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Sample records for site selection process

  1. The site selection process

    Kittel, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    One of the most arduous tasks associated with the management of radioactive wastes is the siting of new disposal facilities. Experience has shown that the performance of the disposal facility during and after disposal operations is critically dependent on the characteristics of the site itself. The site selection process consists of defining needs and objectives, identifying geographic regions of interest, screening and selecting candidate sites, collecting data on the candidate sites, and finally selecting the preferred site. Before the site selection procedures can be implemented, however, a formal legal system must be in place that defines broad objectives and, most importantly, clearly establishes responsibilities and accompanying authorities for the decision-making steps in the procedure. Site selection authorities should make every effort to develop trust and credibility with the public, local officials, and the news media. The responsibilities of supporting agencies must also be spelled out. Finally, a stable funding arrangement must be established so that activities such as data collection can proceed without interruption. Several examples, both international and within the US, are given

  2. Conflict between public perceptions and technical processes in site selection

    Avant, R.V. Jr.; Jacobi, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations and guidance on site selection are based on sound technical reasoning. Geology, hydrology, flora and fauna, transportation, demographics, and sociopolitical concerns, to name a few, have been factored into the process. Regardless of the technical objectivity of a site selection process, local opposition groups will challenge technical decisions using technical, nontechnical, and emotional arguments. This paper explores the many conflicts between public perceptions, technical requirements designed to protect the general public, and common arguments against site selection. Ways to deal with opposition are also discussed with emphasis placed on developing effective community relations

  3. Communication activities for NUMO's site selection process

    Takeuchi, Mitsuo; Okuyama, Shigeru; Kitayama, Kazumi; Kuba, Michiyoshi

    2004-01-01

    A siting program for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in Japan has just started and is moving into a new stage of communication with the public. A final repository site will be selected via a stepwise process, as stipulated in the Specified Radioactive Waste Final Disposal Act promulgated in June 2000. Based on the Act, the site selection process of the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO, established in October 2000) will be carried out in the three steps: selection of Preliminary Investigation Areas (PIAs), selection of Detailed Investigation Areas (DIAs) and selection of the Repository Site. The Act also defines NUMO's responsibilities in terms of implementing the HLW disposal program in an open and transparent manner. NUMO fully understands the importance of public participation in its activities and is aiming to promote public involvement in the process of site selection based on a fundamental policy, which consists of 'adopting a stepwise approach', 'respecting the initiative of municipalities' and 'ensuring transparency in information disclosure'. This policy is clearly reflected in the adoption of an open solicitation approach for volunteer municipalities for Preliminary Investigation Areas (PIAs). NUMO made the official announcement of the start of its open solicitation program on 19 December 2002. This paper outlines how NUMO's activities are currently carried out with a view to encouraging municipalities to volunteer as PIAs and how public awareness of the safety of the HLW disposal is evaluated at this stage

  4. Investigation of the site selection examples adopted local participation. The site selection processes in Belgium, UK and Switzerland

    Kageyama, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Shinji; Hirose, Ikuro; Yoshioka, Tatsuji

    2014-06-01

    In late years, local participation policies are being adopted in foreign countries at site selection for the disposal of the radioactive waste. We performed documents investigation about the examples of the site selection processes of Belgium, the U.K., and Switzerland to establish the site selection policy in Japan. In Belgium, after the failure of the site selection for the disposal of short-lived low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) in an early stage, the idea of the local partnership (LP) was developed and three independent LPs were established between the implementing body and each municipality. About 7 years later, one site was decided as the disposal site in the cabinet meeting of the federal government. In the U.K., after the failure of the site selection for the rock characterization facility, the government policy was changed and the consultation process comprised of six phases was started. Though the process had been carried out for over 4 years since one combined partnership was established between the implementing body and the municipalities involved, they had to withdraw from the consulting process because a county council had not accepted that the process would step forward to the 4th phase. In Switzerland, the implementing body selected one site for LILW disposal at an early stage, but the project was denied by the referendum in the Canton having jurisdiction over the site area. After that the Federal Parliament established new Nuclear Energy Act and Nuclear Energy Ordinance precluding the veto of Canton. Now the site selection project is being carried out according to the process comprised of three phases with local participation policy. Reviewing the merits and demerits of each example through this investigation, we confirmed if we are to adopt local participation policy in our country in future, further prudent study would be necessary, considering current and future social conditions in Japan. (author)

  5. Bayesian site selection for fast Gaussian process regression

    Pourhabib, Arash; Liang, Faming; Ding, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Gaussian Process (GP) regression is a popular method in the field of machine learning and computer experiment designs; however, its ability to handle large data sets is hindered by the computational difficulty in inverting a large covariance matrix. Likelihood approximation methods were developed as a fast GP approximation, thereby reducing the computation cost of GP regression by utilizing a much smaller set of unobserved latent variables called pseudo points. This article reports a further improvement to the likelihood approximation methods by simultaneously deciding both the number and locations of the pseudo points. The proposed approach is a Bayesian site selection method where both the number and locations of the pseudo inputs are parameters in the model, and the Bayesian model is solved using a reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo technique. Through a number of simulated and real data sets, it is demonstrated that with appropriate priors chosen, the Bayesian site selection method can produce a good balance between computation time and prediction accuracy: it is fast enough to handle large data sets that a full GP is unable to handle, and it improves, quite often remarkably, the prediction accuracy, compared with the existing likelihood approximations. © 2014 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  6. Bayesian site selection for fast Gaussian process regression

    Pourhabib, Arash

    2014-02-05

    Gaussian Process (GP) regression is a popular method in the field of machine learning and computer experiment designs; however, its ability to handle large data sets is hindered by the computational difficulty in inverting a large covariance matrix. Likelihood approximation methods were developed as a fast GP approximation, thereby reducing the computation cost of GP regression by utilizing a much smaller set of unobserved latent variables called pseudo points. This article reports a further improvement to the likelihood approximation methods by simultaneously deciding both the number and locations of the pseudo points. The proposed approach is a Bayesian site selection method where both the number and locations of the pseudo inputs are parameters in the model, and the Bayesian model is solved using a reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo technique. Through a number of simulated and real data sets, it is demonstrated that with appropriate priors chosen, the Bayesian site selection method can produce a good balance between computation time and prediction accuracy: it is fast enough to handle large data sets that a full GP is unable to handle, and it improves, quite often remarkably, the prediction accuracy, compared with the existing likelihood approximations. © 2014 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  7. Selection of radioactive waste disposal site considering natural processes

    Nakamura, H.

    1991-01-01

    To dispose the radioactive waste, it is necessary to consider the transfer of material in natural environment. The points of consideration are 1) Long residence time of water 2) Independence of biosphere from the compartment containing the disposal site in the natural hydrologic cycle 3) Dilution with the natural inactive isotope or the same group of elements. Isotope dilution for 129 I and 14 C can be expected by proper selection of the site. 241 Am and 239 Pu will be homogenized into soil or sediment with insoluble elements such as iron and aluminium. For 237 Np and 99 Tc anionic condition is important for the selection. From the point of view of hydrologic cycle, anoxic dead water zone avoiding beneath mountain area is preferable for the disposal site. (author)

  8. Site selection

    CERN PhotoLab

    1968-01-01

    To help resolve the problem of site selection for the proposed 300 GeV machine, the Council selected "three wise men" (left to right, J H Bannier of the Netherlands, A Chavanne of Switzerland and L K Boggild of Denmark).

  9. Site selection

    Olsen, C.W.

    1983-07-01

    The conditions and criteria for selecting a site for a nuclear weapons test at the Nevada Test Site are summarized. Factors considered are: (1) scheduling of drill rigs, (2) scheduling of site preparation (dirt work, auger hole, surface casing, cementing), (3) schedule of event (when are drill hole data needed), (4) depth range of proposed W.P., (5) geologic structure (faults, Pz contact, etc.), (6) stratigraphy (alluvium, location of Grouse Canyon Tuff, etc.), (7) material properties (particularly montmorillonite and CO 2 content), (8) water table depth, (9) potential drilling problems (caving), (10) adjacent collapse craters and chimneys, (11) adjacent expended but uncollapsed sites, (12) adjacent post-shot or other small diameter holes, (13) adjacent stockpile emplacement holes, (14) adjacent planned events (including LANL), (15) projected needs of Test Program for various DOB's and operational separations, and (16) optimal use of NTS real estate

  10. Site selection and characterization processes for deep geologic disposal of high level nuclear waste

    Costin, L.S.

    1997-10-01

    In this paper, the major elements of the site selection and characterization processes used in the US high level waste program are discussed. While much of the evolution of the site selection and characterization processes have been driven by the unique nature of the US program, these processes, which are well defined and documented, could be used as an initial basis for developing site screening, selection, and characterization programs in other countries. Thus, this paper focuses more on the process elements than the specific details of the US program

  11. Site selection and characterization processes for deep geologic disposal of high level nuclear waste

    Costin, L.S.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, the major elements of the site selection and characterization processes used in the U. S. high level waste program are discussed. While much of the evolution of the site selection and characterization processes have been driven by the unique nature of the U. S. program, these processes, which are well-defined and documented, could be used as an initial basis for developing site screening, selection, and characterization programs in other countries. Thus, this paper focuses more on the process elements than the specific details of the U. S. program. (author). 3 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  12. Site selection and characterization processes for deep geologic disposal of high level nuclear waste

    Costin, L.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In this paper, the major elements of the site selection and characterization processes used in the U. S. high level waste program are discussed. While much of the evolution of the site selection and characterization processes have been driven by the unique nature of the U. S. program, these processes, which are well-defined and documented, could be used as an initial basis for developing site screening, selection, and characterization programs in other countries. Thus, this paper focuses more on the process elements than the specific details of the U. S. program. (author). 3 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  13. Hanford Site Composite Analysis Technical Approach Description: Radionuclide Inventory and Waste Site Selection Process.

    Nichols, Will E.; Mehta, Sunil

    2017-09-13

    The updated Hanford Site Composite Analysis will provide an all-pathways dose projection to a hypothetical future member of the public from all planned low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities and potential contributions from all other projected end-state sources of radioactive material left at Hanford following site closure. Its primary purpose is to support the decision-making process of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under DOE O 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management (DOE, 2001), related to managing low-level waste disposal facilities at the Hanford Site.

  14. The site selection process for a spent fuel repository in Finland. Summary report

    McEwen, T. [EnvirosQuantiSci (United Kingdom); Aeikaes, T. [Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2000-12-01

    This Summary Report describes the Finnish programme for the selection and characterisation of potential sites for the deep disposal of spent nuclear fuel and explains the process by which Olkiluoto has been selected as the single site proposed for the development of a spent fuel disposal facility. Its aim is to provide an overview of this process, initiated almost twenty years ago, which has entered its final phase. It provides information in three areas: a review of the early site selection criteria, a description of the site selection process, including all the associated site characterisation work, up to the point at which a single site was selected and an outline of the proposed work, in particular that proposed underground, to characterise further the Olkiluoto site. In 1983 the Finnish Government made a policy decision on the management of nuclear waste in which the main goals and milestones for the site selection programme for the deep disposal of spent fuel were presented. According to this decision several site candidates, whose selection was to be based on careful studies of the whole country, should be characterised and the site for the repository selected by the end of the year 2000. This report describes the process by which this policy decision has been achieved. The report begins with a discussion of the definition of the geological and environmental site selection criteria and how they were applied in order to select a small number of sites, five in all, that were to be the subject of the preliminary investigations. The methods used to investigate these sites and the results of these investigations are described, as is the evaluation of the results of these investigations and the process used to discard two of the sites and continue more detailed investigations at the remaining three. The detailed site investigations that commenced in 1993 are described with respect to the overall strategy followed and the investigation techniques applied. The

  15. HOSPITAL SITE SELECTION USING TWO-STAGE FUZZY MULTI-CRITERIA DECISION MAKING PROCESS

    Ali Soltani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Site selection for sitting of urban activities/facilities is one of the crucial policy-related decisions taken by urban planners and policy makers. The process of site selection is inherently complicated. A careless site imposes exorbitant costs on city budget and damages the environment inevitably. Nowadays, multi-attributes decision making approaches are suggested to use to improve precision of decision making and reduce surplus side effects. Two well-known techniques, analytical hierarchal process and analytical network process are among multi-criteria decision making systems which can easily be consistent with both quantitative and qualitative criteria. These are also developed to be fuzzy analytical hierarchal process and fuzzy analytical network process systems which are capable of accommodating inherent uncertainty and vagueness in multi-criteria decision-making. This paper reports the process and results of a hospital site selection within the Region 5 of Shiraz metropolitan area, Iran using integrated fuzzy analytical network process systems with Geographic Information System (GIS. The weights of the alternatives were calculated using fuzzy analytical network process. Then a sensitivity analysis was conducted to measure the elasticity of a decision in regards to different criteria. This study contributes to planning practice by suggesting a more comprehensive decision making tool for site selection.

  16. HOSPITAL SITE SELECTION USING TWO-STAGE FUZZY MULTI-CRITERIA DECISION MAKING PROCESS

    Ali Soltani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Site selection for sitting of urban activities/facilities is one of the crucial policy-related decisions taken by urban planners and policy makers. The process of site selection is inherently complicated. A careless site imposes exorbitant costs on city budget and damages the environment inevitably. Nowadays, multi-attributes decision making approaches are suggested to use to improve precision of decision making and reduce surplus side effects. Two well-known techniques, analytical hierarchal process and analytical network process are among multi-criteria decision making systems which can easily be consistent with both quantitative and qualitative criteria. These are also developed to be fuzzy analytical hierarchal process and fuzzy analytical network process systems which are capable of accommodating inherent uncertainty and vagueness in multi-criteria decision-making. This paper reports the process and results of a hospital site selection within the Region 5 of Shiraz metropolitan area, Iran using integrated fuzzy analytical network process systems with Geographic Information System (GIS. The weights of the alternatives were calculated using fuzzy analytical network process. Then a sensitivity analysis was conducted to measure the elasticity of a decision in regards to different criteria. This study contributes to planning practice by suggesting a more comprehensive decision making tool for site selection.

  17. Stability of choice in the honey bee nest-site selection process.

    Nevai, Andrew L; Passino, Kevin M; Srinivasan, Parthasarathy

    2010-03-07

    We introduce a pair of compartment models for the honey bee nest-site selection process that lend themselves to analytic methods. The first model represents a swarm of bees deciding whether a site is viable, and the second characterizes its ability to select between two viable sites. We find that the one-site assessment process has two equilibrium states: a disinterested equilibrium (DE) in which the bees show no interest in the site and an interested equilibrium (IE) in which bees show interest. In analogy with epidemic models, we define basic and absolute recruitment numbers (R(0) and B(0)) as measures of the swarm's sensitivity to dancing by a single bee. If R(0) is less than one then the DE is locally stable, and if B(0) is less than one then it is globally stable. If R(0) is greater than one then the DE is unstable and the IE is stable under realistic conditions. In addition, there exists a critical site quality threshold Q(*) above which the site can attract some interest (at equilibrium) and below which it cannot. We also find the existence of a second critical site quality threshold Q(**) above which the site can attract a quorum (at equilibrium) and below which it cannot. The two-site discrimination process, in which we examine a swarm's ability to simultaneously consider two sites differing in both site quality and discovery time, has a stable DE if and only if both sites' individual basic recruitment numbers are less than one. Numerical experiments are performed to study the influences of site quality on quorum time and the outcome of competition between a lower quality site discovered first and a higher quality site discovered second. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Site selection process for radioactive waste repository (radioactive facility) in Cuba as a fundamental safety criteria

    Vital, Jose Luis Peralta; Castillo, Reinaldo Gil; Chales Suarez, Gustavo; Rodriguez Reyes, Aymee

    1999-01-01

    The paper show the process of search carried out for the selection of the safest site in the National territory, in order to sitting the Facility (Repository) that will disposal the low and intermediate level radioactive wastes, as well as the possible Storage Facility for nuclear spent Fuel (radioactive wastes of high activity). We summarize the obtained Methodology and the Criterions of exclusion adopted for the development of the Process of site selection, as well as the current condition of the researches that will permit the obtaining of the nominative objectives. (author)

  19. HOW DO STUDENTS SELECT SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES? AN ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS (AHP MODEL

    Chun Meng Tang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Social networking sites are popular among university students, and students today are indeed spoiled for choice. New emerging social networking sites sprout up amid popular sites, while some existing ones die out. Given the choice of so many social networking sites, how do students decide which one they will sign up for and stay on as an active user? The answer to this question is of interest to social networking site designers and marketers. The market of social networking sites is highly competitive. To maintain the current user base and continue to attract new users, how should social networking sites design their sites? Marketers spend a fairly large percent of their marketing budget on social media marketing. To formulate an effective social media strategy, how much do marketers understand the users of social networking sites? Learning from website evaluation studies, this study intends to provide some answers to these questions by examining how university students decide between two popular social networking sites, Facebook and Twitter. We first developed an analytic hierarchy process (AHP model of four main selection criteria and 12 sub-criteria, and then administered a questionnaire to a group of university students attending a course at a Malaysian university. AHP analyses of the responses from 12 respondents provided an insight into the decision-making process involved in students’ selection of social networking sites. It seemed that of the four main criteria, privacy was the top concern, followed by functionality, usability, and content. The sub-criteria that were of key concern to the students were apps, revenue-generating opportunities, ease of use, and information security. Between Facebook and Twitter, the students thought that Facebook was the better choice. This information is useful for social networking site designers to design sites that are more relevant to their users’ needs, and for marketers to craft more effective

  20. Nuclear site selection studies

    Gharib, A.; Zohoorian Izadpanah, A.A.; Iranmanesh, H.

    2000-01-01

    It is of special importance, especially from the nuclear safety viewpoint, to select suitable sites for different nuclear structures with the considered future activities. Site selection sometimes involves high costs not necessarily for merely selecting of site but for some preliminary measures to be taken so as the site may have the necessary characteristics. The more suitable the natural characteristics of the site for the considered project, the more successful and efficient the project, the lower the project costs and the longer the project operation period. If so, the project will cause the growth of public culture and sustainable socioeconomic development. This paper is the result of the conclusion of numerous massive reports of this activity in the preliminary phase based on theories, practices and the related safety principles on this ground as well as the application of data and information of the past and a glance to the future. The conception of need for a site for medium structures and nuclear research projects and how to perform this process are presented step by step here with a scientific approach to its selection during the investigations. In this study, it is practically described how the site is selected, by determining and defining the characteristics of research and nuclear projects with medium structures and also its fitting to the optimum site. The discovered sites typically involve the best advantages in technical and economic aspects and no particular contrast with the concerned structures

  1. Inclusive assessment in a site-selection process. Approach, experience, reflections and some lessons beyond boundaries

    Flueeler, Thomas [Directorate of Public Works, Nuclear Technology Unit, Zurich (Switzerland). Energy Dept.; ETH Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. for Environmental Decisions

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear waste disposal indisputably is a controversial socio-technical issue in most societies widely using nuclear technology. All the more it is pivotal to proceed in a comprehensive, transparent and participative manner. The contribution suggests fundamental rules to follow and confronts them with the currently ongoing site-selection process in Switzerland. Finally it draws some lessons for the audience.

  2. Analytic hierarchy process helps select site for limestone quarry expansion in Barbados.

    Dey, Prasanta Kumar; Ramcharan, Eugene K

    2008-09-01

    Site selection is a key activity for quarry expansion to support cement production, and is governed by factors such as resource availability, logistics, costs, and socio-economic-environmental factors. Adequate consideration of all the factors facilitates both industrial productivity and sustainable economic growth. This study illustrates the site selection process that was undertaken for the expansion of limestone quarry operations to support cement production in Barbados. First, alternate sites with adequate resources to support a 25-year development horizon were identified. Second, technical and socio-economic-environmental factors were then identified. Third, a database was developed for each site with respect to each factor. Fourth, a hierarchical model in analytic hierarchy process (AHP) framework was then developed. Fifth, the relative ranking of the alternate sites was then derived through pair wise comparison in all the levels and through subsequent synthesizing of the results across the hierarchy through computer software (Expert Choice). The study reveals that an integrated framework using the AHP can help select a site for the quarry expansion project in Barbados.

  3. Development of site selection process for an LILW repository in Slovenia

    Zeleznik, N.; Kralj, M.; Mele, I.; Veselic, M.

    2005-01-01

    The activities regarding the LILW repository site selection in Slovenia are planned to meet the requirements of the Act on Ionising Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, especially the requirement that the site for a repository should be selected by 2008 and the repository should be in operation by 2013. In November 2004, the official administrative procedure for the siting of the repository started with the first spatial public conference on spatial planning procedure. It was carried out by the Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning and ARAO. Immediately after the conference the Program for the preparation of the detailed plan of national importance for the LILW repository was accepted by the Ministry. At the beginning of December 2004, ARAO invited all Slovenian local communities to participate in the site selection process and volunteer a site or area in their local community for further investigation. At the beginning of April 2005 the first phase of the bidding process was concluded. ARAO received applications from eight local communities. A pre-feasibility study to define three of the most promising locations was conducted because only three locations are foreseen by the Program for the preparation of the detailed plan of national importance. Methodologies were prepared for assessment of different parameters of technical, financial, environmental and spatial suitability as well as public acceptability. Comparative, preferential and also exclusion criteria for the respective parameters were defined. The results of the cabinet and fieldwork research were compared and further assessed in order to obtain maximum three local communities with three potential sites in which the probability of siting the LILW repository seems to be the highest. Detailed plans of national importance will be prepared for these sites. (author)

  4. The Need to Assess Public Values in a Site Selection Process

    Sheng, Grant; Fortier, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Siting a nuclear fuel waste disposal facility is highly problematic for both technical and nontechnical reasons. The majority of countries using nuclear energy and many in the scientific community favour burying the spent fuel deep in a stable geological formation. It is our contention that site selection of a disposal facility must consider social, political, spatial and scientific perspectives in a comprehensive and integrated fashion in order to achieve a successful process. Moreover, we submit that people's values must be explicitly recognized and be taken into account through a formalized process during deliberations on the disposal concept, the process of evaluation of the concept, and the site selection process. The purpose of this paper is: (1) to identify the importance of recognizing people's values in the process of determining 'public acceptability', (2) to outline a possible framework by which public acceptability can be gauged through a formalized process of value elicitation, and (3) to introduce a novel method by which a web-based geographic information systems (GIS) application can be used as a tool for value elicitation. In order to assess effectively the public acceptability of Canada's nuclear waste disposal concept, we submit that such a process must examine the underlying values that are held by the public. Moreover, the evaluation process of Canada's concept demonstrates that an acceptable process is a pre-condition for an acceptable result, although such a process does not necessarily guarantee an acceptable result. However, the consequences of a flawed process can be very significant, as shown by Canada's experience. This paper also provides a brief overview of a value elicitation process that, in our opinion, could be used to assess the public acceptability of the Concept. We also describe how a web-based GIS application could be used to infer some of the underlying values held by the public

  5. The Need to Assess Public Values in a Site Selection Process

    Sheng, Grant; Fortier, Michael [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Faculty of Environmental Studies; Collins, Alison [York Centre for Applied Sustainability, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Siting a nuclear fuel waste disposal facility is highly problematic for both technical and nontechnical reasons. The majority of countries using nuclear energy and many in the scientific community favour burying the spent fuel deep in a stable geological formation. It is our contention that site selection of a disposal facility must consider social, political, spatial and scientific perspectives in a comprehensive and integrated fashion in order to achieve a successful process. Moreover, we submit that people's values must be explicitly recognized and be taken into account through a formalized process during deliberations on the disposal concept, the process of evaluation of the concept, and the site selection process. The purpose of this paper is: (1) to identify the importance of recognizing people's values in the process of determining 'public acceptability', (2) to outline a possible framework by which public acceptability can be gauged through a formalized process of value elicitation, and (3) to introduce a novel method by which a web-based geographic information systems (GIS) application can be used as a tool for value elicitation. In order to assess effectively the public acceptability of Canada's nuclear waste disposal concept, we submit that such a process must examine the underlying values that are held by the public. Moreover, the evaluation process of Canada's concept demonstrates that an acceptable process is a pre-condition for an acceptable result, although such a process does not necessarily guarantee an acceptable result. However, the consequences of a flawed process can be very significant, as shown by Canada's experience. This paper also provides a brief overview of a value elicitation process that, in our opinion, could be used to assess the public acceptability of the Concept. We also describe how a web-based GIS application could be used to infer some of the underlying values held by the public.

  6. Model of the best-of-N nest-site selection process in honeybees

    Reina, Andreagiovanni; Marshall, James A. R.; Trianni, Vito; Bose, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    The ability of a honeybee swarm to select the best nest site plays a fundamental role in determining the future colony's fitness. To date, the nest-site selection process has mostly been modeled and theoretically analyzed for the case of binary decisions. However, when the number of alternative nests is larger than two, the decision-process dynamics qualitatively change. In this work, we extend previous analyses of a value-sensitive decision-making mechanism to a decision process among N nests. First, we present the decision-making dynamics in the symmetric case of N equal-quality nests. Then, we generalize our findings to a best-of-N decision scenario with one superior nest and N -1 inferior nests, previously studied empirically in bees and ants. Whereas previous binary models highlighted the crucial role of inhibitory stop-signaling, the key parameter in our new analysis is the relative time invested by swarm members in individual discovery and in signaling behaviors. Our new analysis reveals conflicting pressures on this ratio in symmetric and best-of-N decisions, which could be solved through a time-dependent signaling strategy. Additionally, our analysis suggests how ecological factors determining the density of suitable nest sites may have led to selective pressures for an optimal stable signaling ratio.

  7. Canada's deep geological repository for used nuclear fuel - site selection process update

    Facella, J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, the Government of Canada selected Adaptive Phased Management as Canada's plan for the long-term management of Canada's used nuclear fuel in a deep geological repository, located in an informed and willing host. The process of site selection is an important milestone in this program. The NWMO describes its approach to working collaboratively with communities which expressed interest in exploring the project, as well as Aboriginal communities in the area and other surrounding communities. The project is designed to be implemented through a long-term partnership involving the interested community, Aboriginal communities and surrounding communities working with the NWMO. (author)

  8. The role of safety analyses in site selection. Some personal observations based on the experience from the Swiss site selection process

    Zuidema, Piet [Nagra, Wettingen (Switzerland)

    2015-07-01

    In Switzerland, the site selection process according to the ''Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Repositories'' (BFE 2008) is underway since 2008. This process takes place in three stages. In stage 1 geological siting regions (six for the L/ILW repository and three for the HLW repository) have been identified, in stage 2 sites for the surface facilities have been identified for all siting regions in close co-operation with the sting regions and a narrowing down of the number of siting regions based on geological criteria will take place. In stage 3 the sites for a general license application are selected and the general license applications will be submitted which eventually will lead to the siting decision for both repository types. In the Swiss site selection process, safety has the highest priority. Many factors affect safety and thus a whole range of safety-related issues are considered in the identification and screening of siting possibilities. Besides dose calculations a range of quantitative and qualitative issues are considered. Dose calculations are performed in all three stages of the site selection process. In stage 1 generic safety calculations were made to develop criteria to be used for the identification of potential siting regions. In stage 2, dose calculations are made for comparing the different siting regions according to a procedure prescribed in detail by the regulator. Combined with qualitative evaluations this will lead to a narrowing down of the number of siting regions to at least two siting regions for each repository type. In stage 3 full safety cases will be prepared as part of the documentation for the general license applications. Besides the dose calculations, many other issues related to safety are analyzed in a quantitative and qualitative manner. These consider the 13 criteria defined in the Sectoral Plan and the corresponding indicators. The features analyzed cover the following broad themes: efficiency of

  9. The role of safety analyses in site selection. Some personal observations based on the experience from the Swiss site selection process

    Zuidema, Piet

    2015-01-01

    In Switzerland, the site selection process according to the ''Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Repositories'' (BFE 2008) is underway since 2008. This process takes place in three stages. In stage 1 geological siting regions (six for the L/ILW repository and three for the HLW repository) have been identified, in stage 2 sites for the surface facilities have been identified for all siting regions in close co-operation with the sting regions and a narrowing down of the number of siting regions based on geological criteria will take place. In stage 3 the sites for a general license application are selected and the general license applications will be submitted which eventually will lead to the siting decision for both repository types. In the Swiss site selection process, safety has the highest priority. Many factors affect safety and thus a whole range of safety-related issues are considered in the identification and screening of siting possibilities. Besides dose calculations a range of quantitative and qualitative issues are considered. Dose calculations are performed in all three stages of the site selection process. In stage 1 generic safety calculations were made to develop criteria to be used for the identification of potential siting regions. In stage 2, dose calculations are made for comparing the different siting regions according to a procedure prescribed in detail by the regulator. Combined with qualitative evaluations this will lead to a narrowing down of the number of siting regions to at least two siting regions for each repository type. In stage 3 full safety cases will be prepared as part of the documentation for the general license applications. Besides the dose calculations, many other issues related to safety are analyzed in a quantitative and qualitative manner. These consider the 13 criteria defined in the Sectoral Plan and the corresponding indicators. The features analyzed cover the following broad themes: efficiency of

  10. Selection of site specific vibration equation by using analytic hierarchy process in a quarry

    Kalayci, Ulku, E-mail: ukalayci@istanbul.edu.tr; Ozer, Umit, E-mail: uozer@istanbul.edu.tr

    2016-01-15

    This paper presents a new approach for the selection of the most accurate SSVA (Site Specific Vibration Attenuation) equation for blasting processes in a quarry located near settlements in Istanbul, Turkey. In this context, the SSVA equations obtained from the same study area in the literature were considered in terms of distance between the shot points and buildings and the amount of explosive charge. In this purpose, 11 different SSVA equations obtained from the study area in the past 12 years, forecasting capabilities according to designated new conditions, using 102 vibration records as test data obtained from the study area was investigated. In this study, AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) was selected as an analysis method in order to determine the most accurate equation among 11 SSAV equations, and the parameters such as year, distance, charge, and r{sup 2} of the equations were used as criteria for AHP. Finally, the most appropriate equation was selected among the existing ones, and the process of selecting according to different target criteria was presented. Furthermore, it was noted that the forecasting results of the selected equation is more accurate than that formed using the test results. - Highlights: • The optimum Site Specific Vibration Attenuation equation for blasting in a quarry located near settlements was determined. • It is indicated that SSVA equations changing over the years don’t give always accurate estimates at changing conditions. • Selection of the blast induced SSVA equation was made using AHP. • Equation selection method was highlighted based on parameters such as charge, distance, and quarry geometry changes (year).

  11. Selection of site specific vibration equation by using analytic hierarchy process in a quarry

    Kalayci, Ulku; Ozer, Umit

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for the selection of the most accurate SSVA (Site Specific Vibration Attenuation) equation for blasting processes in a quarry located near settlements in Istanbul, Turkey. In this context, the SSVA equations obtained from the same study area in the literature were considered in terms of distance between the shot points and buildings and the amount of explosive charge. In this purpose, 11 different SSVA equations obtained from the study area in the past 12 years, forecasting capabilities according to designated new conditions, using 102 vibration records as test data obtained from the study area was investigated. In this study, AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) was selected as an analysis method in order to determine the most accurate equation among 11 SSAV equations, and the parameters such as year, distance, charge, and r"2 of the equations were used as criteria for AHP. Finally, the most appropriate equation was selected among the existing ones, and the process of selecting according to different target criteria was presented. Furthermore, it was noted that the forecasting results of the selected equation is more accurate than that formed using the test results. - Highlights: • The optimum Site Specific Vibration Attenuation equation for blasting in a quarry located near settlements was determined. • It is indicated that SSVA equations changing over the years don’t give always accurate estimates at changing conditions. • Selection of the blast induced SSVA equation was made using AHP. • Equation selection method was highlighted based on parameters such as charge, distance, and quarry geometry changes (year).

  12. MUNICIPAL LANDFILL SITE SELECTION FOR ISFAHAN CITY BY USE OF FUZZY LOGIC AND ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS

    A. Afzali

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Selecting the most suitable site for landfill can avoid any ecological and socio-economical effects. The increase in industrial and economical development along with the increase of population growth in Isfahan city generates tremendous amount of solid waste within the region. Factors such as the scarcity of land, life span of landfill, and environmental considerations warrant that the scientific and fundamental studies are carried in selecting the suitability of a landfill site. The analysis of spatial data and consideration of regulations, and accepted criteria are part of the important elements in the site selection. The present study presents a multi criteria evaluation method using GIS technique for landfill suitability site evaluation. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP was used for weighing the information layers. By using the fuzzy logic method (classification of suitable areas in the range of 0 to 255 byte scale the superposing of the information layers related to topography, soil, water table, sensitive ecosystems, land use and geology maps was performed in the study. Only after omission of inappropriate areas, the suitability examination of the residue areas was accomplished. The application of the present method in Isfahan city shows approximately 5% of the south east and north east parts of the study area with the value of more than 220 byte scale, which are suitable for landfill establishment.

  13. Dynamic Disturbance Processes Create Dynamic Lek Site Selection in a Prairie Grouse.

    Torre J Hovick

    Full Text Available It is well understood that landscape processes can affect habitat selection patterns, movements, and species persistence. These selection patterns may be altered or even eliminated as a result of changes in disturbance regimes and a concomitant management focus on uniform, moderate disturbance across landscapes. To assess how restored landscape heterogeneity influences habitat selection patterns, we examined 21 years (1991, 1993-2012 of Greater Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus cupido lek location data in tallgrass prairie with restored fire and grazing processes. Our study took place at The Nature Conservancy's Tallgrass Prairie Preserve located at the southern extent of Flint Hills in northeastern Oklahoma. We specifically addressed stability of lek locations in the context of the fire-grazing interaction, and the environmental factors influencing lek locations. We found that lek locations were dynamic in a landscape with interacting fire and grazing. While previous conservation efforts have treated leks as stable with high site fidelity in static landscapes, a majority of lek locations in our study (i.e., 65% moved by nearly one kilometer on an annual basis in this dynamic setting. Lek sites were in elevated areas with low tree cover and low road density. Additionally, lek site selection was influenced by an interaction of fire and patch edge, indicating that in recently burned patches, leks were located near patch edges. These results suggest that dynamic and interactive processes such as fire and grazing that restore heterogeneity to grasslands do influence habitat selection patterns in prairie grouse, a phenomenon that is likely to apply throughout the Greater Prairie-Chicken's distribution when dynamic processes are restored. As conservation moves toward restoring dynamic historic disturbance patterns, it will be important that siting and planning of anthropogenic structures (e.g., wind energy, oil and gas and management plans not view lek

  14. Integral Public Activities as a Support to the Site Selection Process for LILW Repository

    Zeleznik, N.; Kralj, M.

    2008-01-01

    The first site selection process for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) repository took place between 1990 and 1993 in Slovenia was stopped unsuccessfully with very strong public opposition at local level, followed by political withdrawal on national level. As one of the consequences ARAO started to develop new approach to the site selection based also on the findings from sociology, psychology and other human sciences. The recommendations on public involvement and transparency were so strong that ARAO started with first limited public relation (PR) activities which later grew to the PR process which supports all technical activities in ARAO. Presently the PR process covers communication, information and research activities and assures careful planning, prompt responds and involvement of the highest responsible persons at ARAO. Integral public relation activities are divided in several parts. Majority of activities support the on-going site selection process where activities are presently focused on functioning of local partnerships developed as a basic communication tool to involve as much citizens and public as possible on local level. Presently two local partnerships are working in Krsko and Brezice community with clear role to enhance public involvement according to Aarchus convention. Each of the partnerships is organized in a specific way adjusted to the local needs. Communication activities are organized also for different other projects and are preparing the necessary basis for the work with different groups of stake holders and in different situations. As a foundation very broad information material, such as books, leaflets, reports, magazines, video cassettes, CD and DVD on the radioactive waste management is prepared and used for different purposes. We also try to be proactive with web pages and have a well organized visitors' center. Improvement of public relation process is achieved through constant survey and feed-back information

  15. Use of strategic environmental assessment in the site selection process for a radioactive waste disposal facility in Slovenia.

    Dermol, Urška; Kontić, Branko

    2011-01-01

    The benefits of strategic environmental considerations in the process of siting a repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) are presented. The benefits have been explored by analyzing differences between the two site selection processes. One is a so-called official site selection process, which is implemented by the Agency for radwaste management (ARAO); the other is an optimization process suggested by experts working in the area of environmental impact assessment (EIA) and land-use (spatial) planning. The criteria on which the comparison of the results of the two site selection processes has been based are spatial organization, environmental impact, safety in terms of potential exposure of the population to radioactivity released from the repository, and feasibility of the repository from the technical, financial/economic and social point of view (the latter relates to consent by the local community for siting the repository). The site selection processes have been compared with the support of the decision expert system named DEX. The results of the comparison indicate that the sites selected by ARAO meet fewer suitability criteria than those identified by applying strategic environmental considerations in the framework of the optimization process. This result stands when taking into account spatial, environmental, safety and technical feasibility points of view. Acceptability of a site by a local community could not have been tested, since the formal site selection process has not yet been concluded; this remains as an uncertain and open point of the comparison. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of Public Acceptability in LILW Repository Site Selection Process in Slovenia

    Zeleznik, N.; Kralj, M.; Polic, M.; Kos, D.

    2006-01-01

    Slovenian national agency for radioactive waste management ARAO has after longer period of preparation activities started with the more direct work on the site selection process for low and intermediate level waste (LILW) repository. In November 2004, the official administrative procedure for the siting of the repository started with the First public conference on spatial planning issues carried out by the Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning together with ARAO. Just after the conference the Program for the preparation of the Detailed plan of national importance for the LILW repository was accepted by the Ministry. ARAO invited in the beginning of December 2004 all local communities in Slovenia (except 3 of them which have already refused to cooperate) to participate and volunteer a site or area in their local community for further investigation. The invitation for the application of local communities provided clear instructions on how to participate in further determination of potentially suitable sites and under what conditions. By the beginning of April 2005 ARAO finished the bidding process with 8 applications of local communities which decided to participate in the further site selection for LILW repository. Due to the financial and other limitations (human resources, spatial planning procedure, etc.) only in maximum three local communities further characterization could be performed. Therefore prefeasibility study of all volunteer local communities was conducted in which besides technical, environmental and spatial availability also public acceptability should be assessed. For assessment of public acceptability the methodology has been prepared which includes objective parameters of local environment (such as demographic data, economy, infrastructure and social issues in relation to the repository) as well as subjective values (attitudes of individual groups - opinion makers, politicians and all residents - to the sitting and construction of LILW

  17. Assessment of public acceptability in site selection process. The methodology and the results

    Zeleznik, N.; Kralj, M.; Polic, M.; Kos, D.; Pek Drapal, D.

    2005-01-01

    The site selection process for the low and intermediate radioactive waste (LILW) repository in Slovenia follows the mixed mode approach according to the model proposed by IAEA. After finishing the conceptual and planning stage in 1999, and after identification of the potentially suitable areas in the area survey stage in 2001, ARAO (Agency for radwaste management) invited all municipalities to volunteer in the procedure of placing the LILW repository in the physical environment. A positive response was received from eight municipalities, though three municipalities later resigned from it. A selection between twelve locations in these five municipalities had to be done because Slovenian procedure provides for only three locations to be further evaluated in the stage of identification of potentially suitable sites. A pre-feasibility study of the public acceptability, together with the technical aspects (safety, technical functionality, economic, environmental and spatial aspects) was performed. The aspect of public acceptability included objective and subjective evaluation criteria. The former included information obtained from studies of demography, data on local economy, infrastructure and eventual environmental problems, media analysis, and earlier public opinion polls. The latter included data obtained from topical workshops, free phone line, telephone interviews with the general public and personal interviews with representatives of decision makers and public opinion leaders, as well as a public opinion poll in all included communities. Evaluated municipalities were ranked regarding their social suitability for the radioactive waste site. (author)

  18. Resolving public conflict in site selection process - a risk communication approach

    Ishizaka, Kaoru; Tanaka, Masaru

    2003-01-01

    In Japan, conflicts regarding the siting of waste disposal facilities occur frequently. In particular, siting of incinerators and landfills has become increasingly difficult because the public is highly concerned about the dioxin issues. Inefficient siting of waste disposal facilities causes several social problems, such as the shortage of waste treatment and disposal facilities, the rising of waste management costs and an increase in the consumption of resources. While dealing with a similar situation, the Chemical Society of Japan adopted a risk communication technique successfully. Hence, the pragmatic use of a risk communication technique is proposed to avoid conflicts and for a smooth information exchange to seek cooperation in waste management. In order to achieve this, a study was conducted to resolve conflicts between residents and the municipality for the selection of site for a solid waste treatment and disposal facility. This study aims to discuss the subject of risk communication for the waste disposal system in Japan. This study is performed through personal interviews and a questionnaire covering opposing parties in the town. As a result of the survey, a risk communication approach for a waste treatment and disposal system is presented in the paper addressing issues such as building of social trust, pragmatic use of the communication process, installation of credible information sources, and environmental education and awareness

  19. The procedure of alternative site selection within the report of the study group on the radioactive waste final repository selection process (AKEnd)

    Brenner, M.

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses the results of the report of the study group on the radioactive waste final repository selection process with respect to the alternative site selection procedure. Key points of the report are the long-term safety, the alternativity of sites and the concept of one repository. The critique on this report is focussed on the topics site selection and licensing procedures, civil participation, the factor time and the question of cost

  20. MUNICIPAL LANDFILL SITE SELECTION FOR ISFAHAN CITY BY USE OF FUZZY LOGIC AND ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS

    A. Afzali; J. M. V. Samani; M. Rashid

    2011-01-01

    Selecting the most suitable site for landfill can avoid any ecological and socio-economical effects. The increase in industrial and economical development along with the increase of population growth in Isfahan city generates tremendous amount of solid waste within the region. Factors such as the scarcity of land, life span of landfill, and environmental considerations warrant that the scientific and fundamental studies are carried in selecting the suitability of a landfill site. The analysis...

  1. Process for selecting a site for Canada's deep geological repository for used nuclear fuel

    Facella, J.; Belfadhel, M.B.

    2011-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is responsible for implementing Adaptive Phased Management, the approach selected by the Government of Canada for long-term management of used nuclear fuel waste generated by Canadian nuclear reactors. The ultimate objective of Adaptive Phased Management is the centralized containment and isolation of Canada's used nuclear fuel in a Deep Geological Repository in a suitable crystalline or sedimentary rock formation at a depth of about 500m. The repository will consist of a series of access and service shafts and a series of tunnels leading to placement rooms where used fuel will be placed and sealed in competent rock using a multi-barrier system which includes long lived specially designed containers, sealing materials such as bentonite and the rock itself. The used fuel will be monitored throughout all phases of implementation and will also remain retrievable for an extended period of time. In May 2010, the NWMO published the site selection process that serves as the road map to decision-making on the location for the deep geological repository. NWMO initiated the process with a first stage that invites communities to learn more about the project and the site selection process. NWMO is actively building awareness of the project and, on request of communities, is delivering briefings, supporting community capacity building and undertaking high-level screenings of site suitability. The paper provides a brief description of: Adaptive Phased Management including the deep geological repository which is its ultimate goal, and the design of the site selection process, and importantly the approach to assessing the suitability of sites from both a social and technical perspective. The paper will outline how NWMO sought to develop a socially-acceptable site selection process as a firm foundation for future decisions on siting. Through a two-year collaborative process, NWMO sought to understand the expectations of

  2. Societal and Political Issues of Site Selection Process Development for the LILW Repository in Slovenia

    Polic, Marko; KoS, Drago [Univ. of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Zeleznik, Nadja [ARAO, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2006-09-15

    are easier and have less tension. In principle especially members of the local communities were satisfied with the process of their involvement and contacts with ARAO representatives. SI organization is dependant on the regulation of the whole site selection process. Due to the fact that LILW repository should be located in the territory of one local community, and that it is the right of that local community to decide about the issue, SI could not work without the territorial notion. National identifications regarding the nuclear issues are not as strong as local ones. Nevertheless it has certain influences connected to the reactions to the attitudes and behaviour of some neighbouring states (e.g. Austria, Croatia). While Austrian opposition to the Slovenian nuclear program has the opposite influence in Slovenia, Croatian rejection of 'their' waste (they own half of the NPP Krsko) undermines the search for a site for a repository somewhere in Slovenia. The siting process in Slovenia is going on more or less successfully, learning from its successes and pitfalls and is addressing these requirements.

  3. Societal and Political Issues of Site Selection Process Development for the LILW Repository in Slovenia

    Polic, Marko; KoS, Drago; Zeleznik, Nadja

    2006-01-01

    principle especially members of the local communities were satisfied with the process of their involvement and contacts with ARAO representatives. SI organization is dependant on the regulation of the whole site selection process. Due to the fact that LILW repository should be located in the territory of one local community, and that it is the right of that local community to decide about the issue, SI could not work without the territorial notion. National identifications regarding the nuclear issues are not as strong as local ones. Nevertheless it has certain influences connected to the reactions to the attitudes and behaviour of some neighbouring states (e.g. Austria, Croatia). While Austrian opposition to the Slovenian nuclear program has the opposite influence in Slovenia, Croatian rejection of 'their' waste (they own half of the NPP Krsko) undermines the search for a site for a repository somewhere in Slovenia. The siting process in Slovenia is going on more or less successfully, learning from its successes and pitfalls and is addressing these requirements

  4. Comparative Analysis of Site-Selection Process for Power Plants in Korea: Cases of Thermal, Nuclear, and Renewable Energies

    Kang, M.; Lee, M.; Yoon, J. W.; Choi, H. C.; Chu, C.; Lee, H.; Park, J.

    2017-01-01

    There are various conflicts related to power generation facilities; however, the conflicts that arise during the process of luring facilities or site selection, as in the previous cases, can eventually influence greatly the implementation of the national energy policy or strategy. This study analyzed the conflict phenomenon that occurred in the site selection policy of the power generation facilities through the case studies. We selected the most recent conflict cases by each energy source, identified the qualitative context characteristics of the cases and tried to suggest the policy leverages. In this study, it is concluded that the cause of conflicts in decision making system for site selection of power plants is insufficient yet due to the variable circumstances such as environmental events, stakeholder range, etc. However, the conclusions obtained from the case study are difficult generalization without specific prescription books, so further studies for those areas are required.

  5. Process for selecting a site for Canada's deep geological repository for used nuclear fuel

    Facella, J.; Ben Belfadhel, M.; Patton, P.

    2012-01-01

    'Full Text:' The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is responsible for implementing Adaptive Phased Management, the approach selected by the Government of Canada for long-term management of used nuclear fuel waste generated by Canadian nuclear reactors. The ultimate objective of Adaptive Phased Management is the centralized containment and isolation of Canada's used nuclear fuel in a Deep Geological Repository in a suitable crystalline or sedimentary rock formation at a depth of about 500m. The repository will consist of a series of access and service shafts and a series of tunnels leading to placement rooms where used fuel will be placed and sealed in competent rock using a multi-barrier system which includes long lived specially designed containers, sealing materials such as bentonite and the rock itself. The used fuel will be monitored throughout all phases of implementation and will also remain retrievable for an extended period of time. In May 2010, the NWMO published the site selection process that serves as the road map to decision-making on the location for the deep geological repository. NWMO initiated the process with a first stage that invites communities to learn more about the project and the site selection process. NWMO is actively building awareness of the project and, on request of communities, is delivering briefings, supporting community capacity building and undertaking screenings of site suitability. This panel presentation provides a brief description of: Adaptive Phased Management including the deep geological repository which is its ultimate goal, and the design of the site selection process, and importantly the approach to assessing the suitability of sites from both a social and technical perspective. The panel presentation will be conducted in three parts: site selection process and engagement, Aboriginal engagement and Technical evaluations, followed by a discussion. The presentation will outline how NWMO sought

  6. Deep borehole disposition of surplus fissile materials-The site selection process

    Heiken, G.; WoldeGabriel, G.; Morley, R.; Plannerer, H.

    1996-01-01

    One option for disposing of excess weapons plutonium is to place it near the base of deep boreholes in stable crystalline rocks. The technology exists to immediately begin the design of this means of disposition and there are many attractive sites available within the conterminous US. The borehole system utilizes mainly natural barriers to preven migration of Pu and U to the Earth's surface. Careful site selection ensures favorable geologic conditions that provide natural long-lived migration barriers; they include deep, extremely stable rock formations, strongly reducing brines that exhibit increasing salinity with depth, and most importantly, demonstrated isolation or non-communication of deep fluids with the biosphere for millions of years. This isolation is the most important characteristic, with the other conditions mainly being those that will enhance the potential of locating and maintaining the isolated zones. Candidate sites will probably be located on the craton in very old Precambrian crystalline rocks, most likely the center of a granitic pluton. The sites will be located in tectonically stable areas with no recent volcanic or seismic activity, and situated away from tectonic features that might become active in the near geologic future

  7. Site selection: Past and present

    Tilford, N.R.

    1994-01-01

    Site selection has been going on since the earliest times. The process has evolved through the Industrial Revolution to the present period of exploding population and environmental awareness. Now the work must be done both with increasing sophistication and greater transparency. Modern techniques for site selection have been developed during the last two decades or so, utilizing a teachable body of knowledge and a growing literature. Many firms and individuals have contributed to this growing field. The driving force has been the need for such a process in siting and licensing of critical facilities such as nuclear power plants. A list of crucial, documented steps for identifying social impacts and acceptability are provided. A recent innovation is the self-selection method developed by government. The Superconducting Supercollider serves as an example of this approach. Geological or geologically dependent factors often dominate the process. The role as engineering and environmental geoscientists is to provide responsible leadership, consultation, and communication to the effort

  8. Site selection process for new nuclear power plants - a method to support decision making and improving public participation

    Martins, Vivian B.; Cunha, Tatiana S. da; Simoes Filho, Francisco Fernando Lamego; Lapa, Celso Marcelo F.

    2011-01-01

    The Brazilian Energy Plan (PNE 2030) that guides the Government in formulating its strategy for expanding energy supply by 2030 highlights the need for the Brazilian electrical system have more than 4,000 MW from nuclear sources by 2025. Therefore, the Government presented a proposal to build four more nuclear power plants with capacity of 1,000 MW each, at first, two in the Northeast and two in Southeast. The selection and site assessment are key parts of the installation process of a nuclear plant and may significantly affect the cost, public acceptance and safety of the facility during its entire life cycle. The result of this initial stage, it can even seriously affect program success. Wrong decisions in the process of site selection may also require a financial commitment to higher planned in a later phase of the project, besides causing extensive and expensive downtime. Select the location where these units will be built is not a trivial process, because involves the consideration of multiple criteria and judgments in addition to obtaining, organizing and managing a diverse range of data, both qualitative and quantitative, to assist in decision making and ensure that the site selected is the most appropriate in relation to safety and technical, economic and environmental feasibility. This paper presents an overview of the site selection process and its stages, the criteria involved in each step, the tools to support decision making that can be used and the difficulties in applying a formal process of decision making. Also discussed are ways to make the process more transparent and democratic, increasing public involvement as a way to improve acceptance and reduce opposition from various sectors of society, trying to minimize the expense and time involved in the implementation of undertakings of this kind. (author)

  9. Technical, normative and social aspects of the site selection process for radioactive waste repositories

    Branco, Otavio E.A.; Rodrigues, Paulo C.H.; Carvalho Filho, Carlos A.; Cota, Stela D.S.; Ferreira, Vinicius V.M.; Peres, Sueli S.; Hiromoto, Goro

    2009-01-01

    In force since 2001, the Federal Law 10.308 states, in article 37, that the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN should start studies for the implementation of a final radioactive waste repository, 'in the shortest timeframe technically feasible'. Nevertheless, not only technical aspects have to be taken into account to accomplish with this schedule, but, also factors of political, economic and social nature. In this paper, the importance and impact of public acceptance aspects are discussed, as well as the methodology of site selection for radioactive wastes repositories, and proposals to accommodate the emanated criteria from the existing legislation. Additionally, practical results from the international experience in the implementation of such deposits are presented. (author)

  10. HOW DO STUDENTS SELECT SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES? AN ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS (AHP) MODEL

    Chun Meng Tang; Miang Hong Ngerng

    2015-01-01

    Social networking sites are popular among university students, and students today are indeed spoiled for choice. New emerging social networking sites sprout up amid popular sites, while some existing ones die out. Given the choice of so many social networking sites, how do students decide which one they will sign up for and stay on as an active user? The answer to this question is of interest to social networking site designers and marketers. The market of social networking sites is highly co...

  11. Further development of public participation in the site-selection and approval process of a final repository in Germany

    Barth, Regine; Kallenbach-Herbert, Beate [OeEo-Institute e.V., Inst. for Applied Ecology, Darmstadt (Germany); Arens, Georg [Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS), Salzgitter (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    This paper reflects the first findings of a current research project funded by the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection and conducted by an interdisciplinary working group of the OEko-Institute. One focus of this project is the systematic analysis of past and existing participatory processes in different nuclear and non-nuclear projects. On the basis of this analysis and a literature review a specific concept for public participation in the site-selection and approval process of a repository for high radioactive waste (HAW repository) in Germany will be derived. The concept shall foster transparency and acceptance. The working group of the OEko-Institute combines long standing research experience and an intimate knowledge of radioactive waste management including political, technical, management and social problems of final disposal on the one hand. On the other hand members play an active role in stakeholder processes of different non-nuclear projects as well as experience with a wide range of participative measures and their impact. This allows an approach which integrates the specific features of radioactive waste disposal with a wider perspective on the demands and opportunities of stakeholder processes. The procedure of site selection for a HAW repository in Germany still has to be specified. The procedure introduced by the 'Committee on a Site Selection Procedure for Repository Sites' (Arbeitskreis Auswahlverfahren Endlagerstandorte - AkEnd) has not been adopted. The Committee had suggested installing a negotiation group to discuss the AkEnd proposals in the so called 'Phase II'. This suggestion could not be followed because not all relevant stakeholders were willing to participate. An internal draft for a federal law implementing main elements of the AkEnd findings was developed by the Ministry for Environment in 2005, but has never been brought to the cabinet. Due to the change of Government in Germany, the next steps still are

  12. Further development of public participation in the site-selection and approval process of a final repository in Germany

    Barth, Regine; Kallenbach-Herbert, Beate; Arens, Georg

    2006-01-01

    This paper reflects the first findings of a current research project funded by the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection and conducted by an interdisciplinary working group of the OEko-Institute. One focus of this project is the systematic analysis of past and existing participatory processes in different nuclear and non-nuclear projects. On the basis of this analysis and a literature review a specific concept for public participation in the site-selection and approval process of a repository for high radioactive waste (HAW repository) in Germany will be derived. The concept shall foster transparency and acceptance. The working group of the OEko-Institute combines long standing research experience and an intimate knowledge of radioactive waste management including political, technical, management and social problems of final disposal on the one hand. On the other hand members play an active role in stakeholder processes of different non-nuclear projects as well as experience with a wide range of participative measures and their impact. This allows an approach which integrates the specific features of radioactive waste disposal with a wider perspective on the demands and opportunities of stakeholder processes. The procedure of site selection for a HAW repository in Germany still has to be specified. The procedure introduced by the 'Committee on a Site Selection Procedure for Repository Sites' (Arbeitskreis Auswahlverfahren Endlagerstandorte - AkEnd) has not been adopted. The Committee had suggested installing a negotiation group to discuss the AkEnd proposals in the so called 'Phase II'. This suggestion could not be followed because not all relevant stakeholders were willing to participate. An internal draft for a federal law implementing main elements of the AkEnd findings was developed by the Ministry for Environment in 2005, but has never been brought to the cabinet. Due to the change of Government in Germany, the next steps still are under consideration

  13. Site selection and rating process, and criteria for a social and political approach

    Boisseson, P. de; David, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: sensitive projects have been for long the problem of engineers and geologists, which tried to exert a kind of mono-cultural approach upon decisions regarding: a type of technical solution, a choice for a location. Experience drawn from various projects shows that public choices must be targeted to public acceptance and not only to hard-science community. Ways of rating site for sensitive projects according to criteria derived from social and political approach have been set up to provide global advice to decision makers. Bases are found among: socio economical statistics (type and rate of employment), land use regulations, history of public and local acceptance of former projects or public regulations. Representations can be drawn through social modeling and qualitative analysis. They can be of an utmost importance in decision making process. (authors)

  14. Public participation in the process of decision making related to site selection of low and intermediate radioactive waste repository

    Cerskov Klika, M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the work with public related to the acceptance of low and intermediate radioactive waste disposal facility in the Republic of Croatia. Activities performing in the field of public relations in the Hazardous Waste Management Agency - APO have been described. The fact that all the important decisions on site selections and constructions of different facilities, frequently controversial, were made in the former system without involvement of the public, makes them more significant. Therefore, the public is afraid of being cheated and manipulated again. In order to represent APO not only as the expert ecologically interested actor in the decision-making process on site selection, the study on forming the ecological image of the agency, has been done. In accordance with the results of the study, the activities related to the permanent informing and educating of the public, are being performed. In the end, it has been concluded that it is not enough to inform the public properly, accurately and timely, but it is necessary to educate the public too, because only in the way the public can be thoroughly involved in the decision-making process on site selection of radioactive waste disposal

  15. Advancing district energy development in Canada : a process for site selection, review and community participation

    2007-09-01

    Municipalities are giving greater consideration to the role of energy in the design, development, and operation of communities. Organizations and governments around the world are beginning to assess various energy risks beyond just the generation or delivery of energy. Municipalities planning for population growth no longer include only the potential increases in revenue from property taxes or the requirement to expand urban growth boundaries to accommodate new development. Energy planning requires an understanding of how communities can reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and local energy consumption. This report presented the development of a process in order to assist decision makers, business leaders and local citizens in reviewing the role of energy in urban regions and how district energy (DE) can be part of the solution. The report presented an overview of the approach developed to identify 10 communities across Canada for the application of DE to assist with urban revitalization, brownfield remediation, community economic development, and sustainable energy conservation. The report outlined the development of an energy selection framework and how the framework could be replicated in urban regions to identify the interest in a community for DE. It was concluded that development of a DE system is complex and requires consideration for the interaction of land use policies and energy supply goals, the support of senior decision makers at the public and private level, an open dialogue between planners, engineers, utility operators and developers, as well as an informed and involved citizens. 3 tabs., 1 fig., 8 appendices

  16. Survey report of site selection process on the basis of local partnerships. Slovenia and Belgium

    Yoshioka, Tatsuji; Nakata, Hisakazu; Kanzaki, Noriko; Osawa, Hideaki; Hayakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Local partnership approach to achieve stakeholder consensus on low-level waste disposal, with particular focus on the siting of repositories are adopted in Europe. Especially in Belgium and Slovenia, final repository site had been decided in each country. The authors investigate on these two cases on the basis of interviews with implementing organizations for final disposal, representatives of local partnerships and citizens concerned so that the problem of introducing a local partnership in Japan can be examined. Its results are used as a reference for studying measures to determine the radioactive final repository site in Japan. (author)

  17. Getting to Yes or Bailing on No: The Site Selection Process of Ethanol Plants in Wisconsin

    Tigges, Leann M.; Noble, Molly

    2012-01-01

    Prior studies of ethanol location rest on the assumption that ethanol producers are economic free agents--evaluating sites as if all counties are contenders for their business, weighing the availability of feedstocks along with their infrastructure needs, operating without ties to localities, and being subject to enticement from policy incentives.…

  18. The procedure of alternative site selection within the report of the study group on the radioactive waste final repository selection process (AKEnd)

    Nies, A.

    2005-01-01

    The study group on the selection procedures of radioactive waste final repository sites has presented the report in December 2002. The author dicusses the consequences of this report with respect to the site selection focussing on two topics: the serach for the best possible site and the prevention of prejudices

  19. Congressional-executive interaction and the nuclear waste repository site selection process

    Thurber, J.A.; Evanson, T.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) (P.L. 97-425) and the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 (NWPAA) (Title V of P.L. 100-203) provide the framework for the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) to find a permanent means for disposing of high-level nuclear waste in the US. The focus of this study is the congressional decision-making process associated with passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The passage of NWPAA was a direct result of the failure of the policy adopted in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. This study analyzes the nature of congressional nuclear waste policy-making through the lens of subsystems theory. The data analysis is primarily based on confidential interviews with over fifty key actors in the nuclear waste policy subsystem as well as an analysis of primary source documents

  20. Site specific information in site selection

    Aeikaes, T.; Hautojaervi, A.

    1998-01-01

    The programme for the siting of a deep repository for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel was started already in 1983 and is carried out today by Posiva Oy which continues the work started by Teollisuuden Voima Oy. The programme aims at site selection by the end of the year 2000. The programme has progressed in successive interim stages with defined goals. After an early phase for site identification, five sites were selected in 1987 for preliminary site characterisation. Three of these were selected and judged to be best suited for the more detailed characterisation in 1992. An additional new site was included into the programme based on a separate feasibility study in the beginning of 1997. Since the year 1983 several safety assessments together with technical plans of the facility have been completed. When approaching the site selection the needs for more detailed consideration of the site specific properties in the safety assessment have been increased. The Finnish regulator STUK has published a proposal for general safety requirements for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland. This set of requirements has been projected to be used in conjunction of the decision making by the end 2000. Based on the site evaluation all sites can provide a stable environment and there is evidence that the requirements for the longevity of the canister can be fulfilled at each site. In this manner the four candidate sites do not differ too much from each other. The main difference between the sites is in the salinity of the deep groundwater. The significance of differences in the salinity for the long-term safety cannot be defined yet. The differences may contribute to the discussion of the longevity of the bentonite buffer and also to the modelling of the groundwater flow and transport. The use of the geosphere as a transport barrier is basically culminated on the questions about sparse but fast flow routes and 'how bad channeling can be'. To answer these questions

  1. The procedure of alternative site selection within the report of the study group on the radioactive waste final repository selection process (AKEnd); Das Verfahren der alternativen Standortsuche im Bericht des Arbeitskreises Auswahlverfahren Endlagerstandorte (AKEnd)

    Brenner, M. [Jena Univ. (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The paper discusses the results of the report of the study group on the radioactive waste final repository selection process with respect to the alternative site selection procedure. Key points of the report are the long-term safety, the alternativity of sites and the concept of one repository. The critique on this report is focussed on the topics site selection and licensing procedures, civil participation, the factor time and the question of cost.

  2. Pathways analyses and their role in the decision making process for selection of low-level waste disposal sites

    Pin, F.G.; Oblow, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    Pathways analyses have been extensively used to evaluate the suitability of proposed sites for disposal of low-level radioactive waste. The analyses rely on conservative scenarios to describe potential human exposure to the waste. Conceptual and numerical models are used to simulate the long-term transport of contamination to man and additional conservatism generally is built into the analysis when assumptions concerning future events have to be made or when uncertainties concerning site or waste characteristics exist. This conservatism is useful in ascertaining whether the site provides an adequate buffer to persons outside the site boundary. In reaching conclusions concerning site capacity and site acceptability, however, considerations must be given to the uncertainties involved in the analysis. Analytical methods to quantitatively assess the sensitivity of the results to data uncertainties may prove useful in the decision making process for site suitability. 7 references, 1 figure

  3. SITE SELECTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS USING ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS METHOD IN A GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ENVIRONMENT IN GIROFT

    H. Javaheri, T. Nasrabadi, M. H. Jafarian, G. R. Rowshan, H. Khoshnam

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste generation is among the most significant sources which threaten the global environmental health. As an ideal selection depends on considering several independent factors concerning land use, socio economy and hydrogeology, the use of a multi criteria evaluation method seems inevitable. Taking benefit of geographic information system as a tool in combination with geographical information technology, equips the spatial decision support systems in appropriate site selection of sanitary landfills. The present study involves a kind of multi criteria evaluation method under the name of weighted linear combination by using geographical information technology as a practical instrument to evaluate the suitability of the vicinity of Giroft city in Kerman province of Iran for landfill. Water permeability, slope, distance from rivers, depth of underground watertable, distance from residential areas, distance from generation centers, general environmental criterion and distance from roads are the criteria which have been taken in to consideration in the process of analyzing. Superposing all of the raster type layers including geomorphologic, hydrologic, humanistic and land use criteria in land suitability, the final zoning of appropriate, fairly appropriate and inappropriate districts have been identified. Considering relative priority of all criteria in comparison with others, a specific weight is designated to each criterion according to their total influence on the whole process of decision making. The results from the application of the presented methodology are zones for landfill with varying zonal land suitability. Finally the zones will be ranked in descending order to indicate the priority of different options in front of the eyes of decision makers. The results achieved by this study may help policy makers of Giroft city by a variety of options for being considered as sanitary landfill locations.

  4. Site remediation using biological processes

    Lei, J.; Sansregret, J.L.; Cyr, B.; Pouliot, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The main process used in the bioremediation of contaminated sites is the microbial degradation and mineralization of pollutants. The bioengineering processes developed and applied by the company to optimize the microbial degradation are described and full scale case studies are reviewed. In each case, the site characteristics (type of contaminants, nature of soil, geographic location, etc.) and the results obtained are presented. The selected projects cover different bioremediation techniques (biopile, bioventing and air sparging), different contaminants (PAH, PCP, hydrocarbons) and different types of industrial sites (former gas work plant, petroleum depot, refinery, etc.)

  5. Multi-criteria site selection for fire services: the interaction with analytic hierarchy process and geographic information systems

    T. Erden

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study combines AHP and GIS to provide decision makers with a model to ensure optimal site location(s for fire stations selected. The roles of AHP and GIS in determining optimal locations are explained, criteria for site selection are outlined, and case study results for finding the optimal fire station locations in Istanbul, Turkey are included. The city of Istanbul has about 13 million residents and is the largest and most populated city in Turkey. The rapid and constant growth of Istanbul has resulted in the increased number of fire related cases. Fire incidents tend to increase year by year in parallel with city expansion, population and hazardous material facilities. Istanbul has seen a rise in reported fire incidents from 12 769 in 1994 to 30 089 in 2009 according to the interim report of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality Department of Fire Brigade. The average response time was approximately 7 min 3 s in 2009. The goal of this study is to propose optimal sites for new fire station creation to allow the Fire Brigade in Istanbul to reduce the average response time to 5 min or less. After determining the necessity of suggesting additional fire stations, the following steps are taken into account: six criteria are considered in this analysis. They are: High Population Density (HPD; Proximity to Main Roads (PMR; Distance from Existing Fire Stations (DEF; Distance from Hazardous Material Facilities (DHM; Wooden Building Density (WBD; and Distance from the Areas Subjected to Earthquake Risk (DER. DHM criterion, with the weight of 40%, is the most important criterion in this analysis. The remaining criteria have a weight range from 9% to 16%. Moreover, the following steps are performed: representation of criterion map layers in GIS environment; classification of raster datasets; calculating the result raster map (suitability map for potential fire stations; and offering a model that supports decision makers in selecting fire station sites

  6. Use of the Geographic Information System and Analytic Hierarchy Process for Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Site Selection: A Case Study of Najafabad, Iran

    A. Afzali

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Following technological advancements and integrated municipal solid waste management in recent decades, various methods such as recycling, biotreatment, thermal treatment, and sanitary landfills have been developed and employed. Creating sanitary landfills is a major strategy in the integrated solid waste management hierarchy. It is cheaper and thus more common than other disposal methods. Selecting a suitable solid waste landfill site can prevent adverse ecological and socioeconomic effects. Landfill site selection requires the analysis of spatial data, regulations, and accepted criteria. The present study aimed to use the geographic information system and the analytic hierarchy process to identify an appropriate landfill site for municipal solid wastes in Najafabad (Isfahan, Iran. Environmental and socioeconomic criteria were evaluated through different information layers in the Boolean and fuzzy logics. The analytical hierarchy process was applied for weighing the fuzzy information layers. Subsequently, two suitable sites were identified by superimposing the maps from the Boolean and fuzzy logics and considering the minimum required landfill area for 20 years. However, proximity of these two sites to Tiran (a nearby city made them undesirable landfill sites for Najafabad. Therefore, due to the existing restrictions in Najafabad, the possibility of creating landfill sites in common with adjacent cities should be further investigated.

  7. NGNP Site Selection Status Report

    Holbrook, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing process, the preliminary site activities that have taken place in the current fiscal year (FY-06), and the site-related plans for FY-07. The NRC maintains oversight of the construction and operation of a facility throughout its lifetime to assure compliance with the Commission's regulations for the protection of public health and safety, the common defense and security, and the environment. To implement this process, all nuclear power plant applications must undergo a safety review, an environmental review, and antitrust review by the NRC.

  8. ITER site selection studies in Spain

    Medrano, M.; Alejaldre, C.; Doncel, J.; Garcia, A.; Ibarra, A.; Jimenez, J.A.; Sanchez de Mora, M.A.; Alcala, F.; Diez, J.E.; Dominguez, M.; Albisu, F.

    2003-01-01

    The studies carried out to evaluate and select a candidate site for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) construction in Spain are presented in this paper. The ITER design, completed in July 2001, considered a number of technical requirements that must be fulfilled by the selected site. Several assumptions concerning the ITER site were made in order to carry on the design before final site selection. In the studies undertaken for ITER site selection in Spain, the referred technical requirements and assumptions were applied across the whole of Spain and two areas were identified as being preferential. These areas are on the Mediterranean coast and are situated in the Catalan and Valencian regions. A comparative evaluation based on technical characteristics for the concrete plots, proposed within the preferential areas, has been done. The result of these studies was the selection of a site that was deemed to be the most competitive--Vandellos (Tarragona)--and it was proposed to the European Commission for detailed studies in order to be considered as a possible European site for ITER construction. Another key factor for hosting ITER in Spain, is the licensing process. The present status is summarised in this paper

  9. Brownfields Technology Primer: Selecting and Using Phytoremediation for Site Cleanup

    This primer explains the phytoremediation process, discusses the potential advantages and considerations in selecting phytoremediation to clean up brownfields sites, and provides information on additional resources about phytoremediation.

  10. Site selection for nuclear power plants

    Ehjchkholz, D.

    1980-01-01

    Problem of NPP site selection in the USA including engineering factors, radiation and environmental protection factors is stated in detail. Floating and underground sites are considered especially. The attention in paid to waste storage and risk criterium in siting [ru

  11. Replacement Power Facility site selection report

    Wike, L.D.; Toole, G.L.; Specht, W.L.

    1992-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has proposed the construction and operation of a Replacement Power Facility (RPF) for supplementing and replacing existing sources of steam and possibly electricity at the Savannah River Site (SRS). DOE is preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for this project As part of the impact analysis of the proposed action, the EIS will include a detailed description of the environment where the RPF will be constructed. This description must be specific to the recommended site at SRS, which contains more than 300 square miles of land including streams, lakes, impoundments, wetlands, and upland areas. A formal site-selection process was designed and implemented to identify the preferred RPF site.

  12. Using boolean and fuzzy logic combined with analytic hierarchy process for hazardous waste landfill site selection: A case study from Hormozgan province, Iran

    Mahdieh Saadat Foomani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hazardous wastes include numerous kinds of discarded chemicals and other wastes generated from industrial, commercial, and institutional activities. These types of waste present immediate or long-term risks to humans, animals, plants, or the environment and therefore require special handling for safe disposal. Landfills that can accept hazardous wastes are excavated or engineered sites where these special types of waste can be disposed of securely. Since landfills are permanent sites, special attention must be afforded in selecting the location. This paper investigated the use of the Boolean theory and Fuzzy logic in combination with Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP methods by applying GIS and IDRISI software for the selection of a hazardous waste landfill site in the Iranian province of Hormozgan. The best location was determined via the Fuzzy and the Boolean methodologies. By collating the area selected for the hazardous waste landfill, this study found that Fuzzy logic with an AND operator had the best options for this purpose. In the end, the most suitable area for a hazardous waste landfill was about 1.6 km2 which was obtained by employing Fuzzy in combination with AHP and by using an AND operator. In addition, all the fundamental criteria affecting the landfill location were considered.

  13. Analytic hierarchy process-based approach for selecting a Pareto-optimal solution of a multi-objective, multi-site supply-chain planning problem

    Ayadi, Omar; Felfel, Houssem; Masmoudi, Faouzi

    2017-07-01

    The current manufacturing environment has changed from traditional single-plant to multi-site supply chain where multiple plants are serving customer demands. In this article, a tactical multi-objective, multi-period, multi-product, multi-site supply-chain planning problem is proposed. A corresponding optimization model aiming to simultaneously minimize the total cost, maximize product quality and maximize the customer satisfaction demand level is developed. The proposed solution approach yields to a front of Pareto-optimal solutions that represents the trade-offs among the different objectives. Subsequently, the analytic hierarchy process method is applied to select the best Pareto-optimal solution according to the preferences of the decision maker. The robustness of the solutions and the proposed approach are discussed based on a sensitivity analysis and an application to a real case from the textile and apparel industry.

  14. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Siting Guide, Site selection and evaluation criteria for an early site permit application

    1993-01-01

    In August 1991, the Joint Contractors came to agreement with Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Department of Energy (DOE) on a workscope for the cost-shared Early Site Permit Demonstration Program. One task within the scope was the development of a guide for site selection criteria and procedures. A generic Siting Guide his been prepared that is a roadmap and tool for applicants to use developing detailed siting plans for their specific region of the country. The guide presents three fundamental principles that, if used, ensure a high degree of success for an ESP applicant. First, the site selection process should take into consideration environmentally diverse site locations within a given region of interest. Second, the process should contain appropriate opportunities for input from the public. Third, the process should be applied so that it is clearly reasonable to an impartial observer, based on appropriately selected criteria, including criteria which demonstrate that the site can host an advanced light water reactor (ALWR). The Siting Guide provides for a systematic, comprehensive site selection process in which three basic types of criteria (exclusionary, avoidance, and suitability) are presented via a four-step procedure. It provides a check list of the criteria for each one of these steps. Criteria are applied qualitatively, as well as presented numerically, within the guide. The applicant should use the generic guide as an exhaustive checklist, customizing the guide to his individual situation

  15. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Siting Guide, Site selection and evaluation criteria for an early site permit application. Revision 1

    1993-03-24

    In August 1991, the Joint Contractors came to agreement with Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Department of Energy (DOE) on a workscope for the cost-shared Early Site Permit Demonstration Program. One task within the scope was the development of a guide for site selection criteria and procedures. A generic Siting Guide his been prepared that is a roadmap and tool for applicants to use developing detailed siting plans for their specific region of the country. The guide presents three fundamental principles that, if used, ensure a high degree of success for an ESP applicant. First, the site selection process should take into consideration environmentally diverse site locations within a given region of interest. Second, the process should contain appropriate opportunities for input from the public. Third, the process should be applied so that it is clearly reasonable to an impartial observer, based on appropriately selected criteria, including criteria which demonstrate that the site can host an advanced light water reactor (ALWR). The Siting Guide provides for a systematic, comprehensive site selection process in which three basic types of criteria (exclusionary, avoidance, and suitability) are presented via a four-step procedure. It provides a check list of the criteria for each one of these steps. Criteria are applied qualitatively, as well as presented numerically, within the guide. The applicant should use the generic guide as an exhaustive checklist, customizing the guide to his individual situation.

  16. Public Involvement in Repository Site Selection for Nuclear Waste: Towards a more Dynamic View in Decision-Making Processes

    Kruetli, Pius; Stauffacher, Michael; Flueeler, Thomas; Scholz, Roland W. [ETH Zuerich (Switzerland). lnst. for Human-Environment Systems (HES)

    2006-09-15

    This paper discusses possibilities of public involvement in radioactive waste management. A general overview of the radioactive waste issue is presented referring to a proposed model of the respective decision-making process. Based on the well known participation ladder by Arnstein, we differentiate various intensities of public involvement. A matrix with public involvement and the decision-making process is introduced and three prototypical patterns are discussed. We conclude that time frame, the level of public involvement and the mission have to be considered as well as techniques and the overarching context - all in all, a systematic and dynamic approach for public involvement is needed.

  17. Public Involvement in Repository Site Selection for Nuclear Waste: Towards a more Dynamic View in Decision-Making Processes

    Kruetli, Pius; Stauffacher, Michael; Flueeler, Thomas; Scholz, Roland W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses possibilities of public involvement in radioactive waste management. A general overview of the radioactive waste issue is presented referring to a proposed model of the respective decision-making process. Based on the well known participation ladder by Arnstein, we differentiate various intensities of public involvement. A matrix with public involvement and the decision-making process is introduced and three prototypical patterns are discussed. We conclude that time frame, the level of public involvement and the mission have to be considered as well as techniques and the overarching context - all in all, a systematic and dynamic approach for public involvement is needed

  18. Turbidity monitoring at select MDOT construction sites.

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this project was to establish baseline turbidity conditions at select construction : sites by establishing a water quality monitoring program and documenting MDOT approved : BMPs on site. In 2009 the United States Environmental Prote...

  19. Site Selection for Hvdc Ground Electrodes

    Freire, P. F.; Pereira, S. Y.

    2014-12-01

    High-Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission systems are composed of a bipole transmission line with a converter substation at each end. Each substation may be equipped with a HVDC ground electrode, which is a wide area (up to 1 km Ø) and deep (from 3 to 100m) electrical grounding. When in normal operation, the ground electrode will dissipate in the soil the unbalance of the bipole (~1.5% of the rated current). When in monopolar operation with ground return, the HVDC electrode will inject in the soil the nominal pole continuous current, of about 2000 to 3000 Amperes, continuously for a period up to a few hours. HVDC ground electrodes site selection is a work based on extensive geophysical and geological surveys, in order to attend the desired design requirements established for the electrodes, considering both its operational conditions (maximum soil temperature, working life, local soil voltage gradients etc.) and the interference effects on the installations located up to 50 km away. This poster presents the geophysical investigations conducted primarily for the electrodes site selection, and subsequently for the development of the crust resistivity model, which will be used for the interference studies. A preliminary site selection is conducted, based on general geographical and geological criteria. Subsequently, the geology of each chosen area is surveyed in detail, by means of electromagnetic/electrical geophysical techniques, such as magnetotelluric (deep), TDEM (near-surface) and electroresistivity (shallow). Other complementary geologic and geotechnical surveys are conducted, such as wells drilling (for geotechnical characterization, measurement of the water table depth and water flow, and electromagnetic profiling), and soil and water sampling (for measurement of thermal parameters and evaluation of electrosmosis risk). The site evaluation is a dynamic process along the surveys, and some sites will be discarded. For the two or three final sites, the

  20. Overview of ONWI'S Salt site selection program

    Madia, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    In the past year, activities in the salt site selection program of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) have focused on narrowing the number and size of areas under consideration as candidate repository sites. The progressive focusing is illustrated. Bedded salt, in the Permian Basin of West Texas and the Paradox Basin of Utah, and salt domes in the Gulf Coast Salt Dome Region (including parts of East Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi) have been the subjects of geologic, environmental, and socioeconomic characterization of progressively greater detail as the screening process has proceeded. Detailed, field-oriented research and testing have superceded broad-based studies relying heavily on literature and other existing data. Coinciding with the increased field activities has been the publication of results and recommendations resulting from earlier program efforts

  1. A new approach to the LILW repository site selection

    Mele, I.; Zeleznik, N.

    1998-01-01

    After the failure of site selection, which was performed between 1990-1993, the Agency for Radwaste Management was urged to start a new site selection process for low and intermediate level waste (LILW). Since this is the most sensitive and delicate phase of the whole disposal project extensive analyses of foreign and domestic experiences in siting were performed. Three different models were studied and discussed at a workshop on preparation of the siting procedure for LILW repository. The participants invited to the workshop supported the combined approach, to the site selection, which is presented in this paper.(author)

  2. ARM Mentor Selection Process

    Sisterson, D. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program was created in 1989 with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop several highly instrumented ground stations to study cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer. In 2003, the ARM Program became a national scientific user facility, known as the ARM Climate Research Facility. This scientific infrastructure provides for fixed sites, mobile facilities, an aerial facility, and a data archive available for use by scientists worldwide through the ARM Climate Research Facility—a scientific user facility. The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as lead mentors. Lead mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They must also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets. The ARM Climate Research Facility is seeking the best overall qualified candidate who can fulfill lead mentor requirements in a timely manner.

  3. Site selection handbook: Workshop on site selection for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    1987-10-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA) requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to provide technical assistance to ''...those compact regions, host States and nonmember States determined by the Secretary to require assistance.'' Technical assistance has been defined to include, but not be limited to, ''technical guidelines for site selection.'' This site selection workshop was developed to assist States and Compacts in developing new low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal sites in accordance with the requirements of the LLRWPAA. The workshop comprises a series of lectures, discussion topics, and exercises, supported by this Site Selection Workshop Handbook, designed to examine various aspects of a comprehensive site selection program. It is not an exhaustive treatment of all aspects of site selection, nor is it prescriptive. The workshop focuses on the major elements of site selection and the tools that can be used to implement the site selection program

  4. Waste package materials selection process

    Roy, A.K.; Fish, R.L.; McCright, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) is evaluating a site at Yucca Mountain in Southern Nevada to determine its suitability as a mined geologic disposal system (MGDS) for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW). The B ampersand W Fuel Company (BWFC), as a part of the Management and Operating (M ampersand O) team in support of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP), is responsible for designing and developing the waste package for this potential repository. As part of this effort, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is responsible for testing materials and developing models for the materials to be used in the waste package. This paper is aimed at presenting the selection process for materials needed in fabricating the different components of the waste package

  5. 32 CFR 644.22 - Site selection.

    2010-07-01

    ... and site boards should be informed of any available lands, including marginal lands in civil works... HANDBOOK Project Planning Military (army and Air Force) and Other Federal Agencies § 644.22 Site selection... Engineer to prepare a Real Estate Planning Report or Real Estate Summary, making reference to the prior...

  6. Quality of data used in site selection

    Delvin, W.L.

    1986-01-01

    The selection of sites for nuclear waste repositories requires an investigative effort to characterize potential sites with regard to geologic properties and environmental considerations. Such investigations generate scientific and engineering data through the experimental testing and evaluation of geologic and environmental materials and through sampling and analysis of those materials. Data generated for site selection must be correct, defendable, and suitable for their intended use; they must have quality. Five quality characteristics are defined and practices followed by scientists and engineers producing data have been grouped into seven categories called quality guides. These are presented in the paper and the relationship between the guides (practices) and the five quality characteristics is shown

  7. Safety cases and siting processes

    Metlay, Daniel; Ewing, Rodney

    2014-01-01

    Central to any process for building a deep-mined geologic repository for high-activity radioactive waste is the development of a safety case. To date, such cases, in various forms have been elaborated for a variety of concepts for geologic disposal, including in salt, clay, argillite, crystalline rock (granite and gneiss) and volcanic tuff formations. In addition to the technical effort required to develop a safety case, increasingly nations have come to believe that it is also critical to obtain the consent of the region or community where the facility might be located. The purpose of this paper is to explore issues associated with just one aspect of consent-based siting: How can such a process be designed so that willingness to accept a site for a repository continues to be meaningful even as new technical knowledge and insights emerge during site characterisation? In short, what is the meaning of 'informed consent' in the context of repository development? (authors)

  8. The viking landing sites: selection and certification.

    Masursky, H; Crabill, N L

    1976-08-27

    During the past several years the Viking project developed plans to use Viking orbiter instruments and Earth-based radar to certify the suitability of the landing sites selected as the safest and most scientifically rewarding using Mariner 9 data. During June and July 1976, the Earth-based radar and orbital spacecraft observations of some of the prime and backup sites were completed. The results of these combined observations indicated that the Viking 1 prime landing area in the Chryse region of Mars is geologically varied and possibly more hazardous than expected, and was not certifiable as a site for the Viking 1 landing. Consequently, the site certification effort had to be drastically modified and lengthened to search for a site that might be safe enough to attempt to land. The selected site considered at 47.5 degrees W, 22.4 degrees N represented a compromise between desirable characteristics observed with visual images and those inferred from Earth-based radar. It lies in the Chryse region about 900 kilometers northwest of the original site. Viking 1 landed successfully at this site on 20 July 1976.

  9. Site selection for new nuclear power plants

    Rizzo, Paul C.; Dubinsky, Melissa; Tastan, Erdem Onur, E-mail: paul.rizzo@rizzoassoc.com, E-mail: melissa.dubinsky@rizzoassoc.com, E-mail: onur.tastan@rizzoassoc.com [RIZZO Associates Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Miano, Sandra C., E-mail: scm27@psu.edu [Eletrobras Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), RJ (Brazil); Pennsylvania State University, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, State College, PA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The current methodology for selecting the most advantageous site(s) for nuclear power plant (NPP) development is based on the latest evolution of protocols originally established in the 1990's by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and others for programs in the USA, and more recently by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), among others. The methodology includes protocols that account for lessons learned from both the Gen III projects and the catastrophic event at Fukushima, Japan. In general, the approach requires consideration of Exclusionary or 'fatal flaw' Criteria first, based on safety as well as significant impact to the environment or human health. Sites must meet all of these Exclusionary Criteria to be considered for NPP development. Next, the remaining sites are evaluated for Avoidance Criteria that affect primarily ease of construction and operations, which allow a ranking of sites best suited for NPP development. Finally, Suitability Criteria are applied to the potential sites to better differentiate between closely ranked sites. Generally, final selection of a Preferred and an Alternate Site will require balancing of factors, expert judgment, and client input, as sites being compared will differ in their scores associated with different Avoidance Criteria and Suitability Criteria. RIZZO Associates (RIZZO) offers in this paper a modification to this methodology for selecting the site for NPP development, which accords to the categories of Exclusionary, Avoidance and Suitability Criteria strict definitions which can be considered as Absolute Factors, Critical Factors, and Economic Factors for a more focused approach to site selection. Absolute Factors include all of the safety-related Exclusionary Criteria. Critical Factors are those that are difficult to overcome unless extraordinary mitigation measures are implemented; they have a significant impact on the ability of the project to be successful and may cause the

  10. Site selection for new nuclear power plants

    Rizzo, Paul C.; Dubinsky, Melissa; Tastan, Erdem Onur; Miano, Sandra C.

    2015-01-01

    The current methodology for selecting the most advantageous site(s) for nuclear power plant (NPP) development is based on the latest evolution of protocols originally established in the 1990's by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and others for programs in the USA, and more recently by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), among others. The methodology includes protocols that account for lessons learned from both the Gen III projects and the catastrophic event at Fukushima, Japan. In general, the approach requires consideration of Exclusionary or 'fatal flaw' Criteria first, based on safety as well as significant impact to the environment or human health. Sites must meet all of these Exclusionary Criteria to be considered for NPP development. Next, the remaining sites are evaluated for Avoidance Criteria that affect primarily ease of construction and operations, which allow a ranking of sites best suited for NPP development. Finally, Suitability Criteria are applied to the potential sites to better differentiate between closely ranked sites. Generally, final selection of a Preferred and an Alternate Site will require balancing of factors, expert judgment, and client input, as sites being compared will differ in their scores associated with different Avoidance Criteria and Suitability Criteria. RIZZO Associates (RIZZO) offers in this paper a modification to this methodology for selecting the site for NPP development, which accords to the categories of Exclusionary, Avoidance and Suitability Criteria strict definitions which can be considered as Absolute Factors, Critical Factors, and Economic Factors for a more focused approach to site selection. Absolute Factors include all of the safety-related Exclusionary Criteria. Critical Factors are those that are difficult to overcome unless extraordinary mitigation measures are implemented; they have a significant impact on the ability of the project to be successful and may cause the

  11. Site selection process for radioactive waste repository (radioactive facility) in Cuba as a fundamental safety criteria; Proceso de seleccion de emplazamiento como criterio fundamental de la seguridad para el repositorio de desechos radiactivos (instalacion radiactiva) en Cuba

    Vital, Jose Luis Peralta; Castillo, Reinaldo Gil; Chales Suarez, Gustavo; Rodriguez Reyes, Aymee [Centro de Tecnologia Nuclear, La Habana (Cuba)

    1999-11-01

    The paper show the process of search carried out for the selection of the safest site in the National territory, in order to sitting the Facility (Repository) that will disposal the low and intermediate level radioactive wastes, as well as the possible Storage Facility for nuclear spent Fuel (radioactive wastes of high activity). We summarize the obtained Methodology and the Criterions of exclusion adopted for the development of the Process of site selection, as well as the current condition of the researches that will permit the obtaining of the nominative objectives. (author) 18 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. Siting guidelines and their role in repository site selection

    Hanlon, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    The first requirement of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act was for the Secretary of Energy to issue general guidelines for siting repositories. The guidelines were to specify detailed geologic considerations that would be the primary criteria for the selection of sites in various host rocks, as well as factors that would qualify or disqualify any site from development as a repository. These guidelines were clearly intended to provide not only the framework for the siting program but also the stimulus for establishing effective communication and consultation among the parties involved in the program. The Act further required that the guidelines be a factor in the development of all future decision documents of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, including the environmental assessments that would accompany the nomination of sites for characterization, the site-characterization plans that are to be prepared before the sinking of exploratory shafts at any candidate site, and the environmental impact statement that is to support the recommendation of a site for development as a repository. More than two years after its passage, the intention of the Act for the guidelines has been realized. Concurred in by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission on June 22, 1984, and issued by the Department in November 1984, the guidelines include postclosure technical guidelines that apply to conditions governing the long-term performance of the repository system; preclosure technical guidelines that apply to conditions governing the siting, construction, operation, and closure of the repository; and system guidelines whose objective is to ensure that the regulatory requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission are met

  13. Final disposal of spent nuclear fuel - basis for site selection

    Anttila, P.

    1995-05-01

    International organizations, e.g. IAEA, have published several recommendations and guides for the safe disposal of radioactive waste. There are three major groups of issues affecting the site selection process, i.e. geological, environmental and socioeconomic. The first step of the site selection process is an inventory of potential host rock formations. After that, potential study areas are screened to identify sites for detailed investigations, prior to geological conditions and overall suitability for the safe disposal. This kind of stepwise site selection procedure has been used in Finland and in Sweden. A similar approach has been proposed in Canada, too. In accordance with the amendment to the Nuclear Energy Act, that entered into force in the beginning of 1995, Imatran Voima Oy has to make preparations for the final disposal of spent fuel in the Finnish bedrock. Relating to the possible site selection, the following geological factors, as internationally recommended and used in the Nordic countries, should be taken into account: topography, stability of bedrock, brokenness and fracturing of bedrock, size of bedrock block, rock type, predictability and natural resources. The bedrock of the Loviisa NPP site is a part of the Vyborg rapakivi massif. As a whole the rapakivi granite area forms a potential target area, although other rock types or areas cannot be excluded from possible site selection studies. (25 refs., 7 figs.)

  14. Siting Process for HLW Repository in Japan

    Masuda, S.; Kitayama, K.; Umeki, H.; Naito, M.

    2002-01-01

    In the year 2000, the geological disposal program for high-level radioactive waste in Japan moved from the phase of generic research and development (R and D) into the phase of implementation. Following legislation entitled the ''Specified Radioactive Waste Final Disposal Act'', the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) was established as the implementing organization. The assigned activities of NUMO include selection of the repository site, demonstration of disposal technology at the site, developing relevant licensing applications and construction, operation and closure of the repository. As the first milestone of siting process, NUMO announced to the public an overall procedure for selection of preliminary investigation areas for potential candidate sites on October 29, 2001. The procedure specifies that NUMO will solicit volunteer municipalities for preliminary investigation areas with publishing four documents as an information package. These documents are tentatively entitled ''Instructions for Application'', ''Siting Factors for the Preliminary Investigation Areas'', a ''Repository Concepts'' as well as an ''Site Investigation Community Outreach Scheme''

  15. Participation of concerned citizens in site selection decisions

    Appel, D.

    2003-01-01

    The contribution presents preliminary results of two international projects aimed at integrating the general public, or parts thereof, in the decision process of selecting ultimate storage sites. The author participated in these projects and is a former member of the task group for selection of ultimate storage sites (Arbeitskreis Auswahlverfahren Endlagerstandorte - AkEnd). The two projects are: Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) OECD, Project 'COWAM' (Community Waste Management) of the European Commission. The participants, goals and methods of the two projects were different, but they both presented concrete methods of selecting ultimate storage sites from the view of different actors in the form of case studies. The focus was on the participation of the public and its importance for success. Apart from meeting technical requirements the selection process should also take account of the requirements of democracy and citizens' participation in order to gain wide acceptance for its results. Deficiencies and advantages of the proposed selection processes are analyzed, and general requirements on the decision process in site selection are derived. (orig.) [de

  16. Site selection of nuclear power plants

    Schnappauf, W.

    1982-01-01

    A stock report of the development of the extent as well as the fundamentals of the conflict about nuclear energy shows that the effective law is both another cause and a mirror of the discussions about it. In total the investigation shows that the planning of site selection suffers from a number of legal problems. They are mainly of structural kind and are concerned with the issues of citizens' participation and graduation of procedures which are central for the management of the conflict. Therefore the present set of instruments is hardly able to contribute to increasing the acceptancy. The kind and extent of issues on one hand as well as the dimension of the conflict on the other make clear that the executive power itself is overtaxed. In this situation the legislative authorities are called up to take responsibility upon themselves. There are no objections from the constitutional or other aspects to legal site selection. (orig./HSCH) [de

  17. Site selection for Canada's national repository for used nuclear fuel

    Ben Belfadhel, M.; Watts, B.; Facella, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the Government of Canada selected Adaptive Phased Management as Canada's plan for the long-term management of Canada's used nuclear fuel. The approach provides for containment and isolation of the material in a deep geological repository at a safe site with an informed and willing host. The Nuclear Waste Management Organization is tasked through federal legislation with selecting the site and developing and managing all aspects of the plan. In May 2010, the organization published and initiated the site selection process that serves as a road map for decision making on the location for the deep geological repository. It continues to lead the site selection process for the repository and an associated Centre of Expertise. The screening process is advancing and, from an initial starting point of 22 communities expressing interest in learning about the project; as of September 2015, 9 communities are the focus of more detailed technical and community well-being studies. Preliminary Assessments, the third step in the 9-step site selection process are underway in these communities. The Assessments involve preliminary technical and social desktop and field assessments, engagement activities within and beyond each interested community, and involvement of Indigenous peoples and nearby municipalities in the planning and conduct of the work. This paper provides an update on the advancement of the site selection process. It describes the nature of the technical and social studies being conducted at this phase of work, including the progressively more detailed field studies that are the focus of technical work at the current stage, the approach to engagement and collaboration with communities to direct these studies, and the work underway to ensure the framework used for this assessment and engagement includes the range of priorities and perspectives of First Nations and Metis peoples and communities in the broader area. (author)

  18. Site selection for nuclear power plants and geologic seismologia influence

    Castro Feitosa, G. de.

    1985-01-01

    The site selection for nuclear power plants is analised concerning to the process, methodology and the phases in an overall project efforts. The factors affecting are analised on a general viewpoint, showing the considerations given to every one. The geologic and seismologic factors influence on the foundation design are more detailed analised, with required investigation and procedures accordingly sub-soil conditions in the site [pt

  19. Assessment parameters for coal-fired generation plant site selection

    Abbas, Ahmad Rosly; Low, K. S.; Ahmad, Ir. Mohd Noh; Chan, J. H.; Sasekumar, A.; Abdul Ghaffar, Fauza; Osman Salleh, Khairulmaini; Raj, John K.; Abdul Yamin, Saad; Wan Aida, Wan Zahari; Phua, Y. T.; Phua, Y. N.; Wong, Y. Y.; Jamaludin, Ir. Mashitah; Jaafar, Shaari

    2005-01-01

    In order to meet future demand for electricity, Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) is committedto the long-term strategic planning in locating suitable sites for future development of power stations.Site selection is an important process in the early planning stage of any power plant development asit will have significant implications on the capital investment, operational as well as the environmentand socio-economic costs of the power plant.The aim of this presentation is to briefly describe the t...

  20. High-level radioactive waste repositories site selection plan

    Castanon, A.; Recreo, F.

    1985-01-01

    A general vision of the high level nuclear waste (HLNW) and/or nuclear spent fuel facilities site selection processes is given, according to the main international nuclear safety regulatory organisms quidelines and the experience from those countries which have reached a larger development of their national nuclear programs. (author)

  1. Sexual selection: Another Darwinian process.

    Gayon, Jean

    2010-02-01

    the Darwin-Wallace controversy was that most Darwinian biologists avoided the subject of sexual selection until at least the 1950s, Ronald Fisher being a major exception. This controversy still deserves attention from modern evolutionary biologists, because the modern approach inherits from both Darwin and Wallace. The modern approach tends to present sexual selection as a special aspect of the theory of natural selection, although it also recognizes the big difficulties resulting from the inevitable interaction between these two natural processes of selection. And contra Wallace, it considers mate choice as a major process that deserves a proper evolutionary treatment. The paper's conclusion explains why sexual selection can be taken as a test case for a proper assessment of "Darwinism" as a scientific tradition. Darwin's and Wallace's attitudes towards sexual selection reveal two different interpretations of the principle of natural selection: Wallace's had an environmentalist conception of natural selection, whereas Darwin was primarily sensitive to the element of competition involved in the intimate mechanism of any natural process of selection. Sexual selection, which can lack adaptive significance, reveals this exemplarily. 2010 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Site-selective 13C labeling of proteins using erythrose

    Weininger, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    NMR-spectroscopy enables unique experimental studies on protein dynamics at atomic resolution. In order to obtain a full atom view on protein dynamics, and to study specific local processes like ring-flips, proton-transfer, or tautomerization, one has to perform studies on amino-acid side chains. A key requirement for these studies is site-selective labeling with 13 C and/or 1 H, which is achieved in the most general way by using site-selectively 13 C-enriched glucose (1- and 2- 13 C) as the carbon source in bacterial expression systems. Using this strategy, multiple sites in side chains, including aromatics, become site-selectively labeled and suitable for relaxation studies. Here we systematically investigate the use of site-selectively 13 C-enriched erythrose (1-, 2-, 3- and 4- 13 C) as a suitable precursor for 13 C labeled aromatic side chains. We quantify 13 C incorporation in nearly all sites in all 20 amino acids and compare the results to glucose based labeling. In general the erythrose approach results in more selective labeling. While there is only a minor gain for phenylalanine and tyrosine side-chains, the 13 C incorporation level for tryptophan is at least doubled. Additionally, the Phe ζ and Trp η2 positions become labeled. In the aliphatic side chains, labeling using erythrose yields isolated 13 C labels for certain positions, like Ile β and His β, making these sites suitable for dynamics studies. Using erythrose instead of glucose as a source for site-selective 13 C labeling enables unique or superior labeling for certain positions and is thereby expanding the toolbox for customized isotope labeling of amino-acid side-chains.

  3. Site selection - siting of the final repository for spent nuclear fuel

    2011-03-01

    SKB has selected Forsmark as the site for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The site selection is the end result of an extensive siting process that began in the early 1990s. The strategy and plan for the work was based on experience from investigations and development work over a period of more than ten years prior to then. This document describes the siting work and SKB's choice of site for the final repository. It also presents the information on which the choice was based and the reasons for the decisions made along the way. The document comprises Appendix PV to applications under the Nuclear Activities Act and the Environmental Code for licences to build and operate an encapsulation plant adjacent to the central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel in Oskarshamn, and to build and operate a final repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark in Oesthammar Municipality

  4. Site selection - siting of the final repository for spent nuclear fuel

    2011-03-15

    SKB has selected Forsmark as the site for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The site selection is the end result of an extensive siting process that began in the early 1990s. The strategy and plan for the work was based on experience from investigations and development work over a period of more than ten years prior to then. This document describes the siting work and SKB's choice of site for the final repository. It also presents the information on which the choice was based and the reasons for the decisions made along the way. The document comprises Appendix PV to applications under the Nuclear Activities Act and the Environmental Code for licences to build and operate an encapsulation plant adjacent to the central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel in Oskarshamn, and to build and operate a final repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark in Oesthammar Municipality

  5. Supplementary Report on the Regulation of Site Selection and Preparation

    Webster, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA), based on the regulatory actions underway or being considered in different members countries concerning the design and construction of advanced nuclear power plants, established a working group responsible of the regulatory issues of siting, licensing and regulatory oversight of generation III+ and generation IV nuclear reactors. The Working Group on the Regulation of New Reactors (WGRNR) main purposes are to improve regulatory reviews by comparing practices in member countries; improve the licensing process of new reactors by learning from best practices in member countries; ensure that construction inspection issues and construction experience is shared; promote cooperation among member countries to improve safety; and enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of the regulatory process. The WGRNR has established a programme of work which includes: the collection of construction experience and the assessing of the information collected in order to share lessons learned and good practices; the review of regulatory practices concerning the regulation of nuclear sites selection and preparation; and the review of recent regulatory experience concerning the licensing structure of regulatory staff and regulatory licensing process. The WGRNR began in May 2008 a task of examining and documenting the various practices used by regulatory authorities in the regulation of nuclear power plant siting. The purpose of the task was to provide the member countries with practical information that would be helpful in assessing and potentially improving their regulatory practices and requirements on the regulation of sites. The task considered also regulatory practices on sites where a mixture of activities are taking place (e.g. operating units, new construction, and decommissioning, etc.). This work led to the publication in 2010 of the Report on the Survey on Regulation of Site Selection and Preparation NEA/CNRA/R(2010)3. This

  6. NPP site selection: A systems engineering approach

    Pwani, Henry; Kamanja, Florah; Zolkaffly, Zulfakar; Jung, J. C. [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The necessity for improved decision making concerning the siting and licensing of major power facilities has been accelerated in the past decade by the increased environmental consciousness of the public and by the energy crisis. These problems are exceedingly complex due to their multiple objective nature, the many interest groups, the long range time horizons, and the inherent uncertainties of the potential impacts of any decision. Along with the relatively objective economic and engineering concerns, the more subjective factors involving safety, environmental, and social issues are crucial to the problem. The preferences of the general public, as consumers, the utility companies, as builders and operators of power plant facilities, and environmentalists and the government must be accounted for in analyzing power plant siting and licensing issues. We advocate for a systems engineering approach that articulates stake holder's requirements, expert judgements, and a systems decision making approach. The appropriateness and application of systems decision making process is illustrated in this paper.

  7. NPP site selection: A systems engineering approach

    Pwani, Henry; Kamanja, Florah; Zolkaffly, Zulfakar; Jung, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    The necessity for improved decision making concerning the siting and licensing of major power facilities has been accelerated in the past decade by the increased environmental consciousness of the public and by the energy crisis. These problems are exceedingly complex due to their multiple objective nature, the many interest groups, the long range time horizons, and the inherent uncertainties of the potential impacts of any decision. Along with the relatively objective economic and engineering concerns, the more subjective factors involving safety, environmental, and social issues are crucial to the problem. The preferences of the general public, as consumers, the utility companies, as builders and operators of power plant facilities, and environmentalists and the government must be accounted for in analyzing power plant siting and licensing issues. We advocate for a systems engineering approach that articulates stake holder's requirements, expert judgements, and a systems decision making approach. The appropriateness and application of systems decision making process is illustrated in this paper

  8. Site Selection for the Salt Disposition Facility at the Savannah River Site

    Gladden, J.B.; Rueter, K.J.; Morin, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    A site selection study was conducted to identify a suitable location for the construction and operation of a new Salt Disposition Facility (SDF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The facility to be sited is a single processing facility and support buildings that could house either of three technology alternatives being developed by the High Level Waste Systems Engineering Team: Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation, Crystalline Silicotitanate Non-Elutable Ion Exchange or Caustic Side Solvent Extraction. A fourth alternative, Direct Disposal in grout, is not part of the site selection study because a location has been identified that is unique to this technology (i.e., Z-Area). Facility site selection at SRS is a formal, documented process that seeks to optimize siting of new facilities with respect to facility-specific engineering requirements, sensitive environmental resources, and applicable regulatory requirements. In this manner, the prime objectives of cost minimization, environmental protection, and regulatory compliance are achieved. The results from this geotechnical characterization indicated that continued consideration be given to Site B for the proposed SDF. Suitable topography, the lack of surface hydrology and floodplain issues, no significant groundwater contamination, the presence of minor soft zones along the northeast portion of footprint, and no apparent geological structure in the Gordon Aquitard support this recommendation

  9. Integrated Site Model Process Model Report

    Booth, T.

    2000-01-01

    The Integrated Site Model (ISM) provides a framework for discussing the geologic features and properties of Yucca Mountain, which is being evaluated as a potential site for a geologic repository for the disposal of nuclear waste. The ISM is important to the evaluation of the site because it provides 3-D portrayals of site geologic, rock property, and mineralogic characteristics and their spatial variabilities. The ISM is not a single discrete model; rather, it is a set of static representations that provide three-dimensional (3-D), computer representations of site geology, selected hydrologic and rock properties, and mineralogic-characteristics data. These representations are manifested in three separate model components of the ISM: the Geologic Framework Model (GFM), the Rock Properties Model (RPM), and the Mineralogic Model (MM). The GFM provides a representation of the 3-D stratigraphy and geologic structure. Based on the framework provided by the GFM, the RPM and MM provide spatial simulations of the rock and hydrologic properties, and mineralogy, respectively. Functional summaries of the component models and their respective output are provided in Section 1.4. Each of the component models of the ISM considers different specific aspects of the site geologic setting. Each model was developed using unique methodologies and inputs, and the determination of the modeled units for each of the components is dependent on the requirements of that component. Therefore, while the ISM represents the integration of the rock properties and mineralogy into a geologic framework, the discussion of ISM construction and results is most appropriately presented in terms of the three separate components. This Process Model Report (PMR) summarizes the individual component models of the ISM (the GFM, RPM, and MM) and describes how the three components are constructed and combined to form the ISM

  10. Report on ''questions of site selection''

    Alt, Stefan; Kallenbach-Herbert, Beate; Neles, Julia

    2016-01-01

    The report on radioactive waste site selection questions covers the following issues: excluded options: disposal in space, Antarctic, Greenland or oceans, surface storage without final deep geologic repository; possible alternatives: final disposal in deep boreholes, long-term interim storage, transmutation; central confinement function for radioactive wastes - geologic and/or technical barriers? Final repository monitoring: geo-scientific exclusion criteria, geo-scientific minimum requirements, geo-scientific decision criteria; geo-scientific data: information status and handling of regions with non-sufficient geo-scientific data; scientific planning criteria: basis for definitions concerning the content, procedural aspects; analysis of the socio-economic potential; requirements for the disposal of further radioactive wastes; requirements concerning the containers for final disposal.

  11. Low-level waste disposal site selection demonstration

    Rogers, V.C.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of recent studies undertaken at EPRI related to low-level waste disposal technology. The initial work provided an overview of the state of the art including an assessment of its influence upon transportation costs and waste form requirements. The paper discusses work done on the overall system design aspects and computer modeling of disposal site performance characteristics. The results of this analysis are presented and provide a relative ranking of the importance of disposal parameters. This allows trade-off evaluations to be made of factors important in the design of a shallow land burial facility. To help minimize the impact of a shortage of low-level radioactive waste disposal sites, EPRI is closely observing the development of bellweather projects for developing new sites. The purpose of this activity is to provide information about lessons learned in those projects in order to expedite the development of additional disposal facilities. This paper describes most of the major stems in selecting a low-level radioactive waste disposal site in Texas. It shows how the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority started with a wide range of potential siting areas in Texas and narrowed its attention down to a few preferred sites. The parameters used to discriminate between large areas of Texas and, eventually, 50 candidate disposal sites are described, along with the steps in the process. The Texas process is compared to those described in DOE and EPRI handbooks on site selection and to pertinent NRC requirements. The paper also describes how an inventory of low-level waste specific to Texas was developed and applied in preliminary performance assessments of two candidate sites. Finally, generic closure requirements and closure operations for low-level waste facilities in arid regions are given

  12. Selection Process of ERP Systems

    Molnár, Bálint; Szabó, Gyula; Benczúr, András

    2013-01-01

    Background: The application and introduction of ERP systems have become a central issue for management and operation of enterprises. The competition on market enforces the improvement and optimization of business processes of enterprises to increase their efficiency, effectiveness, and to manage better the resources outside the company. The primary task of ERP systems is to achieve the before-mentioned objectives. Objective: The selection of a particular ERP system has a decisive effect on th...

  13. The site selection law and the anti-atom movement

    Haefner, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The anti atom movement has reached many of their political claims with the German nuclear power phaseout. At the same time the government has regained the interpretive dominance with the in radioactive waste management with the new search for possible final repository sites. He anti-atom movement refuses most parts of the actual law but cannot abdicate from the responsibility of the process of site selection. The contribution shows using three actual research approaches that such a convergence is probable to occur in the future. A cooperation of anti-atom movement and the government is of high probability in the long term, but is not necessarily identical to a political acceptance.

  14. Site selection criteria for the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste

    Falconer, K.L.; Hull, L.C.; Mizell, S.A.

    The shallow land burial of low-level waste must be accomplished in a manner that ensures the public and biosphere are protected from harmful amounts of radiation. This can be attained by selecting, designing, operating and closing sites such that contaminants never leave the site boundary in levels above regulatory limits. Site design, operation and closure are all functions of the characteristics of the site selected. As a result, the site selection process offers the most effective means for optimizing safe, efficient and economical low-level waste burial practices. The purpose of this document is to set forth criteria for the selection of shallow land burial sites. Criteria are standard rules, by which the ability of a site to meet waste management goals can be judged. They are comprehensive, universal, and qualitative and are applicable in any geologic environment. Site selection criteria provide the framework for the siting process

  15. Periodical cicadas use light for oviposition site selection.

    Yang, Louie H

    2006-12-07

    Organisms use incomplete information from local experience to assess the suitability of potential habitat sites over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Although ecologists have long recognized the importance of spatial scales in habitat selection, few studies have investigated the temporal scales of habitat selection. In particular, cues in the immediate environment may commonly provide indirect information about future habitat quality. In periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.), oviposition site selection represents a very long-term habitat choice. Adult female cicadas insert eggs into tree branches during a few weeks in the summer of emergence, but their oviposition choices determine the underground habitats of root-feeding nymphs over the following 13 or 17 years. Here, field experiments are used to show that female cicadas use the local light environment of host trees during the summer of emergence to select long-term host trees. Light environments may also influence oviposition microsite selection within hosts, suggesting a potential behavioural mechanism for associating solar cues with host trees. In contrast, experimental nutrient enrichment of host trees did not influence cicada oviposition densities. These findings suggest that the light environments around host trees may provide a robust predictor of host tree quality in the near future. This habitat selection may influence the spatial distribution of several cicada-mediated ecological processes in eastern North American forests.

  16. Streamflow alteration at selected sites in Kansas

    Juracek, Kyle E.; Eng, Ken

    2017-06-26

    An understanding of streamflow alteration in response to various disturbances is necessary for the effective management of stream habitat for a variety of species in Kansas. Streamflow alteration can have negative ecological effects. Using a modeling approach, streamflow alteration was assessed for 129 selected U.S. Geological Survey streamgages in the State for which requisite streamflow and basin-characteristic information was available. The assessment involved a comparison of the observed condition from 1980 to 2015 with the predicted expected (least-disturbed) condition for 29 streamflow metrics. The metrics represent various characteristics of streamflow including average flow (annual, monthly) and low and high flow (frequency, duration, magnitude).Streamflow alteration in Kansas was indicated locally, regionally, and statewide. Given the absence of a pronounced trend in annual precipitation in Kansas, a precipitation-related explanation for streamflow alteration was not supported. Thus, the likely explanation for streamflow alteration was human activity. Locally, a flashier flow regime (typified by shorter lag times and more frequent and higher peak discharges) was indicated for three streamgages with urbanized basins that had higher percentages of impervious surfaces than other basins in the State. The combination of localized reservoir effects and regional groundwater pumping from the High Plains aquifer likely was responsible, in part, for diminished conditions indicated for multiple streamflow metrics in western and central Kansas. Statewide, the implementation of agricultural land-management practices to reduce runoff may have been responsible, in part, for a diminished duration and magnitude of high flows. In central and eastern Kansas, implemented agricultural land-management practices may have been partly responsible for an inflated magnitude of low flows at several sites.

  17. Regulatory Aspects for Site Selection for Radiological and Nuclear Installations

    Sirag, N.M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to check in one of the considerations necessary for any new nuclear facility. A previous study that was conducted using a questionnaire reported that general admission to the public, aesthetic considerations, and characteristics associated with the site are able to adequately accept the existence of new nuclear facilities. The findings of this research revealed that public involvement in the process of site selection and in the design of nuclear power plants, an understanding of their point of view is an important aspect of a participatory approach. An important factor for any new nuclear program is to improve confidence in the energy choices in the future. A survey was conducted on 1304 adults to, to get the main goal. The study concluded showed that the prevalence of culture of safety reflected on the public acceptance of the site, especially if it takes into account the aesthetic and environmental considerations.

  18. Selection of suitable sites for NPP in Slovenia (stage 3)

    Grgic, M.; Fabjan, L.; Premru, U.

    1977-01-01

    Selection of suitable sites for nuclear power plants in Slovenia is considered. This includes the studies of available data on regional and local characteristics specified in general site suitability criteria for NPP. The most suitable selected sites will be included into land use urbanistic planning of Slovenia

  19. Siting Practices and Site Licensing Process for New Reactors in Canada

    Vos, Marcel de

    2011-01-01

    'Siting' in Canada is composed of Site Evaluation and Site Selection. As outlined in CNSC Regulatory Document RD-346 Site Evaluation for New Nuclear Power Plants (based on IAEA NS-R-3), prior to the triggering of the Environmental Assessment (EA) and licensing processes, the proponent is expected to use a robust process to characterize proposed sites over the full life cycle of the facility, and then develop a fully documented defense of the site selection case. This case forms the backbone for submissions in support of the EA and the application for a License to Prepare Site which will be reviewed by the CNSC and other applicable federal authorities. The Environmental Assessment process and License to Prepare Site in Canada do not require a proponent to select a specific design; however, CNSC does not accept a 'black box' approach to siting. CNSC balances the level of design information required with the extent of safety assurance desired for any designs being contemplated for the proposed site. Nevertheless, the design information submitted must be sufficient to justify the site as suitable for all future licensing stages. The depth of plant design information contributes significantly to the credibility of the applicant's case for both the EA and application for License to Prepare Site. The review process utilizes an assessment plan with defined review stages and timelines. The outcome of these reviews is a series of recommendations to a federal government appointed Joint Review Panel (which also serves as a panel of the 'Commission') which, following public hearings, renders a decision regarding the EA, and subsequently, the application for a License to Prepare Site. (author)

  20. Process for determining the remediation category of hazardous substance sites

    Sieben, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    An evaluation process has been developed that aids in selecting the appropriate remediation category of hazardous substance sites. Three general remediation categories have been established: No further Action: Potential Early Action: and Defer for RI/FS or Transition/Decontamination and Decommissioning. This evaluation method is a preliminary screening process only and will not identify the most appropriate remediation alternative for each site. The remedy selection process can proceed only after a remediation category is determined for each site. All sites are evaluated at a preliminary screening level to determine the general remediation category. After the first screen, a secondary evaluation is performed on both the PEA sites and the DEFER sites. For PEAs, this secondary evaluation will incorporate additional specific factors, such as a screening level risk assessment. For the DEFER sites feasibility factors will be used to distinguish between the sites which should undergo a normal RI/FS and the sites which will be recommended to be remediated in association with D ampersand D of buildings. Ultimately, all of the sites will be placed into one of four remediation categories

  1. Selection of potential sites in Belgium

    Damme, R. van den

    1976-01-01

    The construction of two nuclear power plants of 1000 MW is planned. In the framework of the characteristics of the country (lack of big rivers, population density, etc.) and because of the thermal saturation of the Scheldt and Meuse rivers the two units if installed along these rivers will be cooled in closed circuit. For economic considerations Belgium thought to site them along the coast in open-circuit cooling but for ecological and touristic reasons some opposition arose. A new possible siting could be Doel on the same site of the existing three units with a final concentration of 3000 MW. For the second unit different possible sites exist with some preference for Tihange, where two other units are installed. For the 1985 generation of nuclear power units the siting conditions remain the same: inland siting using cooling towers and coastal sites with open-circuit cooling, with a new possibility of creating artificial islands along the Belgian coast. The technical aspects of this alternative are reviewed. (A.F.)

  2. Radioactive waste repository site selection in the Republic of Slovenia

    Jeran, M.

    1992-01-01

    The report shows the procedure for the low and intermediate level radwaste (LLW and ILW) repository site selection and the work performed up to the present. The procedure for the repository site selection is divided into four steps. In the first step the unsuitable areas are excluded by taking into consideration the rough exclusion criteria. In the second step, the remaining suitable areas are screened to identify the potential sites with respect to preference criteria. In the third step three to five candidate sites will be assessed and selected among the potential sites. In the final, the fourth step, detailed site investigation and confirmation of one or two most suitable sites will follow. In Slovenia the 1st and the 2nd step of site selection have been completed, while step 3 is now in its final stage. (author) [sl

  3. Site selection under the underground geologic store plan. Procedures of selecting underground geologic stores as disputed by society, science, and politics. Site selection rules

    Aebersold, M.

    2008-01-01

    The new Nuclear Power Act and the Nuclear Power Ordinance of 2005 are used in Switzerland to select a site of an underground geologic store for radioactive waste in a substantive planning procedure. The ''Underground Geologic Store Substantive Plan'' is to ensure the possibility to build underground geologic stores in an independent, transparent and fair procedure. The Federal Office for Energy (BFE) is the agency responsible for this procedure. The ''Underground Geologic Store'' Substantive Plan comprises these principles: - The long term protection of people and the environment enjoys priority. Aspects of regional planning, economics and society are of secondary importance. - Site selection is based on the waste volumes arising from the five nuclear power plants currently existing in Switzerland. The Substantive Plan is no precedent for or against future nuclear power plants. - A transparent and fair procedure is an indispensable prerequisite for achieving the objectives of a Substantive Plan, i.e., finding accepted sites for underground geologic stores. The Underground Geologic Stores Substantive Plan is arranged in two parts, a conceptual part defining the rules of the selection process, and an implementation part documenting the selection process step by step and, in the end, naming specific sites of underground geologic stores in Switzerland. The objective is to be able to commission underground geologic stores in 25 or 35 years' time. In principle, 2 sites are envisaged, one for low and intermediate level waste, and one for high level waste. The Swiss Federal Council approved the conceptual part on April 2, 2008. This marks the beginning of the implementation phase and the site selection process proper. (orig.)

  4. 45 CFR 1305.6 - Selection process.

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selection process. 1305.6 Section 1305.6 Public... PROGRAM ELIGIBILITY, RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, ENROLLMENT AND ATTENDANCE IN HEAD START § 1305.6 Selection process. (a) Each Head Start program must have a formal process for establishing selection criteria and...

  5. Site selection for controversial projects: reflections on the MRS experience

    Sigmon, E.B.; Marland, G.

    1987-01-01

    Projects for waste management, power production, and a host of other socially useful functions frequently falter because of local opposition. Students of the siting dilemma have prescribed accommodation of local interests through negotiation and compensation, but they offer little advice on the site selection itself. The negotiated compensation approach to siting frequently fails because localities refuse to negotiate. The authors argue that methods of site selection and developers' initial stance toward local communities affect communities' propensity to negotiate. Site selection strategies and their influence on project acceptability are examined, using the Department of Energy's Monitored Retrievable Storage proposal as a point of departure. 14 refs

  6. SAR Subsets for Selected Field Sites, 2007-2010

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images for 42 selected sites from various terrestrial ecology and meteorological monitoring networks...

  7. SAR Subsets for Selected Field Sites, 2007-2010

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images for 42 selected sites from various terrestrial ecology and meteorological monitoring networks including...

  8. Radioactive waste disposal: Recommendations for a repository site selection

    Cadelli, N.; Orlowski, S.

    1992-01-01

    This report is a guidebook on recommendations for site selection of radioactive waste repository, based on a consensus in european community. This report describes particularly selection criteria and recommendations for radioactive waste disposal in underground or ground repositories. 14 refs

  9. Review of site recommendation process in Draft Environmental Assessments

    Joy, H.; Longo, T.; Burton, E.S.

    1985-01-01

    In December 1984, the US Department of Energy (DOE) published Draft Environmental Assessments (EAs) on nine potentially acceptable nuclear waste repository sites. Five sites in the states of Mississippi, Nevada, Texas, Utah, and Washington were proposed in the Draft EAs for nomination under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act as suitable for further detailed study (site characterization). The Nevada, Texas, and Washington sites were further proposed for recommendation to the President as preferred for site characterization. This paper reviews the process that DOE used in selecting the three sites proposed for site characterization. The process is consistent with DOE's implementation guidelines for selecting repository sites, and proceeds in three steps. First, the sites are ranked in order of preference for each of twenty technical guidelines based on information in the Draft EAs. The second step combines the individual guideline rankings into postclosure and preclosure guideline group rankings, and, finally, into an overall ranking. In the third step, the sensitivity of the choice of the three preferred sites is examined for a range of guideline weightings

  10. Selection Methodology Approach to Preferable and Alternative Sites for the First NPP Project in Yemen

    Kassim, Moath [Kyunghe Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kessel, David S. [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The purpose of this paper is to briefly present the methodology and results of the first siting study for the first nuclear power plant (NPP) in Yemen. In this study it has been demonstrated that there are suitable sites for specific unit/units power of 1000 MWt (about 300 MWe) nuclear power plant. To perform the site selection, a systematic selection method was developed. The method uses site-specific data gathered by literature review and expert judgement to identify the most important site selection criteria. A two-step site selection process was used. Candidate sites were chosen that meet a subset of the selection criteria that form the most important system constraints. These candidate sites were then evaluated against the full set of selection criteria using the Analytical Hierarchy Process Method (AHP). Candidate sites underwent a set of more specific siting criteria weighted by expert judgment to select preferable sites and alternatives using AHP method again. Expert Judgment method was used to rank and weight the importance of each criteria, then AHP method used to evaluate and weight the relation between criterion to criterion and between all criteria against the global weight. Then logical decision software was used to rank sites upon their weighting value.

  11. Selection Methodology Approach to Preferable and Alternative Sites for the First NPP Project in Yemen

    Kassim, Moath; Kessel, David S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to briefly present the methodology and results of the first siting study for the first nuclear power plant (NPP) in Yemen. In this study it has been demonstrated that there are suitable sites for specific unit/units power of 1000 MWt (about 300 MWe) nuclear power plant. To perform the site selection, a systematic selection method was developed. The method uses site-specific data gathered by literature review and expert judgement to identify the most important site selection criteria. A two-step site selection process was used. Candidate sites were chosen that meet a subset of the selection criteria that form the most important system constraints. These candidate sites were then evaluated against the full set of selection criteria using the Analytical Hierarchy Process Method (AHP). Candidate sites underwent a set of more specific siting criteria weighted by expert judgment to select preferable sites and alternatives using AHP method again. Expert Judgment method was used to rank and weight the importance of each criteria, then AHP method used to evaluate and weight the relation between criterion to criterion and between all criteria against the global weight. Then logical decision software was used to rank sites upon their weighting value

  12. Facility siting as a decision process at the Savannah River Site

    Wike, L.D.

    1995-01-01

    Site selection for new facilities at Savannah River Site (SRS) historically has been a process dependent only upon specific requirements of the facility. While this approach is normally well suited to engineering and operational concerns, it can have serious deficiencies in the modern era of regulatory oversight and compliance requirements. There are many issues related to the site selection for a facility that are not directly related to engineering or operational requirements; such environmental concerns can cause large schedule delays and budget impact,s thereby slowing or stopping the progress of a project. Some of the many concerns in locating a facility include: waste site avoidance, National Environmental Policy Act requirements, Clean Water Act, Clean Air Act, wetlands conservation, US Army Corps of Engineers considerations, US Fish and Wildlife Service statutes including threatened and endangered species issues, and State of South Carolina regulations, especially those of the Department of Health and Environmental Control. In addition, there are SRS restrictions on research areas set aside for National Environmental Research Park (NERP), Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Savannah River Forest Station, University of South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, Southeastern Forest Experimental Station, and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) programs. As with facility operational needs, all of these siting considerations do not have equal importance. The purpose of this document is to review recent site selection exercises conducted for a variety of proposed facilities, develop the logic and basis for the methods employed, and standardize the process and terminology for future site selection efforts

  13. Nuclear power plant site selection: a case study

    Lugasi, Y.; Mehrez, A.; Sinuany-Stern, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Selecting the site for a nuclear power plant involves the evaluation of numerous criteria and the professional judgment of various experts. The Israel Atomic Energy Commission has been concerned with the problem of selecting a site for a nuclear power station. Previous studies have been performed by the commission to identify potential sites. There were initial screenings where potential sites were chosen according to various minimal criteria and international standards. Only sites that met all the criteria were chosen. A study was made to find the most preferred site among the potential sites that met all the criteria. Two mathematical approaches were used: Keeney's multiattribute utility function and Saaty's eigenvalue prioritization technique. Both models ranked the same site as the most desirable; however, the models differed in their ranking of the other sites

  14. 20 CFR 638.303 - Site selection and facilities management.

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Site selection and facilities management. 638... Facilities Management § 638.303 Site selection and facilities management. (a) The Job Corps Director shall... center, facilities engineering and real estate management will be conducted by the Job Corps Director or...

  15. Species-specific spatial characteristics in reserve site selection

    Groeneveld, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of selecting reserve sites cost-effectively, taking into account the mobility and habitat area requirements of each species. Many reserve site selection problems are analyzed in mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) models due to the mathematical solvers available

  16. Nuclear Power Plant project site selection geotechnical considerations

    Katti, V.J.; Banerjee, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    During the selection of a site for Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) and Radioactive Waste Plant (RWP), geotechnical investigations play a significant role in deciding merits and demerits of the sites. Any accidents in these units can play havoc on mankind and may leave bitter imprints on generations to come. Hence proper care has to be taken at the early stage for selecting the sites. Site selection procedure is a complicated one, because it involves experts from various disciplines like geology, geophysics, civil, mechanical electrical engineering, health-physics and other fields

  17. Regulatory requirements for nuclear power plant site selection in Malaysia-a review.

    Basri, N A; Hashim, S; Ramli, A T; Bradley, D A; Hamzah, K

    2016-12-01

    Malaysia has initiated a range of pre-project activities in preparation for its planned nuclear power programme. Clearly one of the first steps is the selection of sites that are deemed suitable for the construction and operation of a nuclear power plant. Here we outline the Malaysian regulatory requirements for nuclear power plant site selection, emphasizing details of the selection procedures and site characteristics needed, with a clear focus on radiation safety and radiation protection in respect of the site surroundings. The Malaysia Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) site selection guidelines are in accord with those provided in International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and United Stated Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) documents. To enhance the suitability criteria during selection, as well as to assist in the final decision making process, possible assessments using the site selection characteristics and information are proposed.

  18. An integrated approach to site selection for nuclear power plants

    Hassan, E.M.A.

    1975-01-01

    A method of analysing and evaluating the large number of factors influencing site selection is proposed, which can interrelate these factors and associated problems in an integrated way and at the same time establish a technique for site evaluation. The objective is to develop an integrated programme that illustrates the complexity and dynamic interrelationships of the various factors to develop an improved understanding of the functions and objectives of siting nuclear power plants and would aim finally at the development of an effective procedure and technique for site evaluation and/or comparative evaluation for making rational site-selection decisions. (author)

  19. Site suitability, selection and characterization: Branch technical position--Low-Level Waste Licensing Branch

    Siefken, D.; Pangburn, G.; Pennifill, R.; Starmer, R.J.

    1982-04-01

    The staff provides an expanded interpretation of the site suitability requirements in the proposed rule 10 CFR Part 61, a description of the anticipated site selection process, and a detailed discussion of the site characterization program needed to support a license application and environmental report. The paper provides early-on guidance to prospective applicants in these three subject areas

  20. Site-selective spectroscopy of Er in GaN

    Dierolf, V.; Sandmann, C.; Zavada, J.; Chow, P.; Hertog, B.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated different Er 3+ defect sites found in Er-doped GaN layers by site-selective combined excitation-emission spectroscopy and studied the role of these sites in different direct and multistep excitation schemes. The layers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy and were 200 nm thick. Two majority sites were found along with several minority sites. The sites strongly differ in excitation and energy transfer efficiencies as well as branching ratios during relaxation. For this reason, relative emission intensities from these sites depend strongly on emission and excitation. The sites were identified for several transitions and a comprehensive list of energy levels has been compiled. One of the minority sites appears strongly under ultraviolet excitation above the GaN band gap suggesting that this site is an excellent trap for excitation energy of electron-hole pairs

  1. Innovation During the Supplier Selection Process

    Pilkington, Alan; Pedraza, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Established ideas on supplier selection have not moved much from the original premise of how to choose between bidders. Whilst we have added many different tools and refinements to choose between alternative suppliers, its nature has not evolved. We move the original selection process approach...... observed through an ethnographic embedded researcher study has refined the selection process and has two selection stages one for first supply covering tool/process developed and another later for resupply of mature parts. We report the details of the process, those involved, the criteria employed...... and identify benefits and weaknesses of this enhanced selection process....

  2. Warehouse site selection in an international environment

    Sebastjan ŠKERLIČ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The changed conditions in the automotive industry as the market and the production are moving from west to east, both at global and at European level, require constant adjustment from Slovenian companies. The companies strive to remain close to their customers and suppliers, as only by maintaining a high quality and streamlined supply chain, their existence within the demanding automotive industry is guaranteed in the long term. Choosing the right location for a warehouse in an international environment is therefore one of the most important strategic decisions that takes into account a number of interrelated factors such as transport networks, transport infrastructure, trade flows and the total cost. This paper aims to explore the important aspects of selecting a location for a warehouse and to identify potential international strategic locations, which could have a significant impact on the future operations of Slovenian companies in the global automotive industry.

  3. Integrated account of method, site selection and programme prior to the site investigation phase

    2000-12-01

    applications and have these applications reviewed by the appropriate authorities. An analysis of conceivable alternatives for managing and disposing of spent nuclear fuel has confirmed that deep geological disposal according to the KBS-3 method has the best prospects of meeting all requirements. The alternative of putting off a decision until some future time (the zero alternative) does not appear tenable. The assessment of long-term safety shows that the prospects of building a safe deep repository in the Swedish bedrock are good. Independent Swedish and international review of the safety assessment confirm that the body of data in this respect is adequate for the siting process to proceed to the site investigation phase. A fuller summary is given below of the account given in this report of method as well as site selection and programme for the site investigation phase. The point of departure for the account is the review comments made by the regulatory authorities and the Government's decision regarding RD and D-Programme 98. In its decision, the Government stipulated conditions for SKB's continued research and development programme. The analysis of alternative system designs was to be supplemented, mainly with regard to the zero alternative and very deep boreholes. Furthermore, the Government decided that SKB shall submit an integrated evaluation of completed feasibility studies and other background material for selection of sites for site investigations and present a clear programme for site investigations

  4. Development of the NUMO pre-selection, site-specific safety case

    Fujiyama, Tetsuo; Suzuki, Satoru; Deguchi, Akira; Umeki, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Key conclusions: ◆ “The NUMO pre-selection, site-specific safety case” provides the basic structure for subsequent safety cases that will be applied to any selected site, emphasising practical approaches and methodology which will be applicable for the conditions/constraints during an actual siting process. ◆ The preliminary results of the design and safety assessment would underpin the feasibility and safety of geological disposal in Japan.

  5. Technical Assessment Of Selection Of A Waste Disposal Site

    Lee, Bong Hun

    1992-04-01

    This book gives overall descriptions of technical assessment of selection of a waste disposal site, which deals with standard of selection on incinerator of city waste, the method over assessment of selection of incinerator in city waste, prerequisite of technical assessment for selection of incinerator, waste incinerator and related equipment such as form, structure, quality of material, ventilation device, plumbing system and electrical installation, and total plan like plan of construction and a measure taken against environmental pollution.

  6. 45 CFR 2400.31 - Selection process.

    2010-10-01

    ... FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Selection of Fellows § 2400.31 Selection process. (a) An independent Fellow... outstanding applicants from each state for James Madison Fellowships. (b) From among candidates recommended...

  7. COPS model estimates of LLEA availability near selected reactor sites

    Berkbigler, K.P.

    1979-11-01

    The COPS computer model has been used to estimate local law enforcement agency (LLEA) officer availability in the neighborhood of selected nuclear reactor sites. The results of these analyses are presented both in graphic and tabular form in this report

  8. Selecting Suitable Sites for Wind Energy Development in Ghana ...

    Selecting Suitable Sites for Wind Energy Development in Ghana. ... In the event of shortages in petroleum products, these power plants will have ... Layers of these criteria setting were combined using the overlay function in a GIS environment.

  9. Site selection and general layout of heap leaching uranium mill

    Zhang Chunmao; Rongfeng

    2011-01-01

    The site selection and general layout of uranium mill is an important work in the design and consultation stage of uranium mining and metallurgy's engineering construction. Based on the design practices, the principles and methods for the site selection and general layout of heap leaching uranium mill are analyzed and studied. Some problems which should be paid much attention to in the design are discussed in hopes of providing a useful reference for the design and consultation of similar projects. (authors)

  10. Delegated democracy. Siting selection for the Swedish nuclear waste

    Johansson, Hanna Sofia

    2008-11-01

    The present study concerns the siting of the Swedish nuclear waste repository. Four cases are examined: the feasibility studies in Nykoeping and Tierp (cases 1 and 2), as well as three public consultation meetings with conservationist and environmental organisations, and two study visits to nuclear facilities in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar, which were held during what is called the site-investigation phase (cases 3 and 4). The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) began the search for a nuclear waste site in the 1970s. Since 1992 SKB has conducted feasibility studies in eight municipalities, including in the four municipalities mentioned above. At the present time more comprehensive site investigations are underway in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar, two municipalities that already host nuclear power plants as well as storages for nuclear waste. In addition to SKB and the municipalities involved in the site-selection process, politicians, opinion groups, concerned members of the public, and oversight bodies are important actors. The analysis of the cases employs the concepts of 'sub-politics', 'boundary work', and 'expertise', together with the four models of democracy 'representative democracy', participatory democracy', 'deliberative democracy', and 'technocracy'. The aim of the study is to describe the characteristics of Swedish democracy in relation to the disposal of Swedish nuclear waste. The main questions of the study are: Which democratic ideals can be found within SKB's siting process during the feasibility studies and in the consultation process during the site investigations? and Which democratic ideals were influential during the feasibility studies and in the consultation process? The study is based on qualitative methods, and the source materials consist of documents, interviews, and participant observations. In summary, the form of democracy that emerges in the four case studies can be described as delegated democracy. This means that a large

  11. Field site selection: getting it right first time around

    Malcolm, Colin A.; El Sayed, Badria; Babiker, Ahmed; Girod, Romain; Fontenille, Didier; Knols, Bart G. J.; Nugud, Abdel Hameed; Benedict, Mark Q.

    2009-01-01

    The selection of suitable field sites for integrated control of Anopheles mosquitoes using the sterile insect technique (SIT) requires consideration of the full gamut of factors facing most proposed control strategies, but four criteria identify an ideal site: 1) a single malaria vector, 2) an

  12. Competing land use in the reserve site selection problem

    Langevelde, van F.; Schotman, A.; Claassen, G.D.H.; Sparenburg, G.A.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present an approach that addresses competing land uses in the reserve site selection problem. This approach is implemented in a spatial optimization model for conservation planning in human-dominated landscapes: MENTOR. This model allocates new sites as stepping

  13. Selecting a plutonium vitrification process

    Jouan, A. [Centre d`Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, Bagnols sur Ceze (France)

    1996-05-01

    Vitrification of plutonium is one means of mitigating its potential danger. This option is technically feasible, even if it is not the solution advocated in France. Two situations are possible, depending on whether or not the glass matrix also contains fission products; concentrations of up to 15% should be achievable for plutonium alone, whereas the upper limit is 3% in the presence of fission products. The French continuous vitrification process appears to be particularly suitable for plutonium vitrification: its capacity is compatible with the required throughout, and the compact dimensions of the process equipment prevent a criticality hazard. Preprocessing of plutonium metal, to convert it to PuO{sub 2} or to a nitric acid solution, may prove advantageous or even necessary depending on whether a dry or wet process is adopted. The process may involve a single step (vitrification of Pu or PuO{sub 2} mixed with glass frit) or may include a prior calcination step - notably if the plutonium is to be incorporated into a fission product glass. It is important to weigh the advantages and drawbacks of all the possible options in terms of feasibility, safety and cost-effectiveness.

  14. Argentinian experience in selecting sites for nuclear power stations

    Csik, B.J.

    1975-01-01

    One nuclear power station is in operation in the Republic of Argentina, a second is under construction, and the decision to build a third has been taken. According to existing plans, about ten nuclear power stations should go into operation during the next decade. The present paper analyses the experience acquired in selecting sites for the first units, commenting on the criteria and methods applied, the studies that were carried out, the specific problems encountered and the solutions adopted, as well as on the question of acceptance of the chosen sites by the public. It goes on to describe the current programme of selection and study of sites for future nuclear power stations

  15. Selection of the Mars Science Laboratory landing site

    Golombek, M.; Grant, J.; Kipp, D.; Vasavada, A.; Kirk, Randolph L.; Fergason, Robin L.; Bellutta, P.; Calef, F.; Larsen, K.; Katayama, Y.; Huertas, A.; Beyer, R.; Chen, A.; Parker, T.; Pollard, B.; Lee, S.; Hoover, R.; Sladek, H.; Grotzinger, J.; Welch, R.; Dobrea, E. Noe; Michalski, J.; Watkins, M.

    2012-01-01

    The selection of Gale crater as the Mars Science Laboratory landing site took over five years, involved broad participation of the science community via five open workshops, and narrowed an initial >50 sites (25 by 20 km) to four finalists (Eberswalde, Gale, Holden and Mawrth) based on science and safety. Engineering constraints important to the selection included: (1) latitude (±30°) for thermal management of the rover and instruments, (2) elevation (surface that is safe for landing and roving and not dominated by fine-grained dust. Science criteria important for the selection include the ability to assess past habitable environments, which include diversity, context, and biosignature (including organics) preservation. Sites were evaluated in detail using targeted data from instruments on all active orbiters, and especially Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. All of the final four sites have layered sedimentary rocks with spectral evidence for phyllosilicates that clearly address the science objectives of the mission. Sophisticated entry, descent and landing simulations that include detailed information on all of the engineering constraints indicate all of the final four sites are safe for landing. Evaluation of the traversabilty of the landing sites and target “go to” areas outside of the ellipse using slope and material properties information indicates that all are trafficable and “go to” sites can be accessed within the lifetime of the mission. In the final selection, Gale crater was favored over Eberswalde based on its greater diversity and potential habitability.

  16. Patterns of mutation and selection at synonymous sites in Drosophila

    Singh, Nadia D; Bauer DuMont, Vanessa L; Hubisz, Melissa J

    2007-01-01

    , when applied to 18 coding sequences in 3 species of Drosophila, confirmed an earlier report that the Notch gene in Drosophila melanogaster was evolving under selection in favor of those codons defined as unpreferred in this species. This finding opened the possibility that synonymous sites may...... be subject to a variety of selective pressures beyond weak selection for increased frequencies of the codons currently defined as "preferred" in D. melanogaster. To further explore patterns of synonymous site evolution in Drosophila in a lineage-specific manner, we expanded the application of the maximum...... likelihood framework to 8,452 protein coding sequences with well-defined orthology in D. melanogaster, Drosophila sechellia, and Drosophila yakuba. Our analyses reveal intragenomic and interspecific variation in mutational patterns as well as in patterns and intensity of selection on synonymous sites. In D...

  17. 7 CFR 3570.68 - Selection process.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selection process. 3570.68 Section 3570.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS Community Facilities Grant Program § 3570.68 Selection process. Each request...

  18. 44 CFR 150.7 - Selection process.

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selection process. 150.7 Section 150.7 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Selection process. (a) President's Award. Nominations for the President's Award shall be reviewed, and...

  19. Selection of candidate sites for a LLRW disposal facility in Connecticut

    Gingerich, Ronald E.; Holeman, George R.; Hileman, James A.

    1992-01-01

    Connecticut, one of the two members of the Northeast Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Compact, has been directed by the Compact Commission to site a facility to manage the low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) generated in Connecticut. The Connecticut Hazardous Waste Management Service (CHWMS) has been given the responsibility to identify a site in the state for a LLRW disposal facility. The CHWMS has decided to plan for a site with an operating life of 50 years. A site of at least 160 acres will be needed to accommodate (he expected volume of LLRW and meet state and federal site requirements. A Site Selection Plan establishing the process and criteria to be used in siting a facility was adopted by the CHWMS in November 1990. The Plan calls for a stepwise screening of the state using published data to identify three candidate sites. A preferred site will be selected from among the candidate sites using onsite testing. The site selection criteria, which closely follow state and federal statutory and regulatory requirements, are divided into three types: exclusionary, avoidance and preference. Battelle Memorial Institute was selected as the contractor to assist the CHWMS in site screening. With guidance from the CHWMS, Battelle undertook screening of the state by applying the exclusionary, avoidance and preference criteria in three steps to identify from eight to twelve potential sites. The CHWMS Board of Directors bad decided that it wanted to be closely involved in the selection of the three candidate sites and to do so in a way that precluded the political and parochial pressures that are inevitably associated with a siting process. To meet these two goals a geographically neutral approach was devised for candidate site selection. In June, 1991 the CHWMS, with assistance from Battelle, conducted a three day workshop, open to the public, in which eight sites were presented to the Board. Data on the sites were presented in a way that did not disclose

  20. Site Selection for Surplus Plutonium Disposition Facilities at the Savannah River Site

    Wike, L.D.

    2000-01-01

    A site selection study was conducted to evaluate locations for the proposed Surplus Plutonium Disposition Facilities. Facilities to be located include the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility, the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF), and the Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP) facility. Objectives of the study include: (1) Confirm that the Department of Energy (DOE) selected locations for the MOX and PDCF were suitable based on selected siting criteria, (2) Recommend a site in the vicinity of F Area that is suitable for the PIP, and (3) Identify alternative suitable sites for one or more of these facilities in the event that further geotechnical characterization or other considerations result in disqualification of a currently proposed site

  1. Remedial action plan for the inactive uranium processing site at Naturita, Colorado. Remedial action selection report: Attachment 2, geology report; Attachment 3, ground water hydrology report; Attachment 4, supplemental information

    1998-03-01

    The uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado, is one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be cleaned up by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), 42 USC section 7901 et seq. Part of the UMTRCA requires that the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE's remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This RAP serves two purposes. First, it describes the activities that are proposed by the DOE to accomplish remediation and long-term stabilization and control of the radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Second, this RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the state of Colorado, and the NRC, becomes Appendix B of the cooperative agreement between the DOE and the state of Colorado

  2. Geological site selection studies in Precambrian crystalline rocks in Finland

    Vuorela, P.

    1988-01-01

    In general geological investigations made since 1977 the Finnish crystalline bedrock has been determined to be suitable for the final disposal of the spent nuclear fuel. Regional investigations have been mainly based on already existing geological studies. Special attention has been paid on the international geological Finland as the Baltic Shield is stiff and stable and situated far outside the zones of volcanic and seismic activity. The present day crustal movements in Finland are related to landuplift process. Movements and possible faults in the bedrock follow fracture zones which devide the bedrock into mosaiclike blocks. As compared to small scale geological maps the bedrock blocks are often indicated as large granite rock formations which are less broken than the surrounding rocks, though the age of granite formations is at least 1500 millions of years. The large bedrock blocks (20-300 km 2 ) are divided to smaller units by different magnitudes of fractures and these smaller bedrock units (5-20 km 2 ) have been selected for further site selection investigations. At the first stage of investigations 327 suitable regional bedrock blocks have been identified on the basis of Landsat-1 winter and summer mosaics of Finland. After two years of investigations 134 investigation areas were selected inside 61 bedrock blocks and classified to four priority classes, the three first of which were redommended for further investigations. Geological criteries used in classification indicated clear differences between the classes one and three, however all classified areas are situated in large rather homogenous bedrock blocks and more exact three dimensional suitability errors may not be observed until deep bore holes have been made

  3. GIS and Multicriteria Decision Analysis for Landfill Site Selection in AL-HashimyahQadaa

    Alanbari, Mohammad Ali; Al-Ansari, Nadhir; Jasim, Hadeel Kareem

    2014-01-01

    Waste management system is not well regulated in Iraq. Despite the fact that there are various techniques used for solid waste disposal, landfill is the most common mode for the disposal of solid waste in Iraq, landfill site selection criteria is quite complex process and it depends on several regulation and factors. In this study landfill site selection is performed by using Multicriteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) and Geographic Information System (GIS) for the Al-Hashimyahqadaa. Existing lan...

  4. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Site Development Plan

    Ferguson, F.G.

    1994-02-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) mission is to receive and store spent nuclear fuels and radioactive wastes for disposition for Department of Energy (DOE) in a cost-effective manner that protects the safety of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) employees, the public, and the environment by: Developing advanced technologies to process spent nuclear fuel for permanent offsite disposition and to achieve waste minimization. Receiving and storing Navy and other DOE assigned spent nuclear fuels. Managing all wastes in compliance with applicable laws and regulations. Identifying and conducting site remediation consistent with facility transition activities. Seeking out and implementing private sector technology transfer and cooperative development agreements. Prior to April 1992, the ICPP mission included fuel reprocessing. With the recent phaseout of fuel reprocessing, some parts of the ICPP mission have changed. Others have remained the same or increased in scope

  5. (-)PPAP: a new and selective ligand for sigma binding sites.

    Glennon, R A; Battaglia, G; Smith, J D

    1990-11-01

    Most agents employed for the investigation of sigma (sigma) binding sites display relatively low affinity for these sites, bind both at sigma sites and at either phencyclidine (PCP) sites or dopamine receptors with similar affinity, and/or produce some dopaminergic activity in vivo. We describe a new agent, (-)PPAP or R(-)-N-(3-phenyl-n-propyl)-1-phenyl-2-aminopropane hydrochloride, that binds with high affinity and selectivity at sigma (IC50 = 24 nM) versus either PCP sites (IC50 greater than 75,000 nM) or D1 and D2 dopamine receptors (IC50 greater than 5,000 nM). The sigma affinity of this agent is comparable to that of the standard ligands (+)-3-PPP and DTG. Furthermore, although (-)PPAP is structurally related to amphetamine, it neither produces nor antagonizes amphetamine-like stimulus effect in rats trained to discriminate 1 mg/kg of S(+)amphetamine from saline.

  6. Use of DOE site selection criteria for screening low-level waste disposal sites on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Lee, D.W.; Ketelle, R.H.; Stinton, L.H.

    1983-09-01

    The proposed Department of Energy (DOE) site selection criteria were applied to the Oak Ridge Reservation, and the application was evaluated to determine the criteria's usefulness in the selection of a low-level waste disposal site. The application of the criteria required the development of a methodology to provide a framework for evaluation. The methodology is composed of site screening and site characterization stages. The site screening stage relies on reconnaissance data to identify a preferred site capable of satisfying the site selection criteria. The site characterization stage relies on a detailed site investigation to determine site acceptability. The site selection criteria were applied to the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation through the site screening stage. Results of this application were similar to those of a previous siting study on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The DOE site selection criteria when coupled with the methodology that was developed were easily applied and would be adaptable to any region of interest

  7. Enabling Interoperable and Selective Data Sharing among Social Networking Sites

    Shin, Dongwan; Lopes, Rodrigo

    With the widespread use of social networking (SN) sites and even introduction of a social component in non-social oriented services, there is a growing concern over user privacy in general, how to handle and share user profiles across SN sites in particular. Although there have been several proprietary or open source-based approaches to unifying the creation of third party applications, the availability and retrieval of user profile information are still limited to the site where the third party application is run, mostly devoid of the support for data interoperability. In this paper we propose an approach to enabling interopearable and selective data sharing among SN sites. To support selective data sharing, we discuss an authenticated dictionary (ADT)-based credential which enables a user to share only a subset of her information certified by external SN sites with applications running on an SN site. For interoperable data sharing, we propose an extension to the OpenSocial API so that it can provide an open source-based framework for allowing the ADT-based credential to be used seamlessly among different SN sites.

  8. The partner selection process : Steps, effectiveness, governance

    Duisters, D.; Duijsters, G.M.; de Man, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Selecting the right partner is important for creating value in alliances. Even though prior research suggests that a structured partner selection process increases alliance success, empirical research remains scarce. This paper presents an explorative empirical study that shows that some steps in

  9. The partner selection process : steps, effectiveness, governance

    Duisters, D.; Duysters, G.M.; Man, de A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Selecting the right partner is important for creating value in alliances. Even though prior research suggests that a structured partner selection process increases alliance success, empirical research remains scarce. This paper presents an explorative empirical study that shows that some steps in

  10. Finnish HLW disposal programme : site selection in 2000

    Ryhsnen, Veijo

    1997-01-01

    This paper covers the technical concepts for final disposal in the Finnish geological conditions, the approach for site selection and implementation, the safety assessments and development of criteria, the environmental impact assessment, the licensing stages and acceptance, and the financial provisions, the project organization in 1997 - 2000. 2 refs., 9 figs

  11. Finnish HLW disposal programme : site selection in 2000

    Ryhsnen, Veijo [Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    This paper covers the technical concepts for final disposal in the Finnish geological conditions, the approach for site selection and implementation, the safety assessments and development of criteria, the environmental impact assessment, the licensing stages and acceptance, and the financial provisions, the project organization in 1997 - 2000. 2 refs., 9 figs.

  12. 24 CFR 983.57 - Site selection standards.

    2010-04-01

    ...; (vi) If the poverty rate in the area where the proposed PBV development will be located is greater... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Site selection standards. 983.57 Section 983.57 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  13. Spotted owl roost and nest site selection in northwestern California

    J.A. Blakesley; A.B. Franklin; R.J. Gutierrez

    1992-01-01

    We directly observed roost and nest site selection in a population of northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in northwestern California during 1985-89. Because of potential biases caused by use of radio telemetry in previous studies, we examined habitat use relative to habitat availability at a level not previously reported for spotted...

  14. Site selection and evaluation of nuclear power units in Egypt

    Bonnefille, R.

    1980-01-01

    The selection of sites for nuclear power units in Egypt by SOFRATOME for Nuclear Plants Authority is carried on using a method based on interaction between different criteria. The method and the main results on criterion 'radio-ecological impact' are sketched briefly [fr

  15. NEST-SITE SELECTION IN THE CAPE SUGARBIRD We dedicate ...

    These data, together with those on heat loss from an incubating bird, are ... in relation to nest-site selection as adaptive behaviour promoting breeding success through ... ability of food, in the form of nectar and nectiferous insects and arachnids .... cup of the nest, and the percentage vegetation cover was determined with the ...

  16. Tunnel-Site Selection by Remote Sensing Techniques

    A study of the role of remote sensing for geologic reconnaissance for tunnel-site selection was commenced. For this study, remote sensing was defined...conventional remote sensing . Future research directions are suggested, and the extension of remote sensing to include airborne passive microwave

  17. 40 CFR 228.6 - Specific criteria for site selection.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific criteria for site selection. 228.6 Section 228.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN..., nursery, feeding, or passage areas of living resources in adult or -juvenile phases; (3) Location in...

  18. The alternative site selection procedure as covered in the report by the Repository Site Selection Procedures Working Group

    Brenner, M.

    2005-01-01

    The 2002 Act on the Regulated Termination of the Use of Nuclear Power for Industrial Electricity Generation declared Germany's opting out of the peaceful uses of nuclear power. The problem of the permanent management of radioactive residues is becoming more and more important also in the light of that political decision. At the present time, there are no repositories offering the waste management capacities required. Such facilities need to be created. At the present stage, eligible repository sites are the Konrad mine, a former iron ore mine near Salzgitter, and the Gorleben salt dome. While the fate of the Konrad mine as a repository for waste generating negligible amounts of heat continues to be uncertain, despite a plan approval decision of June 2002, the Gorleben repository is still in the planning phase, at present in a dormant state, so to speak. The federal government expressed doubt about the suitability of the Gorleben site. Against this backdrop, the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety in February 1999 established AkEnd, the Working Group on Repository Site Selection Procedures. The Group was charged with developing, based on sound scientific criteria, a transparent site selection procedure in order to facilitate the search for repository sites. The Working Group presented its final report in December 2002 after approximately four years of work. The Group's proposals about alternative site selection procedures are explained in detail and, above all, reviewed critically. (orig.)

  19. Nucleation of recrystallization at selected sites in deformed fcc metals

    Xu, Chaoling

    The objective of this thesis is to explore nucleation of recrystallization at selected sites in selected face-centered-cubic (FCC) metals, namely cold rolled columnar-grained nickel and high purity aluminum further deformed by indenting. Various techniques, including, optical microscopy, electron...... backscattered diffraction (EBSD), electron channeling contrast (ECC) and synchrotron X-ray technique, differential-aperture X-ray microscopy (DAXM), were used to characterize the microstructures, to explore nucleation sites, orientation relationships between nuclei and deformed microstructures, and nucleation...... mechanisms. In the cold rolled nickel samples, the preference of triple junctions (TJs) and grain boundaries (GBs) as nucleation sites is observed. The majorities of the nuclei have the same orientations as the surrounding matrix or are twin-related to a surrounding deformed grain. Only a few nuclei...

  20. Chemical tailoring of teicoplanin with site-selective reactions.

    Pathak, Tejas P; Miller, Scott J

    2013-06-05

    Semisynthesis of natural product derivatives combines the power of fermentation with orthogonal chemical reactions. Yet, chemical modification of complex structures represents an unmet challenge, as poor selectivity often undermines efficiency. The complex antibiotic teicoplanin eradicates bacterial infections. However, as resistance emerges, the demand for improved analogues grows. We have discovered chemical reactions that achieve site-selective alteration of teicoplanin. Utilizing peptide-based additives that alter reaction selectivities, certain bromo-teicoplanins are accessible. These new compounds are also scaffolds for selective cross-coupling reactions, enabling further molecular diversification. These studies enable two-step access to glycopeptide analogues not available through either biosynthesis or rapid total chemical synthesis alone. The new compounds exhibit a spectrum of activities, revealing that selective chemical alteration of teicoplanin may lead to analogues with attenuated or enhanced antibacterial properties, in particular against vancomycin- and teicoplanin-resistant strains.

  1. An integrated model for supplier selection process

    2003-01-01

    In today's highly competitive manufacturing environment, the supplier selection process becomes one of crucial activities in supply chain management. In order to select the best supplier(s) it is not only necessary to continuously tracking and benchmarking performance of suppliers but also to make a tradeoff between tangible and intangible factors some of which may conflict. In this paper an integration of case-based reasoning (CBR), analytical network process (ANP) and linear programming (LP) is proposed to solve the supplier selection problem.

  2. Geological Storage of CO2. Site Selection Criteria

    Ruiz, C.; Martinez, R.; Recreo, F.; Prado, P.; Campos, R.; Pelayo, M.; Losa, A. de la; Hurtado, A.; Lomba, L.; Perez del Villar, L.; Ortiz, G.; Sastre, J.; Zapatero, M. A.; Suarez, I.; Arenillas, A.

    2007-01-01

    In year 2002 the Spanish Parliament unanimously passed the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, signed December 1997, compromising to limiting the greenhouse gas emissions increase. Later on, the Environment Ministry submitted the Spanish National Assignment Emissions Plan to the European Union and in year 2005 the Spanish Greenhouse Gas market started working, establishing taxes to pay in case of exceeding the assigned emissions limits. So, the avoided emissions of CO2 have now an economic value that is promoting new anthropogenic CO2 emissions reduction technologies. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) are among these new technological developments for mitigating or eliminate climate change. CO2 can be stored in geological formations such as depleted oil or gas fields, deep permeable saline water saturated formations and unmailable coal seams, among others. This report seeks to establish the selection criteria for suitable geological formations for CO2 storage in the Spanish national territory, paying attention to both the operational and performance requirements of these storage systems. The report presents the physical and chemical properties and performance of CO2 under storage conditions, the transport and reaction processes of both supercritical and gaseous CO2, and CO2 trapping mechanisms in geological formations. The main part of the report is devoted to geological criteria at watershed, site and formation scales. (Author) 100 refs

  3. Geological Storage of CO2. Site Selection Criteria

    Ruiz, C.; Martinez, R.; Recreo, F.; Prado, P.; Campos, R.; Pelayo, M.; Losa, A. de la; Hurtado, A.; Lomba, L.; Perez del Villar, L.; Ortiz, G.; Sastre, J.

    2006-01-01

    In year 2002 the Spanish Parliament unanimously passed the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, signed December 1997, compromising to limiting the greenhouse gas emissions increase. Later on, the Environment Ministry submitted the Spanish National Assignment Emissions Plan to the European Union and in year 2005 the Spanish Greenhouse Gas market started working, establishing taxes to pay in case of exceeding the assigned emissions limits. So, the avoided emissions of CO2 have now an economic value that is promoting new anthropogenic CO2 emissions reduction technologies. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) are among these new technological developments for mitigating or eliminate climate change. CO2 can be stored in geological formations such as depleted oil or gas fields, deep permeable saline water saturated formations and unmineable coal seams, among others. This report seeks to establish the selection criteria for suitable geological formations for CO2 storage in the Spanish national territory, paying attention to both the operational and performance requirements of these storage systems. The report presents the physical and chemical properties and performance of CO2 under storage conditions, the transport and reaction processes of both supercritical and gaseous CO2, and CO2 trapping mechanisms in geological formations. The main part of the report is devoted to geological criteria at watershed, site and formation scales. (Author) 100 ref

  4. Automated training site selection for large-area remote-sensing image analysis

    McCaffrey, Thomas M.; Franklin, Steven E.

    1993-11-01

    A computer program is presented to select training sites automatically from remotely sensed digital imagery. The basic ideas are to guide the image analyst through the process of selecting typical and representative areas for large-area image classifications by minimizing bias, and to provide an initial list of potential classes for which training sites are required to develop a classification scheme or to verify classification accuracy. Reducing subjectivity in training site selection is achieved by using a purely statistical selection of homogeneous sites which then can be compared to field knowledge, aerial photography, or other remote-sensing imagery and ancillary data to arrive at a final selection of sites to be used to train the classification decision rules. The selection of the homogeneous sites uses simple tests based on the coefficient of variance, the F-statistic, and the Student's i-statistic. Comparisons of site means are conducted with a linear growing list of previously located homogeneous pixels. The program supports a common pixel-interleaved digital image format and has been tested on aerial and satellite optical imagery. The program is coded efficiently in the C programming language and was developed under AIX-Unix on an IBM RISC 6000 24-bit color workstation.

  5. Site-specific analysis of radiological and physical parameters for cobbly soils at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site

    1994-01-01

    The remedial action at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site is being performed under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978. Under UMTRCA, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is charged with the responsibility of developing appropriate and applicable standards for the cleanup of radiologically contaminated land and buildings at 24 designated sites, including the Gunnison, Colorado, inactive processing site. Section 108 of Public Law 95-604 states that the US Department of Energy (DOE) shall ''select and perform remedial actions at the designated processing sites and disposal sites in accordance with the general standards'' prescribed by the EPA. Regulations governing the required remedial action at inactive uranium processing sites were promulgated by the EPA in 1983 and are contained in 40 CFR Part 192 (1993), Health and Environmental Protection Standards for Uranium and Thorium Mill Tailings. This document describes the radiological and physical parameters for the remedial action of the soil

  6. Selective hydrogenation processes in steam cracking

    Bender, M.; Schroeter, M.K.; Hinrichs, M.; Makarczyk, P. [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2010-12-30

    Hydrogen is the key elixir used to trim the quality of olefinic and aromatic product slates from steam crackers. Being co-produced in excess amounts in the thermal cracking process a small part of the hydrogen is consumed in the ''cold part'' of a steam cracker to selectively hydrogenate unwanted, unsaturated hydrocarbons. The compositions of the various steam cracker product streams are adjusted by these processes to the outlet specifications. This presentation gives an overview over state-of-art selective hydrogenation technologies available from BASF for these processes. (Published in summary form only) (orig.)

  7. Approaches to LLW disposal site selection and current progress of host states

    Walsh, J.J.; Kerr, T.A.

    1990-11-01

    In accordance with the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and under the guidance of 10 CFR 61, States have begun entering into compacts to establish and operate regional disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste. The progress a state makes in implementing a process to identify a specific location for a disposal site is one indication of the level of a state's commitment to meeting its responsibilities under Federal law and interstate compact agreements. During the past few years, several States have been engaged in site selection processes. The purpose of this report is to summarize the site selection approaches of some of the Host States (California, Michigan, Nebraska, New York, North Carolina, Texas, and Illinois), and their progress to date. An additional purpose of the report is to discern whether the Host States's site selection processes were heavily influenced by any common factors. One factor each state held in common was that political and public processes exerted a powerful influence on the site selection process at virtually every stage. 1 ref

  8. Method for Business Process Management System Selection

    Westelaken, van de, Thijs; Terwee, Bas; Ravesteijn, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    In recent years business process management (BPM) and specifically information systems that support the analysis, design and execution of processes (also called business process management systems (BPMS)) are getting more attention. This has lead to an increase in research on BPM and BPMS. However the research on BPMS is mostly focused on the architecture of the system and how to implement such systems. How to select a BPM system that fits the strategy and goals of a specific organization is ...

  9. Remedial action plan for the inactive uranium processing site at Naturita, Colorado. Remedial action selection report: Attachment 2, geology report; Attachment 3, ground water hydrology report; Attachment 4, supplemental information

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado, is one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be cleaned up by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), 42 USC {section} 7901 et seq. Part of the UMTRCA requires that the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE`s remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This RAP serves two purposes. First, it describes the activities that are proposed by the DOE to accomplish remediation and long-term stabilization and control of the radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Second, this RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the state of Colorado, and the NRC, becomes Appendix B of the cooperative agreement between the DOE and the state of Colorado.

  10. Analysis of Multi-Criteria Evaluation Method of Landfill Site Selection for Municipal Solid Waste Management

    Mohammed, Habiba Ibrahim; Majid, Zulkepli; Yusof, Norhakim Bin; Bello Yamusa, Yamusa

    2018-03-01

    Landfilling remains the most common systematic technique of solid waste disposal in most of the developed and developing countries. Finding a suitable site for landfill is a very challenging task. Landfill site selection process aims to provide suitable areas that will protect the environment and public health from pollution and hazards. Therefore, various factors such as environmental, physical, socio-economic, and geological criteria must be considered before siting any landfill. This makes the site selection process vigorous and tedious because it involves the processing of large amount of spatial data, rules and regulations from different agencies and also policy from decision makers. This allows the incorporation of conflicting objectives and decision maker preferences into spatial decision models. This paper particularly analyzes the multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) method of landfill site selection for solid waste management by means of literature reviews and surveys. The study will help the decision makers and waste management authorities to choose the most effective method when considering landfill site selection.

  11. Analysis of Multi-Criteria Evaluation Method of Landfill Site Selection for Municipal Solid Waste Management

    Ibrahim Mohammed Habiba

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Landfilling remains the most common systematic technique of solid waste disposal in most of the developed and developing countries. Finding a suitable site for landfill is a very challenging task. Landfill site selection process aims to provide suitable areas that will protect the environment and public health from pollution and hazards. Therefore, various factors such as environmental, physical, socio-economic, and geological criteria must be considered before siting any landfill. This makes the site selection process vigorous and tedious because it involves the processing of large amount of spatial data, rules and regulations from different agencies and also policy from decision makers. This allows the incorporation of conflicting objectives and decision maker preferences into spatial decision models. This paper particularly analyzes the multi-criteria evaluation (MCE method of landfill site selection for solid waste management by means of literature reviews and surveys. The study will help the decision makers and waste management authorities to choose the most effective method when considering landfill site selection.

  12. Technology needs for selecting and evaluating high-level waste repository sites in crystalline rock

    1988-12-01

    This report describes properties and processes that govern the performance of the geological barrier in a nuclear waste isolation system in crystalline rock and the state-of-the-art in the understanding of these properties and processes. Areas and topics that require further research and development as well as technology needs for investigating and selecting repository sites are presented. Experiences from the Swedish site selection program are discussed, and a general investigation strategy is presented for an area characterization phase of an exploratory program in crystalline rocks. 255 refs., 65 figs., 10 tabs

  13. Remedial action selection report Maybell, Colorado, site. Final report

    1996-12-01

    The Maybell uranium mill tailings site is 25 miles (mi) (40 kilometers [km]) west of the town of Craig, Colorado, in Moffat County, in the northwestern part of the state. The unincorporated town of Maybell is 5 road mi (8 km) southwest of the site. The site is 2.5 mi (4 km) northeast of the Yampa River on relatively flat terrain broken by low, flat-topped mesas. U.S. Highway 40 runs east-west 2 mi (3.2 km) south of the site. The designated site covers approximately 110 acres (ac) (45 hectares [ha]) and consists of a concave-shaped tailings pile and rubble from the demolition of the mill buildings buried in the former mill area. The site is situated between Johnson Wash to the east and Rob Pit Mine to the west. Numerous reclaimed and unreclaimed mines are in the immediate vicinity. Aerial photographs (included at the end of this executive summary) show evidence of mining activity around the Maybell site. Contaminated materials at the Maybell processing site include the tailings pile, which has an average depth of 20 feet (ft) (6 meters [ml]) and contains 2.8 million cubic yards (yd 3 ) (2.1 million cubic meters [m 3 ]) of tailings. The former mill processing area is on the north side of the site and contains 20,000 yd 3 (15,000 m 3 ) of contaminated demolition debris. Off-pile contamination is present and includes areas adjacent to the tailings pile, as well as contamination dispersed by wind and surface water flow. The volume of off-pile contamination to be placed in the disposal cell is 550,000 yd 3 (420,000 m 3 ). The total volume of contaminated materials to be disposed of as part of the remedial action is estimated to be 3.37 million yd 3 (2.58 million m 3 )

  14. Drill site selection process using geophysical (seismic, EM, magnetic) surveys and regional geochemical uranium deposit vectors within the Keefe Lake Uranium Property and its vicinity – Athabasca Basin, Saskatchewan, Canada

    Hajnal, Z.; Pandit, B.; Annesley, I.; Takacs, E.

    2014-01-01

    This study was initiated at the request of Athabasca Uranium Inc. of Vancouver, Canada. The area of investigation is around 4000 km"2 and includes the Keefe Lake (KL) property of the Company, located at the southeastern flank of the Athabasca Basin in Northern Saskatchewan. The intention of the program was multi-fold: to establish trends of regional uranium mineralization vectors, and incorporate these findings into the multidimensional integrated analysis of the currently available KL data set with an aim of providing an advanced priority ranking of drill hole selection process for the upcoming drilling programs. The information adapted for this investigation includes data from 450 boreholes, as well as drilling results of a recent KL prospect; data obtained from 114 Assessment Reports of the Saskatchewan Mineral Assessment Data Base (SMAD), and the analyses of 4 highresolution 2D seismic profiles within the claims of Athabasca Uranium Inc. To establish more effective spatial perspectives, the results of the regional lithology study (investigating alteration, graphitic, structural, pelitic, and pegmatitic features) were displayed along with the EM conductors, whereas basement lithology and faults were obtained from the Geological Atlas of Saskatchewan (southeastern segment of the Athabasca Basin). The regional investigation also included a study of the depth variations of the unconformity (UC), spatial vectors in geochemistry of the indicative path finder elements (U, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, As, and B), and also the clay mineralization (illite and kaolinite) indicative of uranium mineralization related to alteration zones. Local area investigations consisted of integrating the AEROTEM (2009) and VTEM (2013) airborne EM data, the associated magnetic observations, and computation of relevant attributes. The comprehensive synthesis of the above geophysical information incorporated all the available and derived geological perspectives. The high-resolution 2D seismic data

  15. Nuclear site selection and environmental protection. The decision making methods

    Bresson, G.; Lacourly, G.; Fitoussi, L.

    1975-01-01

    The selection of the site of a nuclear plant most often comes to seek out and compound between two trends: that of the operator who will try and reduce the cost price of his product to the lowest and that of the protectionist who will try and reduce to the minimum the hazards resulting from the plant operation. Such a compromise is the result of a more or less empirical choice, which enters within the frame of a cost-benefit analysis, in which theoretically, the choice between several possible solutions is made of the selection giving the higher advantage [fr

  16. Gorleben. Waste management site based on an appropriate selection procedure

    Tiggemann, Anselm

    2010-01-01

    On February 22, 1977, the Lower Saxony state government decided in favor of Gorleben as a ''preliminary'' site of a ''potential'' facility for managing the back end of the fuel cycle of the nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany. The Lower Saxony files, closed until recently, now allow both the factual basis and the political background to be reconstructed comprehensively. The first selection procedure, financed by the federal government, for the site of a ''nuclear waste management center,'' which had been conducted by Kernbrennstoff-Wiederaufarbeitungsgesellschaft (KEWA) in 1974, had not considered Gorleben in any detail. As early as in the winter of 1975/76, Gorleben and a number of other potential sites were indicated to KEWA by the Lower Saxony State Ministry of Economics. The new finding is KEWA's conclusion of 1976 that Gorleben surpassed all potential sites examined so far in terms of suitability. As a consequence, Gorleben was regarded as an alternative alongside the 3 sites favored before, i.e. Wahn, Lutterloh, and Lichtenhorst, when the 3 Federal Ministers, Hans Matthoefer (SPD), Werner Maihofer (F.D.P.), and Hans Friderichs (F.D.P.), discussed the nuclear waste management project with Minister President Albrecht (CDU) in November 1976. The Lower Saxony State Cabinet commissioned an interministerial working party (IMAK) to find other potential sites besides Wahn, Lutterloh, Lichtenhorst, and Gorleben. IMAK proposed Gorleben, Lichtenhorst, Mariaglueck, and Wahn for further examination. IMAK recommended to the State Cabinet in another proposal to earmark either Gorleben or Lichtenhorst. (orig.)

  17. National radioactive waste repository site selection study. Phase 2. A report on public comment

    1995-11-01

    Agreement was reached in principle between State/Territory and the Commonwealth of Australia Governments that a suitable site for a radioactive wastes repository must be found. The discussion papers resulting from the Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the site selection study were released for public comment. The national repository will be for disposal of low level and short-lived intermediate level radioactive wastes streaming from the medical, research and industrial use of radioisotopes in Australia. The purpose of this report is to summarise and respond in general terms to comment received on the discussion paper -Phase 2 of the study. Forty five submissions were received. Of these: 18 supported the Phase 2 study approach and the concept of a national repository; 13 did not state a clear position but either requested more information or provided constructive comment on the siting process; 7 supported the site selection approach and the repository concept but suggested that the repository should not be sited in a particular area; 3 opposed the siting of the repository in their vicinity but not necessarily the repository concept and site selection approach; 4 opposed the concept of a national repository. This compares with 124 submissions on Phase 1 of the study, of which 57 opposed the national repository concept (52 of these were from letters elicited by Greenpeace) and 48 supported the establishment of a national repository and the site selection approach proposed. 3 figs

  18. Artificial Intelligence Support for Landing Site Selection on Mars

    Rongier, G.; Pankratius, V.

    2017-12-01

    Mars is a key target for planetary exploration; a better understanding of its evolution and habitability requires roving in situ. Landing site selection is becoming more challenging for scientists as new instruments generate higher data volumes. The involved engineering and scientific constraints make site selection and the anticipation of possible onsite actions into a complex optimization problem: there may be multiple acceptable solutions depending on various goals and assumptions. Solutions must also account for missing data, errors, and potential biases. To address these problems, we propose an AI-informed decision support system that allows scientists, mission designers, engineers, and committees to explore alternative site selection choices based on data. In particular, we demonstrate first results of an exploratory case study using fuzzy logic and a simulation of a rover's mobility map based on the fast marching algorithm. Our system computes favorability maps of the entire planet to facilitate landing site selection and allows a definition of different configurations for rovers, science target priorities, landing ellipses, and other constraints. For a rover similar to NASA's Mars 2020 rover, we present results in form of a site favorability map as well as four derived exploration scenarios that depend on different prioritized scientific targets, all visualizing inherent tradeoffs. Our method uses the NASA PDS Geosciences Node and the NASA/ICA Integrated Database of Planetary Features. Under common assumptions, the data products reveal Eastern Margaritifer Terra and Meridiani Planum to be the most favorable sites due to a high concentration of scientific targets and a flat, easily navigable surface. Our method also allows mission designers to investigate which constraints have the highest impact on the mission exploration potential and to change parameter ranges. Increasing the elevation limit for landing, for example, provides access to many additional

  19. Site selection for Canada's national repository for used nuclear fuel

    Ben Belfadhel, M.; Watts, B.; Facella, J., E-mail: mbenbelfadhel@nwmo.ca [Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO), Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-12-15

    In 2007, the Government of Canada selected Adaptive Phased Management as Canada's plan for the long-term management of Canada's used nuclear fuel. The approach provides for containment and isolation of the material in a deep geological repository at a safe site with an informed and willing host. The Nuclear Waste Management Organization is tasked through federal legislation with selecting the site and developing and managing all aspects of the plan. In May 2010, the organization published and initiated the site selection process that serves as a road map for decision making on the location for the deep geological repository. It continues to lead the site selection process for the repository and an associated Centre of Expertise. The screening process is advancing and, from an initial starting point of 22 communities expressing interest in learning about the project; as of September 2015, 9 communities are the focus of more detailed technical and community well-being studies. Preliminary Assessments, the third step in the 9-step site selection process are underway in these communities. The Assessments involve preliminary technical and social desktop and field assessments, engagement activities within and beyond each interested community, and involvement of Indigenous peoples and nearby municipalities in the planning and conduct of the work. This paper provides an update on the advancement of the site selection process. It describes the nature of the technical and social studies being conducted at this phase of work, including the progressively more detailed field studies that are the focus of technical work at the current stage, the approach to engagement and collaboration with communities to direct these studies, and the work underway to ensure the framework used for this assessment and engagement includes the range of priorities and perspectives of First Nations and Metis peoples and communities in the broader area. (author)

  20. The Finnish final disposal programme proceeds to the site selection

    Seppaelae, T.

    1999-01-01

    Research for the selection of the final disposal site has been carried out already since the beginning of 1980's. Field studies were started in 1987: In the recent years, studied sites have included Olkiluoto in Eurajoki, Haestholmen in Loviisa, Romuvaara in Kuhmo and Kivetty in Aeaenekoski. Based on 40 years operation of four power plant units, the estimate for the accumulation of spent fuel to be disposed of in Finland is 2,600 tU. A 'Decision in Principle' is needed from the Finnish government to select the final disposal site, Posiva submitted the application for a policy decision in May 1999. The intended site of the facility is Olkiluoto which produces most of the spent fuel in Finland: A disposal would minimise the need of transports. In a poll among the inhabitants of Eurajoki, 60 per cent approved the final disposal facility. After a positive decision of the government, Posiva will construct an underground research facility in Olkiluoto. The construction of the final disposal facility will take place in the 2010's, the facility should be operational in 2020. (orig.) [de

  1. Experience in selection and characterization of sites for geological disposal of radioactive waste

    1997-12-01

    An important matter in the development of a geological repository for disposal radioactive waste is the selection of a site that has characteristics that are favorable for isolation. A number of Member States have had national programmes under way for several decades to investigate sites to gather the geological information needed to design and construct a safe repository. The purpose of this report is to document this experience and to summarize what has been learned about the site selection and investigation process. It is hoped it will be of interest to scientists and engineers working in national disposal programmes by providing them information and key references regarding the disposal programmes in other countries. It may also be of interest to members of the public and to decision makers wanting an overview of the worldwide status of programmes to select and characterize geological disposal sites for radioactive waste

  2. Material and process selection using product examples

    Lenau, Torben Anker

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to suggest a different procedure for selecting materials and processes within the product development work. The procedure includes using product examples in order to increase the number of alternative materials and processes that is considered. Product examples can c...... a search engine, and through hyperlinks can relevant materials and processes be explored. Realising that designers are very sensitive to user interfaces do all descriptions of materials, processes and products include graphical descriptions, i.e. pictures or computer graphics....

  3. Material and process selection using product examples

    Lenau, Torben Anker

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to suggest a different procedure for selecting materials and processes within the product development work. The procedure includes using product examples in order to increase the number of alternative materials and processes that is considered. Product examples can c...... a search engine, and through hyperlinks can relevant materials and processes be explored. Realising that designers are very sensitive to user interfaces do all descriptions of materials, processes and products include graphical descriptions, i.e. pictures or computer graphics....

  4. Safety assessment input for site selection - the Swedish example - 59031

    Andersson, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) has performed comprehensive investigations of two candidate sites for a final repository for Sweden's spent nuclear fuel. In March 2011 SKB decided to submit licence applications for a final repository at Forsmark. Before selection, SKB stated that the site that offers the best prospects for achieving long-term safety in practice would be selected. Based on experiences previous safety assessments, a number of issues related to long-term safety need to be considered in the context of site comparison. The factors include sensitivity to climate change such as periods of permafrost and glaciations, rock mechanics evolution including the potential for thermally induced spalling and sensitivity to potential future earthquakes, current and future groundwater flow, evolution of groundwater composition and proximity to mineral resources. Each of these factors related to long-term safety for the two candidate sites is assessed in a comparative analysis of site characteristics. The assessment also considers differences in biosphere conditions and in the confidence of the site descriptions. The comparison is concluded by an assessment on how the identified differences would affect the estimated radiological risk from a repository located at either of the sites. The assessment concludes that there are a number of safety related site characteristics for which the analyses do not show any decisive differences in terms of implications on safety, between the sites Forsmark and Laxemar. However, the frequency of water conducting fractures at repository depth is much smaller at Forsmark than at Laxemar. This difference, in turn, affects the future stability of the current favourable groundwater composition, which combined with the much higher flows at Laxemar would, for the current repository design, lead to a breach in the safety functions for the buffer and the canister for many more deposition positions at Laxemar than at Forsmark. Thereby

  5. Study on site selection of cold chain logistics in northwest territories

    Liu, Yubin; Ren, Zongwei

    2017-08-01

    In this research, we mainly studied the Site selection problem of cold chain logistics in northwest of China. In the first place, we counted the demands of cold chain products in northwest territories, and then classified it into the Site selection problem in five provinces in northwest territories(Xinjiang, Qinghai, Gansu, Ningxia, Shanxi); Next, we used the Center of gravity Method to select initial location; Finally, we established the location of distribution by using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. Comparing with the traditional method, this method not only considered the cost of transportation and distance, but also deliberated the physical condition, social environment and economics condition which associated with Site selection problem.

  6. Resource evaluation and site selection for microalgae production systems

    Maxwell, E.L.; Folger, A.G.; Hogg, S.E.

    1985-05-01

    Climate, land, and water resource requirements of microalgae production systems (MPS) were examined relative to construction costs, operating costs, and biomass productivity. The objective was the stratification of the southwestern United States into zones of relative suitability for MPS. Maps of climate (insolation, freeze-free period, precipitation, evaporation, thunderstorm days), land (use/cover, ownership, slope), and water (saline groundwater) resource parameters were obtained. These maps were transformed into digital overlays permitting the cell-by-cell compositing of selected resource parameters to form maps representing relative productivity, make-up water, climate suitability, land suitability, water suitability, and overall suitability. The Southwest was selected for this study because of its high levels of insolation, saline water resources, and large areas of relatively low valued land. The stratification maps cannot be used for the selection of specific sites because of their low resolution (12,455-acre cells). They can be used to guide future resource studies and site selection efforts, however, by limiting these efforts to the most suitable regions. Future efforts should concentrate on saline water resources, for which only limited data are currently available. 13 refs., 44 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Decision precision or holistic heuristic?: Insights on on-site selection of student nurses and midwives.

    Macduff, Colin; Stephen, Audrey; Taylor, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about quality of care delivery in the UK have led to more scrutiny of criteria and methods for the selection of student nurses. However few substantive research studies of on-site selection processes exist. This study elicited and interpreted perspectives on interviewing processes and related decision making involved in on-site selection of student nurses and midwives. Individual and focus group interviews were undertaken with 36 lecturers, 5 clinical staff and 72 students from seven Scottish universities. Enquiry focused primarily on interviewing of candidates on-site. Qualitative content analysis was used as a primary strategy, followed by in-depth thematic analysis. Students had very mixed experiences of interview processes. Staff typically took into account a range of candidate attributes that they valued in order to achieve holistic assessments. These included: interpersonal skills, team working, confidence, problem-solving, aptitude for caring, motivations, and commitment. Staff had mixed views of the validity and reliability of interview processes. A holistic heuristic for overall decision making predominated over belief in the precision of, and evidence base for, particular attribute measurement processes. While the development of measurement tools for particular attributes continues apace, tension between holism and precision is likely to persist within on-site selection procedures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Factors of site selection for nuclear power plants in selected industrial states

    Hoffmann, L.; Obermair, G.; Ringler, W.; Romahn, B.; Sanders, H.

    1978-01-01

    The range of the tasks within the project consists of working out an optimal catalogue of criteria for the site selection for nuclear power plants; establishing a structured documentation system for the criteria and licensing procedures used by selected industrial countries when selecting sites for nuclear power plants; analyzing and evaluating the documented material with the aim of supplying the basis for decisions concerning land use. The tasks are being realized within a technological ring of data (for the period until 1990, reactor types, cooling, power-heat coupling, special sites, block sizes, local concentration) and a set politico-economical ring of data for the following countries: F.R. Germany, Belgium, Switzerland, Great Britain, Sweden, Denmark, Austria, France, Netherlands, USA, Japan, Yougoslavia. (HP) [de

  9. Group decision making in nest-site selection by honey bees

    Seeley , Thomas; Kirk Visscher , P.

    2004-01-01

    International audience; In recent years, renewed attention has been paid to the mechanisms of group decision making that underlie the nest-site selection process in honey bees. We review the results of these new investigations by discussing how the recent work builds on the earlier descriptive studies of this decision-making process, how the decision-making abilities of swarms have been tested, and how the mechanisms of this decision-making process have been experimentally analyzed. We conclu...

  10. The Process of Marketing Segmentation Strategy Selection

    Ionel Dumitru

    2007-01-01

    The process of marketing segmentation strategy selection represents the essence of strategical marketing. We present hereinafter the main forms of the marketing statategy segmentation: undifferentiated marketing, differentiated marketing, concentrated marketing and personalized marketing. In practice, the companies use a mix of these marketing segmentation methods in order to maximize the proffit and to satisfy the consumers’ needs.

  11. Microclimate and nest-site selection in Micronesian Kingfishers

    Kesler, Dylan C.; Haig, Susan M.

    2005-01-01

    We studied the relationship between microclimate and nest-site selection in the Pohnpei Micronesian Kingfisher (Todiramphus cinnamominus reichenbachii) which excavates nest cavities from the mudlike nest structures of arboreal termites (Nasutitermes sp.) or termitaria. Mean daily high temperatures at termitaria were cooler and daily low temperatures were warmer than at random sites in the forest. Results also indicate that termitaria provided insulation from temperature extremes, and that temperatures inside termitaria were within the thermoneutral zone of Micronesian Kingfishers more often than those outside. No differences were identified in temperatures at sites where nest termitaria and nonnest termitaria occurred or among the insulation properties of used and unused termitaria. These results suggest that although termitaria provide insulation from thermal extremes and a metabolically less stressful microclimate, king-fishers did not select from among available termitaria based on their thermal properties. Our findings are relevant to conservation efforts for the critically endangered Guam Micronesian Kingfisher (T. c. cinnamominus) which is extinct in the wild and exists only as a captive population. Captive breeding facilities should provide aviaries with daily ambient temperatures ranging from 22.06 A?C to 28.05 A?C to reduce microclimate-associated metabolic stress and to replicate microclimates used by wild Micronesian Kingfishers.

  12. Philippine Wind Farm Analysis and Site Selection Analysis, 1 January 2000 - 31 December 2000

    Conover, K.

    2001-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), has been working in partnership with the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) in an ongoing process to quantify the Philippine wind energy potential and foster wind farm development. As part of that process, NREL retained Global Energy Concepts, LLC (GEC) to review and update the policy needs as well as develop a site-screening process applicable for the Philippines. GEC worked closely with the Philippines National Power Corporation (NPC) in completing this work. This report provides the results of the policy needs and site selection analyses conducted by GEC.

  13. Public relation aspects of site selection in the United Kingdom

    Curtin, T.

    1996-01-01

    Following a recent review, the UK Government has confirmed that it continues to favour a policy of deep disposal of intermediate low-level waste. The Government's continuing policy stems from the recommendations of the 1976 Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution (the 'Flowers'Report) and White Papers issued in 1977 and 1982 and 1982. The paper outlines the search for a disposal site in the UK. Nirex (Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive) was set up in 1982 to research and develop disposal facilities for intermediate low-level waste and low-level waste. At that time disposal facilities were envisaged as an engineered near-surface facility for LLW and short-lived ILW, and a modified mine or purpose built cavity at greater depth for long-lived ILW. Investigation of various sites followed and is discussed in the paper. The paper reviews the lessons learned in the field of public relations and public consultation, notably that public acceptance is a key factor in site selection and development, and that transparency is essential. For example, when it was announced that Sellafield was the preferred site for the repository, local councils became involved in discussions and planning, and Nirex is becoming more and more integrated into the local community. (author)

  14. Site-Selective Conjugation of Native Proteins with DNA

    Trads, Julie Brender; Tørring, Thomas; Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager

    2017-01-01

    Conjugation of DNA to proteins is increasingly used in academia and industry to provide proteins with tags for identification or handles for hybridization to other DNA strands. Assay technologies such as immuno-PCR and proximity ligation and the imaging technology DNA-PAINT require DNA-protein....... The introduction of a bioorthogonal handle at a specific position of a protein by recombinant techniques provides an excellent approach to site-specific conjugation, but for many laboratories and for applications where several proteins are to be labeled, the expression of recombinant proteins may be cumbersome...... conjugates. In DNA nanotechnology, the DNA handle is exploited to precisely position proteins by self-assembly. For these applications, site-selective conjugation is almost always desired because fully functional proteins are required to maintain the specificity of antibodies and the activity of enzymes...

  15. Site-selective {sup 13}C labeling of proteins using erythrose

    Weininger, Ulrich, E-mail: ulrich.weininger@physik.uni-halle.de [Lund University, Department of Biophysical Chemistry, Center for Molecular Protein Science (Sweden)

    2017-03-15

    NMR-spectroscopy enables unique experimental studies on protein dynamics at atomic resolution. In order to obtain a full atom view on protein dynamics, and to study specific local processes like ring-flips, proton-transfer, or tautomerization, one has to perform studies on amino-acid side chains. A key requirement for these studies is site-selective labeling with {sup 13}C and/or {sup 1}H, which is achieved in the most general way by using site-selectively {sup 13}C-enriched glucose (1- and 2-{sup 13}C) as the carbon source in bacterial expression systems. Using this strategy, multiple sites in side chains, including aromatics, become site-selectively labeled and suitable for relaxation studies. Here we systematically investigate the use of site-selectively {sup 13}C-enriched erythrose (1-, 2-, 3- and 4-{sup 13}C) as a suitable precursor for {sup 13}C labeled aromatic side chains. We quantify {sup 13}C incorporation in nearly all sites in all 20 amino acids and compare the results to glucose based labeling. In general the erythrose approach results in more selective labeling. While there is only a minor gain for phenylalanine and tyrosine side-chains, the {sup 13}C incorporation level for tryptophan is at least doubled. Additionally, the Phe ζ and Trp η2 positions become labeled. In the aliphatic side chains, labeling using erythrose yields isolated {sup 13}C labels for certain positions, like Ile β and His β, making these sites suitable for dynamics studies. Using erythrose instead of glucose as a source for site-selective {sup 13}C labeling enables unique or superior labeling for certain positions and is thereby expanding the toolbox for customized isotope labeling of amino-acid side-chains.

  16. Selection Process for New Windows | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  17. Selection Process for Replacement Windows | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  18. On site selection of thermoelectric power plants in polluted environment

    Gheorghe, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the environmental impact of combined heat-power plants. The selection of the site of these plants depends on the spatial distribution law of pollutants and their chemical interaction with environment. The solutions of a diffusion equation describing a system of chemically interacting pollutants are given and discussed. The environmental impacts are described in terms of wind and atmosphere stability, effective and built stack height and the source distance parameters. The optimal constructive solutions are judged upon the concentrations of sulfur and nitrogen oxides at the ground level which must be kept under the maximum admissible limit. (author). 8 figs

  19. Nucleic acid constructs containing orthogonal site selective recombinases (OSSRs)

    Gilmore, Joshua M.; Anderson, J. Christopher; Dueber, John E.

    2017-08-29

    The present invention provides for a recombinant nucleic acid comprising a nucleotide sequence comprising a plurality of constructs, wherein each construct independently comprises a nucleotide sequence of interest flanked by a pair of recombinase recognition sequences. Each pair of recombinase recognition sequences is recognized by a distinct recombinase. Optionally, each construct can, independently, further comprise one or more genes encoding a recombinase capable of recognizing the pair of recombinase recognition sequences of the construct. The recombinase can be an orthogonal (non-cross reacting), site-selective recombinase (OSSR).

  20. Compositional Changes in Selected Minimally Processed Vegetables

    O'Reilly, Emer, (Thesis)

    2000-01-01

    Compositional, physiological and microbiological changes in selected minimally processed vegetables packaged under a modified atmosphere of 2% oxygen and 5% carbon dioxide were monitored over a ten day storage period at 40 C and 80 C. The analysis targeted specific changes in the nutritional, chemical and physiological make up of the vegetables as well as the changes in the microbial levels. In addition the changes in the gas atmospheres within the packs were monitored. It has been widely acc...

  1. Selection of refractory materials for pyrochemical processing

    Axler, K.M.; DePoorter, G.L.; Bagaasen, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    Several pyrochemical processing operations require containment materials that exhibit minimal chemical interactions with the system, good thermal shock resistance, and reusability. One example is Direct Oxide Reduction (DOR). DOR involves the conversion of PuO 2 to metal by an oxidation/reduction reaction with Ca metal. The reaction proceeds within a molten salt flux at temperatures above 800C. A combination of thermodynamics, system thermodynamic modeling, and experimental investigations are in use to select and evaluate potential containment materials

  2. Homology modeling, docking studies and molecular dynamic simulations using graphical processing unit architecture to probe the type-11 phosphodiesterase catalytic site: a computational approach for the rational design of selective inhibitors.

    Cichero, Elena; D'Ursi, Pasqualina; Moscatelli, Marco; Bruno, Olga; Orro, Alessandro; Rotolo, Chiara; Milanesi, Luciano; Fossa, Paola

    2013-12-01

    Phosphodiesterase 11 (PDE11) is the latest isoform of the PDEs family to be identified, acting on both cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate. The initial reports of PDE11 found evidence for PDE11 expression in skeletal muscle, prostate, testis, and salivary glands; however, the tissue distribution of PDE11 still remains a topic of active study and some controversy. Given the sequence similarity between PDE11 and PDE5, several PDE5 inhibitors have been shown to cross-react with PDE11. Accordingly, many non-selective inhibitors, such as IBMX, zaprinast, sildenafil, and dipyridamole, have been documented to inhibit PDE11. Only recently, a series of dihydrothieno[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4(3H)-one derivatives proved to be selective toward the PDE11 isoform. In the absence of experimental data about PDE11 X-ray structures, we found interesting to gain a better understanding of the enzyme-inhibitor interactions using in silico simulations. In this work, we describe a computational approach based on homology modeling, docking, and molecular dynamics simulation to derive a predictive 3D model of PDE11. Using a Graphical Processing Unit architecture, it is possible to perform long simulations, find stable interactions involved in the complex, and finally to suggest guideline for the identification and synthesis of potent and selective inhibitors. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Social and economical aspects in the selection of the site for the final Goiania waste repository

    Paschoa, A.S.; Tranjan Filho, A.; Rosenthal, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    Site selection criteria for low and intermediate level waste repositories are usually well established as far as the technological and scientific bases are concerned. However, social, cultural and economical aspects need to be examined on a case by case basis because there are many situations to be faced before succeeding to convince the public and authorities that a waste repository is to be built at any chosen site. In the specific case of Goiania there is an ongoing process that started several years ago, to make the repository accepted by local, state and national authorities, and to answer legitimate questions raised by significant segments of the population. This paper will summarise those more relevant aspects concerning the site selection process for the Goiania repository. (author)

  4. Selection of nest-site habitat by interior least terns in relation to sandbar construction

    Sherfy, Mark H.; Stucker, Jennifer H.; Buhl, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    Federally endangered interior least terns (Sternula antillarum) nest on bare or sparsely vegetated sandbars on midcontinent river systems. Loss of nesting habitat has been implicated as a cause of population declines, and managing these habitats is a major initiative in population recovery. One such initiative involves construction of mid-channel sandbars on the Missouri River, where natural sandbar habitat has declined in quantity and quality since the late 1990s. We evaluated nest-site habitat selection by least terns on constructed and natural sandbars by comparing vegetation, substrate, and debris variables at nest sites (n = 798) and random points (n = 1,113) in bare or sparsely vegetated habitats. Our logistic regression models revealed that a broader suite of habitat features was important in nest-site selection on constructed than on natural sandbars. Odds ratios for habitat variables indicated that avoidance of habitat features was the dominant nest-site selection process on both sandbar types, with nesting terns being attracted to nest-site habitat features (gravel and debris) and avoiding vegetation only on constructed sandbars, and avoiding silt and leaf litter on both sandbar types. Despite the seemingly uniform nature of these habitats, our results suggest that a complex suite of habitat features influences nest-site choice by least terns. However, nest-site selection in this social, colonially nesting species may be influenced by other factors, including spatial arrangement of bare sand habitat, proximity to other least terns, and prior habitat occupancy by piping plovers (Charadrius melodus). We found that nest-site selection was sensitive to subtle variation in habitat features, suggesting that rigor in maintaining habitat condition will be necessary in managing sandbars for the benefit of least terns. Further, management strategies that reduce habitat features that are avoided by least terns may be the most beneficial to nesting least terns.

  5. Route Selection with Unspecified Sites Using Knowledge Based Genetic Algorithm

    Kanoh, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Nobuaki; Nakamura, Tomohiro

    This paper addresses the problem of selecting a route to a given destination that traverses several non-specific sites (e.g. a bank, a gas station) as requested by a driver. The proposed solution uses a genetic algorithm that includes viral infection. The method is to generate two populations of viruses as domain specific knowledge in addition to a population of routes. A part of an arterial road is regarded as a main virus, and a road that includes a site is regarded as a site virus. An infection occurs between two points common to a candidate route and the virus, and involves the substitution of the intersections carried by the virus for those on the existing candidate route. Crossover and infection determine the easiest-to-drive and quasi-shortest route through the objective landmarks. Experiments using actual road maps show that this infection-based mechanism is an effective way of solving the problem. Our strategy is general, and can be effectively used in other optimization problems.

  6. Geological Consideration for the Site Selection of Radioactive Waste at the PPTN Serpong Area

    Sucipta

    2002-01-01

    Geological consideration is a main aspect in the exploration or selection of site for radioactive waste repository, because, really that repository site must be surrounded by geological system (geosphere). The objective of the site selection is to obtain a site which geologically capable to prevent the escape of waste pollution from repository to biosphere. Beside that the site must be free from geological processes which harmfull to longterm stability of the site. Descriptive analysis method was applied in this research and combined with evaluation by scoring methods. From the analysis result could be identified that PPTN Serpong morphologically consist of undulatory plains (elevation 80-100 m above msl), the lithology are alluvial deposits. Quarternary tuffs, pumiceous tuffs, clayey tuffs. sandy tuffs and limestone. The geological structure was supposed a horst and graben which buried more than 15 m since Pleistocene. Hydrological condition are moderately run-off, and the distance to the river is about 160 m. The depth of groundwater is 8.3 m, with parallel drainage system. Geological resources found in the site are land and groundwater. The most potential of geological hazard is supposed a rock mass movement. By the land evaluation could be concluded that PPTN Serpong area have moderate suitability for NSD site. (author)

  7. The Importance of Site Selection for Radio Astronomy

    Umar, Roslan; Abidin, Zamri Zainal; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin

    2014-01-01

    Radio sources are very weak since this object travel very far from outer space. Radio astronomy studies are limited due to radio frequency interference (RFI) that is made by man. If the harassment is not stopped, it will provide critical problems in their radio astronomy scientists research. The purpose of this study is to provide RFI map Peninsular Malaysia with a minimum mapping techniques RFI interference. RFI mapping technique using GIS is proposed as a tool in mapping techniques. Decision-making process for the selection requires gathering information from a variety of parameters. These factors affecting the selection process are also taken account. In this study, various factors or parameters involved such as availability of telecommunications transmission (including radio and television), rainfall, water line and human activity. This study will benefit radio astronomy research especially in the RFI profile in Malaysia. Keywords: Radio Astronomy, Radio Frequency Interference (RFI), RFI mapping technique : GIS

  8. Nest-site selection in the acorn woodpecker

    Hooge, P.N.; Stanback, M.T.; Koenig, Walter D.

    1999-01-01

    Acorn Woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus) at Hastings Reservation in central California prefer to nest in dead limbs in large, dead valley oaks (Quercus lobata) and California sycamores (Platanus racemosa) that are also frequently used as acorn storage trees. Based on 232 nest cavities used over an 18-year period, we tested whether preferred or modal nest-site characters were associated with increased reproductive success (the "nest-site quality" hypothesis). We also examined whether more successful nests were likely to experience more favorable microclimatic conditions or to be less accessible to terrestrial predators. We found only equivocal support for the nest-site quality hypothesis: only 1 of 5 preferred characters and 2 of 10 characters exhibiting a clear modality were correlated with higher reproductive success. All three characteristics of nests known or likely to be associated with a more favorable microclimate, and two of five characteristics likely to render nests less accessible to predators, were correlated with higher reproductive success. These results suggest that nest cavities in this population are built in part to take advantage of favorable microclimatic conditions and, to a lesser extent, to reduce access to predators. However, despite benefits of particular nest characteristics, birds frequently nested in apparently suboptimal cavities. We also found a significant relationship between mean group size and the history of occupancy of particular territories and the probability of nest cavities being built in microclimatically favorable live limbs, suggesting that larger groups residing on more stable territories were better able to construct nests with optimal characteristics. This indicates that there may be demographic, as well as ecological, constraints on nest-site selection in this primary cavity nester.

  9. Yakima tribal perspectives on high level selection process

    Jim, R.; Wittman, J.; Tousley, D.R.; Hovis, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    When Congress went through the arduous process of fashioning a comprehensive plan for resolution of the nation's long-standing nuclear waste problem, it explicitly recognized that past federal efforts in this area had been inadequate. Congress also recognized that the primary reasons for the failure of earlier federal efforts was failure on the part of the federal government to seriously deal with very real technical questions about the geologic adequacy of prospective repository sites, and failure to address the concerns of state, tribal, and local governments in the repository selection and development process

  10. Off-site protective action selection for nuclear reactor accidents

    Weerakkody, S.D.

    1986-01-01

    A computer program based upon a model using a rational theoretical basis was developed to select appropriate off-site protective actions during nuclear reactor accidents. The special features of this program include (a) introduction of a precursor concept that uses the history of the accident progression to determine the spectrum of potential accident scenarios and estimates of the likelihoods of each accident scenario; (b) use of statistical decision theory and the concept of entropy of a spectrum to select the appropriate protective actions using either the minimax principle or the Bayes action method; and (c) introduction of methods to quantify evacuation travel risks. In order to illustrate the usefulness of the computer program, it was applied at three stages of the Three Mile Island accident scenario. Quantified non-radiological risks of evaluation have been used to establish dose thresholds below which evacuations are not justified. Using the Poisson analysis for evacuation risks and the absolute L-L BEIR model for radiation risk suggests 330 mrems as a reasonable value for this threshold. The usefulness of the program in developing a technical basis to select the size of the plume exposure pathway emergency planning zone (EPZ) is discussed. Quantified evacuation risks, cost, and the current rationale upon which the EPZ is based, justify an EPZ between 5-10 miles for WASH-1400 source-terms

  11. Application of commercial exploration techniques to site selection and characterization

    Brewer, W.A.

    1987-01-01

    Since 1976 the U.S Department of Energy has conducted intensive geologic studies of the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in south-central Washington. With passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 the process of search for a geologically suitable waste repository site became more structured, and it has been subject to outside review by the state, affected Indian tribes and other federal agencies, notably the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the U.S Geological Survey. This paper contrasts the USDOE approach with that of the mining and petroleum industries, highlighting fundamental differences in philosophy and techniques. It is proposed that the principle of ''condemnation,'' which is fundamental in commercial exploration methods, could greatly benefit the USDOE siting program, which by comparison has been slow, costly and not very productive

  12. Site selection for deep geologic repositories - Consequences for society, economy and environment

    2010-03-01

    In a few years, Switzerland will make the decision regarding site selection for geological underground repositories for the storage of radioactive wastes. Besides the safety issue, many citizens are interested in how such a repository will affect environment, economy and society in the selected site's region. This brochure summarizes the results of many studies on the socio-economic impacts of nuclear waste repositories. Radioactive wastes must be stored in such a way that mankind and environment are safely protected for a long period of time. How this goal may be achieved, is already known: geologic deep repositories warrant long-term safety. For the oncoming years in Switzerland the question is where the repository will be built. The search for an appropriate site for a repository in the proposed regions will launch discussions. Within the participative framework the regions may bring their requests. The demonstration of the safety of potential repository sites has the highest priority in the selection process. In the third procedural step additional rock investigations will be made. The socio-economic studies and the experience with existing plants show that radioactive waste management plants can be built and operated in good agreement with environmental requirements. The radioactive wastes in a deep underground repository are stored many hundred meters below the Earth's surface. There, they are isolated from our vital space. Technical barriers and the surrounding dense rock confinement prevent the release of radioactive materials into the environment. A deep repository has positive consequences for the regional economy. It increases trade and value creation and creates work places. The socio-economic impacts practically extend over one century, but strongly vary with time; they are the largest during the building period. High life quality and a positive population development in the selected site region are compatible with a deep repository. A fair and

  13. Wind Energy Deployment Process and Siting Tools (Presentation)

    Tegen, S.

    2015-02-01

    Regardless of cost and performance, some wind projects cannot proceed to completion as a result of competing multiple uses or siting considerations. Wind energy siting issues must be better understood and quantified. DOE tasked NREL researchers with depicting the wind energy deployment process and researching development considerations. This presentation provides an overview of these findings and wind siting tools.

  14. Selected papers on noise and stochastic processes

    1954-01-01

    Six classic papers on stochastic process, selected to meet the needs of physicists, applied mathematicians, and engineers. Contents: 1.Chandrasekhar, S.: Stochastic Problems in Physics and Astronomy. 2. Uhlenbeck, G. E. and Ornstein, L. S.: On the Theory of the Browninan Motion. 3. Ming Chen Wang and Uhlenbeck, G. E.: On the Theory of the Browninan Motion II. 4. Rice, S. O.: Mathematical Analysis of Random Noise. 5. Kac, Mark: Random Walk and the Theory of Brownian Motion. 6. Doob, J. L.: The Brownian Movement and Stochastic Equations. Unabridged republication of the Dover reprint (1954). Pre

  15. Canada's Deep Geological Repository for Used Nuclear Fuel - Geo-scientific Site Evaluation Process - 13117

    Blyth, Alec; Ben Belfadhel, Mahrez; Hirschorn, Sarah; Hamilton, Duncan; McKelvie, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is responsible for implementing Adaptive Phased Management (APM), the approach selected by the Government of Canada for long-term management of used nuclear fuel generated by Canadian nuclear reactors. The ultimate objective of APM is the centralized containment and isolation of Canada's used nuclear fuel in a Deep Geological Repository in a suitable rock formation at a depth of approximately 500 meters (m) (1,640 feet [ft]). In May 2010, the NWMO published a nine-step site selection process that serves as the road map to decision-making on the location for the deep geological repository. The safety and appropriateness of any potential site will be assessed against a number of factors, both technical and social in nature. The selected site will be one that can be demonstrated to be able to safely contain and isolate used nuclear fuel, protecting humans and the environment over the very long term. The geo-scientific suitability of potential candidate sites will be assessed in a stepwise manner following a progressive and thorough site evaluation process that addresses a series of geo-scientific factors revolving around five safety functions. The geo-scientific site evaluation process includes: Initial Screenings; Preliminary Assessments; and Detailed Site Evaluations. As of November 2012, 22 communities have entered the site selection process (three in northern Saskatchewan and 18 in northwestern and southwestern Ontario). (authors)

  16. Site selective dissociation of ozone upon core excitation

    Mocellin, A.; Mundim, M.S.P.; Coutinho, L.H.; Homem, M.G.P.; Naves de Brito, A.

    2007-01-01

    We present new measurements applied to core excitation of ozone molecule using to analyze the dissociation channels the photo-electron-photo-ion coincidence (PEPICO) and the photo-electron-photo-ion-photo-ion coincidence (PEPIPICO) technique. The new experimental set-up allows measuring O + /O + ion pair coincidences without discrimination. The dissociation channels of several core-excited states have been investigated. The relative yields of dissociation channels were determined from coincidence data. The core excitation from O terminal (O T ) or O central (O C ) induce different fragmentation; preferentially one bond is broken at the O terminal excitation and two bonds when O central is excited, showing site selectivity fragmentation of ozone upon core excitation. The ultra-fast dissociation of the O T 1s -1 7a 1 1 core-excited state is confirmed by the relative yield of dissociation

  17. Site selective dissociation of ozone upon core excitation

    Mocellin, A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Brasilia-UnB, Box 04455, CEP 70919-970, Brasilia-DF (Brazil)], E-mail: mocellin@fis.unb.br; Mundim, M.S.P. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Brasilia-UnB, Box 04455, CEP 70919-970, Brasilia-DF (Brazil); Coutinho, L.H. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro-UFRJ, Box 68563, CEP 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Homem, M.G.P. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron-LNLS, Box 6192, CEP 13084-971, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Naves de Brito, A. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron-LNLS, Box 6192, CEP 13084-971, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Brasilia-UnB, Box 04455, CEP 70919-970, Brasilia-DF (Brazil)

    2007-05-15

    We present new measurements applied to core excitation of ozone molecule using to analyze the dissociation channels the photo-electron-photo-ion coincidence (PEPICO) and the photo-electron-photo-ion-photo-ion coincidence (PEPIPICO) technique. The new experimental set-up allows measuring O{sup +}/O{sup +} ion pair coincidences without discrimination. The dissociation channels of several core-excited states have been investigated. The relative yields of dissociation channels were determined from coincidence data. The core excitation from O terminal (O{sub T}) or O central (O{sub C}) induce different fragmentation; preferentially one bond is broken at the O terminal excitation and two bonds when O central is excited, showing site selectivity fragmentation of ozone upon core excitation. The ultra-fast dissociation of the O{sub T} 1s{sup -1}7a{sub 1}{sup 1} core-excited state is confirmed by the relative yield of dissociation.

  18. Otolaryngology residency selection process. Medical student perspective.

    Stringer, S P; Cassisi, N J; Slattery, W H

    1992-04-01

    In an effort to improve the otolaryngology matching process at the University of Florida, Gainesville, we sought to obtain the medical student's perspective of the current system. All students who interviewed here over a 3-year period were surveyed regarding the application, interview, and ranking process. In addition, suggestions for improving the system were sought from the students. The application and interviewing patterns of the students surveyed were found to be similar to those of the entire otolaryngology residency applicant pool. We were unable to identify any factors that influence a student's rank list that could be prospectively used to help select applicants for interview. A variety of suggestions for improvements in the match were received, several of which could easily be instituted. A uniform interview invitation date as requested by the students could be rapidly implemented and would provide benefits for both the students and the residency programs.

  19. Landfill Site Selection by Weighted Overlay Technique: Case Study of Al-Kufa, Iraq

    Mohammad A. Al-Anbari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Landfill siting is a hard and complex process. For this reason, it is considered as one of the major problems in waste management. This is due to the fact that a number of factors are involved within the process such as such as inhabitants’ growth, rapid economic growth, living standards improvements, etc. In Iraq, landfill siting does not follow environmental regulations. Al-Kufa city located is located south-western part of Iraq (area of 550 km2 and inhabitants 372,760. Existing landfills are not selected according to the environmental standards. Landfill site that is required was achieved using a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA and spatial overlay analysis using a geographic information system (GIS. Many factors were considered in the siting process; including geology, water supplies resources, urban centers, sensitive sites, and wells. AHP (analytic hierarchy process method was used in weighting the criteria used. The result showed that there are six sites most suitable covering an area about (113 km2.

  20. Physiological and ecological consequences of sleeping-site selection by the Galapagos land iguana (Conolophus pallidus)

    Christian, K.A.; Tracy, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    Field observations and biophysical models were combined to analyze sleeping-site selection by Galapagos land iguanas (Conolophus pallidus). Iguanas slept in different kinds of sleeping sites during different seasons. In the coolest season (garua), adult land iguanas were found in sleeping sites that were warmer than the coolest sites available. This may be because the garua season (cool, overcast, and foggy) is a time when environmental conditions mitigate against rapid warm-up in the mornings, so lizards may regulate nighttime body temperatures so that it is easier to warm up to preferred daytime body temperatures. In the warmest season, adult iguanas were found in the coolest sleeping sites available. This observation is consistent with hypotheses of voluntary hypothermia, which can be advantageous in energy conservation and in avoiding detrimental effects associated with maintenance of constant body temperatures throughout the day and night. Juvenile iguanas were found sleeping in rock crevices regardless of the ambient thermal environments. Such sites are likely to be important as refugia for this life stage, which, unlike the adult stage, is vulnerable to predation. It was concluded that selection of sleeping sites is a process that may help in avoidance of predation, optimization of body temperature at the end of the sleeping period, and reduction of metabolic costs during sleeping. The importance of some of these factors may change with the thermal milieu (e.g., season).

  1. Geospatial Analytics in Retail Site Selection and Sales Prediction.

    Ting, Choo-Yee; Ho, Chiung Ching; Yee, Hui Jia; Matsah, Wan Razali

    2018-03-01

    Studies have shown that certain features from geography, demography, trade area, and environment can play a vital role in retail site selection, largely due to the impact they asserted on retail performance. Although the relevant features could be elicited by domain experts, determining the optimal feature set can be intractable and labor-intensive exercise. The challenges center around (1) how to determine features that are important to a particular retail business and (2) how to estimate retail sales performance given a new location? The challenges become apparent when the features vary across time. In this light, this study proposed a nonintervening approach by employing feature selection algorithms and subsequently sales prediction through similarity-based methods. The results of prediction were validated by domain experts. In this study, data sets from different sources were transformed and aggregated before an analytics data set that is ready for analysis purpose could be obtained. The data sets included data about feature location, population count, property type, education status, and monthly sales from 96 branches of a telecommunication company in Malaysia. The finding suggested that (1) optimal retail performance can only be achieved through fulfillment of specific location features together with the surrounding trade area characteristics and (2) similarity-based method can provide solution to retail sales prediction.

  2. Decision support for the selection of reference sites using 137Cs as a soil erosion tracer

    L. Arata

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The classical approach of using 137Cs as a soil erosion tracer is based on the comparison between stable reference sites and sites affected by soil redistribution processes; it enables the derivation of soil erosion and deposition rates. The method is associated with potentially large sources of uncertainty with major parts of this uncertainty being associated with the selection of the reference sites. We propose a decision support tool to Check the Suitability of reference Sites (CheSS. Commonly, the variation among 137Cs inventories of spatial replicate reference samples is taken as the sole criterion to decide on the suitability of a reference inventory. Here we propose an extension of this procedure using a repeated sampling approach, in which the reference sites are resampled after a certain time period. Suitable reference sites are expected to present no significant temporal variation in their decay-corrected 137Cs depth profiles. Possible causes of variation are assessed by a decision tree. More specifically, the decision tree tests for (i uncertainty connected to small-scale variability in 137Cs due to its heterogeneous initial fallout (such as in areas affected by the Chernobyl fallout, (ii signs of erosion or deposition processes and (iii artefacts due to the collection, preparation and measurement of the samples; (iv finally, if none of the above can be assigned, this variation might be attributed to turbation processes (e.g. bioturbation, cryoturbation and mechanical turbation, such as avalanches or rockfalls. CheSS was exemplarily applied in one Swiss alpine valley where the apparent temporal variability called into question the suitability of the selected reference sites. In general we suggest the application of CheSS as a first step towards a comprehensible approach to test for the suitability of reference sites.

  3. RECRUITMENT PROCESS IN MNC'S THROUGH SOCIAL MEDIA SITES - A STUDY

    Dr. B. L. Sairam Subramaniam; B. Naveen Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Many organizations are carrying out recruitment process by using social media networking sites. Social networking sites are used to facilitate and improve process of recruitment method in HR management. Social networking sites address the needs of employers and job-seekers via internetworking on electronic platform likes face book, twitter, LinkedIn, naukri.com, and monster.com which increase the speed of employment, reducing the cost of recruitment, huge availability of jobseekers and improv...

  4. Selection of water treatment processes special study

    1991-11-01

    Characterization of the level and extent of groundwater contamination in the vicinity of Title I mill sites began during the surface remedial action stage (Phase 1) of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Some of the contamination in the aquifer(s) at the abandoned sites is attributable to milling activities during the years the mills were in operation. The restoration of contaminated aquifers is to be undertaken in Phase II of the UMTRA Project. To begin implementation of Phase II, DOE requested that groundwater restoration methods and technologies be investigated by the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC). and that the results of the TAC investigations be documented in special study reports. Many active and passive methods are available to clean up contaminated groundwater. Passive groundwater treatment includes natural flushing, geochemical barriers, and gradient manipulation by stream diversion or slurry walls. Active groundwater.cleanup techniques include gradient manipulation by well extraction or injection. in-situ biological or chemical reclamation, and extraction and treatment. Although some or all of the methods listed above may play a role in the groundwater cleanup phase of the UMTRA Project, the extraction and treatment (pump and treat) option is the only restoration alternative discussed in this report. Hence, all sections of this report relate either directly or indirectly to the technical discipline of process engineering

  5. Geosphere process report for the safety assessment SR-Site

    Skagius, Kristina

    2010-11-01

    This report documents geosphere processes identified as relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository, and forms an important part of the reporting of the safety assessment SR-Site. The detailed assessment methodology, including the role of the process reports in the assessment, is described in the SR-Site Main report /SKB 2011/

  6. Geosphere process report for the safety assessment SR-Site

    Skagius, Kristina (ed.) (Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    This report documents geosphere processes identified as relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository, and forms an important part of the reporting of the safety assessment SR-Site. The detailed assessment methodology, including the role of the process reports in the assessment, is described in the SR-Site Main report /SKB 2011/

  7. Transition from site selection to site confirmation phase: New challenge to Posiva's communication and public involvement

    Seppaelae, Timo

    2001-01-01

    In Finland, Posiva Oy is responsible for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. In the 1990's investigations have been carried out on four intended sites for final disposal. Posiva implemented Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) on the investigation sites in 1997-1999. The results of the EIA procedure were published in the EIA report which was attached to the application filed to the Government in May 1999 for a policy decision on the construction of the final disposal facility in Olkiluoto in the municipality of Eurajoki. In December 2000, the Finnish Government made a favourable policy decision ( D ecision in Principle ) on the construction of final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel in Olkiluoto. According to the decision, the facility is in line with the overall good of the society. According to the Government's decision the prerequisites of the policy decision had been met. The municipality of Eurajoki supported the construction of the facility in Olkiluoto and STUK, the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, also approved of the advancement of the project. The positive policy decision of the Government will still need to be ratified by the Parliament. The parliamentary proceedings of the policy decision will probably start in February 2001. The policy decision will make it possible for Posiva to concentrate the future site confirmation studies in Olkiluoto, Eurajoki, and construct an underground research facility there. The excavation of the research facility in the bedrock is planned to start in a few years' time. The construction of the final disposal facility is scheduled to start after the year 2010. The transition from the site selection to the site confirmation phase in Eurajoki means a new challenge not only to Posiva's research work but also to Posiva's communication. In addition to meeting the safety criteria, Posiva's activities shall in the future also meet all the criteria specified by the surrounding society

  8. Demands and criteria for the site selection from the view of the power plant owners

    Staebler, K.; Beising, R.

    1975-01-01

    Function of electricity supply utilities from the point of view of choice of site; energy business background; references to the mode of procedure in site selection; pragmatic principle of site choice. (HP) [de

  9. Feature selection for splice site prediction: A new method using EDA-based feature ranking

    Rouzé Pierre

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of relevant biological features in large and complex datasets is an important step towards gaining insight in the processes underlying the data. Other advantages of feature selection include the ability of the classification system to attain good or even better solutions using a restricted subset of features, and a faster classification. Thus, robust methods for fast feature selection are of key importance in extracting knowledge from complex biological data. Results In this paper we present a novel method for feature subset selection applied to splice site prediction, based on estimation of distribution algorithms, a more general framework of genetic algorithms. From the estimated distribution of the algorithm, a feature ranking is derived. Afterwards this ranking is used to iteratively discard features. We apply this technique to the problem of splice site prediction, and show how it can be used to gain insight into the underlying biological process of splicing. Conclusion We show that this technique proves to be more robust than the traditional use of estimation of distribution algorithms for feature selection: instead of returning a single best subset of features (as they normally do this method provides a dynamical view of the feature selection process, like the traditional sequential wrapper methods. However, the method is faster than the traditional techniques, and scales better to datasets described by a large number of features.

  10. Site selection of a dual purpose nuclear power plant in Saudi Arabia

    Hussein, F.M.; Obeid, M.A.; El-Malahy, K.S.

    1987-01-01

    Selecting a nuclear power plant site for power production and water desalination is a very complex problem, especially in countries with moderate technology. Many interrelated factors affect the process, and professional judgments by various experts are involved. Four sites, all located on the West Coast of Saudi Arabia along the Red Sea, were chosen as potential sites for building such a plant. (All sites were in either the northern or southern section of the coast; the central part was excluded for pilgrims' safety.) The East Coast was completely eliminated in the initial screening process due to its strategic location, the existence of oil fields and refineries, and its proximity to other Arabian (Persian) Gulf countries (to minimize radioactive releases to these countries in case of an accident). A computer code based on Saaty's eigenvalue technique and developed in a previous study was used in this analysis. Twenty-one main criteria were considered, and the sites were ranked to determine which was most desirable. Site 4 was found to be most suitable, followed by site 3

  11. High resolution x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy - a new technique for site- and spin-selectivity

    Wang, Xin

    1996-12-01

    X-ray spectroscopy has long been used to elucidate electronic and structural information of molecules. One of the weaknesses of x-ray absorption is its sensitivity to all of the atoms of a particular element in a sample. Through out this thesis, a new technique for enhancing the site- and spin-selectivity of the x-ray absorption has been developed. By high resolution fluorescence detection, the chemical sensitivity of K emission spectra can be used to identify oxidation and spin states; it can also be used to facilitate site-selective X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) and site-selective Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS). The spin polarization in K fluorescence could be used to generate spin selective XANES or spin-polarized EXAFS, which provides a new measure of the spin density, or the nature of magnetic neighboring atoms. Finally, dramatic line-sharpening effects by the combination of absorption and emission processes allow observation of structure that is normally unobservable. All these unique characters can enormously simplify a complex x-ray spectrum. Applications of this novel technique have generated information from various transition-metal model compounds to metalloproteins. The absorption and emission spectra by high resolution fluorescence detection are interdependent. The ligand field multiplet model has been used for the analysis of Kα and Kβ emission spectra. First demonstration on different chemical states of Fe compounds has shown the applicability of site selectivity and spin polarization. Different interatomic distances of the same element in different chemical forms have been detected using site-selective EXAFS

  12. Extended reviewing or the role of potential siting cantons in the ongoing Swiss site selection procedure ('Sectoral Plan')

    Flueeler, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The disposition of nuclear waste in Switzerland has a long-standing and sinuous history reflecting its complex socio-technical nature (Flueeler, 2006). Upon the twofold failure to site a repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste at Wellenberg during the 1990's and 2000's, it was recognised that the respective site selections had not been fully transparent. The Swiss government, the Federal Council, accepted the lesson and, after an extensive nationwide consultation at that, established a new site selection process 'from scratch': a systematic, stepwise, traceable, fair and binding procedure with a safety-first approach, yet extensively participatory. The so-called Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Repositories guarantees the inclusion of the affected and concerned cantons and communities, as well as the relevant authorities in neighbouring countries from an early stage (Swiss Nuclear Energy Act, 2003; BFE, 2008). This contribution shares experience and insights in the ongoing procedure from a cantonal point of view that is an intermediate position between national needs and regional concerns, and with technical regulatory expertise between highly specialised experts and involved publics. (authors)

  13. Expert and non-expert groups perception of LILW repository site selection procedure

    Zeleznik, N.; Polic, M.

    2001-01-01

    Slovenia is now in the process of the site selection for a low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) repository. Earlier searches for the LILW repository site confronted the Agency for radwaste management (ARAO) with a number of problems, mainly concerning the contacts with the local communities and their willingness to accept the repository. Therefore the Agency started with a new, so-called mixed mode approach to the site selection, where the special role of a mediator is introduced. The mediator represents the link between the investor and the local community, and facilitates the communication and negotiations between both. In this study we try to find out how people perceive the mediating process and conditions under which the LILW repository would be accepted in the local community. Therefore a special survey was conducted. The results showed some of the conditions under which participants would possibly accept the LILW repository. Differences in the perception between non-expert and expert groups were demonstrated and analysed, especially in the assessment of the consequences of LILW repository construction on the environment. Also the socio-psychological influences of the LILW repository were noted and examined. Consequences and recommendations for future work on the site selection procedure were prepared on the basis of the research results.(author)

  14. Transshipment site selection using the AHP and TOPSIS approaches under fuzzy environment

    Onuet, Semih; Soner, Selin

    2008-01-01

    Site selection is an important issue in waste management. Selection of the appropriate solid waste site requires consideration of multiple alternative solutions and evaluation criteria because of system complexity. Evaluation procedures involve several objectives, and it is often necessary to compromise among possibly conflicting tangible and intangible factors. For these reasons, multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM) has been found to be a useful approach to solve this kind of problem. Different MCDM models have been applied to solve this problem. But most of them are basically mathematical and ignore qualitative and often subjective considerations. It is easier for a decision-maker to describe a value for an alternative by using linguistic terms. In the fuzzy-based method, the rating of each alternative is described using linguistic terms, which can also be expressed as triangular fuzzy numbers. Furthermore, there have not been any studies focused on the site selection in waste management using both fuzzy TOPSIS (technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution) and AHP (analytical hierarchy process) techniques. In this paper, a fuzzy TOPSIS based methodology is applied to solve the solid waste transshipment site selection problem in Istanbul, Turkey. The criteria weights are calculated by using the AHP

  15. Site selection decisions for energy supplies. Evaporation of the Nimby-cliche by improving the decision making process; Locatie-beslissingen over energievoorzieningen. Verdamping van het 'Nimby'-cliche door verbetering van besluitvorming

    Vlek, C.A.J.

    2000-03-01

    Not infrequently, infrastructural facility siting meets resistance from local populations stating, the so-called 'Not in my back yard' (Nimby) reaction. During the past ten years, the Nimby-phenomenon has attracted much attention in the Netherlands as well as abroad. Apart from the Dutch Nimbylegislation around 1993, many authors point at the need for better interaction between political authorities and local populations. In this report, Nimby is mainly considered as a cliche used by authorities to characterise and deal with local residents. The main thesis is that Nimby-problems may vanish by improvements in project decision-making. The Nimby-cliche is as follows. There is a project of common interest, which has to be sited somewhere. The societal importance of the project is acknowledged by everyone. At the same time, however, the project meets with local opposition everywhere. Thereby, political decision-making is seriously delayed. Recent Dutch legislation (around 1993) serves to overcome such 'local egoism' and it therefore promotes the 'common interest'. With respect to facility siting, the positions of the government and of local residents are fundamentally different. In theory, a collective facility yields long-term benefits for many in a large geographical area. The same facility, however, delivers immediate costs and nuisance for relatively few people in a limited area. The real Nimby-phenomenon thus fits into a four-fold dilemma. A balance has to be struck between everyone's freedom to promote his or her own interests, and the provision of facilities serving long-term collective interests. In the conclusion of the report a number of general questions is considered. Why is it that expressions of Nimby seem to occur more and more frequently? What would yield sufficient local acceptance of an infrastructural project? Would not the participation of various concerned groups easily lead to stagnation of the decision

  16. Geotechnical conditions of Bulgaria and site selection for radioactive waste repository

    Iliev, I.; Tacheva, E.

    1993-01-01

    A comparative study of the complex structure of the Bulgarian lands and the engineering geological criteria for site selection of national repositories for high level radwastes is made. A detailed description of the following geotechnical conditions of Bulgaria's territory is given: genetic, lithological and engineering-geological types of rocks; physico-mechanical parameters of the most widespread rocky and semi-rocky engineering geological types; fissuring of the rocks; rock massifs; geodynamic processes. The number of promising variants for repositories have been classified according to the structure of the rock massif and the engineering-geological properties of the layers which are promising for the purpose. The following sites are investigated: 1) sites in one-type homogeneous rock massifs of high strength and elasticity; 2) sites of various type massifs with a promising layer of rocks with medium strength and elasticity; 3) sites in various type massifs with a promising layer of plastic rocks of low strength. It is concluded that the complexity of the geotechnical and other conditions in the territory of Bulgaria would predetermine the deficiency of the list of the properties required for the selected sites. The building up of engineering defence will be needed to offset that deficiency and their problems will be resolved after the specific site have been chosen. Geotechnical elements should be likewise envisaged within the general pattern of the monitoring needed. The designing, installing and putting into operation of the monitoring systems should be accomplished as early as the stage of the detailed investigation of the site selected. 19 refs., 2 suppls. (author)

  17. Selective detachment process in column flotation froth

    Honaker, R.Q.; Ozsever, A.V.; Parekh, B.K. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2006-05-15

    The selectivity in flotation columns involving the separation of particles of varying degrees of floatability is based on differential flotation rates in the collection zone, reflux action between the froth and collection zones, and differential detachment rates in the froth zone. Using well-known theoretical models describing the separation process and experimental data, froth zone and overall flotation recovery values were quantified for particles in an anthracite coal that have a wide range of floatability potential. For highly floatable particles, froth recovery had a very minimal impact on overall recovery while the recovery of weakly floatable material was decreased substantially by reductions in froth recovery values. In addition, under carrying-capacity limiting conditions, selectivity was enhanced by the preferential detachment of the weakly floatable material. Based on this concept, highly floatable material was added directly into the froth zone when treating the anthracite coal. The enriched froth phase reduced the product ash content of the anthracite product by five absolute percentage points while maintaining a constant recovery value.

  18. Automating an integrated spatial data-mining model for landfill site selection

    Abujayyab, Sohaib K. M.; Ahamad, Mohd Sanusi S.; Yahya, Ahmad Shukri; Ahmad, Siti Zubaidah; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul

    2017-10-01

    An integrated programming environment represents a robust approach to building a valid model for landfill site selection. One of the main challenges in the integrated model is the complicated processing and modelling due to the programming stages and several limitations. An automation process helps avoid the limitations and improve the interoperability between integrated programming environments. This work targets the automation of a spatial data-mining model for landfill site selection by integrating between spatial programming environment (Python-ArcGIS) and non-spatial environment (MATLAB). The model was constructed using neural networks and is divided into nine stages distributed between Matlab and Python-ArcGIS. A case study was taken from the north part of Peninsular Malaysia. 22 criteria were selected to utilise as input data and to build the training and testing datasets. The outcomes show a high-performance accuracy percentage of 98.2% in the testing dataset using 10-fold cross validation. The automated spatial data mining model provides a solid platform for decision makers to performing landfill site selection and planning operations on a regional scale.

  19. Principles of geological substantiation for toxic waste disposal facilities sites selection

    Khrushchov, D. P.; Matorin, Eu. M.; Shekhunova, S. B.

    2002-01-01

    Industrial, domestic and military activities result in accumulation of toxic and hazardous waste. Disposal of these waste comprises two main approaches: technological processing (utilization and destruction) and landfill. According to concepts and programs of advanced countries technological solutions are preferable, but in fact over 70 % of waste are buried in storages, prevailingly of near surface type. The target of this paper is to present principles of geological substantiation of sites selection for toxic and hazardous waste isolation facilities location. (author)

  20. Determination of import process during Yucca Mountain Site characterization

    Hastings, P.S.; Gwyn, D.W.; Wemheuer, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    Construction of an underground Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) for characterizing the Yucca Mountain site precedes the design of a potential repository, with site characterization testing and ESF construction conducted as parallel activities. As a result of this fact, a program is required to: (1) provide for inclusion of the underground excavation into a potential repository, (2) minimize the potential impact of ESF construction on site characterization test results, and (3) minimize the potential impact of ESF construction and site characterization testing on the waste isolation capabilities of the site. At Yucca Mountain, the Determination of Importance (DI) process fulfills these goals. This paper addresses the evolution of the DI process; describes how the DI process fits into design, testing, and construction programs: and discusses how the process is implemented through specification requirements

  1. Characterization of Seismic Noise at Selected Non-Urban Sites

    2010-03-01

    Field sites for seismic recordings: Scottish moor (upper left), Enfield, NH (upper right), and vicinity of Keele, England (bottom). ERDC...three sites. The sites are: a wind farm on a remote moor in Scotland, a ~13 acre field bounded by woods in a rural Enfield, NH neigh- borhood, and a site...in a rural Enfield, NH, neighborhood, and a site transitional from developed land to farmland within 1 km of the six-lane M6 motorway near Keele

  2. Health promotion site selection blues: barriers to participation and implementation.

    Cherniack, Martin; Morse, Tim; Henning, Robert; Seidner, Adam; Punnett, Laura

    2010-06-01

    To shed light on research-to-practice challenges in workplace health promotion research. More than 1200 companies serviced by a national insurer were assessed by measures, including management surveys, and insurance premium costs and risk profile. A 21-item Workplace Readiness Checklist was the core assessment tool. Quantitative and qualitative measures were used to identify 12 to 14 companies deemed most "ready for change." The four priority candidate companies decided against participation. A post hoc survey to evaluate reasons for non-participation identified factors such as time allocations, the deteriorating economic environment, and the participatory nature of the interventions proposed for half of the study sites. Differing priorities within management also seemed to interfere with participation. A highly structured process for determining corporate readiness for participatory health promotion produced contradictory results.

  3. Wait for the Bus: How Lowcountry School Site Selection and Design Deter Walking to School and Contribute to Urban Sprawl.

    Kouri, Christopher

    This paper presents a study on how the South Carolina school site selection process can affect the quality of the students' experience and access to their schools. Focusing on students options for getting to school, e.g., hazards that prevent students from walking to school and the size of school sites that place schools on the edge of…

  4. The evaluation of effective criteria on site selection for energy production units from cellulosic biomass in Iran

    Majid Azizi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Both Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP and benefits, opportunities, costs and risks (BOCR techniques were used successfully to evaluate the effective criteria on site selection for energy production unit development from cellulosic biomass in Iran. The results showed that the benefits criteria was at the first level while the initial cellulosic raw materials and opportunities with the aim of the local economy had the second position as the most important indices on site selection. In addition, third criterion has been introduced for the costs criteria (transportation cost and social barriers by the experts. However, risks criteria which referred to instability of providing cellulosic raw materials is one of the less important effective indices on site selection to make energy production unit. The results illustrated that the economy and politics as two environmental effective factors affected on the site selection process generally.

  5. Early environmental planning: A process for power line corridor selection

    Haagenstad, T.; Bare, C.M.

    1998-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) conducted an environmental planning study in the fall of 1997 to help determine the best alternative for upgrading the Laboratory's electrical power system. Alternatives considered included an on-site power generation facility and two corridors for a 10-mile-long 115-kV power line. This planning process was conducted prior to the formal National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) review. The goals were to help select the best proposed action, to recommend modifications and mitigation measures for each alternative for a more environmentally sound project, and to avoid potential delays once the formal Department of Energy review process began. Significant constraints existed from a planning perspective, including operational issues such as existing outdoor high explosives testing areas, as well as environmental issues including threatened and endangered species habitats, multiple archeological sites, contaminated areas, and aesthetics. The study had to be completed within 45 days to meet project schedule needs. The process resulted in a number of important recommendations. While the construction and operation of the on-site power generation facility could have minimal environmental impacts, the need for a new air quality permit would create severe cost and schedule constraints for the project. From an environmental perspective, construction and operation of a power line within either corridor was concluded to be a viable alternative. However, impacts with either corridor would have to be reduced through specific recommended alignment modifications and mitigation measures

  6. An ArcGIS decision support tool for artificial reefs site selection (ArcGIS ARSS)

    Stylianou, Stavros; Zodiatis, George

    2017-04-01

    Although the use and benefits of artificial reefs, both socio-economic and environmental, have been recognized with research and national development programmes worldwide their development is rarely subjected to a rigorous site selection process and the majority of the projects use the traditional (non-GIS) approach, based on trial and error mode. Recent studies have shown that the use of Geographic Information Systems, unlike to traditional methods, for the identification of suitable areas for artificial reefs siting seems to offer a number of distinct advantages minimizing possible errors, time and cost. A decision support tool (DSS) has been developed based on the existing knowledge, the multi-criteria decision analysis techniques and the GIS approach used in previous studies in order to help the stakeholders to identify the optimal locations for artificial reefs deployment on the basis of the physical, biological, oceanographic and socio-economic features of the sites. The tool provides to the users the ability to produce a final report with the results and suitability maps. The ArcGIS ARSS support tool runs within the existing ArcMap 10.2.x environment and for the development the VB .NET high level programming language has been used along with ArcObjects 10.2.x. Two local-scale case studies were conducted in order to test the application of the tool focusing on artificial reef siting. The results obtained from the case studies have shown that the tool can be successfully integrated within the site selection process in order to select objectively the optimal site for artificial reefs deployment.

  7. U.S. Department of Energy's site screening, site selection, and initial characterization for storage of CO2 in deep geological formations

    Rodosta, T.D.; Litynski, J.T.; Plasynski, S.I.; Hickman, S.; Frailey, S.; Myer, L.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the lead Federal agency for the development and deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. As part of its mission to facilitate technology transfer and develop guidelines from lessons learned, DOE is developing a series of best practice manuals (BPMs) for carbon capture and storage (CCS). The "Site Screening, Site Selection, and Initial Characterization for Storage of CO2 in Deep Geological Formations" BPM is a compilation of best practices and includes flowchart diagrams illustrating the general decision making process for Site Screening, Site Selection, and Initial Characterization. The BPM integrates the knowledge gained from various programmatic efforts, with particular emphasis on the Characterization Phase through pilot-scale CO2 injection testing of the Validation Phase of the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (RCSP) Initiative. Key geologic and surface elements that suitable candidate storage sites should possess are identified, along with example Site Screening, Site Selection, and Initial Characterization protocols for large-scale geologic storage projects located across diverse geologic and regional settings. This manual has been written as a working document, establishing a framework and methodology for proper site selection for CO2 geologic storage. This will be useful for future CO2 emitters, transporters, and storage providers. It will also be of use in informing local, regional, state, and national governmental agencies of best practices in proper sequestration site selection. Furthermore, it will educate the inquisitive general public on options and processes for geologic CO2 storage. In addition to providing best practices, the manual presents a geologic storage resource and capacity classification system. The system provides a "standard" to communicate storage and capacity estimates, uncertainty and project development risk, data guidelines and analyses for adequate site characterization, and

  8. Selection of remedial alternatives for mine sites: a multicriteria decision analysis approach.

    Betrie, Getnet D; Sadiq, Rehan; Morin, Kevin A; Tesfamariam, Solomon

    2013-04-15

    The selection of remedial alternatives for mine sites is a complex task because it involves multiple criteria and often with conflicting objectives. However, an existing framework used to select remedial alternatives lacks multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) aids and does not consider uncertainty in the selection of alternatives. The objective of this paper is to improve the existing framework by introducing deterministic and probabilistic MCDA methods. The Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE) methods have been implemented in this study. The MCDA analysis involves processing inputs to the PROMETHEE methods that are identifying the alternatives, defining the criteria, defining the criteria weights using analytical hierarchical process (AHP), defining the probability distribution of criteria weights, and conducting Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS); running the PROMETHEE methods using these inputs; and conducting a sensitivity analysis. A case study was presented to demonstrate the improved framework at a mine site. The results showed that the improved framework provides a reliable way of selecting remedial alternatives as well as quantifying the impact of different criteria on selecting alternatives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Creating diversity by site-selective peptide modification: a customizable unit affords amino acids with high optical purity.

    Romero-Estudillo, Ivan; Boto, Alicia

    2013-11-15

    The development of peptide libraries by site-selective modification of a few parent peptides would save valuable time and materials in discovery processes, but still is a difficult synthetic challenge. Herein natural hydroxyproline is introduced as a "convertible" unit for the production of a variety of optically pure amino acids, including expensive N-alkyl amino acids, and to achieve the mild, efficient, and site-selective modification of peptides.

  10. Selecting Suitable Sites for Mine Waste Dumps Using GIS ...

    Michael

    2017-06-01

    Jun 1, 2017 ... number of factors such as financial, environmental and safety requirements ... Applying further constraints, 2 out of the 21 optimal sites were determined as the best sites. ... Most mining companies use different methods for.

  11. Expedited Site Characterization: A rapid, cost-effective process for preremedial site characterization

    Burton, J.C.; Walker, J.L.; Jennings, T.V.; Aggarwal, P.K.; Hastings, B.; Meyer, W.T.; Rose, C.M.; Rosignolo, C.L.

    1993-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a unique, cost- and time-effective, technically innovative process for preremedial site characterization, referred to as Expedited Site Characterization (ESC). The cost of the ESC field sampling process ranges from 1/10 to 1/5 of the cost of traditional site characterization. The time required for this ESC field activity is approximately 1/30 of that for current methods. Argonne's preremedial site investigations based on this approach have been accepted by the appropriate regulatory agencies. The ESC process is flexible and neither site nor contaminant dependent. The process has been successfully tested and applied in site investigations of multiple contaminated landfills in New Mexico (for the US Department of the Interior's Bureau of Land Management [BLM]) and at former grain storage facilities in Nebraska and Kansas, contaminated with carbon tetrachloride (for the Department of Agriculture's Commodity Credit Corporation [CCC/USDA]). A working demonstration of this process was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development as a model of the methodology needed to accelerate site characterizations at DOE facilities. This report describes the application of the process in New Mexico, Nebraska and Kansas

  12. Siting of nuclear facilities. Selections from Nuclear Safety

    Buchanan, J.R.

    1976-07-01

    The report presented siting policy and practice for nuclear power plants as developed in the U.S. and abroad. Twenty-two articles from Nuclear Safety on this general topic are reprinted since they provide a valuable reference source. The appendices also include reprints of some relevant regulatory rules and guides on siting. Advantages and disadvantages of novel siting concepts such as underground containment, offshore siting, and nuclear energy parks are addressed. Other topics include site criteria, risk criteria, and nuclear ship criteria

  13. Siting of nuclear facilities. Selections from Nuclear Safety

    Buchanan, J.R.

    1976-07-01

    The report presented siting policy and practice for nuclear power plants as developed in the U.S. and abroad. Twenty-two articles from Nuclear Safety on this general topic are reprinted since they provide a valuable reference source. The appendices also include reprints of some relevant regulatory rules and guides on siting. Advantages and disadvantages of novel siting concepts such as underground containment, offshore siting, and nuclear energy parks are addressed. Other topics include site criteria, risk criteria, and nuclear ship criteria.

  14. Autonomous site selection and instrument positioning for sample acquisition

    Shaw, A.; Barnes, D.; Pugh, S.

    The European Space Agency Aurora Exploration Program aims to establish a European long-term programme for the exploration of Space, culminating in a human mission to space in the 2030 timeframe. Two flagship missions, namely Mars Sample Return and ExoMars, have been proposed as recognised steps along the way. The Exomars Rover is the first of these flagship missions and includes a rover carrying the Pasteur Payload, a mobile exobiology instrumentation package, and the Beagle 2 arm. The primary objective is the search for evidence of past or present life on mars, but the payload will also study the evolution of the planet and the atmosphere, look for evidence of seismological activity and survey the environment in preparation for future missions. The operation of rovers in unknown environments is complicated, and requires large resources not only on the planet but also in ground based operations. Currently, this can be very labour intensive, and costly, if large teams of scientists and engineers are required to assess mission progress, plan mission scenarios, and construct a sequence of events or goals for uplink. Furthermore, the constraints in communication imposed by the time delay involved over such large distances, and line-of-sight required, make autonomy paramount to mission success, affording the ability to operate in the event of communications outages and be opportunistic with respect to scientific discovery. As part of this drive to reduce mission costs and increase autonomy the Space Robotics group at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth is researching methods of autonomous site selection and instrument positioning, directly applicable to the ExoMars mission. The site selection technique used builds on the geometric reasoning algorithms used previously for localisation and navigation [Shaw 03]. It is proposed that a digital elevation model (DEM) of the local surface, generated during traverse and without interaction from ground based operators, can be

  15. Modelling of nuclide migration for support of the site selection for near surface repository in Lithuania

    Kilda, R.; Poskas, P.; Ragaisis, V.

    2006-01-01

    Construction of the near surface repository (NSR) for disposal of short-lived low-and intermediate-level waste (LILW) is planned in Lithuania. Reference design of the repository was prepared. Site selection process is going on. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Program and Report were prepared and are under review by regulators. Releases of radionuclides to water pathway and potential human exposure after closure of the NSR have been assessed for support of the site selection for NSR installation. Two candidate sites were taken under consideration. The assessments have been performed following ISAM methodology recommended by IAEA for safety assessments of near surface disposal facilities. The conceptual design of NSR as well as peculiarities of geological and hydro-geological environment relevant to each candidate site is taken into account. The results of the analysis as part of EIA Report are presented in the paper. It is demonstrated that estimated impact of potential radionuclide migration for both candidate sites is below dose constrain established by regulations of Lithuania. (author)

  16. Application of geographical information system in disposal site selection for hazardous wastes.

    Rezaeimahmoudi, Mehdi; Esmaeli, Abdolreza; Gharegozlu, Alireza; Shabanian, Hassan; Rokni, Ladan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a scientific method based on Geographical Information System (GIS) regarding all sustainable development measures to locate a proper landfill for disposal of hazardous wastes, especially industrial (radioactive) wastes. Seven effective factors for determining hazardous waste landfill were applied in Qom Province, central Iran. These criteria included water, slope, population centers, roads, fault, protected areas and geology. The Analysis Hierarchical Process (AHP) model based on pair comparison was used. First, the weight of each factor was determined by experts; afterwards each layer of maps entered to ARC GIS and with special weight multiplied together, finally the best suitable site was introduced. The most suitable sites for burial were in northwest and west of Qom Province and eventually five zones were introduced as the sample sites. GIs and AHP model is introduced as the technical, useful and accelerator tool for disposal site selection. Furthermore it is determined that geological factor is the most effective layer for site selection. It is suggested that geological conditions should be considered primarily then other factors are taken into consideration.

  17. THE SITE DEMONSTRATION OF CHEMFIX SOLIDIFICATION/ STABILIZATION PROCESS AT THE PORTABLE EQUIPMENT SALVAGE COMPANY SITE

    A demonstration of the GHEMFIX solidification/stabilization process was conducted under the United States Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. The demonstration was conducted in March 1989, at the Portable Equipment Sa...

  18. SIMULATION EXPERIMENT ON LANDING SITE SELECTION USING A SIMPLE GEOMETRIC APPROACH

    W. Zhao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Safe landing is an important part of the planetary exploration mission. Even fine scale terrain hazards (such as rocks, small craters, steep slopes, which would not be accurately detected from orbital reconnaissance could also pose a serious risk on planetary lander or rover and scientific instruments on-board it. In this paper, a simple geometric approach on planetary landing hazard detection and safe landing site selection is proposed. In order to achieve full implementation of this algorithm, two easy-to-compute metrics are presented for extracting the terrain slope and roughness information. Unlike conventional methods which must do the robust plane fitting and elevation interpolation for DEM generation, in this work, hazards is identified through the processing directly on LiDAR point cloud. For safe landing site selection, a Generalized Voronoi Diagram is constructed. Based on the idea of maximum empty circle, the safest landing site can be determined. In this algorithm, hazards are treated as general polygons, without special simplification (e.g. regarding hazards as discrete circles or ellipses. So using the aforementioned method to process hazards is more conforming to the real planetary exploration scenario. For validating the approach mentioned above, a simulated planetary terrain model was constructed using volcanic ash with rocks in indoor environment. A commercial laser scanner mounted on a rail was used to scan the terrain surface at different hanging positions. The results demonstrate that fairly hazard detection capability and reasonable site selection was obtained compared with conventional method, yet less computational time and less memory usage was consumed. Hence, it is a feasible candidate approach for future precision landing selection on planetary surface.

  19. Simulation Experiment on Landing Site Selection Using a Simple Geometric Approach

    Zhao, W.; Tong, X.; Xie, H.; Jin, Y.; Liu, S.; Wu, D.; Liu, X.; Guo, L.; Zhou, Q.

    2017-07-01

    Safe landing is an important part of the planetary exploration mission. Even fine scale terrain hazards (such as rocks, small craters, steep slopes, which would not be accurately detected from orbital reconnaissance) could also pose a serious risk on planetary lander or rover and scientific instruments on-board it. In this paper, a simple geometric approach on planetary landing hazard detection and safe landing site selection is proposed. In order to achieve full implementation of this algorithm, two easy-to-compute metrics are presented for extracting the terrain slope and roughness information. Unlike conventional methods which must do the robust plane fitting and elevation interpolation for DEM generation, in this work, hazards is identified through the processing directly on LiDAR point cloud. For safe landing site selection, a Generalized Voronoi Diagram is constructed. Based on the idea of maximum empty circle, the safest landing site can be determined. In this algorithm, hazards are treated as general polygons, without special simplification (e.g. regarding hazards as discrete circles or ellipses). So using the aforementioned method to process hazards is more conforming to the real planetary exploration scenario. For validating the approach mentioned above, a simulated planetary terrain model was constructed using volcanic ash with rocks in indoor environment. A commercial laser scanner mounted on a rail was used to scan the terrain surface at different hanging positions. The results demonstrate that fairly hazard detection capability and reasonable site selection was obtained compared with conventional method, yet less computational time and less memory usage was consumed. Hence, it is a feasible candidate approach for future precision landing selection on planetary surface.

  20. The Application of Computer-Aided Discovery to Spacecraft Site Selection

    Pankratius, V.; Blair, D. M.; Gowanlock, M.; Herring, T.

    2015-12-01

    The selection of landing and exploration sites for interplanetary robotic or human missions is a complex task. Historically it has been labor-intensive, with large groups of scientists manually interpreting a planetary surface across a variety of datasets to identify potential sites based on science and engineering constraints. This search process can be lengthy, and excellent sites may get overlooked when the aggregate value of site selection criteria is non-obvious or non-intuitive. As planetary data collection leads to Big Data repositories and a growing set of selection criteria, scientists will face a combinatorial search space explosion that requires scalable, automated assistance. We are currently exploring more general computer-aided discovery techniques in the context of planetary surface deformation phenomena that can lend themselves to application in the landing site search problem. In particular, we are developing a general software framework that addresses key difficulties: characterizing a given phenomenon or site based on data gathered from multiple instruments (e.g. radar interferometry, gravity, thermal maps, or GPS time series), and examining a variety of possible workflows whose individual configurations are optimized to isolate different features. The framework allows algorithmic pipelines and hypothesized models to be perturbed or permuted automatically within well-defined bounds established by the scientist. For example, even simple choices for outlier and noise handling or data interpolation can drastically affect the detectability of certain features. These techniques aim to automate repetitive tasks that scientists routinely perform in exploratory analysis, and make them more efficient and scalable by executing them in parallel in the cloud. We also explore ways in which machine learning can be combined with human feedback to prune the search space and converge to desirable results. Acknowledgements: We acknowledge support from NASA AIST

  1. The problem of nuclear power plants site survey and selection

    Anh, T.H.; Hung, H.V.; Bui Quoc Thang

    1986-01-01

    The article presents the main steps of nuclear power plants siting, including the requirements from a nuclear power station onto the site, and the analysis of potential effects of a nuclear power station to the environment. Attentions are called upon the analysis of important factors such as electric transmission losses, cooling water supply, site accessibility, local infrastructure, risks due to man made and natural sources of aggression to the nuclear power plants, population, distribution, hydrological and atmospheric dispersion conditions

  2. Hanford tank initiative test facility site selection study

    Staehr, T.W.

    1997-01-01

    The Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) project is developing equipment for the removal of hard heel waste from the Hanford Site underground single-shell waste storage tanks. The HTI equipment will initially be installed in the 241-C-106 tank where its operation will be demonstrated. This study evaluates existing Hanford Site facilities and other sites for functional testing of the HTI equipment before it is installed into the 241-C-106 tank

  3. OSU TOMF Program Site Selection and Preliminary Concept Design Report

    Spadling, Steve [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)

    2012-05-10

    The purpose of this report is to confirm the programmatic requirements for the new facilities, identify the most appropriate project site, and develop preliminary site and building concepts that successfully address the overall project goals and site issues. These new facilities will be designed to accommodate the staff, drivers and maintenance requirements for the future mixed fleet of passenger vehicles, Transit Style Buses and School Buses.

  4. Participation of concerned citizens in site selection decisions; Einbeziehung der Betroffenen in die Entscheidungen bei Standortauswahlverfahren

    Appel, D. [PanGeo - Geowissenschaftliches, Buero (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The contribution presents preliminary results of two international projects aimed at integrating the general public, or parts thereof, in the decision process of selecting ultimate storage sites. The author participated in these projects and is a former member of the task group for selection of ultimate storage sites (Arbeitskreis Auswahlverfahren Endlagerstandorte - AkEnd). The two projects are: Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) OECD, Project 'COWAM' (Community Waste Management) of the European Commission. The participants, goals and methods of the two projects were different, but they both presented concrete methods of selecting ultimate storage sites from the view of different actors in the form of case studies. The focus was on the participation of the public and its importance for success. Apart from meeting technical requirements the selection process should also take account of the requirements of democracy and citizens' participation in order to gain wide acceptance for its results. Deficiencies and advantages of the proposed selection processes are analyzed, and general requirements on the decision process in site selection are derived. (orig.) [German] Im folgenden wird ueber (vorlaeufige) Ergebnisse zweier internationaler Projekte zur Einbeziehung der Oeffentlichkeit bzw. von Teilen davon in den Entscheidungsprozess bei der Auswahl von Endlagerstandorten berichtet, an denen der Autor im Auftrag des Bundesumweltministers und als (ehemaliges) Mitglied des Arbeitskreises Auswahlverfahren Endlagerstandorte (AkEnd) beteiligt war bzw. ist: - Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) der Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) OECD, - Projekt 'COWAM' (Community Waste Management) der Europaeischen Kommission (abgeschlossen, Abschlussbericht erscheint in diesem Jahr). Die Zusammensetzung der Teilnehmergruppen beider Projekte, genaue Zielsetzung der Projekte und die Arbeitsweise sind unterschiedlich. In beiden

  5. Growing risk avoidance in Asian oncology site selection: how trends in site selection are limiting growth of the Asia cancer trial landscape

    Horsburgh D

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available David Horsburgh,1 Yi-Chen Josey Lee,2 Elvira Zenaida Lansang,1 Ken J Lee,3 Malcolm Ogg,4 Karen Wai1 1Feasibility and Site Identification Asia, Quintiles East Asia Pte Ltd, Singapore; 2Feasibility and Site Identification Asia, Quintiles East Asia Pte Ltd, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Site Services Asia, Quintiles East Asia Pte Ltd, Singapore; 4Global Integrated Site Services, Quintiles, Green Park, Reading, Berkshire, United Kingdom Background: Asia-Pacific represents the fastest-growing region for clinical trials, with growth in oncology studies being a strong contributor. Such demand has seen a rapid change in Asia's total site pool and the number of experienced and inexperienced, or naïve, sites being activated. Given the perceived risks involved with naïve sites, this study aims to investigate changes in the rate of naïve site selection and how this risk management may influence future growth within the region. Methods: Rates of total naïve and experienced sites initiated per year, per protocol, and the relative contribution of each to the yearly site total were analyzed. Data was collected from Quintiles internal metrics as well as from the publicly available ClinicalTrials.gov database and was filtered to include oncology studies involving at least one Asian country, between the years 2000 and 2012. Results and discussion: Despite a general increase in the number of sites activated overall, the contribution of naïve sites to the yearly total fell to 20% in 2012. Experienced sites were heavily favored, with reliance on the existing site network preferred to expansion through naïve sites. This is likely a result of the perceived challenges with using inexperienced sites and the industry desire to avoid this risk. However, fluctuations in naïve sites activation suggest that the limited level of growth in the site pool may not be enough to sustain demand, with sudden outreaches to naïve sites necessary as current site pool capacity is occasionally

  6. Key Determinant Derivations for Information Technology Disaster Recovery Site Selection by the Multi-Criterion Decision Making Method

    Chia-Lee Yang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Disaster recovery sites are an important mechanism in continuous IT system operations. Such mechanisms can sustain IT availability and reduce business losses during natural or human-made disasters. Concerning the cost and risk aspects, the IT disaster-recovery site selection problems are multi-criterion decision making (MCDM problems in nature. For such problems, the decision aspects include the availability of the service, recovery time requirements, service performance, and more. The importance and complexities of IT disaster recovery sites increases with advances in IT and the categories of possible disasters. The modern IT disaster recovery site selection process requires further investigation. However, very few researchers tried to study related issues during past years based on the authors’ extremely limited knowledge. Thus, this paper aims to derive the aspects and criteria for evaluating and selecting a modern IT disaster recovery site. A hybrid MCDM framework consisting of the Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL and the Analytic Network Process (ANP will be proposed to construct the complex influence relations between aspects as well as criteria and further, derive weight associated with each aspect and criteria. The criteria with higher weight can be used for evaluating and selecting the most suitable IT disaster recovery sites. In the future, the proposed analytic framework can be used for evaluating and selecting a disaster recovery site for data centers by public institutes or private firms.

  7. Site selection criteria for shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste

    Falconer, K.L.; Hull, L.C.; Mizell, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    Twelve site selection criteria are presented. These are: (1) site shall be of sufficient area and depth to accommodate the projected volume of waste and a three dimensional buffer zone; (2) site should allow waste to be buried either completely above or below the transition zone between the unsaturated and saturated zones; (3) site should be located where flooding will not jeopardize performance; (4) site should be located where erosion will not jeopardize performance; (5) site should be located in areas where hydrogeologic conditions allow reliable performance prediction; (6) site should be located where geologic hazards will not jeopardize performance; (7) site should be selected with considerations given to those characteristics of earth materials and water chemistry that favor increased residence times and/or attenuation of radionuclide concentrations within site boundaries; (8) site should be selected with consideration given to current and projected population distributions; (9) site should be selected with consideration given to current and projected land use and resource development; (10) site should be selected with consideration given to location of waste generation, access to all-weather highway and rail routes, and access utilities; (11) site should be selected consistent with federal laws and regulations; (12) site should not be located within areas that are protected from such use by federal laws and regulations. These criteria are considered preliminary and do not necessarily represent the position of the Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program

  8. Constraint map for landfill site selection in Akure Metropolis ...

    An integration of remote sensing, soil type, geological, geoelectrical, hydrogeological and geotechnical data was carried out in a GIS environment with a view to developing a constraint map for the location of landfill (waste disposal) site(s) in Akure, Metropolis.. Geomorphological features identified from satellite images ...

  9. Selecting Suitable Sites for Wind Energy Development in Ghana*

    Michae O. Mensah

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... Ghana's wind power potential both on-shore and off-shore. ..... such as forest and game reserves, tourist sites, etc. (iv) Siting in lakes is restricted. (v) Slopes greater than 30° ... Atlantic coastline that stretches 560 km along the.

  10. The genealogy of sequences containing multiple sites subject to strong selection in a subdivided population.

    Nordborg, Magnus; Innan, Hideki

    2003-03-01

    A stochastic model for the genealogy of a sample of recombining sequences containing one or more sites subject to selection in a subdivided population is described. Selection is incorporated by dividing the population into allelic classes and then conditioning on the past sizes of these classes. The past allele frequencies at the selected sites are thus treated as parameters rather than as random variables. The purpose of the model is not to investigate the dynamics of selection, but to investigate effects of linkage to the selected sites on the genealogy of the surrounding chromosomal region. This approach is useful for modeling strong selection, when it is natural to parameterize the past allele frequencies at the selected sites. Several models of strong balancing selection are used as examples, and the effects on the pattern of neutral polymorphism in the chromosomal region are discussed. We focus in particular on the statistical power to detect balancing selection when it is present.

  11. Communication: Site-selective bond excision of adenine upon electron transfer

    Cunha, T.; Mendes, M.; Ferreira da Silva, F.; Eden, S.; García, G.; Limão-Vieira, P.

    2018-01-01

    This work demonstrates that selective excision of hydrogen atoms at a particular site of the DNA base adenine can be achieved in collisions with electronegative atoms by controlling the impact energy. The result is based on analysing the time-of-flight mass spectra yields of potassium collisions with a series of labeled adenine derivatives. The production of dehydrogenated parent anions is consistent with neutral H loss either from selective breaking of C-H or N-H bonds. These unprecedented results open up a new methodology in charge transfer collisions that can initiate selective reactivity as a key process in chemical reactions that are dominant in different areas of science and technology.

  12. Selection of a tool to decision making for site selection for high level waste

    Madeira, J.G.; Alvin, A.C.M.; Martins, V.B.; Monteiro, N.A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to create a panel comparing some of the key decision-making support tools used in situations with the characteristics of the problem of selecting suitable areas for constructing a final deep geologic repository. The tools addressed in this work are also well known and with easy implementation. The decision-making process in matters of this kind is, in general, complex due to its multi-criteria nature and the conflicting opinions of various stakeholders. Thus, a comprehensive study was performed with the literature in this subject, specifically in documents of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), regarding the importance of the criteria involved in the decision-making process. Therefore, we highlighted six judgment attributes for selecting a decision support tool, suitable for the problem. For this study, we have selected the following multi-criteria tools: AHP, Delphi, Brainstorm, Nominal Group Technique and AHP-Delphi. Finally, the AHP-Delphi method has demonstrated to be more appropriate for managing the inherent multiple attributes to the problem proposed. (authors)

  13. Selection of a tool to support decision making for site selection for high level waste - 15010

    Madeira, J.G.; Alvim, A.C.M.; Martins, V.B.; Monteiro, N.A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to create a panel comparing some of the key decision-making support tools used in situations with the characteristics of the problem of selecting suitable areas for constructing a final deep geologic repository. The tools presented in this work are also well-known and with easy implementation. The decision making process in issues of this kind is, in general, complex due to its multi-criteria nature and the conflicting opinions of various of stakeholders. Thus a comprehensive study was performed with the literature on this subject, specifically documents of the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA, regarding the importance of the criteria involved in the decision making process. Therefore, we highlighted 6 judgments attributes for selecting an adequate support tool: -) transparency and reliability, -) subjectivity, -) updating and adapting, -) multi-criteria analysis, -) ease of deployment, and -) application time. We have selected the following key decision-making support tools: AHP, Delphi, Brainstorm, Nominal Group Technique, and AHP-Delphi. Finally, the AHP-Delphi method has demonstrated to be more appropriate for managing the inherent multiple attributes to the problem proposed

  14. Site selection and design basis of the National Disposal Facility for LILW. Geological and engineering barriers

    Boyanov, S.

    2010-01-01

    Content of the presentation: Site selection; Characteristics of the “Radiana” site (location, geological structure, physical and mechanical properties, hydro-geological conditions); Design basis of the Disposal Facility; Migration analysis; Safety assessment approach

  15. Tritium activities in selected wells on the Nevada Test Site

    Lyles, B.F.

    1993-05-01

    Literature and data were reviewed related to radionuclides in groundwater on and near the Nevada Test Site. No elevated tritium activities have been reported outside of the major testing regions of the Nevada Test Site. Three wells were identified as having water with above-background (>50 pCi/l) tritium activities: UE-15d Water Well; USGS Water Well A; and USGS Test Well B Ex. Although none of these wells have tritium activities greater than the Nevada State Drinking Water standard (20,000 pCi/l), their time-series tritium trends may be indicative to potential on-site radionuclide migration

  16. Evaluating the potential of process sites for waste heat recovery

    Oluleye, Gbemi; Jobson, Megan; Smith, Robin; Perry, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis considers the temperature and duties of the available waste heat. • Models for organic Rankine cycles, absorption heat pumps and chillers proposed. • Exploitation of waste heat from site processes and utility systems. • Concept of a site energy efficiency introduced. • Case study presented to illustrate application of the proposed methodology. - Abstract: As a result of depleting reserves of fossil fuels, conventional energy sources are becoming less available. In spite of this, energy is still being wasted, especially in the form of heat. The energy efficiency of process sites (defined as useful energy output per unit of energy input) may be increased through waste heat utilisation, thereby resulting in primary energy savings. In this work, waste heat is defined and a methodology developed to identify the potential for waste heat recovery in process sites; considering the temperature and quantity of waste heat sources from the site processes and the site utility system (including fired heaters and, the cogeneration, cooling and refrigeration systems). The concept of the energy efficiency of a site is introduced – the fraction of the energy inputs that is converted into useful energy (heat or power or cooling) to support the methodology. Furthermore, simplified mathematical models of waste heat recovery technologies using heat as primary energy source, including organic Rankine cycles (using both pure and mixed organics as working fluids), absorption chillers and absorption heat pumps are developed to support the methodology. These models are applied to assess the potential for recovery of useful energy from waste heat. The methodology is illustrated for an existing process site using a case study of a petroleum refinery. The energy efficiency of the site increases by 10% as a result of waste heat recovery. If there is an infinite demand for recovered energy (i.e. all the recoverable waste heat sources are exploited), the site

  17. It Takes Three: Selection, Influence, and De-Selection Processes of Depression in Adolescent Friendship Networks

    Van Zalk, Maarten Herman Walter; Kerr, Margaret; Branje, Susan J. T.; Stattin, Hakan; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors of this study tested a selection-influence-de-selection model of depression. This model explains friendship influence processes (i.e., friends' depressive symptoms increase adolescents' depressive symptoms) while controlling for two processes: friendship selection (i.e., selection of friends with similar levels of depressive symptoms)…

  18. Enhanced Fuzzy-OWA model for municipal solid waste landfill site selection

    Ahmad, Siti Zubaidah; Ahamad, Mohd Sanusi S.; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Abujayyab, Sohaib K. M.

    2017-10-01

    In Malaysia, the municipal solid waste landfill site is an essential facility that needs to be evaluated as its demand is infrequently getting higher. The increment of waste generation forces the government to cater the appropriate site for waste disposal. However, the selection process for new landfill sites is a difficult task with regard to land scarcity and time consumption. In addition, the complication will proliferate when there are various criteria to be considered. Therefore, this paper intends to show the significance of the fuzzy logic-ordered weighted average (Fuzzy-OWA) model for the landfill site suitability analysis. The model was developed to generalize the multi-criteria combination that was extended to the GIS applications as part of the decision support module. OWA has the capability to implement different combination operators through the selection of appropriate order weight that is possible in changing the form of aggregation such as minimum, intermediate and maximum types of combination. OWA give six forms of aggregation results that have their specific significance that indirectly evaluates the environmental, physical and socio-economic (EPSE) criteria respectively. Nevertheless, one of the aggregated results has shown similarity with the weighted linear combination (WLC) method.

  19. Geological criteria for site selection of an LILW radioactive waste repository in the Philippines

    Aurelio, Mario; Taguibao, Kristine Joy; Vargas, Edmundo; Palattao, Maria Visitacion; Reyes, Rolando; Nohay, Carl; Singayan, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    In the selection of sites for disposal facilities involving low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommendations require that 'the region in which the site is located shall be such that significant tectonic and surface processes are not expected to occur with an intensity that would compromise the required isolation capability of the repository'. Evaluating the appropriateness of a site therefore requires a deep understanding of the geological and tectonic setting of the area. The Philippines sits in a tectonically active region frequented by earthquakes and volcanic activity. Its highly variable morphology coupled with its location along the typhoon corridor in the west Pacific region subjects the country to surface processes often manifested in the form of landslides. The Philippine LILW near surface repository project site is located on the north eastern sector of the Island of Luzon in northern Philippines. This island is surrounded by active subduction trenches; to the east by the East Luzon Trough and to the west by the Manila Trench. The island is also traversed by several branches of the Philippine Fault System. The Philippine LILW repository project is located more than 100 km away from any of these major active fault systems. In the near field, the project site is located less than 10 km from a minor fault (Dummon River Fault) and more than 40 km away from a volcanic edifice (Mt. Caguas). This paper presents an analysis of the potential hazards that these active tectonic features may pose to the project site. The assessment of such geologic hazards is imperative in the characterization of the site and a crucial input in the design and safety assessment of the repository. (authors)

  20. Geological criteria for site selection of an LILW radioactive waste repository in the Philippines

    Aurelio, Mario; Taguibao, Kristine Joy [National Institute of Geological Sciences, University of the Philippines, Quezon City (Philippines); Vargas, Edmundo; Palattao, Maria Visitacion; Reyes, Rolando; Nohay, Carl; Singayan, Alfonso [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Department of Science and Technology, Quezon City (Philippines)

    2013-07-01

    In the selection of sites for disposal facilities involving low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommendations require that 'the region in which the site is located shall be such that significant tectonic and surface processes are not expected to occur with an intensity that would compromise the required isolation capability of the repository'. Evaluating the appropriateness of a site therefore requires a deep understanding of the geological and tectonic setting of the area. The Philippines sits in a tectonically active region frequented by earthquakes and volcanic activity. Its highly variable morphology coupled with its location along the typhoon corridor in the west Pacific region subjects the country to surface processes often manifested in the form of landslides. The Philippine LILW near surface repository project site is located on the north eastern sector of the Island of Luzon in northern Philippines. This island is surrounded by active subduction trenches; to the east by the East Luzon Trough and to the west by the Manila Trench. The island is also traversed by several branches of the Philippine Fault System. The Philippine LILW repository project is located more than 100 km away from any of these major active fault systems. In the near field, the project site is located less than 10 km from a minor fault (Dummon River Fault) and more than 40 km away from a volcanic edifice (Mt. Caguas). This paper presents an analysis of the potential hazards that these active tectonic features may pose to the project site. The assessment of such geologic hazards is imperative in the characterization of the site and a crucial input in the design and safety assessment of the repository. (authors)

  1. Identification of Site Selection Factors in the U.S. Franchise Restaurant Industry: An Exploratory Study

    Park, Kunsoon

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and rank the importance of the site selection factors that influence the U.S. franchise restaurant industry as well as rank the confidence level of the experts. To identify the site selection factors, this study sought assistance and support from restaurant professionals. The Delphi technique was used to elicit the opinions of a panel of experts regarding the site selection factors. The panel was composed of restaurant professionals of restaurant c...

  2. URBAN RAIN GAUGE SITING SELECTION BASED ON GIS-MULTICRITERIA ANALYSIS

    Y. Fu; C. Jing; M. Du

    2016-01-01

    With the increasingly rapid growth of urbanization and climate change, urban rainfall monitoring as well as urban waterlogging has widely been paid attention. In the light of conventional siting selection methods do not take into consideration of geographic surroundings and spatial-temporal scale for the urban rain gauge site selection, this paper primarily aims at finding the appropriate siting selection rules and methods for rain gauge in urban area. Additionally, for optimization gauge loc...

  3. Site selection for offshore wind farms along the Indian coast

    ManiMurali, R.; Vidya, P.J.; Modi, P.; JayaKumar, S.

    This study deals with locating the potential sites for offshore wind farms and also deals with feasibility of installing offshore wind farms through scientific examination of the requirements along the coast of India Offshore wind energy is almost...

  4. Faulting in mudrocks: the selection of potential research sites

    Alexander, J.

    1990-01-01

    The British Geological Survey, in cooperation with Ismes of Italy, has carried out a research programme into faults through clay formations. The research programme commenced in April 1986 and work started at the Down Ampney site in February 1987

  5. Procedural justice in wind facility siting: Recommendations for state-led siting processes

    Ottinger, Gwen; Hargrave, Timothy J.; Hopson, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests that state control of wind facility siting decisions fosters new project development more effectively than local control, yet the literature suggests that affected citizens tend to be more fairly represented in local siting processes. We argue that successful renewable energy policy must satisfy both the need for new project development and the obligation to procedural justice. To suggest how it can do so, we analyze existing state- and county-level siting processes in Washington state, finding that both fall short on measures of procedural justice. To overcome this limitation and address the tension between procedural justice and project development, we then propose a collaborative governance approach to wind facility siting, in which state governments retain ultimate authority over permitting decisions but encourage and support local-level deliberations as the primary means of making those decisions. Such an approach, we argue, would be more just, facilitate wind development by addressing community concerns constructively and result in better projects through the input of diverse stakeholders. - Highlights: • States have made wind energy development a priority. • Local opposition to new projects could hinder future wind energy development. • Procedural justice is necessary to resolve local issues and ensure timely wind facility siting. • Both state- and county-led siting processes fall short with respect to criteria for procedural justice, though local processes have some advantages. • States could instead induce counties, developers to engage in deliberation

  6. Process and analytical studies of enhanced low severity co-processing using selective coal pretreatment

    Baldwin, R.M.; Miller, R.L.

    1991-12-01

    The findings in the first phase were as follows: 1. Both reductive (non-selective) alkylation and selective oxygen alkylation brought about an increase in liquefaction reactivity for both coals. 2. Selective oxygen alkylation is more effective in enhancing the reactivity of low rank coals. In the second phase of studies, the major findings were as follows: 1. Liquefaction reactivity increases with increasing level of alkylation for both hydroliquefaction and co-processing reaction conditions. 2. the increase in reactivity found for O-alkylated Wyodak subbituminous coal is caused by chemical changes at phenolic and carboxylic functional sites. 3. O-methylation of Wyodak subbituminous coal reduced the apparent activation energy for liquefaction of this coal.

  7. A Case Study in the Mars Landing Site Selection for Science Objects

    Haingja Seo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It is a crucial matter to select a landing site for landers or rovers in planning the Mars exploration. The landing site must have not only a scientific value as a landing site, but also geographical features to lead a safe landing for Mars probes. In this regard, this study analyzed landing site of Mars probes and rovers in previous studies and discussed the adequacy of the landing site to scientific missions. Moreover, this study also examined domestic studies on the Mars. The frameworks of these studies will guide the selection of exploration sites and a landing site when sending Mars probe to the Mars through our own efforts. Additionally, this paper will be used as the preliminary data for selection of exploration site and a landing site.

  8. Method for Business Process Management System Selection

    Thijs van de Westelaken; Bas Terwee; Pascal Ravesteijn

    2013-01-01

    In recent years business process management (BPM) and specifically information systems that support the analysis, design and execution of processes (also called business process management systems (BPMS)) are getting more attention. This has lead to an increase in research on BPM and BPMS. However

  9. Site-specific analysis of the cobbly soils at the Grand Junction processing site

    1992-06-01

    This report describes a recent site-specific analysis to evaluate the necessity of a recommendation to install a slurry trench around the Grand Junction processing site. The following analysis addresses the cobbly nature of the site's radiologically contaminated foundation soil, reassesses the excavation depths based on bulk radionuclide concentrations, and presents data-based arguments that support the elimination of the initially proposed slurry trench. The slurry trench around the processing site was proposed by the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) to minimize the amount of water encountered during excavation. The initial depths of excavation developed during conceptual design, which indicated the need for a slurry wall, were reexamined as part of this analysis. This reanalysis, based on bulk concentrations of a cobbly subsoil, supports decreasing the original excavation depth, limiting the dewatering quantities to those which can be dissipated by normal construction activities. This eliminates the need for a slurry trench andseparate water treatment prior to permitted discharge

  10. Risk assessment for nuclear processes at the Savannah River Site

    Durant, W.S.

    1992-01-01

    The Savannah River Site, one of the US Department of Energy's nuclear materials processing facilities, has for many years conducted risk-based safety analyses for the nuclear processes conducted at the facilities. This approach has allowed comparisons of risks to established criteria for acceptability. When the risk-based program was begun, it was evident that its success would depend upon having a compilation of data that was site specific. The decision was made to create a data bank of undesirable events that had occurred at the site's nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. From this modest beginning, five data banks have been created for nuclear fuel reprocessing, waste management, nuclear fuel fabrication, tritium operations, and the Savannah River Technology Center. In addition to the primary purpose of providing a sound basis for risk-based safety analyses, these highly versatile data banks are routinely used for equipment breakdown histories, incident investigations, design studies, project justifications, reliability studies, process problem solving, training, and audits

  11. Nuclear Material Processing at the Savannah River Site

    Severynse, T.F.

    1998-07-01

    Plutonium production for national defense began at Savannah River in the mid-1950s, following construction of production reactors and separations facilities. Following the successful completion of its production mission, the site's nuclear material processing facilities continue to operate to perform stabilization of excess materials and potentially support the disposition of these materials. A number of restoration and productivity improvement projects implemented in the 1980s, totaling nearly a billion dollars, have resulted in these facilities representing the most modern and only remaining operating large-scale processing facilities in the DOE Complex. Together with the Site's extensive nuclear infrastructure, and integrated waste management system, SRS is the only DOE site with the capability and mission of ongoing processing operations

  12. Refining processes of selected copper alloys

    S. Rzadkosz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the refining effectiveness of the liquid copper and selected copper alloys by various micro additions and special refiningsubstances – was performed. Examinations of an influence of purifying, modifying and deoxidation operations performed in a metal bath on the properties of certain selected alloys based on copper matrix - were made. Refining substances, protecting-purifying slag, deoxidation and modifying substances containing micro additions of such elements as: zirconium, boron, phosphor, sodium, lithium, or their compounds introduced in order to change micro structures and properties of alloys, were applied in examinations. A special attention was directed to macro and micro structures of alloys, their tensile and elongation strength and hot-cracks sensitivity. Refining effects were estimated by comparing the effectiveness of micro structure changes with property changes of copper and its selected alloys from the group of tin bronzes.

  13. The voluntary siting process: The solution to siting in the Northeast Compact

    Deshais, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The date: June 10, 1991. The decision: the announcement of three 'candidate sites' for a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) facility in Connecticut following statewide screening. The debate: the right of the citizens of the state to refuse to have this type of facility in their 'backyard' versus the State's responsibility to provide for the safe management of LLRW generated within its borders. The debacle: vigorous opposition, political involvement, no opportunity for effective dialogue with the candidate towns. The end: a legislative mandate to terminate the siting process. This series of events, familiar to those in the business of attempting to site and develop unwanted and unwelcome facilities, would have thwarted efforts to provide for disposal capacity in the Northeast Compact region. Connecticut's efforts to site a LLRW disposal facility pursuant to a traditional 'decide-announce-defend' approach had apparently failed. New Jersey, its partner in the Compact, was also ready to proceed with a similar process that would lead to the naming of several candidate sites, but suspended its efforts to review other siting alternatives. The problem: a new approach was needed. The answer: both states would pursue voluntary siting for the LLRW facilities. The result: the best chance for successful development of LLRW disposal capacity in the Northeast Compact region

  14. Safety Considerations in the Selection of Nuclear Power Plant Candidate Sites in Johor State, Malaysia

    Ramli, A.T.; Basri, N.A.; Abu Hanifah, N.Z.H.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear power is considered as one of the best options for future energy development in Malaysia. Since Malaysia has no experience in nuclear energy generation / production, commissioning the first nuclear power plant needs tremendous effort in various aspects. The most obvious challenges are to ensure the nation’s safety and to handle security issues that may arise from a nuclear power plant site. This paper aims to propose a site for nuclear power plant in Johor State, Malaysia as well as listing the possible safety challenges in the process. The site selection uses the Malaysian Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) guideline document as the main reference, supported by documents from International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and from various countries. Only five site characteristics are chosen as study parameters – geological features and seismic data, air dispersion analysis using meteorological data, population distribution, safety zones and emergency supports. This paper concluded that site number 2 (CS2) at Tanjung Tenggaroh, Mersing is the most suitable area for nuclear power plant in Johor state. It has the least possible risks, safety and security issues. (author)

  15. Safety Considerations in the Selection of Nuclear Power Plant Candidate Sites in Johor State, Malaysia

    Ramli, A. T.; Basri, N. A.; Abu Hanifah, N. Z.H., [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-10-15

    Nuclear power is considered as one of the best options for future energy development in Malaysia. Since Malaysia has no experience in nuclear energy generation / production, commissioning the first nuclear power plant needs tremendous effort in various aspects. The most obvious challenges are to ensure the nation’s safety and to handle security issues that may arise from a nuclear power plant site. This paper aims to propose a site for nuclear power plant in Johor State, Malaysia as well as listing the possible safety challenges in the process. The site selection uses the Malaysian Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) guideline document as the main reference, supported by documents from International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and from various countries. Only five site characteristics are chosen as study parameters – geological features and seismic data, air dispersion analysis using meteorological data, population distribution, safety zones and emergency supports. This paper concluded that site number 2 (CS2) at Tanjung Tenggaroh, Mersing is the most suitable area for nuclear power plant in Johor state. It has the least possible risks, safety and security issues. (author)

  16. 7 CFR 1469.6 - Enrollment criteria and selection process.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enrollment criteria and selection process. 1469.6... General Provisions § 1469.6 Enrollment criteria and selection process. (a) Selection and funding of... existing natural resource, environmental quality, and agricultural activity data along with other...

  17. Selection of sites for nuclear power plants in The Netherlands. Pt. A

    1985-01-01

    In this report a policy proposal is presented concerning the selection of location sites for new nuclear power plants in the Netherlands. Firstly it is investigated which of the 29 already selected location sites are not to be taken into further account because of obvious obstructions (close vicinity of a big city etc.). The remaining sites are judged on the base of local population magnitude. The sites that pass the last criteria are relatively compared from a large number of viewpoints. To round off the selection procedure the government will explain why they consider the finally selected sites to be suitable for location of new nuclear power plants. Steps are indicated to prevent the decrease of planologic suitability of the selected location sites. (Auth.)

  18. Selected environmental considerations and their measuring parameters for nuclear power plant siting

    Norris, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    The site selection process for nuclear power stations encompasses a broad range of considerations. A categorization of these considerations consistent with the needs of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission, as the regulatory agency, and of the utility company involves these major areas of concern. They are issues related to safety, environmental impact, and engineering/economics. The more important environmental considerations and their measuring parameters presented in this paper include biota, ecological systems and water quality, land use, aesthetics, water availability, and meteorology. (U.S.)

  19. Selected bibliography for the extraction of uranium from seawater: evaluation of uranium resources and plant siting

    Chen, A.C.T.; Gordon, L.I.; Rodman, M.R.; Binney, S.E.

    1979-02-06

    This bibliography contains 471 references pertaining to the evaluation of U.S. territorial ocean waters as a potential uranium resource and to the selection of a site for a plant designed for the large scale extraction of uranium from seawater. This bibliography was prepared using machine literature retrieval, bibliographic, and work processing systems at Oregon State University. The literature cited is listed by author with indices to the author's countries, geographic areas of study, and to a set of keywords to the subject matter.

  20. Selected bibliography for the extraction of uranium from seawater: evaluation of uranium resources and plant siting

    Chen, A.C.T.; Gordon, L.I.; Rodman, M.R.; Binney, S.E.

    1979-01-01

    This bibliography contains 471 references pertaining to the evaluation of U.S. territorial ocean waters as a potential uranium resource and to the selection of a site for a plant designed for the large scale extraction of uranium from seawater. This bibliography was prepared using machine literature retrieval, bibliographic, and work processing systems at Oregon State University. The literature cited is listed by author with indices to the author's countries, geographic areas of study, and to a set of keywords to the subject matter

  1. Social quality in the conservation process of living heritage sites

    Kong, P.

    2008-01-01

    The "UNESCO World Heritage Convention" was ratificated on November 16, 1972. Since then, both public and private sectors around the world have attached growing importance to the safeguarding and conservation of selected cultural and natural "objects", focusing on physical characteristics. World Heritage sites receive major publicity and as a result become notable attractions for large numbers of tourists from all over the world. However, in spite of the clear economic benefits and political p...

  2. High level radioactive waste siting processes: critical lessons from Canadian siting successes

    Hardy, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    While not without controversy, Canada's Crown Corporations, municipalities, agencies and private companies have had success in siting and achieving approval for operating: toxic and hazardous waste facilities; dry radioactive materials storage facilities; the Federal low-level radioactive waste disposal facility; and, several large and small domestic landfills. The cumulative experience gained from these siting and approval processes provides valuable advice in support of the siting and approval of high-level radioactive disposal facilities. Among the critical elements for the success of these siting efforts are: 1) the tinting, scope and character of the siting process reflects the cultural and social values of affected people; 2) the siting and approval processes has integrity -- characterized as rational processes in pursuit of the public interest; 3) sufficient time and resources are dedicated to listening carefully and examining issues seen to be important by the public; 4) all information is shared -- even if the information is potentially detrimental to the approval of the facility; 5) proponent has a prioritized multiple focus on 'health, safety and environment issues', on 'insuring that the environmental assessment process is socially acceptable' as well as on the 'approval considerations'; 6) the implementing agency seeks cooperation and win-win solutions with the local community; 7) the community has the option of opting-out of the process and the do-nothing and/or the not here option continues to be considered by the proponent; 8) local emergency response people are well-trained and accepting of the facility; 9) the community has a strong role in determining the terms, conditions and compensation related to the future facility. (author)

  3. Site-directed alkylation of multiple opioid receptors. I. Binding selectivity

    James, I.F.; Goldstein, A.

    1984-01-01

    A method for measuring and expressing the binding selectivity of ligands for mu, delta, and kappa opioid binding sites is reported. Radioligands are used that are partially selective for these sites in combination with membrane preparations enriched in each site. Enrichment was obtained by treatment of membranes with the alkylating agent beta-chlornaltrexamine in the presence of appropriate protecting ligands. After enrichment for mu receptors, [ 3 H] dihydromorphine bound to a single type of site as judged by the slope of competition binding curves. After enrichment for delta or kappa receptors, binding sites for [ 3 H] [D-Ala2, D-Leu5]enkephalin and [3H]ethylketocyclazocine, respectively, were still not homogeneous. There were residual mu sites in delta-enriched membranes but no evidence for residual mu or delta sites in kappa-enriched membranes were found. This method was used to identify ligands that are highly selective for each of the three types of sites

  4. Site selection for disposal of nuclear waste - on what grounds? A report from hearings at the Council June 4-5 2008

    2009-01-01

    As part of the Nuclear Waste Council's own knowledge-building on site selection, the Council organized a hearing on the what grounds site selection will be made. The public hearing, had several objectives: to contribute to knowledge building on site selection for Nuclear Waste Council and other actors, to contribute to an improved basis for site selection by clarifying the factors and values of importance, to clarify the different actors' expectations SKB's future accounting, to highlight how to deal with different aspects (safety, geological, environmental, infrastructural, socio-economic and democratic) instruments for site selection, and to identify operators of critical issues. The report is divided into the following sections: The Government's View on the upcoming Site Selection; the Site Selection Process, The View of the Local Communities on the Site Selection; the Current Status of the Selection Process, SKB's plans, the Site-Selection Factors; he Authorities' perspective; the Environmental Organizations perspective; Reflections of the Council on the Hearings; Discussion and Analysis of Key Issues related to Groundwater Flow, Final Discussion

  5. Expert system for modelling stopover site selection by barnacle geese

    Shariati Najafabadi, Mitra; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Darvishzadeh, Roshanak; Exo, Klaus-Michael; Kölzsch, Andrea; Griffin, Larry; Stahl, Julia; Cabot, David; Toxopeus, Albertus G.

    2017-01-01

    The study of stopover sites has received a lot of attention in avian ecology, being especially important for many long-distance migrants, some of which have to pause several times during migration. The survival of many migratory birds depends primarily on food availability at these stopovers.

  6. Directing reaction pathways by catalyst active-site selection using self-assembled monolayers.

    Pang, Simon H; Schoenbaum, Carolyn A; Schwartz, Daniel K; Medlin, J Will

    2013-01-01

    One key route for controlling reaction selectivity in heterogeneous catalysis is to prepare catalysts that exhibit only specific types of sites required for desired product formation. Here we show that alkanethiolate self-assembled monolayers with varying surface densities can be used to tune selectivity to desired hydrogenation and hydrodeoxygenation products during the reaction of furfural on supported palladium catalysts. Vibrational spectroscopic studies demonstrate that the selectivity improvement is achieved by controlling the availability of specific sites for the hydrogenation of furfural on supported palladium catalysts through the selection of an appropriate alkanethiolate. Increasing self-assembled monolayer density by controlling the steric bulk of the organic tail ligand restricts adsorption on terrace sites and dramatically increases selectivity to desired products furfuryl alcohol and methylfuran. This technique of active-site selection simultaneously serves both to enhance selectivity and provide insight into the reaction mechanism.

  7. Positively selected sites in cetacean myoglobins contribute to protein stability

    Dasmeh, Pouria; Serohijos, Adrian W R; Kepp, Kasper P

    2013-01-01

    Since divergence ∼50 Ma ago from their terrestrial ancestors, cetaceans underwent a series of adaptations such as a ∼10-20 fold increase in myoglobin (Mb) concentration in skeletal muscle, critical for increasing oxygen storage capacity and prolonging dive time. Whereas the O2-binding affinity...... between Mb folding stability and protein abundance, suggesting that a selection pressure for stability acts proportionally to higher expression. We also identify a major divergence event leading to the common ancestor of whales, during which major stabilization occurred. Most of the positively selected...

  8. Siting process for disposal site of low level radiactive waste in Thailand

    Yamkate, P.; Sriyotha, P.; Thiengtrongjit, S.; Sriyotha, K.

    1992-01-01

    The radioactive waste in Thailand is composed of low level waste from the application of radioisotopes in medical treatment and industry, the operation of the 2 MW TRIGA Mark III Research Reactor and the production of radioisotopes at OAEP. In addition, the high activity of sealed radiation sources i.e. Cs-137 Co-60 and Ra-226 are also accumulated. Since the volume of treated waste has been gradually increased, the general needs for a repository become apparent. The near surface disposal method has been chosen for this aspect. The feasibility study on the underground disposal site has been done since 1982. The site selection criteria have been established, consisting of the rejection criteria, the technical performance criteria and the economic criteria. About 50 locations have been picked for consideration and 5 candidate sites have been selected and subsequent investigated. After thoroughly investigation, a definite location in Ratchburi Province, about 180 kilometers southwest of Bangkok, has been selected as the most suitable place for the near surface disposal of radioactive waste in Thailand

  9. Site-Selection in Single-Molecule Junction for Highly Reproducible Molecular Electronics.

    Kaneko, Satoshi; Murai, Daigo; Marqués-González, Santiago; Nakamura, Hisao; Komoto, Yuki; Fujii, Shintaro; Nishino, Tomoaki; Ikeda, Katsuyoshi; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito; Kiguchi, Manabu

    2016-02-03

    Adsorption sites of molecules critically determine the electric/photonic properties and the stability of heterogeneous molecule-metal interfaces. Then, selectivity of adsorption site is essential for development of the fields including organic electronics, catalysis, and biology. However, due to current technical limitations, site-selectivity, i.e., precise determination of the molecular adsorption site, remains a major challenge because of difficulty in precise selection of meaningful one among the sites. We have succeeded the single site-selection at a single-molecule junction by performing newly developed hybrid technique: simultaneous characterization of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and current-voltage (I-V) measurements. The I-V response of 1,4-benzenedithiol junctions reveals the existence of three metastable states arising from different adsorption sites. Notably, correlated SERS measurements show selectivity toward one of the adsorption sites: "bridge sites". This site-selectivity represents an essential step toward the reliable integration of individual molecules on metallic surfaces. Furthermore, the hybrid spectro-electric technique reveals the dependence of the SERS intensity on the strength of the molecule-metal interaction, showing the interdependence between the optical and electronic properties in single-molecule junctions.

  10. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: a selected bibliography

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Fielden, J.M.; Johnson, C.A.

    1982-09-01

    This bibliography contains 693 references with abstracts on the subject of nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions. Foreign, as well as domestic, literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included in this publication. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Program. Major chapters are Surplus Facilities Management Program, Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, Grand Junction Remedial Action Program, and Uranium Mill Tailings Management. Chapter sections for chapters 1 and 2 include: Design, Planning, and Regulations; Site Surveys; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Land Decontamination and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; and General Studies. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate author or by title. Indexes are provided for (1) author; (2) corporate affiliation; (3) title; (4) publication description; (5) geographic location; and (6) keywords. An appendix of 202 bibliographic references without abstracts or indexes has been included in this bibliography. This appendix represents literature identified but not abstracted due to time constraints.

  11. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: a selected bibliography

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Fielden, J.M.; Johnson, C.A.

    1982-09-01

    This bibliography contains 693 references with abstracts on the subject of nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions. Foreign, as well as domestic, literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included in this publication. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Program. Major chapters are Surplus Facilities Management Program, Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, Grand Junction Remedial Action Program, and Uranium Mill Tailings Management. Chapter sections for chapters 1 and 2 include: Design, Planning, and Regulations; Site Surveys; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Land Decontamination and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; and General Studies. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate author or by title. Indexes are provided for (1) author; (2) corporate affiliation; (3) title; (4) publication description; (5) geographic location; and (6) keywords. An appendix of 202 bibliographic references without abstracts or indexes has been included in this bibliography. This appendix represents literature identified but not abstracted due to time constraints

  12. Reassessment of selected factors affecting siting of Nuclear Power Plants

    Davis, R.E.; Hanson, A.L.; Mubayi, V.; Nourbakhsh, H.P.

    1997-02-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has performed a series of probabilistic consequence assessment calculations for nuclear reactor siting. This study takes into account recent insights into severe accident source terms and examines consequences in a risk based format consistent with the quantitative health objectives (QHOs) of the NRC`s Safety Goal Policy. Simplified severe accident source terms developed in this study are based on the risk insights of NUREG-1150. The results of the study indicate that both the quantity of radioactivity released in a severe accident as well as the likelihood of a release are lower than those predicted in earlier studies. The accident risks using the simplified source terms are examined at a series of generic plant sites, that vary in population distribution, meteorological conditions, and exclusion area boundary distances. Sensitivity calculations are performed to evaluate the effects of emergency protective action assumptions on the risk of prompt fatality and latent cancers fatality, and population relocation. The study finds that based on the new source terms the prompt and latent fatality risks at all generic sites meet the QHOs of the NRC`s Safety Goal Policy by margins ranging from one to more than three orders of magnitude. 4 refs., 17 figs., 24 tabs.

  13. International workshop on site investigation and evaluation based on the siting process in Sweden

    Andersson, Johan; Stroem, A.

    2001-06-01

    SKB's goal is to commence surface based site investigations in 2002. Extensive preparations are now being made for this transition to the next phase in the siting process for the deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The purpose of the international workshop on site characterisation held at Aespoe April 2001 was to: present the SKB site investigation and evaluation programme to a group of international experts; discuss whether the available toolbox of investigation methods for surface based site investigations is appropriate and state-of-the-art in an international perspective; and by working group sessions discuss the level of ambition in the programme for site investigation for each discipline. This report summarises the conclusions of the workshop in general terms. Many of the detailed comments and ideas obtained at the workshop have already inspired and will also directly inspire the on-going planning work for site characterisation. The core activity at the workshop was the work performed by working groups. They addressed what should be considered for a site characterisation programme, based on the generic planning made so far by SKB. The working groups also outlined site specific characterisation programmes for the sites suggested by SKB. The tasks were strictly confined to technical and scientific modelling issues. The working group chairmen presented the working group results at the workshop and have also submitted short memos to SKB. The present document is a compilation of these memos. The SKB generic programme as presented in the existing top level documents, 'Requirements and Criteria and Overall Programme', received general endorsement and was appreciated for being comprehensive and systematic. For example, it contains comprehensive lists of parameters to be measured. However, there is need for prioritisation and sequencing. This is actually included in the current planning process at SKB where the generic programme later this year will be adapted to

  14. OPTIMIZING MAINTENANCE PROCESSES ON CUSTOMER SITE IN A DECENTRALIZED ORGANIZATION BASED ON MULTI-SITE TEAMS

    Jorge Moutinho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This lecture focuses on the complexity to manage and optimize maintenance processes, operations and service tasks to equipments and systems installed at customer sites. Different locations, access and working environment may compromise any standardization of setup's and operations. Multi-site teams based on geographic strategic locations, adds complexity to trainning, communication, supervising and monitoring processes. Logistics and information systems assume relevant rolls to consolidate global performance. Beside efficiency, effectiveness productivity and flexibility, field teams need skills on autonomy responsibility and proactivity. This lecture also explores the needed adaptation of most part of available literature, normally based on production sites, as also of Lean- Kaizen principles to the fact that services can not be stocked, quality is normally more difficult to measure and customer is normally present when and where service is produced.

  15. The yule approximation for the site frequency spectrum after a selective sweep.

    Sebastian Bossert

    Full Text Available In the area of evolutionary theory, a key question is which portions of the genome of a species are targets of natural selection. Genetic hitchhiking is a theoretical concept that has helped to identify various such targets in natural populations. In the presence of recombination, a severe reduction in sequence diversity is expected around a strongly beneficial allele. The site frequency spectrum is an important tool in genome scans for selection and is composed of the numbers S(1,...,S(n-1, where S(k is the number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs present in k from n individuals. Previous work has shown that both the number of low- and high-frequency variants are elevated relative to neutral evolution when a strongly beneficial allele fixes. Here, we follow a recent investigation of genetic hitchhiking using a marked Yule process to obtain an analytical prediction of the site frequency spectrum in a panmictic population at the time of fixation of a highly beneficial mutation. We combine standard results from the neutral case with the effects of a selective sweep. As simulations show, the resulting formula produces predictions that are more accurate than previous approaches for the whole frequency spectrum. In particular, the formula correctly predicts the elevation of low- and high-frequency variants and is significantly more accurate than previously derived formulas for intermediate frequency variants.

  16. In vitro site selection of a consensus binding site for the Drosophila melanogaster Tbx20 homolog midline.

    Nima Najand

    Full Text Available We employed in vitro site selection to identify a consensus binding sequence for the Drosophila melanogaster Tbx20 T-box transcription factor homolog Midline. We purified a bacterially expressed T-box DNA binding domain of Midline, and used it in four rounds of precipitation and polymerase-chain-reaction based amplification. We cloned and sequenced 54 random oligonucleotides selected by Midline. Electromobility shift-assays confirmed that 27 of these could bind the Midline T-box. Sequence alignment of these 27 clones suggests that Midline binds as a monomer to a consensus sequence that contains an AGGTGT core. Thus, the Midline consensus binding site we define in this study is similar to that defined for vertebrate Tbx20, but differs from a previously reported Midline binding sequence derived through site selection.

  17. Canada's deep geological repository for used nuclear fuel - the geoscientific site evaluation process

    Belfadhel, M.B.; Blyth, A.; Desroches, A.; Hirschorn, S.; Mckelvie, J.; Sanchez-Rico Castejon, M.; Parmenter, A.; Urrutia-Bustos, A.; Vorauer, A., E-mail: mbenbelfadhel@nwmo.ca [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is responsible for implementing Adaptive Phased Management (APM), the approach selected by the Government of Canada for the long-term management of used nuclear fuel generated by Canadian nuclear reactors. The ultimate objective of APM is the centralized containment and isolation of Canada's used nuclear fuel in a Deep Geological Repository in a suitable crystalline or sedimentary rock formation. In May 2010, the NWMO initiated a nine-step site selection process to find an informed and willing community to host the project. This paper describes the approach, methods and criteria being used to assess the geoscientific suitability of communities currently involved in the site selection process. The social, cultural and economic aspects of the assessment are discussed in a companion paper. (author)

  18. Site selectivity of specific reaction steps important for catalysis

    Nielsen, Kenneth

    ) overlayer system. In the STM study of the structure sensitivity of the CO dissociation reaction on the Ru(0 1 54) sample, it was determined that after cooling the sample from 700K to 400K in 10-8Torr of CO or in the CO that was left after a TPD, the sample displayed periodic decorations on every other...... site, is the most stable conguration after dissociation. Preliminary results where the sample was exposed to high doses of CO, at a CO pressure of 10-5 Torr and a temperature of 550K (dissociation conditions) indicated that especially every other step had a very rough appearance after 7 min exposure...

  19. Residual herbicide study on selected Hanford Site roadsides

    Smith, J.L.; Kemp, C.J.; Sackschewsky, M.R.

    1993-08-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company routinely treats roadsides with herbicides to control undesirable plant growth. An experiment was conducted to test perennial grass germination in soils adjacent to roadways of the Hanford Site. The primary variable was the distance from the roadside. A simple germination test was executed in a controlled-environment chamber to determine the residual effects of these applications. As expected, the greatest herbicide activity was found directly adjacent to the roadway, approximately 0 to 20 ft (0 to 6.3 m) from the roadway.

  20. Genomic and chromatin signals underlying transcription start-site selection

    Valen, Eivind; Sandelin, Albin Gustav

    2011-01-01

    A central question in cellular biology is how the cell regulates transcription and discerns when and where to initiate it. Locating transcription start sites (TSSs), the signals that specify them, and ultimately elucidating the mechanisms of regulated initiation has therefore been a recurrent theme....... In recent years substantial progress has been made towards this goal, spurred by the possibility of applying genome-wide, sequencing-based analysis. We now have a large collection of high-resolution datasets identifying locations of TSSs, protein-DNA interactions, and chromatin features over whole genomes...

  1. Applications of Ecological Engineering Remedies for Uranium Processing Sites, USA

    Waugh, William [Navarro Research and Engineering

    2016-05-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) is responsible for remediation of environmental contamination and long-term stewardship of sites associated with the legacy of nuclear weapons production during the Cold War in the United States. Protection of human health and the environment will be required for hundreds or even thousands of years at many legacy sites. USDOE continually evaluates and applies advances in science and technology to improve the effectiveness and sustainability of surface and groundwater remedies (USDOE 2011). This paper is a synopsis of ecological engineering applications that USDOE is evaluating to assess the effectiveness of remedies at former uranium processing sites in the southwestern United States. Ecological engineering remedies are predicated on the concept that natural ecological processes at legacy sites, once understood, can be beneficially enhanced or manipulated. Advances in tools for characterizing key processes and for monitoring remedy performance are demonstrating potential. We present test cases for four ecological engineering remedies that may be candidates for international applications.

  2. Artificial Cavities and Nest Site Selection by Puerto Rican Parrots: a Multiscale Assessment

    Thomas H. White, Jr.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined nest site selection by Puerto Rican Parrots, a secondary cavity nester, at several spatial scales using the nest entrance as the central focal point relative to 20 habitat and spatial variables. The Puerto Rican Parrot is unique in that, since 2001, all known nesting in the wild has occurred in artificial cavities, which also provided us with an opportunity to evaluate nest site selection without confounding effects of the actual nest cavity characteristics. Because of the data limitations imposed by the small population size of this critically endangered endemic species, we employed a distribution-free statistical simulation approach to assess site selection relative to characteristics of used and unused nesting sites. Nest sites selected by Puerto Rican Parrots were characterized by greater horizontal and vertical visibility from the nest entrance, greater density of mature sierra palms, and a more westerly and leeward orientation of nest entrances than unused sites. Our results suggest that nest site selection in this species is an adaptive response to predation pressure, to which the parrots respond by selecting nest sites offering advantages in predator detection and avoidance at all stages of the nesting cycle. We conclude that identifying and replicating the “nest gestalt” of successful nesting sites may facilitate conservation efforts for this and other endangered avian species.

  3. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium processing site at Naturita, Colorado

    1994-03-01

    The uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado, is one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be cleaned up by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), 42 USC section 7901 et seq. Part of the UMTRCA requires that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE's remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Included in the RAP is this Remedial Action Selection Report (RAS), which describes the proposed remedial action for the Naturita site. An extensive amount of data and supporting information has been generated and evaluated for this remedial action. These data and supporting information are not incorporated into this single document but are included or referenced in the supporting documents. The RAP consists of this RAS and four supporting documents or attachments. This Attachment 2, Geology Report describes the details of geologic, geomorphic, and seismic conditions at the Dry Flats disposal site

  4. A criterion for selecting renewable energy processes

    Searcy, Erin; Flynn, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    We propose that minimum incremental cost per unit of greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction, in essence the carbon credit required to economically sustain a renewable energy plant, is the most appropriate social criterion for choosing from a myriad of alternatives. The application of this criterion is illustrated for four processing alternatives for straw/corn stover: production of power by direct combustion and biomass integrated gasification and combined cycle (BIGCC), and production of transportation fuel via lignocellulosic ethanol and Fischer Tropsch (FT) syndiesel. Ethanol requires a lower carbon credit than FT, and direct combustion a lower credit than BIGCC. For comparing processes that make a different form of end use energy, in this study ethanol vs. electrical power via direct combustion, the lowest carbon credit depends on the relative values of the two energy forms. When power is 70$ MW h -1 , ethanol production has a lower required carbon credit at oil prices greater than 600$ t -1 (80$ bbl -1 ). (author)

  5. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium processing site at Naturita, Colorado

    1993-08-01

    The uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado, is one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be cleaned up by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604. Part of the UMTRCA requires that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE's remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Included in the RAP is this Remedial Action Selection Report (RAS), which serves two purposes. First, it describes the activities that are proposed by the DOE to accomplish remediation and long-term stabilization and control of the radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Second, this document and the rest of the RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the state of Colorado, and the NRC, become Appendix B of the cooperative agreement between the DOE and the State of Colorado

  6. Site selection report basalt waste isolation program near-surface test facility

    Sharpe, S.D.

    1978-01-01

    A site selection committee was established to review the information gathered on potential sites and to select a site for the Near-Surface Test Facility Phase I. A decision was made to use a site on the north face of Gable Mountain located on the Hanford Site. This site provided convenient access to the Pomona Basalt Flow. This flow was selected for use at this site because it exhibited the characteristics established in the primary criteria. These criteria were: the flows thickness; its dryness; its nearness to the surface; and, its similarities to basalt units which are candidates for the repository. After the selection of the Near-Surface Test Facility Phase I Site, the need arose for an additional facility to demonstrate safe handling, storage techniques, and the physical effects of radioactive materials on an in situ basalt formation. The committee reviewed the sites selected for Phase I and chose the same site for locating Phase II of the Near-Surface Test Facility

  7. Supramolecular Recognition Allows Remote, Site-Selective C-H Oxidation of Methylenic Sites in Linear Amines.

    Olivo, Giorgio; Farinelli, Giulio; Barbieri, Alessia; Lanzalunga, Osvaldo; Di Stefano, Stefano; Costas, Miquel

    2017-12-18

    Site-selective C-H functionalization of aliphatic alkyl chains is a longstanding challenge in oxidation catalysis, given the comparable relative reactivity of the different methylenes. A supramolecular, bioinspired approach is described to address this challenge. A Mn complex able to catalyze C(sp 3 )-H hydroxylation with H 2 O 2 is equipped with 18-benzocrown-6 ether receptors that bind ammonium substrates via hydrogen bonding. Reversible pre-association of protonated primary aliphatic amines with the crown ether selectively exposes remote positions (C8 and C9) to the oxidizing unit, resulting in a site-selective oxidation. Remarkably, such control of selectivity retains its efficiency for a whole series of linear amines, overriding the intrinsic reactivity of C-H bonds, no matter the chain length. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Landfill Site Selection by AHP Based Multi-criteria Decision Making Tool: A Case Study in Kolkata, India

    Majumdar, Ankush; Hazra, Tumpa; Dutta, Amit

    2017-09-01

    This work presents a Multi-criteria Decision Making (MCDM) tool to select a landfill site from three candidate sites proposed for Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) area that complies with accessibility, receptor, environment, public acceptability, geological and economic criteria. Analytical Hierarchy Process has been used to solve the MCDM problem. Suitability of the three sites (viz. Natagachi, Gangajoara and Kharamba) as landfills as proposed by KMC has been checked by Landfill Site Sensitivity Index (LSSI) as well as Economic Viability Index (EVI). Land area availability for disposing huge quantity of Municipal Solid Waste for the design period has been checked. Analysis of the studied sites show that they are moderately suitable for landfill facility construction as both LSSI and EVI scores lay between 300 and 750. The proposed approach represents an effective MCDM tool for siting sanitary landfill in growing metropolitan cities of developing countries like India.

  9. Building trust with the public in site selection of radioactive waste repository in Croatia

    Cerskov Klika, Mirjana; Schaller, Antun

    1995-01-01

    It should be emphasised that the Republic of Croatia ought to find a solution to dispose not only radioactive waste generated on its own territory, i.e. waste derived from diverse medical, industrial and scientific nuclear applications which does not exceed some 70 cubic metres: in total. It is also obliged to find acceptable solutions for disposal of a half of total radioactive waste accumulating in the Krsko NPP which is situated in Slovenia, but is a joint venture facility of both countries, Slovenia and Croatia. Therefore, one of essential duties of the APO - Hazardous Waste Management Agency is just performance of these activities in Croatia. The site selection process of low- and intermediate radioactive waste disposal in Croatia started in 1988. The site selection process itself is organized in two stages: (1) site survey stage; and 2) site evaluation stage. The first stage, being currently in progress, is related to all activities directed to inclusion of preferred sites into the Regional Plan of Croatia, whilst the second stage includes a necessary on-field investigations at few preferred sites and identification of the most suitable one, i.e. the final repository site. Eight potential areas containing even 42 potential sites have been determined so far. Promotion of several preferred sites is expected to be done until July 1995. Official announcement of preferred sites will be followed by public debate on their acceptance at a level of political-territorial organization, including local communities. The people working in APO - Hazardous Waste Management Agency have been aware of considerable public resistance to most of activities the Agency is dealing with since the very beginning of its operation. Consequently, permanent education and honest information to the public have been taken as the Agency's high priority tasks. Namely, if the public is treated as a competent participant in decision making process then it gets obvious that publicity of work is

  10. Astrophysical site(s of r-process elements in galactic chemodynamical evolution model

    Hirai Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Astrophysical site(s of rapid neutron-capture process (r-process is (are not identified yet. Although core-collapse supernovae have been regarded as one of the possible candidates of the astrophysical site of r-process, nucleosynthesis studies suggest that serious difficulties in core-collapse supernovae to produce heavy elements with mass number of ≳110. Recent studies show that neutron star mergers (NSMs can synthesize these elements due to their neutron rich environment. Some chemical evolution studies of the Milky Way halo, however, hardly reproduce the observed star-to-star scatters of the abundance ratios of r-process elements (e.g., Eu in extremely metal-poor stars. This is because of their low rate (∼ 10−4 yr−1 for a Milky Way size galaxy and long merger time (≳ 100 Myr. This problem might be solved if the stars in the Galactic halo are consisted of the stars formed in dwarf galaxies where the star formation efficiencies were very low. In this study, we carry out numerical simulations of galactic chemo-dynamical evolution using an N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics code. We construct detailed chemo-dynamical evolution model for the Local Group dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs assuming that the NSMs are the major source of r-process elements. Our models successfully reproduce the observed dispersion in [Eu/Fe] as a function of [Fe/H] if we set merger time of NSMs, ≲ 300 Myr with the Galactic NSM rate of ∼ 10−4 yr−1. In addition, our results are consistent with the observed metallicity distribution of dSphs. In the early phase (≲1 Gyr of galaxy evolution is constant due to low star formation efficiency of dSphs. This study supports the idea that NSMs are the major site of r-process nucleosynthesis.

  11. Site quality in Appalachian hardwoods: the biological and economic response under selection silviculture

    Orris D. McCauley; George R., Jr. Trimble

    1975-01-01

    The relative or percentage value response after 12 years of selective cutting practices on low- and high-quality sites in Appalachian hardwoods amounted to a 119-percent increase on the low-quality site and 145 percent on the high-quality site. The absolute value or actual dollar response, on the other hand, showed that the low-quality site increased in value only $76/...

  12. Using Card Games to Simulate the Process of Natural Selection

    Grilliot, Matthew E.; Harden, Siegfried

    2014-01-01

    In 1858, Darwin published "On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection." His explanation of evolution by natural selection has become the unifying theme of biology. We have found that many students do not fully comprehend the process of evolution by natural selection. We discuss a few simple games that incorporate hands-on…

  13. Intermediate product selection and blending in the food processing industry

    Kilic, Onur A.; Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter; Grunow, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses a capacitated intermediate product selection and blending problem typical for two-stage production systems in the food processing industry. The problem involves the selection of a set of intermediates and end-product recipes characterising how those selected intermediates are

  14. Intermediate product selection and blending in the food processing industry

    Kilic, Onur A.; Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses a capacitated intermediate product selection and blending problem typical for two-stage production systems in the food processing industry. The problem involves the selection of a set of intermediates and end-product recipes characterising how those selected intermediates...

  15. Recombination Modulates How Selection Affects Linked Sites in Drosophila

    McGaugh, Suzanne E.; Heil, Caiti S. S.; Manzano-Winkler, Brenda; Loewe, Laurence; Goldstein, Steve; Himmel, Tiffany L.; Noor, Mohamed A. F.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most influential observations in molecular evolution has been a strong association between local recombination rate and nucleotide polymorphisms across the genome. This is interpreted as evidence for ubiquitous natural selection. The alternative explanation, that recombination is mutagenic, has been rejected by the absence of a similar association between local recombination rate and nucleotide divergence between species. However, many recent studies show that recombination rates are often very different even in closely related species, questioning whether an association between recombination rate and divergence between species has been tested satisfactorily. To circumvent this problem, we directly surveyed recombination across approximately 43% of the D. pseudoobscura physical genome in two separate recombination maps and 31% of the D. miranda physical genome, and we identified both global and local differences in recombination rate between these two closely related species. Using only regions with conserved recombination rates between and within species and accounting for multiple covariates, our data support the conclusion that recombination is positively related to diversity because recombination modulates Hill–Robertson effects in the genome and not because recombination is predominately mutagenic. Finally, we find evidence for dips in diversity around nonsynonymous substitutions. We infer that at least some of this reduction in diversity resulted from selective sweeps and examine these dips in the context of recombination rate. PMID:23152720

  16. Reliable Refuge: Two Sky Island Scorpion Species Select Larger, Thermally Stable Retreat Sites.

    Becker, Jamie E; Brown, Christopher A

    2016-01-01

    Sky island scorpions shelter under rocks and other surface debris, but, as with other scorpions, it is unclear whether these species select retreat sites randomly. Furthermore, little is known about the thermal preferences of scorpions, and no research has been done to identify whether reproductive condition might influence retreat site selection. The objectives were to (1) identify physical or thermal characteristics for retreat sites occupied by two sky island scorpions (Vaejovis cashi Graham 2007 and V. electrum Hughes 2011) and those not occupied; (2) determine whether retreat site selection differs between the two study species; and (3) identify whether thermal selection differs between species and between gravid and non-gravid females of the same species. Within each scorpion's habitat, maximum dimensions of rocks along a transect line were measured and compared to occupied rocks to determine whether retreat site selection occurred randomly. Temperature loggers were placed under a subset of occupied and unoccupied rocks for 48 hours to compare the thermal characteristics of these rocks. Thermal gradient trials were conducted before parturition and after dispersal of young in order to identify whether gravidity influences thermal preference. Vaejovis cashi and V. electrum both selected larger retreat sites that had more stable thermal profiles. Neither species appeared to have thermal preferences influenced by reproductive condition. However, while thermal selection did not differ among non-gravid individuals, gravid V. electrum selected warmer temperatures than its gravid congener. Sky island scorpions appear to select large retreat sites to maintain thermal stability, although biotic factors (e.g., competition) could also be involved in this choice. Future studies should focus on identifying the various biotic or abiotic factors that could influence retreat site selection in scorpions, as well as determining whether reproductive condition affects thermal

  17. Gis-Based Site Selection for Underground Natural Resources Using Fuzzy Ahp-Owa

    Sabzevari, A. R.; Delavar, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    Fuel consumption has significantly increased due to the growth of the population. A solution to address this problem is the underground storage of natural gas. The first step to reach this goal is to select suitable places for the storage. In this study, site selection for the underground natural gas reservoirs has been performed using a multi-criteria decision-making in a GIS environment. The "Ordered Weighted Average" (OWA) operator is one of the multi-criteria decision-making methods for ranking the criteria and consideration of uncertainty in the interaction among the criteria. In this paper, Fuzzy AHP_OWA (FAHP_OWA) is used to determine optimal sites for the underground natural gas reservoirs. Fuzzy AHP_OWA considers the decision maker's risk taking and risk aversion during the decision-making process. Gas consumption rate, temperature, distance from main transportation network, distance from gas production centers, population density and distance from gas distribution networks are the criteria used in this research. Results show that the northeast and west of Iran and the areas around Tehran (Tehran and Alborz Provinces) have a higher attraction for constructing a natural gas reservoir. The performance of the used method was also evaluated. This evaluation was performed using the location of the existing natural gas reservoirs in the country and the site selection maps for each of the quantifiers. It is verified that the method used in this study is capable of modeling different decision-making strategies used by the decision maker with about 88 percent of agreement between the modeling and test data.

  18. USING MCDA AND GIS FOR LANDFILL SITE SELECTION: CENTRAL DISTRICTS OF ANTALYA PROVINCE

    E. Aksoy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to select new landfill sites in Antalya, Turkey which is the fifth biggest city according to the population, approximately 1.2 million. It is the first rank according to the population growth rate in Turkey. The city of Antalya is the touristic places and its climate is Mediterranean climate. Therefore, choosing landfill site is very crucial and it affects the future of the city. Existing landfill site will not be sufficient in near future. The study was implemented in the Aksu, Dosemealti, Kepez, Konyaalti, and Muratpasa districts in Antalya. The study area has almost 1980 km-square. Twelve parameters which are geology, fault lines, landslides, river, lake, elevation, slope, aspect, population, rain, road network, and temperature data were determined. These parameters were assessed using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP method and the weights of criteria layers were computed. Then, the computed weights were checked by the consistency index and consistency ratio which were found as 0.12 and 8.5%, respectively. The consistency index for 12 parameters should be lower than 1.48 and the consistency ratio should be less than 10%. This means that the constructed AHP matrix is suitable for analysis. Finally, the most suitable areas for landfill were computed according to the weights achieved from AHP matrix. The results were obtained in a range between 0.39 and 0.90. When the obtained results were compared with the existing landfill site called Kizilli area, the AHP score was found as 0.62. Therefore, new landfill area(s should be selected from the determined results.

  19. Threshold Assessment: Definition of Acceptable Sites as Part of Site Selection for the Japanese HLW Program

    McKenna, S.A.; Wakasugi, Keiichiro; Webb, E.K.; Makino, Hitoshi; Ishihara, Yoshinao; Ijiri, Yuji; Sawada, Atsushi; Baba, Tomoko; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Umeki, Hiroyuki

    2000-01-01

    For the last ten years, the Japanese High-Level Nuclear Waste (HLW) repository program has focused on assessing the feasibility of a basic repository concept, which resulted in the recently published H12 Report. As Japan enters the implementation phase, a new organization must identify, screen and choose potential repository sites. Thus, a rapid mechanism for determining the likelihood of site suitability is critical. The threshold approach, described here, is a simple mechanism for defining the likelihood that a site is suitable given estimates of several critical parameters. We rely on the results of a companion paper, which described a probabilistic performance assessment simulation of the HLW reference case in the H12 report. The most critical two or three input parameters are plotted against each other and treated as spatial variables. Geostatistics is used to interpret the spatial correlation, which in turn is used to simulate multiple realizations of the parameter value maps. By combining an array of realizations, we can look at the probability that a given site, as represented by estimates of this combination of parameters, would be good host for a repository site

  20. Short communication: Calving site selection of multiparous, group-housed dairy cows is influenced by site of a previous calving

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Nielsen, B.L.; Herskin, Mette S.

    2017-01-01

    A calving cow and her newborn calf appear to have an attracting effect on periparturient cows, which may potentially influence the functionality of future motivation-based calving pen designs. In this pilot study we examined whether calving site selection of group-housed Holstein dairy cows...

  1. Geochemical site-selection criteria for HLW repositories in Europe and North America

    Savage, David; Arthur, Randolph C.; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Shibata, Masahiro; Yui, Mikazu

    2000-01-01

    Geochemical as well as socio-economic issues associated with the selection of potential sites to host a high-level nuclear waste repository have received considerable attention in repository programs in Europe (Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the U.K.) and North America (Canada and the United States). The objective of the present study is to summarize this international experience with particular emphasis on geochemical properties that factor into the adopted site-selection strategies. Results indicate that the geochemical properties of a site play a subordinate role, at best, to other geotechnical properties in the international site-selection approaches. In countries where geochemical properties are acknowledged in the site-selection approach, requirements are stated qualitatively and tend to focus on associated impacts on the stability of the engineered barrier system and on radionuclide transport. Site geochemical properties that are likely to control the long-term stability of geochemical conditions and radionuclide migration behavior are unspecified, however. This non-prescriptive approach may be reasonable for purposes of screening among potential sites, but a better understanding of site properties that are most important in controlling the long-term geochemical evolution of the site over a range of possible scenarios would enable the potential sites to be ranked in terms of their suitability to host a repository. (author)

  2. Restaurant Food Allergy Practices - Six Selected Sites, United States, 2014.

    Radke, Taylor J; Brown, Laura G; Faw, Brenda; Hedeen, Nicole; Matis, Bailey; Perez, Priscela; Viveiros, Brendalee; Ripley, Danny

    2017-04-21

    Food allergies affect an estimated 15 million persons in the United States (1), and are responsible for approximately 30,000 emergency department visits and 150-200 deaths each year (2). Nearly half of reported fatal food allergy reactions over a 13-year period were caused by food from a restaurant or other food service establishment (3). To ascertain the prevalence of food allergy training, training topics, and practices related to food allergies, CDC's Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net), a collaborative forum of federal agencies and state and local health departments with six sites, interviewed personnel at 278 restaurants. Fewer than half of the 277 restaurant managers (44.4%), 211 food workers (40.8%), and 156 servers (33.3%) interviewed reported receiving food allergy training. Among those who reported receiving training, topics commonly included the major food allergens and what to do if a customer has a food allergy. Although most restaurants had ingredient lists for at least some menu items, few had separate equipment or areas designated for the preparation of allergen-free food. Restaurants can reduce the risk for allergic reactions among patrons by providing food allergy training for personnel and ingredient lists for all menu items and by dedicating equipment and areas specifically for preparing allergen-free food.

  3. Ecotoxicity literature review of selected Hanford Site contaminants

    Driver, C.J.

    1994-03-01

    Available information on the toxicity, food chain transport, and bioconcentration of several Hanford Site contaminants were reviewed. The contaminants included cesium-137, cobalt-60, europium, nitrate, plutonium, strontium-90, technetium, tritium, uranium, and chromium (III and VI). Toxicity and mobility in both aquatic and terrestrial systems were considered. For aquatic systems, considerable information was available on the chemical and/or radiological toxicity of most of the contaminants in invertebrate animals and fish. Little information was available on aquatic macrophyte response to the contaminants. Terrestrial animals such as waterfowl and amphibians that have high exposure potential in aquatic systems were also largely unrepresented in the toxicity literature. The preponderance of toxicity data for terrestrial biota was for laboratory mammals. Bioconcentration factors and transfer coefficients were obtained for primary producers and consumers in representative aquatic and terrestrial systems; however, little data were available for upper trophic level transfer, particularly for terrestrial predators. Food chain transport and toxicity information for the contaminants were generally lacking for desert or sage brush-steppe organisms, particularly plants and reptiles

  4. The Added Value of the Project Selection Process

    Adel Oueslati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The project selection process comes in the first stage of the overall project management life cycle. It does have a very important impact on organization success. The present paper provides defi nitions of the basic concepts and tools related to the project selection process. It aims to stress the added value of this process for the entire organization success. The mastery of the project selection process is the right way for any organization to ensure that it will do the right project with the right resources at the right time and within the right priorities

  5. Universality and the astrophysical sites for the r-process

    Otsuki, Kaori; Mathews, Grant J.; Wilson, James; Kajino, Toshitaka; Aoki, Wako; Honda, Satoshi

    2003-01-01

    Several observations of r-process elements in metal-deficient halo stars have been reported which show a Z>56 formed abundance distribution pattern similar to the Solar-system r-process distribution. It was believed that r-process elements for Z>56 in the same ratio and their astrophysical origin is unique because of this. However, quite recently, several controversial observational results have been reported. We calculated nucleosynthesis in various environments using a dynamical code. We find it is possible to reproduce the observed universal abundance distribution for stable Z>56 elements in various environments. Our results do not support a unique astrophysical site for Z>56 elements. These results significantly affect nuclear chronology using actinide elements. We also introduce a recent r-process nucleosynthesis calculation based on a supernovae simulation. Our tentative results indicate over-production of lighter elements and a shortage of actinide elements. (author)

  6. KOREAN LUNAR LANDER – CONCEPT STUDY FOR LANDING-SITE SELECTION FOR LUNAR RESOURCE EXPLORATION

    K. J. Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of the national space promotion plan and presidential national agendas South Korea’s institutes and agencies under the auspices of the Ministry of Science, Information and Communication Technology and Future Planning (MSIP are currently developing a lunar mission package expected to reach Moon in 2020. While the officially approved Korean Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter (KPLO is aimed at demonstrating technologies and monitoring the lunar environment from orbit, a lander – currently in pre-phase A – is being designed to explore the local geology with a particular focus on the detection and characterization of mineral resources. In addition to scientific and potential resource potentials, the selection of the landing-site will be partly constrained by engineering constraints imposed by payload and spacecraft layout. Given today’s accumulated volume and quality of available data returned from the Moon’s surface and from orbital observations, an identification of landing sites of potential interest and assessment of potential hazards can be more readily accomplished by generating synoptic snapshots through data integration. In order to achieve such a view on potential landing sites, higher level processing and derivation of data are required, which integrates their spatial context, with detailed topographic and geologic characterizations. We are currently assessing the possibility of using fuzzy c-means clustering algorithms as a way to perform (semi- automated terrain characterizations of interest. This paper provides information and background on the national lunar lander program, reviews existing approaches – including methods and tools – for landing site analysis and hazard assessment, and discusses concepts to detect and investigate elemental abundances from orbit and the surface. This is achieved by making use of manual, semi-automated as well as fully-automated remote-sensing methods to demonstrate the applicability of

  7. Determination of heavy metal pollution in soils from selected potentially contaminated sites in Tema

    Nyaaba, A.K.L.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the concentration and determine the level of pollution by harmful heavy metals in soils from selected potentially contaminated sites in Tema. The metals of interest include; mercury, lead, cadmium, cobalt zinc, arsenic, nickel, copper and chromium. A total of forty seven (47) samples comprising thirty eight sub-samples (38) and nine (9) composite samples were collected from nine (9) different locations. These included playgrounds, steel processing factories, used Lead Acid Battery (ULAB) recycling plant, mechanic workshops and the municipal waste disposal site. The samples were prepared after which the elemental concentrations were determined using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) with a secondary target excitation arrangement (5.9 keV). The analysis of the samples yielded the following mean heavy metal concentrations in mg/kg: 424.38 (Cr); 408.68 (Ni); 14427 (Cu); 4129.87 (Zn); 1580.68 (As); 647.48 (Hg); 73361.51 (Pb) and 1176.16 (Co). The mean concentrations of heavy metals in the soils were in the following order Pb>Zn>As>Co>Cu>Hg>Cr>Ni. Mercury was detected at only two of the sites. The average heavy metals in the soils from the sites were generally high since most of them exceeded the optimum and action values of the New Dutch List. The Enrichment Factor (EF) ratios show that the enrichment of the elements in the soils ranged from deficiently to extremely highly enriched. The contamination factor show that the contamination by the heavy metals were low at some of the sites and very high at others. The geoaccumulation indices indicated that the playground (PG) has not been contaminated by any of the metals, C8 is contaminated strongly by mercury only and the contamination at the remaining sites varied from moderately contaminated to extremely contaminated by the metals. The Igeo also indicated that the elements accounting for extreme contamination are lead, arsenic, copper, zinc mercury and chromium. Lead

  8. Canada's Deep Geological Repository for Used Nuclear Fuel - Geo-scientific Site Evaluation Process - 13117

    Blyth, Alec; Ben Belfadhel, Mahrez; Hirschorn, Sarah; Hamilton, Duncan; McKelvie, Jennifer [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, 22 St. Clair Avenue East, Toronto, Ontario M4T 2S3 (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is responsible for implementing Adaptive Phased Management (APM), the approach selected by the Government of Canada for long-term management of used nuclear fuel generated by Canadian nuclear reactors. The ultimate objective of APM is the centralized containment and isolation of Canada's used nuclear fuel in a Deep Geological Repository in a suitable rock formation at a depth of approximately 500 meters (m) (1,640 feet [ft]). In May 2010, the NWMO published a nine-step site selection process that serves as the road map to decision-making on the location for the deep geological repository. The safety and appropriateness of any potential site will be assessed against a number of factors, both technical and social in nature. The selected site will be one that can be demonstrated to be able to safely contain and isolate used nuclear fuel, protecting humans and the environment over the very long term. The geo-scientific suitability of potential candidate sites will be assessed in a stepwise manner following a progressive and thorough site evaluation process that addresses a series of geo-scientific factors revolving around five safety functions. The geo-scientific site evaluation process includes: Initial Screenings; Preliminary Assessments; and Detailed Site Evaluations. As of November 2012, 22 communities have entered the site selection process (three in northern Saskatchewan and 18 in northwestern and southwestern Ontario). (authors)

  9. Numerical Model based Reliability Estimation of Selective Laser Melting Process

    Mohanty, Sankhya; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2014-01-01

    Selective laser melting is developing into a standard manufacturing technology with applications in various sectors. However, the process is still far from being at par with conventional processes such as welding and casting, the primary reason of which is the unreliability of the process. While...... of the selective laser melting process. A validated 3D finite-volume alternating-direction-implicit numerical technique is used to model the selective laser melting process, and is calibrated against results from single track formation experiments. Correlation coefficients are determined for process input...... parameters such as laser power, speed, beam profile, etc. Subsequently, uncertainties in the processing parameters are utilized to predict a range for the various outputs, using a Monte Carlo method based uncertainty analysis methodology, and the reliability of the process is established....

  10. Using maximum entropy modeling for optimal selection of sampling sites for monitoring networks

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Kumar, Sunil; Barnett, David T.; Evangelista, Paul H.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental monitoring programs must efficiently describe state shifts. We propose using maximum entropy modeling to select dissimilar sampling sites to capture environmental variability at low cost, and demonstrate a specific application: sample site selection for the Central Plains domain (453,490 km2) of the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON). We relied on four environmental factors: mean annual temperature and precipitation, elevation, and vegetation type. A “sample site” was defined as a 20 km × 20 km area (equal to NEON’s airborne observation platform [AOP] footprint), within which each 1 km2 cell was evaluated for each environmental factor. After each model run, the most environmentally dissimilar site was selected from all potential sample sites. The iterative selection of eight sites captured approximately 80% of the environmental envelope of the domain, an improvement over stratified random sampling and simple random designs for sample site selection. This approach can be widely used for cost-efficient selection of survey and monitoring sites.

  11. Hanford Site Treated Effluent Disposal Facility process flow sheet

    Bendixsen, R.B.

    1993-04-01

    This report presents a novel method of using precipitation, destruction and recycle factors to prepare a process flow sheet. The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) will treat process sewer waste water from the 300 Area of the Hanford Site, located near Richland, Washington, and discharge a permittable effluent flow into the Columbia River. When completed and operating, the TEDF effluent water flow will meet or exceed water quality standards for the 300 Area process sewer effluents. A preliminary safety analysis document (PSAD), a preconstruction requirement, needed a process flow sheet detailing the concentrations of radionuclides, inorganics and organics throughout the process, including the effluents, and providing estimates of stream flow quantities, activities, composition, and properties (i.e. temperature, pressure, specific gravity, pH and heat transfer rates). As the facility begins to operate, data from process samples can be used to provide better estimates of the factors, the factors can be entered into the flow sheet and the flow sheet will estimate more accurate steady state concentrations for the components. This report shows how the factors were developed and how they were used in developing a flow sheet to estimate component concentrations for the process flows. The report concludes with how TEDF sample data can improve the ability of the flow sheet to accurately predict concentrations of components in the process

  12. Selecting public relations personnel of hospitals by analytic network process.

    Liao, Sen-Kuei; Chang, Kuei-Lun

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the use of analytic network process (ANP) in the Taiwanese hospital public relations personnel selection process. Starting with interviewing 48 practitioners and executives in north Taiwan, we collected selection criteria. Then, we retained the 12 critical criteria that were mentioned above 40 times by theses respondents, including: interpersonal skill, experience, negotiation, language, ability to follow orders, cognitive ability, adaptation to environment, adaptation to company, emotion, loyalty, attitude, and Response. Finally, we discussed with the 20 executives to take these important criteria into three perspectives to structure the hierarchy for hospital public relations personnel selection. After discussing with practitioners and executives, we find that selecting criteria are interrelated. The ANP, which incorporates interdependence relationships, is a new approach for multi-criteria decision-making. Thus, we apply ANP to select the most optimal public relations personnel of hospitals. An empirical study of public relations personnel selection problems in Taiwan hospitals is conducted to illustrate how the selection procedure works.

  13. Heuristic and probabilistic wind power availability estimation procedures: Improved tools for technology and site selection

    Nigim, K.A. [University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ont. (Canada). Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Parker, Paul [University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ont. (Canada). Department of Geography, Environmental Studies

    2007-04-15

    The paper describes two investigative procedures to estimate wind power from measured wind velocities. Wind velocity data are manipulated to visualize the site potential by investigating the probable wind power availability and its capacity to meet a targeted demand. The first procedure is an availability procedure that looks at the wind characteristics and its probable energy capturing profile. This profile of wind enables the probable maximum operating wind velocity profile for a selected wind turbine design to be predicted. The structured procedures allow for a consequent adjustment, sorting and grouping of the measured wind velocity data taken at different time intervals and hub heights. The second procedure is the adequacy procedure that investigates the probable degree of availability and the application consequences. Both procedures are programmed using MathCAD symbolic mathematical software. The math tool is used to generate a visual interpolation of the data as well as numerical results from extensive data sets that exceed the capacity of conventional spreadsheet tools. Two sites located in Southern Ontario, Canada are investigated using the procedures. Successful implementation of the procedures supports informed decision making where a hill site is shown to have much higher wind potential than that measured at the local airport. The process is suitable for a wide spectrum of users who are considering the energy potential for either a grid-tied or off-grid wind energy system. (author)

  14. Adaptive evolution of the spike gene of SARS coronavirus: changes in positively selected sites in different epidemic groups

    He Shao-Heng

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is believed that animal-to-human transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS coronavirus (CoV is the cause of the SARS outbreak worldwide. The spike (S protein is one of the best characterized proteins of SARS-CoV, which plays a key role in SARS-CoV overcoming species barrier and accomplishing interspecies transmission from animals to humans, suggesting that it may be the major target of selective pressure. However, the process of adaptive evolution of S protein and the exact positively selected sites associated with this process remain unknown. Results By investigating the adaptive evolution of S protein, we identified twelve amino acid sites (75, 239, 244, 311, 479, 609, 613, 743, 765, 778, 1148, and 1163 in the S protein under positive selective pressure. Based on phylogenetic tree and epidemiological investigation, SARS outbreak was divided into three epidemic groups: 02–04 interspecies, 03-early-mid, and 03-late epidemic groups in the present study. Positive selection was detected in the first two groups, which represent the course of SARS-CoV interspecies transmission and of viral adaptation to human host, respectively. In contrast, purifying selection was detected in 03-late group. These indicate that S protein experiences variable positive selective pressures before reaching stabilization. A total of 25 sites in 02–04 interspecies epidemic group and 16 sites in 03-early-mid epidemic group were identified under positive selection. The identified sites were different between these two groups except for site 239, which suggests that positively selected sites are changeable between groups. Moreover, it was showed that a larger proportion (24% of positively selected sites was located in receptor-binding domain (RBD than in heptad repeat (HR1-HR2 region in 02–04 interspecies epidemic group (p = 0.0208, and a greater percentage (25% of these sites occurred in HR1–HR2 region than in RBD in 03-early

  15. Site selection procedure for high level radioactive waste disposal in Bulgaria

    Evstatiev, D.; Vachev, B.

    1993-01-01

    A combined site selection approach is implemented. Bulgaria's territory has been classified in three categories, presented on a 1:500000 scale map. The number of suitable sites has been reduced to 20 using the method of successive screening. The formulated site selection problem is a typical discrete multi-criteria decision making problem under uncertainty. A 5-level procedure using Expert Choice Rating and relative models is created. It is a part of a common procedure for evaluation and choice of variants for high level radwaste disposal construction. On this basis 7-8 more preferable sites are demonstrated. A new knowledge and information about the relative importance of the criteria and their subsets, about the level of criteria uncertainty and the reliability are gained. It is very useful for planning and managing of the next final stages of the site selection procedure. 7 figs., 8 refs., 4 suppls. (author)

  16. Oviposition site selection by the grasshoppers Melanoplus borealis and M. sanguinipes (Orthoptera: Acrididae)

    Female grasshoppers can affect the fitness of their offspring through their selection of oviposition sites. Successful embryological development depends on suitable temperature and moisture levels, factors which may vary considerably on a fine scale in natural environments where grasshoppers occur. ...

  17. Wind data for wind driven plant. [site selection for optimal performance

    Stodhart, A. H.

    1973-01-01

    Simple, averaged wind velocity data provide information on energy availability, facilitate generator site selection and enable appropriate operating ranges to be established for windpowered plants. They also provide a basis for the prediction of extreme wind speeds.

  18. The importante of physical and mathematical models for nuclear power plants site selection

    Rios, J.L.P.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of the release of effluents from nuclear installations for the site selection of nuclear power plants is discussed. The main available analysis methods, physical and mathematical, is presented [pt

  19. Site selection experience for a new low-level radioactive waste storage/disposal facility at the Savannah River Plant

    Towler, O.A.; Cook, J.R.; Helton, B.D.

    1985-10-01

    Preliminary performance criteria and site selection guides specific to the Savannah River Plant, were developed for a new low-level radioactive waste storage/disposal facility. These site selection guides were applied to seventeen potential sites identified at SRP. The potential site were ranked based on how well they met a set of characteristics considered important in site selection for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. The characteristics were given a weighting factor representing its relative importance in meeting site performance criteria. A candidate site was selected and will be the subject of a site characterization program

  20. Selection of power market structure using the analytic hierarchy process

    Subhes Bhattacharyya; Prasanta Kumar Dey

    2003-01-01

    Selection of a power market structure from the available alternatives is an important activity within an overall power sector reform program. The evaluation criteria for selection are both subjective as well as objective in nature and the selection of alternatives is characterised by their conflicting nature. This study demonstrates a methodology for power market structure selection using the analytic hierarchy process, a multiple attribute decision- making technique, to model the selection methodology with the active participation of relevant stakeholders in a workshop environment. The methodology is applied to a hypothetical case of a State Electricity Board reform in India. (author)

  1. Rehabilitation of the Mary Kathleen uranium mining and processing site

    Ward, T.A.

    1985-09-01

    A detailed plan for the rehabilitation of the Mary Kathleen mining and processing site was developed prior to the closure of operations in late 1982. The plan was based on three basic principles of: making all areas safe for public access; removing all structures which could deteriorate and become unsightly or unsafe with time; and encouraging natural revegetation on erosion resistant surfaces. The aim was to leave the site in a safe and satisfactory condition, consistent with future land use in the area, requiring no foreseeable ongoing maintenance and a minimum of precautionary monitoring. When the programme has been completed, the only constraint on future land use will be the need to control building construction in the tailings/ evaporation, dumps and mine areas as a precaution against possible exposure to radon daughters. Appropriate radiation and water quality monitoring programmes were incorporated in the plan

  2. Actinide solution processing at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    1995-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-1039, for radioactive solution removal and processing at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, Colorado. The proposal for solution removal and processing is in response to independent safety assessments and an agreement with the State of Colorado to remove mixed residues at Rocky Flats and reduce the risk of future accidents. Monthly public meetings were held during the scoping and preparation of the EA. The scope of the EA included evaluations of alternative methods and locations of solution processing. A comment period from February 20, 1995 through March 21, 1995 was provided to the public and the State of Colorado to offer written comment on the EA. Comments were received from the State of Colorado and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A response to the agency comments is included in the Final EA

  3. Solid Waste Landfill Site Selection in the Sense of Environment Sensitive Sustainable Urbanization: Izmir, Turkey Case

    TÜdeş, Şule; Kumlu, Kadriye Burcu Yavuz

    2017-10-01

    Each stage of the planning process should be based on the natural resource protection, in the sense of environmental sensitive and sustainable urban planning. Values, which are vital for the continuity of the life in the Earth, as soil, water, forest etc. should be protected from the undesired effects of the pollution and the other effects caused by the high urbanization levels. In this context, GIS-MCDM based solid waste landfill site selection is applied for Izmir, Turkey, where is a significant attraction place for tourism. As Multi criteria Decision Making (MCDM) technique, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used. In this study, geological, tectonically and hydrological data, as well as agricultural land use, slope, distance to the settlement areas and the highways are used as inputs for AHP analysis. In the analysis stage, those inputs are rated and weighted. The weighted criteria are evaluated via GIS, by using weighted overlay tool. Therefore, an upper-scale analysis is conducted and a map, which shows the alternative places for the solid waste landfill sites, considering the environmental protection and evaluated in the context of environmental and urban criteria, are obtained.

  4. Quantitative Framework and Management Expectation Tool for the Selection of Bioremediation Approaches at Chlorinated Solvent Sites

    2015-03-19

    Bioremediation Approaches at Chlorinated Solvent Sites March 19, 2015 SERDP & ESTCP Webinar Series (#11) SERDP & ESTCP Webinar Series Welcome and...Expectation Tool for the Selection of Bioremediation Approaches at Chlorinated Solvent Sites Ms. Carmen Lebrón, Independent Consultant (20 minutes + Q&A) Dr...ESTCP Webinar Series Quantitative Framework and Management Expectation Tool for the Selection of Bioremediation Approaches at Chlorinated

  5. Solvent selection methodology for pharmaceutical processes: Solvent swap

    Papadakis, Emmanouil; Kumar Tula, Anjan; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    A method for the selection of appropriate solvents for the solvent swap task in pharmaceutical processes has been developed. This solvent swap method is based on the solvent selection method of Gani et al. (2006) and considers additional selection criteria such as boiling point difference...... in pharmaceutical processes as well as new solvent swap alternatives. The method takes into account process considerations such as batch distillation and crystallization to achieve the swap task. Rigorous model based simulations of the swap operation are performed to evaluate and compare the performance...

  6. URBAN RAIN GAUGE SITING SELECTION BASED ON GIS-MULTICRITERIA ANALYSIS

    Y. Fu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increasingly rapid growth of urbanization and climate change, urban rainfall monitoring as well as urban waterlogging has widely been paid attention. In the light of conventional siting selection methods do not take into consideration of geographic surroundings and spatial-temporal scale for the urban rain gauge site selection, this paper primarily aims at finding the appropriate siting selection rules and methods for rain gauge in urban area. Additionally, for optimization gauge location, a spatial decision support system (DSS aided by geographical information system (GIS has been developed. In terms of a series of criteria, the rain gauge optimal site-search problem can be addressed by a multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA. A series of spatial analytical techniques are required for MCDA to identify the prospective sites. With the platform of GIS, using spatial kernel density analysis can reflect the population density; GIS buffer analysis is used to optimize the location with the rain gauge signal transmission character. Experiment results show that the rules and the proposed method are proper for the rain gauge site selection in urban areas, which is significant for the siting selection of urban hydrological facilities and infrastructure, such as water gauge.

  7. Selection of den sites by black bears in the southern Appalachians

    Reynolds-Hogland, M. J.; Mitchell, M.S.; Powell, R.A.; Brown, D.C.

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated selection of den sites by American black bears (Ursus americanus) in the Pisgah Bear Sanctuary, western North Carolina, by comparing characteristics of dens at 53 den sites with availability of habitat characteristics in annual home ranges of bears and in the study area. We also tested whether den-site selection differed by sex, age, and reproductive status of bears. In addition, we evaluated whether the den component of an existing habitat model for black bears predicted where bears would select den sites. We found bears selected den sites far from gravel roads, on steep slopes, and at high elevations relative to what was available in both annual home ranges and in the study area. Den-site selection did not differ by sex or age, but it differed by reproductive status. Adult females with cubs preferred to den in areas that were relatively far from gravel roads, but adult females without cubs did not. The habitat model overestimated the value of areas near gravel roads, underestimated the value of moderately steep areas, and did not include elevation as a predictor variable. Our results highlight the importance of evaluating den selection in terms of both use and availability of den characteristics. ?? 2007 American Society of Mammalogists.

  8. Site selection and evaluation for nuclear power plants with respect to population distribution

    1980-01-01

    This safety guide, relating population distribution to site selection and evaluation, for nuclear power plants, forms part of the IAEA's programme, referred to as the NUSS programme (Nuclear Safety Standards). The guide presents population distribution data, requirements, examples of site screening methods, and an overview of radiological impact assessment with respect to population distribution

  9. A Fuzzy Multi-Criteria SWOT Analysis: An Application to Nuclear Power Plant Site Selection

    Mehmet Ekmekcioglu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats analysis is a commonly used and an important technique for analyzing internal and external environments in order to provide a systematic approach and support for a decision making. SWOT is criticized mostly for considering only qualitative examination of environmental factors, no priority for various factors and strategies, and no vagueness of the factors under fuzziness. In this paper, fuzzy TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution integrated with fuzzy AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process is used to develop fuzzy multi-criteria SWOT analysis in order to overcome these shortcomings. Nuclear power plant site selection, which is a strategic and important issue for Turkeyrs energy policy making, is considered as an application case study that demonstrated the applicability of the developed fuzzy SWOT model.

  10. Farm level evaluation of biomass energy operated seed dryer at selected sites of Bangladesh

    Rahman, S.M.M.; Bhuiyan, M.G.K.; Rahman, M.A.; Baqui, M.A.; Bala, B.K.

    2006-01-01

    Drying is one of the major problem in post harvest and processing of farm produce specially paddy seed in Bangladesh resulting tremendous shortage of quality seed. Evaluation through demonstrations was undertaken for the resource poor farmers at the selected sites to have practical experience of the IRRI-BRRI seed dryer. Viability of the dried paddy was more than 90% after six months of storage. The farmers were satisfied on the performance of the dryer. 68-100% farmers were motivated to hire the dyer during Boro and Aus seasons. Thus, the farm level evaluation and adoption of seed dryer will give a better alternative, aware and motivate the farmers on producing quality seed through proper drying and will contribute increased production

  11. Targeting hunter distribution based on host resource selection and kill sites to manage disease risk.

    Dugal, Cherie J; van Beest, Floris M; Vander Wal, Eric; Brook, Ryan K

    2013-10-01

    Endemic and emerging diseases are rarely uniform in their spatial distribution or prevalence among cohorts of wildlife. Spatial models that quantify risk-driven differences in resource selection and hunter mortality of animals at fine spatial scales can assist disease management by identifying high-risk areas and individuals. We used resource selection functions (RSFs) and selection ratios (SRs) to quantify sex- and age-specific resource selection patterns of collared (n = 67) and hunter-killed (n = 796) nonmigratory elk (Cervus canadensis manitobensis) during the hunting season between 2002 and 2012, in southwestern Manitoba, Canada. Distance to protected area was the most important covariate influencing resource selection and hunter-kill sites of elk (AICw = 1.00). Collared adult males (which are most likely to be infected with bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) and chronic wasting disease) rarely selected for sites outside of parks during the hunting season in contrast to adult females and juvenile males. The RSFs showed selection by adult females and juvenile males to be negatively associated with landscape-level forest cover, high road density, and water cover, whereas hunter-kill sites of these cohorts were positively associated with landscape-level forest cover and increasing distance to streams and negatively associated with high road density. Local-level forest was positively associated with collared animal locations and hunter-kill sites; however, selection was stronger for collared juvenile males and hunter-killed adult females. In instances where disease infects a metapopulation and eradication is infeasible, a principle goal of management is to limit the spread of disease among infected animals. We map high-risk areas that are regularly used by potentially infectious hosts but currently underrepresented in the distribution of kill sites. We present a novel application of widely available data to target hunter distribution based on host resource

  12. Temporal dynamics of biogeochemical processes at the Norman Landfill site

    Arora, Bhavna; Mohanty, Binayak P.; McGuire, Jennifer T.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2013-01-01

    The temporal variability observed in redox sensitive species in groundwater can be attributed to coupled hydrological, geochemical, and microbial processes. These controlling processes are typically nonstationary, and distributed across various time scales. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate biogeochemical data sets from a municipal landfill site to identify the dominant modes of variation and determine the physical controls that become significant at different time scales. Data on hydraulic head, specific conductance, δ2H, chloride, sulfate, nitrate, and nonvolatile dissolved organic carbon were collected between 1998 and 2000 at three wells at the Norman Landfill site in Norman, OK. Wavelet analysis on this geochemical data set indicates that variations in concentrations of reactive and conservative solutes are strongly coupled to hydrologic variability (water table elevation and precipitation) at 8 month scales, and to individual eco-hydrogeologic framework (such as seasonality of vegetation, surface-groundwater dynamics) at 16 month scales. Apart from hydrologic variations, temporal variability in sulfate concentrations can be associated with different sources (FeS cycling, recharge events) and sinks (uptake by vegetation) depending on the well location and proximity to the leachate plume. Results suggest that nitrate concentrations show multiscale behavior across temporal scales for different well locations, and dominant variability in dissolved organic carbon for a closed municipal landfill can be larger than 2 years due to its decomposition and changing content. A conceptual framework that explains the variability in chemical concentrations at different time scales as a function of hydrologic processes, site-specific interactions, and/or coupled biogeochemical effects is also presented.

  13. Nest site selection by Hypsiboas faber(Anura, Hylidae in Southern Brazil

    André L. Luza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Male gladiator frogs of Hypsiboas Wagler, 1830 build nests on available substrate surrounding ponds and streams where female spawn eggs during the breeding period. Although gladiator frogs seem to show plasticity in the way they construct their nests, there is no study reporting if these species present preferences about microhabitat conditions for nest-building (mainly under subtropical climate. Predation pressure and environmental conditions have been considered major processes shaping the great diversity of reproductive strategies performed by amphibians, but microhabitat conditions should explain where to build a nest as well as how nest looks. This study aimed to test nest site selection for nest-building by Hypsiboas faber(Wied-Neuwied, 1821, determining which factors are related to nest site selection and nest features. The survey was conducted at margins of two permanent ponds in Southern Brazil. Habitat factors were evaluated in 18 plots with nest and 18 plots in the surrounding without nest (control, describing vegetation structure and heterogeneity, and substrate characteristics. Water temperature was measured inside the nest and in its adjacency. Nest features assessed were area, depth and temperature. Habitat characteristics differed between plots with and without nest. Microhabitat selected for nest-building was characterized by great vegetation cover and height, as well as shallower water and lower cover of organic matter in suspension than in plots without nest. Differences between temperature inside nest and in its adjacency were not observed. No relationship between nest features and habitat descriptors was evidenced. Results revealed that Hypsiboas faber does not build nests anywhere. Males seem to prefer more protected habitats, probably avoiding predation, invasion of conspecific males and inclement weather. Lack of differences between temperature inside- and outside-nest suggest that nest do not improve this

  14. THE COLD AND DARK PROCESS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Gilmour, J; William Austin, W; Cathy Sizemore, C

    2007-01-01

    The deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of a facility exposes D and D workers to numerous hazards. One of the more serious hazards is coming into contact to hazardous energy sources (e.g. electrical, pressurized steam). At the Savannah River Site (SRS) a formal process for identifying and eliminating sources of hazardous energy was developed and is called ''Cold and Dark''. Several ''near miss'' events involving cutting of energized conductors during D and D work in buildings thought to be isolated identified the need to have a formal process to identify and isolate these potentially hazardous systems. This process was developed using lessons learned from D and D activities at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats) in Colorado. The Cold and Dark process defines an isolation boundary (usually a building perimeter) and then systematically identifies all of the penetrations through this boundary. All penetrations that involve hazardous energy sources are then physically air-gapped. The final product is a documented declaration of isolation performed by a team involving operations, engineering, and project management. Once the Cold and Dark declaration is made for a building work can proceed without the usual controls used in an operational facility (e.g. lockout/tagout, arc flash PPE). It is important to note that the Cold and Dark process does not remove all hazards from a facility. Work planning and controls still need to address hazards that can be present from such things as chemicals, radiological contamination, residual liquids, etc., as well as standard industrial hazards

  15. Natural Selection as an Emergent Process: Instructional Implications

    Cooper, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    Student reasoning about cases of natural selection is often plagued by errors that stem from miscategorising selection as a direct, causal process, misunderstanding the role of randomness, and from the intuitive ideas of intentionality, teleology and essentialism. The common thread throughout many of these reasoning errors is a failure to apply…

  16. Continuous process for selective metal extraction with an ionic liquid

    Parmentier, D.; Paradis, S.; Metz, S.J.; Wiedmer, S.K.; Kroon, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    This work describes for the first time a continuous process for selective metal extraction with an ionic liquid (IL) at room temperature. The hydrophobic fatty acid based IL tetraoctylphosphonium oleate ([P8888][oleate]) was specifically chosen for its low viscosity and high selectivity towards

  17. Natural Selection Is a Sorting Process: What Does that Mean?

    Price, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    To learn why natural selection acts only on existing variation, students categorize processes as either creative or sorting. This activity helps students confront the misconception that adaptations evolve because species need them.

  18. Process for selected gas oxide removal by radiofrequency catalysts

    Cha, Chang Y.

    1993-01-01

    This process to remove gas oxides from flue gas utilizes adsorption on a char bed subsequently followed by radiofrequency catalysis enhancing such removal through selected reactions. Common gas oxides include SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x.

  19. New emissions targeting strategy for site utility of process industries

    Manesh, Mohamamd Hasan Khoshgoftar; Amidpour, Majid; Hamedi, Mohammad Hosein; Abadi, Sajad Khamis; Ghalami, Hooman

    2013-01-01

    A new procedure for environmental targeting of co-generation system is presented. The proposed method is based on the concepts of pinch technology for total site targeting of fuel, power, steam, environmental impacts and total annualized cost with considering emissions taxes. This approach provides a consistent, general procedure for determining mass flow rates and efficiencies of the applied turbines. This algorithm utilizes the relationship of entropy with enthalpy and isentropic efficiency. Also, the life cycle assessment (LCA) as a well-known tool for analyzing environmental impacts on a wide perspective with reference to a product system and the related environmental and economic impacts have been applied. In this regard, a damage-oriented impact analysis method based on Eco-indicator 99 and footprints analysis was considered. In addition, the present work demonstrates the effect of including both sensible and latent heating of steam in the extended Site Utility Grand Composite Curve (ESUGCC). It is shown that including sensible heating allows for better thermal matching between the processes. Furthermore, the other representation YSUGCC as the other form of Site Utility Grand Composite has been proposed. Two case studies were used to illustrate the usefulness of the new environmental targeting method

  20. A multi-site study on medical school selection, performance, motivation and engagement

    Wouters, A.; Croiset, G.; Schripsema, N. R.; Cohen-Schotanus, J.; Spaai, G. W. G.; Hulsman, R. L.; Kusurkar, R. A.

    Medical schools seek ways to improve their admissions strategies, since the available methods prove to be suboptimal for selecting the best and most motivated students. In this multi-site cross-sectional questionnaire study, we examined the value of (different) selection procedures compared to a

  1. Stratigraphic Profiles for Selected Hanford Site Seismometer Stations and Other Locations

    Last, George V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Stratigraphic profiles were constructed for eight selected Hanford Site seismometer stations, five Hanford Site facility reference locations, and seven regional three-component broadband seismometer stations. These profiles provide interpretations of the subsurface layers to support estimation of ground motions from past earthquakes, and the prediction of ground motions from future earthquakes. In most cases these profiles terminated at the top of the Wanapum Basalt, but at selected sites profiles were extended down to the top of the crystalline basement. The composite one-dimensional stratigraphic profiles were based primarily on previous interpretations from nearby boreholes, and in many cases the nearest deep borehole is located kilometers away.

  2. A complete remediation process for a uranium-contaminated site and application to other sites

    Mason, C.F.V.; Lu, N.; Kitten, H.D.; Williams, M.; Turney, W.R.J.R.

    1998-01-01

    During the summer of 1996 the authors were able to test, at the pilot scale, the concept of leaching uranium (U) from contaminated soils. The results of this pilot scale operation showed that the system they previously had developed at the laboratory scale is applicable at the pilot scale. The paper discusses these results, together with laboratory scale results using soil from the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), Ohio. These FEMP results show how, with suitable adaptations, the process is widely applicable to other sites. The purpose of this paper is to describe results that demonstrate remediation of uranium-contaminated soils may be accomplished through a leach scheme using sodium bicarbonate

  3. A complete remediation process for a uranium-contaminated site and application to other sites

    Mason, C.F.V.; Lu, N.; Kitten, H.D.; Williams, M.; Turney, W.R.J.R.

    1998-12-31

    During the summer of 1996 the authors were able to test, at the pilot scale, the concept of leaching uranium (U) from contaminated soils. The results of this pilot scale operation showed that the system they previously had developed at the laboratory scale is applicable at the pilot scale. The paper discusses these results, together with laboratory scale results using soil from the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), Ohio. These FEMP results show how, with suitable adaptations, the process is widely applicable to other sites. The purpose of this paper is to describe results that demonstrate remediation of uranium-contaminated soils may be accomplished through a leach scheme using sodium bicarbonate.

  4. A game-theoretical model for selecting a site of non-preferred waste facilities

    Kim, Seong Ho; Kim, Tae Woon

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, a game-theoretic model (GTM) as a tool of conflict analysis is proposed for multiplayer multicriteria decision-making problems in a conflict situation. The developed GTM is used for obtaining the most possible resolutions in the conflict among multiple decision makers. The GTM is based on directed graph structure and solution concepts. To demonstrate the performance of the GTM, using a numerical example, the GTM is applied to an environmental conflict problem, especially a non-preferred waste disposal siting conflict available in the literature. It is found that with GTM the states in equilibrium can be recognized. The conflict under consideration is to select a site of non-preferred waste facilities. The government is to choose a site of installation for users of a toxic waste disposal facility. A certain time-point of interest is a period of time to select one of candidate sites that completely meet regular criteria of governmental body in charge of permitting a facility site. The facility siting conflict among multiple players (i.e., decision-makers, DMs) of concern is viewed as a multiple player-multiple criteria (MPMC) domain. For instance, three possible sites (i.e., site A, site B, and site C) to be selected by multiple players are characterized by the building cost, accessibility, and proximity to the residential area. Concerning the site A, the installation of a facility is not expensive, the accessible to a facility is easy, and the site A is located very near a residential area. Concerning site B, the facility is expensive to build, the facility is easily accessible, and the site is located near the residential area. Concerning site C, the installation cost is expensive, the accessibility is difficult, and the location of site is far from the residential area. In simple models, three main groups of players could be considered to be the government, users, and local residents. The government is to play a role as one of proponents or

  5. DECISION SUPPORT CONCEPT TO MANAGEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS - PROBLEM OF CONSTRUCTION SITE SELECTION

    Nikša Jajac

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present Decision Support Concept (DSC for management of construction projects. Focus of our research is in application of multicritera methods (MCM to decision making in planning phase of construction projects (related to the problem of construction sites selection. The problem is identified as a significant one from many different aspects such as economic aspect, civil engineering aspect, etc. what indicates the necessity for evaluation of multiple sites by several different criteria. Therefore, DSC for construction site selection based on PROMETHEE method is designed. In order to define the appropriate criteria, their weights and preference functions for the concept, three groups of stakeholders are involved (investors, construction experts and experts for real estate market in its design. AHP method has been used for determination of criteria weights. The model has been tested on the problem of site selection for construction of residential-commercial building in four largest cities in Croatia.

  6. Temporally selective processing of communication signals by auditory midbrain neurons

    Elliott, Taffeta M; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Kelley, Darcy B

    2011-01-01

    click rates ranged from 4 to 50 Hz, the rate at which the clicks begin to overlap. Frequency selectivity and temporal processing were characterized using response-intensity curves, temporal-discharge patterns, and autocorrelations of reduplicated responses to click trains. Characteristic frequencies...... of the rate of clicks in calls. The majority of neurons (85%) were selective for click rates, and this selectivity remained unchanged over sound levels 10 to 20 dB above threshold. Selective neurons give phasic, tonic, or adapting responses to tone bursts and click trains. Some algorithms that could compute...

  7. Single site porphyrine-like structures advantages over metals for selective electrochemical CO2 reduction

    Bagger, Alexander; Ju, Wen; Varela, Ana Sofia

    2017-01-01

    Currently, no catalysts are completely selective for the electrochemical CO2 Reduction Reaction (CO2RR). Based on trends in density functional theory calculations of reaction intermediates we find that the single metal site in a porphyrine-like structure has a simple advantage of limiting...... the competing Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER). The single metal site in a porphyrine-like structure requires an ontop site binding of hydrogen, compared to the hollow site binding of hydrogen on a metal catalyst surface. The difference in binding site structure gives a fundamental energy-shift in the scaling...... relation of ∼0.3eV between the COOH* vs. H* intermediate (CO2RR vs. HER). As a result, porphyrine-like catalysts have the advantage over metal catalyst of suppressing HER and enhancing CO2RR selectivity....

  8. Riel Converter Station, Winnipeg: Site selection and environmental assessment status report

    1991-01-01

    As part of its expansion plans, Manitoba Hydro is planning to construct a converter station east of Winnipeg to receive power from a 850-km dc transmission line which will be constructed to bring power from a new generating station in the north of the province. Work performed to date on site selection and preliminary environmental assessment of the converter station is reviewed. The role of the converter station is described and the potential impacts are summarized in such areas as employment opportunities, pollution and noise during construction, electric and magnetic field effects, and land use impacts. Site selection criteria are outlined and potential sites are identified and evaluated. The Deacon site has been chosen as the preferred site since it has a number of inherent advantages including existing ownership by Manitoba Hydro, proximity to existing transmission rights-of-way, and low visual and land-use impact. 12 figs

  9. Bayes Empirical Bayes Inference of Amino Acid Sites Under Positive Selection

    Yang, Ziheng; Wong, Wendy Shuk Wan; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2005-01-01

    , with > 1 indicating positive selection. Statistical distributions are used to model the variation in among sites, allowing a subset of sites to have > 1 while the rest of the sequence may be under purifying selection with ... probabilities that a site comes from the site class with > 1. Current implementations, however, use the naive EB (NEB) approach and fail to account for sampling errors in maximum likelihood estimates of model parameters, such as the proportions and ratios for the site classes. In small data sets lacking...... information, this approach may lead to unreliable posterior probability calculations. In this paper, we develop a Bayes empirical Bayes (BEB) approach to the problem, which assigns a prior to the model parameters and integrates over their uncertainties. We compare the new and old methods on real and simulated...

  10. The Beishan underground research laboratory for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in China: Planning, site selection, site characterization and in situ tests

    Ju Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of nuclear power in China, the disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW has become an important issue for nuclear safety and environmental protection. Deep geological disposal is internationally accepted as a feasible and safe way to dispose of HLW, and underground research laboratories (URLs play an important and multi-faceted role in the development of HLW repositories. This paper introduces the overall planning and the latest progress for China's URL. On the basis of the proposed strategy to build an area-specific URL in combination with a comprehensive evaluation of the site selection results obtained during the last 33 years, the Xinchang site in the Beishan area, located in Gansu Province of northwestern China, has been selected as the final site for China's first URL built in granite. In the process of characterizing the Xinchang URL site, a series of investigations, including borehole drilling, geological mapping, geophysical surveying, hydraulic testing and in situ stress measurements, has been conducted. The investigation results indicate that the geological, hydrogeological, engineering geological and geochemical conditions of the Xinchang site are very suitable for URL construction. Meanwhile, to validate and develop construction technologies for the Beishan URL, the Beishan exploration tunnel (BET, which is a 50-m-deep facility in the Jiujing sub-area, has been constructed and several in situ tests, such as drill-and-blast tests, characterization of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ, and long-term deformation monitoring of surrounding rocks, have been performed in the BET. The methodologies and technologies established in the BET will serve for URL construction. According to the achievements of the characterization of the URL site, a preliminary design of the URL with a maximum depth of 560 m is proposed and necessary in situ tests in the URL are planned. Keywords: Beishan, Xinchang site, Granite

  11. A review of channel selection algorithms for EEG signal processing

    Alotaiby, Turky; El-Samie, Fathi E. Abd; Alshebeili, Saleh A.; Ahmad, Ishtiaq

    2015-12-01

    Digital processing of electroencephalography (EEG) signals has now been popularly used in a wide variety of applications such as seizure detection/prediction, motor imagery classification, mental task classification, emotion classification, sleep state classification, and drug effects diagnosis. With the large number of EEG channels acquired, it has become apparent that efficient channel selection algorithms are needed with varying importance from one application to another. The main purpose of the channel selection process is threefold: (i) to reduce the computational complexity of any processing task performed on EEG signals by selecting the relevant channels and hence extracting the features of major importance, (ii) to reduce the amount of overfitting that may arise due to the utilization of unnecessary channels, for the purpose of improving the performance, and (iii) to reduce the setup time in some applications. Signal processing tools such as time-domain analysis, power spectral estimation, and wavelet transform have been used for feature extraction and hence for channel selection in most of channel selection algorithms. In addition, different evaluation approaches such as filtering, wrapper, embedded, hybrid, and human-based techniques have been widely used for the evaluation of the selected subset of channels. In this paper, we survey the recent developments in the field of EEG channel selection methods along with their applications and classify these methods according to the evaluation approach.

  12. Site selection of radioactive waste repository in the Republic of Croatia

    Saler, A.

    1992-01-01

    The radioactive waste repository site-selection procedure in Croatia is divided into two stages: the first, related to the exclusionary screening of the national territory and comparison of potential areas in order to identify preferred sites, acceptable for inclusion into the Regional Plan; and the second, comprising all necessary field investigations as well as additional site-characterization tasks planned to be worked out at a preferred sites. Several potential areas, representing an intermediate goal of the first stage, are defined till now. (author) [hr

  13. Potential site selection for radioactive waste repository using GIS (Study area: Negeri Sembilan) - Phase 1

    Ahmad Hasnulhadi Che Kamaruddin; Faizal Azrin Abdul Razalim; Mohd Abdul Wahab Yusof; Nik Marzukee Nik Ibrahim; Nazran Harun; Muhammad Fathi Sujan; Karuppiah, T.; Surip, N.; Malik, N.N.A.; Che Musa, R.

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose in this paper is to create the Geographic Information System (GIS) based analysis on the potential site area for near-surface radioactive waste repository in the state of Negeri Sembilan. There are several parameters should be considered related to the safety assessment in selecting the potential site. These parameters such as land-use, urban area, soil, rainfall, lithology, lineament, geomorphology, landslide potential, slope, elevation, hydrogeology and protected land need to be considered before choosing the site. In this phase, we only consider ten parameters for determining the potential suitable site. (author)

  14. Risk calculations in the manufacturing technology selection process

    Farooq, S.; O'Brien, C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present result obtained from a developed technology selection framework and provide a detailed insight into the risk calculations and their implications in manufacturing technology selection process. Design/methodology/approach - The results illustrated...... in the paper are the outcome of an action research study that was conducted in an aerospace company. Findings - The paper highlights the role of risk calculations in manufacturing technology selection process by elaborating the contribution of risk associated with manufacturing technology alternatives...... in the shape of opportunities and threats in different decision-making environments. Practical implications - The research quantifies the risk associated with different available manufacturing technology alternatives. This quantification of risk crystallises the process of technology selection decision making...

  15. Application of GIS in site selection for nuclear waste disposal facility

    Sheng, G.; Luginaah, I.N.; Sorrell, J.

    1996-01-01

    Whether designing a new facility or investigating, potential contaminant migration at an existing site, proper characterization of the subsurface conditions and their interaction with surface features is critical to the process. The Atomic Energy Control Board, states in its regulatory document R-104 that, open-quotes For the long-term management of radioactive wastes, the preferred approach is disposal, a permanent method of management in which there is no intention of retrieval and which, ideally uses techniques and designs that do not rely for their success on long-term institutional control beyond a reasonable period of timeclose quotes. Thus although storage is safe, eventually disposal is necessary to avoid long-term reliance on continuing care and attention, such as monitoring and maintenance. In Canada, the concept being proposed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) involves disposal in deep underground repositories in intrusive igneous rock. The aim of this concept as a disposal method is to build multiple barriers that would protect humans and the natural environment from contaminants in the radioactive waste. The multiple barriers include the geosphere, which consists of the rock, any sediments overlying the rock, and the groundwater. Nevertheless, immediate, as well as long-term, consequences, including, risk involved with technological systems and the inherent uncertainty of any forecast, make the prediction and analysis tasks of increasing importance. This uncertainty in the area of nuclear waste disposal is leading to growing concerns about nuclear waste site selection

  16. Feeding-Danger Trade-Offs Underlie Stopover Site Selection by Migrants

    Andrea C. Pomeroy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available To migrate successfully, birds need to store adequate fat reserves to fuel each leg of the journey. Migrants acquire their fuel reserves at stopover sites; this often entails exposure to predators. Therefore, the safety attributes of sites may be as important as the feeding opportunities. Furthermore, site choice might depend on fuel load, with lean birds more willing to accept danger to obtain good feeding. Here, we evaluate the factors underlying stopover-site usage by migrant Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri on a landscape scale. We measured the food and danger attributes of 17 potential stopover sites in the Strait of Georgia and Puget Sound region. We used logistic regression models to test whether food, safety, or both were best able to predict usage of these sites by Western Sandpipers. Eight of the 17 sites were used by sandpipers on migration. Generally, sites that were high in food and safety were used, whereas sites that were low in food and safety were not. However, dangerous sites were used if there was ample food abundance, and sites with low food abundance were used if they were safe. The model including both food and safety best-predicted site usage by sandpipers. Furthermore, lean sandpipers used the most dangerous sites, whereas heavier birds (which do not need to risk feeding in dangerous locations used safer sites. This study demonstrates that both food and danger attributes are considered by migrant birds when selecting stopover sites, thus both these attributes should be considered to prioritize and manage stopover sites for conservation.

  17. No advantages in terms of safety. 'Energy in a Dialog' about the 'Final disposal site selection law'

    Anon.

    2013-01-01

    The current legislative process for the site selection law (StandAG) was topic of the DAtF event 'Energy in a Dialog' on 6 June 2013 in Berlin: 'Is the path the goal: purpose and results of the site selection law'. The President of the German Atomic Forum (DAtF), Dr. Ralf Gldner, moderated the discussion with Prof. Dr. Ortwin Renn of the University of Stuttgart and the CEO of the Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service (GNS), Hannes Wimmer. The opportunities and risks of a new site search for high-level radioactive waste were the main topics. Professor Renn summarized some findings to conditions of acceptance perceived in connection with industrial projects. Dr. Wimmer said in his keynote that social acceptance for site selection for a repository must be maintained for a long time. During the ensuing discussion, a common understanding was evident on some aspects of the topic. This is especially true for a limitation of the new location search method in terms of its objective. As a realistic objective to determine a secure suitable site was considered instead of a 'best' location proposed by the new law. (orig.)

  18. A successful effort to involve stakeholders in the selection of a site for a corrective action management unit

    Conway, R.; Merkhofer, M.W.; Oms, E.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the effort to clean up hazardous waste sites, Sandia National Laboratories in New Mexico (SNL/NM) adopted a novel approach to involving stakeholders in a key decision associated with its Environmental Restoration (ER) Project. The decision was where to locate a Corrective Action Management Unit (CAMU), an area designed to consolidate, store, and treat wastes generated from cleanup activities. The decision-making approach was a variation of a technique known as multiattribute utility analysis (MUA). Although MUA has rarely been undertaken during normal Project activities, it proved to be a surprisingly effective means for involving stakeholders in the decision process, generating consensus over a selected site, and enhancing public trust and understanding of Project activities. Requirements and criteria for selecting CAMU sites are provided by the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) CAMU Final Rule (EPA 1993). Recognizing the lack of experience with the Rule and the importance of community understanding and support, the ER Project sought an approach that would allow stakeholders to participate in the site-selection process

  19. Selection of Inhibitor-Resistant Viral Potassium Channels Identifies a Selectivity Filter Site that Affects Barium and Amantadine Block

    Fujiwara, Yuichiro; Arrigoni, Cristina; Domigan, Courtney; Ferrara, Giuseppina; Pantoja, Carlos; Thiel, Gerhard; Moroni, Anna; Minor, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Understanding the interactions between ion channels and blockers remains an important goal that has implications for delineating the basic mechanisms of ion channel function and for the discovery and development of ion channel directed drugs. Methodology/Principal Findings We used genetic selection methods to probe the interaction of two ion channel blockers, barium and amantadine, with the miniature viral potassium channel Kcv. Selection for Kcv mutants that were resistant to either blocker identified a mutant bearing multiple changes that was resistant to both. Implementation of a PCR shuffling and backcrossing procedure uncovered that the blocker resistance could be attributed to a single change, T63S, at a position that is likely to form the binding site for the inner ion in the selectivity filter (site 4). A combination of electrophysiological and biochemical assays revealed a distinct difference in the ability of the mutant channel to interact with the blockers. Studies of the analogous mutation in the mammalian inward rectifier Kir2.1 show that the T→S mutation affects barium block as well as the stability of the conductive state. Comparison of the effects of similar barium resistant mutations in Kcv and Kir2.1 shows that neighboring amino acids in the Kcv selectivity filter affect blocker binding. Conclusions/Significance The data support the idea that permeant ions have an integral role in stabilizing potassium channel structure, suggest that both barium and amantadine act at a similar site, and demonstrate how genetic selections can be used to map blocker binding sites and reveal mechanistic features. PMID:19834614

  20. Optimal Site Selection of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations Based on a Cloud Model and the PROMETHEE Method

    Yunna Wu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The task of site selection for electric vehicle charging stations (EVCS is hugely important from the perspective of harmonious and sustainable development. However, flaws and inadequacies in the currently used multi-criteria decision making methods could result in inaccurate and irrational decision results. First of all, the uncertainty of the information cannot be described integrally in the evaluation of the EVCS site selection. Secondly, rigorous consideration of the mutual influence between the various criteria is lacking, which is mainly evidenced in two aspects: one is ignoring the correlation, and the other is the unconscionable measurements. Last but not least, the ranking method adopted in previous studies is not very appropriate for evaluating the EVCS site selection problem. As a result of the above analysis, a Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations (PROMETHEE method-based decision system combined with the cloud model is proposed in this paper for EVCS site selection. Firstly, the use of the PROMETHEE method can bolster the confidence and visibility for decision makers. Secondly, the cloud model is recommended to describe the fuzziness and randomness of linguistic terms integrally and accurately. Finally, the Analytical Network Process (ANP method is adopted to measure the correlation of the indicators with a greatly simplified calculation of the parameters and the steps required.

  1. An Extended VIKOR-Based Approach for Pumped Hydro Energy Storage Plant Site Selection with Heterogeneous Information

    Yunna Wu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The selection of a desirable site for constructing a pumped hydro energy storage plant (PHESP plays a vital important role in the whole life cycle. However, little research has been done on the site selection of PHESP, which affects the rapid development of PHESP. Therefore, this paper aims to select the most ideal PHESP site from numerous candidate alternatives using the multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM technique. Firstly, a comprehensive evaluation criteria system is established for the first time. Then, considering quantitative and qualitative criteria coexist in this system, multiple types of representations, including crisp numerical values (CNVs, triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers (TIFNs, and 2-dimension uncertain linguistic variables (2DULVs, are employed to deal with heterogeneous criteria information. To determine the weight of criteria and fully take the preference of the decision makers (DMs into account, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP method is applied for criteria weighting. After that, an extended Vlsekriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR method is utilized to provide compromise solutions for the PHESP site considering such heterogeneous information. At last, the proposed model is then applied in a case study of Zhejiang province, China to illustrate its practicality and efficiency. The result shows the Changlongshan should be selected as the optimal PHESP.

  2. Lessons learned from the Siting Process of an Interim Storage Facility in Spain - 12024

    Lamolla, Meritxell Martell [MERIENCE Strategic Thinking, 08734 Olerdola, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-07-01

    On 29 December 2009, the Spanish government launched a site selection process to host a centralised interim storage facility for spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. It was an unprecedented call for voluntarism among Spanish municipalities to site a controversial facility. Two nuclear municipalities, amongst a total of thirteen municipalities from five different regions, presented their candidatures to host the facility in their territories. For two years the government did not make a decision. Only in November 30, 2011, the new government elected on 20 November 2011 officially selected a non-nuclear municipality, Villar de Canas, for hosting this facility. This paper focuses on analysing the factors facilitating and hindering the siting of controversial facilities, in particular the interim storage facility in Spain. It demonstrates that involving all stakeholders in the decision-making process should not be underestimated. In the case of Spain, all regional governments where there were candidate municipalities willing to host the centralised interim storage facility, publicly opposed to the siting of the facility. (author)

  3. An evaluation of remote sensing technologies for the detection of fugitive contamination at selected Superfund hazardous waste sites in Pennsylvania

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Fisher, Gary B.

    2014-01-01

    This evaluation was conducted to assess the potential for using both traditional remote sensing, such as aerial imagery, and emerging remote sensing technology, such as hyperspectral imaging, as tools for postclosure monitoring of selected hazardous waste sites. Sixteen deleted Superfund (SF) National Priorities List (NPL) sites in Pennsylvania were imaged with a Civil Air Patrol (CAP) Airborne Real-Time Cueing Hyperspectral Enhanced Reconnaissance (ARCHER) sensor between 2009 and 2012. Deleted sites are those sites that have been remediated and removed from the NPL. The imagery was processed to radiance and atmospherically corrected to relative reflectance with standard software routines using the Environment for Visualizing Imagery (ENVI, ITT–VIS, Boulder, Colorado) software. Standard routines for anomaly detection, endmember collection, vegetation stress, and spectral analysis were applied.

  4. Effect of self-deflection on a totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with functions of site assignments

    Tsuzuki, Satori; Yanagisawa, Daichi; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2018-04-01

    This study proposes a model of a totally asymmetric simple exclusion process on a single-channel lane with functions of site assignments along the pit lane. The system model attempts to insert a new particle to the leftmost site at a certain probability by randomly selecting one of the empty sites in the pit lane, and reserving it for the particle. Thereafter, the particle is directed to stop at the site only once during its travel. Recently, the system was determined to show a self-deflection effect, in which the site usage distribution biases spontaneously toward the leftmost site, and the throughput becomes maximum when the site usage distribution is slightly biased to the rightmost site. Our exact analysis describes this deflection effect and show a good agreement with simulations.

  5. The site selection law and the anti-atom movement; Das Standortauswahlgesetz und die Anti-Atom-Bewegung

    Haefner, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The anti atom movement has reached many of their political claims with the German nuclear power phaseout. At the same time the government has regained the interpretive dominance with the in radioactive waste management with the new search for possible final repository sites. He anti-atom movement refuses most parts of the actual law but cannot abdicate from the responsibility of the process of site selection. The contribution shows using three actual research approaches that such a convergence is probable to occur in the future. A cooperation of anti-atom movement and the government is of high probability in the long term, but is not necessarily identical to a political acceptance.

  6. Site-selective substitutional doping with atomic precision on stepped Al (111) surface by single-atom manipulation.

    Chen, Chang; Zhang, Jinhu; Dong, Guofeng; Shao, Hezhu; Ning, Bo-Yuan; Zhao, Li; Ning, Xi-Jing; Zhuang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    In fabrication of nano- and quantum devices, it is sometimes critical to position individual dopants at certain sites precisely to obtain the specific or enhanced functionalities. With first-principles simulations, we propose a method for substitutional doping of individual atom at a certain position on a stepped metal surface by single-atom manipulation. A selected atom at the step of Al (111) surface could be extracted vertically with an Al trimer-apex tip, and then the dopant atom will be positioned to this site. The details of the entire process including potential energy curves are given, which suggests the reliability of the proposed single-atom doping method.

  7. Selective pressures to maintain attachment site specificity of integrative and conjugative elements.

    Kayla L Menard

    Full Text Available Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs are widespread mobile genetic elements that are usually found integrated in bacterial chromosomes. They are important agents of evolution and contribute to the acquisition of new traits, including antibiotic resistances. ICEs can excise from the chromosome and transfer to recipients by conjugation. Many ICEs are site-specific in that they integrate preferentially into a primary attachment site in the bacterial genome. Site-specific ICEs can also integrate into secondary locations, particularly if the primary site is absent. However, little is known about the consequences of integration of ICEs into alternative attachment sites or what drives the apparent maintenance and prevalence of the many ICEs that use a single attachment site. Using ICEBs1, a site-specific ICE from Bacillus subtilis that integrates into a tRNA gene, we found that integration into secondary sites was detrimental to both ICEBs1 and the host cell. Excision of ICEBs1 from secondary sites was impaired either partially or completely, limiting the spread of ICEBs1. Furthermore, induction of ICEBs1 gene expression caused a substantial drop in proliferation and cell viability within three hours. This drop was dependent on rolling circle replication of ICEBs1 that was unable to excise from the chromosome. Together, these detrimental effects provide selective pressure against the survival and dissemination of ICEs that have integrated into alternative sites and may explain the maintenance of site-specific integration for many ICEs.

  8. Survey of historical and current site selection techniques for the placement of small wind energy conversion systems

    Katzenberg, Rick; Pierson, Chris; Fry, Sheldon; Drees, Herman; Drees, Carolyn; Wolff, Ben; Blake, Steve; Saylor, John; Park, Jack; Park, Helen

    1977-12-01

    Individuals and groups who purchase and install wind energy conversion systems (WECS) for either generation of electricity or pumping water have to go through a process by which a specific location is selected for each WECS. The purpose of this study was to identify and document methods and practices used in siting of WECS. The study covers the period from the early 1900s to the present day. 174 references.

  9. Integrated GIS-Based Site Selection of Hillside Development for Future Growth of Urban Areas

    Imtiaz Ahmed Chandio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is a challenging issue for developing countries, like Malaysia. Penang Island is one of the states of Malaysia selected as a study area where limited flat land exists. As a result, this would create urban environmental problems, such as unstable slopes and landslides due to uneven topography. The purpose of this study was to develop land suitability model for hillside development. Hence, this research aims land suitability analysis modelling for hillside development by using integrated GIS (Geographic Information System based MCDM (Multi-Criteria Decision Making approach. The hill land portion of Penang Island was selected for hillside site development using GIS and AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process as a MCDM method for sustainable hillside development. This study found that 15% of land was highly suitable, 27% moderately suitable, 41% less suitable, and 17% not suitable. Therefore, this research can be consistently used by the concerned authorities for sustainable hillside urban planning and development. This approach can be used as a policy tool in decision making of urban planning and development.

  10. Effects of intraguild predators on nest-site selection by prey.

    Huang, Wen-San; Pike, David A

    2012-01-01

    Nest-site selection involves tradeoffs between the risk of predation (on females and/or nests) and nest-site quality (microenvironment), and consequently suitable nesting sites are often in limited supply. Interactions with "classical" predators (e.g., those not competing for shared resources) can strongly influence nest-site selection, but whether intraguild predation also influences this behavior is unknown. We tested whether risk of predation from an intraguild predator [the diurnal scincid lizard Eutropis (Mabuya) longicaudata] influences nest-site selection by its prey (the nocturnal gecko Gekko hokouensis) on Orchid Island, Taiwan. These two species putatively compete for shared resources, including invertebrate prey and nesting microhabitat, but the larger E. longicaudata also predates G. hokouensis (but not its hard-shelled eggs). Both species nested within a concrete wall containing a series of drainage holes that have either one ("closed-in") or two openings ("open"). In allopatry, E. longicaudata preferred to nest within holes that were plugged by debris (thereby protecting eggs from water intrusion), whereas G. hokouensis selected holes that were open at both ends (facilitating escape from predators). When we experimentally excluded E. longicaudata from its preferred nesting area, G. hokouensis not only nested in higher abundances, but also modified its nest-site selection, such that communal nesting was more prevalent and both open and closed-in holes were used equally. Egg viability was unaffected by the choice of hole type, but was reduced slightly (by 7%) in the predator exclusion area (presumably due to higher local incubation temperatures). Our field experiment demonstrates that intraguild predators can directly influence the nest density of prey by altering maternal nest-site selection behavior, even when the predator and prey are active at different times of day and the eggs are not at risk of predation.

  11. Prediction of protein modification sites of pyrrolidone carboxylic acid using mRMR feature selection and analysis.

    Lu-Lu Zheng

    Full Text Available Pyrrolidone carboxylic acid (PCA is formed during a common post-translational modification (PTM of extracellular and multi-pass membrane proteins. In this study, we developed a new predictor to predict the modification sites of PCA based on maximum relevance minimum redundancy (mRMR and incremental feature selection (IFS. We incorporated 727 features that belonged to 7 kinds of protein properties to predict the modification sites, including sequence conservation, residual disorder, amino acid factor, secondary structure and solvent accessibility, gain/loss of amino acid during evolution, propensity of amino acid to be conserved at protein-protein interface and protein surface, and deviation of side chain carbon atom number. Among these 727 features, 244 features were selected by mRMR and IFS as the optimized features for the prediction, with which the prediction model achieved a maximum of MCC of 0.7812. Feature analysis showed that all feature types contributed to the modification process. Further site-specific feature analysis showed that the features derived from PCA's surrounding sites contributed more to the determination of PCA sites than other sites. The detailed feature analysis in this paper might provide important clues for understanding the mechanism of the PCA formation and guide relevant experimental validations.

  12. Selection of the landing site in Isidis Planitia of Mars probe Beagle 2

    Bridges, J. C.; Seabrook, A. M.; Rothery, D. A.; Kim, J. R.; Pillinger, C. T.; Sims, M. R.; Golombek, M. P.; Duxbury, T.; Head, J. W.; Haldemann, A. F. C.; Mitchell, K. L.; Muller, J.-P.; Lewis, S. R.; Moncrieff, C.; Wright, I. P.; Grady, M. M.; Morley, J. G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes selection and characterization of the landing site for the Mars 2004 Beagle 2 mission. The site is within Isidis Planitia between 10°-12°N, 266°-274°W, centered at 11.6°N, 269.5°W. This is at low elevation (-3600 to -3900 m MOLA), is flat (MOLA RMS slope = 0.57°), radar data suggest a smoother surface at decimeter to meter scales than the Pathfinder site and it has a moderate rock abundance (2-17%, mean 11%). In addition to this, Isidis shows evidence for concentration and remobilization of volatiles. In particular, the basin contains conical landforms. We favor models involving the formation of tuff cones during magma-ice interaction. Structures identified as dykes in MOC images may be remnants of magma conduits. The pattern of bulk thermal inertia in Isidis (higher values of 500 Jm-2s-0.5K-1 around the SW-S-E margin decreasing toward the center and north) suggests that an influx of sediment spread from the Noachian areas around the southern half of the basin over the basin floor. The coarse, higher thermal inertia material was deposited closest to the sediment source. The variable state of erosion of the tuff cones suggests that they formed intermittently over a long period of time during Amazonian and possibly Hesperian epochs. Geologically recent resurfacing of Isidis has also occurred by aeolian processes, and this is shown by a deficit in impact craters duricrust.

  13. Review of selected 100-N waste sites related to N-Springs remediation projects

    DeFord, D.H.; Carpenter, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    This document has been prepared in support of the environmental restoration program at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, by the Bechtel Hanford, Inc. Facility and Waste Site Research Office. It provides historical information that documents and characterizes selected waste sites that are related to the N-Springs remediation projects. The N-Springs are a series of small, inconspicuous groundwater seepage springs located along the Columbia River shoreline near the 100-N Reactor. The spring site is hydrologically down-gradient from several 100-N Area liquid waste sites that are believed to have been the source(s) of the effluents being discharged by the springs. This report documents and characterizes these waste sites, including the 116-N-1 Crib and Trench, 116-N-3 Crib and Trench, unplanned releases, septic tariks, and a backwash pond

  14. Analysis of the portfolio of sites to characterize for selecting a nuclear repository

    Keeney, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has selected three sites, from five nominated, to characterize for a nuclear repository to permanently dispose of nuclear waste. This decision was made without the benefit of an analysis of this portfolio problem. This paper analyzes different portfolios of three sites for simultaneous characterization and strategies for sequential characterization. Characterization of each site, which involves significant subsurface excavation, is now estimated to cost $1 billion. Mainly because of the high characterization costs, sequential characterization strategies are identified which are the equivalent of $1.7-2.0 billion less expensive than the selected DOE simultaneous characterization of the three sites. If three sites are simultaneously characterized, one portfolio is estimated to be the equivalent of $100-400 million better than the selected DOE portfolio. Because of these potential savings and several other complicating factors that may influence the relative desirability of characterization strategies, a thorough analysis of characterization strategies that addresses the likelihood of finding disqualifying conditions during site characterization, uncertainties, and dependencies in forecast site repository costs, preclosure and postclosure health and safety impacts, potential delays of both sequential and simultaneous characterization strategies, and the environmental, socioeconomic, and health and safety impacts of characterization activities is recommended

  15. Site-specific analysis of radiological and physical parameters for cobbly soils at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site

    1993-10-01

    The remedial action at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site is being performed under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 [Public Law (PL) 95-6041]. Under UMTRCA, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is charged with the responsibility of developing appropriate and applicable standards for the cleanup of radiologically contaminated land and buildings at 24 designated sites, including the Gunnison, Colorado, inactive processing site. The remedial action at the processing site will be conducted to remove the tailings and contaminated materials to meet the EPA bulk soil cleanup standards for surface and subsurface soils. The site areas disturbed by remedial action excavation will be either contoured or backfilled with radiologically uncontaminated soil and contoured to restore the site. The final contours will produce a final surface grade that will create positive drainage from the site

  16. Generation, on-site storage; handling and processing of industrial waste of Tehran

    Abduli, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes out the present status of generation, on-site handling, processing and storage of industrial waste in Tehran. In this investigation, 67 large scale factories of different industrial groups were randomly selected. Above cited functional elements of these factories were surveyed. In this investigation a close contact with each factory was required, thus a questionnaire was prepared and distributed among these factories. The relationship between daily weight of the industrial waste (Y) and number of employer of each factory (x) is found to be Y=547.4 + 0.58 x. The relationship between daily volume of industrial waste (V), and daily weight of waste generated in each factory (Y) can be described by V=1.56 + 0.00078 Y. About 68% of the factories have their own interim storage site and the rest of the factories do not possess any on-site storage facility

  17. Positive selection neighboring functionally essential sites and disease-implicated regions of mammalian reproductive proteins.

    Morgan, Claire C

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Reproductive proteins are central to the continuation of all mammalian species. The evolution of these proteins has been greatly influenced by environmental pressures induced by pathogens, rival sperm, sexual selection and sexual conflict. Positive selection has been demonstrated in many of these proteins with particular focus on primate lineages. However, the mammalia are a diverse group in terms of mating habits, population sizes and germ line generation times. We have examined the selective pressures at work on a number of novel reproductive proteins across a wide variety of mammalia. RESULTS: We show that selective pressures on reproductive proteins are highly varied. Of the 10 genes analyzed in detail, all contain signatures of positive selection either across specific sites or in specific lineages or a combination of both. Our analysis of SP56 and Col1a1 are entirely novel and the results show positively selected sites present in each gene. Our findings for the Col1a1 gene are suggestive of a link between positive selection and severe disease type. We find evidence in our dataset to suggest that interacting proteins are evolving in symphony: most likely to maintain interacting functionality. CONCLUSION: Our in silico analyses show positively selected sites are occurring near catalytically important regions suggesting selective pressure to maximize efficient fertilization. In those cases where a mechanism of protein function is not fully understood, the sites presented here represent ideal candidates for mutational study. This work has highlighted the widespread rate heterogeneity in mutational rates across the mammalia and specifically has shown that the evolution of reproductive proteins is highly varied depending on the species and interacting partners. We have shown that positive selection and disease are closely linked in the Col1a1 gene.

  18. Additive Manufacturing Processes: Selective Laser Melting, Electron Beam Melting and Binder Jetting—Selection Guidelines

    Konda Gokuldoss, Prashanth; Kolla, Sri; Eckert, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D printing or rapid prototyping, is gaining increasing attention due to its ability to produce parts with added functionality and increased complexities in geometrical design, on top of the fact that it is theoretically possible to produce any shape without limitations. However, most of the research on additive manufacturing techniques are focused on the development of materials/process parameters/products design with different additive manufacturing processes such as selective laser melting, electron beam melting, or binder jetting. However, we do not have any guidelines that discuss the selection of the most suitable additive manufacturing process, depending on the material to be processed, the complexity of the parts to be produced, or the design considerations. Considering the very fact that no reports deal with this process selection, the present manuscript aims to discuss the different selection criteria that are to be considered, in order to select the best AM process (binder jetting/selective laser melting/electron beam melting) for fabricating a specific component with a defined set of material properties. PMID:28773031

  19. Additive Manufacturing Processes: Selective Laser Melting, Electron Beam Melting and Binder Jetting-Selection Guidelines.

    Gokuldoss, Prashanth Konda; Kolla, Sri; Eckert, Jürgen

    2017-06-19

    Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D printing or rapid prototyping, is gaining increasing attention due to its ability to produce parts with added functionality and increased complexities in geometrical design, on top of the fact that it is theoretically possible to produce any shape without limitations. However, most of the research on additive manufacturing techniques are focused on the development of materials/process parameters/products design with different additive manufacturing processes such as selective laser melting, electron beam melting, or binder jetting. However, we do not have any guidelines that discuss the selection of the most suitable additive manufacturing process, depending on the material to be processed, the complexity of the parts to be produced, or the design considerations. Considering the very fact that no reports deal with this process selection, the present manuscript aims to discuss the different selection criteria that are to be considered, in order to select the best AM process (binder jetting/selective laser melting/electron beam melting) for fabricating a specific component with a defined set of material properties.

  20. Introduction to gas lasers with emphasis on selective excitation processes

    Willett, Colin S

    1974-01-01

    Introduction to Gas Lasers: Population Inversion Mechanisms focuses on important processes in gas discharge lasers and basic atomic collision processes that operate in a gas laser. Organized into six chapters, this book first discusses the historical development and basic principles of gas lasers. Subsequent chapters describe the selective excitation processes in gas discharges and the specific neutral, ionized and molecular laser systems. This book will be a valuable reference on the behavior of gas-discharge lasers to anyone already in the field.

  1. Territory and nest site selection patterns by Grasshopper Sparrows in southeastern Arizona

    Ruth, Janet M.; Skagen, Susan K.

    2017-01-01

    Grassland bird populations are showing some of the greatest rates of decline of any North American birds, prompting measures to protect and improve important habitat. We assessed how vegetation structure and composition, habitat features often targeted for management, affected territory and nest site selection by Grasshopper Sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum ammolegus) in southeastern Arizona. To identify features important to males establishing territories, we compared vegetation characteristics of known territories and random samples on 2 sites over 5 years. We examined habitat selection patterns of females by comparing characteristics of nest sites with territories over 3 years. Males selected territories in areas of sparser vegetation structure and more tall shrubs (>2 m) than random plots on the site with low shrub densities. Males did not select territories based on the proportion of exotic grasses. Females generally located nest sites in areas with lower small shrub (1–2 m tall) densities than territories overall when possible and preferentially selected native grasses for nest construction. Whether habitat selection was apparent depended upon the range of vegetation structure that was available. We identified an upper threshold above which grass structure seemed to be too high and dense for Grasshopper Sparrows. Our results suggest that some management that reduces vegetative structure may benefit this species in desert grasslands at the nest and territory scale. However, we did not assess initial male habitat selection at a broader landscape scale where their selection patterns may be different and could be influenced by vegetation density and structure outside the range of values sampled in this study.

  2. A NEW FRAMEWORK FOR GEOSPATIAL SITE SELECTION USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS AS DECISION RULES: A CASE STUDY ON LANDFILL SITES

    S. K. M. Abujayyab

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly introduced the theory and framework of geospatial site selection (GSS and discussed the application and framework of artificial neural networks (ANNs. The related literature on the use of ANNs as decision rules in GSS is scarce from 2000 till 2015. As this study found, ANNs are not only adaptable to dynamic changes but also capable of improving the objectivity of acquisition in GSS, reducing time consumption, and providing high validation. ANNs make for a powerful tool for solving geospatial decision-making problems by enabling geospatial decision makers to implement their constraints and imprecise concepts. This tool offers a way to represent and handle uncertainty. Specifically, ANNs are decision rules implemented to enhance conventional GSS frameworks. The main assumption in implementing ANNs in GSS is that the current characteristics of existing sites are indicative of the degree of suitability of new locations with similar characteristics. GSS requires several input criteria that embody specific requirements and the desired site characteristics, which could contribute to geospatial sites. In this study, the proposed framework consists of four stages for implementing ANNs in GSS. A multilayer feed-forward network with a backpropagation algorithm was used to train the networks from prior sites to assess, generalize, and evaluate the outputs on the basis of the inputs for the new sites. Two metrics, namely, confusion matrix and receiver operating characteristic tests, were utilized to achieve high accuracy and validation. Results proved that ANNs provide reasonable and efficient results as an accurate and inexpensive quantitative technique for GSS.

  3. Investigations at the former sites of raw phosphate processing in Germany

    Reichelt, Andreas; Weiss, Dietmar; Feige, Sebastian; Wiegand, Jens; Gerler, Juergen

    2008-01-01

    Raw phosphates have been processed in an industrial scale in Germany approximately since the middle of the 19th century. During the centuries, huge amounts of residues with high mass specific activities have been accumulated. Within the framework of a historical study, we have determined the accumulated radionuclide inventory from 1865 to 2005. The consumption amounts to approx. 150 million tons raw phosphates (corresponds to approx. 2.22*10 14 Bq U-238) with a fraction of national production of approx. 1 million tons. A production of approx. 3 million tons of elemental phosphorus (calcium silicate slag: 3.6*10 13 Bq Ra-226) and approx. 12 million tons of phosphoric acid (phosphogypsum: 2.7*10 13 Bq Ra-226) had been achieved. In the next step, we have looked for the former sites with legacies of the raw phosphate processing industry. 92 sites of former production of phosphate fertilizers, 3 sites of former production of elemental phosphorus and 10 sites of former production of phosphoric acid had been identified. Some of them were selected for more detailed researches regarding the accumulated radionuclide inventory and on-site/laboratory radiological investigations. (author)

  4. An International Perspective on Pharmacy Student Selection Policies and Processes.

    Shaw, John; Kennedy, Julia; Jensen, Maree; Sheridan, Janie

    2015-10-25

    Objective. To reflect on selection policies and procedures for programs at pharmacy schools that are members of an international alliance of universities (Universitas 21). Methods. A questionnaire on selection policies and procedures was distributed to admissions directors at participating schools. Results. Completed questionnaires were received from 7 schools in 6 countries. Although marked differences were noted in the programs in different countries, there were commonalities in the selection processes. There was an emphasis on previous academic performance, especially in science subjects. With one exception, all schools had some form of interview, with several having moved to multiple mini-interviews in recent years. Conclusion. The majority of pharmacy schools in this survey relied on traditional selection processes. While there was increasing use of multiple mini-interviews, the authors suggest that additional new approaches may be required in light of the changing nature of the profession.

  5. A Site Selection Model for a Straw-Based Power Generation Plant with CO2 Emissions

    Hao Lv

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The decision on the location of a straw-based power generation plant has a great influence on the plant’s operation and performance. This study explores traditional theories for site selection. Using integer programming, the study optimizes the economic and carbon emission outcomes of straw-based power generation as two objectives, with the supply and demand of straw as constraints. It provides a multi-objective mixed-integer programming model to solve the site selection problem for a straw-based power generation plant. It then provides a case study to demonstrate the application of the model in the decision on the site selection for a straw-based power generation plant with a Chinese region. Finally, the paper discusses the result of the model in the context of the wider aspect of straw-based power generation.

  6. Controlling site selectivity in Pd-catalyzed oxidative cross-coupling reactions.

    Lyons, Thomas W; Hull, Kami L; Sanford, Melanie S

    2011-03-30

    This paper presents a detailed investigation of the factors controlling site selectivity in the Pd-mediated oxidative coupling of 1,3-disubstituted and 1,2,3-trisubstituted arenes (aryl-H) with cyclometalating substrates (L~C-H). The influence of both the concentration and the steric/electronic properties of the quinone promoter are studied in detail. In addition, the effect of steric/electronic modulation of the carboxylate ligand is discussed. Finally, we demonstrate that substitution of the carboxylate for a carbonate X-type ligand leads to a complete reversal in site selectivity for many arene substrates. The origins of these trends in site selectivity are discussed in the context of the mechanism of Pd-catalyzed oxidative cross-coupling.

  7. Potentially disruptive hydrologic features, events and processes at the Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada

    Hoxie, D.T.

    1995-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has been selected by the United States to be evaluated as a potential site for the development of a geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. If the site is determined to be suitable for repository development and construction is authorized, the repository at the Yucca Mountain site is planned to be constructed in unsaturated tuff at a depth of about 250 meters below land surface and at a distance of about 250 meters above the water table. The intent of locating a repository in a thick unsaturated-zone geohydrologic setting, such as occurs at Yucca Mountain under the arid to semi-arid climatic conditions that currently prevail in the region, is to provide a natural setting for the repository system in which little ground water will be available to contact emplaced waste or to transport radioactive material from the repository to the biosphere. In principle, an unsaturated-zone repository will be vulnerable to water entry from both above and below. Consequently, a major effort within the site-characterization program at the Yucca Mountain site is concerned with identifying and evaluating those features, events, and processes, such as increased net infiltration or water-table rise, whose presence or future occurrence could introduce water into a potential repository at the site in quantities sufficient to compromise the waste-isolation capability of the repository system

  8. Hydrology and Oceanography Analysis Regarding The NPP Site Screening Process at Banten Province

    Yarianto-S-Budi-Susilo

    2007-01-01

    Regarding the NPP development in the future, it is needed to make inventory of potential site in the Java Island as well as in the outside Java Island. The NPP site inventory availability is to answer the energy demand challenge. Site screening process should be performed in accordance with the IAEA safety standard regarding the site selection, investigating several aspects related to the NPP safety (exclusion, safety and suitability factor) in the large area to obtain potential site candidates. For the site survey stage of hydrology and oceanography aspects, the analysis are more focused on the tidal phenomena along the north coastline, bathymetry, water resource, and hydrology system in the Banten Province. The method used are secondary data collection, field confirmation and internet searching. The result of the study showed that Tanjung Pujut and Tanjung Pasir are suitable based on the bathymetry and water intake facility consideration. Meanwhile Tanjung Kait and Tanjung Pasir more suitable considering tsunami aspects that may be generated by Krakatau Volcano. (author)

  9. Selection of low-level radioactive waste disposal sites using screening models versus more complex methodologies

    Uslu, I.; Fields, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    The task of choosing a waste-disposal site from a set of candidate sites requires an approach capable of objectively handling many environmental variables for each site. Several computer methodologies have been developed to assist in the process of choosing a site for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste; however, most of these models are costly to apply, in terms of computer resources and the time and effort required by professional modelers, geologists, and waste-disposal experts. The authors describe how the relatively simple DRASTIC methodology (a standardized system for evaluating groundwater pollution potential using hydrogeologic settings) may be used for open-quotes pre-screeningclose quotes of sites to determine which subset of candidate sites is worthy of more detailed screening. Results of site comparisons made with DRASTIC are compared with results obtained using PRESTO-II methodology, which is representative of the more complex release-transport-human exposure methodologies. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  10. Simulation of the selective oxidation process of semiconductors

    Chahoud, M.

    2012-01-01

    A new approach to simulate the selective oxidation of semiconductors is presented. This approach is based on the so-called b lack box simulation method . This method is usually used to simulate complex processes. The chemical and physical details within the process are not considered. Only the input and output data of the process are relevant for the simulation. A virtual function linking the input and output data has to be found. In the case of selective oxidation the input data are the mask geometry and the oxidation duration whereas the output data are the oxidation thickness distribution. The virtual function is determined as four virtual diffusion processes between the masked und non-masked areas. Each process delivers one part of the oxidation profile. The method is applied successfully on the oxidation system silicon-silicon nitride (Si-Si 3 N 4 ). The fitting parameters are determined through comparison of experimental and simulation results two-dimensionally.(author)

  11. Seeing the forest through the trees: Considering roost-site selection at multiple spatial scales

    Jachowski, David S.; Rota, Christopher T.; Dobony, Christopher A.; Ford, W. Mark; Edwards, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of bat species is one of the most daunting wildlife conservation challenges in North America, requiring detailed knowledge about their ecology to guide conservation efforts. Outside of the hibernating season, bats in temperate forest environments spend their diurnal time in day-roosts. In addition to simple shelter, summer roost availability is as critical as maternity sites and maintaining social group contact. To date, a major focus of bat conservation has concentrated on conserving individual roost sites, with comparatively less focus on the role that broader habitat conditions contribute towards roost-site selection. We evaluated roost-site selection by a northern population of federally-endangered Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) at Fort Drum Military Installation in New York, USA at three different spatial scales: landscape, forest stand, and individual tree level. During 2007–2011, we radiotracked 33 Indiana bats (10 males, 23 females) and located 348 roosting events in 116 unique roost trees. At the landscape scale, bat roost-site selection was positively associated with northern mixed forest, increased slope, and greater distance from human development. At the stand scale, we observed subtle differences in roost site selection based on sex and season, but roost selection was generally positively associated with larger stands with a higher basal area, larger tree diameter, and a greater sugar maple (Acer saccharum) component. We observed no distinct trends of roosts being near high-quality foraging areas of water and forest edges. At the tree scale, roosts were typically in American elm (Ulmus americana) or sugar maple of large diameter (>30 cm) of moderate decay with loose bark. Collectively, our results highlight the importance of considering day roost needs simultaneously across multiple spatial scales. Size and decay class of individual roosts are key ecological attributes for the Indiana bat, however, larger-scale stand structural

  12. Attribute based selection of thermoplastic resin for vacuum infusion process

    Prabhakaran, R.T. Durai; Lystrup, Aage; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom

    2011-01-01

    The composite industry looks toward a new material system (resins) based on thermoplastic polymers for the vacuum infusion process, similar to the infusion process using thermosetting polymers. A large number of thermoplastics are available in the market with a variety of properties suitable...... for different engineering applications, and few of those are available in a not yet polymerised form suitable for resin infusion. The proper selection of a new resin system among these thermoplastic polymers is a concern for manufactures in the current scenario and a special mathematical tool would...... be beneficial. In this paper, the authors introduce a new decision making tool for resin selection based on significant attributes. This article provides a broad overview of suitable thermoplastic material systems for vacuum infusion process available in today’s market. An illustrative example—resin selection...

  13. A Study on Site Selecting for National Project including High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Kim, Kilyoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Many national projects are stopped since sites for the projects are not determined. The sites selections are hold by NIMBY for unpleasant facilities or by PYMFY for preferable facilities among local governments. The followings are the typical ones; NIMBY projects: high level radioactive waste disposal, THAAD, Nuclear power plant(NPP), etc. PIMFY projects: South-east new airport, KTX station, Research center for NPP decommission, etc. The site selection for high level radioactive waste disposal is more difficult problem, and thus government did not decide and postpone to a dead end street. Since it seems that there is no solution for site selection for high level radioactive waste disposal due to NIMBY among local governments, a solution method is proposed in this paper. To decide a high level radioactive waste disposal, the first step is to invite a bid by suggesting a package deal including PIMFY projects such as Research Center for NPP decommission. Maybe potential host local governments are asked to submit sealed bids indicating the minimum compensation sum that they would accept the high level radioactive waste disposal site. If there are more than one local government put in a bid, then decide an adequate site by considering both the accumulated PESS point and technical evaluation results. By considering how fairly preferable national projects and unpleasant national projects are distributed among local government, sites selection for NIMBY or PIMFY facilities is suggested. For NIMBY national projects, risk, cost benefit analysis is useful and required since it generates cost value to be used in the PESS. For many cases, the suggested method may be not adequate. However, similar one should be prepared, and be basis to decide sites for NIMBY or PIMFY national projects.

  14. Multiattribute Supplier Selection Using Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Serhat Aydin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Supplier selection is a multiattribute decision making (MADM problem which contains both qualitative and quantitative factors. Supplier selection has vital importance for most companies. The aim of this paper is to provide an AHP based analytical tool for decision support enabling an effective multicriteria supplier selection process in an air conditioner seller firm under fuzziness. In this article, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP under fuzziness is employed for its permissiveness to use an evaluation scale including linguistic expressions, crisp numerical values, fuzzy numbers and range numerical values. This scale provides a more flexible evaluation compared with the other fuzzy AHP methods. In this study, the modified AHP was used in supplier selection in an air conditioner firm. Three experts evaluated the suppliers according to the proposed model and the most appropriate supplier was selected. The proposed model enables decision makers select the best supplier among supplier firms effectively. We confirm that the modified fuzzy AHP is appropriate for group decision making in supplier selection problems.

  15. Equilibrium Strategy Based Recycling Facility Site Selection towards Mitigating Coal Gangue Contamination

    Jiuping Xu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution caused by coal gangue has been a significant challenge for sustainable development; thus, many coal gangue reduction approaches have been proposed in recent years. In particular, coal gangue facility (CGF construction has been considered as an efficient method for the control and recycling of coal gangue. Meanwhile, the identification and selection of suitable CGF sites is a fundamental task for the government. Therefore, based on the equilibrium strategy, a site selection approach under a fuzzy environment is developed to mitigate coal gangue contamination, which integrates a geographical information system (GIS technique and a bi-level model to identify candidate CGF sites and to select the most suitable one. In this situation, the GIS technique used to identify potential feasible sites is able to integrate a great deal of geographical data tofitwithpracticalcircumstances;thebi-levelmodelusedtoscreentheappropriatesitecanreasonably dealwiththeconflictsbetweenthelocalauthorityandthecolliery. Moreover,aKarush–Kuhn–Tucker (KKT condition-based approach is used to find an optimal solution, and a case study is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results across different scenarios show that appropriate site selection can achieve coal gangue reduction targets and that a suitable excess stack level can realize an environmental-economic equilibrium. Finally, some propositions and management recommendations are given.

  16. Site-specific fragmentation of polystyrene molecule using size-selected Ar gas cluster ion beam

    Moritani, Kousuke; Mukai, Gen; Hashinokuchi, Michihiro; Mochiji, Kozo

    2009-01-01

    The secondary ion mass spectrum (SIMS) of a polystyrene thin film was investigated using a size-selected Ar gas cluster ion beam (GCIB). The fragmentation in the SIM spectrum varied by kinetic energy per atom (E atom ); the E atom dependence of the secondary ion intensity of the fragment species of polystyrene can be essentially classified into three types based on the relationship between E atom and the dissociation energy of a specific bonding site in the molecule. These results indicate that adjusting E atom of size-selected GCIB may realize site-specific bond breaking within a molecule. (author)

  17. Nuclear waste and social peace - Strategies of site selection for radioactive waste disposal. Proceeding

    Dally, A.

    2003-01-01

    In February 1999, BMU appointed a working party to establish site selection procedures for repositories (AkEnd) which was to develop a transparent procedure of finding and selecting sites for the final storage of all kinds of radioactive waste in Germany. The procedure finally proposed by AkEnd implies considerable uncertainty, inter alia, about its legal implementability, the time required, and funding. The discussion papers of the meeting ''atomic waste and social peace'' show a tightrope walk between society, clerical aspects and scientists taking into account also a right of say for critical citizens. (GL)

  18. Attentional selection of relative SF mediates global versus local processing: evidence from EEG.

    Flevaris, Anastasia V; Bentin, Shlomo; Robertson, Lynn C

    2011-06-13

    Previous research on functional hemispheric differences in visual processing has associated global perception with low spatial frequency (LSF) processing biases of the right hemisphere (RH) and local perception with high spatial frequency (HSF) processing biases of the left hemisphere (LH). The Double Filtering by Frequency (DFF) theory expanded this hypothesis by proposing that visual attention selects and is directed to relatively LSFs by the RH and relatively HSFs by the LH, suggesting a direct causal relationship between SF selection and global versus local perception. We tested this idea in the current experiment by comparing activity in the EEG recorded at posterior right and posterior left hemisphere sites while participants' attention was directed to global or local levels of processing after selection of relatively LSFs versus HSFs in a previous stimulus. Hemispheric asymmetry in the alpha band (8-12 Hz) during preparation for global versus local processing was modulated by the selected SF. In contrast, preparatory activity associated with selection of SF was not modulated by the previously attended level (global/local). These results support the DFF theory that top-down attentional selection of SF mediates global and local processing.

  19. Integrated account of method, site selection and programme prior to the site investigation phase[Planning for a Swedish repository for spent nuclear fuels

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    applications and have these applications reviewed by the appropriate authorities. An analysis of conceivable alternatives for managing and disposing of spent nuclear fuel has confirmed that deep geological disposal according to the KBS-3 method has the best prospects of meeting all requirements. The alternative of putting off a decision until some future time (the zero alternative) does not appear tenable. The assessment of long-term safety shows that the prospects of building a safe deep repository in the Swedish bedrock are good. Independent Swedish and international review of the safety assessment confirm that the body of data in this respect is adequate for the siting process to proceed to the site investigation phase. A fuller summary is given below of the account given in this report of method as well as site selection and programme for the site investigation phase. The point of departure for the account is the review comments made by the regulatory authorities and the Government's decision regarding RD and D-Programme 98. In its decision, the Government stipulated conditions for SKB's continued research and development programme. The analysis of alternative system designs was to be supplemented, mainly with regard to the zero alternative and very deep boreholes. Furthermore, the Government decided that SKB shall submit an integrated evaluation of completed feasibility studies and other background material for selection of sites for site investigations and present a clear programme for site investigations.

  20. Development of site selection criteria for radioactive waste disposal in view of favourable geological settings in Germany

    Baltes, B.; Brewitz, W.

    2001-01-01

    In Germany it is intended to dispose of all types of radioactive waste in deep geological formations. Since the government has doubts regarding the suitability of the Gorleben site, further sites in different host rock formations have to be investigated. This investigation process has to be carried out with respect to technical suitability and safety as well as to public acceptance. A Committee has been established whose mandate is to develop a comprehensible procedure for the selection of sites for radioactive waste disposal in Germany. The Committee developed an iterative procedure which provides, besides the increase of transparency, the necessary flexibility in dealing with assessment results. The method is governed by geo-scientific and social-scientific criteria that are presented in this paper. 7 steps have been identified in the procedure: 1) exclusion of areas with obviously unfavourable conditions, 2) identification of areas with favourable geological settings, 3) exclusion of areas for socio-scientific reasons, 4) identification of regions with favourable conditions and ranking of regions, 5) identification of sites for further identification, 6) above-ground site investigation and ranking of potentially suitable sites, and 7) identification of sites for suitability investigations. The first 3 steps give the remaining areas that meet the minimum requirements. The criteria of the first 3 steps are: extensive vertical movements, active disturbance zones, seismic activity and volcanic activity, as for the 4 last steps criteria are based on geo- and socio- scientific weighing, voluntariness and regional mediation. (A.C.)

  1. Development of site selection criteria for radioactive waste disposal in view of favourable geological settings in Germany

    Baltes, B.; Brewitz, W. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Cologne (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    In Germany it is intended to dispose of all types of radioactive waste in deep geological formations. Since the government has doubts regarding the suitability of the Gorleben site, further sites in different host rock formations have to be investigated. This investigation process has to be carried out with respect to technical suitability and safety as well as to public acceptance. A Committee has been established whose mandate is to develop a comprehensible procedure for the selection of sites for radioactive waste disposal in Germany. The Committee developed an iterative procedure which provides, besides the increase of transparency, the necessary flexibility in dealing with assessment results. The method is governed by geo-scientific and social-scientific criteria that are presented in this paper. 7 steps have been identified in the procedure: 1) exclusion of areas with obviously unfavourable conditions, 2) identification of areas with favourable geological settings, 3) exclusion of areas for socio-scientific reasons, 4) identification of regions with favourable conditions and ranking of regions, 5) identification of sites for further identification, 6) above-ground site investigation and ranking of potentially suitable sites, and 7) identification of sites for suitability investigations. The first 3 steps give the remaining areas that meet the minimum requirements. The criteria of the first 3 steps are: extensive vertical movements, active disturbance zones, seismic activity and volcanic activity, as for the 4 last steps criteria are based on geo- and socio- scientific weighing, voluntariness and regional mediation. (A.C.)

  2. DNA abasic site-selective enhancement of sanguinarine fluorescence with a large emission shift.

    Fei Wu

    Full Text Available Small molecules that can specifically bind to a DNA abasic site (AP site have received much attention due to their importance in DNA lesion identification, drug discovery, and sensor design. Herein, the AP site binding behavior of sanguinarine (SG, a natural alkaloid, was investigated. In aqueous solution, SG has a short-wavelength alkanolamine emission band and a long-wavelength iminium emission band. At pH 8.3, SG experiences a fluorescence quenching for both bands upon binding to fully matched DNAs without the AP site, while the presence of the AP site induces a strong SG binding and the observed fluorescence enhancement for the iminium band are highly dependent on the nucleobases flanking the AP site, while the alkanolamine band is always quenched. The bases opposite the AP site also exert some modifications on the SG's emission behavior. It was found that the observed quenching for DNAs with Gs and Cs flanking the AP site is most likely caused by electron transfer between the AP site-bound excited-state SG and the nearby Gs. However, the flanking As and Ts that are not easily oxidized favor the enhanced emission. This AP site-selective enhancement of SG fluorescence accompanies a band conversion in the dominate emission from the alkanolamine to iminium band thus with a large emission shift of about 170 nm. Absorption spectra, steady-state and transient-state fluorescence, DNA melting, and electrolyte experiments confirm that the AP site binding of SG occurs and the stacking interaction with the nearby base pairs is likely to prevent the converted SG iminium form from contacting with water that is thus emissive when the AP site neighbors are bases other than guanines. We expect that this fluorophore would be developed as a promising AP site binder having a large emission shift.

  3. Site selection model for new metro stations based on land use

    Zhang, Nan; Chen, Xuewu

    2015-12-01

    Since the construction of metro system generally lags behind the development of urban land use, sites of metro stations should adapt to their surrounding situations, which was rarely discussed by previous research on station layout. This paper proposes a new site selection model to find the best location for a metro station, establishing the indicator system based on land use and combining AHP with entropy weight method to obtain the schemes' ranking. The feasibility and efficiency of this model has been validated by evaluating Nanjing Shengtai Road station and other potential sites.

  4. Demands and criteria for the site selection from the view of the power plant owners

    Beising, R.; Staebler, K.

    1976-01-01

    The methods as shown by the concrete example of the site provision plan for Baden-Wuerttemberg have proved extremely useful. The pragmatic method of site selection which ensures as little clash of interests as possible between the power plant and other preservation interests such as e.g. environment preservation, recreation areas, development axes, water economics is the only possible method for the densely populated areas of the Federal Republic. The numerous physical constraints in our Land only allow an optimisation of site search within the limited possibilities. (HP) [de

  5. Macro and micro geo-spatial environment consideration for landfill site selection in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

    Al-Ruzouq, Rami; Shanableh, Abdallah; Omar, Maher; Al-Khayyat, Ghadeer

    2018-02-17

    Waste management involves various procedures and resources for proper handling of waste materials in compliance with health codes and environmental regulations. Landfills are one of the oldest, most convenient, and cheapest methods to deposit waste. However, landfill utilization involves social, environmental, geotechnical, cost, and restrictive regulation considerations. For instance, landfills are considered a source of hazardous air pollutants that can cause health and environmental problems related to landfill gas and non-methanic organic compounds. The increasing number of sensors and availability of remotely sensed images along with rapid development of spatial technology are helping with effective landfill site selection. The present study used fuzzy membership and the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) in a geo-spatial environment for landfill site selection in the city of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Macro- and micro-level factors were considered; the macro-level contained social and economic factors, while the micro-level accounted for geo-environmental factors. The weighted spatial layers were combined to generate landfill suitability and overall suitability index maps. Sensitivity analysis was then carried out to rectify initial theoretical weights. The results showed that 30.25% of the study area had a high suitability index for landfill sites in the Sharjah, and the most suitable site was selected based on weighted factors. The developed fuzzy-AHP methodology can be applied in neighboring regions with similar geo-natural conditions.

  6. Survey of siting practices for selected management projects in seven countries

    Hardin, E.; Aahagen, H.

    1992-06-01

    This paper surveys siting practices for deep geologic disposal in seven countries, and attempts to formulate generalizations which could be useful for the upcoming review of the Swedish plan for siting the SFL repository (R and D 92). Comparison of projects in different countries is done with full appreciation of the technical, legal, and cultural differences. The seven countries were selected for experience with siting in crystalline rock, similarity of siting practices to Sweden, and the availability of published information. Local governments have demonstrated effective veto power in each of the seven countries surveyed, although this power is exercised in different ways. This paper shows how the siting strategy itself affects the ability and the inclination of localities to block the project. It shows by example that public involvement, parallel vs. sequential characterization, schedule for siting activities, and the existence of interim waste storage capability have an impact on the success of siting. The focus of this paper is deep geologic disposal. Shallow land disposal and non-radioactive wastes are not discussed in detail, with three exceptions: LLW disposal siting in the U.S. and Canada, and the SAKAB incinerator projects in Sweden. These provide insight into siting approaches and demonstrate that conclusions regarding deep geologic disposal are supported by other experience. (114 refs.) (au)

  7. Review Article : Utilization of Environmental Radiochemistry Techniques for Selection and Evaluation of Nuclear Facility Sites

    Atta, E.R.; Madbouly, A.M.; Zakaria, Kh.M.

    2016-01-01

    This research review puts necessary considerations on the available environmental radiochemistry techniques for selection and evaluation of a nuclear facility sites.The main bjective in site evaluation for nuclear facilities in terms of nuclear safety is to protect the site workers, the public and the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation release from nuclear facilities due to accidents. The extreme sensitivity and speed of radiochemical methods make their applications of considerable importance in several fields and they have found many uses. Information about the existed radioactivity in the different nuclear facilities is an essential requirement for their environmental assessment. It is necessary to estimate the various radioactivity levels in the environment through qualitative and quantitative analytical techniques and to assess the potential effects of the nuclear facility in the region by considering the characteristics of sites.The siting and site evaluation requirements are discussed. Emphasis was given to types of radiochemical techniques used for characterization of the site parameters which determine the potential hazards of the site on the facility and the facility on the site. Emphasis has been also given to the quantitative and qualitative analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides for monitoring and control .There are some techniques employed such as radioactive tracer technique, liquid scintillation technique, gamma spectrometry technique, neutron activation analysis technique, fluorimetric technique and isotope hydrology technique.

  8. Selection of Activities in Dynamic Business Process Simulation

    Toma Rusinaitė

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining dynamicity of business processes is one of the core issues of today's business as it enables businesses to adapt to constantly changing environment. Upon changing the processes, it is vital to assess possible impact, which is achieved by using simulation of dynamic processes. In order to implement dynamicity in business processes, it is necessary to have an ability to change components of the process (a set of activities, a content of activity, a set of activity sequences, a set of rules, performers and resources or dynamically select them during execution. This problem attracted attention of researches over the past few years; however, there is no proposed solution, which ensures the business process (BP dynamicity. This paper proposes and specifies dynamic business process (DBP simulation model, which satisfies all of the formulated DBP requirements.

  9. Using AHP for Selecting the Best Wastewater Treatment Process

    AbdolReza Karimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP method that is based on expert knowledge is used for the selection of the optimal anaerobic wastewater treatment process in industrial estates. This method can be applied for complicated multi-criteria decision making to obtain reasonable results. The different anaerobic processes employed in Iranian industrial estates consist of UASB, UAFB, ABR, Contact process, and Anaerobic Lagoons. Based on the general conditions in wastewater treatment plants in industrial estates and on expert judgments and using technical, economic, environmental, and administrative criteria, the processes are weighted and the results obtained are assessed using the Expert Choice Software. Finally, the five processes investigated are ranked as 1 to 5 in a descending order of UAFB, ABR, UASB, Anaerobic Lagoon, and Contact Process. Sensitivity analysis showing the effects of input parameters on changes in the results was applied for technical, economic, environmental, and administrative criteria.

  10. Large-scale control site selection for population monitoring: an example assessing Sage-grouse trends

    Fedy, Bradley C.; O'Donnell, Michael; Bowen, Zachary H.

    2015-01-01

    Human impacts on wildlife populations are widespread and prolific and understanding wildlife responses to human impacts is a fundamental component of wildlife management. The first step to understanding wildlife responses is the documentation of changes in wildlife population parameters, such as population size. Meaningful assessment of population changes in potentially impacted sites requires the establishment of monitoring at similar, nonimpacted, control sites. However, it is often difficult to identify appropriate control sites in wildlife populations. We demonstrated use of Geographic Information System (GIS) data across large spatial scales to select biologically relevant control sites for population monitoring. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hearafter, sage-grouse) are negatively affected by energy development, and monitoring of sage-grouse population within energy development areas is necessary to detect population-level responses. Weused population data (1995–2012) from an energy development area in Wyoming, USA, the Atlantic Rim Project Area (ARPA), and GIS data to identify control sites that were not impacted by energy development for population monitoring. Control sites were surrounded by similar habitat and were within similar climate areas to the ARPA. We developed nonlinear trend models for both the ARPA and control sites and compared long-term trends from the 2 areas. We found little difference between the ARPA and control sites trends over time. This research demonstrated an approach for control site selection across large landscapes and can be used as a template for similar impact-monitoring studies. It is important to note that identification of changes in population parameters between control and treatment sites is only the first step in understanding the mechanisms that underlie those changes. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Concepts of radiation processes selection for industrial realization. Chapter 6

    1997-01-01

    For selection of radiation processes in industry the processes usually are analyzing by technological and social effects, power-insensitivity, common efficiency. Technological effect is generally conditioned with uniqueness of radiation technologies which allow to obtain new material or certain one but with new properties. Social effect first of all concerns with influence of radiation technologies on consumer's psychology. Implementation of equipment for radiation technological process for both the new material production and natural materials radiation treatment is related with decision of three tasks: 1) Choice of radiation source; 2). Creation of special equipment for radiation and untraditional stages of the process; 3) Selection of radiation and other conditions ensuring of achievement of optimal technological and economical indexes

  12. Fundamental Aspects of Selective Melting Additive Manufacturing Processes

    van Swol, Frank B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, James E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Certain details of the additive manufacturing process known as selective laser melting (SLM) affect the performance of the final metal part. To unleash the full potential of SLM it is crucial that the process engineer in the field receives guidance about how to select values for a multitude of process variables employed in the building process. These include, for example, the type of powder (e.g., size distribution, shape, type of alloy), orientation of the build axis, the beam scan rate, the beam power density, the scan pattern and scan rate. The science-based selection of these settings con- stitutes an intrinsically challenging multi-physics problem involving heating and melting a metal alloy, reactive, dynamic wetting followed by re-solidification. In addition, inherent to the process is its considerable variability that stems from the powder packing. Each time a limited number of powder particles are placed, the stacking is intrinsically different from the previous, possessing a different geometry, and having a different set of contact areas with the surrounding particles. As a result, even if all other process parameters (scan rate, etc) are exactly the same, the shape and contact geometry and area of the final melt pool will be unique to that particular configuration. This report identifies the most important issues facing SLM, discusses the fundamental physics associated with it and points out how modeling can support the additive manufacturing efforts.

  13. A new spatial multi-criteria decision support tool for site selection for implementation of managed aquifer recharge.

    Rahman, M Azizur; Rusteberg, Bernd; Gogu, R C; Lobo Ferreira, J P; Sauter, Martin

    2012-05-30

    This study reports the development of a new spatial multi-criteria decision analysis (SMCDA) software tool for selecting suitable sites for Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) systems. The new SMCDA software tool functions based on the combination of existing multi-criteria evaluation methods with modern decision analysis techniques. More specifically, non-compensatory screening, criteria standardization and weighting, and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) have been combined with Weighted Linear Combination (WLC) and Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA). This SMCDA tool may be implemented with a wide range of decision maker's preferences. The tool's user-friendly interface helps guide the decision maker through the sequential steps for site selection, those steps namely being constraint mapping, criteria hierarchy, criteria standardization and weighting, and criteria overlay. The tool offers some predetermined default criteria and standard methods to increase the trade-off between ease-of-use and efficiency. Integrated into ArcGIS, the tool has the advantage of using GIS tools for spatial analysis, and herein data may be processed and displayed. The tool is non-site specific, adaptive, and comprehensive, and may be applied to any type of site-selection problem. For demonstrating the robustness of the new tool, a case study was planned and executed at Algarve Region, Portugal. The efficiency of the SMCDA tool in the decision making process for selecting suitable sites for MAR was also demonstrated. Specific aspects of the tool such as built-in default criteria, explicit decision steps, and flexibility in choosing different options were key features, which benefited the study. The new SMCDA tool can be augmented by groundwater flow and transport modeling so as to achieve a more comprehensive approach to the selection process for the best locations of the MAR infiltration basins, as well as the locations of recovery wells and areas of groundwater protection. The new spatial

  14. Employee Selection Process: Integrating Employee Needs and Employer Motivators.

    Carroll, Brian J.

    1989-01-01

    Offers suggestions for managers relative to the employee selection process, focusing on the identification of a potential employee's needs and the employer's motivators that affect employee productivity. Discusses the use of a preemployment survey and offers a questionnaire that allows matching of the employee's needs with employment…

  15. The process of selecting technology development projects: a practical framework

    Herps, Joost M.J.; van Mal, Herman H.; Halman, Johannes I.M.; Martens, Jack H.M.; Borsboom, Ron H.M.

    2003-01-01

    In this article a practical framework is proposed, that can be used to organise the activities related to the selection-process of technology development projects. The framework is based upon recent literature and application at DAF Trucks Company. A technology development project has a long way to

  16. The process of selecting technology development projects : a practical framework

    Herps, J.M.J.; Mal, van H.H.; Halman, J.I.M.; Martens, J.H.M.; Borsboom, R.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    In this article a practical framework is proposed, that can be used to organise the activities related to the selection-process of technology development projects. The framework is based upon recent literature and application at DAF Trucks Company. A technology development project has a long way to

  17. Effect of Thermo-extrusion Process Parameters on Selected Quality ...

    Effect of Thermo-extrusion Process Parameters on Selected Quality Attributes of Meat Analogue from Mucuna Bean Seed Flour. ... Nigerian Food Journal ... The product functional responses with coefficients of determination (R2) ranging between 0.658 and 0.894 were most affected by changes in barrel temperature and ...

  18. Understanding the selection processes of public research projects

    Materia, V.C.; Pascucci, S.; Kolympiris, C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses factors that affect the funding of agricultural research projects by regional governments and other regional public authorities. We study the selection process of agricultural research projects funded by the emilia Romagna regional government in Italy, which follows funding

  19. Post-duplication charge evolution of phosphoglucose isomerases in teleost fishes through weak selection on many amino acid sites

    Sato Yukuto

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The partitioning of ancestral functions among duplicated genes by neutral evolution, or subfunctionalization, has been considered the primary process for the evolution of novel proteins (neofunctionalization. Nonetheless, how a subfunctionalized protein can evolve into a more adaptive protein is poorly understood, mainly due to the limitations of current analytical methods, which can detect only strong selection for amino acid substitutions involved in adaptive molecular evolution. In this study, we employed a comparative evolutionary approach to this question, focusing on differences in the structural properties of a protein, specifically the electric charge, encoded by fish-specific duplicated phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi genes. Results Full-length cDNA cloning, RT-PCR based gene expression analyses, and comparative sequence analyses showed that after subfunctionalization with respect to the expression organ of duplicate Pgi genes, the net electric charge of the PGI-1 protein expressed mainly in internal tissues became more negative, and that of PGI-2 expressed mainly in muscular tissues became more positive. The difference in net protein charge was attributable not to specific amino acid sites but to the sum of various amino acid sites located on the surface of the PGI molecule. Conclusion This finding suggests that the surface charge evolution of PGI proteins was not driven by strong selection on individual amino acid sites leading to permanent fixation of a particular residue, but rather was driven by weak selection on a large number of amino acid sites and consequently by steady directional and/or purifying selection on the overall structural properties of the protein, which is derived from many modifiable sites. The mode of molecular evolution presented here may be relevant to various cases of adaptive modification in proteins, such as hydrophobic properties, molecular size, and electric charge.

  20. Multicriteria decision analysis based on analytic hierarchy process in GIS environment for siting nuclear power plant in Egypt

    Abudeif, A.M.; Abdel Moneim, A.A.; Farrag, A.F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The binary overlay method was used in Phase I through OR operator for selecting the candidate areas. • The WLC and AHP methods was used to screen and select the potential sites (phase II) in Arc GIS 10.1 software. • In phase III, four sites, all located on the North western coast and Red Sea, of highest scores were chosen as Candidate sites after eliminating the lowest score sites. • The AHP method was applied to select preferred candidate site and calculating the eigenvectors in Expert Choice Software Package. - Abstract: Due to increasing demand of electrical energy and freshwater in Egypt, it is safe to assume that the decision makers will turn to nuclear power as the feasible alternative for energy. However, as time goes by, fewer sites will be available and suitable for nuclear power plant development. Site selection is a key phase of the siting process of a nuclear plant and may significantly affect the safety and cost of the facility during its entire life cycle. The siting of nuclear power plants is one of multi-criteria problems, which makes it complex. Many interrelated factors affect the process. Six constraints and twenty-two factors corresponding to safety, environment and socio-economy were considered in the siting study presented in this paper. Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis was applied during the selection of nuclear power plants site using GIS software. Three spatial decision making models were applied in this paper during site selection stage. The binary overlay (Boolean logic) with Low Risk approach in which the logical OR operator is used to determine the candidate areas. All constraints were represented in binary maps, combined and a masking layer was created to eliminate the lands considered as constraints in Arc GIS Software. The 22 factors were represented in normalized maps after unifying all of them to 0–1 score scales based on the philosophy of suitability criteria (factors) using the Weighted Linear Combination

  1. Nest site selection in a hot desert : Trade-off between microclimate and predation risk?

    Tieleman, B. Irene; van Noordwijk, Hendrika J.; Williams, Joseph B.

    Nest placement affects the risk of predation on both eggs and incubating parents and determines the microclimate for incubation, two functions that may be in conflict, especially in hot deserts. We studied the roles of microclimate and nest predation on nest site selection by Hoopoe Larks (Alaemon

  2. Site-selective three-component reaction for dual-functionalization of peptides

    Munch, Henrik Kofoed; Rasmussen, Jakob Ewald; Popa, Gina

    2013-01-01

    A site-selective dual-functionalization of peptides is presented, involving readily available maleimides as well as N-hydroxylamines. The modification proceeds through a three component 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition, forming a stable product. This was exemplified by the one-pot attachment of two...

  3. Growth of 11 introduced tree species on selected forest sites in Hawaii

    Michael G Buck; Roger H. Imoto

    1982-01-01

    Growth and volume data for trees on 25 plots reprsenting 11 introduced species in Hawaii were recorded during a 21-year period. Tree were measured at about 5-year intervals to determine overall growth and stand development. The sites selected were considered better-than-average in terms of elevation, amount of precipitation, and soil quality. Except for redwood, stands...

  4. On-site energy consumption and selected emissions at softwood sawmills in the southwestern United States

    Dan Loeffler; Nathaniel Anderson; Todd A. Morgan; Colin B. Sorenson

    2016-01-01

    Presently there is a lack of information describing US southwestern energy consumption and emissions generated from the sawmilling industry. This article uses a mail survey of softwood sawmills in the states of Arizona, Colorado, and New Mexico to develop a profile of on-site energy consumption and selected emissions for the industry. Energy consumption is...

  5. Nest site selection of the Southern Pale Chanting Goshawk in the ...

    This study investigated whether Southern Pale Chanting Goshawks Melierax canorus that est in the low woody vegetation of the arid Little Karoo reduce nest predation by selecting nest trees and sites that are less accessible to and conspicuous for terrestrial predators. The 114 nest trees and shrubs sampled were taller (0 ...

  6. Nest site selection and breeding success in three Turdus thrush species coexisting in an urban environment

    Mikula, P.; Hromada, M.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Tryjanowski, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2014), s. 83-92 ISSN 0001-6454 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : breeding success * coexistence * nest-habitat partitioning * nest site selection * predation * synurbization * urban habitat * thrushes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.745, year: 2014

  7. Compilation of 137Cs concentrations at selected sites in the continental United States

    Mohr, R.A.; Franks, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    This report summarizes results of cesium-137 analyses of soil samples obtained at 21 locations throughout the continental United States. The sites were all in the vicinity of operating nuclear power reactors, or those scheduled for operation. Selected fallout and meteorological data are also included

  8. Application of the maximal covering location problem to habitat reserve site selection: a review

    Stephanie A. Snyder; Robert G. Haight

    2016-01-01

    The Maximal Covering Location Problem (MCLP) is a classic model from the location science literature which has found wide application. One important application is to a fundamental problem in conservation biology, the Maximum Covering Species Problem (MCSP), which identifies land parcels to protect to maximize the number of species represented in the selected sites. We...

  9. Glancing up or down: Mood management and selective social comparisons on social networking sites.

    Johnson, B.K.; Knobloch-Westerwick, S.

    2014-01-01

    Social networking sites (SNS) provide opportunities for mood management through selective exposure. This study tested the prediction that negative mood fosters self-enhancing social comparisons to SNS profiles. Participants were induced into positive or negative moods and then browsed manipulated

  10. Nest site selection in native and exotic trees by Black-chinned Hummingbirds

    Deborah M. Finch; Jeffrey Kelly

    2002-01-01

    We studied nest site selection and nesting success in Black-chinned Hummingbirds (Archilochus alexandri) along the middle Rio Grande, New Mexico. The study was conducted in association with an exotic woody plant removal program to determine whether the removal of exotic plants would affect wildlife populations and nesting success, either positively or negatively. Point...

  11. Experiences of risk in connection with site selection for a repository for spent nuclear fuel

    Biel, A.; Dahlstrand, U.

    1991-03-01

    Describes an investigation of the experiences of risks the the Swedish inhabitants have in connection with site selection for a repository for radioactive waste. The attitudes show a rather complicated picture. It is influenced by such factors as: sex, education and distance to the facility. (KAE)

  12. Hot Spots on the Web for Teacher Librarians: A Selection of Recommended Web Sites for TLs To Visit.

    1996

    Six papers review and recommend sites on the Web as resources for teacher librarians include: "Just Do It: A Guide to Getting Out There and Doing It Yourself" (Catherine Ryan); "A Selection of Recommended Web Sites for TLs To Visit" (Karen Bonanno); "A Selection of Recommended Web Sites for TLs To Visit" (Sandra…

  13. Sites that Can Produce Left-handed Amino Acids in the Supernova Neutrino Amino Acid Processing Model

    Boyd, Richard N.; Famiano, Michael A.; Onaka, Takashi; Kajino, Toshitaka

    2018-03-01

    The Supernova Neutrino Amino Acid Processing model, which uses electron anti-neutrinos and the magnetic field from a source object such as a supernova to selectively destroy one amino acid chirality, is studied for possible sites that would produce meteoroids with partially left-handed amino acids. Several sites appear to provide the requisite magnetic field intensities and electron anti-neutrino fluxes. These results have obvious implications for the origin of life on Earth.

  14. Overview of the site selection, geological and engineering problems facing radioactive waste disposal at Sellafield, UK

    Haszeldine, R.S.; Smythe, D.K.

    1996-01-01

    UK Nirex Ltd is the company charged with finding a suitable site for the disposal of radioactive waste in the United Kingdom. Since 1991, Nirex has concentrated its site investigation work at Longlands Farm which is owned by British Nuclear Fuels Ltd and is near their Sellafield site. Planning permission was sought for the development of an underground Rock Characterisation Facility (RCF) at the site in 1994. A public Planning Inquiry began in September 1995. A wide range of scientific and technical objections were put by expert witnesses against the Nirex Proposal. These witnesses were co-ordinated by three Objecting Organisations - Cumbria County Council, Friends of the Earth and Greenpeace. Their written evidence is presented in this book. The grounds of the objections include: the inadequacy of the methodology adopted by Nirex for site selection and investigation; The unsuitability of the site geology, hydrology and geochemistry; that construction of the RCF would destroy the data essential to deciding site suitability; that the RCF would provide a conduit for the release of radioactivity; a number of features in the Nirex risk assessment that would lead to an underestimation of the potential risks of a repository at this site. (UK)

  15. Japan's Siting Process for the Geological Disposal of High-level Radioactive Waste - An International Peer Review

    Brassinnes, Stephane; Fabbri, Olivier; Rubenstone, James; Seppaelae, Timo; Siemann, Michael; ); Kwong, Gloria; )

    2016-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy Agency carried out an independent peer review of Japan's siting process and criteria for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in May 2016. The review concluded that Japan's site screening process is generally in accordance with international practices. As the goal of the siting process is to locate a site - that is both appropriate and accepted by the community - to host a geological disposal facility for high-level radioactive waste, the international review team emphasises in this report the importance of maintaining an open dialogue and interaction between the regulator, the implementer and the public. Dialogue should begin in the early phases and continue throughout the siting process. The international review team also underlines the importance of taking into account feasibility aspects when selecting a site for preliminary investigations, but suggests that it would be inappropriate to set detailed scientific criteria for nationwide screening at this stage. The team has provided extensive advisory remarks in the report as opportunities for improvement, including the recommendation to use clear and consistent terminology in defining the site screening criteria as it is a critical factor in a successful siting process. (authors)

  16. Inclusion of social indicators in decision support tools for the selection of sustainable site remediation options.

    Cappuyns, Valérie

    2016-12-15

    Sustainable remediation requires a balanced decision-making process in which environmental, economic and social aspects of different remediation options are all considered together and the optimum remediation solution is selected. More attention has been paid to the evaluation of environmental and economic aspects, in particular to reduce the human and environmental risks and the remediation costs, to the exclusion of social aspects of remediation. This paper investigates how social aspects are currently considered in sustainability assessments of remediation projects. A selection of decision support tools (DSTs), used for the sustainability assessment of a remediation project, is analyzed to define how social aspects are considered in those tools. The social indicator categories of the Sustainable Remediation Forum - United Kingdom (SuRF-UK), are used as a basis for this evaluation. The consideration of social aspects in the investigated decision support tools is limited, but a clear increase is noticed in more recently developed tools. Among the five social indicator categories defined by SuRF-UK to facilitate a holistic consideration of social aspects of a remediation project only "Human health and safety" is systematically taken into account. "Neighbourhood and locality" is also often addressed, mostly emphasizing the potential disturbance caused by the remediation activities. However, the evaluation of 'Ethics and Equality', Communities and community involvement', and 'Uncertainty and evidence' is often neglected. Nevertheless, concrete examples can be found in some of the investigated tools. Specific legislation, standard procedures, and guidelines that have to be followed in a region or country are mainly been set up in the context of protecting human and ecosystem health, safety and prevention of nuisance. However, they sometimes already include some of the aspects addressed by the social indicators. In this perspective the use of DST to evaluate the

  17. Process for Selecting System Level Assessments for Human System Technologies

    Watts, James; Park, John

    2006-01-01

    The integration of many life support systems necessary to construct a stable habitat is difficult. The correct identification of the appropriate technologies and corresponding interfaces is an exhaustive process. Once technologies are selected secondary issues such as mechanical and electrical interfaces must be addressed. The required analytical and testing work must be approached in a piecewise fashion to achieve timely results. A repeatable process has been developed to identify and prioritize system level assessments and testing needs. This Assessment Selection Process has been defined to assess cross cutting integration issues on topics at the system or component levels. Assessments are used to identify risks, encourage future actions to mitigate risks, or spur further studies.

  18. Predictive Active Set Selection Methods for Gaussian Processes

    Henao, Ricardo; Winther, Ole

    2012-01-01

    We propose an active set selection framework for Gaussian process classification for cases when the dataset is large enough to render its inference prohibitive. Our scheme consists of a two step alternating procedure of active set update rules and hyperparameter optimization based upon marginal...... high impact to the classifier decision process while removing those that are less relevant. We introduce two active set rules based on different criteria, the first one prefers a model with interpretable active set parameters whereas the second puts computational complexity first, thus a model...... with active set parameters that directly control its complexity. We also provide both theoretical and empirical support for our active set selection strategy being a good approximation of a full Gaussian process classifier. Our extensive experiments show that our approach can compete with state...

  19. Soil attributes drive nest-site selection by the campo miner Geositta poeciloptera

    Teixeira, João Paulo Gusmão; Solar, Ricardo; Vasconcelos, Bruno Nery F.; Fernandes, Raphael B. A.; Lopes, Leonardo Esteves

    2018-01-01

    Substrate type is a key-factor in nest-site selection and nest architecture of burrowing birds. However, little is known about which factors drive nest-site selection for these species, especially in the tropics. We studied the influence of soil attributes on nest-site selection by the campo miner Geositta poeciloptera, an open grassland bird that builds its nests within soil cavities. For all nests found, we measured the depth of the nest cavity and the resistance of the soil to penetration, and identified the soil horizon in which the nest was located. In soil banks with nests, we collected soil samples for granulometric analysis around each nest cavity, while in soil banks without nests we collected these samples at random points. From 43 nests found, 86% were located in the deeper soil horizons (C-horizon), and only 14% in the shallower horizons (B-horizon). Granulometric analysis showed that the C-horizons possessed a high similar granulometric composition, with high silt and low clay contents. These characteristics are associated with a low degree of structural development of the soil, which makes it easier to excavate. Contrarily, soil resistance to penetration does not seem to be an important criterion for nest site selection, although nests in more resistant the soils tend to have shallower nest cavities. Among the soil banks analyzed, 40% of those without cavities possessed a larger proportion of B-horizon relative to the C-horizon, and their texture was more clayey. On the other hand, almost all soil banks containing nest cavities had a larger C-horizon and a silty texture, indicating that soil attributes drive nest-site selection by G. poeciloptera. Thus, we conclude that the patchy distribution of G. poeciloptera can attributed to the infrequent natural exposure of the C-horizon in the tropical region, where well developed, deep and permeable soils are more common. PMID:29381768

  20. Soil attributes drive nest-site selection by the campo miner Geositta poeciloptera.

    Meireles, Ricardo Camargos de; Teixeira, João Paulo Gusmão; Solar, Ricardo; Vasconcelos, Bruno Nery F; Fernandes, Raphael B A; Lopes, Leonardo Esteves

    2018-01-01

    Substrate type is a key-factor in nest-site selection and nest architecture of burrowing birds. However, little is known about which factors drive nest-site selection for these species, especially in the tropics. We studied the influence of soil attributes on nest-site selection by the campo miner Geositta poeciloptera, an open grassland bird that builds its nests within soil cavities. For all nests found, we measured the depth of the nest cavity and the resistance of the soil to penetration, and identified the soil horizon in which the nest was located. In soil banks with nests, we collected soil samples for granulometric analysis around each nest cavity, while in soil banks without nests we collected these samples at random points. From 43 nests found, 86% were located in the deeper soil horizons (C-horizon), and only 14% in the shallower horizons (B-horizon). Granulometric analysis showed that the C-horizons possessed a high similar granulometric composition, with high silt and low clay contents. These characteristics are associated with a low degree of structural development of the soil, which makes it easier to excavate. Contrarily, soil resistance to penetration does not seem to be an important criterion for nest site selection, although nests in more resistant the soils tend to have shallower nest cavities. Among the soil banks analyzed, 40% of those without cavities possessed a larger proportion of B-horizon relative to the C-horizon, and their texture was more clayey. On the other hand, almost all soil banks containing nest cavities had a larger C-horizon and a silty texture, indicating that soil attributes drive nest-site selection by G. poeciloptera. Thus, we conclude that the patchy distribution of G. poeciloptera can attributed to the infrequent natural exposure of the C-horizon in the tropical region, where well developed, deep and permeable soils are more common.