbed land with salt buildup, and construction areas where the topsoil had been removed. The samples were collected using a systematic procedure designed to reduce sampling bias, and were stored frozen to preserve possible organic signatures. For this paper the samples were characterized by particle size (percent sand, silt, and clay), dry silt content (used in EPA-recommended fugitive dust emission factors), carbon and nitrogen content, and potential to emit both PM 10 and PM 2.5. These are not the "novel analytical methods" referred to above; rather, it was the basic characterization of the samples to use in comparing analytical methods by other scientists contracted to the California Air Resources Board. The purpose of this paper is to document the methods used to collect the samples, the collection locations, the analysis of soil type and potential to emit PM 10, and the sample variability, both within field and between fields of the same crop type.

  18. Portable automation of static chamber sample collection for quantifying soil gas flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    The collection of soil gas flux using the static chamber method is labor intensive. The number of chambers that can be sampled in a given time period is limited by the spacing between chambers and the availability of trained research technicians. However, the static chamber method can limit spatial ...

  19. Controlled soil warming powered by alternative energy for remote field sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Jill F; Henkelman, Jonathan; Allen, Kirsten; Helgason, Warren; Bedard-Haughn, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Experiments using controlled manipulation of climate variables in the field are critical for developing and testing mechanistic models of ecosystem responses to climate change. Despite rapid changes in climate observed in many high latitude and high altitude environments, controlled manipulations in these remote regions have largely been limited to passive experimental methods with variable effects on environmental factors. In this study, we tested a method of controlled soil warming suitable for remote field locations that can be powered using alternative energy sources. The design was tested in high latitude, alpine tundra of southern Yukon Territory, Canada, in 2010 and 2011. Electrical warming probes were inserted vertically in the near-surface soil and powered with photovoltaics attached to a monitoring and control system. The warming manipulation achieved a stable target warming of 1.3 to 2 °C in 1 m(2) plots while minimizing disturbance to soil and vegetation. Active control of power output in the warming plots allowed the treatment to closely match spatial and temporal variations in soil temperature while optimizing system performance during periods of low power supply. Active soil heating with vertical electric probes powered by alternative energy is a viable option for remote sites and presents a low-disturbance option for soil warming experiments. This active heating design provides a valuable tool for examining the impacts of soil warming on ecosystem processes.

  20. Controlled soil warming powered by alternative energy for remote field sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill F Johnstone

    Full Text Available Experiments using controlled manipulation of climate variables in the field are critical for developing and testing mechanistic models of ecosystem responses to climate change. Despite rapid changes in climate observed in many high latitude and high altitude environments, controlled manipulations in these remote regions have largely been limited to passive experimental methods with variable effects on environmental factors. In this study, we tested a method of controlled soil warming suitable for remote field locations that can be powered using alternative energy sources. The design was tested in high latitude, alpine tundra of southern Yukon Territory, Canada, in 2010 and 2011. Electrical warming probes were inserted vertically in the near-surface soil and powered with photovoltaics attached to a monitoring and control system. The warming manipulation achieved a stable target warming of 1.3 to 2 °C in 1 m(2 plots while minimizing disturbance to soil and vegetation. Active control of power output in the warming plots allowed the treatment to closely match spatial and temporal variations in soil temperature while optimizing system performance during periods of low power supply. Active soil heating with vertical electric probes powered by alternative energy is a viable option for remote sites and presents a low-disturbance option for soil warming experiments. This active heating design provides a valuable tool for examining the impacts of soil warming on ecosystem processes.

  1. Pollution distribution of heavy metals in surface soil at an informal electronic-waste recycling site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Takashi; Takigami, Hidetaka

    2014-02-01

    We studied distribution of heavy metals [lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn)] in surface soil at an electronic-waste (e-waste) recycling workshop near Metro Manila in the Philippines to evaluate the pollution size (spot size, small area or the entire workshop), as well as to assess heavy metal transport into the surrounding soil environment. On-site length-of-stride-scale (~70 cm) measurements were performed at each surface soil point using field-portable X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF). The surface soil at the e-waste recycling workshop was polluted with Cu, Zn and Pb, which were distributed discretely in surface soil. The site was divided into five areas based on the distance from an entrance gate (y-axis) of the e-waste recycling workshop. The three heavy metals showed similar concentration gradients in the y-axis direction. Zn, Pb and Cu concentrations were estimated to decrease to half of their maximum concentrations at ~3, 7 and 7 m from the pollution spot, respectively, inside the informal e-waste recycling workshop. Distance from an entrance may play an important role in heavy metal transport at the soil surface. Using on-site FP-XRF, we evaluated the metal ratio to characterise pollution features of the solid surface. Variability analysis of heavy metals revealed vanishing surficial autocorrelation over metre ranges. Also, the possibility of concentration prediction at unmeasured points using geostatistical kriging was evaluated, and heavy metals had a relative "small" pollution scales and remained inside the original workshop compared with toxic organohalogen compounds. Thus, exposure to heavy metals may directly influence the health of e-waste workers at the original site rather than the surrounding habitat and environmental media.

  2. Seismic safety margins research program. Phase I final report - Plant/site selection and data collection (Project I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, T.Y.

    1981-07-01

    Project I of Phase I of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) comprised two parts: the selection of a representative nuclear power plant/site for study in Phase I and the collection of data needed by the other SSMRP projects. Unit 1 of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant in Zion, Illinois, was selected for the SSMRP Phase I studies. Unit 1 of the Zion plant has been validated as a good choice for the Phase I study plant. Although no single nuclear power plant can represent all such plants equally well, selection criteria were developed to maximize the generic implications of Phase I of the SSMRP. On the basis of the selection criteria, the Zion plant and its site were found to be reasonably representative of operating and future plants with regard to its nuclear steam supply system; the type of containment structure (prestressed concrete); its electrical capacity (1100 MWe); its location (the Midwest); the peak seismic acceleration used for design (0.17g); and the properties of the underlying soil (the low-strain shear-wave velocity is 1650 ft/s in a 50- to 100-ft-thick layer of soil overlying sedimentary bedrock). (author)

  3. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 107: Low Impact Soil Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with ROTC-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    CAU 107, ''Low Impact Soil Sites'', consists of 15 CASs in Areas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, and 18 of the NTS. The closure alternatives included No Further Action and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. This CR provides a summary of completed closure activities. ROTC Justification: The FFACO UR as published in the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 107: Low Impact Soil Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (NNSA/NSO, 2009) states that the UR for CAS 18-23-02, U-18d Crater (Sulky), was implemented for assumed radioactive contamination that could cause a dose greater that 25 millirems per year. This document further clarifies that this was based on particulate releases of radionuclides identified in Radiological Effluents Released from U.S. Continental Tests, 1961 through 1992 (DOE/NV, 1996). The radionuclides listed in this document are krypton (Kr)-85, Kr-85m, Kr-87, Kr-88, rubidium (Rb)-87, strontium (Sr)-89, Sr-91, yttrium (Y)-91, iodine (I)-131, I-132, I-133, I-134, I-135, xeon (Xe)-133, Xe-135, Xe-138, cesium (Cs)-135, Cs-138, barium (Ba)-139, and Ba-140.

  4. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 107: Low Impact Soil Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan covers activities associated with Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 107 of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996 (as amended February 2008)). CAU 107 consists of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site. (sm b ullet) CAS 01-23-02, Atmospheric Test Site - High Alt(sm b ullet) CAS 02-23-02, Contaminated Areas (2)(sm b ullet) CAS 02-23-03, Contaminated Berm(sm b ullet) CAS 02-23-10, Gourd-Amber Contamination Area(sm b ullet) CAS 02-23-11, Sappho Contamination Area(sm b ullet) CAS 02-23-12, Scuttle Contamination Area(sm b ullet) CAS 03-23-24, Seaweed B Contamination Area(sm b ullet) CAS 03-23-27, Adze Contamination Area(sm b ullet) CAS 03-23-28, Manzanas Contamination Area(sm b ullet) CAS 03-23-29, Truchas-Chamisal Contamination Area(sm b ullet) CAS 04-23-02, Atmospheric Test Site T4-a(sm b ullet) CAS 05-23-06, Atmospheric Test Site(sm b ullet) CAS 09-23-06, Mound of Contaminated Soil(sm b ullet) CAS 10-23-04, Atmospheric Test Site M-10(sm b ullet) CAS 18-23-02, U-18d Crater (Sulky) Based on historical documentation, personnel interviews, site process knowledge, site visits, photographs, engineering drawings, field screening, analytical results, and the results of data quality objectives process (Section 3.0), closure in place with administrative controls or no further action will be implemented for CAU 107.

  5. Selected monitoring properties of agricultural soil from the Imielin experimental site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Radziemska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of two types of agricultural practice: (1 Variable Rate Application (VRA and (2 uniform (UNI N dose on selected chemical properties of soil were compared in a field fertilization experiment. Nitrogen, in doses 60 or 80 kgN.ha-1 (UNI, and 55-105 kgN.ha-1 (VRA was applied to soil farmed with winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. The research was conducted in the 2012/2013 growing season in Poland on 22 ha of production fields located in the Imielin countryside (central Poland. The soil samples were taken from three depths: 0.0-0.3 m, 0.3-0.6 m, and 0.6-0.9 m, and the pH, HAC, TEB, CEC, and BS were determined. The application of the nitrogen fertilizer in the two types of agricultural practice - Variable Rate Application (VRA and uniform (UNI N dose modified the basic physical and chemical properties of soil. The highest values of pH and hydrolytic acidity were observed at the soil depth of 0.6-0.9 m after the first rate of nitrogen fertilizer was applied. Cation exchange capacity of soils collected after uniform nitrogen rates were characterized by values decreasing with the increasing depth of the soil profile.

  6. Chemical profile of size-fractionated soils collected in a semiarid industrial area of Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Del Mastro, Anabella; Pereyra, Marcelo; Londonio, Agustín; Pereyra, Victoria; Rebagliati, Raúl Jiménez; Dawidowski, Laura; Gómez, Darío; Smichowski, Patricia

    2014-12-01

    A study was undertaken to assess the chemical profile of soil collected in Bahía Blanca (Argentina). In this industrial city, semiarid soils are affected by different industrial and agricultural activities, the presence of a saltpeter extraction facility, traffic and increasing urbanization. Sixteen soil samples (superficial and sub-superficial) were collected. Samples were sieved in two fractions (A plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Anions (Cl-, F-, SO42-) and cations (K+, Na+ and NH4+) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after an aqueous extraction. As expected, crustal elements namely, Al, Ca, Fe, Mg and Ti exhibited the highest concentrations. Mean elemental concentration ranged from Na+ ≅ SO42- > K+ > NO3-. Three indicators, namely, (i) coefficient of variation, (ii) coefficient of divergence and (iii) ratio of elemental concentration with respect to Ca were used to assess chemical, spatial and inter-profile variability. Chloride > Ca > Na+ > Mo > SO42-, dominated the variability indicating that these are key chemical markers for future assessment of crustal contribution to airborne particles in the area. The ratios Xi/Ca allowed discriminating the soil of the semi-arid region surrounding Bahía Blanca. The chemical profiles obtained in this study, particularly those of topsoil, will be a key input to characterize soil resuspension and its contribution to airborne particulate matter in a forthcoming receptor model analysis.

  7. Activity Concentration for Surface Soil Samples Collected from Arrant, Qena, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harb, S.; Salahel Din, K.; Abbady, A.; Moustafa, M.

    2010-01-01

    Soil samples were collected from four regions from Armant area. Qena, Upper Egypt for measure their natural radioactivity concentrations due to Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 radionuclides. Thirty-Four surface soil samples were analyzed by using low-level gamma-spectrometric analysis. The average activity concentration for Ra-226 in (Bq/kg) in the collected soil samples were found to be 27.3 ±3.2, 11.4±1.09, 10.6±1.2, and 11.4±1.02 while the average value for Th-232 were 15.1±1.4, 11.1±0.77, 10.8 ± 0.72 and 11.1 ± 0.8 (Bq/kg) for soil samples from North, South, West and East. The corresponding average values for K-40 were 521.4±16.8, 463±14.8, 488.9±15.6 and 344.5±10.7 (Bq/kg), respectively. Based on radionuclides concentration in surface soil samples the radiological effects can be assessed

  8. Comparison of passive soil vapor survey techniques at a Tijeras Arroyo site, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberle, C.S.; Wade, W.M.; Tharp, T.; Brinkman, J.

    1996-01-01

    Soil vapor surveys were performed to characterize the approximate location of soil contaminants at a hazardous waste site. The samplers were from two separate companies and a comparison was made between the results of the two techniques. These results will be used to design further investigations at the site

  9. Effect of soil erosion on the long-term stability of FUSRAP near-surface waste-burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, M.J.

    1983-04-01

    Decontamination of FUSRAP sites could result in the generation of large volumes (in excess of 400,000 m 3 ) of low-activity radioactive wastes (primarily contaminated soil and building materials) requiring subsequent disposal. It is likely that near-surface burial will be seriously considered as an option for disposal of these materials. A number of factors - including soil erosion - could adversely affect the long-term stability of a near-surface waste-burial site. The majority of FUSRAP sites are located in the humid eastern United States, where the principal cause of erosion is the action of water. This report examines the effect of soil erosion by water on burial-site stability based on analysis of four hypothetical near-surface burial sites. The Universal Soil Loss Equation was employed to estimate average annual soil loss from burial sites and the 1000-year effects of soil loss on the soil barrier (burial trench cap) placed over low-activity wastes. Results suggest that the land use of the burial site and the slope gradient of the burial trench cap significantly affect the rate of soil erosion. The development of measures limiting the potential land use of a burial site (e.g., mixing large rocks into the burial trench cap) may be required to preserve the integrity of a burial trench for long periods of time

  10. Soils and hydrology of Ranger Uranium Mine sites in relation to application of retention pond water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charters, C.J.; Walker, P.H.; Willett, I.R.; East, T.J.; Cull, R.F.; Talsma, T.; Bond, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    The data presented were obtained as part of a continuing research project carried out by the Division of Soils, CSIRO in collaboration with the Alligator Rivers Region Research Institute of the Office of the Supervising Scientist, Jabiru, Northern Territory. The primary focus of this study is the characterisation of the soils and hydrology of the site to determine processes controlling adsorption and retention of the applied solutes in the soils. Biological sinks are not being considered as they only temporarily store ionic water constituents. Using conservative estimates of soil cation exchange capacity and total cation concentration of RP2 water, the time until the cation exchange complex of the upper 50 cm of soil comes into equilibrium with the irrigation water is calculated to be approximately 5 years. After this time the exchange-complex will be 100% saturated and any additional load of cations will pass through the soil profile (0-50 cm). The soils are also characterised by low soluble salt contents, acidic pH and low concentrations of secondary iron and manganese oxides. Field measurements of hydraulic conductivity indicate that the soils are highly permeable and that lateral flow of groundwater from the irrigation area to Magela Creek could take as little as 9 months. The capacity of these soils to assimilate the cations tested doses not necessarily apply to other cations such as uranium and radium, present in minor or trace concentrations. In their cases, more specific adsorption reactions are likely, some of which may be effectively non-reversible. There is insufficient information available to enable any quantitative assessment of the likely significance of these mechanisms; however, the ferruginous gravels may play some part in specific adsorption reactions. 23 refs., 7 tabs., 11 figs

  11. Assessment of Selected Heavy Metals and Enzymes in Soil Within the Range of Impact of Illegal Dumping Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartkowiak, A.; Lemanowicz, J.; Siwik-Ziomek, A.

    2016-01-01

    Defining the physicochemical and biological parameters in soil under illegally dumping sites provides information on the real threat and the direction of changes in the soil environment. The paper demonstrates the result of changes in the properties in soil as a result of the operation of illegal dumping sites. Soil was sampled from the research points located on the outskirts of the city of Bydgoszcz (Poland) from the site not affected by illegal dumping sites (control C), within the dumping sites, having removed the waste layer (W), and 10 m away from the dumping sites (W 10). In the soil the content of phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and sulphur, total content of copper, zinc, lead and nickel as well as the activity of enzymes were assayed. The content of Pb, Zn, Cu and Ni in the soil samples qualifies the soils as representing the soil category with natural content. The greatest activity of all the enzymes analysed was identified in the soil sampled from the control point affected by waste, whereas the highest content of macroelements was reported in the soil from the dumping sites (W 10). A high variation in the enzymes under study in soils confirms a high value of the coefficient of variation (CV >36%). The analysis of correlation confirmed the relationship between the content of organic carbon compounds and the content of zinc, lead, nickel. The soils show a slight value of the coefficient of contamination for heavy metals (CF<1). The contamination degree (Cdeg) ranged from 1.993 to 5.116, which points to a low level of soil contamination with Zn, Cu, Pb and Ni.

  12. Measurement of technetium-99 in soil samples collected in Marshall Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagami, K.; Uchida, S. [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Environmental and Toxicological Sciences Research Group, Chiba (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Extraction techniques for recovery of technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc) for ICP-MS measurements were evaluated using soil samples collected from the Marshall Islands. The results of three different extraction techniques were compared: (M1) acid leaching of Tc from ashed soil; (M2) acid leaching of Tc from raw dry soil; and (M3) Tc volatilization from ashed soil using a combustion apparatus. Total Tc recoveries varied considerably between the extraction techniques but each method yielded similar analytical results for {sup 99}Tc. Applications of these extraction techniques to a series of environmental samples and ICP-MS measurements have yielded first data on the {sup 99}Tc content of Marshall Islands soil samples contaminated with close-in radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing. The {sup 99}Tc activity concentration in the soil samples ranged between 0.1 and 1.1 mBq/g-dw. The limit of detection for {sup 99}Tc by ICP-MS was 0.17 mBq per sample or 0.014 mBq/g-dw under standard operating conditions. (author)

  13. Measurement of technetium-99 in soil samples collected in Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, K.; Uchida, S.

    2000-01-01

    Extraction techniques for recovery of technetium-99 ( 99 Tc) for ICP-MS measurements were evaluated using soil samples collected from the Marshall Islands. The results of three different extraction techniques were compared: (M1) acid leaching of Tc from ashed soil; (M2) acid leaching of Tc from raw dry soil; and (M3) Tc volatilization from ashed soil using a combustion apparatus. Total Tc recoveries varied considerably between the extraction techniques but each method yielded similar analytical results for 99 Tc. Applications of these extraction techniques to a series of environmental samples and ICP-MS measurements have yielded first data on the 99 Tc content of Marshall Islands soil samples contaminated with close-in radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing. The 99 Tc activity concentration in the soil samples ranged between 0.1 and 1.1 mBq/g-dw. The limit of detection for 99 Tc by ICP-MS was 0.17 mBq per sample or 0.014 mBq/g-dw under standard operating conditions. (author)

  14. Simulation study of soil water and heat dynamics at two sites with significant preferential flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votrubova, J.; Vogel, T.; Dohnal, M.; Tesar, M.

    2012-04-01

    Numerical models based on two hydraulically contrasting flow domains coupled through a simple transfer formula have become a useful tool for modeling both water flow and associated substance transport in structured soils. A comparative numerical study focused on the preferential flow effects on the soil heat transport is presented. Sites located in two different headwater catchments were included. Experimental catchment Liz is situated in a forested mountain area of Sumava Mts. in the southern part of the Czech Republic (altitude: 830 m, mean annual temperature: 6.3°C, mean annual precipitation: 861 mm). Uhlirska catchment is located in the north-west of the Czech Republic in Jizera Mts. and is currently undergoing reforestation (altitude: 820 m, mean annual temperature: 4.6°C, mean annual precipitation: 1400 mm). Both sites are instrumented for monitoring of the relevant meteorological and hydrological variables, as well as the soil moisture and temperature distribution. Changes of the soil water content and temperature during vegetation season were simulated. Model performance was qualitatively evaluated and shown to replicate the field measurements. The soils' heat budgets and the preferential flow effect thereon was compared and analyzed.

  15. 78 FR 56225 - Information Collection Request Submitted to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment Request; Soil...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ...EPA has submitted the following Information Collection Request (ICR) to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: ``Soil Fumigant Risk Mitigation'' (EPA ICR No. 2451.01, OMB Control No. 2070- New). This is a request for approval of a new collection. The ICR, which is abstracted below, describes the nature of the information collection activity and its expected burden and costs. Copies of the ICR and related documents are available in the docket.

  16. HTO and OBT activity concentrations in soil at the historical atmospheric HT release site (Chalk River Laboratories)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.B.; Bredlaw, M.; Korolevych, V.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Tritium is routinely released by the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) nuclear facilities. Three International HT release experiments have been conducted at the CRL site in the past. The site has not been disturbed since the last historical atmospheric testing in 1994 and presents an opportunity to assess the retention of tritium in soil. This study is devoted to the measurement of HTO and OBT activity concentration profiles in the subsurface 25 cm of soil. In terms of soil HTO, there is no evidence from the past HT release experiments that HTO was retained. The HTO activity concentration in the soil pore water appears similar to concentrations found in background areas in Ontario. In contrast, OBT activity concentrations in soil at the same site were significantly higher than HTO activity concentrations in soil. Elevated OBT appears to reside in the top layer of the soil (0–5 cm). In addition, OBT activity concentrations in the top soil layer did not fluctuate much with season, again, quite in contrast with soil HTO. This result suggests that OBT activity concentrations retained the signature of the historical tritium releases. Highlights: ► At the historical HT release site, HTO and OBT activity concentrations in soil depths were investigated. ► Most organically bound tritium exists in the top layer of the soil. ► The results indicated that OBT activity concentrations can be reflective of historical tritium releases into the environment.

  17. Correlation between gamma radiation levels and soil radium concentrations at the Edgemont uranium mill site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, R.G.; Reed, R.P.; Polehn, J.L.; Wilson, G.T.

    1985-01-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority's uranium mill in Edgemont, South Dakota, is being decommissioned. Approximately 4 million tons of contaminated tailings, building equipment, and contaminated soil and debris on the mill site will be removed to the disposal site located approximately 3 kilometers to the southeast. To minimize recontamination of cleaned areas, tailings removal will progress from the northwest corner to the southeast corner of the mill site. As specific areas are cleaned, surveys will be conducted to determine if the concentrations of radium-226 in soil are within the limits outlined in 40 CFR, Part 192. Conformance with the criteria will be demonstrated by a gamma survey of the area employing the differential, or delta-measurement, technique. This technique involves fitting the detector with a base and a receptacle for a removable high-density filter. By making measurements with and without the filter in place, a gamma radiation level proportional to the radium-226 concentration in soil can be determined. This paper describes the results obtained in the development of the correlation between the gamma survey measurements and the soil radium concentrations

  18. Correlation between gamma radiation levels and soil radium concentrations at the Edgemont uranium mill site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, R.G.; Reed, R.P.; Polehn, J.L.; Wilson, G.T.

    1986-01-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority's uranium mill in Edgemont, South Dakota is being decommissioned. Approximately 4 million tons of contaminated tailings, building equipment, and contaminated soil and debris on the mill site will be removed to the disposal site located approximately 3 kilometers to the southeast. To minimize recontamination of cleaned areas, tailings removal will progress from the northwest corner to the southeast corner of the mill site. As specific areas are cleaned, surveys will be conducted to determine if the concentrations of radium-226 in soil are within the limits outlined in 40 CFR, Part 192. Conformance with the criteria will be demonstrated by a gamma survey of the area employing the differential, or delta-measurement, technique. This technique involves fitting the detector with a base and a receptacle for a removable high-density filter. By making measurements with and without the filter in place, a gamma radiation level proportional to the radium-226 concentration in soil can be determined. This paper describes the results obtained in the development of the correlation between the gamma survey measurements and the soil radium concentrations

  19. Variability and scaling of hydraulic properties for 200 Area soils, Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaleel, R.; Freeman, E.J.

    1995-10-01

    Over the years, data have been obtained on soil hydraulic properties at the Hanford Site. Much of these data have been obtained as part of recent site characterization activities for the Environmental Restoration Program. The existing data on vadose zone soil properties are, however, fragmented and documented in reports that have not been formally reviewed and released. This study helps to identify, compile, and interpret all available data for the principal soil types in the 200 Areas plateau. Information on particle-size distribution, moisture retention, and saturated hydraulic conductivity (K{sub s}) is available for 183 samples from 12 sites in the 200 Areas. Data on moisture retention and K{sub s} are corrected for gravel content. After the data are corrected and cataloged, hydraulic parameters are determined by fitting the van Genuchten soil-moisture retention model to the data. A nonlinear parameter estimation code, RETC, is used. The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity relationship can subsequently be predicted using the van Genuchten parameters, Mualem`s model, and laboratory-measured saturated hydraulic conductivity estimates. Alternatively, provided unsaturated conductivity measurements are available, the moisture retention curve-fitting parameters, Mualem`s model, and a single unsaturated conductivity measurement can be used to predict unsaturated conductivities for the desired range of field moisture regime.

  20. Soil type affects migration pattern of airborne Pb and Cd under a spruce-beech forest of the UN-ECE integrated monitoring site Zoebelboden, Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobler, Johannes, E-mail: johannes.kobler@umweltbundesamt.a [Umweltbundesamt, Spittelauer Laende 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Fitz, Walter J.; Dirnboeck, Thomas; Mirtl, Michael [Umweltbundesamt, Spittelauer Laende 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2010-03-15

    Anthropogenic trace element emissions have declined. However, top soils all over the world remain enriched in trace elements. We investigated Pb and Cd migration in forest soils of a remote monitoring site in the Austrian limestone Alps between 1992 and 2004. Large spatial variability masked temporal changes in the mineral soil of Lithic Leptosols (Skeltic), whereas a significant reduction of Pb concentrations in their forest floors occurred. Reductions of concentrations in the less heterogeneous Cambisols (Chromic) were significant. In contrast, virtually no migration of Pb and Cd were found in Stagnosols due to their impeded drainage. Very low element concentrations (<1 mug l{sup -1}) in field-collected soil solutions using tension lysimeters (0.2 mum nylon filters) imply that migration largely occurred by preferential flow as particulate-bound species during intensive rainfall events. Our results indicate that the extent of Pb and Cd migration in soils is largely influenced by soil type. - Comparison between soil solid phase and soil solution concentrations imply that trace element migration largely occurred by preferential flow as particulate-bound species.

  1. Systematically biological prioritizing remediation sites based on datasets of biological investigations and heavy metals in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Chih; Lin, Yu-Pin; Anthony, Johnathen

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metal pollution has adverse effects on not only the focal invertebrate species of this study, such as reduction in pupa weight and increased larval mortality, but also on the higher trophic level organisms which feed on them, either directly or indirectly, through the process of biomagnification. Despite this, few studies regarding remediation prioritization take species distribution or biological conservation priorities into consideration. This study develops a novel approach for delineating sites which are both contaminated by any of 5 readily bioaccumulated heavy metal soil contaminants and are of high ecological importance for the highly mobile, low trophic level focal species. The conservation priority of each site was based on the projected distributions of 6 moth species simulated via the presence-only maximum entropy species distribution model followed by the subsequent application of a systematic conservation tool. In order to increase the number of available samples, we also integrated crowd-sourced data with professionally-collected data via a novel optimization procedure based on a simulated annealing algorithm. This integration procedure was important since while crowd-sourced data can drastically increase the number of data samples available to ecologists, still the quality or reliability of crowd-sourced data can be called into question, adding yet another source of uncertainty in projecting species distributions. The optimization method screens crowd-sourced data in terms of the environmental variables which correspond to professionally-collected data. The sample distribution data was derived from two different sources, including the EnjoyMoths project in Taiwan (crowd-sourced data) and the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) ?eld data (professional data). The distributions of heavy metal concentrations were generated via 1000 iterations of a geostatistical co-simulation approach. The uncertainties in distributions of the heavy

  2. Soil remediation of a former power plant site in Tulita, Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouliot, Y.; Thomassin-Lacroix, E.; Moreau, N.

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines major stages of an ongoing remediation project caused by a power generating plant in the Dene Hamlet of Tulita. High levels of soil contamination were caused by the plant's operations as well as accidental petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) spills. The decommissioning of the plant required that the site be remediated. Challenges faced by the remediators included the high level of contamination, the remote location of the community, as well as the fact that the site was located in the centre of the community. In addition, the soil in the impacted site was fine, and a 20 cm thick layer of peat acted as sponge, absorbing and trapping hydrocarbons. Remedial criteria was outlined according to Canada-Wide Standards for fine-grained soil in an industrial setting. The technology used for the project was Biopile, a process consisting of installing wells in the contaminated zone in order to provide the aeration required for PHC biodegradation and to condition the soil on a regular basis in order to promote optimal treatment conditions throughout the impacted material. Results indicated that the first 2 months were successful in reducing initial PHC levels. However, the following treatment season did not show as much degradation. An investigation revealed that nitrogen and phosphorus levels were insufficient to sustain microbial activity, as a result of lower than normal temperatures in the area for that season. Nutrients were added to the soil to re-establish the appropriate treatment conditions. It was concluded that the technology used presented numerous advantages. Overall disturbance of the area was reduced, and allowed other measures to be implemented, including segregation of the highly impacted peat layer. It was expected that remediation objectives for the entire site will be met by July 2005. 3 refs., 3 tabs

  3. Soil remediation of a former power plant site in Tulita, Northwest Territories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouliot, Y.; Thomassin-Lacroix, E. [Biogenie Inc., Lachenaie, PQ (Canada); Moreau, N. [Biogenie, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This paper outlines major stages of an ongoing remediation project caused by a power generating plant in the Dene Hamlet of Tulita. High levels of soil contamination were caused by the plant's operations as well as accidental petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) spills. The decommissioning of the plant required that the site be remediated. Challenges faced by the remediators included the high level of contamination, the remote location of the community, as well as the fact that the site was located in the centre of the community. In addition, the soil in the impacted site was fine, and a 20 cm thick layer of peat acted as sponge, absorbing and trapping hydrocarbons. Remedial criteria was outlined according to Canada-Wide Standards for fine-grained soil in an industrial setting. The technology used for the project was Biopile, a process consisting of installing wells in the contaminated zone in order to provide the aeration required for PHC biodegradation and to condition the soil on a regular basis in order to promote optimal treatment conditions throughout the impacted material. Results indicated that the first 2 months were successful in reducing initial PHC levels. However, the following treatment season did not show as much degradation. An investigation revealed that nitrogen and phosphorus levels were insufficient to sustain microbial activity, as a result of lower than normal temperatures in the area for that season. Nutrients were added to the soil to re-establish the appropriate treatment conditions. It was concluded that the technology used presented numerous advantages. Overall disturbance of the area was reduced, and allowed other measures to be implemented, including segregation of the highly impacted peat layer. It was expected that remediation objectives for the entire site will be met by July 2005. 3 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. DECHEM: A remedial planning tool for metallic contaminants in soil at UMTRA Project sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    The DECHEM (DEcontamination of CHEMicals) method was developed for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project to guide characterization and remedial planning for metals contamination in soils. This is necessary because non-radiological hazardous constituents may be more mobile than radium-226 (Ra-226), and hence may migrate more deeply into subpile soils (beneath tailings that are to be relocated) or into adjacent contaminated soils at UMTRA Project sites. The result is that remedial action to the Ra-226 excavation limit, as specified in the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards, may not adequately remove hazardous non-radiological contamination. Unmitigated, these contaminants in soil may cause health risks because of their presence in resuspended particles, their uptake by crops or fodder their seepage into aquifers used for drinking water or other possible exposure pathways. The DECHEM method was developed in response to the need for advanced planning for the remediation of chemical contaminants at UMTRA Project sites, and includes the following elements: Establishment of acceptable exposure rates for humans to chemicals, based on EPA guidelines or other toxicological literature. Modeling of chemical migration through environmental pathways from a remediated UMTRA Project site to humans. Determination of allowable residual concentrations (i.e., cleanup guidelines) for chemicals in soils that results in doses to humans that are below established acceptable exposure rates. The initial development and application of the DECHEM method has focused upon hazardous metallic contaminants such as arsenic, lead, molybdenum, and selenium, which are known to occur in elevated concentrations at some UMTRA Project sites

  5. Soil surface stabilization using an in situ plutonium coating techniuqe at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew, J.; Snipes, R.; Tamura, T.

    1996-01-01

    The Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP), in collaboration with the University of Nevada at Reno (UNR), has developed and is investigating an in situ plutonium treatment for soils at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The concept, conceived by Dr. T. Tamura and refined at HAZWRAP, was developed during the Nevada Applied Ecology Program investigation. In analyzing for plutonium in soils, it was noted that the alpha emanation of plutonium was greatly attenuated if traces of iron or manganese oxides were present in the final electroplating stage. The technique would reduce resuspension of alpha particles into the air by coating the contaminants in soils in situ with an environmentally compatible, durable, and nontoxic material. The coating materials (calcium hydroxide, ferrous sulfate) reduce resuspension by providing a cementitious barrier against radiation penetration while retaining soil porosity. This technique not only stabilizes plutonium-contaminated soils, but also provides an additional protection from worker exposure to radiation during remediation activities. Additionally, the coating would decrease the water solubility of the contaminant and, thus, reduce its migration through soil and uptake by plants

  6. Ecotoxicological assessment of soils of former manufactured gas plant sites: Bioremediation potential and pollutant mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeseler, F.; Blanchet, D.; Druelle, V.; Werner, P.; Vandecasteele, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Analytically well-characterized soils from four different former manufactured gas plants (MGP) sites contaminated by coal tars were used in tests of extensive biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in stirred reactors. In all cases, the extent of biodegradation was limited to 80--100% for 2- and 3-ring PAHs, 40--70% for 4-ring PAHs, and below 20% for 5- and 6-ring PAHs. The capacities to transfer pollutants to water were compared for leachates from soils that had or had not undergone biological treatment. Leachate analysis involved determination of PAHs and bacterial tests of acute toxicity (Microtox) and genotoxicity (SOS Chromotest). For some untreated soils, PAH leaching was observed, and positive responses to the Microtox test were well correlated to the concentrations of naphthalene and phenanthrene. Biologically treated soils had lost all capacities for leaching as concluded from PAH determinations and responses to the Microtox test. All soil leachates were devoid of genotoxic effect, in accordance with the low concentrations observed of mutagenic PAHs. The results of this risk-based approach for assessment of MGP soils showed that pollutants remaining after biological treatment were unavailable for further biodegradation and that the extent of leaching had been reduced to the level that it did not represent a significant threat to groundwater

  7. Distribution of 137Cs in the Surface Soil of Serpong Nuclear Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubis, E.

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of 137 Cs in the surface soil layer of Serpong Nuclear Site (SNS) was investigated by field sampling. The Objectives of the investigation is finding the profile of 137 Cs distribution in the surface soil and the T f value that can be used for estimation of radiation dose from livestock product-man pathways. The results indicates that the 137 Cs activity in surface soil of SNS is 0.80 ± 0.29 Bq/kg, much lower than in the Antarctic. The contribution value of 137 Cs from the operation of G.A. Siwabessy Reactor until now is undetectable. The T f of 137 Cs from surface soil to Panisetum Purpureum, Setaria Spha Celata and Imperata Cylindrica grasses were 0.71 ± 0.14, 0.84 ± 0.27 and 0.81 ± 0.11 respectively. The results show that value of the transfer factor of 137 Cs varies between cultivated and uncultivated soil and also with the soils with thick humus. (author)

  8. Distribution of {sup 137}Cs in the Surface Soil of Serpong Nuclear Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubis, E., E-mail: erlub@batan.go.id [Center for Radioactive Waste Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Serpong (Indonesia)

    2011-08-15

    The distribution of {sup 137}Cs in the surface soil layer of Serpong Nuclear Site (SNS) was investigated by field sampling. The Objectives of the investigation is finding the profile of {sup 137}Cs distribution in the surface soil and the T{sub f} value that can be used for estimation of radiation dose from livestock product-man pathways. The results indicates that the {sup 137}Cs activity in surface soil of SNS is 0.80 {+-} 0.29 Bq/kg, much lower than in the Antarctic. The contribution value of {sup 137}Cs from the operation of G.A. Siwabessy Reactor until now is undetectable. The T{sub f} of {sup 137}Cs from surface soil to Panisetum Purpureum, Setaria Spha Celata and Imperata Cylindrica grasses were 0.71 {+-} 0.14, 0.84 {+-} 0.27 and 0.81 {+-} 0.11 respectively. The results show that value of the transfer factor of {sup 137}Cs varies between cultivated and uncultivated soil and also with the soils with thick humus. (author)

  9. Distribution of 137Cs In the Surface Soil of Serpong Nuclear Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lubis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of 137Cs in the surface soil layer of Serpong Nuclear Site (SNS was investigated by field sampling. The Objectives of the investigation is finding the profile of 137Cs distribution in the surface soil and the Tf value that can be used for estimation of radiation dose from livestock product-man pathways. The results indicates that the 137Cs activity in surface soil of SNS is 0.80 ± 0,29 Bq/kg, much lower than in the Antarctic. The contribution value of 137Cs from the operation of G.A.Siwabessy Reactor until now is undetectable. The Tf of 137Cs from surface soil to Panisetum Purpureum, Setaria Spha Celata and Imperata Cylindrica grasses were 0.71 ± 0.14, 0.84 ± 0.27 and 0.81 ± 0.11 respectively. The results show that value of the transfer factor of 137Cs varies between cultivated and uncultivated soil and also with the soils with thick humus

  10. NEON Collaborative Data Collection Campaign at Pacific South West Site in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampe, T. U.; Leisso, N.; Krause, K.; Musinsky, J.; Petroy, S. B.; Wasser, L. A.; Cawse-Nicholson, K.; van Aardt, J. A.; Schaaf, C.; Strahler, A. H.; Serbin, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a continental-scale observatory that will collect biological, chemical and geophysical data over the continental United States in order to study biodiversity, landcover change, climate change and invasive species. In June 2013, a large-scale data collection took place over NEON's Pacific South West (PSW) site 17 in CA, USA. Data were collected in the San Joaquin Experimental Range and the Sierra National Forest. NEON's AOP (Airborne Observation Platform) acquired high spatial resolution hyperspectral data (~1m pixels), waveform lidar, discrete lidar, and RGB imagery over all three sites. A field team simultaneously collected atmospheric and vegetation inventory data, including tree locations, height, diameter-at-breast-height (DBH), species, and spectral data. The NEON collect was centered within a collaboration of multiple research entities, including NASA, Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), University of Massachusetts (Boston; UMB, and Lowell; UML), Boston University (BU), and the University of Wisconsin, Madison (UWM). NASA's AVIRIS and MASTER sensors were flown over a wider area encompassing the NEON sites, with AVIRIS acquiring hyperspectral data (224 bands) at approximately 30m spatial resolution, and MASTER acquiring multispectral thermal data (50 bands) at approximately 50m spatial resolution. These data will be downscaled to approximate theoretical HyspIRI data (60m spatial resolution) as part of a large collection of preparatory research. Concurrently, a variety of university teams were active in the field: RIT collected ground-based lidar, leaf area index (LAI), herbaceous biomass measurements, wide-angle photographs, and spectral measurements. Data were collected over 20 80x80m sites, centered on existing 20x20m NEON sites. This data set will be used to inform synthetic scene design and to study the impact of sub-pixel structural variation on pixel-level spectral response; The BU, UMB, and UML

  11. Soil-to-plant transfer factors of technetium-99 for various plants collected in the Chernobyl area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2005-01-01

    Technetium-99 is thought to be highly soluble and rarely adsorbed onto soil, however, its mobility under natural environment is not well known because its scarcity and low levels in environmental samples has limited the available data. In this study, we determined 99 Tc contents in 27 plant samples collected in three forest sites in 1994 and 1995 around the Chernobyl area to obtain transfer factors (TFs) of Tc in the soil-plant system under environmental conditions. The samples were leaves of raspberry, strawberry and pink plants, black alder, birch, cowberry and oak trees, and ferns. After chemical separation, 99 Tc in the sample was measured by ICP-MS. Tc-95m was used as a yield tracer and the total recovery ranged from 0.48 to 0.92 with an average of 0.76. The determined 99 Tc concentrations in plants ranged from -1 (dry weight basis). TF values ranged from 99 Tc contents of the soil organic layers. The highest TF was found in the leaves of raspberry plants. The observed TFs were much lower than the values of 8.1 - 2600 compiled by IAEA for grass, fodder and leafy vegetables. (author)

  12. “Doing the Wrong Things Right” Site Investigations in Soft Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilus, M. H.; Lim, A. J. M. S.; Azhar, A. T. S.; Azmi, M. A. M.

    2016-11-01

    Site investigation is a very important process by which geotechnical, geological and other relevant information which might affect the construction or performance of a civil engineering or building project is acquired. However, common practice in site investigations is not always in accordance to the standard that has been defined. Reliability on the information obtained depends upon several factors that involves correct procedures and competent workers and also supervision. Several examples on site investigation methods are discussed in this paper. Explanation on the difference between the site investigation methods used for real practices in the field and how it should be done are discussed in detail. Therefore, it is hoped that site investigation should always be uniquely planned and should be an interactive and flexible process of discovery and changes according to the condition of the soil.

  13. Results of a cleanup and treatment test at the Nevada test site: Evaluation of vacuum removal of Pu-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinn, J.H.; Essington, E.H.; Miller, F.L. Jr.; O'Farrell, T.P.; Orcutt, J.A.; Romney, E.M.; Shugart, J.W.; Sorom, E.R.

    1989-01-01

    We have conducted experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of removing contaminated soils from the Nevada Test Site with a large truck-mounted vacuum cleaner. Our results show that this method is effective, relatively easy, and safe for equipment operators. With four passes of the truck-mounted vacuum, 92% of the 241Am (and the accompanying 239 + 240Pu) was removed and resuspension rates were reduced by more than 99%. The ecological impact was, however, serious in terms of soil erosion and destruction of small animal habitats. Compared to standard earth-moving techniques, vacuuming permits a significant reduction in the volume of soil collected to achieve the desired level of decontamination, and the volume reduction could result in cost savings for packaging, shipment, and burial. This cost savings would only be realized for projects involving decontamination of the top 5 cm of soil

  14. Quantitative analysis of the extent of heavy-metal contamination in soils near Picher, Oklahoma, within the Tar Creek Superfund Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Rachelle E; Henke, Wyatt; Davis, Conor; Mottaleb, M Abdul; Campbell, James H; McAliley, L Rex

    2017-04-01

    The Tri-State Mining District of Missouri, Kansas and Oklahoma was the site of large-scale mining operations primarily for lead and zinc until the mid-1950s. Although mining across the area has ceased, high concentrations of heavy metals remain in the region's soil and water systems. The town of Picher, Ottawa County, OK, lies within this district and was included in the Tar Creek Superfund Site by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1980 due to extensive contamination. To elucidate the extent of heavy-metal contamination, a soil-chemistry survey of the town of Picher was conducted. Samples (n = 111) were collected from mine tailings, locally known as chat, in Picher and along cardinal-direction transects within an 8.05-km radius of the town in August 2015. Samples were analyzed for soil pH, moisture, and metal content. Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) analyses of 20 metals showed high concentrations of lead (>1000 ppm), cadmium (>40 ppm) and zinc (>4000 ppm) throughout the sampled region. Soil moisture content ranged from 0.30 to 35.9%, and pH values ranged from 5.14 to 7.42. MANOVA of metal profiles determined that soils collected from the north transect and chat were significantly different (p zinc were correlated with one another. These data show an unequal distribution of contamination surrounding the Picher mining site. Mapping heavy-metal contamination in these soils represents the first step in understanding the distribution of these contaminants at the Picher mining site. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Preliminary assessment of laboratory techniques for measurement of volatiles through soils at hazardous waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breckenridge, R.P.; Case, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine if an inexpensive laboratory screening technique could be developed to detect the presence of hazardous volatile compounds without disturbing the soil over buried waste. A laboratory investigation was designed to evaluate the movement of two volatile organics through packed soil columns. Six soil columns were filled with three different soils. Two volatile organics, trichloroethylene (TCE) and dichloroethylene (1, 2 DCE), were placed at the base of the columns as a saturated water solution. Column headspace analysis was performed by purging the top of the columns with nitrogen gas and bubbling this gas through a pentane trap. Samples in the air space were also collected using 25 and 100 microliter gas tight syringes. All samples were analyzed using Electron Capture Detector (ECD) by gas chromatography. Results indicate that the volatile organic compounds can be detected through a five foot column of soil in concentrations down to parts-per-billion (ppb) for both TCE and DCE. Distribution coefficients (Kd) experiments were also conducted to assess breakthrough time and related concentration with soil type

  16. Relationships among plutonium contents of soil, vegetation and animals collected on and adjacent to an integrated nuclear complex in the humid southeastern United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLendon, H.R.

    1976-01-01

    Twenty-three representative sampling locations on and adjacent to the Savannah River Plant (SRP) site were selected to obtain information on plutonium movement in the food chain under southeastern US environmental conditions. Soil, a resuspendible fraction of the soil, honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica), and camphor weed (Heterotheca subaxillaris) were collected at each location. Grasshoppers and cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) were collected at some locations. The plutonium concentrations in soil at the selected locations ranged from 1.5 to 171fCi/g and alpha percentages of 238 Pu ranged from 2 to 66. The concentration of plutonium in the vegetation and on the leaves ranged from 0.17 to 76.1fCi/g and the alpha percentages of 238 Pu from 3 to 61. The concentration of plutonium in cotton rats and grasshoppers ranged from 0.07 to 3.58fCi/g and the alpha percentages of 238 Pu ranged from 22 to 80. The average ratio of plutonium concentration of vegetation to that of the surrounding soil was 10 -1 ; the corresponding ratio for cotton rats and soil was 10 -2 . These ratios appear to be independent of the plutonium concentration in the soil. Deposition on the surfaces of leaves and stems was the principal mechanism of plutonium contamination of vegetation. Comparisons among the plutonium values of the vegetation, soil and resuspendible fraction suggest the use of a proposed resuspendible measurement technique as a monitoring method to indicate subtle changes in the plutonium concentration of the soil surface that are not detectable by routine soil sampling. Although the 238 Pu data in the various ecosystem components were not conclusive, they do support evidence presented in other studies that there is an apparent increase in the biological availability of 238 Pu relative to that of sup(239,240)Pu in the environment. The plutonium concentrations of all ecosystem components decreased as the distance from the reprocessing plants increased. (author)

  17. Instrumental basis utilizing a sodium iodide detector for radioactive soil evaluations for site remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, A.I.

    1996-07-01

    This document provides the design rational for using a 5.08 by 5.08 cm (2 by 2 in.) sodium iodide detector to aid in boundary mapping of the radioactive contaminated soils at the Hanford Site. The detector can provide adequate response to a homogeneously contaminated soil volume of at least 1.22 to 1.52 m in diameter and up to 45.7 cm deep. The gamma activity basis is described by a soil column in a right circular cylinder that is uniformly isotopic. The detection techniques and characteristics are used to define contaminated areas requiring excavation by locating regions where gamma activities exceed cleanup standards. To determine the areas and boundary of contamination, the boundary and adjacent surfaces will be mapped using the detector operated in a windowed gross-gamma mode

  18. Effects of organic matter removal, soil compaction, and vegetation control on 5-year seedling performance: a regional comparison of long-term soil productivity sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Fleming; Robert F. Powers; Neil W. Foster; J. Marty Kranabetter; D. Andrew Scott; Felix Jr. Ponder; Shannon Berch; William K. Chapman; Richard D. Kabzems; Kim H. Ludovici; David M. Morris; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Paul T. Sanborn; Felipe G. Sanchez; Douglas M. Stone; Allan E. Tiarks

    2006-01-01

    We examined fifth-year seedling response to soil disturbance and vegetation control at 42 experimental locations representing 25 replicated studies within the North American Long-Term Soil Productivity (LTSP) program. These studies share a common experimental design while encompassing a wide range of climate, site conditions, and forest types. Whole-tree harvest had...

  19. Effects of organic matter removal and soil compaction on fifth-year mineral soil carbon and nitrogen contents for sites across the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipe G. Sanchez; Allan E. Tiarks; J. Marty Kranabetter; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Robert F. Powers; Paul T. Sanborn; William K. Chapman

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the main treatment effects of organic matter removal and compaction and a split-plot effect of competition control on mineral soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pools. Treatment effects on soil C and N pools are discussed for 19 sites across five locations (British Columbia, Northern Rocky Mountains, Pacific Southwest, and Atlantic and Gulf coasts)...

  20. Effects of exotic Eucalyptus spp. plantations on soil properties in and around sacred natural sites in the northern Ethiopian Highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemayehu Wassie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Species of the genus Eucalyptus (common name eucalyptus are widely planted all across Ethiopia—including on large areas of land previously allocated to food production. In recent decades eucalyptus has also increasingly been planted on lands around and within “church forests,” sacred groves of old-aged Afromontane trees surrounding Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido churches. These revered holy sites have long been recognized for their cultural values and also for their ecosystem services—including their potential to support species conservation and restoration, as church forests are some of the only remaining sanctuaries for many of Ethiopia’s indigenous and endemic plant and animal populations. Ethiopian Orthodox church communities have a long history of planting and nurturing indigenous tree seedlings to sustain church forest groves. However, due to the fast-growing nature of eucalyptuscombined with its widely recognized socio-economic benefits (as fuelwood, charcoal, construction wood, etc., this introduced species has been widely plantedaround church forests—in some cases even replacing native tree species within church forests themselves. In many developing country contexts the introduction of exotic eucalyptus has been shown to have ecological impacts ranging from soil nutrient depletion, to lowering water tables, to allelopathic effects. In this study, we collected soil samples from indigenous forest fragments (church forests, adjacent eucalyptus plantations, and surrounding agricultural land to examine how eucalyptus plantations in Ethiopian Orthodox church communitiesmight impact soil quality relative to alternative land uses. Soil properties, including organic matter, pH, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus were measured in samples across 20 church forest sites in South Gondar, East Gojjam, West Gojjam, Awi, and Bahir Dar Liyu zones in the Amhara Region of the northern Ethiopian Highlands. Findings indicate that although soil in

  1. Recovery of contaminated wetland soils at the Savannah River Site by natural rainfall: An experimental, toxicological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loehle, C.

    1990-08-01

    This study was conducted at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Seepage basins at the SRS F-Area received liquid effluent from the 1950s to 1988. This effluent was typically acidic, containing high amounts of total dissolved ions, low levels of tritium and other radioactive elements, and trace levels of various heavy metals. Sodium (from NaOH), and aluminum [from soil matrix reduction due to acid leachate] were at particularly high levels in the outcropping water. The effluent gradually seeped down to the water table and subsequently outcropped along the edge of a forested wetland bordering Four Mile Creek. A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the potential for natural remediation of contaminated wetland soils by rainfall. Contaminated soils were collected and leached repeatedly with rainwater. After 6 leachings the leachate was observed to be non-toxic to lettuce seedlings, whereas the initial leachate was very toxic. These results suggest that more detailed studies on leaching as a remediation technique would be beneficial. 6 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Radiometric assessment of natural radioactivity levels of agricultural soil samples collected in Dakahlia, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Shams A M

    2013-01-01

    Determination of the natural radioactivity has been carried out, by using a gamma-ray spectrometry [NaI (Tl) 3″ × 3″] system, in surface soil samples collected from various locations in Dakahlia governorate, Egypt. These locations form the agriculturally important regions of Egypt. The study area has many industries such as chemical, paper, organic fertilisers and construction materials, and the soils of the study region are used as a construction material. Therefore, it becomes necessary to study the natural radioactivity levels in soil to assess the dose for the population in order to know the health risks. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the soil ranged from 5.7 ± 0.3 to 140 ± 7, from 9.0 ± 0.4 to 139 ± 7 and from 22 ± 1 to 319 ± 16 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose rate, radium equivalent (Req), excess lifetime cancer risk, hazard indices (Hex and Hin) and annual gonadal dose equivalent, which resulted from the natural radionuclides in the soil were calculated.

  3. Complex evaluation of ecology situation and soil productivity of Semipalatinsk nuclear test site, perspectives of use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebed', L.; Ptiskaya, L.; Lyashenko; Pisak, R.

    1996-01-01

    Objective of the Project. The goal of the project is complex evaluation of environmental resources at the former Semipalatinsk Test Site and perspectives of their cultivation with taking into account radioactive pollution. Scope of Activities. The following main works at the territory of the former Semipalatinsk Test Site: - estimate of climate, climatic resources and their changes; - organization and realization of complex visual and tool-making air survey (geo botanical, utter satellite spectrometric, radiometric); - reception and computer treatment of space information; - organization and realization of surface expedition field works (radiometric measurements and geo botanical observations); - realization of laboratory analysis for exposure of radio nucleus content in soil, plant and water; - treatment of materials of geo botanical survey, construction of plant and soil maps; - treatment of materials of aero spectrometric and space survey, calculation of vegetation cover productivity, drawing up of computer maps; - assessment of desert and steppe zone vegetation dynamic under artificial and climate impact.Expected Results. The following main investigation results will be obtained first for the territory of Semipalatinsk Test Site and area around it. 1. Objective modern characteristics of radioactive land pollution. Distribution of radio nucleus in soil and vegetation cover. 2. Modern characteristics climatic resources assessment under possible climate change. 3. New maps of vegetation and soil cover, biological and feed productivity of the lands of the polygon at the scale 1:100 000 -1:1 500 000 taking into account climatic resources of the region. 4. Dynamics of desert and steppe zone vegetation assessment under radiation impact and possible climate change. 5. Features of vegetation restoration under constant radiation influence. 6. Basis of perspectives of land cultivation in the Semipalatinsk polygon area and recommendation on rehabilitation soil and

  4. Methane Transmission and Oxidation throughout the Soil Column from Three Central Florida Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Fansler, S.; Becker, K. E.; Hinkle, C. R.; Bailey, V. L.

    2015-12-01

    When methane (CH4) is generated in anoxic soil sites, it may be subsequently re-oxidized to carbon dioxide (CO2). Understanding the controls on, and magnitudes of, these processes is necessary to accurately represent greenhouse gas production and emission from soils. We used a laboratory incubation to examine the influence of variable conditions on methane transmission and oxidation, and identify critical reaction zones throughout the soil column. Sandy soils were sampled from three different sites at Disney Wilderness Preserve (DWP), Florida, USA: a depression marsh characterized by significant surface organic matter accumulation, a dry pine flatwood site with water intrusion and organic horizon at depth (200+ cm); and an intermediate-drainage site. Contiguous, 30-cm long cores were sampled from N=4 random boreholes at each site, from the surface to the water table (varying from 90 to 240 cm). In the lab, each core was monitored for 50 hours to quantify baseline (pretreatment) gas fluxes before injection with 6 ml CH4 (an amount commensurate with previous field collar measurements) at the base of each core. We then monitored CH4 and CO2 evolution for 100 hours after injection, calculating per-gas and total C evolution. Methane emissions spiked ~10 hours after injection for all cores, peaking at 0.001 μmol/g soil/hr, ~30x larger than pre-injection flux rates. On a C basis, CO2 emissions were orders of magnitude larger, and rose significantly after injection, with elevated rates generally sustained throughout the incubation. Cores from the depression marsh and shallower depths had significantly higher fluxes of both gases. We estimate that 99.1% of the original CH4 injection was oxidized to CO2. These findings suggest either that the methane measured in the field at DWP originates from within a few centimeters of the surface, or that it is produced in much larger quantities deeper in the profile before most is subsequently oxidized. This highlights the need for

  5. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 567: Miscellaneous Soil Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, with ROTC 1 Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick K.

    2013-07-01

    at Atmospheric Test Site T-1 exceeds the final action level (FAL) and requires corrective action. The presence and nature of contamination outside the default contamination boundary at Atmospheric Test Site T-1 and all other CAU 567 CASs will be evaluated based on information collected from a field investigation. Radiological contamination will be evaluated based on a comparison of the TED at sample locations to the dose-based FAL. The TED will be calculated as the total of separate estimates of internal and external dose. Results from the analysis of soil samples will be used to calculate internal radiological dose. Thermoluminescent dosimeters placed at the center of each sample location will be used to measure external radiological dose. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to each CAS.

  6. Combined use of stable isotopes and fallout radionuclides as soil erosion indicators in a forested mountain site, South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meusburger, K.; Mabit, L.; Alewell, C.; Park, J.H.; Sandor, T.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess and to validate the suitability of the stable nitrogen and carbon isotope signature as soil erosion indicators in a mountain forest site in South Korea. Our approach is based on the comparison of the isotope signature of ''stable'' landscape positions (reference sites), which are neither affected by erosion nor deposition, with eroding sites. For undisturbed soils we expect that the enrichment of δ 15 N and δ 13 C with soil depth, due to fractionation during decomposition, goes in parallel with a decrease in nitrogen and carbon content. Soil erosion processes potentially weaken this correlation. The 137 Cs method and the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) were applied for the soil erosion quantification. Erosion rates obtained with the 137 Cs method range from 0.9 t ha -1 yr -1 to 7 t ha -1 yr -1 . Considering the steep slopes of up to 40 and the erosive monsoon events (R factor of 6600 MJ mm ha -1 h -1 yr -1 ), the rates are plausible and within the magnitude of the RUSLE-modeled soil erosion rates, varying from 0.02 t ha -1 yr -1 to 5.1 t ha -1 yr -1 . The soil profiles of the reference sites showed significant (p < 0.0001) correlations between nitrogen and carbon content and its corresponding δ 15 N and δ 13 C signatures. In contrast, for the eroding sites this relationship was weaker and for the carbon not significant. These results confirm the usefulness of the stable carbon isotope signature as a qualitative indicator for soil disturbance. We could show further that the δ 15 N isotope signature can be used similarly for uncultivated sites. We thus propose that the stable δ 15 N and δ 13 C signature of soil profiles could serve as additional indicators confirming the accurate choice of the reference site in soil erosion studies using the 137 Cs method.

  7. Test plan for the FY 1997 rebound study at the carbon tetrachloride soil vapor extraction site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohay, V.J.; Tranbarger, R.K.

    1996-11-01

    This test plan describes the strategy and field measurements designed to evaluate the potential rebound of carbon tetrachloride vapor concentrations following cessation of soil vapor extraction (SVE) operations at the 200-ZP-2 Operable Unit in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. Soil vapor extraction was initiated in February 1992 as the preferred remedial alternative of the Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action for removal of carbon tetrachloride from the unsaturated zone beneath the primary carbon tetrachloride disposal sites. The magnitude, extent, and rate of rebound in carbon tetrachloride vapor concentrations will help determine the availability of additional carbon tetrachloride for removal using SVE. At the conclusion of the field measurements, a report will be completed to evaluate the results of the rebound study

  8. Multimedia risk-based soil cleanup at a gasoline-contaminated site using vapor extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.B.; Johnson, K.M.; Liu, S.; Loh, J.Y.; Lew, C.S.

    1996-01-01

    At a utility service center, gasoline from an underground storage tank had leaked into subsurface vadose zone soils for several years. To remediate the site, a soil vapor extraction (SVE) system was installed and operated. At the completion of the SVE operation, gasoline-containing residues in several confirmation soil borings exceeded agency-mandated cleanup levels. Rather than continue with SVE, a risk-based approach was developed to evaluate what levels of gasoline-containing residues could be left in the soil and still protect human health. The risk-based approach consisted of simulating the fate of chemical residues through the vadose zone and then into both the ground water and atmosphere. Receptor point concentrations were predicted, and health risks were assessed. The risk assessment concluded that ingestion of contaminated ground water and inhalation of air while showering were the largest potential contributors to risk, and that risks associated with inhalation of vapor-containing ambient air are small. However, all predicted risks are below the acceptable risk levels of 10 -6 individual cancer risk probability and 1.0 hazard index. Therefore, the lead agency accepted the recommendation that the site requires no further remediation. The service center continues normal operations today

  9. Allowable Residual Contamination Levels in soil for decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Napier, B.A.; Soldat, J.K.

    1983-09-01

    As part of decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station, a fundamental concern is the determination of Allowable Residual Contamination Levels (ARCL) for radionuclides in the soil at the site. The ARCL method described in this report is based on a scenario/exposure-pathway analysis and compliance with an annual dose limit for unrestricted use of the land after decommissioning. In addition to naturally occurring radionuclides and fallout from weapons testing, soil contamination could potentially come from five other sources. These include operation of the Shippingport Station as a pressurized water reactor, operations of the Shippingport Station as a light-water breeder, operation of the nearby Beaver Valley reactors, releases during decommissioning, and operation of other nearby industries, including the Bruce-Mansfield coal-fired power plants. ARCL values are presented for 29 individual radionculides and a worksheet is provided so that ARCL values can be determined for any mixture of the individual radionuclides for any annual dose limit selected. In addition, a worksheet is provided for calculating present time soil concentration value that will decay to the ARCL values after any selected period of time, such as would occur during a period of restricted access. The ARCL results are presented for both unconfined (surface) and confined (subsurface) soil contamination. The ARCL method and results described in this report provide a flexible means of determining unrestricted-use site release conditions after decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station

  10. Radionuclide Distribution in the Soil on the Stabatishkes Site in the Vicinity of the Ignalina NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevgenij Aliončik

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A near surface repository for low and intermediate-level short-lived radioactive waste will be built on the Stabatiškės site in the vicinity of Ignalina NPP during decommissioning works. The reservoir can also be used for the waste stored in the temporary repositories of the Ignalina NPP. Engineering and nature protective barriers are used in the repository for radioactive waste, however, radionuclides can spread into the environment, extend in the biosphere and cause (define the external power light exposure of the environment due to the natural and premature (prescheduled degradation of the engineering barriers of the repository. The properties of the soil (acidity, quantity of organic substances, humidity are being investigated for estimating the possible migration and dispersion of radionuclides. The activity of radionuclides in the soil is also estimated before building the repository. Natural and artificial radionuclides make the pollution of the soil, and therefore the accumulation and vertical migration of artificial (137Cs, 60Co and natural (226Ra, 232Th, 40K radionuclides are being researched in the soil on the Stabatiškės site.Article in Lithuanian

  11. Effect of age and blood collection site on the metabolic profile of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different collection site did not affect the examined parameters, but some statistically significant differences were observed between the age groups. However, all the parameters agreed with the data reported in the literature and contribute to our knowledge of the metabolic profile of ostriches. South African Journal of Animal ...

  12. Selected micrometeorological, soil-moisture, and evapotranspiration data at Amargosa Desert Research Site in Nye County near Beatty, Nevada, 2001-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael J.; Mayers, C. Justin; Garcia, C. Amanda; Andraski, Brian J.

    2007-01-01

    Selected micrometeorological and soil-moisture data were collected at the Amargosa Desert Research Site adjacent to a low-level radio-active waste and hazardous chemical waste facility near Beatty, Nevada, 2001-05. Evapotranspiration data were collected from February 2002 through the end of December 2005. Data were col-lected in support of ongoing research to improve the understanding of hydrologic and contaminant-transport processes in arid environments. Micrometeorological data include solar radiation, net radiation, air temperature, relative humidity, saturated and ambient vapor pressure, wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, precipitation, near-surface soil temperature, soil-heat flux and soil-water content. All micrometeorological data were collected using a 10-second sampling interval by data loggers that output daily and hourly mean values. Daily maximum and minimum values are based on hourly mean values. Precipitation data output includes daily and hourly totals. Selected soil-moisture profiles at depth include periodic measurements of soil volumetric water-content measurements at nine neutron-probe access tubes to depths ranging from 5.25 to 29.25 meters. Evapotranspiration data include measurement of daily evapotranspiration and 15-minute fluxes of the four principal energy budget components of latent-heat flux, sensible-heat flux, soil-heat flux, and net radiation. Other data collected and used in equations to determine evapotranspiration include temperature and water content of soil, temperature and vapor pressure of air, and covariance values. Evapotranspiration and flux estimates during 15-minute intervals were calculated at a 0.1-second execution interval using the eddy covariance method. Data files included in this report contain the complete micrometeorological, soil-moisture, and evapotranspiration field data sets. These data files are presented in tabular Excel spreadsheet format. This report highlights selected data contained in the

  13. Baseline Assessment of Petroleum Contamination and Soil Properties at Contaminated Sites in Utqiagvik, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    microbial community, including high bacterial numbers in these soils. The results from this baseline study indicate that stimulating biodegradation...CEERD-RR), ERDC- CRREL. At the time of publication, Dr. Justin Berman was Chief, CEERD- RRN; CDR J. D. Horne, USN (Ret), was Chief, CEERD-RR; and Dr...of the fractions of petroleum hydrocarbons and microbial activity in ERDC/CRREL TR-17-13 3 situ to reveal the status of each site at the time of

  14. Analysis of ground response data at Lotung large-scale soil- structure interaction experiment site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.Y.; Mok, C.M.; Power, M.S.

    1991-12-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), in cooperation with the Taiwan Power Company (TPC), constructed two models (1/4-scale and 1/2-scale) of a nuclear plant containment structure at a site in Lotung (Tang, 1987), a seismically active region in northeast Taiwan. The models were constructed to gather data for the evaluation and validation of soil-structure interaction (SSI) analysis methodologies. Extensive instrumentation was deployed to record both structural and ground responses at the site during earthquakes. The experiment is generally referred to as the Lotung Large-Scale Seismic Test (LSST). As part of the LSST, two downhole arrays were installed at the site to record ground motions at depths as well as at the ground surface. Structural response and ground response have been recorded for a number of earthquakes (i.e. a total of 18 earthquakes in the period of October 1985 through November 1986) at the LSST site since the completion of the installation of the downhole instruments in October 1985. These data include those from earthquakes having magnitudes ranging from M L 4.5 to M L 7.0 and epicentral distances range from 4.7 km to 77.7 km. Peak ground surface accelerations range from 0.03 g to 0.21 g for the horizontal component and from 0.01 g to 0.20 g for the vertical component. The objectives of the study were: (1) to obtain empirical data on variations of earthquake ground motion with depth; (2) to examine field evidence of nonlinear soil response due to earthquake shaking and to determine the degree of soil nonlinearity; (3) to assess the ability of ground response analysis techniques including techniques to approximate nonlinear soil response to estimate ground motions due to earthquake shaking; and (4) to analyze earth pressures recorded beneath the basemat and on the side wall of the 1/4 scale model structure during selected earthquakes

  15. Development of spectral shapes and attenuation relations from accelerograms recorded on rock and soil sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, A.K.; Rao, K.S.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    1998-06-01

    Earthquake accelerograms recorded on rock and soil sites have been analysed. Site-specific response spectra and peak ground acceleration attenuation relations have been developed. This report presents the normalised pseudo-absolute acceleration spectra for various values of damping and for various confidence levels. Scaling laws have been developed for the response spectra. The present results are based on a large database and comparison has been made with earlier results. These results will be useful in the earthquake resistant design of structures. (author)

  16. Chemical and microbiological investigations on mineral-oil contaminated soils following on-site regeneration measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollerbach, A.; Teschner, M.; Bosecker, K.; Wehner, H.; Kassner, H.

    1992-01-01

    In the site of a former petroleum refinery, where bombing during the second World War has caused in part deep-down contamination of the ground with petroleum and its products, a pilot study with five on-site biological treatment beds was carried through by different firms with the aim to reduce the hydrocarbon content of the soil to 1 gramme per kilogramme of dry weight. Thus, good comparability of the different regeneration measures was given. Sampling was done at the end of the regeneration experiments by obtaining an average sample. (orig.) [de

  17. Fuelwood production potential of six Prosopis species on an alkaline soil site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, V.L.; Behl, H.M. [National Botanical Research Inst., Lucknow (India). Biomass Research Center

    1995-07-01

    The biomass potential of six species Prosopis was evaluated on highly alkaline soil site. Prosopis alba I was found to have the fastest growth rate and highest above-ground biomass production. P. juliflora ranked next. P. cineraria showed high plant establishment but relatively slow growth. The performance of P. glandulosa was poor on such sites. The high fuelwood value index and rapid growth rate of P. juliflora and P. alba makes them suitable for short-rotation fuelwood forestry programmes on waste-lands. Selection of promising genotypes is suggested as a means of improvement in yields. (author)

  18. Development of spectral shapes and attenuation relations from accelerograms recorded on rock and soil sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, A K; Rao, K S; Kushwaha, H S [Reactor Safety Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1998-06-01

    Earthquake accelerograms recorded on rock and soil sites have been analysed. Site-specific response spectra and peak ground acceleration attenuation relations have been developed. This report presents the normalised pseudo-absolute acceleration spectra for various values of damping and for various confidence levels. Scaling laws have been developed for the response spectra. The present results are based on a large database and comparison has been made with earlier results. These results will be useful in the earthquake resistant design of structures. (author) 22 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. On site experiments of the slanted soil treatment systems for domestic gray water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itayama, Tomoaki; Kiji, Masato; Suetsugu, Aya; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Saito, Takeshi; Iwami, Norio; Mizuochi, Motoyuki; Inamori, Yuhei

    2006-01-01

    In order to make a breakthrough for the acute problem of water shortage in the world, the key words "decentralization and re-use" are very important for new sustainable sanitation systems that will be developed. Therefore, we focused on a new treatments system called "a slanted soil treatment system" which combines a biotoilet system with a domestic grey water treatment system. Because this system is a low cost and compact system, the system can be easily introduced to homes in urban areas or in the suburbs of cities in many developing countries. In this study, we performed on site experiments carried out on Shikoku Island, Japan, for several years. We obtained the following results. The slanted soil treatment system could remove organic pollutants and total nitrogen and total phosphorus in grey water effectively. Furthermore, the system performance became high in the case of the high concentration of the influent water. The nitrification reaction and denitrification reaction were speculated to exist due to aerobic zones and anaerobic zones present in the slanted soil treatment system. The slanted soil treatment system could perform for approximately 3 years with zero maintenance. The plug flow model of 1st order reaction kinetics could describe the reaction in the slanted soil treatment system. However, it is necessary to improve the system to maintain the performance in all seasons.

  20. Estimating field-scale soil water dynamics at a heterogeneous site using multi-channel GPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Pan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We explore the feasibility to quantify the field-scale soil water dynamics through time series of GPR (ground-penetrating radar measurements, which bridge the gap between point measurements and field measurements. Working on a 40 m × 50 m area in a heterogeneous agricultural field, we obtain a time series of radargrams after a heavy rainfall event. The data are analysed to simultaneously yield (i a three-dimensional representation of the subsurface architecture and (ii the total soil water volume between the surface and a reflection boundary associated with the presence of paleo sand dunes or clay inclusions in a rather uniform sand matrix. We assess the precision and the accuracy of these quantities and conclude that the method is sensitive enough to capture the spatial structure of the changing soil water content in a three-dimensional heterogeneous soil during a short-duration infiltration event. While the sensitivity of the method needs to be improved, it already produced useful information to understand the observed patterns in crop height and it yielded insight into the dynamics of soil water content at this site including the effect of evaporation.

  1. Variations in radon-222 in soil and ground water at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollenberg, H.; Straume, T.; Smith, A.; King, C.Y.

    1977-01-01

    To help evaluate the applicability of variations of radon-222 in ground water and soil gas as a possible earthquake predictor, measurements were conducted in conjunction with underground explosions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Radon fluctuations in ground water have been observed during a sequence of aftershocks following the Oroville, California earthquake of 1 August 1975. The NTS measurements were designed to show if these fluctuations were in response to ground shaking; if not, they could be attributed to changes in earth strain prior to the aftershocks. Well waters were periodically sampled and soil-gas 222 Rn monitored prior to and following seven underground explosions of varying strength and distance from sampling and detector locations. Soil-gas 222 Rn contents were measured by the alpha-track method; well water 222 Rn by gamma-ray spectrometry. There was no clearly identifiable correlation between well-water radon fluctuations and individual underground tests. One prominent variation in soil-gas radon corresponded to ground shaking from a pair of underground tests in alluvium; otherwise, there was no apparent correlation between radon emanation and other explosions. Markedly lower soil-gas radon contents following the tests were probably caused by consolidation of alluvium in response to ground shaking

  2. Use of engineered soils and other site modifications for low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requires that low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities be designed to minimize contact between waste and infiltrating water through the use of site design features. The purpose of this investigation is to identify engineered barriers and evaluate their ability to enhance the long-term performance of an LLW disposal facility. Previously used barriers such as concrete overpacks, vaults, backfill, and engineered soil covers, are evaluated as well as state-of-the-art barriers, including an engineered sorptive soil layer underlying a facility and an advanced design soil cover incorporating a double-capillary layer. The purpose of this investigation is also to provide information in incorporating or excluding specific engineered barriers as part of new disposal facility designs. Evaluations are performed using performance assessment modeling techniques. A generic reference disposal facility design is used as a baseline for comparing the improvements in long-term performance offered by designs incorporating engineered barriers in generic and humid environments. These evaluations simulate water infiltration through the facility, waste leaching, radionuclide transport through the facility, and decay and ingrowth. They also calculate a maximum (peak annual) dose for each disposal system design. A relative dose reduction factor is calculated for each design evaluated. The results of this investigation are presented for concrete overpacks, concrete vaults, sorptive backfill, sorptive engineered soil underlying the facility, and sloped engineered soil covers using a single-capillary barrier and a double-capillary barrier. Designs using combinations of barriers are also evaluated. These designs include a vault plus overpacks, sorptive backfill plus overpacks, and overpack with vault plus sorptive backfill, underlying sorptive soil, and engineered soil cover

  3. Evaluation of soil bioassays for use at Washington state hazardous waste sites: A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakley, N.; Norton, D.; Stinson, M.; Boyer, R.

    1994-01-01

    The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) is developing guidelines to assess soil toxicity at hazardous waste sites being investigated under the Washington Model Toxics Control Act Cleanup Regulation. To evaluate soil toxicity, Ecology selected five bioassay protocols -- Daphnia, Earthworm, Seedling, Fathead Minnow, and Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay Xenopus (FETAX) -- for use as screening level assessment tools at six State hazardous waste sites. Sites contained a variety of contaminants including metals, creosote, pesticides, and petroleum products (leaking underground storage tanks). Three locations, representing high, medium, and low levels of contamination, were samples at each site. In general, the high contaminant samples resulted in the highest toxic response in all bioassays. The order of site toxicity, as assessed by overall toxic response, is creosote, petroleum products, metals, and pesticides. Results indicate that human health standards, especially for metals, may not adequately protect some of the species tested. The FETAX bioassay had the greatest overall number of toxic responses and lowest variance. The seedling and Daphnia bioassays had lower and similar overall toxic response results, followed by the earthworm and fathead minnow. Variability was markedly highest for the seedling. The Daphnia and fathead minnow variability were similar to the FETAX level, while the earthworm variability was slightly higher

  4. Risks to humans and wildlife from metal contamination in soils/sediments at CERCLA sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitch, J.P.; Hovatter, P.S.; Opresko, D.M.; Sample, B.; Young, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    A common problem that occurs at DOD and DOE CERCLA sites is metal contamination in soils and aquatic sediments and the protection of humans and wildlife from potential exposure to this contamination. Consequently, the authors have developed a site-specific reference dose for mercury in sediments at the Oak Ridge Reservation and site-specific cleanup levels for certain metals, including arsenic and nickel, in soils at an Army ammunition plant. Another concern during remediation of these sites is that limited data are available to determine the direct risks to indigenous wildlife. Therefore, the authors have developed toxicological benchmarks for certain metals and metal compounds to be used as screening tools to determine the potential hazard of a contaminant to representative mammalian and avian wildlife species. These values should enable the Army and DOE to more accurately determine the risks to humans and wildlife associated with exposure to these contaminated media at their sites in order to achieve a more effective remediation. This effort is ongoing at ORNL with toxicological benchmarks also being developed for metal compounds and other chemicals of concern to DOD and DOE in order to address the potential hazard to

  5. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 567: Miscellaneous Soil Sites - Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick [Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 567: Miscellaneous Soil Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 567 based on the implementation of the corrective actions. The corrective actions implemented at CAU 567 were developed based on an evaluation of analytical data from the CAI, the assumed presence of COCs at specific locations, and the detailed and comparative analysis of the CAAs. The CAAs were selected on technical merit focusing on performance, reliability, feasibility, safety, and cost. The implemented corrective actions meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated. The CAAs meet all applicable federal and state regulations for closure of the site. Based on the implementation of these corrective actions, the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office provides the following recommendations: • No further corrective actions are necessary for CAU 567. • The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection issue a Notice of Completion to the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office for closure of CAU 567. • CAU 567 be moved from Appendix III to Appendix IV of the FFACO.

  6. Physiochemical, site, and bidirectional reflectance factor characteristics of uniformly moist soils. [Brazil, Spain and the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, E. R.; Baumgardner, M. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The bidirectional reflectance factor (0.5 micron to 2.3 micron wavelength interval) and physiochemical properties of over 500 soils from 39 states, Brazil and Spain were measured. Site characteristics of soil temperature regime and moisture zone were used as selection criteria. Parent material and internal drainage were noted for each soil. At least five general types of soil reflectance curves were identified based primarily on the presence or absence of ferric iron absorption bands, organic matter content, and soil drainage characteristics. Reflectance in 10 bands across the spectrum was found to be negatively correlated with the natural log of organic matter content.

  7. Modeling of 137Cs and 90Sr behavior in the soil-plant system within the territory adjacent to 'Experimental field' technical site in the Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiridonov, S.I.; Gontarenko, I.A.; Mukusheva, M.K.

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of 137 Cs and 90 Sr behavior in the soil-plant system is presented. Models have been parameterized for the area adjacent to the 'Experimental Field' Technical Site of the Semipalatinsk Test Site. The models describe the main processes responsible for changes of 137 Cs and 90 Sr content in the soil solution and, thereby, dynamics of radionuclides intake by vegetation. Results are presented from perspective and retrospective calculations, that reflect the dynamics of 137 and 90 Sr distribution by species in soil after nuclear explosions. The importance of factors governing radionuclide accumulation in plants within Semipalatinsk test site area is assessed. The analysis of sensitivity of model output variable to change in its parameters has revealed that the key soil properties significantly influence the results of prediction of radionuclide content in plants. (author)

  8. Plutonium in wildlife and soils at the Maralinga legacy site: persistence over decadal time scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, M.P.; Child, D.P.; Davis, E.; Doering, C.; Harrison, J.J.; Hotchkis, M.A.C.; Payne, T.E.; Thiruvoth, S.; Twining, J.R.; Wood, M.D.

    2014-01-01

    The mobility of plutonium (Pu) in soils, and its uptake into a range of wildlife, were examined using recent and ∼25 year old data from the Taranaki area of the former Maralinga weapons test site, Australia. Since its initial deposition in the early 1960s, the dispersed Pu has been incorporated into the soil profile and food chain through natural processes, allowing for the study of Pu sequestration and dynamics in relatively undisturbed semi-arid conditions. The data indicate downward mobility of Pu in soil at rates of ∼0.2–0.3 cm per year for the most mobile fraction. As a result, while all of the Pu was initially deposited on the ground surface, approximately 93% and 62% remained in the top 0–2 cm depth after 25- and 50-years respectively. No large-scale lateral spreading of the Taranaki plume was observed. Pu activity concentrations in 0–1 cm soils with biotic crusts were not elevated when compared with nearby bare soils, although a small number of individual data suggest retention of Pu-containing particles may be occurring in some biotic crusts. Soil-to-animal transfer, as measured by concentration ratios (CR wo-soil ), was 4.1E−04 (Geometric Mean (GM)) in mammals, which aligns well with those from similar species and conditions (such as the Nevada Test Site, US), but are lower than the GM of the international mammal data reported in the Wildlife Transfer Database (WTD). These lower values are likely due to the presence of a low-soluble, particulate form of the Pu in Maralinga soils. Arthropod concentration ratios (3.1E−03 GM), were similar to those from Rocky Flats, US, while values for reptiles (2.0E−02 GM) were higher than the WTD GM value which was dominated by data from Chernobyl. Comparison of uptake data spanning approximately 30 years indicates no decrease over time for mammals, and a potential increase for reptiles. The results confirm the persistence of bioavailable Pu after more than 50 years since deposition, and also the presence

  9. Transforming Pinus pinaster forest to recreation site: preliminary effects on LAI, some forest floor, and soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Melih; Bolat, İlyas

    2014-04-01

    This study investigates the effects of forest transformation into recreation site. A fragment of a Pinus pinaster plantation forest was transferred to a recreation site in the city of Bartın located close to the Black Sea coast of northwestern Turkey. During the transformation, some of the trees were selectively removed from the forest to generate more open spaces for the recreationists. As a result, Leaf Area Index (LAI) decreased by 0.20 (about 11%). Additionally, roads and pathways were introduced into the site together with some recreational equipment sealing parts of the soil surface. Consequently, forest environment was altered with a semi-natural landscape within the recreation site. The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of forest transformation into recreation site particularly in terms of the LAI parameter, forest floor, and soil properties. Preliminary monitoring results indicate that forest floor biomass is reduced by 26% in the recreation site compared to the control site. Soil temperature is increased by 15% in the recreation site where selective removal of trees expanded the gaps allowing more light transmission. On the other hand, the soil bulk density which is an indicator of soil compaction is unexpectedly slightly lower in the recreation site. Organic carbon (C(org)) and total nitrogen (N(total)) together with the other physical and chemical parameter values indicate that forest floor and soil have not been exposed to much disturbance. However, subsequent removal of trees that would threaten the vegetation, forest floor, and soil should not be allowed. The activities of the recreationists are to be concentrated on the paved spaces rather than soil surfaces. Furthermore, long-term monitoring and management is necessary for both the observation and conservation of the site.

  10. Assessment of Heavy Metals Concentration in Soils at Selected Points on Roads and Sites Around Nairobi Using EDXRF Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanjala, O. F.; Rathore, I.V.S.; Murungi, J.

    2016-01-01

    Increased exhaust emissions (gaseous and particulate), fuel leakage, damping and wear and tear of vehicle parts have resulted in environmental pollution by heavy metals especially along major roads with high traffic. This calls for constant monitoring to make sure that the levels of heavy metals do not go above the threshold limits recommended due to their adverse health effects on human beings, plants and animals. This research project focused on determining the present concentrations of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni) in soils at selected points on roads around Nairobi and some selected sites with respect to distance off-road and depth. The soil samples collected were ground into fine particles of size less than 100m and prepared into pellet form for analysis using Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. This analytic technique is fast, non-destructive and enables simultaneous determination of the concentrations of many elements in a sample with high sensitivity. It consists of a Si(Li) detector with energy resolution between 170eV to 190eV at 5.9KeV, MnKα-lines and a radioisotope source 109Cd (T1/2 =461.4 days) for sample excitation leading to emission of characteristic X-rays. Quantitative analysis was done using a software program called Quantitative X-ray Analysis System with a sub-routine program called Quantitative Analysis of Environmental Samples to finally obtain the concentrations of the different elements in the samples. The levels of the heavy metals obtained from the selected sampling sites C.Gar, K. Gar, K.R, G.B.P and Nai were 82.2±7.6, g/g to 236.1±9.2, g/g Pb, 273±9.2, g/g to 794±26, g/gZn, 32.4±4.8, g/g to 221.8±6.8, g/g Cu, and 10.72.7, g/g to 33±4.8, g/g Ni. From the results, it was found that the concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni were very high at the garages followed by parking places for buses and heavy commercial vehicles and lastly at roundabouts. The concentrations of heavy metals on the selected roads at Roy, Cab

  11. Portable Automation of Static Chamber Sample Collection for Quantifying Soil Gas Flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Morgan P.; Groh, Tyler A.; Parkin, Timothy B.; Williams, Ryan J.; Isenhart, Thomas M.; Hofmockel, Kirsten S.

    2018-01-01

    Quantification of soil gas flux using the static chamber method is labor intensive. The number of chambers that can be sampled is limited by the spacing between chambers and the availability of trained research technicians. An automated system for collecting gas samples from chambers in the field would eliminate the need for personnel to return to the chamber during a flux measurement period and would allow a single technician to sample multiple chambers simultaneously. This study describes Chamber Automated Sampling Equipment (FluxCASE) to collect and store chamber headspace gas samples at assigned time points for the measurement of soil gas flux. The FluxCASE design and operation is described, and the accuracy and precision of the FluxCASE system is evaluated. In laboratory measurements of nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) concentrations of a standardized gas mixture, coefficients of variation associated with automated and manual sample collection were comparable, indicating no loss of precision. In the field, soil gas fluxes measured from FluxCASEs were in agreement with manual sampling for both N2O and CO2. Slopes of regression equations were 1.01 for CO2 and 0.97 for N2O. The 95% confidence limits of the slopes of the regression lines included the value of one, indicating no bias. Additionally, an expense analysis found a cost recovery ranging from 0.6 to 2.2 yr. Implementing the FluxCASE system is an alternative to improve the efficiency of the static chamber method for measuring soil gas flux while maintaining the accuracy and precision of manual sampling.

  12. Initial data of seismic input and soil conditions of Kozloduy NPP site. Extension to Part 2 soil conditions, issued October '93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyadjiev, Z.

    1995-01-01

    On the basis of the results of the carried out experimental (laboratory and in situ) investigations of the dynamic characteristics, the following conclusions for the Kozloduy NPP site are presented. (1) The established through experimental studies relationships for the shear module and the damping factor as strain dependent of representative samples of soils of the site profile, can be used for all similar soils in the profile in the different parts of the site, taking into account the possible differences by means of the initial shear module in the normalized relationship for the respective generalized soil type. (2) When solving the problems of the site response and the 'soil - structure analysis', the geotechnical seismic model of the 'free field' profile can be assumed for all parts of the NPP site. (3) The changes of the lithological profile in different parts of the site, in respect to type and thickness, as well as in view of the different way and depth of the NPP structures foundation, make it necessary the elaboration of a geotechnical seismic model of the profile below the foundation plates of the reactor buildings of the NPP units in each particular case. These models can be made out on the basis of the summarized data about the shear velocities of the soil types, the lithological data of the studied boreholes in these places and the data having natural bulk density from 30 - 40 m depth determined by the laboratory studies of samples of these soils, assuming with approximation that the geotechnical seismic model below this depth is the same as the one of the 'free field'. (4) Studies have been carried out through in situ and laboratory studies of all the fundamental structures on the NPP site and the results of them are sufficient as an addition to the present initial data for solving the problems of the site response and the 'soil-structure inter-action' analyses of each structure

  13. Cs-137 in milk, vegetation, soil, and water near the former Soviet Union's Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimov, Aitbek; Yessimbekov, Zhanibek; Kakimova, Zhainagul; Bepeyeva, Aigerim; Stuart, Marilyne

    2016-03-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate Cs-137 activity concentration in soil, water, vegetation, and cow's milk at 10 locations within three regions (Abai, Ayaguz, and Urdzhar) to the southeast of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) in Kazakhstan. Cs-137 activity concentrations, determined using a pure Ge gamma-ray spectrometer, showed that, all samples collected did not exceed the National maximum allowable limits of 10,000 Bq/kg for soil, 100 Bq/kg for cow's milk, 74 Bq/kg for vegetation, and 11 Bq/kg for water. Cs-137 is, therefore, not considered a health hazard in these regions. The highest levels of contamination were found in the Abai region, where the highest activity concentration of Cs-137 was 18.0 ± 1.0 Bq/kg in soil, 7.60 ± 0.31 Bq/kg in cow's milk, 4.00 ± 0.14 Bq/kg in the vegetation, and 3.00 ± 0.24 Bq/kg in water. The lowest levels were measured within the Urdzhar region, where 4.00 ± 0.14 Bq/kg was found in the soil, 0.30 ± 0.02 Bq/kg in the cow's milk, 1.00 ± 0.03 Bq/kg in the vegetation, and 0.20 ± 0.02 Bq/kg in the water.

  14. Correlation of PCDD/F and PCB concentrations in soil samples from the Swiss Soil Monitoring Network (NABO) to specific parameters of the observation sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, P.; Gujer, E.; Zennegg, M. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Duebendorf (Switzerland); Bucheli, T. [Agroscope FAL Reckenholz, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2004-09-15

    Soils are natural sinks for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-pdioxins (PCDD/F) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Being lipophilic compounds, these contaminants adsorb to the organic carbon of the soil, and due to the low mobility and high persistence, they accumulate in the soil. Soil therefore represents rather a long-term archive for the atmospheric deposition than an indicator for the actual input of these compounds. In 1986, on demand of the Swiss ordinance of 9 June 1986 relating to hazardous substances in the soil, a national soil monitoring network (NABO) was set up in Switzerland aiming at monitoring the soil pollution. Sites were selected to reflect typical land use, vegetation, land management, air quality, and soil conditions in Switzerland. 50% of the sites are located on agricultural land, 30% in forests, and 20% on open land with extensive farming (alpine pastures, etc.); two sites are situated in urban parks. The sites are distributed throughout Switzerland including rural/remote areas as well as urban, urban fringe and industrial regions. Soil samples are taken every 5 years and are analysed for eight heavy metals (lead, copper, cadmium, zinc, nickel, chromium, cobalt, and mercury) as well as fluorine. So far, organic pollutants (PAH and PCB) have been determined in isolated samples only, and there is no data on PCDD/F concentrations so far. The present program was set up to fill this knowledge gap. A subset of 23 sites representing locations where contaminant immissions above average were expected was selected for PCDD/F and PCB analysis.

  15. A sensitivity analysis of hazardous waste disposal site climatic and soil design parameters using HELP3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelman, D.D.; Stansbury, J.

    1997-01-01

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle C, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, And Liability Act (CERCLA), and subsequent amendments have formed a comprehensive framework to deal with hazardous wastes on the national level. Key to this waste management is guidance on design (e.g., cover and bottom leachate control systems) of hazardous waste landfills. The objective of this research was to investigate the sensitivity of leachate volume at hazardous waste disposal sites to climatic, soil cover, and vegetative cover (Leaf Area Index) conditions. The computer model HELP3 which has the capability to simulate double bottom liner systems as called for in hazardous waste disposal sites was used in the analysis. HELP3 was used to model 54 combinations of climatic conditions, disposal site soil surface curve numbers, and leaf area index values to investigate how sensitive disposal site leachate volume was to these three variables. Results showed that leachate volume from the bottom double liner system was not sensitive to these parameters. However, the cover liner system leachate volume was quite sensitive to climatic conditions and less sensitive to Leaf Area Index and curve number values. Since humid locations had considerably more cover liner system leachate volume than and locations, different design standards may be appropriate for humid conditions than for and conditions

  16. Biodegradation of cyanide in groundwater and soils from gasworks sites in south-eastern Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehan, S.M.E.; Weaver, T.R.; Lawrence, C.R. [University of Melbourne, Parkvills, Vic. (Australia). School of Earth Sciences

    1999-07-01

    Groundwater from a gasworks site in south-eastern Australia has been found to contain high concentrations of cyanide (total), sulphate, and ammonia (1400 mg L{sup -1}, 6500 mg L{sup -1}, and 580 mg L{sup -1} respectively). Soil from another gasworks site has been found to contain 587 mg kg{sup -1} of cyanide (total), with concentrations of cyanide in the groundwater at this site being relatively low ({lt} 21 mgL{sup -1} CN(Total)). Experiments were conducted to determine the biodegradation rates of cyanide in groundwater and soils using samples from both sites. Column experiments and bioreactors were constructed to produce both aerobic and anaerobic conditions for the groundwater containing high concentrations of cyanide. Samples of water were taken periodically to analyse the pH, redox potential, temperature, and concentrations of cyanide (free and total), sulphate, ammonia, nitrate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Initial results indicate that concentrations of cyanide are declining in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, with biodegradation one process producing degradation. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Mercury transfer from soil to olive trees. A comparison of three different contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higueras, Pablo L; Amorós, José Á; Esbrí, José Maria; Pérez-de-los-Reyes, Caridad; López-Berdonces, Miguel A; García-Navarro, Francisco J

    2016-04-01

    Mercury contents in soil and olive tree leaves have been studied in 69 plots around three different source areas of this element in Spain: Almadén (Ciudad Real), Flix (Tarragona) and Jódar (Jaén). Almadén was the world's largest cinnabar (HgS) mining district and was active until 2003, Flix is the oldest Spanish chlor-alkali plant (CAP) and has been active from 1898 to the present day and Jódar is a decommissioned CAP that was active for 14 years (1977-1991). Total mercury contents have been measured by high-frequency modulation atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman effect (ZAAS-HFM) in the soils and olive tree leaves from the three studied areas. The average soil contents range from 182 μg kg(-1) in Flix to 23,488 μg kg(-1) in Almadén, while the average leaf content ranges from 161 μg kg(-1) in Jódar to 1213 μg kg(-1) in Almadén. Despite the wide range of data, a relationship between soil-leaf contents has been identified: in Almadén and Jódar, multiplicative (bilogarithmic) models show significant correlations (R = 0.769 and R = 0.484, respectively). Significant correlations were not identified between soil and leaf contents in Flix. The continuous activity of the Flix CAP, which remains open today, can explain the different uptake patterns for mercury, which is mainly atmospheric in origin, in comparison to the other two sites, where activity ceased more than 10 years ago and only soil uptake patterns based on the Michaelis-Menten enzymatic model curve are observed.

  18. Topographical survey and soil characterization of a candidate site for Radioactive Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peconick, Diva Godoi de O.; Mourao, Rogerio P., E-mail: godiva@cdtn.br, E-mail: mouraor@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nucelar (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Brazil has already initiated the establishment of a national near-surface repository for the low- and intermediate short-lived radioactive wastes generated within its territory. With two nuclear power plants in operation and a third one under construction, five active nuclear research institutes and another one planned for the intermediate future, operational constraints and social pressure built up for a disposal solution for such a waste category. The Brazilian Nuclear Commission CNEN was tasked at designing, building and commissioning this repository, which implies, among other activities, finding a suitable place for the facility. After an initial technical desk job, a federal land, not far from the NPPs, was appointed and in situ studies for the site characterization were started. This paper describes the topographical survey and soil drilling campaign carried out for the initial evaluation of the feasibility of the site vis-a-vis the applicable national regulations for site selection and disposal facilities licensing. (author)

  19. Topographical survey and soil characterization of a candidate site for Radioactive Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peconick, Diva Godoi de O.; Mourao, Rogerio P.

    2015-01-01

    Brazil has already initiated the establishment of a national near-surface repository for the low- and intermediate short-lived radioactive wastes generated within its territory. With two nuclear power plants in operation and a third one under construction, five active nuclear research institutes and another one planned for the intermediate future, operational constraints and social pressure built up for a disposal solution for such a waste category. The Brazilian Nuclear Commission CNEN was tasked at designing, building and commissioning this repository, which implies, among other activities, finding a suitable place for the facility. After an initial technical desk job, a federal land, not far from the NPPs, was appointed and in situ studies for the site characterization were started. This paper describes the topographical survey and soil drilling campaign carried out for the initial evaluation of the feasibility of the site vis-a-vis the applicable national regulations for site selection and disposal facilities licensing. (author)

  20. Deriving site-specific soil clean-up values for metals and metalloids: rationale for including protection of soil microbial processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperman, Roman G; Siciliano, Steven D; Römbke, Jörg; Oorts, Koen

    2014-07-01

    Although it is widely recognized that microorganisms are essential for sustaining soil fertility, structure, nutrient cycling, groundwater purification, and other soil functions, soil microbial toxicity data were excluded from the derivation of Ecological Soil Screening Levels (Eco-SSL) in the United States. Among the reasons for such exclusion were claims that microbial toxicity tests were too difficult to interpret because of the high variability of microbial responses, uncertainty regarding the relevance of the various endpoints, and functional redundancy. Since the release of the first draft of the Eco-SSL Guidance document by the US Environmental Protection Agency in 2003, soil microbial toxicity testing and its use in ecological risk assessments have substantially improved. A wide range of standardized and nonstandardized methods became available for testing chemical toxicity to microbial functions in soil. Regulatory frameworks in the European Union and Australia have successfully incorporated microbial toxicity data into the derivation of soil threshold concentrations for ecological risk assessments. This article provides the 3-part rationale for including soil microbial processes in the development of soil clean-up values (SCVs): 1) presenting a brief overview of relevant test methods for assessing microbial functions in soil, 2) examining data sets for Cu, Ni, Zn, and Mo that incorporated soil microbial toxicity data into regulatory frameworks, and 3) offering recommendations on how to integrate the best available science into the method development for deriving site-specific SCVs that account for bioavailability of metals and metalloids in soil. Although the primary focus of this article is on the development of the approach for deriving SCVs for metals and metalloids in the United States, the recommendations provided in this article may also be applicable in other jurisdictions that aim at developing ecological soil threshold values for protection of

  1. Applying FDEM, ERT and GPR at a site with soil contamination: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tzu-Pin; Chen, Chien-Chih; Tong, Lun-Tao; Chang, Ping-Yu; Chen, Yi-Chieh; Dong, Tien-Hsing; Liu, Hsin-Chang; Lin, Chih-Ping; Yang, Kai-Hsing; Ho, Ching-Jen; Cheng, Shih-Nan

    2015-10-01

    This study employed the combination of three methods, namely the Frequency Domain Electromagnetic (FDEM), Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) to evaluate a heavy-metal contaminated site for both pre- and post-remediation investigations. The main goals were to verify the position and the integrity of the underground storage tanks (UST), and to determine the effectiveness of remediation to ensure no contaminants remained at the site. In general, the GPR survey was effective at locating shallowly buried objects. However, due to the highly conductive nature of the heavy-metal laden sludge, the GPR signals were attenuated severely. Thus, the first attempt to use GPR in the pre-remediation investigation did not achieve the desired results and other methods were deployed. The existence of the UST and the sludge within were confirmed by ERT and the UST shape was mapped by FDEM. The principal remediation scheme was soil replacement by replacing the contaminated soil with clean silt. Based on the distinctive property differences of the contaminated soil and the clean silt, the completion of the remediation was confirmed by the differences between pre-remediation and post-remediation in GPR, ERT and FDEM results.

  2. Metal concentrations in earthworms from sewage sludge-amended soils at a strip mine reclamation site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietz, R.I.; Peterson, J.R.; Prater, J.E.; Zenz, D.R.

    A 3-yr study of earthworms was initiated in selected mine soil and nonmined fields at a Fulton County, IL land reclamation site. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of the land application of anaerobically digested sewage sludge, used to reclaim the site, on heavy metal accumulations in earthworms. Two species of earthworms, Lumbricus terrestris and Aporrectodea tuberculata, were identified in the sludge-amended and nonamended, nonmined fields sampled. Only A. tuberculata was found in the sludge-amended and nonamended mine soil fields sampled. Earthworm metal concentrations generally increased with time in all the sampled fields. The decreasing order of metal accumulation by earthworms in all sludge-amended fields sampled was Cu > Cd > Ni > Cr > Pb > Zn. Sewage sludge applications to fields on both land types resulted in significant accumulations of Cd, Cu, and Zn. Land type (mine soil vs. nonmined) significantly affected earthworm Zn concentrations, with levels being higher in all nonmined fields sampled. Earthworm Cd and Cu accumulations in all fields sampled were significantly related to the current amounts of sludge-applied metals, the amount applied since the previous sampling. Concentrations of Ni, Cr, and Pb in earthworms were not significantly related to sewage sludge applications during the 1975 to 1977 sampling period. The higher Cd and Cu concentrations in earthworms from sludge-amended fields may pose a potential hazard to predators.

  3. Long-Term Groundwater Monitoring Optimization, Clare Water Supply Superfund Site, Permeable Reactive Barrier and Soil Remedy Areas, Clare, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report contains a review of the long-term groundwater monitoring network for the Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB) and Soil Remedy Areas at the Clare Water Supply Superfund Site in Clare, Michigan.

  4. Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration: Analysis of Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration at Three Contaminated Sites Remediated and Revitalized with Soil Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper provides EPA's analysis of the data to determine carbon sequestration rates at three diverse sites that differ in geography/location, weather, soil properties, type of contamination, and age.

  5. Declining soil Crustacea in a World Heritage Site caused by land nemertean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinobe, Shotaro; Uchida, Shota; Mori, Hideaki; Okochi, Isamu; Chiba, Satoshi

    2017-09-29

    Invasive non-native species are of great concern throughout the world. Potential severity of the impacts of non-native species is assessed for effective conservation managements. However, such risk assessment is often difficult, and underestimating possible harm can cause substantial issues. Here, we document catastrophic decline of a soil ecosystem in the Ogasawara Islands, a UNESCO World Heritage site, due to predation by non-native land nemertine Geonemertes pelaensis of which harm has been previously unnoticed. This nemertine is widely distributed in tropical regions, and no study has shown that it feeds on arthropods. However, we experimentally confirmed that G. pelaensis predates various arthropod groups. Soil fauna of Ogasawara was originally dominated by isopods and amphipods, but our surveys in the southern parts of Hahajima Island showed that these became extremely scarce in the areas invaded by G. pelaensis. Carnivorous arthropods decreased by indirect effects of its predation. Radical decline of soil arthropods since the 1980s on Chichijima Island was also caused by G. pelaensis and was first recorded in 1981. Thus, the soil ecosystem was already seriously damaged in Ogasawara by the nemertine. The present findings raise an issue and limitation in recognizing threats of non-native species.

  6. Deriving surface soil moisture from reflected GNSS signal observations from a grassland site in southwestern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sibo; Calvet, Jean-Christophe; Darrozes, José; Roussel, Nicolas; Frappart, Frédéric; Bouhours, Gilles

    2018-03-01

    This work assesses the estimation of surface volumetric soil moisture (VSM) using the global navigation satellite system interferometric reflectometry (GNSS-IR) technique. Year-round observations were acquired from a grassland site in southwestern France using an antenna consecutively placed at two contrasting heights above the ground surface (3.3 and 29.4 m). The VSM retrievals are compared with two independent reference datasets: in situ observations of soil moisture, and numerical simulations of soil moisture and vegetation biomass from the ISBA (Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere) land surface model. Scaled VSM estimates can be retrieved throughout the year removing vegetation effects by the separation of growth and senescence periods and by the filtering of the GNSS-IR observations that are most affected by vegetation. Antenna height has no significant impact on the quality of VSM estimates. Comparisons between the VSM GNSS-IR retrievals and the in situ VSM observations at a depth of 5 cm show good agreement (R2 = 0.86 and RMSE = 0.04 m3 m-3). It is shown that the signal is sensitive to the grass litter water content and that this effect triggers differences between VSM retrievals and in situ VSM observations at depths of 1 and 5 cm, especially during light rainfall events.

  7. Deriving surface soil moisture from reflected GNSS signal observations from a grassland site in southwestern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This work assesses the estimation of surface volumetric soil moisture (VSM using the global navigation satellite system interferometric reflectometry (GNSS-IR technique. Year-round observations were acquired from a grassland site in southwestern France using an antenna consecutively placed at two contrasting heights above the ground surface (3.3 and 29.4 m. The VSM retrievals are compared with two independent reference datasets: in situ observations of soil moisture, and numerical simulations of soil moisture and vegetation biomass from the ISBA (Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere land surface model. Scaled VSM estimates can be retrieved throughout the year removing vegetation effects by the separation of growth and senescence periods and by the filtering of the GNSS-IR observations that are most affected by vegetation. Antenna height has no significant impact on the quality of VSM estimates. Comparisons between the VSM GNSS-IR retrievals and the in situ VSM observations at a depth of 5 cm show good agreement (R2 =  0.86 and RMSE  =  0.04 m3 m−3. It is shown that the signal is sensitive to the grass litter water content and that this effect triggers differences between VSM retrievals and in situ VSM observations at depths of 1 and 5 cm, especially during light rainfall events.

  8. Areal variability of the mineral soil cover in a reclaimed soda waste dumping site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klatka Sławomir

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Areal variability of the mineral soil cover in a reclaimed soda waste dumping site. This paper provides an analysis of the areal variability of the thickness and selected physical and chemical properties of the mineral cover formed in the process of settling ponds reclamation at the former Krakow Soda Plant “Solvay”. The topsoil is intended to provide a substrate for plants, therefore, its quality is the main determinant of the development for herbaceous and woody vegetation. Areal variability of the topsoil parameters was determined by kriging. In the context of the envisaged direction of management of the settling ponds, the analysis showed that electrical conductivity, thickness of the soil cover and the sand fraction content have potentially the highest impact on the diversification of vegetation. Understanding the spatial variability of the soil cover parameters, that are essential for vegetation, may contribute to increasing the efficiency of biological reclamation and also to cost reduction. Precise selection of the areas unsuitable for plant growth makes it possible to improve soil parameters on limited areas similarly as in the precision agriculture.

  9. Estonian soil classification as a tool for recording information on soil cover and its matching with local site types, plant covers and humus forms classifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõlli, Raimo; Tõnutare, Tõnu; Rannik, Kaire; Krebstein, Kadri

    2015-04-01

    cover type); (iii) being compartment for deposition of humus, individual organic compounds, plant nutrition elements, air and water, and (iv) forming (bio)chemically variegated active space for soil type specific edaphon. For studying of ESC matching with others ecosystem compartments classifications the comparative analysis of corresponding classification schemas was done. It may be concluded that forest and natural grasslands site types as well the plant associations of forests and grasslands correlate (match) well with ESC and therefore these compartments may be adequately expressed on soil cover matrixes. Special interest merits humus cover (in many countries known as humus form), which is by the issue natural body between plant and soil or plant cover and soil cover. The humus cover, which lied on superficial part of soil cover, has been formed by functional interrelationships of plants and soils, reflects very well the local pedo-ecological conditions (both productivity and decomposition cycles) and, therefore, the humus cover types are good indicators for characterizing of local pedo-ecological conditions. The classification of humus covers (humus forms) should be bound with soil classifications. It is important to develop a pedocentric approach in treating of fabric and functioning of natural and agro-ecosystems. Such, based on soil properties, ecosystem approach to management and protection natural resources is highly recommended at least in temperate climatic regions. The sound matching of soil and plant cover is of decisive importance for sustainable functioning of ecosystem and in attaining a good environmental status of the area.

  10. LEAK AND GAS PERMEABILITY TESTING DURING SOIL-GAS SAMPLING AT HAL'S CHEVRON LUST SITE IN GREEN RIVER, UTAH

    Science.gov (United States)

    The results of gas permeability and leak testing during active soil-gas sampling at Hal’s Chevron LUST Site in Green River, Utah are presented. This study was conducted to support development of a passive soil-gas sampling method. Gas mixtures containing helium and methane were...

  11. Geochemical and mineralogical investigation of domestic archaeological soil features at the Tiel-Passewaaij site, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, S.; Slomp, C.P.; Huisman, D.J.; Vriend, S.P.

    2008-01-01

    Archaeological soil features can be defined as areas of staining in ancient cultural soil horizons and are frequently used in surveys to locate sites and activity areas. Visual observation of these features, however, provides only limited information on their origin and the processes leading to

  12. Geochemical and mineralogical investigation of domestic archaeological soil features at the Tiel-Passewaaij site, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, S.; Slomp, C.P.; Huisman, D.J.; Vriend, S.P.

    2009-01-01

    Archaeological soil features can be defined as areas of staining in ancient cultural soil horizons and are frequently used in surveys to locate sites and activity areas. Visual observation of these features, however, provides only limited information on their origin and the processes leading to

  13. Collecting soil vapor from the Vadose Zone with an instrumented membrane system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, S.A.

    1992-07-01

    As part of an on-going program to monitor ground water pollution, the SEAMIST instrumented membrane system was purchased and installed in two boreholes at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). SEAMIST is a flexible, removable, polyvinylchloride-coated, nylon membrane tube used to seal the sides of a borehole and to which sampling devices and other types of instrumentation may be attached. This paper describes a method to sample soil vapor (a component of soil gas) with the SEAMIST system from a borehole at several depths simultaneously. The cryotraps used with this technique were tested for their collection efficiency, and those data are presented. Data on the integrity of the SEAMIST borehole seal are also reported

  14. The role of natural mineral particles collected at one site in Patagonia as immersion freezing ice nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, María Laura; Borgnino, Laura; Ávila, Eldo E.

    2018-05-01

    This work studies the role of mineral particles collected in the region of Patagonia (Neuquén, Argentina) as ice nuclei particles (INPs) by immersion freezing mode. The particle immersion-freezing ability was analyzed under laboratory conditions by using an established drop-freezing technique. Mineralogical composition was characterized by using X-ray diffraction and electron micro probe analysis. Dynamic light scattering was used to determine the grain size distribution of particles, while the N2 adsorption and methylene blue adsorption methods were applied to determine their specific surface area. Water droplets of different volumes containing different concentrations of particles were cooled until droplets were frozen. For all the analyzed drop volumes, an increase in the freezing temperature of the drops was observed with increasing dust concentration. In the same way, the freezing temperature increased when the drop volume was increased at constant dust concentration. Both behaviors were linked to the availability of active sites in the particles. A plateau in the freezing temperature was observed at high suspension concentration for all the drop volumes. This plateau was related to the aggregation of the particles when the suspension concentration was increased and to the consequent decrease in the number of active sites. The active sites per unit of surface area were calculated and reported. For the studied range of temperature, results are in agreement with those reported for different sites and particles. From the chemical and morphological analysis of the particle components and the results obtained from the literature, it was concluded that even though montmorillonite was the main mineral in the collected sample, the accessory minerals deserve to be analyzed in detail in order to know if they could be responsible for the ability of the collected soil particles to act as INPs. Considering that the region of Patagonia has been identified as an important

  15. Effects of diurnal temperature variation on microbial community and petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in contaminated soils from a sub-Arctic site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Ali; Ghoshal, Subhasis

    2015-12-01

    Contaminated soils are subject to diurnal and seasonal temperature variations during on-site ex-situ bioremediation processes. We assessed how diurnal temperature variations similar to that in summer at the site from which petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil was collected affect the soil microbial community and the extent of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons compared with constant temperature regimes. Microbial community analyses for 16S rRNA and alkB genes by pyrosequencing indicated that the microbial community for soils incubated under diurnal temperature variation from 5°C to 15°C (VART5-15) evolved similarly to that for soils incubated at constant temperature of 15°C (CST15). In contrast, under a constant temperature of 5°C (CST5), the community evolved significantly different. The extent of biodegradation of C10-C16 hydrocarbons in the VART5-15 systems was 48%, comparable with the 41% biodegradation in CST15 systems, but significantly higher than CST5 systems at 11%. The enrichment of Gammaproteobacteria was observed in the alkB gene-harbouring communities in VART5-15 and CST15 but not in CST5 systems. However, the Actinobacteria was abundant at all temperature regimes. The results suggest that changes in microbial community composition as a result of diurnal temperature variations can significantly influence petroleum hydrocarbon bioremediation performance in cold regions. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Meta-analysis of the effects of soil properties, site factors and experimental conditions on solute transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Koestel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Preferential flow is a widespread phenomenon that is known to strongly affect solute transport in soil, but our understanding and knowledge is still poor of the site factors and soil properties that promote it. To investigate these relationships, we assembled a database from the peer-reviewed literature containing information on 733 breakthrough curve experiments under steady-state flow conditions. Most of the collected experiments (585 of the 733 datasets had been conducted on undisturbed soil columns, although some experiments on repacked soil, clean sands, and glass beads were also included. In addition to the apparent dispersivity, we focused our attention on three indicators of preferential solute transport: namely the 5%-arrival time, the holdback factor, and the ratio of piston-flow and average transport velocities. Our results suggest that, in contrast to the 5%-arrival time and the holdback factor, the piston-flow to transport velocity ratio is not related to preferential macropore transport but rather to the exclusion or retardation of the applied tracer. Confirming that the apparent longitudinal dispersivity is positively correlated with the travel distance of the tracer, our results also illustrate that this relationship is refined if the normalized 5%-tracer arrival time is also taken into account. In particular, we found that the degree of preferential solute transport increases with apparent dispersivity and decreases with travel distance. A similar but weaker relationship was observed between apparent dispersivity, 5%-tracer arrival time, and lateral observation scale, such that the degree of preferential transport increases with lateral observation scale. However, we also found that the travel distance and the lateral observation scale in the investigated dataset are correlated, which makes it difficult to distinguish their influence on these transport characteristics. We also found that the strength of preferential transport

  17. Soil structure interaction analysis for the Hanford Site 241-SY-101 double-shell waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giller, R.A.; Weiner, E.O.

    1991-09-01

    The 241-SY-101 tank is a double-shell waste storage tank buried in the 241-SY tank farm in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This analysis addresses the effects of seismic soil-structure interaction on the tank structure and includes a parametric soil-structure interaction study addressing three configurations: two-dimensional soil structure, a two-dimensional structure-soil-structure, and a three-dimensional soil-structure interaction. This study was designed to determine an optimal method for addressing seismic-soil effects on underground storage tanks. The computer programs calculate seismic-soil pressures on the double-shell tank walls and and seismic acceleration response spectra in the tank. The results of this soil-structure interaction parametric study as produced by the computer programs are given in terms of seismic soil pressures and response spectra. The conclusions of this soil-structure interaction evaluation are that dynamically calculated soil pressures in the 241-SY-101 tank are significantly reduce from those using standard hand calculation methods and that seismic evaluation of underground double-shell waste storage tanks must consider soil-structure interaction effects in order to predict conservative structural response. Appendixes supporting this study are available in Volume 2 of this report

  18. Soil-to-plant transfer factors of stable elements and naturally occurring radionuclides. (2) Rice collected in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shigeo; Tagami, Keiko; Hirai, Ikuko

    2007-01-01

    The critical paths of radionuclides and the critical foods in Japan are different from those in European and North American countries because agricultural products and food customs are different. Consequently, safety assessment in Japan is required to consider rice and vegetables as the critical foods. In this study, we measured soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs) for rice using naturally existing elements as analogues of radionuclides under equilibrium conditions. Rice and associated soil samples were collected from 50 sampling sites throughout Japan and TFs of 36 and 34 elements for brown rice and white rice, respectively, were calculated on dry weight basis. Probability distributions of TFs of elements for brown rice and white rice were a log normal type. Except for As and Mo, the TFs for brown rice were usually lower than those for wheat and barley especially for K, Fe, Sr (t-test: p 90 Sr and 137 Cs observed in field experiments. Thus, the TFs of naturally existing elements can be used as TFs of those radionuclides which have been in contact with the environment for a long time and have reached equilibrium conditions. (author)

  19. On-site investigations of hydrocarbon contaminated soil by the Pollut-Eval methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoit, Y.; Prigent, S.; Haeseler, F.

    2005-01-01

    The Pollut-Eval method is based on the Rock-Eval pyrolysis method, founded on an IFP patent that has been used for decades for oil prospecting in sedimentary basins all over the world. This equipment provides data on the quantity and the quality of organic matter in sedimentary rocks. With the increasing demand for cost effective and rapid contaminated site diagnosis, it became obvious that the field of application of the Rock-Eval technology should be enlarged to environmental problematic. The Pollut-Eval methodology was developed since 1996 and firstly qualified through the design of a laboratory version. Compared to the previous apparatus dedicated to the geochemistry, innovations allow acquisition of data for accurate quantification of complex organic pollutants and mineral carbon distribution. New methods were developed especially for the characterisation of hydrocarbon pollutants in soil. Compared to kerogen analysis, the characterisation of light petroleum cuts entrapped in soil as pollutants was available by the design of an adapted refrigerated auto-sampler. The prevention of the loss of the high vapour tension pollutants couldn't be avoided for the new environmental field of applications. Site after site, the various experiments involving the 'laboratory' version of the Pollut-Eval analyser extended the application field of the methodology. The efficiency of the thermal extraction applied directly on the soil showed useful advantages compared to conventional solvent extraction techniques, especially for pollutants originating from former gas plants. The method was especially suitable for the determination of the complete carbon mass balance in the case of non-extractable organic pollutant such as coal tar or for heavy petroleum cut such as heavy fuel, vacuum distillation residue and bitumen. By the way, the Pollut-Eval method became rapidly complementary to more conventional GC quantification dedicated to complex organic pollution characterisation. By the

  20. Pilot studies for the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project - Site selection, sampling protocols, analytical methods, and quality control protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.B.; Woodruff, L.G.; O'Leary, R. M.; Cannon, W.F.; Garrett, R.G.; Kilburn, J.E.; Goldhaber, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Geological Survey of Canada sampled and chemically analyzed soils along two transects across Canada and the USA in preparation for a planned soil geochemical survey of North America. This effort was a pilot study to test and refine sampling protocols, analytical methods, quality control protocols, and field logistics for the continental survey. A total of 220 sample sites were selected at approximately 40-km intervals along the two transects. The ideal sampling protocol at each site called for a sample from a depth of 0-5 cm and a composite of each of the O, A, and C horizons. The Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, S, Ti, Ag, As, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Ga, In, La, Li, Mn, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sn, Sr, Te, Th, Tl, U, V, W, Y, and Zn by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry following a near-total digestion in a mixture of HCl, HNO3, HClO4, and HF. Separate methods were used for Hg, Se, total C, and carbonate-C on this same size fraction. Only Ag, In, and Te had a large percentage of concentrations below the detection limit. Quality control (QC) of the analyses was monitored at three levels: the laboratory performing the analysis, the USGS QC officer, and the principal investigator for the study. This level of review resulted in an average of one QC sample for every 20 field samples, which proved to be minimally adequate for such a large-scale survey. Additional QC samples should be added to monitor within-batch quality to the extent that no more than 10 samples are analyzed between a QC sample. Only Cr (77%), Y (82%), and Sb (80%) fell outside the acceptable limits of accuracy (% recovery between 85 and 115%) because of likely residence in mineral phases resistant to the acid digestion. A separate sample of 0-5-cm material was collected at each site for determination of organic compounds. A subset of 73 of these samples was analyzed for a suite of

  1. Biodegradation of Aged Residues of Atrazine and Alachlor in a Mix-Load Site Soil by Fungal Enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Chirnside, Anastasia E. M.; Ritter, William F.; Radosevich, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Soils from bulk pesticide mixing and loading (mix-load) sites are often contaminated with a complex mixture of pesticides, herbicides, and other organic compounds used in pesticide formulations that limits the success of remediation efforts. Therefore, there is a need to find remediation strategies that can successfully clean up these mix-load site soils. This paper examined the degradation of atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-S-triazine; AT) and alachlor (2-chloro- 2  , 6  -...

  2. Biochar effect on maize yield and soil characteristics in five conservation farming sites in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Gerard; Martinsen, Vegard; Shitumbanuma, Victor; Alling, Vanja; Breedveld, Gijs D.; Rutherford, David W.; Sparrevik, Magnus; Hale, Sarah E.; Obia, Alfred; Mulder, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Biochar addition to agricultural soils can improve soil fertility, with the added bonus of climate change mitigation through carbon sequestration. Conservation farming (CF) is precision farming, often combining minimum tillage, crop rotation and residue retention. In the present farmer-led field trials carried out in Zambia, the use of a low dosage biochar combined with CF minimum tillage was tested as a way to increase crop yields. Using CF minimum tillage allows the biochar to be applied to the area where most of the plant roots are present and mirrors the fertilizer application in CF practices. The CF practice used comprised manually hoe-dug planting 10-L sized basins, where 10%–12% of the land was tilled. Pilot trials were performed with maize cob biochar and wood biochar on five soils with variable physical/chemical characteristics. At a dosage as low as 4 tons/ha, both biochars had a strong positive effect on maize yields in the coarse white aeolian sand of Kaoma, West-Zambia, with yields of 444% ± 114% (p = 0.06) and 352% ± 139% (p = 0.1) of the fertilized reference plots for maize and wood biochar, respectively. Thus for sandy acidic soils, CF and biochar amendment can be a promising combination for increasing harvest yield. Moderate but non-significant effects on yields were observed for maize and wood biochar in a red sandy clay loam ultisol east of Lusaka, central Zambia (University of Zambia, UNZA, site) with growth of 142% ± 42% (p > 0.2) and 131% ± 62% (p > 0.2) of fertilized reference plots, respectively. For three other soils (acidic and neutral clay loams and silty clay with variable cation exchange capacity, CEC), no significant effects on maize yields were observed (p > 0.2). In laboratory trials, 5% of the two biochars were added to the soil samples in order to study the effect of the biochar on physical and chemical soil characteristics. The large increase in crop yield in Kaoma soil was tentatively explained by a combination of an

  3. Biochar Effect on Maize Yield and Soil Characteristics in Five Conservation Farming Sites in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Obia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Biochar addition to agricultural soils can improve soil fertility, with the added bonus of climate change mitigation through carbon sequestration. Conservation farming (CF is precision farming, often combining minimum tillage, crop rotation and residue retention. In the present farmer-led field trials carried out in Zambia, the use of a low dosage biochar combined with CF minimum tillage was tested as a way to increase crop yields. Using CF minimum tillage allows the biochar to be applied to the area where most of the plant roots are present and mirrors the fertilizer application in CF practices. The CF practice used comprised manually hoe-dug planting 10-L sized basins, where 10%–12% of the land was tilled. Pilot trials were performed with maize cob biochar and wood biochar on five soils with variable physical/chemical characteristics. At a dosage as low as 4 tons/ha, both biochars had a strong positive effect on maize yields in the coarse white aeolian sand of Kaoma, West-Zambia, with yields of 444% ± 114% (p = 0.06 and 352% ± 139% (p = 0.1 of the fertilized reference plots for maize and wood biochar, respectively. Thus for sandy acidic soils, CF and biochar amendment can be a promising combination for increasing harvest yield. Moderate but non-significant effects on yields were observed for maize and wood biochar in a red sandy clay loam ultisol east of Lusaka, central Zambia (University of Zambia, UNZA, site with growth of 142% ± 42% (p > 0.2 and 131% ± 62% (p > 0.2 of fertilized reference plots, respectively. For three other soils (acidic and neutral clay loams and silty clay with variable cation exchange capacity, CEC, no significant effects on maize yields were observed (p > 0.2. In laboratory trials, 5% of the two biochars were added to the soil samples in order to study the effect of the biochar on physical and chemical soil characteristics. The large increase in crop yield in Kaoma soil was tentatively explained by a combination

  4. Biochar effect on maize yield and soil characteristics in five conservation farming sites in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Gerard; Martinsen, Vegard; Shitumbanuma, Victor; Alling, Vanja; Breedveld, Gijs D.; Rutherford, David W.; Sparrevik, Magnus; Hale, Sarah E.; Obia, Alfred; Mulder, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Biochar addition to agricultural soils can improve soil fertility, with the added bonus of climate change mitigation through carbon sequestration. Conservation farming (CF) is precision farming, often combining minimum tillage, crop rotation and residue retention. In the present farmer-led field trials carried out in Zambia, the use of a low dosage biochar combined with CF minimum tillage was tested as a way to increase crop yields. Using CF minimum tillage allows the biochar to be applied to the area where most of the plant roots are present and mirrors the fertilizer application in CF practices. The CF practice used comprised manually hoe-dug planting 10-L sized basins, where 10%–12% of the land was tilled. Pilot trials were performed with maize cob biochar and wood biochar on five soils with variable physical/chemical characteristics. At a dosage as low as 4 tons/ha, both biochars had a strong positive effect on maize yields in the coarse white aeolian sand of Kaoma, West-Zambia, with yields of 444% ± 114% (p = 0.06) and 352% ± 139% (p = 0.1) of the fertilized reference plots for maize and wood biochar, respectively. Thus for sandy acidic soils, CF and biochar amendment can be a promising combination for increasing harvest yield. Moderate but non-significant effects on yields were observed for maize and wood biochar in a red sandy clay loam ultisol east of Lusaka, central Zambia (University of Zambia, UNZA, site) with growth of 142% ± 42% (p > 0.2) and 131% ± 62% (p > 0.2) of fertilized reference plots, respectively. For three other soils (acidic and neutral clay loams and silty clay with variable cation exchange capacity, CEC), no significant effects on maize yields were observed (p > 0.2). In laboratory trials, 5% of the two biochars were added to the soil samples in order to study the effect of the biochar on physical and chemical soil characteristics. The large increase in crop yield in Kaoma soil was tentatively explained by a combination of an

  5. Impact of Site Disturbances from Harvesting and Logging on Soil Physical Properties and Pinus kesiya Tree Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missanjo, Edward; Kamanga-Thole, Gift

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the impacts of soil disturbance and compaction on soil physical properties and tree growth and the effectiveness of tillage in maintaining or enhancing site productivity for intensively managed Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon sites in Dedza, Malawi. The results indicate that about fifty-two percent of the area of compacted plots was affected by the vehicular traffic. Seventy percent of the trees were planted on microsites with some degree of soil disturbance. Soil bulk density at 0-20 cm depth increased from 0.45 to 0.66 Mg m(-3) in the most compacted portions of traffic lanes. Soil strength in traffic lanes increased at all 60 cm depth but never exceeded 1200 kPa. Volumetric soil water content in compacted traffic lanes was greater than that in noncompacted soil. Total soil porosity decreased 13.8% to 16.1% with compaction, while available water holding capacity increased. The study revealed no detrimental effects on tree height and diameter from soil disturbance or compaction throughout the three growing season. At the ages of two and three, a tree volume index was actually greater for trees planted on traffic lanes than those on nondisturbed soil.

  6. Mercury pollution in the lake sediments and catchment soils of anthropogenically-disturbed sites across England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Handong; Turner, Simon; Rose, Neil L

    2016-12-01

    Sediment cores and soil samples were taken from nine lakes and their catchments across England with varying degrees of direct human disturbance. Mercury (Hg) analysis demonstrated a range of impacts, many from local sources, resulting from differing historical and contemporary site usage and management. Lakes located in industrially important areas showed clear evidence for early Hg pollution with concentrations in sediments reaching 400-1600 ng g -1 prior to the mid-19th century. Control of inputs resulting from local management practices and a greater than 90% reduction in UK Hg emissions since 1970 were reflected by reduced Hg pollution in some lakes. However, having been a sink for Hg deposition for centuries, polluted catchment soils are now the major Hg source for most lakes and consequently recovery from reduced Hg deposition is being delayed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Arresting Environmental Degradation Through Accelerated On-site Soil Sedimentation and Revegetation Using Microcatchments and Reseeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mnene, W.N.; Wandera, F.P.; Lebbie, S.H.

    1999-01-01

    Degradation of arid and semi arid lands (ASALs) through denudation has been found to result in lowered capacity to support livestock, particularly under extensive production systems. After a Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) in Kajiado District, an opportunity was identified in the pastoral reserves grazing areas involving the combined use of monochromators (specifically pitting) and re seeding with adapted forage species. Treatments were imposed before the 1996 short rainy seasons. Data were collected on soil sedimentation as well as herbaceous cover and standing crop. Much of the soil deposit comprised of fine silt-clay in the pits and sand on the up-slope. No soil deposit was observed on the down-slope of the pits. This increased in subsequent rainy seasons. Although seeding was done by broadcasting to cover whole plots, establishment was only evident where it is pitted. Volunteer herbaceous vegetation expressed themselves and plant cover tended to also increase in freshly deposited soil from one wet season to another. Herbage was particularly dense on the crescents of the pits

  8. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SYNTHETIC SOIL MATERIALS FOR THE SUCCESSFUL RECLAMATION OF ABANDONED MINED LAND SITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Jin

    2006-03-01

    Abandoned mine sites associated with coal and metal mining across the western United States have been left as unproductive wastelands. The availability of soil materials or other materials to support the restoration of the vegetative cover and enhance the recovery of such areas is limited. The restoration of these areas often requires the use of available amendments such as organic waste products or to help stabilize the soil. Many of the organic waste products, including sewage sludge, clarifier sludge, fly ash sludge, and other by-products from the agricultural industries such as compost can be employed for beneficial uses. This study looked at the feasibility of applying organic waste products to a mine soil in Montana to increase soil fertility and enhance plant productivity. Waste rock samples were tested for acid forming potential via acid base accounting. Samples cores were constructed and leached with simulated rainwater to determine amendment affect on metal leaching. A greenhouse study was completed to determine the most suitable amendment(s) for the field mine land site. Results from the acid base accounting indicate that acid formed from the waste rock would be neutralized with the alkalinity in the system. Results also show that metals in solution are easily held by organics from the amendments and not allowed to leach in to the surrounding water system. Data from the greenhouse study indicated that the amendment of sewage sludge was most promising. Application of 2% sewage sludge along with 1% sewage sludge plus 1% clarifier sludge, 2% compost, and no treatment were used for mine land application. Initial results were encouraging and it appears that sewage sludge may be a good reclamation option for mine lands.

  9. BOREAS TF-01 SSA-OA Soil Characteristics Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Data collected in support of the effort to characterize and interpret soil information at the SSA-OA tower site in 1994. Data collected include soil respiration,...

  10. BOREAS TF-01 SSA-OA Soil Characteristics Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Data collected in support of the effort to characterize and interpret soil information at the SSA-OA tower site in 1994. Data collected include soil...

  11. Geostatistical characterization of soil pollution at industrial sites Case of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at former coking plants; Caracterisation geostatistique de pollutions industrielles de sols cas des hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques sur d'anciens sites de cokeries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeannee, N

    2001-05-15

    Estimating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in soil at former industrial sites poses several practical problems on account of the properties of the contaminants and the history of site: 1)collection and preparation of samples from highly heterogeneous material, 2) high short scale variability, particularly in presence of backfill, 3) highly contrasted grades making the vario-gram inference complicated. The sampling strategy generally adopted for contaminated sites is based on the historical information. Systematic sampling recommended for geostatistical estimation is often considered to be excessive and unnecessary. Two former coking plants are used as test cases for comparing several geostatistical methods for estimating (i) in situ concentrations and (ii) the probability that they are above a pollution threshold. Several practical and methodological questions are considered: 1) the properties of various estimators of the experimental vario-gram and the validity of the results; 2) the use of soft data, such as historical information, organoleptic observations and semi-quantitative methods, with a view to improve the precision of the estimates; 3) the comparison of standard sampling strategies, taking into account vertical repartition of grades and the history of the site. Multiple analyses of the same sample give an approximation of the sampling error. Short scale sampling shows the difficulty of selecting soils in the absence of a spatial structure. Sensitivity studies are carried out to assess how densely sampled soft data can improve estimates. By using mainly existing models, this work aims at giving practical recommendations for the characterization of soil pollution. (author)

  12. Geostatistical characterization of soil pollution at industrial sites Case of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at former coking plants; Caracterisation geostatistique de pollutions industrielles de sols cas des hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques sur d'anciens sites de cokeries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeannee, N.

    2001-05-15

    Estimating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in soil at former industrial sites poses several practical problems on account of the properties of the contaminants and the history of site: 1)collection and preparation of samples from highly heterogeneous material, 2) high short scale variability, particularly in presence of backfill, 3) highly contrasted grades making the vario-gram inference complicated. The sampling strategy generally adopted for contaminated sites is based on the historical information. Systematic sampling recommended for geostatistical estimation is often considered to be excessive and unnecessary. Two former coking plants are used as test cases for comparing several geostatistical methods for estimating (i) in situ concentrations and (ii) the probability that they are above a pollution threshold. Several practical and methodological questions are considered: 1) the properties of various estimators of the experimental vario-gram and the validity of the results; 2) the use of soft data, such as historical information, organoleptic observations and semi-quantitative methods, with a view to improve the precision of the estimates; 3) the comparison of standard sampling strategies, taking into account vertical repartition of grades and the history of the site. Multiple analyses of the same sample give an approximation of the sampling error. Short scale sampling shows the difficulty of selecting soils in the absence of a spatial structure. Sensitivity studies are carried out to assess how densely sampled soft data can improve estimates. By using mainly existing models, this work aims at giving practical recommendations for the characterization of soil pollution. (author)

  13. Multimedia approach to estimating target cleanup levels for soils at hazardous waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, S.T.

    1990-04-01

    Contaminated soils at hazardous and nuclear waste sites pose a potential threat to human health via transport through environmental media and subsequent human intake. To minimize health risks, it is necessary to identify those risks and ensure that appropriate actions are taken to protect public health. The regulatory process may typically include identification of target cleanup levels and evaluation of the effectiveness of remedial alternatives and the corresponding reduction in risks at a site. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommends that exposure assessments be combined with toxicity information to quantify the health risk posed by a specific site. This recommendation then forms the basis for establishing target cleanup levels. An exposure assessment must first identify the chemical concentration in a specific medium (soil, water, air, or food), estimate the exposure potential based on human intake from that media, and then combined with health criteria to estimate the upperbound health risks for noncarcinogens and carcinogens. Estimation of target cleanup levels involves the use of these same principles but can occur in reverse order. The procedure starts from establishing a permissible health effect level and ends with an estimated target cleanup level through an exposure assessment process. 17 refs

  14. Assessing Soil Organic C Stability at the Continental Scale: An Analysis of Soil C and Radiocarbon Profiles Across the NEON Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, K. A.; Gallo, A.; Hatten, J. A.; Swanston, C.; McKnight, D. M.; Strahm, B. D.; Sanclements, M.

    2017-12-01

    Soil carbon stocks have become recognized as increasingly important in the context of climate change and global C cycle modeling. As modelers seek to identify key parameters affecting the size and stability of belowground C stocks, attention has been drawn to the mineral matrix and the soil physiochemical factors influenced by it. Though clay content has often been utilized as a convenient and key explanatory variable for soil C dynamics, its utility has recently come under scrutiny as new paradigms of soil organic matter stabilization have been developed. We utilized soil cores from a range of National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) experimental plots to examine the influence of physicochemical parameters on soil C stocks and turnover, and their relative importance in comparison to climatic variables. Soils were cored at NEON sites, sampled by genetic horizon, and density separated into light fractions (particulate organics neither occluded within aggregates nor associated with mineral surfaces), occluded fractions (particulate organics occluded within aggregates), and heavy fractions (organics associated with mineral surfaces). Bulk soils and density fractions were measured for % C and radiocarbon abundance (as a measure of C stability). Carbon and radiocarbon abundances were examined among fractions and in the context of climatic variables (temperature, precipitation, elevation) and soil physiochemical variables (% clay and pH). No direct relationships between temperature and soil C or radiocarbon abundances were found. As a whole, soil radiocarbon abundance in density fractions decreased in the order of light>heavy>occluded, highlighting the importance of both surface sorption and aggregation to the preservation of organics. Radiocarbon abundance was correlated with pH, with variance also grouping by dominate vegetation type. Soil order was also identified as an important proxy variable for C and radiocarbon abundance. Preliminary results suggest that

  15. Long term effects of wet site timber harvesting and site preparation on soil properties and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) productivity in the lower Atlantic Coastal Plain

    OpenAIRE

    Neaves III, Charles Mitchell

    2017-01-01

    Short term studies have suggested that ground based timber harvesting on wet sites can alter soil properties and inhibit early survival and growth of seedlings. Persistence of such negative effects may translate to losses in forest productivity over a rotation. During the fall and winter of 1989, numerous salvage logging operations were conducted during high soil moisture conditions on wet pine flats in the lower coastal plain of South Carolina following Hurricane Hugo. A long-term experim...

  16. Soil-to-plant transfer factors of stable elements and naturally occurring radionuclides. (1) Upland field crops collected in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shigeo; Tagami, Keiko; Hirai, Ikuko

    2007-01-01

    In long-term dose assessment models for radioactive waste disposal, an important exposure pathway to humans is via ingestion of contaminated foods. In order to obtain soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs) of radionuclides under equilibrium conditions, naturally existing elements were measured as analogues of radionuclides. Crops grown in upland fields and associated soil samples were collected from 62 sampling sites throughout Japan. The total concentrations of 52 elements in the crops and 54 elements in the soil samples were measured. The TFs of 40 elements (Li, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Mo, Cd, Sn, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Pb, Th and U) were calculated on a dry weight basis. Among all the TF data, K showed the highest TF with a geometric mean (GM) of 2.1, followed by P. The GMs of TFs for rare earth elements, Th and U were on the order of 10 -4 . Most of the TF-GMs for green vegetables were higher than GMs of all crops for the elements. The obtained TFs of some elements for green vegetables and potatoes were compared with those in the technical report series-364 (TRS-364) compiled by IAEA in 1994. The TF-GMs were usually lower than the best estimates (expected values) listed in TRS-364; however, the GMs of TF for La and TF for Th observed for potatoes were slightly higher than the expected values. (author)

  17. Soil chemistry and pollution study of a closed landfill site at Ampar Tenang, Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Adnan, Siti Nur Syahirah Binti; Yusoff, Sumiani; Piaw, Chua Yan

    2013-06-01

    A total of 20 landfills are located in State of Selangor, Malaysia. This includes the Ampar Tenang landfill site, which was closed on 26 January 2010. It was reported that the landfill has been upgraded to a level I type of sanitary classification. However, the dumpsite area is not being covered according to the classification. In addition, municipal solid waste was dumped directly on top of the unlined natural alluvium formation. This does not only contaminate surface and subsurface soils, but also initiates the potential risk of groundwater pollution. Based on previous studies, the Ampar Tenang soil has been proven to no longer be capable of preventing pollution migration. In this study, metal concentrations of soil samples up to 30 m depth were analyzed based on statistical analysis. It is very significant because research of this type has not been carried out before. The subsurface soils were significantly polluted by arsenic (As), lead (Pb), iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and aluminium (Al). As and Pb exceeded the safe limit values of 5.90 mg/kg and 31.00 mg/kg, respectively, based on Provincial Sediment Quality Guidelines for Metals and the Interim Sediment Quality Values. Furthermore, only Cu concentrations showed a significantly decreasing trend with increasing depth. Most metals were found on clay-type soils based on the cluster analysis method. Moreover, the analysis also differentiates two clusters: cluster I-Pb, As, zinc, Cu, manganese, calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium and Fe; cluster II-Al. Different clustering may suggest a different contamination source of metals.

  18. Tree Sampling as a Method to Assess Vapor Intrusion Potential at a Site Characterized by VOC-Contaminated Groundwater and Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jordan L; Limmer, Matthew A; Samaranayake, V A; Schumacher, John G; Burken, Joel G

    2017-09-19

    Vapor intrusion (VI) by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the built environment presents a threat to human health. Traditional VI assessments are often time-, cost-, and labor-intensive; whereas traditional subsurface methods sample a relatively small volume in the subsurface and are difficult to collect within and near structures. Trees could provide a similar subsurface sample where roots act as the "sampler' and are already onsite. Regression models were developed to assess the relation between PCE concentrations in over 500 tree-core samples with PCE concentrations in over 50 groundwater and 1000 soil samples collected from a tetrachloroethylene- (PCE-) contaminated Superfund site and analyzed using gas chromatography. Results indicate that in planta concentrations are significantly and positively related to PCE concentrations in groundwater samples collected at depths less than 20 m (adjusted R 2 values greater than 0.80) and in soil samples (adjusted R 2 values greater than 0.90). Results indicate that a 30 cm diameter tree characterizes soil concentrations at depths less than 6 m over an area of 700-1600 m 2 , the volume of a typical basement. These findings indicate that tree sampling may be an appropriate method to detect contamination at shallow depths at sites with VI.

  19. Tree sampling as a method to assess vapor intrusion potential at a site characterized by VOC-contaminated groundwater and soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jordan L.; Limmer, Matthew A.; Samaranayake, V. A.; Schumacher, John G.; Burken, Joel G.

    2017-01-01

    Vapor intrusion (VI) by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the built environment presents a threat to human health. Traditional VI assessments are often time-, cost-, and labor-intensive; whereas traditional subsurface methods sample a relatively small volume in the subsurface and are difficult to collect within and near structures. Trees could provide a similar subsurface sample where roots act as the “sampler’ and are already onsite. Regression models were developed to assess the relation between PCE concentrations in over 500 tree-core samples with PCE concentrations in over 50 groundwater and 1000 soil samples collected from a tetrachloroethylene- (PCE-) contaminated Superfund site and analyzed using gas chromatography. Results indicate that in planta concentrations are significantly and positively related to PCE concentrations in groundwater samples collected at depths less than 20 m (adjusted R2 values greater than 0.80) and in soil samples (adjusted R2 values greater than 0.90). Results indicate that a 30 cm diameter tree characterizes soil concentrations at depths less than 6 m over an area of 700–1600 m2, the volume of a typical basement. These findings indicate that tree sampling may be an appropriate method to detect contamination at shallow depths at sites with VI.

  20. On-site radioactive soil contamination at the Andreeva Bay shore technical base, Northwest Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reistad, O; Dowdall, M; Selnaes, Ø G; Standring, W J F; Hustveit, S; Steenhuisen, F; Sørlie, A

    2008-07-01

    The radioactive waste (RAW) storage site at Andreeva Bay in the Russian Northwest has experienced radioactive contamination both as a result of activities carried out at the site and due to incidents that have occurred there in the past such as accidental releases of radioactive materials. The site is an interesting case study for decommissioning due to the extremely large amounts of radioactivity present at the site and the conditions under which it is stored; very little has been previously published in the scientific literature about this site. This paper complements the paper describing dose rates at Andreeva Bay which is published in this issue of Journal of Environmental Radioactivity by the same authors. This study presents new data related to the activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (90)Sr in surface soils and measurements of alpha- and beta-particle fluxes taken at different areas around the site. Limited data on 60Co is also presented. The results of the study indicate that the main areas of site contamination are associated with the former spent nuclear fuel storage facility at Building 5, due to accidental discharges which began in 1982. Substantial contamination is also observed at the solid radioactive waste storage facilities, probably due to the ingress of water into these facilities. More than 240 samples were measured: maximum contamination levels were 1 x 10(6)Bq/kg (137)Cs (mean value 4.1 x 10(5)Bq/kg) and 4 x 10(6)Bq/kg (90)Sr (mean value 1.2 x1 0(5)Bq/kg). Localised patches of alpha and beta contamination were also observed throughout the site.

  1. Instructions for the use of the methodological tools applicable to polluted sites and soils; Mode d'emploi des outils methodologiques applicables aux sites et sols pollues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The French policy in the domain of polluted sites and soils is based on a limited number of principles which are: the prevention of future pollutions, the identification of all possible potential risks, a well-suited treatment process which depends on the effective environmental impact and on the intended use of the site. This document aims at identifying the main questions raised by a given situation. It proposed useful methodological tools for the construction of answers to the problems encountered: 1 - general approach (main guidelines for the different steps of the management of a polluted site, different possible approaches); 2 - examples of application (industrial site in use, closing down of an industrial site, accidental situation (recent pollution), fortuitous discovery of a pollution on a site, pollutions with limited surface extension, site involved in a land transaction, polluted site with a sensible use, industrial waste lands). (J.S.)

  2. A cooperative NRC/CEA research project on earthquake ground motion on soil sites: overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, A.J.; Mohammadioun, B.

    1989-10-01

    This paper provides an overview of a multi-phase experiment being conducted jointly by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique. The objective of the experiment is to collect a comprehensive set of data on the propagation of earthquake ground motions vertically through a shallow soil column (on the order of several tens of meters). The data will be used to validate several of the available engineering computer codes for modeling earthquake ground motion. The data set will also be used to develop an improved understanding of the earthquake source function and the potential for non-linear effects controlling the propagation through the shallow soil column

  3. Comparative analysis of on site bioremediation: Alternatives for petroleum contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, P.E.; Tremaine, S.C.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental Protection Systems, Inc. has developed a low maintenance, highly effective method to remediate petroleum and hazardous waste contamination of soils. This method combines the use of a slow release chemical oxygen source, along with nutrient amendments for the degradation of contaminants that require oxygen as a terminal electron acceptor. This method has been used successfully in bench and field experiments on creosote. The authors have performed laboratory experiments on diesel fuel. This paper describes rapid (site closure in 2.5 months in cold weather) field degradation of relatively freshly spilled diesel fuel using native bacteria and tailored nutrient amendments

  4. Review of soil moisture flux studies at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, S.W.

    1987-04-01

    This report documents almost 30 years of research on soil moisture movement and recharge at the Department of Energy, Nevada Test Site. Although data is scarce, three distinct topographic zones are represented: alluvial valleys, inundated terrains, and upland terrain. Recharge in alluvial valleys was found to be very small or negligible. Ponded areas such as playas and subsidence craters showed significant amounts of recharge. Data in the upland terrains is very scarce but one area, Rainier Mesa, shows active recharge of up to three percent of the annual average precipitation in fractured volcanic tuff. The report summarizes the results

  5. Fuelwood quality of promising tree species for alkaline soil sites in relation to tree age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, V.L.; Behl, H.M. [National Botanical Research Inst., Lucknow (India). Biomass Research Center

    1996-06-01

    The fuelwood quality of five tree species suitable for afforestation of alkaline soil sites was investigated in relation to tree age for establishing harvest rotation cycles. Prosopis juliflora and Acacia nilotica were found to be the most suitable species for short rotation fuel wood forestry programmes because of their high wood density, biomass yield, low ash and moisture content, and good heat of combustion at the juvenile stage. The performance of other species like Acacia auriculiformis, Terminalia arjuna and Sesbania formosa is discussed. (author)

  6. Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification Treatability Study of Mercury Contaminated Soil from the Y-12 Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalb P.; Milian, L.; Yim, S. P.

    2012-11-30

    As a result of past operations, the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Plant) has extensive mercury-contamination in building structures, soils, storm sewer sediments, and stream sediments, which are a source of pollution to the local ecosystem. Because of mercury’s toxicity and potential impacts on human health and the environment, DOE continues to investigate and implement projects to support the remediation of the Y-12 site.URS and #9122;CH2M Oak Ridge LLC (UCOR) under its prime contract with DOE has cleanup responsibilities on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation and is investigating potential mercury-contaminated soil treatment technologies through an agreement with Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) Y-12, the Y-12 operating contractor to DOE. As part of its investigations, UCOR has subcontracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to conduct laboratory-scale studies evaluating the applicability of the Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process using surrogate and actual mixed waste Y-12 soils containing mercury (Hg) at 135, 2,000, and 10,000 ppm.SPSS uses a thermoplastic sulfur binder to convert Hg to stable mercury sulfide (HgS) and solidifies the chemically stable product in a monolithic solid final waste form to reduce dispersion and permeability. Formulations containing 40 – 60 dry wt% Y-12 soil were fabricated and samples were prepared in triplicate for Environmental Protection Agency Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing by an independent laboratory. Those containing 50 and 60 wt% soil easily met the study criteria for maximum allowable Hg concentrations (47 and 1 ppb, respectively compared with the TCLP limit of 200 ppb Hg). The lowest waste loading of 40 wt% yielded TCLP Hg concentrations slightly higher (240 ppb) than the allowable limit. Since the Y-12 soil tended to form clumps, the improved leaching at higher waste loadings was probably due to reduction in particle size

  7. Soils, surficial geology, and geomorphology of the Bear Creek Valley Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration Program site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lietzke, D.A.; Lee, S.Y.; Lambert, R.E.

    1988-04-01

    An intensive soil survey was conducted on the proposed Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration Program site (LLWDDD) in Bear Creek Valley. Soils on the site were related to the underlying residuum and to the surficial colluvium and alluvium. Within any particular geologic formation, soils were subdivided based mostly on the degree of weathering, as reflected by saprolite weathering and morphologic features of the soils. Degree of weathering was related both to slope shape and gradient and to the joint-fracture system. Erosion classes were also used to make further subdivisions of any particular soil. Deep pits were dug in each of the major Conasauga Group formations (Pumpkin Valley, Rogersville, Maryville, and Nolichucky) for soil and saprolite characterization. Because of the widespread presence of alluvium and colluvium, which are potential sources of fill and final cover material, pits and trenches were dug to characterize the properties of these soils and to try to understand the past geomorphic history of the site. The results of the soil survey investigation indicated that the deeply weathered Pumpkin Valley residuum has good potential for the construction of tumuli or other types of belowground or aboveground burial of prepackaged compacted waste. 11 refs., 30 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Carbon storage in a heavy clay soil landfill site after biosolid application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolan, N.S., E-mail: Nanthi.Bolan@unisa.edu.au [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation (CERAR), University of South Australia, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contaminants Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), University of South Australia, SA 5095 (Australia); Kunhikrishnan, A. [Chemical Safety Division, Department of Agro-Food Safety, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 441-707 (Korea, Republic of); Naidu, R. [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation (CERAR), University of South Australia, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contaminants Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), University of South Australia, SA 5095 (Australia)

    2013-11-01

    Applying organic amendments including biosolids and composts to agricultural land could increase carbon (C) storage in soils and contribute significantly to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Although a number of studies have examined the potential value of biosolids as a soil conditioner and nutrient source, there has been only limited work on the impact of biosolid application on C sequestration in soils. The objective of this study was to examine the potential value of biosolids in C sequestration in soils. Two types of experiments were conducted to examine the effect of biosolid application on C sequestration. In the first laboratory incubation experiment, the rate of decomposition of a range of biosolid samples was compared with other organic amendments including composts and biochars. In the second field experiment, the effect of biosolids on the growth of two bioenergy crops, Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) and Helianthus annuus (sunflower) on a landfill site was examined in relation to biomass production and C sequestration. The rate of decomposition varied amongst the organic amendments, and followed: composts > biosolids > biochar. There was a hundred fold difference in the rate of decomposition between biochar and other organic amendments. The rate of decomposition of biosolids decreased with increasing iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) contents of biosolids. Biosolid application increased the dry matter yield of both plant species (by 2–2.5 fold), thereby increasing the biomass C input to soils. The rate of net C sequestration resulting from biosolid application (Mg C ha{sup −1} yr{sup −1} Mg{sup −1} biosolids) was higher for mustard (0.103) than sunflower (0.087). Biosolid application is likely to result in a higher level of C sequestration when compared to other management strategies including fertilizer application and conservation tillage, which is attributed to increased microbial biomass, and Fe and Al oxide-induced immobilization of C

  9. Carbon storage in a heavy clay soil landfill site after biosolid application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolan, N.S.; Kunhikrishnan, A.; Naidu, R.

    2013-01-01

    Applying organic amendments including biosolids and composts to agricultural land could increase carbon (C) storage in soils and contribute significantly to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Although a number of studies have examined the potential value of biosolids as a soil conditioner and nutrient source, there has been only limited work on the impact of biosolid application on C sequestration in soils. The objective of this study was to examine the potential value of biosolids in C sequestration in soils. Two types of experiments were conducted to examine the effect of biosolid application on C sequestration. In the first laboratory incubation experiment, the rate of decomposition of a range of biosolid samples was compared with other organic amendments including composts and biochars. In the second field experiment, the effect of biosolids on the growth of two bioenergy crops, Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) and Helianthus annuus (sunflower) on a landfill site was examined in relation to biomass production and C sequestration. The rate of decomposition varied amongst the organic amendments, and followed: composts > biosolids > biochar. There was a hundred fold difference in the rate of decomposition between biochar and other organic amendments. The rate of decomposition of biosolids decreased with increasing iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) contents of biosolids. Biosolid application increased the dry matter yield of both plant species (by 2–2.5 fold), thereby increasing the biomass C input to soils. The rate of net C sequestration resulting from biosolid application (Mg C ha −1 yr −1 Mg −1 biosolids) was higher for mustard (0.103) than sunflower (0.087). Biosolid application is likely to result in a higher level of C sequestration when compared to other management strategies including fertilizer application and conservation tillage, which is attributed to increased microbial biomass, and Fe and Al oxide-induced immobilization of C. - Graphical

  10. Distribution coefficients of different soil types at Olkiluoto repository site and its surroundings, southwestern Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahdenperae, Anne-Maj [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Laulukuja 4, FI-00420 Helsinki (Finland); Ikonen, Ari T.K. [Environmental Research and Assessment EnviroCase, Ltd., Hallituskatu 1 D 4, 28100 Pori (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    In Finland, the Olkiluoto Island on the western coast has been selected as a repository site for the spent nuclear fuel. Due to shallow sea areas around the island, the post-glacial crustal rebound (around 6 mm/y) is changing the landscape significantly; during the next thousands of years new soil types are emerging, the present bays will narrow and form future lakes and mires assumedly similar to those farther inland at present. The effects of terrain development are important in long-term safety assessments for the repository, especially in the biosphere assessments addressing radiation exposure of people and biota in scenarios of radionuclide releases. 'In situ' distribution coefficients, K{sub d} values are used to indicate the relevant mobility of radionuclides of concern from nuclear waste. These radionuclides have very long half-lives and long interaction times with soils, ranging from centuries to millennia. By measuring the desorption K{sub d} values of the indigenous stable elements (Ag, Cl, Cs, I, Mo, Nb, Ni, Se and Sr) from field moist samples are a valid description of slow retention processes. The 'in situ' K{sub d} desorption values are calculated for humus, peat and different mineral soil samples taken from the Olkiluoto Island and the Reference Area used as an analogue of the future terrain. The solids are extracted alternatively by HNO{sub 3}-HF and NH{sub 4}Ac (pH 4.5). The K{sub d} values are highly dependent on environmental factors, including but not limited to pH, soil type, soil horizon, soil body, texture, element chemical form, organic matter, carbon content and biological activity. This is discussed in the contribution; e.g., for several elements pH and K{sub d} values correlate - the finer the soil or sediment, the higher the K{sub d} values - and humus and peat samples have a clear correlation with the organic matter and carbon contents. The contribution also compares the 'in situ' K{sub d} values to

  11. Methane mass balance at three landfill sites: What is the efficiency of capture by gas collection systems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spokas, K.; Bogner, J.; Chanton, J.P.; Morcet, M.; Aran, C.; Graff, C.; Golvan, Y. Moreau-Le; Hebe, I.

    2006-01-01

    Many developed countries have targeted landfill methane recovery among greenhouse gas mitigation strategies, since methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. Major questions remain with respect to actual methane production rates in field settings and the relative mass of methane that is recovered, emitted, oxidized by methanotrophic bacteria, laterally migrated, or temporarily stored within the landfill volume. This paper presents the results of extensive field campaigns at three landfill sites to elucidate the total methane balance and provide field measurements to quantify these pathways. We assessed the overall methane mass balance in field cells with a variety of designs, cover materials, and gas management strategies. Sites included different cell configurations, including temporary clay cover, final clay cover, geosynthetic clay liners, and geomembrane composite covers, and cells with and without gas collection systems. Methane emission rates ranged from -2.2 to >10,000 mg CH 4 m -2 d -1 . Total methane oxidation rates ranged from 4% to 50% of the methane flux through the cover at sites with positive emissions. Oxidation of atmospheric methane was occurring in vegetated soils above a geomembrane. The results of these studies were used as the basis for guidelines by the French environment agency (ADEME) for default values for percent recovery: 35% for an operating cell with an active landfill gas (LFG) recovery system, 65% for a temporary covered cell with an active LFG recovery system, 85% for a cell with clay final cover and active LFG recovery, and 90% for a cell with a geomembrane final cover and active LFG recovery

  12. Mobility of radionuclides and trace elements in soil from legacy NORM and undisturbed naturally 232Th-rich sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrdakovic Popic, Jelena; Meland, Sondre; Salbu, Brit; Skipperud, Lindis

    2014-05-01

    Investigation of radionuclides (232Th and 238U) and trace elements (Cr, As and Pb) in soil from two legacy NORM (former mining sites) and one undisturbed naturally 232Th-rich site was conducted as a part of the ongoing environmental impact assessment in the Fen Complex area (Norway). The major objectives were to determine the radionuclide and trace element distribution and mobility in soils as well as to analyze possible differences between legacy NORM and surrounding undisturbed naturally 232Th-rich soils. Inhomogeneous soil distribution of radionuclides and trace elements was observed for each of the investigated sites. The concentration of 232Th was high (up to 1685 mg kg(-1), i.e., ∼7000 Bq kg(-1)) and exceeded the screening value for the radioactive waste material in Norway (1 Bq g(-1)). Based on the sequential extraction results, the majority of 232Th and trace elements were rather inert, irreversibly bound to soil. Uranium was found to be potentially more mobile, as it was associated with pH-sensitive soil phases, redox-sensitive amorphous soil phases and soil organic compounds. Comparison of the sequential extraction datasets from the three investigated sites revealed increased mobility of all analyzed elements at the legacy NORM sites in comparison with the undisturbed 232Th-rich site. Similarly, the distribution coefficients Kd (232Th) and Kd (238U) suggested elevated dissolution, mobility and transportation at the legacy NORM sites, especially at the decommissioned Nb-mining site (346 and 100 L kg(-1) for 232Th and 238U, respectively), while the higher sorption of radionuclides was demonstrated at the undisturbed 232Th-rich site (10,672 and 506 L kg(-1) for 232Th and 238U, respectively). In general, although the concentration ranges of radionuclides and trace elements were similarly wide both at the legacy NORM and at the undisturbed 232Th-rich sites, the results of soil sequential extractions together with Kd values supported the expected differences

  13. Soil Fertility in relation to Landscape Position and Land Use/Cover Types: A Case Study of the Lake Kivu Pilot Learning Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majaliwa Mwanjalolo Jackson-Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the change and distribution of land-uses/covers along the landscape, and evaluated the nutrient status of the top soil layer in the Lake Kivu Pilot Learning Site (LKPLS benchmarked micro-catchments. Soil physical and chemical properties were quantified using triplicate soil samples collected from each land-use/cover at two depths (0–15 and 15–30 cm in three LK PLS Learning Innovation Platform (IP sites (Bufundi in Uganda, Mupfuni-Shanga in D.R. Congo, Gataraga in Rwanda. Small scale agriculture has increased in all the benchmarked micro-catchments at the expense of other land-uses/covers. In the settlement areas land-use/cover distribution along the landscape varied across sites and countries; the major one being eucalyptus woodlots, wetland, and perennials and annuals crops in Bufundi; annuals and perennials crops in Mupfuni-Shanga; and annuals crops in Gataraga. Perennial crops tended to occur at the footslope and valley bottoms, while the annuals occurred at the upper backslopes and summits. Available P and K were relatively higher and C/N ratio (7.28 was the lowest in Mupfuni Shanga. Annual crops had the lowest available P and N across site (P<0.05. The key nutrients N, P and K were below the critical values for plant growth for Bufundi.

  14. Uptake of americium-241 by plants from contaminated Chernobyl exclusive zone test site soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashydov, N.M.

    2002-01-01

    Americium-241 was found to accumulate in soils and biological objects of the environment. Its concentration has increased many times after the Chernobyl disaster and can be expected to increase about 40 times in the future. This research concentrated on the contaminated exclusive Chernobyl zone polluted by trace radionuclides, their behavior and accumulation by various plant species. Special attention is devoted to the bioavailability of 241 Am to the plants Galium rivale, G. tinctorium, G. aparine, G. intermedium, Berteroa incana, Artemisia absinthium, A. vulgaris, Centaurea borysthenica, C. arenaria, Cirsium arvense, Succissa pratensis, Solidago virgaurea, Linaria vulgaris, Lepidium ruderale, Stenactis annua, Veronica maxima, Verbascum lychnitis, Euphorbia cyparissias, Genista tinctoria, Erigeron canadensis, Oenothera biennis, Betula pendula and Quercus robur, which were collected from the Chernobyl, Kopachi, and Yanov districts. The plant samples of Oenothera biennis, Betula pendula and Quercus robur were collected from the Yanov district, where the soil contamination by 241 Am and 137 Cs was at the level of 660 and 27 MBq/m 2 , respectively. Gamma spectroscopy and radiochemical methods were used to estimate the activity concentration of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu, 241 Am. The radionuclides were measured in the dry green mass of the plant samples and in the dry soils. The contamination of the Oenothera biennis, Betula pendula and Quercus robur samples by 137 Cs was (5.8±1,5)x10 6 , (7.4±1.1)x10 5 , and (2.6±0.2)x10 6 Bq/kg dry mass, respectively, and contamination by 241 Am was 47±5, 45±3 and 3.2±0.2 Bq/kg, respectively. The soil-to-plant transfer ratio for 137 Cs ranged lay within the interval of 0.2 to 0.03 Bq/kg : Bq/m 2 , the the transfer ratio for 241 Am did not exceed 7x10 -5 Bq/kg : Bq/m 2 . The coefficient of the relative contents of the 241 Am/ 239+240 Pu radionuclides in the various plant samples varied from 3.2 to 8.3, while for soil from

  15. Phytoextraction and phytostabilization potential of plants grown in the vicinity of heavy metal-contaminated soils: a case study at an industrial town site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorestani, B; Yousefi, N; Cheraghi, M; Farmany, A

    2013-12-01

    With the development of urbanization and industrialization, soils have become increasingly polluted by heavy metals. Phytoremediation, an emerging cost-effective, nonintrusive, and aesthetically pleasing technology that uses the remarkable ability of plants to concentrate elements, can be potentially used to remediate metal-contaminated sites. In this research, two processes of phytoremediation (phytoextraction and phytostabilization) were surveyed in some plant species around an industrial town in the Hamedan Province in the central-western part of Iran. To this purpose, shoots and roots of the seven plant species and the associated soil samples were collected and analyzed by measuring Pb, Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn concentrations using ICP-AES and then calculating the biological absorption coefficient, bioconcentration factor, and translocation factor parameters for each element. The obtained results showed that among the collected plants, Salsola soda is the most effective species for phytoextraction and phytostabilization and Cirsium arvense has the potential for phytostabilization of the measured heavy metals.

  16. Factors influencing U(VI adsorption onto soil from a candidate very low level radioactive waste disposal site in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuo Rui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties of soil at disposal sites are very important for geological disposal of very low level radioactive waste in terms of U(VI. In this study, soil from a candidate very low level radioactive waste disposal site in China was evaluated for its capacity on uranium sorption. Specifically, the equilibrium time, initial concentration, soil particle, pH, temperature, and carbonate were evaluated. The results indicated that after 15-20 days of sorption, the Kd value fluctuated and stabilized at 355-360 mL/g. The adsorptive capacity of uranium was increased as the initial uranium concentration increased, while it decreased as the soil particle size increased. The pH value played an important role in the U(VI sorption onto soil, especially under alkaline conditions, and had a great effect on the sorption capacity of soil for uranium. Moreover, the presence of carbonate decreased the sorption of U(VI onto soil because of the role of the strong complexation of carbonate with U(VI in the groundwater. Overall, this study assessed the behavior of U(VI sorption onto natural soil, which would be an important factor in the geological barrier of the repository, has contribution on mastering the characteristic of the adsorption of uranium in the particular soil media for the process of very low level radioactive waste disposal.

  17. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 600-243 Petroleum-Contaminated Soil Bioremediation Pad. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-033

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capron, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The 600-243 waste site consisted of a bioremediation pad for petroleum-contaminated soils resulting from the 1100 Area Underground Storage Tank (UST) upgrades in 1994. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  18. Soil and water pollution studies from a waste site deposit in Bantama, Kumasi, Ghana using magnetic susceptibility measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadi, M.; Preko, K.; Ashia, T.

    2012-01-01

    The magnetic susceptibility of soil and water samples from around the Uadara barracks waste site deposit in Bantama, a suburb of Kumasi was measured with the aim of investigating the potential threat of pollution to the soil, streams, fish ponds and other water sources at the site around Armed Forces Senior High School campus which shares the same premises with the barracks. The studied soil samples were picked from the near surface (∼10 cm depth) along profiles taken from the waste site towards the stream and the ponds. Again, water samples were picked along the stream and from ten (10) ponds aligned along the stream. Laboratory measurements of the magnetic susceptibility were done using the Bartington MS2 metre and the MS2B dual frequency sensor for the soil samples, and the MS2G sensor for the water samples. The soil samples from the site registered an average magnetic susceptibility of 180. 04 x 10 -5 SI whereas the water samples recorded an average of -2.3 x 10 -6 SI showing a significant increment in comparison with the standard water magnetic susceptibility of -9.04 x 10 -6 SI. Thus, not withstand the lithology of the area studied, the presence of heavy metals and other chemical waste materials form the Uadara barracks garbage deposit site were found to greatly pollute the soil and particularly the water bodies around the Armed Forces Senior High School. (au)

  19. Unique issues concerning ''placement'' vs ''movement'' of contaminated soils at ORNL's CERCLA sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greer, J.K. Jr.; Schrof, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    At Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which is owned and operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE), there are several areas where hazardous wastes and/or radioactive materials have been placed in shallow land burial trenches or ''auger'' holes for disposal. Since Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) has been placed on the National Priority List (NPL) by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) applies to waste disposal sites at ORNL. Under CERCLA, the RCRA regulations, pertaining to the LDRs, apply to CERCLA activities if the regulations are deemed ''applicable or relevant and appropriate'' (ARARS) by the lead agency or by the EPA. This report discusses the following issue: Under what conditions will contaminated soil and debris generated at a Superfund site be subject to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) land disposal restrictions (LDRs) treatment standards?

  20. A multi-technique phytoremediation approach to purify metals contaminated soil from e-waste recycling site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jie; Cai, Limei; Qi, Shihua; Wu, Jian; Sophie Gu, Xiaowen

    2017-12-15

    Multiple techniques for soil decontamination were combined to enhance the phytoremediation efficiency of Eucalyptus globulese and alleviate the corresponding environmental risks. The approach constituted of chelating agent using, electrokinetic remediation, plant hormone foliar application and phytoremediation was designed to remediate multi-metal contaminated soils from a notorious e-waste recycling town. The decontamination ability of E. globulese increased from 1.35, 58.47 and 119.18 mg per plant for Cd, Pb and Cu in planting controls to 7.57, 198.68 and 174.34 mg per plant in individual EDTA treatments, respectively, but simultaneously, 0.9-11.5 times more metals leached from chelator treatments relative to controls. Low (2 V) and moderate (4 V) voltage electric fields provoked the growth of the species while high voltage (10 V) had an opposite effect and metal concentrations of the plants elevated with the increment of voltage. Volumes of the leachate decreased from 1224 to 134 mL with voltage increasing from 0 to 10 V due to electroosmosis and electrolysis. Comparing with individual phytoremediation, foliar cytokinin treatments produced 56% more biomass and intercepted 2.5 times more leachate attributed to the enhanced transpiration rate. The synergistic combination of the individuals resulted in the most biomass production and metal accumulation of the species under the stress condition relative to other methods. Time required for the multi-technique approach to decontaminate Cd, Pb and Cu from soil was 2.1-10.4 times less than individual chelator addition, electric field application or plant hormone utilization. It's especially important that nearly no leachate (60 mL in total) was collected from the multi-technique system. This approach is a suitable method to remediate metal polluted site considering its decontamination efficiency and associated environmental negligible risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Potential of bioleaching of arsenic from ash soils from site Zemianske Kostolany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slebodnikova, Z.; Petkova, K.; Molnarova, M.

    2014-01-01

    The essence of this work is to study bioleaching of potentially toxic elements, arsenic, using the filamentous fungus Asperillus niger. As a model locality was chosen Zemianske Kosto.any, which represents the heart of coal mining in Slovakia. Species A. niger was isolated from anthropogenic sediments with a high content of potentially toxic elements, especially arsenic. Filamentous fungus A. niger was put on soil samples from the site model. The aim of this work is to evaluate the potential of arsenic bioleaching using the three different soil samples for analysis (1 g, 10 g and 100 g). It was found that the most efficient leaching of arsenic was achieved with furnish at 1 g of the substrate. The highest portion of arsenic was released into the medium, values range from 131.75 μg.dm -3 to 1517.55 μg.dm -3 . At the furnish 10 g of soil were released lower amounts, from 69.77 μg.dm -3 to 553.45 μg.dm -3 . Lowest bioleaching efficiency was achieved with the furnish 100 g, values are from 38.02 μg.dm -3 to 254.07 μg.dm -3 . (authors)

  2. Distribution and characterization of radionuclides in soils from Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Tamura, T.

    1985-01-01

    Selected physicochemical properties of plutonium-bearing radioactive particles and their association with host soils from the Nevada Test Site (NTS) were studied to aid in the environmental assessment of the radionuclides in the area and to provide technological concepts for potential cleanup operations. The dominant radioactive particles were amorphous to X-ray diffraction, very fragile by compression tests, and extremely porous with particle density 3 . The physical properties of the particles suggest that they can be broken to smaller respirable sizes by saltation during wind erosion and that their unique physical properties may be useful for mechanically separating them from the nonradioactive soil particles. Experimental results revealed that more than 90% of the total radioactivity was recovered in about 25% of the total sample weight through density separation techniques and in about 18% of the total weight by a grinding-sieving process. Radioactive particles might therefore be removed from the contaminated soil by a controlled vacuum collector, density separation, grinding-sieving separation, or a combination of these techniques on the basis of the density and compressibility differences between radioactive and nonradioactive particles. 21 references, 5 figures, 5 tables

  3. Pollution assessment and source apportionment of heavy metals in contaminated site soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hongbo; Ma, Yan

    2018-03-01

    Pollution characteristics of heavy metals in soil were analyzed with a typical contaminated site as the case area. The pollution degree of the element was evaluated by indexes of geoaccumulation (Igeo). The potential ecological risk of heavy metals was assessed with potential ecological risk index model. Principal component analysis (PCA) model was simultaneously carried out to identify the main sources of heavy metals in topsoils. The results indicated that: 1. Mean values of 11 kinds of metals in topsoils were greater than respective soil background values, following the order: Zn>Pb>V>Cr>Cu>Ni>Co>As>Sb>Cd>Hg. Heavy metals with a certain accumulation in the research area were significantly affected by external factors. 2. Igeo results showed that Cd and Zn reached strongly polluted degree, while Pb with moderately to strongly polluted, Sb and Hg with moderately polluted, Cu, Co, Ni and Cr with unpolluted to moderately polluted, V and As with un-polluted. 3. Potential ecological risk assessment showed the degree of ecological risk with Cd at very high risk, Hg at high risk, Pb at moderate risk and others at low risk. The comprehensive risk of all the metals was very high. 4. PCA got three main sources with contributions, including industrial activities (44.18%), traffic and burning dust (26.68%) and soil parent materials (12.20%).

  4. Spectroscopic analysis of soil metal contamination around a derelict mine site in the Blue Mountains, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsoddini, A.; Raval, S.; Taplin, R.

    2014-09-01

    Abandoned mine sites pose the potential threat of the heavy metal pollution spread through streams and via runoff leading to contamination of soil and water in their surrounding areas. Regular monitoring of these areas is critical to minimise impacts on water resources, flora and fauna. Conventional ground based monitoring is expensive and sometimes impractical; spectroscopic methods have been emerged as a reliable alternative for this purpose. In this study, the capabilities of the spectroscopy method were examined for modelling soil contamination from around the abandoned silver-zinc mine located at Yerranderie, NSW Australia. The diagnostic characteristics of the original reflectance data were compared with models derived from first and second derivatives of the reflectance data. The results indicate that the models derived from the first derivative of the reflectance data estimate heavy metals significantly more accurately than model derived from the original reflectance. It was also found in this study that there is no need to use second derivative for modelling heavy metal soil contamination. Finally, the results indicate that estimates were of greater accuracy for arsenic and lead compared to other heavy metals, while the estimation for silver was found to be the most erroneous.

  5. Determination of metallic elements in soils and plants in industrial and urban sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delearte, E; Nangniot, P; Impens, R

    1973-01-01

    The first phase of a program to study metals in soils and plants in industrial and urban sites is reported. The metals analyzed were copper, cobalt, nickel, zinc, lead, and cadmium. The soil samples were taken at increasing distances from potential emission sources with respect to dominant wind directions. Ubiquitous plants, such as Tussilago farfara L., Plantago major L., Mercurialis annua L., and Agrostis velgaris With. were used as samples for differential oscillopolarographic analyses. Soil samples taken around a zinc ore roasting plant showed very high zinc contents, and irregular distribution of cadmium and copper. Plant samples taken at different distances from the plant revealed rapid reduction of the copper, zinc, and cadmium levels with increasing distance. Very high concentrations of copper were found in plants around a petroleum refinery. Leaves of Aeer platanoides variety Schwedlerii in a town contained an average of 14.1 ppM copper, 0.7 ppM cobalt, 5.4 ppM nickel, 160 ppM zinc, 145 ppM lead, and 0.08 ppM cadmium, relative to the dry weight. The findings indicate that samples should be obtained over a period of sufficient length.

  6. Strontium and caesium transport in unsaturated soil from Chernobyl Pilot Site under steady flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szenknect, St.

    2003-10-01

    This work is devoted to the quantification and the identification of the predominant processes involved in strontium and caesium transport in unsaturated soil from Chernobyl Pilot Site under steady flow conditions. The transport and fate of radionuclides in the subsurface is affected by various physical and chemical processes including advective and diffusive transport as well as chemical and biological transformations. Laboratory experiments and the use of a multiple tracer approach allow to isolate the contributions of each elementary process and to control the physico-chemical conditions in the system. To be more representative of the field conditions, we decided to perform column miscible displacement experiments. We perform batch and flow-through reactor experiments to characterize the radionuclides sorption mechanisms. Miscible displacement experiments within homogeneous columns and modeling allow to characterize the hydrodynamic properties of the soil and to describe the radionuclides behaviour under dynamic conditions at different water contents. We show that the water content of porous media affect the transport behaviour of inert and strongly sorbing radionuclides. Our results demonstrate that a parametrized transport model that was calibrated under completely saturated conditions was not able to describe the advective-dispersive transport of reactive solutes under unsaturated steady state conditions. Under our experimental conditions, there is no effect of a decrease of the mean water content on the sorption model parameters, but the transport parameters are modified. We established for the studied soil the relation between hydrodynamic dispersion and water content and the relation between pore water velocity and water content. (author)

  7. ORCHIDEE-CNP: Site-Scale Evaluation against Observations from a Soil Formation Chronosequence in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goll, D. S.; Vuichard, N.; Maignan, F.; Jornet-Puig, A.; Sardans, J.; Peng, S.; Sun, Y.; Kvakić, M.; Guimberteau, M.; Guenet, B.; Zaehle, S.; Penuelas, J.; Jannssens, I.; Ciais, P.

    2017-12-01

    Land surface models rarely incorporate the terrestrial phosphorus cycle and its interactions with the carbon cycle, despite the extensive scientific debate about the importance of nitrogen and phosphorus supply for future land carbon uptake. We describe a representation of the terrestrial phosphorus cycle for the land surface model ORCHIDEE, and evaluate it with data from nutrient manipulation experiments along a soil formation chronosequence in Hawaii. ORCHIDEE accounts for influence of nutritional state of vegetation on tissue nutrient concentrations, photosynthesis, plant growth, biomass allocation, biochemical (phosphatase-mediated) mineralization and biological nitrogen fixation. Changes in nutrient content (quality) of litter affect the carbon use efficiency of decomposition and in return the nutrient availability to vegetation. The model explicitly accounts for root zone depletion of phosphorus as a function of root phosphorus uptake and phosphorus transport from soil to the root surface. The model captures the observed differences in the foliage stoichiometry of vegetation between an early (300yr) and a late stage (4.1 Myr) of soil development. The contrasting sensitivities of net primary productivity to the addition of either nitrogen, phosphorus or both among sites are in general reproduced by the model. As observed, the model simulates a preferential stimulation of leaf level productivity when nitrogen stress is alleviated, while leaf level productivity and leaf area index are stimulated equally when phosphorus stress is alleviated. The nutrient use efficiencies in the model are lower as observed primarily due to biases in the nutrient content and turnover of woody biomass.

  8. Slash Incorporation for Amelioration of Site, Soil and Hydrologic Properties on Pocosins and Wet Flats in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    William A. Lakel; W. Michael Aust; Emily A. Carter; Bryce J. Stokes; Felipe G. Sanchez

    1999-01-01

    It was hypothesized that mulching and incorporation of slash as part of site preparation treatments could affect soil water characteristics. Two forested wetland sites, an organic pocosin and a mineral wet flat. located in the lower coastal plain of North Carolina, were selected for treatments. Treatments consisted of slash mulching and incorporation in comoinations...

  9. Comparison between SAR Soil Moisture Estimates and Hydrological Model Simulations over the Scrivia Test Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Pistocchi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the results of a comparison between the soil moisture content (SMC estimated from C-band SAR, the SMC simulated by a hydrological model, and the SMC measured on ground are presented. The study was carried out in an agricultural test site located in North-west Italy, in the Scrivia river basin. The hydrological model used for the simulations consists of a one-layer soil water balance model, which was found to be able to partially reproduce the soil moisture variability, retaining at the same time simplicity and effectiveness in describing the topsoil. SMC estimates were derived from the application of a retrieval algorithm, based on an Artificial Neural Network approach, to a time series of ENVISAT/ASAR images acquired over the Scrivia test site. The core of the algorithm was represented by a set of ANNs able to deal with the different SAR configurations in terms of polarizations and available ancillary data. In case of crop covered soils, the effect of vegetation was accounted for using NDVI information, or, if available, for the cross-polarized channel. The algorithm results showed some ability in retrieving SMC with RMSE generally <0.04 m3/m3 and very low bias (i.e., <0.01 m3/m3, except for the case of VV polarized SAR images: in this case, the obtained RMSE was somewhat higher than 0.04 m3/m3 (≤0.058 m3/m3. The algorithm was implemented within the framework of an ESA project concerning the development of an operative algorithm for the SMC retrieval from Sentinel-1 data. The algorithm should take into account the GMES requirements of SMC accuracy (≤5% in volume, spatial resolution (≤1 km and timeliness (3 h from observation. The SMC estimated by the SAR algorithm, the SMC estimated by the hydrological model, and the SMC measured on ground were found to be in good agreement. The hydrological model simulations were performed at two soil depths: 30 and 5 cm and showed that the 30 cm simulations indicated, as expected, SMC

  10. Controls on accumulation and soil solution partitioning of heavy metals across upland sites in United Kingdom (UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Afia; van den Berg, Leon; Ahmad, Muhammad Nauman; Riaz, Muhammad; Zia, Dania; Ashmore, Mike

    2018-05-31

    A significant body of knowledge suggests that soil solution pH and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) strongly influence metal concentrations and speciation in porewater, however, these effects vary between different metals. This study investigated the factors influencing soil and soil solution concentrations of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) under field conditions in upland soils from UK having a wide range of pH, DOC and organic matter contents. The study primarily focussed on predicting soil and soil solution metal concentrations from the data on total soil metal concentrations (HNO 3 extracts) and soil and soil solution properties (pH, DOC and organic matter content). We tested the multiple regression models proposed by Tipping et al. (2003) to predict heavy metal concentrations in soil solutions and the results indicated a better fit (higher R 2 values) in both studies for Pb compared to the Zn and Cu concentrations. Both studies observed consistent negative relationships of metals with pH and loss on ignition (LOI) suggesting an increase in soil solution metal concentrations with increasing acidity. The positive relationship between Pb concentrations in porewater and HNO 3 extracts was similar for both studies, however, similar relationships were not found for the Zn and Cu concentrations because of the negative coefficients for these metals in our study. The results of this study conclude that the predictive equations of Tipping et al. (2003) may not be applicable to the field sites where the range of DOC and metal concentrations is much lower than their study. Our study also suggests that the extent to which metals are partitioned into soil solution is lower in soils with a higher organic matter contents due to binding of these metals to soil organic matter. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Landscape and bio- geochemical strategy for monitoring transformation and reclamation of the soil mining sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobova, Elena

    2010-05-01

    Sites of active or abandoned mining represent areas of considerable technogenic impact and need scientifically ground organization of their monitoring and reclamation. The strategy of monitoring and reclamation depends on the scale and character of the physical, chemical and biological consequences of the disturbances. The geochemical studies for monitoring and rehabilitation of the career-dump complexes should methodically account of formation of the particular new landforms and the changes in circulation of the remobilized elements of the soil cover. However, the general strategy should account of both the initial and transformed landscape geochemical structure of the area with due regard to the natural and new content of chemical elements in the environmental components. For example the tailings and waste rocks present new geochemical fields with specifically different concentration of chemical elements that cause formation of new geochemical barriers and landscapes. The way of colonization of the newly formed landscapes depends upon the new geochemical features of the technogenic environment and the adaptive ability of local and intrusive flora. The newly formed biogeochemical anomalies need organization of permanent monitoring not only within the anomaly itself but also of its impact zones. Spatial landscape geochemical monitoring combined with bio-geochemical criteria of threshold concentrations seems to be a helpful tool for decision making on reclamation and operation of the soil mining sites to provide a long-term ecologically sustainable development of the impact zone as a whole.

  12. Soil conditions and land use intensification effects on soil microbial communities across a range of European field sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomson, Bruce C.; Tisserant, Emilie; Plassart, Pierre; Uroz, Stéphane; Griffiths, Rob I.; Hannula, S. Emilia; Buée, Marc; Mougel, Christophe; Ranjard, Lionel; Van Veen, Johannes A.; Martin, Francis; Bailey, Mark J.; Lemanceau, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intensive land use practices necessary for providing food and raw materials are known to have a deleterious effect on soil. However, the effects such practices have on soil microbes are less well understood. To investigate the effects of land use intensification on soil microbial

  13. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-52, 146-FR Radioecology and Aquatic Biology Laboratory Soil. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-022

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capron, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The 100-F-52 waste site consisted of the soil under and around the former 146-FR Radioecology and Aquatic Biology Laboratory. The laboratory was used for studies of the effects of pre-reactor and post-reactor process water on fish eggs, young fish, and other small river creatures of interest. In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of this site to No Action. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  14. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-52, 146-FR Radioecology and Aquatic Biology Laboratory Soil, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-022

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Capron

    2008-06-27

    The 100-F-52 waste site consisted of the soil under and around the former 146-FR Radioecology and Aquatic Biology Laboratory. The laboratory was used for studies of the effects of pre-reactor and post-reactor process water on fish eggs, young fish, and other small river creatures of interest. In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of this site to No Action. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  15. ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE HEATING OF SOILS AT C-REACTOR AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blundy, R; Michael Morgenstern, M; Joseph Amari, J; Annamarie MacMurray, A; Mark Farrar, M; Terry Killeen, T

    2007-01-01

    Chlorinated solvent contamination of soils and groundwater is an endemic problem at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and originated as by-products from the nuclear materials manufacturing process. Five nuclear reactors at the SRS produced special nuclear materials for the nation's defense program throughout the cold war era. An important step in the process was thorough degreasing of the fuel and target assemblies prior to irradiation. Discharges from this degreasing process resulted in significant groundwater contamination that would continue well into the future unless a soil remediation action was performed. The largest reactor contamination plume originated from C-Reactor and an interim action was selected in 2004 to remove the residual trichloroethylene (TCE) source material by electrical resistance heating (ERH) technology. This would be followed by monitoring to determine the rate of decrease in concentration in the contaminant plume. Because of the existence of numerous chlorinated solvent sources around SRS, it was elected to generate in-house expertise in the design and operation of ERH, together with the construction of a portable ERH/SVE system that could be deployed at multiple locations around the site. This paper describes the waste unit characteristics, the ERH system design and operation, together with extensive data accumulated from the first deployment adjacent to the C-Reactor building. The installation heated the vadose zone down to 62 feet bgs over a 60 day period during the summer of 2006 and raised soil temperatures to over 200 F. A total of 730 lbs of trichloroethylene (TCE) were removed over this period, and subsequent sampling indicated a removal efficiency of 99.4%

  16. Leachability and heavy metal speciation of 17-year old stabilised/solidified contaminated site soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Fei, E-mail: fwtiffany@gmail.com [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Wang, Hailing, E-mail: wanghailing@njtech.edu.cn [College of Environment, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Al-Tabbaa, Abir, E-mail: aa22@cam.ac.uk [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • The effectiveness of the cement-based S/S at 17 years in West Drayton site is still satisfactory. • Major leaching of Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd and Pb in all mixes took place in the Fe/Mn oxides phase. • The hydration process has been fully completed and further carbonation took place at 17 years. • Microstructure analyses show that unreacted PFA exists. - Abstract: The long-term leachability, heavy metal speciation transformation and binding mechanisms in a field stabilised/solidified contaminated soil (made ground) from West Drayton site were recently investigated following in situ auger mixing treatment with a number of cement-based binders back in 1996. Two batch leaching tests (TCLP and BS EN 12457) and a modified five step sequential extraction procedure along with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were employed for the testing of the 17-year-old field soil. The results of batch leaching tests show that the treatment employed remained effective at 17 years of service time, with all BS EN 12457 test samples and most of TCLP test samples satisfied drinking water standards. Sequential extraction results illustrate that the leaching of Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cd in all mixes mainly occurred at the Fe/Mn phase, ranging from 43% to 83%. Amongst the five metals tested, Ni was the most stable with around 40% remained in the residual phase for all the different cement-based binder stabilised/solidified samples. XRD and SEM analyses show that the hydration process has been fully completed and further carbonation took place. In summary, this study confirms that such cement-based stabilisation/solidification (S/S) treatment can achieve satisfactory durability and thus is a reliable technique for long-term remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil.

  17. Quantitative imaging of the 3-D distribution of cation adsorption sites in undisturbed soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, Hannes; Strobel, Bjarne W.; Petter Gustafsson, Jon; Koestel, John

    2017-10-01

    Several studies have shown that the distribution of cation adsorption sites (CASs) is patchy at a millimetre to centimetre scale. Often, larger concentrations of CASs in biopores or aggregate coatings have been reported in the literature. This heterogeneity has implications on the accessibility of CASs and may influence the performance of soil system models that assume a spatially homogeneous distribution of CASs. In this study, we present a new method to quantify the abundance and 3-D distribution of CASs in undisturbed soil that allows for investigating CAS densities with distance to the soil macropores. We used X-ray imaging with Ba2+ as a contrast agent. Ba2+ has a high adsorption affinity to CASs and is widely used as an index cation to measure the cation exchange capacity (CEC). Eight soil cores (approx. 10 cm3) were sampled from three locations with contrasting texture and organic matter contents. The CASs of our samples were saturated with Ba2+ in the laboratory using BaCl2 (0.3 mol L-1). Afterwards, KCl (0.1 mol L-1) was used to rinse out Ba2+ ions that were not bound to CASs. Before and after this process the samples were scanned using an industrial X-ray scanner. Ba2+ bound to CASs was then visualized in 3-D by the difference image technique. The resulting difference images were interpreted as depicting the Ba2+ bound to CASs only. The X-ray image-derived CEC correlated significantly with results of the commonly used ammonium acetate method to determine CEC in well-mixed samples. The CEC of organic-matter-rich samples seemed to be systematically overestimated and in the case of the clay-rich samples with less organic matter the CEC seemed to be systematically underestimated. The results showed that the distribution of the CASs varied spatially within most of our samples down to a millimetre scale. There was no systematic relation between the location of CASs and the soil macropore structure. We are convinced that the approach proposed here will strongly

  18. Spatial distribution of heavy metal contamination in soils near a primitive e-waste recycling site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Sheng-Xiang; Yan, Bo; Yang, Fan; Li, Ning; Xiao, Xian-Ming; Fu, Jia-Mo

    2015-01-01

    The total concentrations of 12 heavy metals in surface soils (SS, 0-20 cm), middle soils (MS, 30-50 cm) and deep soils (DS, 60-80 cm) from an acid-leaching area, a deserted paddy field and a deserted area of Guiyu were measured. The results showed that the acid-leaching area was heavily contaminated with heavy metals, especially in SS. The mean concentrations of Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Sb and Pb in SS from the acid-leaching area were 278.4, 684.1, 572.8, 1.36, 3,472, 1,706 and 222.8 mg/kg, respectively. Heavy metal pollution in the deserted paddy field was mainly concentrated in SS and MS. The average values of Sb in SS and MS from the deserted paddy field were 16.3 and 20.2 mg/kg, respectively. However, heavy metal contamination of the deserted area was principally found in the DS. Extremely high concentrations of heavy metals were also observed at some special research sites, further confirming that the level of heavy metal pollution was very serious. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo) values revealed that the acid-leaching area was severely polluted with heavy metals in the order of Sb > Sn > Cu > Cd > Ni > Zn > Pb, while deserted paddy field was contaminated predominately by metals in the order of Sb > Sn > Cu. It was obvious that the concentrations of some uncommon contaminants, such as Sb and Sn, were higher than principal contaminants, such as Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb, suggesting that particular attention should be directed to Sn and Sb contamination in the future research of heavy metals in soils from e-waste-processing areas. Correlation analysis suggested that Li and Be in soils from the acid-leaching area and its surrounding environment might have originated from other industrial activities and from batteries, whereas Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Sn and Sb contamination was most likely caused by uncontrolled electronic waste (e-waste) processing. These results indicate the significant need for optimisation of e-waste-dismantling technologies and remediation of polluted soil

  19. Biological treatment processes for PCB contaminated soil at a site in Newfoundland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punt, M.; Cooper, D.; Velicogna, D.; Mohn, W.; Reimer, K.; Parsons, D.; Patel, T.; Daugulis, A.

    2002-01-01

    SAIC Canada is conducting a study under the direction of a joint research and development contract between Public Works and Government Services Canada and Environment Canada to examine the biological options for treating PCB contaminated soil found at a containment cell at a former U.S. Military Base near Stephenville, Newfoundland. In particular, the study examines the feasibility of using indigenous microbes for the degradation of PCBs. The first phase of the study involved the testing of the microbes in a bioreactor. The second phase, currently underway, involves a complete evaluation of possible microbes for PCB degradation. It also involves further study into the biological process options for the site. Suitable indigenous and non-indigenous microbes for PCB dechlorination and biphenyl degradation are being identified and evaluated. In addition, the effectiveness and economics of microbial treatment in a conventional bioreactor is being evaluated. The conventional bioreactor used in this study is the two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) using a biopile process. Results thus far will be used to help Public Works and Government Services Canada to choose the most appropriate remedial technology. Preliminary results suggest that the use of soil classification could reduce the volume of soil requiring treatment. The soil in the containment cell contains microorganisms that could grow in isolation on biphenyl, naphthalene and potentially Aroclor 1254. Isolated native microbes were inoculated in the TPPB for growth. The TPPB was also run successfully under anaerobic conditions. Future work will involve lab-scale evaluation of microbes for PCB dechlorination and biphenyl degradation using both indigenous and non-indigenous microbes. The next phase of study may also involve field-scale demonstration of treatment methods. 2 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  20. Zinc accumulation in plant species indigenous to a Portuguese polluted site: relation with soil contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Ana P G C; Rangel, António O S S; Castro, Paula M L

    2007-01-01

    The levels of zinc accumulated by roots, stems, and leaves of two plant species, Rubus ulmifolius and Phragmites australis, indigenous to the banks of a stream in a Portuguese contaminated site were investigated in field conditions. R. ulmifolius, a plant for which studies on phytoremediation potential are scarce, dominated on the right side of the stream, while P. australis proliferated on the other bank. Heterogeneous Zn concentrations were found along the banks of the stream. Zn accumulation in both species occurred mainly in the roots, with poor translocation to the aboveground sections. R. ulmifolius presented Zn levels in the roots ranging from 142 to 563 mg kg(-1), in the stems from 35 to 110 mg kg(-1), and in the leaves from 45 to 91 mg kg(-1), vs. average soil total Zn concentrations varying from 526 to 957 mg kg(-1). P. australis showed Zn concentrations in the roots from 39 to 130 mg kg(-1), in the stems from 31 to 63 mg kg(-1), and in the leaves from 37 to 83 mg kg(-1), for the lower average soil total Zn levels of 138 to 452 mg kg(-1) found on the banks where they proliferated. Positive correlations were found between the soil total, available and extractable Zn fractions, and metal accumulation in the roots and leaves of R. ulmifolius and in the roots and stems of P. australis. The use of R. ulmifolius and P. australis for phytoextraction purposes does not appear as an effective method of metal removing, but these native metal tolerant plant species may be used to reduce the effects of soil contamination, avoiding further Zn transfer to other environmental compartments.

  1. Case study: Free product recovery and site remediation using horizontal trenching, soil vapor treatment and groundwater extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, E.P.; Johnston, H.S. Jr.; Farrell, M.; Twedell, D.B.

    1993-01-01

    Sites with soil and groundwater impacted by petroleum hydrocarbons have been remediated using a variety of traditional techniques. However, when the site impacted lies within a very confined downtown area of an expanding metropolitan city, a more complex array of technologies must be considered. The Law Enforcement Center site is the City of Charlotte's worst known underground storage tank (UST) release to date. A cost effective free product recover