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Sample records for site radon studies

  1. Radon in an underground excavation site in Helsinki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venelampi, E.

    2004-01-01

    The paper reports on radon measurements and actions taken in a large underground excavation site in Helsinki, where a coal store was excavated underneath an existing power plant. The measurements were carried out by taking grab samples using Lucas type scintillation cells. Large variations in radon concentrations were observed during the three-year study. The reasons for variations are discussed and recommendations are given for radon monitoring procedures in underground excavation sites. The importance of ventilation to reduce the radon level is stressed. (P.A.)

  2. Radon levels at the rehabilitated Nabarlek mine site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tims, S.; Ryan, B.; Martin, P.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: A high sensitivity radon monitor has now been in continuous operation at the Nabarlek mine site for several months. The pit area can be viewed as a single, extended radon source, which can be used to assess the validity of radon dispersal predictions. The data have been recorded simultaneously with a variety of meteorological parameters, with a view to using correlations between the data sets as a guide for the improvement of dispersion model inputs. The sensitivity of radon concentration to selected parameters will be discussed, as will the future of the study which aims to make additional simultaneous radon measurements at selected locations around the mine site

  3. Radiological Programs- Ambient Radon at the Yucca Mountain Site (SCPB:NA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRW

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the ambient radon monitoring activities conducted by the Radiological/Environmental Field Programs Department of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management and Operating Contractor (CRWMS M and O), Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Office. Overall, outdoor radon concentrations measured at the Yucca Mountain site were within the range of those reported for other areas in Nevada and the continental United States. Though there was some evidence of trends with time at some monitoring sites, regional atmospheric radon concentrations to date, do not appear to have changed significantly since the inception of site characterization activities. A preliminary dose assessment yielded an estimated annual effective dose equivalent of 134 mrem based on a continuous exposure to the average ambient radon concentration measured at the Yucca Mountain site. Concentrations were measured using two types of systems, passive electret ion chambers (EIC) and continuous radon monitors (CRM). The EICs produced time-averaged radon concentration data and the CRMs were used to study radon fluctuations over time. Between 1991 and 1995, the mean radon concentration at the site, as measured by EICs placed one meter above ground level, was 0.32 ± 0.15 pCi L -1 . Radon concentrations varied between monitoring locations and between years. Station NF38, located near the North Portal of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), exhibited the highest overall average radon concentration at 0.55 pCi L -1 (1992 to 1995). Concentrations appear to cycle diurnally, generally peaking in the early morning hours and being lowest in the afternoon. The data also suggested that radon concentrations may fluctuate seasonally. The work accomplished between 1991 and 1995, established radon levels in the general area surrounding Yucca Mountain. It is recommended that further work focus directly on those locations that have the greatest potential for influencing ambient radon levels

  4. Continuous, environmental radon monitoring program at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, N.; Sorensen, C.D.; Tung, C.H.; Orchard, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    A continuous, environmental radon monitoring program has been established in support of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The monitoring program is to characterize the natural radon emissions at the YMP site, to understand the existing radon concentrations in the environmental background, and to assess and control the potential work exposure. Based upon a study of the monitoring results, this paper presents a preliminary understanding of the magnitudes, characteristics, and exposure levels of radon at the YMP site

  5. Radon impact at a remediated uranium mine site in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimori, Yuu

    2011-01-01

    This paper mainly illustrates the radon impact of the closed uranium mine site remediated in 2007. The site remediated is the waste rock site located on the steep slope of a hill about 1.5 km upstream from a residential area along a main ravine. Major remedial action was to cover these waste rock yards with weathering granite soil. The radon flux density after remediation was intended to be 0.1 Bqm -2 s -1 in consideration with the natural background level around Ningyo-toge because there is no value of radon flux density regulated in Japan. Our action decreased the radon concentration in the site to natural background level, approximately from 10 to 40 Bqm -3 , although relatively high concentration in excess of 100 Bqm -3 was observed before remediation. On the other hand, our action did not decrease the radon concentrations around the site in general. This fact proved that the limited source such as waste rocks affected the radon concentrations at neighboring area only. The similar tendencies were also observed in other environmental data such as radon progeny concentrations. In conclusion, these findings proved that our remedial action was successful against radon. This fact will lead to more reasonable action plans for other closed mine sites. (author)

  6. Outdoor radon monitoring plan for the UMTRA Project sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    This document describes the monitoring schedules and methods used to measure ambient radon concentrations around Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites. Radon monitoring at both processing sites and disposal sites is performed primarily for two reasons. The first, and foremost, of these is to provide a means to keep the off-site radon concentrations during the construction activities As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). The second purpose is to provide a basis for comparison with the EPA standards developed for the UMTRA Project. Radon monitoring data are also used to demonstrate compliance with ambient concentration standards and for public information due to concern about potential radiation releases during construction. 1 fig., 1 tab

  7. Orphan radon daughters at Denver Radium site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holub, R.F.; Droullard, R.F.; Davis, T.H.

    1992-01-01

    During 18 mo of sampling airborne radioactively at a National Priority List (open-quotes Superfundclose quotes) site in metroPOlitan Denver, Bureau of mines personnel discovered radon daughters that are not supported by the parent radon gas. We refer to them as open-quotes orphanclose quotes daughters because the parent, radon, is not present in sufficient concentration to support the measured daughter products. Measurements of the open-quotes orphanclose quotes daughters were made continuously, using the Bureau-developed radon and working-level (radon-daughter) monitors. The data showed high equilibrium ratios, ranging from 0.7 to 3.5, for long periods of time. Repeated, high-volume, 15-min grab samples were made, using the modified Tsivoglou method, to measure radon daughters, to which thoron daughters contributed 26 ± 12%. On average 28 ± 6% of the particulate activity was contributed by thoron daughters. Most samples were mixtures in which the 218 Po concentration was lower than that of 214 Pb and 214 Bi, in agreement with the high-equilibrium factors obtained from the continuous sampling data. In view of the short half-life of radon progeny, we conclude that the source of the orphan daughters is not far from the Superfund sites. The mechanism of this phenomenon is not understood at this time, but we will discuss its possible significance in evaluating population doses

  8. Radon levels after restoration of the U-mine disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krizman, M.J.; Rojc, J.; Jovanovic, P.

    2010-01-01

    After cessation of the underground mining of uranium ore and production of uranium concentrate at Zirovski Vrh (Slovenia) in the period 1985-1990, two permanent surface disposal sites remained, namely, tailings pile and mine waste rock pile. Both disposal sites were of equal size of 4 hectares and were significant sources of radon. Their final restoration was designed in compliance with the condition of dose constraint for the public and authorized limits for radon exhalation from the remediated piles. In the late summer of 2008, a restoration of the mine waste pile was finished. Radon releases were reduced significantly by constructing an effective radon barrier of well compacted clay material and a thick complex protective cover layer constructed over it. Radon exhalation rate from the mine waste area was lowered from primary level of 0.7 Bq/m 2 ·s to natural levels (0.01 Bq/m 2 ·s), and consequently, ambient radon levels also decreased on the site and nearby environment. The average radon contribution from the remaining U-mine sources was estimated on the basis of the environmental measurements of radon concentrations; they dropped from initial 7-9 Bq/m 3 to approximately 3 Bq/m 3 . Further reduction of outdoor radon concentrations is expected after 2010, since the restoration of another disposal site will have been completed by the end of this year. Public exposure due to industrial radon after the first phase of restoration satisfactorily meets the dose constraint level of 0.3 mSv/y, since it decreased to less than 0.1 mSv/y. (authors)

  9. Radon in soils: intercomparative studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia, N.; Galle, C.; Seidel, J.-L.; Monnin, M.

    1988-01-01

    Two kinds of experiments were designed to evaluate some of the variations that can be expected from radon in soil concentrations as monitored by closely spaced solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). Measurements were performed by the Insituto Nacional de Investigations Nucleares in Mexico and the Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire in France. The first experimental design consisted of a series of 15 day exposures of twenty monitoring devices placed inside a single bore hole. Fluctuations obtained in the radon levels at the twenty closely spaced monitoring sites ranged from 9% to 33%. The second experiment was performed with 4 pairs of radon monitoring devices located at 4 different sites at the summit of the Nevado de Toluca volcano. Results show that the SSNTD technique is well suited for radon measurements intended for geophysical studies. (author)

  10. Radon in soils: intercomparative studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia, N.; Galle, C. (Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Mexico City (Mexico)); Seidel, J.-L.; Monnin, M. (Clermont-Ferrand-2 Univ., 63 - Aubiere (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire)

    1988-01-01

    Two kinds of experiments were designed to evaluate some of the variations that can be expected from radon in soil concentrations as monitored by closely spaced solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). Measurements were performed by the Insituto Nacional de Investigations Nucleares in Mexico and the Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire in France. The first experimental design consisted of a series of 15 day exposures of twenty monitoring devices placed inside a single bore hole. Fluctuations obtained in the radon levels at the twenty closely spaced monitoring sites ranged from 9% to 33%. The second experiment was performed with 4 pairs of radon monitoring devices located at 4 different sites at the summit of the Nevado de Toluca volcano. Results show that the SSNTD technique is well suited for radon measurements intended for geophysical studies. (author).

  11. Environmental site assessments should include radon gas testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardi, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    There are two emerging influences that will require radon gas testing as part of many property transfers and most site assessments. These requirements come from lending regulators and state legislatures. Fannie Mae and others have developed environmental investigation guidelines for the purchase of environmentally contaminated real estate. These guidelines include radon gas testing for many properties. Several states have enacted laws that require environmental disclosure forms be prepared to ensure that the parties involved in certain real estate transactions are aware of the environmental liabilities that may come with the transfer of property. Indiana has recently enacted legislation that would require the disclosure of the presence of radon gas on many commercial real estate transactions. With more lenders and state governments likely to follow this trend, radon gas testing should be performed during all property transfers and site assessment to protect the parties involved from any legal liabilities

  12. The measurement of radon concentration of soil in a civil construction site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hanbin; Fan Guang

    2004-01-01

    Radon is one of radioactive resources which do harm to human body. Therefore, its concentration in the soil should be measured before the civil construction works. Code for Indoor Environmental Pollution Control of Civil Building Engineering (GB50325-2001) is the main norm used for soil radon concentration measurement. By using FD-3017 RaA radon measuring equipment, the soil radon concentration in a civil building engineering site has been measured, the result shows that the concentration is lower than the regional average value, radon protective measures should not be installed in that site. (authors)

  13. Occupational exposure to radon in Australian Tourist Caves an Australian-wide study of radon levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, S.B.; Langroo, R.; Peggie, J.R.; Lyons, R.G.; James, J.M.

    1996-02-01

    The study described in this report sets out to determine which Australian show caves have long- term radon levels in excess of the proposed action level of 1000 Bq m -3 . The collaborative study between the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL), the University of Sydney and the University of Auckland, was carried out with the support of a Research Grant from Worksafe Australia. The aims of this study were to measure radon levels for each season over a period of one year, at representative sites in all developed show caves around Australia, to determine yearly average radon levels for each cave tour, based on these site measurements, to estimate the radiation doses to the tour guides employed in these caves, and to identify caves with radon concentrations in excess of the action level. (authors)

  14. Occupational exposure to radon in Australian Tourist Caves an Australian-wide study of radon levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, S B; Langroo, R; Peggie, J R [Australian Radiation Laboratory. Yallambie, VIC (Australia); Lyons, R G [University of Auckland, Auckland, (New Zealand). Department of Physics; James, J M [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Department of Chemisty

    1996-02-01

    The study described in this report sets out to determine which Australian show caves have long- term radon levels in excess of the proposed action level of 1000 Bq m{sup -3}. The collaborative study between the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL), the University of Sydney and the University of Auckland, was carried out with the support of a Research Grant from Worksafe Australia. The aims of this study were to measure radon levels for each season over a period of one year, at representative sites in all developed show caves around Australia, to determine yearly average radon levels for each cave tour, based on these site measurements, to estimate the radiation doses to the tour guides employed in these caves, and to identify caves with radon concentrations in excess of the action level. (authors) 7 refs., 10 tabs., 2 figs.

  15. Radon in outdoor air at various sites in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulko, Martin; Holy, Karol; Muellerova, Monika; Polaskova, Anna; Hola, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Radon 222 was continuously monitored at four sites of Slovakia, viz. at the campus of the Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University in Bratislava (FMPI CU), at the Slovak Metrological Institute in Bratislava (SMI), at Jaslovske Bohunice (with its nuclear power plant), and at Novaky (coal mining area). The minima and maxima of the daily radon waves occurred at different periods of the day. The average radon activity concentration (RAC) in Novaky was more than twice as high as at the remaining sites, presumably due to a higher rate of radon exhalation from soil. By using the 'box' model, the exhalation rate at Novaky was estimated to be 40 mBq.m -2 .s -1 , which is about 2.5 times that at the FMPI CU in Bratislava. This higher exhalation rate in Novaky is probably caused by a different bedrock in this area. The average annual effective dose from radon and its daughters estimated by the UNSCEAR methodology is 0.06 mSv in the atmosphere of Bratislava and Jaslovske Bohunice and 0.13 mSv in the atmosphere of Novaky

  16. Decommissioning/closeout of Malargue site: measurement of radon daughter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila Cadena, Guadalberto

    2000-01-01

    In Malargue complex there are about 700,000 mt of uranium tailings disposed off during 32 years of operation of the Malargue facility. The objective of the Malargue Site is to undertake the necessary actions to execute remediation programs. A summary of measurements of concentrations of radon daughter taken in different buildings of the city and in the field shows the influence of radon source. The results obtain for concentrations of radon daughter indicate that they do not differ significantly between each others. The environmental remediation of uranium mill tailings at Malargue Site is a requirement of Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) and of the Mendoza province and a commitment to reduce the doses as low as reasonably achievable, social and economic factors being taken into account (ALARA concept). (author)

  17. Analysis of soil radon data in earthquake precursory studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Prasad Jaishi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil radon data were recorded at two selected sites along Mat fault in Mizoram (India, which lies in the highest seismic zone in India. The study was carried out during July 2011 to May 2013 using LR-115 Type II films. Precursory changes in radon concentration were observed prior to some earthquakes that occurred around the measuring sites. Positive correlation was found between the measured radon data and the seismic activity in the region. Statistical analysis of the radon data together with the meteorological parameters was done using Multiple Regression Method. Results obtained show that the method employed was useful for removing the effect of meteorological parameters and to identify radon maxima possibly caused by seismic activity.

  18. Study of the radon released from open drill holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacer, J.C.

    1981-06-01

    The radon emanating from three open drill holes was measured at a site of known uranium mineralization in the Red Desert of south central Wyoming. The radon flux from the soil and drill holes was measured by the accumulator method with activated charcoal cartridges. The surface soil was found to release radon at an average rate of 0.41 atoms/cm 2 /sec; the radon emanating from the holes was more variable than that from the soil. The three holes studied released an average of 47 atoms/cm 2 /sec of radon. This average is equivalent to the radon released to the atmosphere by 14.5 ft 2 of soil. The data indicate that the radon emanated from an open drill hole is not as significant as other possible activities at a drill site (i.e. digging a trench or drilling a hole) or from household activities involving the usage of water

  19. Indoor Radon Concentration Related to Different Radon Areas and Indoor Radon Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhásová Šenitková, Ingrid; Šál, Jiří

    2017-12-01

    Indoor radon has been observed in the buildings at areas with different radon risk potential. Preventive measures are based on control of main potential radon sources (soil gas, building material and supplied water) to avoid building of new houses above recommended indoor radon level 200 Bq/m3. Radon risk (index) estimation of individual building site bedrock in case of new house siting and building protection according technical building code are obligatory. Remedial actions in buildings built at high radon risk areas were carried out principally by unforced ventilation and anti-radon insulation. Significant differences were found in the level of radon concentration between rooms where radon reduction techniques were designed and those where it was not designed. The mathematical model based on radon exhalation from soil has been developed to describe the physical processes determining indoor radon concentration. The model is focused on combined radon diffusion through the slab and advection through the gap from sub-slab soil. In this model, radon emanated from building materials is considered not having a significant contribution to indoor radon concentration. Dimensional analysis and Gauss-Newton nonlinear least squares parametric regression were used to simplify the problem, identify essential input variables and find parameter values. The presented verification case study is introduced for real buildings with respect to various underground construction types. Presented paper gives picture of possible mathematical approach to indoor radon concentration prediction.

  20. Radon diffusion coefficients for soils. Previous studies and their application to uranium-bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Tomozo; Gunji, Yasuyoshi; Iida, Takao

    2008-01-01

    Radon diffusion in soils has been studied over the years by many researchers. The application of such studies to the evaluation of radiation exposure caused by radon from uranium-bearing wastes disposed in a shallow land site is very important. The present paper surveyed closely relevant studies and elucidated the inherent nature of radon diffusion in terms of the definition of radon diffusion coefficients. Then, basic features of measurement methods for determining radon diffusion coefficients in soils were explained. Furthermore, theoretical aspects of radon diffusion in soils were discussed in terms of microscopic radon diffusion in soils and large-scale radon diffusion through cover soil defects for uranium mill tailings. Finally, in order to apply the radon diffusion studies to uranium-bearing waste disposal in shallow land sites, new challenges were presented: elucidation of radon diffusion in uranium-bearing wastes and cover-soil cracks, and demonstration of the validity of applying only radon diffusion in the evaluation of radiation exposure caused by radon, which would come through Japanese cover soils for uranium-bearing waste disposal. (author)

  1. A charcoal canister survey of radon emanation at the rehabilitated uranium mine site at Nabarlek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm, J.R.; Patterson, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a recent survey of radon emanation measurements from the rehabilitated Nabarlek mine site. It was mined out in 1979, decommissioned in 1995 and provided a good test bed for assessment of rehabilitation in terms of radon flux attenuation. Measurements have been made with charcoal canisters. Studies to measure the radon-220 flux by observing Tl-208 progeny of thoron the effectiveness of trial covers and meteorological considerations will be reported

  2. A charcoal canister survey of radon emanation at the rehabilitated uranium mine site at Nabarlek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storm, J R; Patterson, J R [University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA (Australia). Department of Physics and Mathematical Physics

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes a recent survey of radon emanation measurements from the rehabilitated Nabarlek mine site. It was mined out in 1979, decommissioned in 1995 and provided a good test bed for assessment of rehabilitation in terms of radon flux attenuation. Measurements have been made with charcoal canisters. Studies to measure the radon-220 flux by observing Tl-208 progeny of thoron the effectiveness of trial covers and meteorological considerations will be reported.

  3. BGS Radon Protective Measures GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, D.; Adlam, K.

    2000-01-01

    The British Geological Survey Radon Protective Measures Geographical Information System is described. The following issues are highlighted: Identification of development sites where radon protection is required in new dwellings; Mapping radon potential on the basis of house radon and geology; Radon Protective Measures GIS; Radon site reports; and Follow-up radon protective measures sire reports

  4. Radon and radon daughter measurements at and near the former Middlesex Sampling Plant, Middlesex, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, F.F.; Perdue, P.T.; Christian, D.J.; Leggett, R.W.; Dickson, H.W.; Myrick, T.E.

    1980-03-01

    The results of the radon and radon daughter measurements made to date (1978) at the Middlesex Sampling Plant in Middlesex, New Jersey, are presented in this report. These measurements were one portion of a more comprehensive radiological survey conducted at this site and the surrounding area from 1976 to 1978. The surveyed property served as a uranium ore sampling plant during the 1940's and early 1950's and as a result contains elevated levels of surface an subsurface contamination. On-site indoor radon daughter and radon concentrations exceeded both the US Surgeon General Guidelines and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's maximum permissible concentration limits for radon (10 CFR Part 20) in all structures surveyed. Off-site structures showed concentrations of radon and radon daughters at or only slightly above background levels, except for one site where the radon levels were found to be above the 10 CFR Part 20 guidelines. Outdoor radon ad radon daughter concentrations, measured both on and off the site, were well below the guidelines, and the data give no indication of significant radon transport from the site

  5. Radon and progeny sourced dose assessment of spa employees in balneological sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemal Uzun, Sefa; Demiroez, Isik

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted in the scope of IAEA project with the name 'Establishing a Systematic Radioactivity Survey and Total Effective Dose Assessment in Natural Balneological Sites' (TUR/9/018), at the Health Physics department of Saraykoey Nuclear Research and Training Center (SANAEM). The aim of this study is estimation of radon and progeny sourced effective dose for the people who are working at the spa facilities by measuring radon activity concentration (RAC) at the ambient air of indoor spa pools and dressing rooms. As it is known, the source of the radon gas is the radium content of the earth crust. Therefore, thermal waters coming from ground may contain dissolved radon and the radon can diffuse water to air. So the ambient air of spa pools can contain serious RAC that depends on a lot of parameters. In this regard, RAC measurements were executed at the 70 spa facilities in Turkey. The measurements were done with both active and passive methods at ambient air of spa pools and dressing rooms. Thus, active measurements were carried out by using the Alphaguard R with diffusion mode during half an hour, and passive measurements were carried out by using the humidity resistive CR-39 radon detectors during 2 months. Results show that RAC values at ambient air of spa pools varies between 13 Bq m -3 and 10 kBq m -3 . Because long-term measurements are more reliable, if it is available, for dose calculations passive radon measurements (with CR-39 detectors) at ambient air of spa pools and dressing rooms were used, otherwise active measurement results were used. With the measurement by the conversion coefficients of ICRP 65 and occupational data of the employees has got from questionnaire forms, effective dose values were calculated. According to the calculations, spa employees are exposed to annual average dose between 0.05 and 29 mSv because of radon and progeny. (authors)

  6. Radon-222 in boundary layer and free tropospheric continental outflow events at three ACE-Asia sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahorowski, Wlodek; Chambers, Scott; Wang Tao

    2005-01-01

    A 1-year record of hourly atmospheric radon-222 concentration observations at three ACE-Asia network sites Hok Tsui (Hong Kong), Gosan (Jeju Island) and Mauna Loa Observatory (Hawaii) is presented and discussed. The observations include the spring 2001 ACE-Asia intensive operation period. Site locations were chosen for the experimental characterization of both boundary layer (Hok Tsui, Gosan) and free tropospheric (Mauna Loa) continental outflow to the Pacific. A significant seasonal variability in background radon concentration is quantified at each site with the ratios of winter maximum to summer minimum background of 96, 15 and 3 for Hok Tsui, Gosan and Mauna Loa, respectively. Only during summer were background radon concentrations directly comparable with unperturbed marine values (20 mBq/m 3 ). The variability in radon signal was characterized at each site on diurnal to seasonal timescales. The seasonal variability in fetch regions for air masses experiencing the greatest and smallest terrestrial influence was characterized using 10-day back trajectories of air masses corresponding to radon concentrations higher (lower) than the 90th (10th) percentile value. The trajectory analyses for Hok Tsui and Gosan, as well as a direct analysis of the experimental results, further supports the previously postulated existence of a strong spatial heterogeneity in the radon source strength in East Asia. Back trajectories of free tropospheric air masses reaching Mauna Loa indicated source regions deep within the Asian continent primarily between 20 and 40 deg N. This fetch region is different from that influencing the Hok Tsui and Gosan sites. The radon concentration of air masses reaching Mauna Loa was shown to vary seasonally as well as with latitude of the predominant fetch region. Possible mechanisms of this phenomenon have been identified and include (a) seasonal variation in the radon source, (b) seasonal variation in the strength, frequency and/or efficiency of

  7. Review of existing instrumentation and evaluation of possibilities for research and development of instrumentation to determine future levels of radon at a proposed building site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The rate at which radon enters houses from the soil depends on the pressure differential between the house and the soil, the resistance of the soil to gas movement, and the radon release rate of the soil near the house. The pressure differential between house and soil is caused by wind forces and temperature differences, which depend on the size of the building and the season, and are therefore almost independent of the site location. The soil resistance (permeability) and radon release rate are site specific, and a computer study of radon movement through the soil suggested that these parameters could be combined to give a Radon Index Number (RIN) for a site that would be proportional to the radon entry rate into a typical house. Regional RIN estimates would be produced using existing airborne gamma survey maps to estimate average soil radon release rate, plus agricultural soil classification maps to estimate permeability. Area RIN estimates would be produced using portable gamma spectroscopy equipment to estimate soil radon release rates over an area, plus simple soil grain size analysis techniques to estimate permeability. Site RIN estimates would be produced using laboratory techniques to measure both the radon release rate and the permeability of several undisturbed soil core samples taken at depths over the site. These would provide the most accurate value of RIN possible for a given site

  8. Radon diffusion studies in air, gravel, sand, soil and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.; Singh, S.; Virk, H.S.

    1993-01-01

    Radon isotopes are practically inert and have properties of gases under conditions of geological interest. During their brief lives their atoms are capable of moving from sites of their generation. Radon diffusion studies were carried out in air, gravel, sand, soil and water using silicon diffused junction electronic detector, Alphameter-400. Diffusion constant and diffusion length is calculated for all these materials. (author)

  9. Radon Concentration in Outdoors and Indoors Around the Flare in Oil Mine Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutarman; Wahyudi; Luhantara

    2003-01-01

    The flares are much found at the oil exploration areas which appear the combustion gases emission to the environment that pass through a pipe at about 8 m high from the ground level. The flare is released into the environment together with the hydrocarbon and radon gases. This study has been carried out the measurement of the radon gas concentration only. Radon is a radioactive gas which comes from the natural radioactive decay of uranium ( 238 U). The outdoor radon concentrations were measured in 23 locations with the two-filter method. The locations were determined by a circle which the flare as the point center. The outdoor radon concentrations were measured in 74 houses (more than distance of 600 m from the flare) with the alpha track detector (CR-39) placed in the living rooms for about three months. The measurements of the radon concentrations were carried out in Cepu, Cirebon, and Prabumulih oil mine sites. The results showed that the outdoor radon concentrations a range of 108 Bq/m 3 to 256 Bq/m 3 in Cepu, 248 Bq/m 3 to 3525 Bq/m 3 in Cirebon, and 51 Bq/m 3 to 114 Bq/m 3 in Prabumulih. The results showed that the indoor radon concentrations a range of 11 Bq/m 3 to 38 Bq/m 3 in Cepu, 28 Bq/m 3 to 184 Bq/m 3 in Cirebon, and 12 Bq/m 3 to 38 Bq/m 3 in Prabumulih. The data of the maximum radon concentration in outdoor air was higher than an actual level which recommended by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for workplaces. The maximum radon concentration in indoor air was lower than an actual level which recommended by IAEA for dwellings. IAEA recommends the actual level of 1000 Bq/m 3 for workplaces and 200 Bq/m 3 for dwellings. These data will be used for the baseline data of the environmental radioactivity in Indonesia. (author)

  10. Radon as a natural geochemical tracer for study of groundwater discharge into lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Axel

    2008-01-01

    In the presented work the suitability of the naturally occurring radioactive noble gas isotope radon-222 for qualitative and quantitative description of groundwater discharge into lakes was studied. Basis of these investigations was the development of two innovative techniques for the on-site determination of radon in water. In the ex-situ radon measurement procedure, water from the source concerned is taken up in an exchange cell used for this purpose. Inside this cell, the radon dissolved in water is transferred via diffusion into a closed counter-flow of air and subsequently detected by a radon-in-air monitor. Where the in-situ radon determination is concerned, a module composed of a semipermeable membrane is introduced into a water column. Subsequently, the radon dissolved in the water body diffuses through the membrane into the corresponding air flow, by means of which it is transferred into a radon-in-air monitor and is detected. Combination of the developed mobile radon extraction techniques with a suitable and portable radon monitor allow the detection of radon-222 with sufficient accuracy (smaller 20 %) in groundwater as well as in surface waters, i.e., within a broad range of concentrations. Radon-222 was subsequently used to characterize groundwater discharge into a meromictic and a dimictic lake, i.e. two types of lake basically distinct from each other with respect to their water circulation properties were investigated. The use of the noble gas isotope radon-222 as a geochemical tracer makes the application of on-site detection techniques possible and that this in turn permits a rapid, reliable, and cost-effective assessment of groundwater discharge rates into lake water bodies

  11. Radon as a natural geochemical tracer for study of groundwater discharge into lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Axel

    2008-06-27

    In the presented work the suitability of the naturally occurring radioactive noble gas isotope radon-222 for qualitative and quantitative description of groundwater discharge into lakes was studied. Basis of these investigations was the development of two innovative techniques for the on-site determination of radon in water. In the ex-situ radon measurement procedure, water from the source concerned is taken up in an exchange cell used for this purpose. Inside this cell, the radon dissolved in water is transferred via diffusion into a closed counter-flow of air and subsequently detected by a radon-in-air monitor. Where the in-situ radon determination is concerned, a module composed of a semipermeable membrane is introduced into a water column. Subsequently, the radon dissolved in the water body diffuses through the membrane into the corresponding air flow, by means of which it is transferred into a radon-in-air monitor and is detected. Combination of the developed mobile radon extraction techniques with a suitable and portable radon monitor allow the detection of radon-222 with sufficient accuracy (smaller 20 %) in groundwater as well as in surface waters, i.e., within a broad range of concentrations. Radon-222 was subsequently used to characterize groundwater discharge into a meromictic and a dimictic lake, i.e. two types of lake basically distinct from each other with respect to their water circulation properties were investigated. The use of the noble gas isotope radon-222 as a geochemical tracer makes the application of on-site detection techniques possible and that this in turn permits a rapid, reliable, and cost-effective assessment of groundwater discharge rates into lake water bodies.

  12. Radon studies in Indian dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    The indoor radon ( 222 Rn) concentration has been measured by Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs) in large number of Indian dwellings. Radon concentrations were measured in different parts of the country. In the first study, radon concentrations were measured in 143 dwellings of Udaipur, Bikaner and Banswara towns of Rajasthan province. The distributions of the time-averaged indoor radon concentration in these three towns of the Rajasthan fit an approximately log normal distribution. The geometric mean (GM) values of radon concentrations in these three places were found to be 74 Bq m -3 , 46 Bq m -3 and 66 Bq m -3 with a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 2.2, 2.2 and 2.5 respectively. In another study, radon concentrations were measured in about 150 dwellings of hilly regions of the country. The measurements were carried out in Kohima (Nagaland), Baijnath and Palampur (Himachal Pradesh). The distribution of radon concentration in Kohima dwellings was found to be approximately log normal, however, the radon distribution in Baijnath and Palampur dwellings seems to be bimodal. The GM values of the radon concentrations for 65 dwellings in Kohima and 43 dwellings in Baijnath and Palampur were 88 Bq m -3 and 134 Bq m -3 with GSD of 1.7 and 2.5 respectively. The results are discussed in detail. (author)

  13. Radon atlas of Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voutilainen, A.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Pennanen, M.; Reisbacka, H.; Castren, O.

    1997-11-01

    The most efficient means of reducing indoor radon exposure is to locate and mitigate dwellings with radon concentration exceeding the action level of 400 Bq/m 3 and to build new houses so that radon concentrations do not exceed 200 Bq/m 3 . The maps and tables in this report are useful tools for those who plan and decide what kind of radon mitigation measures are needed in municipalities. STUK (The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) has an indoor radon database of 52 000 dwellings, for which the indoor radon concentration and construction details are known. The building site soil type of about 38 000 dwellings is known. This atlas is a summary of all indoor radon measurements made by STUK in lowrise dwellings and in first-floor flats. The results are shown as arithmetic means of 5- or 10-km squares on maps of the provinces. Three radon maps have been made for each province. On one map the data consist of all measurements the position coordinates of which are known. On the two other maps the building sites of houses are classified into permeable and low-permeable soil types. The tables show statistics for all indoor radon measurements by municipality and building site soil type. (orig.)

  14. Comparative study of radon in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharbi, Shaza Ismail Mohammed

    2014-07-01

    This study was conducted primarily to contribute radon data for radon map in Sudan and identify regions with elevated radon levels and improve data collection and analysis for the future radon levels evaluation. This study partially covered three states of Sudan ( Red Sea - Khartoum - South Khordofan). Previous work done has been considered in this study which focused and investigated the levels of radon concentration in ( indoor radon gas and water) by using gamma spectrometry equipped with ( HPGe detector) or (Na1 (T1) detector). The results obtained are within the acceptable levels and dose not poses any risk from radiation protection point of view. Red Sea state ( port-sudan): (124.39±6.21) Bq/m 3 . Khartoum state ( Suba): (151.52) Bq/m 3 . (Omdurman): ( 127±23) Bq/m 3 . Radon in water: (59) Bq/L. South Kordofan State: (102.8) Bq/m 3 . In water (Kadugli): (3 1 39)) Bq/L.(Author)

  15. Ground-truthing predicted indoor radon concentrations by using soil-gas radon measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimer, G.M.

    2001-01-01

    Predicting indoor radon potential has gained in importance even as the national radon programs began to wane. A cooperative study to produce radon potential maps was conducted by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Department of Energy (DOE), and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) with the latter taking the lead role. A county-wide predictive model based dominantly on the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) aerorad data and secondly on geology, both small-scale data bases was developed. However, that model breaks down in counties of complex geology and does not provide a means to evaluate the potential of an individual home or building site. Soil-gas radon measurements on a large scale are currently shown to provide information for estimating radon potential at individual sites sort out the complex geology so that the small-scale prediction index can be validated. An example from Frederick County, Maryland indicates a positive correlation between indoor measurements and soil-gas data. The method does not rely on a single measurement, but a series that incorporate seasonal and meteorological considerations. (author)

  16. Indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The radon, a natural radioactive gas, is present almost everywhere on the earth's surface. It can be accumulated at high concentration in confined spaces (buildings, mines, etc). In the last decades many studies conducted in several countries showed that inhaling important amounts of radon rises the risk of lung cancer. Although, the radon is a naturally appearing radioactive source, it may be the subject of a human 'enhancement' of concentration. The increasing radon concentration in professional housing constitutes an example of enhanced natural radioactivity which can induce health risks on workers and public. Besides, the radon is present in the dwelling houses (the domestic radon). On 13 May 1996, the European Union Council issued the new EURATOM Instruction that establishes the basic standards of health protection of population and workers against the ionizing radiation hazards (Instruction 96/29/EURATOM, JOCE L-159 of 29 June 1996). This instruction does not apply to domestic radon but it is taken into consideration by another EURATOM document: the recommendation of the Commission 90/143/EURATOM of 21 February 1990 (JOCE L-80 of 27 March 1990). The present paper aims at establishing in accordance to European Union provisions the guidelines for radon risk management in working places, as well as in dwelling houses, where the implied risk is taken into account. This document does not deal with cases of high radon concentration on sites where fabrication, handling or storage of radium sources take place. These situations must be treated by special studies

  17. Radon measurements in the SE and NE flank of Mt. Etna (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Delfa, S.; Imme, G.; Lo Nigro, S.; Morelli, D.; Patane, G.; Vizzini, F.

    2007-01-01

    Soil Radon has been monitored at two fixed sites located in the northeastern and southeastern flank of Mt. Etna. In this study we report the comparison between in-soil Radon concentration trend recorded in the SE flank and that one recorded in the NE one, where an in-soil Radon detection system is operating since 2001. The aim of this work was to implement the investigation area finding a suitable radon detection site, in the south-east flank of Mt. Etna, in order to better understand possible links between Radon anomalies and volcano dynamic. Radon data collected in NE and SE sites were compared with the volcanic tremor, frequency of occurrence of earthquakes and seismic strain-release recorded at a fixed 3D digital seismic station placed in the NE site. Same general in-soil Radon trends and anomalies were found in both sites. These results have confirmed the suitability of the chosen southeastern site for the in-soil Radon monitoring at Mt. Etna. The comparison of the recorded Radon concentration anomalies with seismicity and volcanic tremor trends, has also verified a possible link with the volcanic activity, as observed in our previous published studies

  18. Radon soil gas measurements in a geological versatile region as basis to improve the prediction of areas with a high radon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabrt, Franz; Rechberger, Fabian; Schuff, Michael; Seidel, Claudia; Baumgartner, Andreas; Friedmann, Harry; Maringer, Franz Josef

    2014-01-01

    With the aim to predict the radon potential by geological data, radon soil gas measurements were made in a selected region in Styria, Austria. This region is characterised by mean indoor radon potentials of 130-280 Bq m -3 and a high geological diversity. The distribution of the individual measuring sites was selected on the basis of geological aspects and the distribution of area settlements. In this work, the radon soil gas activity concentration and the soil permeability were measured at 100 sites, each with three single measurements. Furthermore, the local dose rate was determined and soil samples were taken at each site to determine the activity concentration of natural radionuclides. During two investigation periods, long-term soil gas radon measurements were made to study the time dependency of the radon activity concentration. All the results will be compared and investigated for correlation among each other to improve the prediction of areas with high radon potential. (authors)

  19. Study of underground radon transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csige, I.; Hakl, J.; Lenart, L.

    1990-01-01

    The soil gas radon content measurements with solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) are widely used in geoscience, for instance in uranium exploration and earthquake prediction. In these applications the radon frequently is used as a natural tracer of underground fluid transport processes. Obviously, to get the soil radon measuring method more and more effective the study of these transport processes in deeper part of the Earth is fundamental. The Track Detector Group in the Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in Debrecen has been performing environmental radon activity concentration measurements since 1977 with alpha sensitive SSNTDs. These types of measurements were initiated and widely used by the late head of the group Dr. G. Somogyi, who devoted his life to better understanding of the nature. The measurements in caves, springs and drilled wells proved to be effective to study these underground radon transport processes. We are glad to present some results of our investigations. 7 refs, 7 figs

  20. Reasons for increasing radon concentrations in radon remediated houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavensjoe, B.

    1997-01-01

    The study comprises 31 single-dwelling houses where remedial actions were carried out in the 1980s. In all of them the radon concentrations have increased more than 30% according to recent control measurements. Radon sources are building material as well as the soil. The remedial actions dealt with ventilation systems, leakage through the basement floor, air cushions, sub-slab suction or radon wells according to the original problems. Causes for the increase varied: In many houses with soil radon problems, the installation of a normal mechanical ventilation system is not a good remedial action. In some houses on a ground with high permeability and high radon content in the soil air, the radon concentration may increase by the lowering of the indoor air pressure. In other houses the increase was a measurement effect, where sites/rooms were confused. Living related causes were identified in a number of cases, where fan speeds were reduced for energy conservation/noise reduction purposes or different use of windows airing had occurred. Extension of the dwelling space without changing the ventilation system caused the increase in one house. 23 refs

  1. Certain problems about radon. Pt.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Huishan

    2005-01-01

    Discussion has been made on certain pointed out problems which presently influence the work and development of radon survey, and certain specific problems have been put forward which should be paid much attention and taken measures. Among the problems, some come from cognition, i.e. two kinds of balance and examination about radon, chief culprit of radon's daughter, multiply control and migration, the significance of radon in the water and soil, important standards for designing and evaluating the sites of construction projects, thoughts on the mechanism of the harm of radon and its daughters, diseases causing of both high and low radon, difficulty of emanation of indoor radon, normal low radon from natural marble; and others must be resolved specifically, i.e. establishment of national radon standards as quickly as possible, improvement of on-the-spot examination technique, national-wide radon survey with multiple disciplines and technology, the research on the mechanism of radon's harm and the establishment national radon study center. (authors)

  2. Detailed analysis of radon flux studies at Australian uranium projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudd, Gavin M.

    2005-01-01

    The release of radon gas and radon progeny from uranium projects is a major issue during operation as well as for the design of rehabilitation works. In Australia, there have been a number of premining radon flux studies as part of the environmental investigation and potential development of recent uranium projects. There is also an increasing amount of operational data on radon fluxes and loads from various aspects of projects, such as tailings, waste rock and mills. Thus there exists much useful measured data which can be used to assess the design radon flux and load targets for rehabilitation. The main projects for which radon data exists includes Ranger, Olympic Dam, Beverley, Honeymoon, Jabiluka, Yeelirrie, Lake Way, Koongarra, Moline, Coronation Hill, Rockhole, Nabarlek, Rum Jungle, Port Pirie and Ben Lomond. To date, much of this data has not been systematically evaluated. The need to compile and assess this data is twofold. Firstly, to assess the loads released from uranium production as an input into life-cycle analyses of the nuclear fuel cycle, such as those undertaken by UNSCEAR and industry groups. Secondly, there is a need to set suitable design standards for radon flux for the rehabilitation of former and current uranium projects. This paper will present such a detailed compilation of radon fluxes and loads which can then be used as the basis for both life-cycle analyses as well as setting appropriate site-specific rehabilitation criteria for radon. The implications for former and current projects is then discussed as well as future data needs. Ultimately, there is a critical need for thorough baseline surveys prior to mining to ensure accurate assessments of changes to radon fluxes and loads. The data and analysis presented is considered applicable to all uranium projects in Australia, as well as being a useful model for considering such issues internationally

  3. Variations in radon-222 in soil and ground water at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollenberg, H.; Straume, T.; Smith, A.; King, C.Y.

    1977-01-01

    To help evaluate the applicability of variations of radon-222 in ground water and soil gas as a possible earthquake predictor, measurements were conducted in conjunction with underground explosions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Radon fluctuations in ground water have been observed during a sequence of aftershocks following the Oroville, California earthquake of 1 August 1975. The NTS measurements were designed to show if these fluctuations were in response to ground shaking; if not, they could be attributed to changes in earth strain prior to the aftershocks. Well waters were periodically sampled and soil-gas 222 Rn monitored prior to and following seven underground explosions of varying strength and distance from sampling and detector locations. Soil-gas 222 Rn contents were measured by the alpha-track method; well water 222 Rn by gamma-ray spectrometry. There was no clearly identifiable correlation between well-water radon fluctuations and individual underground tests. One prominent variation in soil-gas radon corresponded to ground shaking from a pair of underground tests in alluvium; otherwise, there was no apparent correlation between radon emanation and other explosions. Markedly lower soil-gas radon contents following the tests were probably caused by consolidation of alluvium in response to ground shaking

  4. Radon investigations - Soil and commercial projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    The liability issues of radon exposure have prompted potential purchasers of vacant land for commercial/industrial development, and commercial landlords, renting large commercial buildings, to determine the radon gas levels at such sites. This paper deals with both pre-construction sites subject to freezing conditions and to large commercial structures. A correlation of radon gas levels within a commercial building and a sister pre-construction site confirms the validity of using activated charcoal canisters as a cost effective means to combating radon in large structures

  5. Radon baseline monitoring around a potential shale gas development site in Yorkshire, England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daraktchieva, Z.; Wasikiewicz, J. M.; Howarth, C. B.; Bradley, E.J.

    2017-01-01

    The Vale of Pickering in Yorkshire, England has been identified as a potential area for shale gas extraction. Public Health England joined a collaboration led by the British Geological Survey for environmental baseline monitoring near the potential shale gas extraction site following a grant award from UK Government Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy. The analysis of results for the first 6 months of indoor monitoring indicated that the results followed a log-normal distribution. The numbers of homes found to be at or above the Action Level followed the numbers predicted by the radon potential maps. The results from the measurements of outdoor air in this study indicated that the radon concentrations are slightly higher than previously measured but close to the detection limit of the technique. (authors)

  6. Radon level and radon effective dose rate determination in Moroccan dwellings using SSNTDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oufni, L.; Misdaq, M.A.; Amrane, M.

    2005-01-01

    Inhalation of radon ( 222 Rn) and its daughter product are a major source of natural radiation exposure. The measurement of radon activity in dwelling is assuming ever increasing importance. It is known from recent surveys in many countries that radon and its progeny contribute significantly to total inhalation dose and it is fairly established that radon when inhaled in large quantity causes lung disorder. Keeping this in view, the indoor radon activity level and radon effective dose rate were carried out in the dwellings of Beni-Mellal, Khouribgra and Ben Guerir cities, Morocco, using the solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) technique. Assuming an indoor occupancy factor of 0.8 and 0.4 for the equilibrium factor of radon indoors, we found that the 222 Rn effective dose rate in the studied dwellings ranges from 1.01 to 7.90mSvy -1 . The radon activity in the corresponding dwellings was found to vary from 40 to 532Bqm -3 . The radon activity has not only been found to vary with seasonal changes, but also with the age, the construction mode of houses, the ventilation conditions and with specific sites and geological materials

  7. Low-Cost Radon Reduction Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, William B. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Champaign, IL (United States); Francisco, Paul W. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Champaign, IL (United States); Merrin, Zachary [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the research was to conduct a primary scoping study on the impact of air sealing between the foundation and the living space on radon transport reduction across the foundation-living space floor assembly. Fifteen homes in the Champaign, Illinois area participated in the study. These homes were instrumented for hourly continuous radon measurements and simultaneous temperature and humidity the foundation was improved. However, this improved isolation did not lead to significant reductions in radon concentration in the living space. Other factors such as outdoor temperature were shown to have an impact on radon concentration.

  8. Radon dosimetry: a review of radon and radon daughter exposure conditions in dwellings and other structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.T.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Poston, J.W.; Haywood, F.F.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1983-07-01

    Within the past few years several situations have been brought to light which indicate an increased radiation exposure of certain segments of the general population caused by human activities. The most widely publicized activities are those associated with the mining and milling of uranium in the western United States, the phosphate industry in Florida, and those potential problems represented by former Manhattan Engineer District sites. One of the primary problems involves exposure to radon and radon daughters which are released from large waste piles or, in some cases, evolve from backfill and construction materials used in homes, schools, and other buildings. This report presents a review of the available data on radon and radon daughter concentrations in dwellings and other structures. The primary objectives were to compile and tabulate pertinent radon exposure data and to prepare a statistical summary of the data which will be useful in the prediction of normal levels of radon and radon daughter concentrations in these structures. In addition, other parameters associated with radon exposure conditions are presented and discussed

  9. Effects of radon in indoor air studied

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auvinen, A.

    1994-01-01

    Radon is an odorless, tasteless and colourless radioactive noble gas that enters indoor air from the ground. Radon causes lung cancer. A committee set up to evaluate the health risks of chemical substances has been drafting a report on radon, which will compile the major research findings on the lung cancer risk posed by radon. Animal tests have shown that even small doses of radon can cause lung cancer. Smokers seem to contract radon-induced lung cancer more readily than non-smokers. Because research findings have been conflicting, however, it is not known exactly how high the risk of lung cancer caused by indoor radon exposure really is. Several major research projects are under way to obtain increasingly accurate risk assessments. An on-going European joint project brings together several studies - some already finished, some still being worked on. In this way it will be possible to get more accurate risk assessments than from individual studies. In order to prevent lung cancer, it is important to continue the work of determining and reducing radon connects and to combat smoking. (orig.)

  10. The effect of an engineered closure cap on radon gas transport from a shallow land burial site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstrom, F.T.; Cawlfield, D.E.; Donahue, M.E.; Emer, D.F.; Shott, G.J.

    1992-01-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A requires performance assessment of all new and existing low level radioactive waste disposal sites. An integral part of performance assessment is estimating the fluxes of radioactive gases such as radon-220 and radon-222. Mathematical models, which in themselves point out data needs and therefore drive site characterization, provide a logical means of performing the required flux estimations. The effects of an engineered closure cap on radon gas transport in a very dry alluvial soil in the southwestern desert are considered in detail in this paper. Our model (Lindstrom, et al. 1992 a ampersand b and Cawlfield et al. 1992 a ampersand b) was constructed in a site specific fashion because the existing mathematical models of noble gas transport from the spatial point of origin in the low level waste repository through the surrounding soil and closure cap with subsequent release to the atmosphere are few in numbers (Nazaroff, 1992)

  11. Radon classification of building ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slunga, E.

    1988-01-01

    The Laboratories of Building Technology and Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering at the Helsinki University of Technology in cooperation with The Ministry of the Environment have proposed a radon classification for building ground. The proposed classification is based on the radon concentration in soil pores and on the permeability of the foundation soil. The classification includes four radon classes: negligible, normal, high and very high. Depending on the radon class the radon-technical solution for structures is chosen. It is proposed that the classification be done in general terms in connection with the site investigations for the planning of land use and in more detail in connection with the site investigations for an individual house. (author)

  12. Standardization of radon measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuszek, J.M.; Hutchinson, J.A.; Lance, B.H.; Virgil, M.G.; Mahoney, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    Radon escaping from soil into homes appears to present the single greatest source of radiation exposure that most people will ever face. Measurement protocols for the relatively inert gas inextricably link the method of collection with the counting of the specimen. The most commonly used methods depend on the measurement of dislocation sites on plastic α-track detectors or on the adsorption of radon onto activated charcoal for subsequent counting of the γ-rays produced by decay of the radon progeny. The uncertainties inherent to the radon-measurement methods used commercially in the United States are far greater than those for measurements of other environmental radionuclides. The results of this preliminary study raise doubts as to whether existing proficiency-testing programs can provide assurance that radon-measurement methods are representative of actual conditions in any dwelling. 17 refs., 1 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Study of radon exhalation and emanation rates from fly ash samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj Kumari; Jain, Ravinder; Kant, Krishan; Gupta, Nitin; Garg, Maneesha; Yadav, Mani Kant

    2013-01-01

    Fly ash, a by-product of burnt coal is technologically important material being used for manufacturing of bricks, sheets, cement, land filling etc. The increased interest in measuring radon exhalation and emanation rates in fly ash samples is due to its health hazards and environmental pollution and the same have been measured to assess the radiological impact of radon emanated from fly ash disposal sites. Samples of fly ash from different thermal power stations in northern India and National Council for Cement and Building Materials (NCB) were collected and analysed for the measurements. For the measurement, alpha sensitive LR-115 type II plastic track detectors were used. Gamma spectrometry and can technique was used for the measurements. The experimental data show that fly ash samples emanate radon in significant amount and this consequently, may result in increased radon levels in dwellings built by using fly ash bricks and excessive radiation exposure to workers residing in the surroundings of fly ash dumping sites. (author)

  14. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanchey, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100

  15. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanchey, L A

    1981-04-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the United States may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

  16. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanchey, L A

    1981-01-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

  17. Study of different factors which can explain the radon exhalation potential of soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demongeot, St.

    1997-01-01

    Radon is a natural radioactive gas belonging to the Uranium-238 chain, which is present in the earth crust and produced by the disintegration of radium-226. It is considered as the major source of radiological exposure of man to natural radiation because it can accumulate in indoor atmosphere. So, this health risk must be take into account.The aim of this study is to find some tools in order to identify high radon level area. The first part of this study has consisted in measurement of radon emission from different not sufficient for the estimation of the radon exhalation potential in a given area. In the second part of this work, we have studied the variations of in situ radon concentration as a function of different geological and pedologic parameters of the site. With the results obtained, we have determined the data which have to be considered, and the methodology to be applied for the determination of the radon exhalation of a given area. Furthermore, by the mean of numerical simulations (TRACH Model), it was possible to know the scale of radon flux variation in a given point versus the hydric state of the ground and thus the permeability: these parameters are not easy to measure because of their variabilities with time. The methodology ESPERAS (EStimation du Potential d'Exhalation en Radon des Sols) developed during this work was applied first, at a local scale and then to greater area. The values estimated by this way are in a good agreement with the results of measurements. So, we can determine the areas which are affected by high radon levels. (author)

  18. Experimental and theoretical study of radon levels in a house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ameon, R.; Dupuis, M.; Marie, L.; Diez, O.; LionS, J. [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Fontenay-aux-roses (France); Tymen, G. [LARAAH, Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest (France)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Radon being a radioactive gas of natural origin is omnipresent everywhere at the surface of earth. It is created by the radium decay issued from the uranium contained in the earth crust and more specifically in granitic and volcanic subsoils. Because of the dilution due to air masses, its concentration in open air is low. On the other hand, radon may accumulate in the confined atmosphere of buildings and achieve high concentration levels. Across France, it has been estimated that 300 000 individual dwellings present concentration higher than the French reference level of 400 Bq.m{sup -3} and that 60 000 other ones would exhibit concentration above 1 000 Bq.m{sup -3}, the French warning threshold. Indoor radon concentration may vary significantly for various reasons, including design of buildings, radium content and texture of the soil in contact with the building's slab and walls, the under pressure value between the inside and outside and the fresh air supply rate. These considerations have led the I.R.S.N. to develop a code called R.A.D.O.N. 2 for conducting simple and methodical studies of indoor radon concentrations, to take into account the above-mentioned factors. But, the achievement of an effective diagnosis and risk management -aiding tool requires to first check its validity on the phenomenological model at the origin of the code. A 3-year experimental follow-up was, thus, conducted within an unoccupied house built on an uranium-bearing geological formation. After characterization of the subsoil, the instrumentation was implemented on site to continuously monitor the following parameters: - the radon source term in the building (exhalation rate of {sup 222}Rn at the ground/building interface and at soil surface, radon concentration at the soil and in outdoor air), - the radon penetration by advection (differential pressure in the house basement), - the driving mechanisms for natural ventilation in the house (weather

  19. Experimental and theoretical study of radon levels in a house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ameon, R.; Dupuis, M.; Marie, L.; Diez, O.; LionS, J.; Tymen, G.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Radon being a radioactive gas of natural origin is omnipresent everywhere at the surface of earth. It is created by the radium decay issued from the uranium contained in the earth crust and more specifically in granitic and volcanic subsoils. Because of the dilution due to air masses, its concentration in open air is low. On the other hand, radon may accumulate in the confined atmosphere of buildings and achieve high concentration levels. Across France, it has been estimated that 300 000 individual dwellings present concentration higher than the French reference level of 400 Bq.m -3 and that 60 000 other ones would exhibit concentration above 1 000 Bq.m -3 , the French warning threshold. Indoor radon concentration may vary significantly for various reasons, including design of buildings, radium content and texture of the soil in contact with the building's slab and walls, the under pressure value between the inside and outside and the fresh air supply rate. These considerations have led the I.R.S.N. to develop a code called R.A.D.O.N. 2 for conducting simple and methodical studies of indoor radon concentrations, to take into account the above-mentioned factors. But, the achievement of an effective diagnosis and risk management -aiding tool requires to first check its validity on the phenomenological model at the origin of the code. A 3-year experimental follow-up was, thus, conducted within an unoccupied house built on an uranium-bearing geological formation. After characterization of the subsoil, the instrumentation was implemented on site to continuously monitor the following parameters: - the radon source term in the building (exhalation rate of 222 Rn at the ground/building interface and at soil surface, radon concentration at the soil and in outdoor air), - the radon penetration by advection (differential pressure in the house basement), - the driving mechanisms for natural ventilation in the house (weather conditions, indoor

  20. A contemporary method for monitoring indoor radon and environmental conditions at a remote test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renken, K.J.; Coursin, S.

    1996-01-01

    A state-of-the-art method for automatically monitoring indoor radon and environmental conditions at a remote test site is described. A Wisconsin home that exhibited elevated radon levels has been installed with automated PC-data acquisition system (PC-DAS) that includes: a laptop PC, a data acquisition cardcage, a commercial data acquisition software program plus sensors to measure radon gas concentrations, differential pressures, indoor air quality and meteorological conditions. The isolated PC-DAS is connected to a PC in a university laboratory via a modem and a communications software package. Experimental data is monitored and saved by the remote PC in real time and then automatically downloaded to the lab computer at selected intervals. An example of the formatted field results is presented and analysed. This documentation of the set-up, the off-the-shelf computer hardware and software, and the procedures should assist investigations requiring flexible remote long-term radon and environmental monitoring. (Author)

  1. Czech studies of lung cancer and radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasek, L.

    2002-01-01

    According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, there is a significant evidence to classify radon as a carcinogen. Using extrapolations from occupational studies, it can be shown that for some countries environmental exposure to radon is the second most important cause of lung cancer in the general population after cigarette smoking. Czech studies among uranium miners, established in 1970 by Josef Sevc, and in the general population aim to contribute to knowledge on the risk from radon, particularly by evaluating temporal factors and interaction of radon exposure and smoking

  2. RADON BASELINE MONITORING AROUND A POTENTIAL SHALE GAS DEVELOPMENT SITE IN YORKSHIRE, ENGLAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daraktchieva, Z; Wasikiewicz, J M; Howarth, C B; Bradley, E J

    2017-11-01

    The Vale of Pickering in Yorkshire, England has been identified as a potential area for shale gas extraction. Public Health England joined a collaboration led by the British Geological Survey for environmental baseline monitoring near the potential shale gas extraction site following a grant award from UK Government Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy. The analysis of results for the first 6 months of indoor monitoring indicated that the results followed a log-normal distribution. The numbers of homes found to be at or above the Action Level followed the numbers predicted by the radon potential maps. The results from the measurements of outdoor air in this study indicated that the radon concentrations are slightly higher than previously measured but close to the detection limit of the technique. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Is radon 222 an appropriate tracer for the study of seismic precursors?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richon, P.; Heritier, T.; Sebe, O.; Maffat, I.; Holtzappfel, T.; Le Hesran, E.; Geber, O.; Ulziibat, M.; Demberel, S.; Oyun-Erdene, M.; Bilguun, M.

    2015-01-01

    Radon 222 is a natural radionuclide that can be measured in air, water, and soil in very, very small quantities. Experiments performed in laboratories have shown that a local strain on a rock has an impact on the mobility of the radon gas and as local strains increase with the approach of an earthquake, it is considered that radon abnormal measurements may help predicting earthquakes. The first stage to extrapolate laboratory results to large-scale application is to master the metrology of the radon gas. A campaign of measurements achieved in Mongolia on the Emeelt site has allowed an optimization of radon metrology and of the positioning of the probes. Preliminary results have shown that abnormal values of radon concentrations that are not correlated with local meteorology, appear a few days before local seismic activity resumes

  4. Radon Concentration in Outdoors and Indoors Around the Flare in Oil Mine Sites; Konsentrasi Gas Radon di Udara di Luar dan Dalam Rumah Sekitar Nyala-api Kawasan Tambang Minyak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutarman,; Wahyudi, [Centre for Research and Development of Radiation Safety and Nuclear Biomedicine, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia); Luhantara, [University of Indonesia, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2003-03-15

    The flares are much found at the oil exploration areas which appear the combustion gases emission to the environment that pass through a pipe at about 8 m high from the ground level. The flare is released into the environment together with the hydrocarbon and radon gases. This study has been carried out the measurement of the radon gas concentration only. Radon is a radioactive gas which comes from the natural radioactive decay of uranium ({sup 238}U). The outdoor radon concentrations were measured in 23 locations with the two-filter method. The locations were determined by a circle which the flare as the point center. The outdoor radon concentrations were measured in 74 houses (more than distance of 600 m from the flare) with the alpha track detector (CR-39) placed in the living rooms for about three months. The measurements of the radon concentrations were carried out in Cepu, Cirebon, and Prabumulih oil mine sites. The results showed that the outdoor radon concentrations a range of 108 Bq/m{sup 3} to 256 Bq/m{sup 3} in Cepu, 248 Bq/m{sup 3} to 3525 Bq/m{sup 3} in Cirebon, and 51 Bq/m{sup 3} to 114 Bq/m{sup 3} in Prabumulih. The results showed that the indoor radon concentrations a range of 11 Bq/m{sup 3} to 38 Bq/m{sup 3} in Cepu, 28 Bq/m{sup 3} to 184 Bq/m{sup 3} in Cirebon, and 12 Bq/m{sup 3} to 38 Bq/m{sup 3} in Prabumulih. The data of the maximum radon concentration in outdoor air was higher than an actual level which recommended by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for workplaces. The maximum radon concentration in indoor air was lower than an actual level which recommended by IAEA for dwellings. IAEA recommends the actual level of 1000 Bq/m{sup 3} for workplaces and 200 Bq/m{sup 3} for dwellings. These data will be used for the baseline data of the environmental radioactivity in Indonesia. (author)

  5. Radon risk map of the city Brno

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansky, J.

    2000-01-01

    Data of radon risk mapping of the city Brno area from 1992 to 1999 were collected from databases of six private companies measuring radon risk there. The data sets are completed now. The first results are presented in this paper. In the city Brno area only low (385 measured sites) and medium (300) radon risk categories were found. The largest number of measured areas were situated in places with loess and loess loam (total quantity 344 sites, with medium radon risk category 158 sites), recent fluvial sediments (64, 32) and anthropogenous deposits (61, 23). High values of radon volume activity in soil gas were found predominantly in Quaternary sediments and in granodiorite, type Veverska Bityska, low values in leucotonalite and metabasalt. (author)

  6. Monitoring of the Syrian rift valley using radon technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hilal, M.; Al-Ali, A.; Jubeli, Y.

    1997-02-01

    Groundwater radon data were recorded once every two months from six monitoring sites of the Syrian rift valley during the year 1996. Radon samples were measured from deep artesian wells and from continuously-flowing springs that are distributed along this most active seismic zone in Syria. The available data were integrated with previously measured groundwater radon data from the same stations in order to estimate the range of normal radon fluctuations in the region. The estimation of such range may enable the separation between usual groundwater radon variations from other outliers which may indicate possible tectonic activities or earthquake hazards in the study area. Periodical radon measurements based on two months intervals and long distance between sampling stations does not enable us to trust with high level of confidence the connection between radon values and any possible earth dynamics. Therefore, shorter measuring time with closer monitoring sites are highly recommended to achieve the optimum advantage of such application. (Author). 8 Figs., 2 Tabs., 10 Refs

  7. Radon in New Zealand tourist caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, R.G.; Solomon, S.B.; Langroo, R.

    1998-01-01

    Seasonal average radon concentrations in 112 sites in 22 NZ tourist caves have been measured using track etch detectors over an annual cycle. Values ranged from -3 to nearly 10,000 Bq m -3 . Seasonal variation was also very marked with factors of over 50 for the same site in different seasons being recorded. Thirty six percent of the sites exceeded the ICRP guideline of 1000 Bq m -3 at which action to reduce exposure is recommended. Caves are fragile ecological and chemical systems, therefore, may be seriously adversely affected by standard techniques to reduce radon concentrations. They are also complex physical systems, and an understanding of the principles and parameters governing cave aerodynamics is essential when considering options to reduce exposure. This paper discusses possible causes for variations in radon concentrations observed in this study and the implications for viable actions

  8. Indoor and soil radon measurements in the Hyblean Foreland (South-East Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Alessandro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Indoor radon behavior in two sites of SE Sicily was studied as a function of the soil radon concentration. The chosen locations were Ragusa and Modica towns, placed in the Hyblean Plateau (northern margin of the African Plate. Soil samples were analysed by gamma spectrometry to determine the amount of radionuclides. Indoor air and soil gas radon measurements were simultaneously performed in both sites using active detectors. Radon in soil was measured one meter deep. A positive correlation was obtained between indoor radon concentration and the soil gas concentration.

  9. Study of different factors which can explain the radon exhalation potential of soils; Recherche de differents parametres caracterisant le potentiel d`exhalation en radon des sols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demongeot, St

    1997-10-27

    Radon is a natural radioactive gas belonging to the Uranium-238 chain, which is present in the earth crust and produced by the disintegration of radium-226. It is considered as the major source of radiological exposure of man to natural radiation because it can accumulate in indoor atmosphere. So, this health risk must be take into account.The aim of this study is to find some tools in order to identify high radon level area. The first part of this study has consisted in measurement of radon emission from different not sufficient for the estimation of the radon exhalation potential in a given area. In the second part of this work, we have studied the variations of in situ radon concentration as a function of different geological and pedologic parameters of the site. With the results obtained, we have determined the data which have to be considered, and the methodology to be applied for the determination of the radon exhalation of a given area. Furthermore, by the mean of numerical simulations (TRACH Model), it was possible to know the scale of radon flux variation in a given point versus the hydric state of the ground and thus the permeability: these parameters are not easy to measure because of their variabilities with time. The methodology ESPERAS (EStimation du Potential d`Exhalation en Radon des Sols) developed during this work was applied first, at a local scale and then to greater area. The values estimated by this way are in a good agreement with the results of measurements. So, we can determine the areas which are affected by high radon levels. (author)

  10. Radon anomalies prior to earthquakes (1). Review of previous studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Yasuoka, Yumi; Shinogi, Masaki; Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Omori, Yasutaka; Kawada, Yusuke

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between radon anomalies and earthquakes has been studied for more than 30 years. However, most of the studies dealt with radon in soil gas or in groundwater. Before the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, an anomalous increase of atmospheric radon was observed at Kobe Pharmaceutical University. The increase was well fitted with a mathematical model related to earthquake fault dynamics. This paper reports the significance of this observation, reviewing previous studies on radon anomaly before earthquakes. Groundwater/soil radon measurements for earthquake prediction began in 1970's in Japan as well as foreign countries. One of the most famous studies in Japan is groundwater radon anomaly before the 1978 Izu-Oshima-kinkai earthquake. We have recognized the significance of radon in earthquake prediction research, but recently its limitation was also pointed out. Some researchers are looking for a better indicator for precursors; simultaneous measurements of radon and other gases are new trials in recent studies. Contrary to soil/groundwater radon, we have not paid much attention to atmospheric radon before earthquakes. However, it might be possible to detect precursors in atmospheric radon before a large earthquake. In the next issues, we will discuss the details of the anomalous atmospheric radon data observed before the Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake. (author)

  11. A study of radon 222 transfer indoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maximilien, R.; Robe, M.C.; Archimbaud, M.

    1985-01-01

    Indoor exposure can vary considerably depending upon the natural environment (geology, climate), man-made arrangements (building materials, insulation and ventilation systems...) or way of living. In order to specify the sources and assess their respective contribution in a given dwelling, a good knowledge of radon transfer and dispersion processes is required as well as a heavy experimental device (continuous radon and ventilation monitoring...). The study must be limited to some cases selected by a systematic measurement program either because they are representative of dwelling conditions, or preferably on account of their high radon level, the origin of which will be investigated. As a consequence, countermeasures can be developed. A pilot study has been carried out on radon transport in two houses of the Rhone river valley. The two houses -selected among 131 other ones for their high radon levels- are built with the same architectural approach and located very close to each other, yet the factors accounting for domestic exposure are quite different. Indoor parameters are at the origin of various radon concentrations in the case of low natural ventilation; conversely, outdoor parameters only seem to act in the case of high ventilation. For a larger part, however, radon seems to emanate from under the foundations of both houses [fr

  12. A study on the risk from indoor radon 220 and radon 222 exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rannou, A.

    1986-12-01

    The hazards from radon (radon 220 and 222) in dwelling atmospheres have been studied. In the first part devoted to the present state of the problem, an analysis is made of the formation mechanisms and the evolution of radon and its daughters indoors. The main physical and dosimetric quantities required for the risk evaluation are defined. The theoretical and experimental analysis of the methods of measurements of radon and its daughters used in the measurement campaign are considered in the second part. The progress and the result of the national survey are developed in the third part. The effects of several factors on indoor levels are discussed. The conclusions of a particular study in the Finistere ''department'' are presented. The data collected make it possible to assess the mean exposure of man to natural radiation [fr

  13. Study of the effects of atmospheric parameters on ground radon concentration by track technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tidjani, Adams

    1988-01-01

    Radon emanation was continuously monitored for 24 months, accompanied by measurements of atmospheric parameters. Integrated measurments of radon concentrations have been performed with LR-115 cellulose nitrate track detectors. The monitoring was conducted at 16 sites distributed around the Dakar University area. Observed changes in radon concentration are interpreted as being caused by changes in meteorological conditions and ocean tides. (author)

  14. Indoor radon measurements and radon prognosis for the province of Kymi, southeastern Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennanen, M.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Voutilainen, A.

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of the regional radon prognosis is to classify areas with different levels of radon risk. The radon prognosis gives the percentages of future homes expected to have indoor radon concentrations exceeding the levels of 200 and 400 Bq/m 3 . It is assumed that no protection against the entry of radon is used in construction. In this study about 5900 indoor radon measurements made in single family houses, semi-detached houses and row houses were used. Data on the location, geology and construction of buildings were determined from maps and questionnaires. An empirical statistical model, the adjusted indoor radon measurements and geological data were used to assess the radon risk from soil and bedrock in different areas. The building sites of the province of Kymi were divided into thirteen sub-areas. The radon prognosis are calculated for the most radon-prone foundation types including 1) houses with a slab-on-grade and 2) houses with a basement or hillside houses with open stairwells between basement and first floor. The radon levels are generally greater in the western part of the area. The radon risk is highest in gravel-dominated esker areas in southwestern, western (in Pyhtaa, Kotka, Anjalankoski, litti, Valkeala) and central (Taipalsaari) parts of the area. The radon risk is also high in some bedrock and till areas, also in southwestern and western parts of the area. In these areas the level of 200 Bq/m 3 will be exceeded in 80 % of new houses. About half of the future houses in these areas will have indoor radon concentrations exceeding 400 Bq/m 3 . The radon risk is lowest in the eastern part of the province of Kymi in every soil type. In this area the level of 200 Bq/m 3 will be exceeded in 30 % of new houses. Below 10 % will exceed 400 Bq/m 3 . (orig.) (14 refs.)

  15. Radon exhalation of hardening concrete: monitoring cement hydration and prediction of radon concentration in construction site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovler, Konstantin

    2006-01-01

    The unique properties of radon as a noble gas are used for monitoring cement hydration and microstructural transformations in cementitious system. It is found that the radon concentration curve for hydrating cement paste enclosed in the chamber increases from zero (more accurately - background) concentrations, similar to unhydrated cement. However, radon concentrations developed within 3 days in the test chamber containing cement paste were approximately 20 times higher than those of unhydrated cement. This fact proves the importance of microstructural transformations taking place in the process of cement hydration, in comparison with cement grain, which is a time-stable material. It is concluded that monitoring cement hydration by means of radon exhalation method makes it possible to distinguish between three main stages, which are readily seen in the time dependence of radon concentration: stage I (dormant period), stage II (setting and intensive microstructural transformations) and stage III (densification of the structure and drying). The information presented improves our understanding of the main physical mechanisms resulting in the characteristic behavior of radon exhalation in the course of cement hydration. The maximum value of radon exhalation rate observed, when cement sets, can reach 0.6 mBq kg(-1) s(-1) and sometimes exceeds 1.0 mBq kg(-1) s(-1). These values exceed significantly to those known before for cementitious materials. At the same time, the minimum ventilation rate accepted in the design practice (0.5 h(-1)), guarantees that the concentrations in most of the cases will not exceed the action level and that they are not of any radiological concern for construction workers employed in concreting in closed spaces.

  16. A study of radon indoor concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, P.; Ruiz, W.; Segovia, N.; Ponciano, G.

    2000-01-01

    It was realized a study of radon concentration in houses of Mexico City and in a laboratory of the Nuclear Centre of Salazar, State of Mexico. The radon determination in air was realized with solid nuclear track detectors and with Honeywell and Alpha guard automatic equipment. The results show that the majority of houses have values under 148 Bq/m 3 obtaining some housings with upper values located in the Lomas zone. A study in smokers houses and another of controls showed very similar distributions. It was studied the day time fluctuations finding that radon increases considerably during the dawn. Some upper values obtained in a laboratory of the Nuclear Centre were remedied with ventilation. (Author)

  17. Radon as a groundwater tracer in Forsmark and Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grolander, Sara

    2009-10-15

    Radon concentrations were measured in different water types in Forsmark and Laxemar during the site investigation and within this study. From these measurements it can be concluded that large differences between surface water, near surface groundwater and deep groundwater can be found in both Laxemar and Forsmark. The differences in radon concentrations between different water types are used in this study to detect interactions between surface water, near surface water and deep groundwater. From the radon measurements it can also be concluded that radon concentration in deep groundwater varies largely with depth. These variations with depth are probably caused by groundwater flow in conductive fracture zones in the bedrock. The focus of this study has been the radon concentration of near surface groundwater and the interaction between near surface groundwater and deep groundwater. Radon measurements have been done using the RAD-7 radon detector within this study. It could be concluded that RAD-7 is a good technique for radon measurements and also easy to use in field. The radon concentrations measured in near surface groundwater in Laxemar within this study were low and homogenous. The variation in radon concentration has been analyses and compared to other parameters. Since the hypothesis of this study has been that there are differences in radon concentrations between recharging and discharging groundwater, the most important parameter to consider is the recharge/discharge field classification of the wells. No correlation between the recharge/discharge classifications of wells and the radon concentrations were found. The lack of correlation between groundwater flow patterns and radon concentration means that it is not possible to detect flow patterns in near surface groundwater using radon as a tracer in the Laxemar area. The lack of correlation can be caused by the fact that there are just a few wells located in areas classified as recharge area. It can also be

  18. ''Radon-emanometry'' applied to internal geophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, J.L.

    1982-02-01

    An experimental set-up for in ground radon 222 measurements has been realised with solid state track detectors (cellulose nitrates CN85 and LR115). A preliminary study of radon activity variations has been conducted over various sites expecting using radon as one of forerunner geophysical parameters of volcanic eruptions and earthquakes predictions. The first data obtained in the field are presented: Etna (Sicily), Krafla (Iceland), Poas and Arenal (Costa Rica), Colima and Paricutin (Mexico) for active volcanoes, Ech Cheliff (Algeria) and Alsace (France) for sismotectonic areas [fr

  19. A study of radon indoor concentration; Un estudio de concentracion de radon intramuros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, P.; Ruiz, W.; Segovia, N.; Ponciano, G. [ININ, Gerencia de Ciencias Ambientales, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    It was realized a study of radon concentration in houses of Mexico City and in a laboratory of the Nuclear Centre of Salazar, State of Mexico. The radon determination in air was realized with solid nuclear track detectors and with Honeywell and Alpha guard automatic equipment. The results show that the majority of houses have values under 148 Bq/m{sup 3} obtaining some housings with upper values located in the Lomas zone. A study in smokers houses and another of controls showed very similar distributions. It was studied the day time fluctuations finding that radon increases considerably during the dawn. Some upper values obtained in a laboratory of the Nuclear Centre were remedied with ventilation. (Author)

  20. A study of radon variation in dwelling during 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, A.N.; Ramachandran, T.V.; Muraleedharan, T.S.; Subbaramu, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    Natural radioactivity due to radon and its progeny levels indoors contributes significantly to the total radiation to man. The main source of radon and its progeny in a dwelling is the emanation of radon gas from soil. The temperature and ventilation vary in a dwelling during the year. These parameters influence the indoor radon levels. The seasonal variation of radon was studied in a dwelling as well as in the outside air. The filter paper method and alpha counting, and the solid state track detector technique and track counting were used to study the radon levels. The geometric mean of radon daughters concentrations were 0.5 mWL and 0.8 mWL measured by filter-paper method and SSNTD method respectively. The geometric mean of radon concentrations were 6.2 Bqm -3 and 10.0 Bqm -3 by filter-paper method and SSNTD method respectively. (author). 3 figs., 3 tabs., 13 refs

  1. Occupational studies of radon daughters and lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornung, R.W.; Ballew, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between exposure to radon daughters and lung cancer mortality has been established. The purpose of this paper is to review some of the major studies of the health effects due to exposure to the decay products of radon gas and to discuss their potential implications with regard to risk associated with indoor radon. There has been much recent interest in the health hazards associated with radon largely motivated by the discovery of high levels of this radioactive gas in the Reading Prong (a geological area in Pennsylvania and New Jersey) and subsequently throughout the United States. Although at least three studies in the U.S. have been initiated to better estimate the lung cancer risks from low level indoor radon exposure, the results will not be known for several years. Consequently, present knowledge concerning such risks is almost entirely derived from studies of underground exposure to miners. Those studies effectively exclude women and children; therefore, assumptions must be made with regard to risk to a large segment of the population. Before discussing current health studies of radon daughter exposure, some background information is presented

  2. Exposure to unusually high indoor radon levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasheed, F.N.

    1993-01-01

    Unusually high indoor radon concentrations were reported in a small village in western Tyrol, Austria. The authors have measured the seasonal course of indoor radon concentrations in 390 houses of this village. 71% of houses in winter and 33% in summer, showed radon values on the ground floor above the Austrian action level of 400 Bq/cm 3 . This proportion results in an unusually high indoor radon exposure of the population. The radon source was an 8,700-year-old rock slide of granite gneiss, the largest of the alpine crystalline rocks. It has a strong emanating power because its rocks are heavily fractured and show a slightly increased uranium content. Previous reports show increased lung cancer mortality, myeloid leukemia, kidney cancer, melanoma, and prostate cancer resulting from indoor radon exposure. However, many studies fail to provide accurate information on indoor radon concentrations, classifying them merely as low, intermediate, and high, or they record only minor increases in indoor radon concentrations. Mortality data for 1970-91 were used to calculate age and sex standardized mortality rates (SMR) for 51 sites of carcinoma. The total population of Tyrol were controls. A significantly higher risk was recorded for lung cancer. The high SMR for lung cancer in female subjects is especially striking. Because the numbers were low for the other cancer sites, these were combined in one group to calculate the SMR. No significant increase in SMR was found for this group

  3. Radon anomalies along faults in North of Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Tamimi, M.H.; Abumurad, K.M.

    2001-01-01

    Radon emanation was sampled in five locations in a limestone quarry area using SSNTDs CR-39. Radon levels in the soil air at four different well-known traceable fault planes were measured along a traverse line perpendicular to each of these faults. Radon levels at the fault were higher by a factor of 3-10 than away from the faults. However, some sites have broader shoulders than the others. The method was applied along a fifth inferred fault zone. The results show anomalous radon level in the sampled station near the fault zone, which gave a radon value higher by three times than background. This study draws its importance from the fact that in Jordan many cities and villages have been established over an intensive faulted land. Also, our study has considerable implications for the future radon mapping. Moreover, radon gas is proved to be a good tool for fault zones detection

  4. Radon as a groundwater tracer in Forsmark and Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grolander, Sara

    2009-10-01

    Radon concentrations were measured in different water types in Forsmark and Laxemar during the site investigation and within this study. From these measurements it can be concluded that large differences between surface water, near surface groundwater and deep groundwater can be found in both Laxemar and Forsmark. The differences in radon concentrations between different water types are used in this study to detect interactions between surface water, near surface water and deep groundwater. From the radon measurements it can also be concluded that radon concentration in deep groundwater varies largely with depth. These variations with depth are probably caused by groundwater flow in conductive fracture zones in the bedrock. The focus of this study has been the radon concentration of near surface groundwater and the interaction between near surface groundwater and deep groundwater. Radon measurements have been done using the RAD-7 radon detector within this study. It could be concluded that RAD-7 is a good technique for radon measurements and also easy to use in field. The radon concentrations measured in near surface groundwater in Laxemar within this study were low and homogenous. The variation in radon concentration has been analyses and compared to other parameters. Since the hypothesis of this study has been that there are differences in radon concentrations between recharging and discharging groundwater, the most important parameter to consider is the recharge/discharge field classification of the wells. No correlation between the recharge/discharge classifications of wells and the radon concentrations were found. The lack of correlation between groundwater flow patterns and radon concentration means that it is not possible to detect flow patterns in near surface groundwater using radon as a tracer in the Laxemar area. The lack of correlation can be caused by the fact that there are just a few wells located in areas classified as recharge area. It can also be

  5. Modelization of the radon emanation from natural sources in the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabir, A.; Marah, H.; Hlou, L.; Klein, D.; Chambaudet, A.

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the radon emanation and hence the risk to populations, we have adapted an original mathematical model based on the method of distribute parcels (L. Hlou, These d'etat, Faculte des Sciences, Kenitra, MAROC, 1994). This allows us to follow the migration, in time and space, of a quantity of radon produced in a unit volume as a function of the geological, morphological and structural characteristics of the site studied. Knowing the petrographic and pedologic parameters enables us to calculate the radon concentration in all points inside the soil of the site as well as the radon emanation in the atmosphere. It is therefore possible to calculate the radiological risk for populations brought to live on the site studied. Different applications of this model have been realised in Morocco and in France to demonstrate its efficiency. (author)

  6. Cost and effectiveness of radon barrier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, E.G.; Freeman, H.D.; Hartley, J.N.; Gee, G.W.

    1982-12-01

    Earthen, asphalt, and multilayer radon barrier systems can all provide reduction in the amount of radon gas released from uranium mill tailings. Pacific Northwest Laboratory field tested all three types of covers at Grand Junction, Colorado during the summer of 1981. All nine individual radon barrier systems tested currently meet the EPA standard for radon flux of 20 pCi m - 2 s - 1 . The cost of the asphalt and 3m earthen covers were about the same at the field test. Multilayer covers were significantly more costly. Cost estimates for three high priority western sites indicate 3m of earthen cover is the least costly radon barrier when earthen material is available at or near the disposal site. If earthen material must be imported more than 8 to 10 km asphalt and possibly multilayer radon barriers can be cost effective

  7. A feasibility study of geogenic indoor radon mapping from airborne radiometric survey in northern Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wattananikorn, K. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)], E-mail: kittic@science.cmu.ac.th; Emharuthai, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wanaphongse, P. [Office of Atoms for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2008-01-15

    Experiments were carried out in seven test sites on three Quaternary alluvial and terrace deposit basins of northern Thailand, to test the possibility of using airborne equivalent uranium to predict geogenic indoor radon values of the region. The methodology was based on the correlation among soil gas permeability, soil radon concentration and indoor radon, as well as a relationship between soil radon and airborne uranium values. The methodology established works rather well when tested in areas of known indoor radon. Based on the predicted values that were obtained from this method, indoor radon in most areas of alluvial and terrace deposit basins of northern Thailand is less than 44Bq/m{sup 3}. There is no area in these basins where predicted indoor radon exceeds 74Bq/m{sup 3}.

  8. The use of track registration detectors to reconstruct contemporary and historical airborne radon ( sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn) and radon progeny concentrations for a radon-lung cancer epidemiologic study

    CERN Document Server

    Steck, D J

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies that investigate the relationship between radon and lung cancer require accurate estimates for the long-term average concentrations of radon progeny in dwellings. Year-to-year and home-to-home variations of radon in domestic environments pose serious difficulties for reconstructing an individual's long-term radon-related exposure. The use of contemporary radon gas concentrations as a surrogate for radon-related dose introduces additional uncertainty in dose assessment. Studies of glass exposed in radon chambers and in a home show that radon progeny deposited on, and implanted in, glass hold promise for reconstructing past radon concentrations in a variety of atmospheres. We developed an inexpensive track registration detector for the Iowa Radon Lung Cancer Study (IRLCS) that simultaneously measures contemporary airborne radon concentrations, surface deposited alpha activity density, and implanted sup 2 sup 1 sup 0 Po activity density. The implanted activity is used to reconstruct the cum...

  9. Radon measurements in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiou, E.; Ntalles, K.; Molfetas, M.; Athanassiadis, A.; Proukakis, C.

    1988-01-01

    Studies of radon concentration in greek spas, in a cave, in constituents of the greek cement, in building materials in Greece and in greek mines have been published. Some preliminary studies of radon concentration in greek dwellings have been published. In order to get an idea of the problem in Greece we decided to carry out a national survey. Two different sites were selected: Athens, where domicile about 40% of the greek population and Domatia, a small village in northern Greece 600Km from Athens, located in an area known to have soil with increased uranium concentrations

  10. Indoor radon epidemiological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, E; Tomasek, L; Mueller, T [National Radiation Protection Institute, Prague (Czech Republic); Placek, V [Inst. for Expertises and Emergencies, Pribram-Kamenna (Czech Republic); Matzner, J; Heribanova, A [State Office for Nuclear Safety, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    The study is a long-term prospective cohort study of lung cancer and possibility other causes of death. The study population includes inhabitants of the area, who had resided there for at three years and at least one of these between 1.1.1960 and 21.12.1989. A total of 11865 inhabitants satisfied these criteria. The cumulative exposure of each respondent is being assessed on the basis of measurements in dwellings, time spent there and estimation of previous exposure levels by a model accounting for constructional changes in buildings. One year lasting measurements of radon daughter products by integral dosimeters (Kodak film LR 115) were performed in practically all dwellings of the specified area. Radon measurements in houses in term of equilibrium concentration are compared with the results of a pilot study in Petrovice in 1990-91 which gave the stimulus for the epidemiological study. The distribution of death causes and ratio of observed (O) to expected (E) cases among collected death cases in the cohort, generally, somewhat lower ratios than one reflect the non-industrial character of the region, with the exception of lung cancer in man. The differences in the O/E ratios for lung cancer among the separate communities indicate that even in the situation of generally lower mortality, the dependence of lung cancer mortality on radon.

  11. Study of radon transport through concrete modified with silica fume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, R.P.; Kumar, Amit

    2013-01-01

    The concentration of radon in soil usually varies between a few kBq/m 3 and tens or hundreds of kBq/m 3 depending upon the geographical region. This causes the transport of radon from the soil to indoor environments by diffusion and advection through the pore space of concrete. To reduce indoor radon levels, the use of concrete with low porosity and a low radon diffusion coefficient is recommended. A method of reducing the radon diffusion coefficient through concrete and hence the indoor radon concentration by using silica fume to replace an optimum level of cement was studied. The diffusion coefficient of the concrete was reduced from (1.63 ± 0.3) × 10 −7 to (0.65 ± 0.01) × 10 −8 m 2 /s using 30% substitution of cement with silica fume. The compressive strength of the concrete increased as the silica-fume content increased, while radon exhalation rate and porosity of the concrete decreased. This study suggests a cost-effective method of reducing indoor radon levels. -- Highlights: • Radon diffusion study through silica fume modified concrete was carried out. • Radon diffusion coefficient of concrete decreased with increase of silica fume contents. • Compressive strength increased with increase of silica fume. • Radon exhalation rates and porosity of samples decreased with addition of silica fume. • Radon diffusion coefficient decreased to 2.6% by 30% silica fume substitution

  12. A modeling study of the effect of depth of burial of depleted uranium and thorium on radon gas flux at a dry desert alluvial soil radioactive waste management site (RWMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstrom, F.T.; Cawlfield, D.E.; Emer, D.F.; Shott, G.J.

    1993-08-01

    An integral part of designing low-level waste (LLW) disposal pits and their associated closure covers in very dry desert alluvium is the use of a radon gas transport and fate model. Radon-222 has the potential to be a real heath hazard. The production of radon-222 results from the radioactive decay (a particle emission) of radium-226 in the uranium-235 and 238 Bateman chains. It is also produced in the thorium-230 series. Both long lived radionuclides have been proposed for disposal in the shallow land burial pits in Area 5 RWMS compound of Nevada Test Site (NTS). The constructed physics based model includes diffusion and barometric pressure-induced advection of an M-chain of radionuclides. The usual Bateman decay mechanics are included for each radionuclide. Both linear reversible and linear irreversible first order sorption kinetics are assumed for each radionuclide. This report presents the details of using the noble gas transport model, CASCADR9, in an engineering design study mode. Given data on the low-level waste stream, which constitutes the ultimate source of radon-222 in the RWMS, CASCADR9 is used to generate the surface flux (pCi/cm 2 -sec) of radon-222 under the realistic atmospheric and alluvial soil conditions found in the RWMS at Area 5, of the NTS. Specifically, this study examines the surface flux of radon-222 as a function of the depth of burial below the land surface

  13. A Radon Micro Study of Salthill, Galway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle-Tobin Ann

    2006-01-01

    This project presents a study of radon gas, when it enters from the ground into the built environment. In order to further inform the present body of knowledge on this potentially dangerous gas, a radon micro study is carried out in the area of Salthill, Galway. A total of 51 households are measured for radon. The results indicate a high variation in the levels recorded, with over a third of the houses measuring above the national safe standard of 200 becquerels per cubic meter, with a small percentage of houses exhibiting very high levels. The results are spatially analysed against the local geology, as radon is a by-product of the breakdown of uranium in rocks. Householders' knowledge and awareness of radon is explored to inform the reasons why more people are not testing their homes for radon, and not installing remedial measures when high levels are detected. The findings indicate significant gaps in householders' knowledge of radon. A certain complacency is noted, which may indicate that people still do not recognise a need to know about this invisible threat. As ways to encourage further testing and remediation levels are equally explored, the government is viewed to play a central role in these processes through partial state funding. Further evidence supports continued and more effective and widespread advertising of radon issues, through all types of media, with emphasis at local level. Incidents of lung cancer and lung disease of long term residents are recorded in an attempt to find out if there is a correlation between them. The results indicate no correlation; however, not all households could participate in this part of the survey as it was limited to long-term residents only

  14. Energy deposition and radiation quality of radon and radon daughters. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karam, L.R.; Caswell, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    This program was aimed at creating a quantitative physical description, at the micrometer and nanometer levels, of the physical interactions of the alpha particles from radon and its daughters with cells at risk in the bronchial epithelium. The authors calculated alpha-particle energy spectra incident upon the cells and also energy deposition spectra in micrometer- and nanometer-sized sites as a function of cell depth, site size, airway diameter, activities of 218 Po and 214 Po, and other parameters. These data are now being applied, using biophysical models of radiation effects, to predict cell killing, mutations, and cell transformation. The model predictions are then compared to experimental biophysical, biochemical, and biological information. These studies contribute to a detailed understanding of the mechanisms of the biological effectiveness of the radiations emitted by radon and its progeny

  15. Radon releases from Australian uranium mining and milling projects: assessing the UNSCEAR approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudd, Gavin M

    2008-02-01

    The release of radon gas and progeny from the mining and milling of uranium-bearing ores has long been recognised as a potential radiological health hazard. The standards for exposure to radon and progeny have decreased over time as the understanding of their health risk has improved. In recent years there has been debate on the long-term releases (10,000 years) of radon from uranium mining and milling sites, focusing on abandoned, operational and rehabilitated sites. The primary purpose has been estimates of the radiation exposure of both local and global populations. Although there has been an increasing number of radon release studies over recent years in the USA, Australia, Canada and elsewhere, a systematic evaluation of this work has yet to be published in the international literature. This paper presents a detailed compilation and analysis of Australian studies. In order to quantify radon sources, a review of data on uranium mining and milling wastes in Australia, as they influence radon releases, is presented. An extensive compilation of the available radon release data is then assembled for the various projects, including a comparison to predictions of radon behaviour where available. An analysis of cumulative radon releases is then developed and compared to the UNSCEAR approach. The implications for the various assessments of long-term releases of radon are discussed, including aspects such as the need for ongoing monitoring of rehabilitation at uranium mining and milling sites and life-cycle accounting.

  16. Radon releases from Australian uranium mining and milling projects: assessing the UNSCEAR approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudd, Gavin M.

    2008-01-01

    The release of radon gas and progeny from the mining and milling of uranium-bearing ores has long been recognised as a potential radiological health hazard. The standards for exposure to radon and progeny have decreased over time as the understanding of their health risk has improved. In recent years there has been debate on the long-term releases (10,000 years) of radon from uranium mining and milling sites, focusing on abandoned, operational and rehabilitated sites. The primary purpose has been estimates of the radiation exposure of both local and global populations. Although there has been an increasing number of radon release studies over recent years in the USA, Australia, Canada and elsewhere, a systematic evaluation of this work has yet to be published in the international literature. This paper presents a detailed compilation and analysis of Australian studies. In order to quantify radon sources, a review of data on uranium mining and milling wastes in Australia, as they influence radon releases, is presented. An extensive compilation of the available radon release data is then assembled for the various projects, including a comparison to predictions of radon behaviour where available. An analysis of cumulative radon releases is then developed and compared to the UNSCEAR approach. The implications for the various assessments of long-term releases of radon are discussed, including aspects such as the need for ongoing monitoring of rehabilitation at uranium mining and milling sites and life-cycle accounting

  17. Experimental study of radon and thoron diffusion through barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durcik, M; Havlik, F [Inst. of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, 83301 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    The measurement results of diffusion parameters for radon (radon-222) and thoron (radon-220) through barriers, experimental equipment and theoretical background of diffusion are presented in this paper. The diffusion barriers are used for measuring radon and thoron by passive detectors in order to test the reduction techniques in houses. Six samples (filter paper, rubber, polyethylene, glass laminate, polypropylene) were studied for radon diffusion. The thickness barriers were from 0.012 mm to 2 mm, the diffusion area was 16 cm{sup 2} and the volume V{sub 2} was 30 dm{sup 3}. The diffusion constants D were obtained using given expressions and the data from measurements. The procedures used in experiments are useful for study of diffusion ability of radon and thoron in barriers and determination diffusion parameters from short term measurements. (J.K.). 2 figs., 1 tab., 3 refs.

  18. Experimental study of radon and thoron diffusion through barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durcik, M.; Havlik, F.

    1995-01-01

    The measurement results of diffusion parameters for radon (radon-222) and thoron (radon-220) through barriers, experimental equipment and theoretical background of diffusion are presented in this paper. The diffusion barriers are used for measuring radon and thoron by passive detectors in order to test the reduction techniques in houses. Six samples (filter paper, rubber, polyethylene, glass laminate, polypropylene) were studied for radon diffusion. The thickness barriers were from 0.012 mm to 2 mm, the diffusion area was 16 cm 2 and the volume V 2 was 30 dm 3 . The diffusion constants D were obtained using given expressions and the data from measurements. The procedures used in experiments are useful for study of diffusion ability of radon and thoron in barriers and determination diffusion parameters from short term measurements. (J.K.). 2 figs., 1 tab., 3 refs

  19. Study on singular radon releases from mining residues and the impact on the outdoor radon concentration; Untersuchungen zu singulaeren Radonfreisetzungen aus bergbaulichen Hinterlassenschaften und ihre Auswirkungen auf die Radonkonzentration im Freien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahnt, Rene; Martin, Mirko; Pinka, Jana

    2012-03-15

    The G.E.O.S. mbH was assigned by the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz to perform time resolved measurements of the radon release and time and spatial resolved studies on the atmospheric dispersion dependent on the topographic and meteorological conditions in the area of Haiden. The report includes data on the radon release from mining residues at the site Johanngeorgenstadt and measurements in other areas.

  20. Studies of Radon and Radon Progeny in Air Conditioned Rooms in Hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marley, F.; Denman, A.R.; Phillips, P.S.

    1998-01-01

    A series of continuous real-time radon and radon progeny measurements together with passive etched track detector measurements were performed in hospital premises during 1996. In one small room, detailed measurements over several weeks showed that both the radon concentration and the Equilibrium Factor depended on the intermittent operation of a filtered positive pressure displacement air-conditioning system, which was designed to conform to operating theatre standards. The average radon level measured while the air-conditioning was off was almost four times higher than that recorded whilst it was on. The progeny level was over five times higher than that whilst it was on. Thus, the Equilibrium Factor (F), was significantly lower when the air-conditioning was on. Measurements in similar rooms in two hospitals, confirmed that the reduction in radon level was a general finding. Thus staff working in such environments receive significantly lower radiation dose from radon than staff working in nearby normally ventilated rooms. (author)

  1. Identification of radon anomalies related to earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozdas, M.; Inceoglu, F.; Rahman, C.; Yaprak, G.

    2009-01-01

    Put of many proposed earthquake precursors, temporal radon variation in soil is classified as one of a few promising geochemical signals that may be used for earthquake prediction. However, to use radon variation in soil gas as a reliable earthquake precursor, it must be realized that radon changes are controlled not only by deeper phenomena such as earthquake, but they are also controlled by meteorological parameters such as precipitation, barometric pressure, air temperature and etc. Further studies are required to differentiate the changes in the measured radon concentration caused by tectonic disturbances from the meteorological parameters. In the current study, temporal radon variations in soil gas along active faults in Alasehir of Gediz Graben Systems have been continuously monitored by LR-115 nuclear track detectors for two years. Additionally, the meteorological parameters such as barometric pressure, rainfall and air temperature at the monitoring site have been observed during the same period. Accordingly, regression analysis have been applied to the collected data to identify the radon anomalies due to the seismic activities from those of meteorological conditions.

  2. Application of a radon model to explain indoor radon levels in a Swedish house

    CERN Document Server

    Font, L; Jönsson, G; Enge, W; Ghose, R

    1999-01-01

    Radon entry from soil into indoor air and its accumulation indoors depends on several parameters, the values of which normally depend on the specific characteristics of the site. The effect of a specific parameter is often difficult to explain from the result of indoor radon measurements only. The adaptation of the RAGENA (RAdon Generation, ENtry and Accumulation indoors) model to a Swedish house to characterise indoor radon levels and the relative importance of the different radon sources and entry mechanisms is presented. The building is a single-zone house with a naturally-ventilated crawl space in one part and a concrete floor in another part, leading to different radon levels in the two parts of the building. The soil under the house is moraine, which is relatively permeable to radon gas. The house is naturally-ventilated. The mean indoor radon concentration values measured with nuclear track detectors in the crawl-space and concrete parts of the house are respectively 75+-30 and 200+-80 Bq m sup - sup 3...

  3. A study of the influence of a gravel subslab layer on radon entry rate using two basement structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.L.; Sextro, R.G.; Fisk, W.J.; Garbesi, K.; Wooley, J.; Wollenberg, H.A.

    1993-01-01

    In buildings with elevated radon concentrations, the dominant transport mechanism of radon is advective flow of soil gas into the building substructure. However, the building-soil system is often complex, making detailed studies of the radon source term difficult. In order to examine radon entry into buildings, the authors have constructed two room-size, precisely-fabricated basement structures at a site with relatively homogeneous, moderately permeable soil. The basements are identical except that one lies directly on native soil whereas the other lies on a high permeability aggregate layer. The soil pressure field and radon entry rate have been measured for different basement pressures and environmental conditions. The subslab gravel layer greatly enhances the advective entry of radon into the structure; when the structures are depressurized, the radon entry rate into the structure with the subslab gravel layer is more than a factor of 3 times the radon entry rate into the other structure for the same depressurization. The gravel subslab layer also spreads the pressure field around the structure, extending the field of influence of the structure and the region from which it draws radon

  4. A study of the influence of a gravel subslab layer on radon entry rate using two basement structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.L.; Sextro, R.G.; Fisk, W.J.; Garbesi, K.; Wooley, J.; Wollenberg, H.A.

    1993-01-01

    In buildings with elevated radon concentrations, the dominant transport mechanism of radon is advective flow of soil gas into the building substructure. However, the building-soil system is often complex, making detailed studies of the radon source term difficult. In order-to examine radon entry into buildings, we have constructed two room-size, precisely-fabricated basement structures at a site with relatively homogeneous, moderately permeable soil. The basements are identical except that one lies directly on native soil whereas the other lies on a high permeability aggregate layer. The soil pressure field and radon entry rate have been measured for different basement pressures and environmental conditions. The subslab gravel layer greatly enhances the advective entry of radon into the structure; when the structures are depressurized, the radon entry rate into the structure with the subslab gravel layer is more than a factor of 3 times the radon entry rate into the other structure for the same depressurization. The gravel subslab layer also spreads the pressure field around the structure, extending the field of influence of the structure and the region from which it draws radon. (orig.). (7 refs., 3 figs.)

  5. Contribution of radon and radon daughters to respiratory cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, N.; Samet, J.M.; Cross, F.T.; Hess, T.; Muller, J.; Thomas, D.

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews studies on the contribution of radon and radon daughters to respiratory cancer and proposes recommendations for further research, particularly a national radon survey. The steady-state outdoor radon concentration averages 200 pCi/m3, and indoor levels are about 4 times higher. The primary source of radon in homes is the underlying soil; entry depends on multiple variables and reduced ventilation for energy conservation increases indoor radon levels. Occupational exposures are expressed in units of radon daughter potential energy concentration or working level (WL). Cumulative exposure is the product of the working level and the time exposed. The unit for cumulative exposure is the working level month (WLM). The occupational standard for radon exposure is 4 WLM/year, and 2 WLM/year has been suggested as a guideline for remedial action in homes. Epidemiologic studies show that miners with cumulative radon daughter exposures somewhat below 100 WLM have excess lung cancer mortality. Some 3% to 8% of miners studied have developed lung cancer attributable to radon daughters. All of the underground mining studies show an increased risk of lung cancer with radon daughter exposure. All cell types of lung cancer increased with radon exposure. If radon and smoking act in a multiplicative manner, then the risk for smokers could be 10 times that for nonsmokers. The potential risk of lung cancer appears to be between 1 and 2 per 10,000/WLM, which yields a significant number of lung cancers as some 220 million persons in the United States are exposed on average to 10 to 20 WLM/lifetime

  6. Application of a radon model to explain indoor radon levels in a Swedish house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Font, LL.; Baixeras, C.; Joensson, G.; Enge, W.; Ghose, R.

    1999-01-01

    Radon entry from soil into indoor air and its accumulation indoors depends on several parameters, the values of which normally depend on the specific characteristics of the site. The effect of a specific parameter is often difficult to explain from the result of indoor radon measurements only. The adaptation of the RAGENA (RAdon Generation, ENtry and Accumulation indoors) model to a Swedish house to characterise indoor radon levels and the relative importance of the different radon sources and entry mechanisms is presented. The building is a single-zone house with a naturally-ventilated crawl space in one part and a concrete floor in another part, leading to different radon levels in the two parts of the building. The soil under the house is moraine, which is relatively permeable to radon gas. The house is naturally-ventilated. The mean indoor radon concentration values measured with nuclear track detectors in the crawl-space and concrete parts of the house are respectively 75±30 and 200±80 Bq m -3 . Results of the model adaptation to the house indicate that soil constitutes the most relevant radon source in both parts of the house. The radon concentration values predicted by the model indoors fall into the same range as the experimental results

  7. Radon monitoring in sites of economical importance in Jamaica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, C.N.; Lalor, G.C.; Balcázar, M.

    2012-01-01

    The main task was to evaluate possible radon risk to the public and workers in four caves of economical importance. Green Grotto Cave is a large labyrinthine limestone cave, open to the tourism; kept Rn concentration in the range 30–40 Bq m −3 . Xtabil a coral limestone sea cave is part of a beach resort resulted in very low radon concentration of 10 Bq m −3 . Windsor is an intricate limestone cave system showed Rn concentration in the range 250–350 Bq m −3 . Whereas the Oxford caves, is situated in a region of high radioactivity in soil due to the bauxite mines, reached a maximum of 2592 Bq m −3 . - Highlights: ► Touristic caves of economical importance shown no radon risk for workers and visitors. ► Maximum permanence time due to abnormal radon is given for caves used by speleologist. ► Despite high Rn and U in soil in bauxite areas no risk is determined in houses.

  8. Radon-prone areas in the Lombard plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesana, Lucia; Polla, Giancarla; Facchini, Ugo; De Capitani, Luisa

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the results of indoor radon measurements carried out in the Lombard plain. The aim of this study, which is based on the geological context, was to identify radon high-risk areas. The underlying geology has been established by means of the available stratigraphies giving a schematic representation of the sites in which either occurrence of gravel or silt and clay predominate with depths ranging from 0 to 50 m. Radon measurements were performed in a sample of 411 one-family houses in seven villages located in the southern area of Bergamo and Brescia. The findings indicate that when the substrate is dominated by clay, radon concentration for dwellings on the ground floor are low, whereas a strong predominance of underlying gravel mixed up in sand gives in winter months high radon flux from underground

  9. Radon-prone areas in the Lombard plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sesana, Lucia [Istituto di Fisica Generale Applicata, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via G. Celoria, 16 - 20133 Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: lucia.sesana@unimi.it; Polla, Giancarla [Istituto di Fisica Generale Applicata, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via G. Celoria, 16 - 20133 Milan (Italy); Facchini, Ugo [Istituto di Fisica Generale Applicata, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via G. Celoria, 16 - 20133 Milan (Italy); De Capitani, Luisa [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Botticelli, 23 - 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    This paper reports the results of indoor radon measurements carried out in the Lombard plain. The aim of this study, which is based on the geological context, was to identify radon high-risk areas. The underlying geology has been established by means of the available stratigraphies giving a schematic representation of the sites in which either occurrence of gravel or silt and clay predominate with depths ranging from 0 to 50 m. Radon measurements were performed in a sample of 411 one-family houses in seven villages located in the southern area of Bergamo and Brescia. The findings indicate that when the substrate is dominated by clay, radon concentration for dwellings on the ground floor are low, whereas a strong predominance of underlying gravel mixed up in sand gives in winter months high radon flux from underground.

  10. The Norwegian information campaign on radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thommesen, G.; Strand, T.

    1999-01-01

    The responsibility for providing an overview of 'all factors in the environment which are or may be having a direct or indirect influence on the health - -' rests with the municipal health authorities. In order to enable the municipal staff throughout Norway to accomplish local radon surveys, an information campaign on radon, including printed information material and training courses, was carried out in 1998-99, primarily directed towards municipal civil servants. The two-day training courses comprised of lectures and a compendium covering basic knowledge on ionizing radiation, sources of radon, measurement techniques, health risk, prophylactic and remedial measures, design and accomplishment of survey projects, and information strategy. The printed information material includes booklets providing general information on radon (health risks, measurements, and mitigation), methods for measuring radon in indoor air and construction sites, action levels, and design of municipal radon surveys. Two posters have been issued, one mainly intended for public offices and waiting rooms to motivate the public for radon measurements, the other one intended for municipal personnel and governmental offices, the latter also issued as a collection of fact sheets intended for schools etc. the booklets are displayed on the Internet (www.nrpa.no). The site also contains links to further information on mitigation techniques and economic support to remedial measures. (au)

  11. Radon studies in selected workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randle, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    Radon progeny levels were measured in coal mines, a hard rock mine and two underground hydro power stations, to indicate if there is a health problem associated with exposure to radon and radon progeny in these workplaces. The average alpha concentrations ranged from 37 to 276 Bq m -3 , with the highest levels being found in a mine with no ventillation that was being decommissioned. Average dosages were calculated to be 0.1 - 0.7 mSv y -1 . Radon progeny levels in coal mines measured in the return air circuit are indicative of levels to which a worker at the face would be exposed. They were well below international guidelines for intervention in New Zealand mines, as were the slightly higher levels in two underground hydro power stations. These results confirm that radon levels in New Zealand are low. Even in the extreme situation represented by the Sullivan mine with no ventillation the levels do not warrant concern. 11 refs., 2 tabs

  12. Low-cost Radon Reduction Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, William B. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Francisco, Paul W. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Merrin, Zachary [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Building America research team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofits conducted a primary scoping study on the impact of air sealing between the foundation and the living space on radon transport reduction across the foundation and living space floor assembly. Fifteen homes in the Champaign, Illinois, area participated in the study. These homes were instrumented for hourly continuous radon measurements and simultaneous temperature and humidity measurements. Blower door and zone pressure diagnostics were conducted at each house. The treatments consisted of using air-sealing foams at the underside of the floor that separated the living space from the foundation and providing duct sealing on the ductwork that is situated in the foundation area. The hypothesis was that air sealing the floor system that separated the foundation from the living space should better isolate the living space from the foundation; this isolation should lead to less radon entering the living space from the foundation. If the hypothesis had been proven, retrofit energy-efficiency programs may have chosen to adopt these isolation methods for enhanced radon protection to the living space.

  13. Radon anomaly in soil gas as an earthquake precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miklavcic, I.; Radolic, V.; Vukovic, B.; Poje, M.; Varga, M.; Stanic, D.; Planinic, J.

    2008-01-01

    The mechanical processes of earthquake preparation are always accompanied by deformations; afterwards, the complex short- or long-term precursory phenomena can appear. Anomalies of radon concentrations in soil gas are registered a few weeks or months before many earthquakes. Radon concentrations in soil gas were continuously measured by the LR-115 nuclear track detectors at site A (Osijek) during a 4-year period, as well as by the Barasol semiconductor detector at site B (Kasina) during 2 years. We investigated the influence of the meteorological parameters on the temporal radon variations, and we determined the equation of the multiple regression that enabled the reduction (deconvolution) of the radon variation caused by the barometric pressure, rainfall and temperature. The pre-earthquake radon anomalies at site A indicated 46% of the seismic events, on criterion M≥3, R<200 km, and 21% at site B. Empirical equations between earthquake magnitude, epicenter distance and precursor time enabled estimation or prediction of an earthquake that will rise at the epicenter distance R from the monitoring site in expecting precursor time T

  14. Radon anomaly in soil gas as an earthquake precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miklavcic, I.; Radolic, V.; Vukovic, B.; Poje, M.; Varga, M.; Stanic, D. [Department of Physics, University of Osijek, Trg Ljudevita Gaja 6, POB 125, 31000 Osijek (Croatia); Planinic, J. [Department of Physics, University of Osijek, Trg Ljudevita Gaja 6, POB 125, 31000 Osijek (Croatia)], E-mail: planinic@ffos.hr

    2008-10-15

    The mechanical processes of earthquake preparation are always accompanied by deformations; afterwards, the complex short- or long-term precursory phenomena can appear. Anomalies of radon concentrations in soil gas are registered a few weeks or months before many earthquakes. Radon concentrations in soil gas were continuously measured by the LR-115 nuclear track detectors at site A (Osijek) during a 4-year period, as well as by the Barasol semiconductor detector at site B (Kasina) during 2 years. We investigated the influence of the meteorological parameters on the temporal radon variations, and we determined the equation of the multiple regression that enabled the reduction (deconvolution) of the radon variation caused by the barometric pressure, rainfall and temperature. The pre-earthquake radon anomalies at site A indicated 46% of the seismic events, on criterion M{>=}3, R<200 km, and 21% at site B. Empirical equations between earthquake magnitude, epicenter distance and precursor time enabled estimation or prediction of an earthquake that will rise at the epicenter distance R from the monitoring site in expecting precursor time T.

  15. Radon Emanation from NORM-Contaminated Pipe Scale, Soil, and Sediment at Petroleum Industry Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rood, A.S.; White, G.J.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes a study of radon (Rn) emanation from pipe scale and soil samples contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Samples were collected at petroleum production sites in Oklahoma, Michigan, Kentucky, and Illinois. For comparison, data are also presented from preliminary studies conducted at sites in Texas and Wyoming. All samples collected were analyzed for their Rn emanation fraction, defined as the fraction of 222Rn produced that enters the interconnected pore space within a medium contaminated with 226Ra before the 222Rn undergoes radioactive decay. This measure represents one of the important parameters that determine the overall Rn activity flux from any solid medium. The goal of this project was to determine whether Rn emanation from pipe scale and soil is similar to emanation from uranium mill tailings

  16. Comparative study on radon effects and thermal effects on humans in radon hot spring therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaoka, K.; Mitsunobu, F.; Hanamoto, K.; Tanizaki, Y.; Sugita, K.; Kohima, S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The radon therapy is used radon ( 222 Rn) gas, which mainly emits alpha-rays, and induces a small amount of active oxygen in the body. Because most of the diseases to which the radon therapy as well as the thermal therapy is applied are related to activated oxygen, in this study the effects of the radioactivity of radon and thermal effects were compared under the room or the hot spring condition with the similar chemical component, using as the parameters which are closely involved in the clinical for radon therapy. In the results, the radon and thermal therapy enhanced the antioxidation function, such as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, which inhibit lipid peroxidation and total cholesterol produce in the body. Moreover the therapy enhanced concanavalin A (ConA)-induced mitogen response, and increased the level of CD4, which is the marker of helper T cell, and decreased the level of CD8, which is the common marker of killer T cell and supresser T cell, in the white cell differentiation antigen (CD4/CD8) assay. Furthermore, the therapy increased the levels of alpha atrial natriuretic polypeptide (alpha ANP), beta endorphin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), insulin and glucose-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH), and decreased the vasopression level. The results were on the whole larger in the radon group than in the thermal group. The findings suggest that the radon therapy more contributes to the prevention of life style-related diseases related to peroxidation reactions and immune depression than thermal therapy. Moreover these indicate what may be a part of the mechanism for the alleviation of hypertension, osteoarthritis (pain) and diabetes mellitus brought about more radon therapy than thermal therapy

  17. Overview of current radon and radon daughter research at LBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This report provides a brief summary of radon and radon daughter research at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The radon and radon daughter research program has two broad goals: (1) the study of sources of radon and its subsequent transport into houses, and (2) research on the behavior of radon daughters in indoor environments. Additional research effort is directed to several auxiliary areas, including development of instrumentation and monitoring techniques, studies of indoor air movement, and measurement and control of indoor particulate concentrations

  18. Secular variations of radon in metropolitan Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghomshei, M.M.; Slawson, W.F.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper sampling of radon within the soil from three sites in metropolitan Vancouver is reported. Alpha trace bi-weekly measurements during a period of 4 years show secular variations with a period of 8-15 months. There are low-radon and high-radon episodes enduring several months to a year. Average radon level during the high-radon episodes reaches 5-10 times that of the low-radon periods. During high-radon episodes the high-frequency variations show very high amplitudes. After filtering of the high-frequency fluctuations, the data from different sites demonstrate remarkably similar trends. It is suggested that along with hydrogeological events, stress relaxation in rocks, earthquake, and magma emplacement may contribute to the sources of secular variations of radon. Because of long-term variations, radon level in urban areas should be monitored on a continuous basis. Single measurements, even those integrating radiation over a period of few months, may sample a low-radon episode, and provide a false assurance, or occur during a high-radon episode and give a false alarm

  19. Study of the effects of radon in three biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavera, L.; Balcazar, M.; Lopez, A.; Brena, M.; Rosa, M.E. De la; Villalobos P, R.

    2002-01-01

    The radon and its decay products are responsible of the 3/4 parts of the exposure of the persons to the environmental radiation. The discovery at the end of XIX Century of the illnesses, mainly of cancer, which appeared in the presence of radon, lead to an accelerated growing of the radon studies: monitoring, dosimetry, effects on the persons, etc. Several epidemiological studies of radon in miners and population in general have been realized; advancing in the knowledge about the concentration-lung cancer risk relationship, but with discrepancies in the results depending on the concentration levels. Therefor, studies which consuming time, efforts and money go on doing. The research of the radon effects in biological systems different to human, allows to realize studies in less time, in controlled conditions and generally at lower cost, generating information about the alpha radiation effects in the cellular field. Therefor it was decided to study the response of three biological systems exposed to radon: an unicellular bacteria Escherichia Coli which was exposed directly to alpha particles from an electrodeposited source for determining the sensitivity limit of the chose technique. A plant, Tradescantia, for studying the cytogenetic effect of the system exposed to controlled concentrations of radon. An insect, Drosophila Melanogaster, for studying the genetic effects and the accumulated effects in several generations exposed to radon. In this work the experimental settlements are presented for the expositions of the systems and the biological results commenting the importance of these. (Author)

  20. Radon-222: tracer of geological systems dynamics. Methodology and signal processing, interpretation of radon-222 behaviour in active geological media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richon, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Gases, especially radon, have often been cited as indicators of large-scale geodynamic processes, or as precursors of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Measurable in the air, water and rocks, natural radon concentrations are generally extremely low, because 1 Bq m -3 corresponds to a mixing ratio of 1,77 * 10 -20 in air at normal temperature and pressure (NPT). Expressed in a usual unit in chemistry of air pollution, an usual activity concentration of 37 Bq m -3 is only a billion th of ppb by volume (ppbv) in the atmosphere. Yet such, concentrations of radon are very easy to measure, because the decay α is an energetic phenomenon: It makes it theoretically possible to detect a single atom of radon, which is an inaccessible performance by chemical analysis. This feature, combined with a half-life of 3.82 days, makes radon so interesting for tracing natural phenomena. But the major drawback is that radon becomes very sensitive to subsurface meteorological and hydrogeological processes especially if the measurement methodology is not perfectly controlled. These aspects are not addressed in the past and in recent literatures and are rarely taken into account when analyzing and interpreting radon signal. We review these issues by addressing problems related to instrumentation, to measurement methods, and to data processing. We show how to extract signatures of geodynamical processes dissimulated in radon data for very different sites with strong dynamic like volcanic sites (La Soufriere of Guadeloupe, FWI, Merapi, Indonesia), tectonic sites (Syabru-Bensi in Nepal and the Kunlun fault in Tibet) and underground laboratories (Roselend and Argentiere). For this, we had to develop signals processing tools that allow us to extract the effect of barometric and gravimetric tide waves from the radon signal. This is a very sensitive for a detailed survey of the transport processes of radon that are closely linked to geodynamic processes involved in different sites. The

  1. Study on radon geological potential of Beijing city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qingcheng; Wu Xinmin; Liu Yujuan; Yang Yaxin; Zhang Ye

    2009-01-01

    According to elemental geochemistry in Beijing, the uranium content in the area was measured, and distribution of radon concentration was predicted. Based on the uranium-radium equilibrium coefficient, porosity and diffusion coefficient, which were either measured or calculated, the radon geological potential of Beijing city was studied using γ-ray spectroscopy or mass spectroscopy and certain models were used to calculate the relation between radon geological potential and lithology and geological structure. The results showed that radon geological potential of Beijing city could be divided into four zones, tend of every zone coincides with the main structure, and the potential values nearly relate with geological factors. (authors)

  2. Significance of radon exposures in developing cleanup criteria for radium-contaminated soil at the Weldon Spring Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blunt, D.L.; Peterson, J.M.; Hillman, D.J.

    1993-10-01

    The Weldon Spring site, located in St. Charles County, Missouri, is included on the National Priorities List (NPL) of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) is currently conducting cleanup activities at the site. This paper discusses the significance of radon exposures that may result from radium-contaminated soil and the approach currently being taken at the Weldon Spring site to address this issue

  3. Radon in buildings: instrumentation of an experimental house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ameon, R.; Diez, O.; Dupuis, M.; Merle-Szeremeta, A.

    2004-01-01

    IRSN decided to develop a code called RADON 2 for conducting simple and methodical studies of indoor radon concentrations. Since a validity check must be performed of the phenomenological model on which the code is based, an experimental program was initiated in 2002, within which a house in Brittany, located on a well-characterized uranium-bearing geological formation, was fitted with special instruments. After characterizing the soil underlying the house, the instrumentation implemented on site continuously monitors a number of parameters to characterize: the radon source term in the building (exhalation rate of 222 Rn at the ground/building interface and at soil surface, radon concentration in the soil and in outdoor air); radon penetration by advection (differential pressure in the house basement); the driving mechanisms for natural ventilation in the house (weather conditions, indoor temperature and relative humidity); radon distribution throughout the house by air flow and radon diffusion (indoor radon concentration at each floor of the house). Using the experimental data acquired over the past two years, the phenomena governing radon penetration inside the house (wind and stack effect) and radon extraction (fresh air supply rate) have been characterized to lay down the bases for validating the newly developed code

  4. Study of the effects of radon in three biological systems; Estudio de los efectos del radon en tres sistemas biologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavera, L. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Av. Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas No. 152, Edif. 23, Col. San Mateo Atepehuacan, 07730 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Balcazar, M.; Lopez, A.; Brena, M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Rosa, M.E. De la [Facultad de Quimica, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Villalobos P, R. [Centro de Estudios de la Atmosfera, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    The radon and its decay products are responsible of the 3/4 parts of the exposure of the persons to the environmental radiation. The discovery at the end of XIX Century of the illnesses, mainly of cancer, which appeared in the presence of radon, lead to an accelerated growing of the radon studies: monitoring, dosimetry, effects on the persons, etc. Several epidemiological studies of radon in miners and population in general have been realized; advancing in the knowledge about the concentration-lung cancer risk relationship, but with discrepancies in the results depending on the concentration levels. Therefor, studies which consuming time, efforts and money go on doing. The research of the radon effects in biological systems different to human, allows to realize studies in less time, in controlled conditions and generally at lower cost, generating information about the alpha radiation effects in the cellular field. Therefor it was decided to study the response of three biological systems exposed to radon: an unicellular bacteria Escherichia Coli which was exposed directly to alpha particles from an electrodeposited source for determining the sensitivity limit of the chose technique. A plant, Tradescantia, for studying the cytogenetic effect of the system exposed to controlled concentrations of radon. An insect, Drosophila Melanogaster, for studying the genetic effects and the accumulated effects in several generations exposed to radon. In this work the experimental settlements are presented for the expositions of the systems and the biological results commenting the importance of these. (Author)

  5. Radon and lung cancer: an epidemiological study in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranden, E.; Strand, T.; Magnus, K.; James, A.C.; Green, B.M.R.

    1988-01-01

    The objectives and strategy of an epidemiological study on the effects of exposure to radon in Norwegian dwellings is presented. The study is a cooperation between the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene and the Norwegian Cancer Registry in Norway and the National Radiological Protection Board of the United Kingdom, with funding by the Norwegian Cancer Society. Measurements of radon are being made in 10,000 dwellings representing all Norwegian municipalities. The potential for detecting an effect of radon exposure by such a study in Norway is unique because: (1) Radon concentrations are high and there are large regional variations. (2) Data from the Norwegian Cancer Registry is of high quality: all cancers have been subject to compulsory reporting since 1955. These data can be broken down according to municipality, sex and age. (3) In 1964/1965 a large scale survey of smoking habits was carried out in Norway. These data can also be broken down according to municipality, sex and age, and by types of smoking and smoking rate. It is intended to examine the correlation between lung cancer incidence and geographical variation in radon levels after making allowance for smoking habits. Radon measurements were started in early 1987 and the results of the study are expected to be published in 1989. (author)

  6. Study of the factors affecting radon diffusion through building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, R.P.

    2011-01-01

    Radon appears mainly by diffusion processes from the point of origin following - decay of 226 Ra in underground soil and building materials used, in the construction of floors, walls, and ceilings. The diffusion of radon in dwellings is a process determined by the radon concentration gradient across the building material structure and can be a significant contributor to indoor radon inflow. Radon can originate from the deeply buried deposit beneath homes and can migrate to the surface of earth. Radon diffusion and transport through different media is a complex process and is affected by several factors. It is well known that for building construction materials the porosity, permeability and the diffusion coefficient are the parameters, which can quantify the materials capability to hinder the flow of radon soil gas. An increase in porosity will provide more air space within the material for radon to travel, thus reducing its resistance to radon transport. The permeability of material describes its ability to act as a barrier to gas movement when a pressure gradient exists across it and is closely related to the porosity of material. The radon diffusion coefficient of a material quantifies the ability of radon gas to move through it when a concentration gradient is the driving force. This parameter depends upon the porosity and permeability of the medium. As diffusion process is the major contributor to indoor levels, therefore, the factors affecting the diffusion process need to be kept in consideration. Keeping this in mind the experimental arrangements have been made for control study of radon diffusion through some building materials to observe the effects of different factors viz.; compaction, grain size, temperature, humidity and the mixing of these materials etc. For the present study alpha sensitive LR-115 type II solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) have been used for the recording of alpha tracks caused by radon gas after its diffusion through the

  7. Radon Progeny in Egyptian Underground Phosphate Mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hady, M.A.; Mohammed, A.; El-Hussein, A.; Ali, A.E.; Ahmed, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    In addition to the workers in uranium mines, the staff of other underground mines, such as workers in underground phosphate mines, can be exposed to 222 Rn and its progeny. In this study the individual radon progeny concentrations were measured in three Egyptian underground phosphate mines to estimate the occupational exposure of the workers at those sites. A filter method was used to measure individual radon progeny concentrations ( 218 Po, 214 Pb and 214 Po). The reported mean values of radon progeny concentrations exceed the action levels which are recommended by ICRP 65 (1993). Based on the measured individual radon progeny concentrations ( 218 Po, 214 Pb and 214 Po) in these mines, the annual effective dose for the workers has been calculated using the lung dose model of ICRP 66 (1994). According to the obtained results, some countermeasures were recommended in this study to minimise these exposure levels. (author)

  8. Radon removal equipment based on aeration: A literature study of tests performed in Sweden between 1981 and 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mjoenes, L.

    2000-02-01

    In Sweden some principles to reduce the radon concentration in drinking water were tested in the beginning of the 1980s. Spray aeration under atmospheric pressure, diffused bubble aeration, aeration in the pressure tank and different combinations of these principles were studied. Aeration in the drill hole and adsorption on granulated activated char-coal were also tested. The best results, about 70 % reduction, were obtained with aeration in the pressure tank with a spray system combined with diffused air bubbling. The Oerebro project in the beginning of the 1990s included on site testing of five different aeration solutions: Aeration in the drill hole, aeration in the storage tank, ejector aeration, shallow tray aeration and packed column aeration. The radon removal efficiency varied between 20 % and 99 %. In 1994 a study intended to test the radon removal capacity of different water treatment equipment was performed. Six units of radon separators were included but most of the tested equipment was installed for other water treatment purposes. The performed measurements showed that the only types of equipment that reduce the radon concentration efficiently are radon separators and reverse osmosis filters. The radon removal capacity of the radon separators varied between 23 % and 97 %. In 1996 the nine most common radon separators on the Swedish market were tested. The results showed that the tested radon removal equipment worked well, although the technical quality and chosen technical solutions were not always the best. The radon removal capacity of the units participating in this test was in most cases between 96 and 99 %. In some cases the capacity exceeded 99 %. In order to reach this radon removal capacity the water must be recirculated in a storage tank under atmospheric pressure

  9. Radon removal equipment based on aeration: A literature study of tests performed in Sweden between 1981 and 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mjoenes, L

    2000-02-01

    In Sweden some principles to reduce the radon concentration in drinking water were tested in the beginning of the 1980s. Spray aeration under atmospheric pressure, diffused bubble aeration, aeration in the pressure tank and different combinations of these principles were studied. Aeration in the drill hole and adsorption on granulated activated char-coal were also tested. The best results, about 70 % reduction, were obtained with aeration in the pressure tank with a spray system combined with diffused air bubbling. The Oerebro project in the beginning of the 1990s included on site testing of five different aeration solutions: Aeration in the drill hole, aeration in the storage tank, ejector aeration, shallow tray aeration and packed column aeration. The radon removal efficiency varied between 20 % and 99 %. In 1994 a study intended to test the radon removal capacity of different water treatment equipment was performed. Six units of radon separators were included but most of the tested equipment was installed for other water treatment purposes. The performed measurements showed that the only types of equipment that reduce the radon concentration efficiently are radon separators and reverse osmosis filters. The radon removal capacity of the radon separators varied between 23 % and 97 %. In 1996 the nine most common radon separators on the Swedish market were tested. The results showed that the tested radon removal equipment worked well, although the technical quality and chosen technical solutions were not always the best. The radon removal capacity of the units participating in this test was in most cases between 96 and 99 %. In some cases the capacity exceeded 99 %. In order to reach this radon removal capacity the water must be recirculated in a storage tank under atmospheric pressure.

  10. Comparative study of radon exposure in Canadian homes and uranium mines - a discussion on the importance of national radon program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jing

    2017-01-01

    The history of lung cancer in uranium miners is well known for over hundreds of years when the disease was referred to as 'miner's disease' or 'mountain sickness'. Radon levels in uranium mines have decreased significantly over the past 30 years as a result of effective radiation protection measures at workplaces. For the most recent 10-year period, the average radon concentrations to underground and surface workers in Canadian uranium mines were 111 and 11 Bq m -3 , respectively. Based on the recent radon survey carried out in roughly 14 000 homes in 121 health regions across Canada and the more recent radon and thoron survey in 33 Canadian cities and 4000 homes, the average radon concentration in Canadian homes is 77 Bq m -3 . This study demonstrates that, nowadays, workers are exposed to radon in underground mines at a comparable radon level to what Canadians are exposed to at home. Since exposure to indoor radon is the main source of natural radiation exposure to the population, it is important for the National Radon Program to further increase radon awareness, and to encourage more Canadians to take appropriate actions to reduce radon exposure. (authors)

  11. Statistical analysis of real-time, enviromental radon monitoring results at the Fernald Enviromental Management Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ning; Spitz, H.B.; Tomezak, L.

    1996-01-01

    A comprehensive real-time, environmental radon monitoring program is being conducted at the Fernald Environmental Management Project, where a large quantity of radium-bearing residues have been stored in two covered earth-bermed silos. Statistical analyses was conducted to determine what impact radon emitted by the radium bearing materials contained in the silos has on the ambient radon concentration at the Fernald Environmental Management Project site. The distribution that best describes the outdoor radon monitoring data was determined before statistical analyses were conducted. Random effects associated with the selection of radon monitoring locations were accommodated by using nested and nested factorial classification models. The Project site was divided into four general areas according to their characteristics and functions: (1) the silo area, where the radium-bearing waste is stored; (2) the production/administration area; (3) the perimeter area, or fence-line, of the Fernald Environmental Management Project site; and (4) a background area, located approximately 13 km from the Fernald Environmental Management Project site, representing the naturally-occurring radon concentration. A total of 15 continuous, hourly readout radon monitors were installed to measure the outdoor radon concentration. Measurement results from each individual monitor were found to be log-normally distributed. A series of contrast tests, which take random effects into account, were performed to compare the radon concentration between different areas of the site. These comparisons demonstrate that the radon concentrations in the production/administration area and the perimeter area are statistically equal to the natural background, whereas the silo area is significantly higher than background. The study also showed that the radon concentration in the silo area was significantly reduced after a sealant barrier was applied to the contents of the silos. 10 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs

  12. Transport studies of radon in limestone underlying houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammage, R.B.; Dudney, C.S.; Wilson, D.L.; Saultz, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    In hilly limestone terrains of the southern Appalachians, subterranean networks of solution cavities and fissures present circulatory systems facilitating convective and advective transport of radon-bearing gas. Evidence suggests that the primary driving forces for transport are aerostatic pressure differentials created by the difference between the underground and the outside air temperatures. Examples are presented of houses experiencing elevated indoor radon levels as a consequence of communicating with such subsurface transportation systems. The location of a house near the upper or lower end of a subterranean-circulatory system seems to produce amplification of indoor radon levels in winter or summer, respectively. The transport mechanism for radon-bearing air in karst and its impact on indoor radon need better understanding, both in regard to evaluating the geographical prevalence of the phenomenon and the induced spatial and temporal effects that are possible. This paper reports field studies made at houses in karst regions at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and Huntsville, Alabama. A primary radon-transport mechanism is advocated of ascending or descending subsurface columns of air whose flows are largely driven by aerostatic pressure gradients created by the inground-outdoor air temperature differentials. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  13. Radon and radon progeny in 70 houses in the Tennessee Valley area: study design and measurement methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudney, C.S.; Hawthorne, A.R.; Monar, K.P.; Quillen, J.L.; Clark, C. Jr.; Doane, R.W.; Wallace, R.G.; Reed, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    Levels of radon and its short-lived airborne progeny are being measured in a year-long study of 70 houses in four states in the Tennessee Valley. Various methods were used to solicit volunteers with differing degrees of success. Criteria for selection of houses in the study included presence of a lower level with cement floor and one or more block walls in contact with the soil, absence of obvious indications of technologically enhanced sources of radium, and proximity to one of four cities, (Knoxville, Chattanooga, Birmingham, or Florence). By design, most houses in the study are in the same neighborhood as at least one other house in the study. Houses range in age from newly constructed to about 40 years old. Most of the houses have more than 2000 square feet of finished floor space. The lower level encompasses a garage in most cases. More complete information pertaining to house characteristics will be gathered in the course of the study. Measurements are being made to obtain information on both location- and season-dependent variation of radon and radon progeny. Simultaneous measurements are made quarterly on both upper and lower levels of each house. Grab samples of air are collected and analyzed for radon using a modified Lucas cell technique. Short-term (10-minute) samples of airborne particulate material are collected and analyzed for radon progeny. One-week integrated measurements of working levels are made once each quarter using modified thermoluminescent dosimeters. Both three- and twelve-month integrated measurements of radon using track-etch monitors are being made. 19 references, 1 figures

  14. Radon in Croatian spas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radolic, V.; Vukovic, B.; Planinic, J.

    2004-01-01

    There are ten thermal spas in Croatia and all of them provide health services for patients and visitors. Radon measurements were performed since there is a lack of data concerning natural radioactivity originated from radon and its short-lived progenies in such environments. The thermal water at two different sites (the indoor swimming pool with geothermal water and the spring) in each spa was sampled and radon concentrations were measured by AlphaGUARD radon measuring system. The obtained values were in the range of 0.7 to 19 Bq.dm -3 and 2 to 94 Bq.dm -3 for indoor swimming pools and springs, respectively. Integrated measurements of radon concentration in air were performed by two solid state nuclear track detectors LR-115 II (open and diffusion one) thus enabling estimation of equilibrium factor between radon and its daughters. The annual effective doses received by spa workers were found to be about 1 mSv/y (below the lower limit value of 3 mSv/y recommended by ICRP 65). The doses of patients and visitors were one or two order of magnitude lower than that of the personnel. (author)

  15. Radon in homes of the Portland, Oregon Area: Radon data from local radon testing companies collected by CRM (Continuous Radon Measurement) machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, H.; Lindsey, K.; Linde, T.; Burns, S. F.

    2013-12-01

    Students from the Department of Geology at Portland State University paired up with the Oregon Health Authority to better understand radon gas values in homes of the Portland metropolitan area. This study focuses on radon values collected by continuous radon measurement (CRM) machines, taken by local radon testing companies. The local companies participating in this study include Alpha Environmental Services, Inc., Cascade Radon, Environmental Works, The House Detectives, LLC, and Soil Solutions Environmental Services, Inc. In total, 2491 radon readings spanning across 77 zip codes were collected from local companies in the Portland metropolitan area. The maximum value, average value, percentage of homes greater than 4 pCi/L and total rank sum was calculated and used to determine the overall radon potential for each zip code (Burns et al., 1998). A list and four maps were produced showing the results from each category. Out of the total records, 24 zip codes resulted in high radon potential and the average reading for the entire Portland Metropolitan area was 3.7 pCi/L. High potential zip codes are thought to be a result of sand and gravel (Missoula Flood deposits) and faults present in the subsurface. The CRM data was compared with both long-term and short-term data provided by the Oregon Health Authority to validate radon potentials in each zip code. If a home is located in a zip code with high or moderate radon potential across two types of data sets, it is recommended that those homes be tested for radon gas.

  16. Measurement of radon exhalation rate and soil gas radon concentration in areas of southern Punjab (Pakistan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujahid, S. A.; Hussain, S.; Ramzan, M.

    2010-01-01

    Plastic track detectors were used to measure the radon concentration and exhalation rate from the soil samples. The samples were collected from areas of southern Punjab (Pakistan). In a laboratory experiment, passive alpha dosemeters were installed inside cylindrical bottles containing the soil samples. The radon concentrations and the radon exhalation rate were found in the ranges of 34±7 to 260±42 Bq m -3 and 38±8 to 288±46 mBq m -2 h -1 , respectively. The on-site measurements of radon in the soil gas were also carried out in these areas using a scintillation alpha counter. The concentration of radon in the soil gas was found in the range of 423±82-3565±438 Bq m -3 . (authors)

  17. Radon in the Hotels in Montenegro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukotic, P.; Antovic, N.; Dapcevic, S.; Uvarov, V.V.; Mrdak, R.

    1997-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations in the 16 hotels in Montenegro, well known by tourists, were measured in winter period by an integral method, with etch-track detectors. Radon concentrations obtained at the 30 measuring sites are in a range (22 - 90) Bq/m 3 , with an arithmetic mean of 43 Bq/m 3 . This means that the radon levels in the all surveyed hotels in Montenegro are much bellow the most stringent reference level internationally recommended. (author)

  18. Evidence of soil radon as tracer of magma uprising in Mt. Etna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morelli, D.; Martino, S. Di; Imme, G.; La Delfa, S.; Lo Nigro, S.; Patane, G.

    2006-01-01

    Soil radon has been monitored at one fixed site located in the northeastern flank of Mt. Etna, high-risk volcano in Sicily. The aim of this study was the evaluation of a possible link between magma uprising and soil radon concentration. Continuous radon measurements were performed since July 2001. Comparison between the in-soil radon trend and the acquired meteorological series (Temperature, Humidity and Pressure) seems to confirm a general seasonal correlation; nevertheless some anomalies suggest a possible dependence of the radon concentration on volcanic dynamics, as confirmed by the volcanic tremor and strain-release analysis

  19. Radon programme in Czech Republic. Results, experience and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulka, J.; Thomas, J.; Fojtikova, I.; Vlcek, J.; Moucka, L.; Fronka, A.; Jilek, K.; Heribanova, A.; Slovak, J.; Barnet, I.; Burian, I.; Jiranek, M.; Cechak, T.

    2004-01-01

    The beginning of the radon programme in the Czech republic dates back to the early 1980s. Incorporated in national legislation (Atomic Act, Radiation Protection Decree), the programme includes now both preventive measures and interventions. Preventive measures are based on the control of major potential radon sources (soil gas, building material and supplied water) to prevent construction of new houses where the recommended indoor radon level of 200 Bq/m 3 would be exceeded. Radon risk (index) assessment of the individual building site bedrock in the case of new house siting and building protection as stipulated by the technical building code are obligatory. The estimation of the radon-related index of building sites is based on a standard method involving a set of radon soil and soil permeability measurements. In addition, producers of building materials are obligated to monitor natural radioactivity in their products. The activity index (including 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th) is used as a screening level for regulation of the potential indoor gamma dose rate, and the 226R a mass activity is used as a limiting value for radon exhalation. A similar regulatory system is in place for public water supplies based on obligatory radon, total alpha and total beta measurements. A survey of effectiveness of the preventive measures was carried out during the past years. It appeared, however, that the indoor radon level of 200 Bq/m 3 is exceeded in some 20 % of new houses. An unexpectedly low air exchange rate in modern energy-saving houses seems to be among the reasons. Remedial actions are aimed at promoting targeted indoor radon survey in existing buildings and helping owners to put reasonable remedial measures into effect. Governmental activities include representative and targeted indoor radon survey, subsidies for remediation measures and test measurements, and improving the level of public awareness of the radon issue. Indoor radon survey is targeted on radon-prone areas

  20. Radon movement simulation in overburden by the 'Scattered Packet Method'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marah, H.; Sabir, A.; Hlou, L.; Tayebi, M.

    1998-01-01

    The analysis of Radon ( 222 Rn) movement in overburden needs the resolution of the General Equation of Transport in porous medium, involving diffusion and convection. Generally this equation was derived and solved analytically. The 'Scattered Packed Method' is a recent mathematical method of resolution, initially developed for the electrons movements in the semiconductors studies. In this paper, we have adapted this method to simulate radon emanation in porous medium. The keys parameters are the radon concentration at the source, the diffusion coefficient, and the geometry. To show the efficiency of this method, several cases of increasing complexity are considered. This model allows to follow the migration, in the time and space, of radon produced as a function of the characteristics of the studied site. Forty soil radon measurements were taken from a North Moroccan fault. Forward modeling of the radon anomalies produces satisfactory fits of the observed data and allows the overburden thickness determination. (author)

  1. Uranium-bearing wastes and their radon emanation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Tomozo; Imamura, Mitsutaka; Gunji, Yasuyoshi

    2007-01-01

    There are no data available with regard to radon emanation coefficients for uranium-bearing wastes; such data are needed for the assessment of radiation exposure from radon that will be generated in the distant future as one uranium progeny at shallow land disposal sites for uranium-bearing wastes. There are many kinds of uranium-bearing wastes. However, it is not necessary to measure the radon emanation coefficients for all of them for two reasons. First, the radon emanation coefficients for uranium-bearing wastes contaminated by dissolved uranium are determined by the uranium chemical form, the manner of uranium deposition on the waste matrix, and the size of the particles which constitute the waste matrix. Therefore, only a few representative measurements are sufficient for such uranium-bearing wastes. Second, it is possible to make theoretical calculations of radon emanation coefficients for uranium-bearing wastes contaminated by UO 2 particles before sintering. In the present study, simulated uranium-bearing wastes contaminated by dissolved uranium were prepared, their radon emanation coefficients were measured and radon emanation coefficients were calculated theoretically for uranium-bearing wastes contaminated by UO 2 particles before sintering. The obtained radon emanation coefficients are distributed at higher values than those for ubiquitous soils and rocks in the natural environment. Therefore, it is not correct to just compare uranium concentrations among uranium-bearing wastes, ubiquitous soils and rocks in terms of radiation exposure. The radon emanation coefficients obtained in the present study have to be employed together with the uranium concentration in uranium-bearing wastes in order to achieve proper assessment of radiation exposure. (author)

  2. Radon programme in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulka, J.; Thomas, J.

    2003-01-01

    The framework of the Radon programme in the Czech republic includes both precautionary measures and interventions. The programme informally started in early eighties has been now incorporated in national legislation (Atomic Act, Radiation Protection Decree, etc.). Aim of precautionary measures is to avert construction of building above natural radiation guidance levels (200 Bq/m 3 for indoor radon concentration and 0.5 Sv/h for gamma dose rate) by protection of new buildings against soil radon ingress, by regulation of natural radioactivity in building materials and supplied water. Aim of interventions is to identify buildings affected by enhanced natural radioactivity and help owners to put into effect reasonable remedial measures. Two sets of intervention levels for indoor natural exposure were established: guidance intervention levels 400 Bq/m 3 (indoor radon), 1.0 Sv/h (indoor gamma dose rate) and limit values 4000 Bq/m 3 and 10 Sv/h. The radon programme is based both on governmental and private activities. The governmental activities include representative and targeted indoor radon survey, subsidy for radon mitigation, mitigation test measurements and public information on radon issue. The private activities include radon measurement (radon index of building site, indoor measurements, radon diagnosis) and remedial measures. More than 100 commercial companies were authorised by Radiation Protection Authority (SUJB) to provide these measurements

  3. Radon in public buildings; Radon in oeffentlichen Gebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, H.; Flesch, K. [IAF - Radiooekologie GmbH, Dresden (Germany); Hermann, E. [B.P.S. Engineering GmbH, Zwickau (Germany); Loebner, W. [Wismut GmbH, Chemnitz (Germany); Leissring, B. [Bergtechnisches Ingenieurbuero GEOPRAX, Chemnitz (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    From the Free State of Saxony, a study was commissioned to survey how reliable measurements to characterize the radon situation in public buildings at a reasonable financial and human effort can be carried out to reduce radiation exposure in public buildings. The study approach was for 6 objects. To characterize the radon situation the time evolution measurement of radon concentrations of more than 1 to 2 weeks turned out to be sufficient. A novel data analysis enables the identification of a ''typical daily alteration of the radon concentration'' depending on the ventilation conditions and the daily use of the offices or class rooms. The identification of typical diurnal radon variations for the working time and weekends or holidays is of fundamental importance for assessing the exposure situation in public buildings. It was shown that the radon concentration during working time are in general much lower than in the times when the buildings (offices) are unused. It turned out that the long-term radon measurements with nuclear track detectors within distinct time regimes (day / night, working hours / leisure time) by utilizing switch modules are very efficient to estimate the actual exposure. (orig.)

  4. Radon measurements over a natural-gas contaminated aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, D.; Fusella, E.; Avila, Y.; Salas, J.; Teixeira, D.; Fernández, G.; Salas, A.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Greaves, E.; Barros, H.; Bolívar, M.; Regalado, J.

    2013-01-01

    Radon and thoron concentrations in soil pores in a gas production region of the Anzoategui State, Venezuela, were determined by active and passive methods. In this region, water wells are contaminated by natural gas and gas leaks exist in the nearby river. Based on soil gas Radon data surface hydrocarbon seeps were identified. Radon and thoron concentration maps show anomalously high values near the river gas leaks decreasing in the direction of water wells where natural gas is also detected. The area where the highest concentrations of 222 Rn were detected seems to indicate the surface projection of the aquifer contaminated with natural gas. The Radon/Thoron ratio revealed a micro-localized anomaly, indicating the area where the gas comes from deep layers of the subsoil. The radon map determined by the passive method showed a marked positive anomaly around abandoned gas wells. The high anomalous Radon concentration localized near the trails of ascending gas bubbles at the river indicates the zone trough where natural gases are ascending with greater ease, associated with a deep geological fault, being this the main source of methane penetration into the aquifer. It is suggested that the source of the natural gas may be due to leaks at deep sites along the structure of some of the abandoned wells located at the North-East of the studied area. - Highlights: ► High Radon/Thoron ratios were localized near the natural-gas emanations in a river. ► Natural gases are ascending trough a deep geological fault. ► Apparently, the radon anomaly shows the site where natural gas enters the aquifer. ► Natural gas source may be related to leaks in the structure of abandoned gas wells

  5. Radon in Africa: South African Lessons Learnt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simanga, A.T.

    2010-01-01

    Radon remained a chemical curiosity for decades, promoted at some stage as a health giving gas. Mining related history: (based on ICRP 65) dating back to 15 Century when high mortality from lung cancer was observed among miners in Schneeberg. After the Curies had extracted Radium from Jachymov ores (1898), radon was identified. When measurements were done in Schneeberger and Jachymov mines high concentrations of radon were found. Initially a link was assumed between lung cancer and high radon concentration based on the measurements. (The assumption was not generally accepted).In 1953 William F. Bale indicated that the causative agents of lung cancer was the radon progeny and not radon gas. A possible lung cancer risk to members of the public was discovered very recently (first published results were based on the indoor measurements done in Sweden in a study initiated by Rolf Sievert) Much attention has been given to radon as a radiological health hazard: Recently human exposure to radon progeny in buildings has emerged as an important issue. Lung cancer is the principal concern associated with Rn exposure. The principal concern is associated with radon progeny. These species are chemically reactive, and may be deposited on respiratory tract tissues when inhaled. Subsequent alpha particle decay may damage cells near the deposition site, contributing to increased risk of lung cancer Radon: In Occupational Exposure Protection against Rn Exposure is a Techno-Legal Legal Aspects: There has to be a national legislative framework for the protection of workers against radon The legal framework should entail, inter alia: - Set up of regulator, development of regulations and standards to enable compliance assurance and other protection issues, training of technical people. 10 Legislative Framework in South Africa National Nuclear Regulatory Act (1999) Enables the regulator (NNR) to exercise oversight for Rn protection Occupational Exposure is mainly in Mining and Mineral

  6. Modelling and experimental study of the behavior of radon and radon decay products in an enclosure. Application to houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouronnec, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    Since the eighties, more and more studies were performed about radon and its decay products in houses with one of the aim being the estimation of the dose received by their inhabitants. Then, the principal objective of this work is to describe the behaviour of radon and its decay products within a dwelling. In the first part to the report, a few definitions are given and data from literature give an idea of indoor radon and radon decay products activities and/or size distribution. Aspects of dosimetry are presented too. In the second part of the work, a mathematical model, called 'PRADDO' of Physic of Radon and radon Decay products in Domestic environment is developed on the basis of the classical model written by Jacobi in 1972. On the one hand, it has to predict radon decay products activities in systems consisting in one or more enclosure(s), from radon activity and from ambient aerosol concentration and size distribution. On the other hand, one part of the model is assigned to study the influence of the entry model parameters variation on the calculated quantities. Then, in the third part of the work, two experimental studies are realised in order to compare measurements to modelization. The first experimentation is a laboratory work, made on the test bench ICARE from IPSN, and the second one consists in describing the basement of an occupied house from Brittany. In the two cases, the comparison between experiments and modelling shows a good agreement if particles are present in the air, but any conclusion is made when is no aerosol in the enclosure. (author). 158 refs., 81 figs., 42 tabs

  7. Diurnal Variation of Radon Concentration in the Postojna Cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoric, A.; Vaupotic, J.

    2011-01-01

    Postojna Cave, with 20 km of galleries, is the longest known cave system and also the largest of about 20 show caves in Slovenia and one of the most visited show caves in the world. It is well known that high concentrations of radon are common in karstic caves, although quantities of uranium (238U) in limestone are rather low. The reason for this is low natural ventilation of the underground cavities. Tectonic faults constitute an additional source of radon. Variations of radon concentration in cave air arise from a balance of the emission from cave surfaces and drip waters, decay in cave air, and exchange with the outside atmosphere. Because of its elevated radon concentrations, Postojna Cave has been under permanent radon survey since 1995. The influence of meteorological conditions on the radon levels and their temporal variations depends mostly on the shape of the cave, and the number and directions of cracks, corridors and fissures connecting the cave rooms with the outside atmosphere. The driving force for air movement in horizontal caves, and thus the inflow of fresh air and release of the cave air to the atmosphere, is the temperature difference between the cave air and outdoors, which causes seasonal pattern of radon concentration in the cave with high levels in summer and low in winter. However, on a daily scale different behaviour of radon can be observed at different locations in the cave. In this paper diurnal variation of radon concentration at two locations is presented and discussed. Postojna Cave is a horizontal cave with a stable yearly temperature around 10 degrees of @C. Continuous measurements of radon concentration were carried out from 2005 to 2010 at two locations along the guided tourist trail. Radon concentration was measured with Radim 5 WP monitors (SMM Company, Prague, Czech Republic) with sampling frequency once an hour. The evaluation of five-year radon monitoring at two sites in the Postojna Cave reveals significant diurnal and

  8. Radon observation for earthquake prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakita, Hiroshi [Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    Systematic observation of groundwater radon for the purpose of earthquake prediction began in Japan in late 1973. Continuous observations are conducted at fixed stations using deep wells and springs. During the observation period, significant precursory changes including the 1978 Izu-Oshima-kinkai (M7.0) earthquake as well as numerous coseismic changes were observed. At the time of the 1995 Kobe (M7.2) earthquake, significant changes in chemical components, including radon dissolved in groundwater, were observed near the epicentral region. Precursory changes are presumably caused by permeability changes due to micro-fracturing in basement rock or migration of water from different sources during the preparation stage of earthquakes. Coseismic changes may be caused by seismic shaking and by changes in regional stress. Significant drops of radon concentration in groundwater have been observed after earthquakes at the KSM site. The occurrence of such drops appears to be time-dependent, and possibly reflects changes in the regional stress state of the observation area. The absence of radon drops seems to be correlated with periods of reduced regional seismic activity. Experience accumulated over the two past decades allows us to reach some conclusions: 1) changes in groundwater radon do occur prior to large earthquakes; 2) some sites are particularly sensitive to earthquake occurrence; and 3) the sensitivity changes over time. (author)

  9. A survey of indoor radon and particular concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Yukiko

    1993-01-01

    Lung disease risk from inhalation of radon can be enhanced by the presence of particular pollutants in indoor air. The indoor concentration of radon and particulates were measured in homes, a department store, and offices in a high building in Tokyo metropolis, as well as in homes in both northern and western Japan. Passive radon monitors were located in living rooms and offices for more than three months at 99 sites during the winter of 1988 and 1989. Indoor radon concentration ranged from 11.1 Bq/m 3 to 148 Bq/m 3 (n=99) and averaged value S.D. was 36.5±14.2 Bq/m 3 . However, the average concentration in air conditional buildings was 21.8±9.51 Bq/m 3 (n=17). Simultaneously at 65 of the radon sites, indoor particulates were collected using personal dust samplers by impaction methods. Deposited particulate concentrations on the sampler were measured and calculated in a unit of μm/m 3 . Concentrations were determined for particle sizes above and below 2.5 μm, for both smoking or non smoking sites. Consequently, concentration of particle size below 2.5 μm was high in smoking rooms. Finally, it was considered that smoking was a complex indoor pollutant as adherence of radon daughter to aerosols. (author)

  10. A reconnaissance study of radon concentrations in Hamadan city, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Gillmore

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of a reconnaissance study that used CR-39 alpha track-etch detectors to measure radon concentrations in dwellings in Hamadan, western Iran, significantly, built on permeable alluvial fan deposits. The indoor radon levels recorded varied from 4 (i.e. below the lower limit of detection for the method to 364 Bq/m3 with a mean value of 108 Bq/m3 which is 2.5 times the average global population-weighted indoor radon concentration – these data augment the very few published studies on indoor radon levels in Iran. The maximum radon concentration in Hamadan occurs during the winter period (January to March with lower concentrations during the autumn. The effective dose equivalent to the population in Hamadan is estimated from this study to be in the region of 2.7 mSv/y, which is above the guidelines for dose to a member of the public of 1 mSv/y suggested by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP in 1993. This study supports other work in a number of countries that indicates such permeable "surficial" deposits as being of intermediate to high radon potential. In western Iran, the presence of hammered clay floors, the widespread presence of excavated qanats, the textural properties of surficial deposits and human behaviour intended to cope with winds are likely to be important factors influencing radon concentrations in older buildings.

  11. Distribution characteristics of radon and its progeny in blind roadway with forced ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Yongjun; Zhou Xinghuo; Li Xiangyang; Zhong Yongming; Liu Dong; Ding Dexin

    2012-01-01

    The blind roadway is not only the important workplaces, but also is important site of radon and its progeny generating and gathering, it is an important guiding significance for ventilation protection design to study distribution characteristics of radon and its progeny in blind roadway. Therefore, at first, the paper expounded the mathematical relationship between radon activity concentration with alpha potential concentration of radon progeny. Then, analyzed the sources of radon and its progeny, and established mathematical calculation model of Distribution characteristics of radon and its progeny in blind roadway with forced ventilation, respectively. Finally, using mathematical calculation models to analyze the influence law of multiple factors. (authors)

  12. Mechanisms of radon injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.

    1988-01-01

    In this new project, they conduct molecular, cellular and whole-animal research relevant to understanding the inhalation toxicology of radon and radon-daughter exposures. The work specifically addresses the exposure-rate effect in radon-daughter carcinogenesis; the induction-promotion relationships associated with exposure to radon and cigarette-smoke mixtures; the role of oncogenes in radon-induced cancers; the effects of radon on DNA as well as on DNA repair processes; and the involvement of growth factors and their receptors in radon-induced carcinogenesis. Preliminary experiments showed that oncogenes are activated in radon-induced lung tumors. They have therefore begun further exposures pertinent to the oncogene and growth-factor studies. An in vitro radon cellular-exposure system was designed, and cell exposures were initiated. Initiation-promotion-initiation studies with radon and cigarette-smoke mixtures have also begun; and they are compiling a radon health-effects bibliography

  13. A survey on radon reduction efficiency of zeolite and bentonite in a chamber with artificially elevated radon concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, S.M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Objective: Zeolite which is made of a special crystalline structure is a naturally occurring mineral group and can be used in radioactive waste management for site remediation /decontamination. There are a wide variety of naturally occurring and synthetic zeolites, each with a unique structure. The cations in zeolite are highly mobile and can be exchanged for other cationic species. On the other hand, bentonite forms from weathering of volcanic ash. This material may be used as an engineering barrier to enclose nuclear waste. In this study, radon reducing properties of zeolite and bentonite have been investigated. Methods: Using radioactive lantern mantle, a radon prone area with radon levels reaching the EPA's action level (200 Bq/m 3 ) was designed. Two sets of identical chambers (cylindrical chambers, diameter 10 cm, height 16 cm) were used in this study. No zeolite/bentonite was used in the 1 st set of the chambers. A thin layer of either zeolite or bentonite powder was applied to the base of the first set of chambers. An unburned radioactive lantern mantle (activity 800 Bq) was placed in all chambers (both sets) to artificially increase the radon level inside the chamber and simulate the condition of a radon prone area. Radon level monitoring was performed by using a PRASSI portable radon gas survey meter. Results: After placing the cap on its place, the radon levels inside the 1 st set of the chambers were 871.9, 770.3, 769.2 and 635.7 Bq/m 3 after 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes respectively. Zeolite significantly decreased the radon concentration inside the chambers and radon levels were 367.9, 435.4, 399.0 and 435.4 Bq/m 3 after 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes. The observed reduction in the radon level was statistically significant. As the radon concentrations in identical chambers with Bentonite were 550.7, 526.5, 536.2 and 479.8 Bq/m 3 after 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes respectively, it is evident that zeolite is more efficient in

  14. Case-control study of radon and lung cancer in New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, H. B.; Al-Zoughool, M.; Garner, M. J.; Jiang, H.; Klotz, J. B.; Krewski, D.; Nicholson, W. J.; Schoenberg, J. B.; Villeneuve, P. J.; Zielinski, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Radon is known to cause lung cancer in humans; however, there remain uncertainties about the effects associated with residential exposures. This case-control study of residential radon and lung cancer was conducted in five counties in New Jersey and involved 561 cases and 740 controls. A yearlong α-track detector measurement of radon was completed for ∼93% of all residences lived in at the time of interview (a total of 2063). While the odds ratios (ORs) for whole data were suggestive of an increased risk for exposures >75 Bq m -3 , these associations were not statistically significant. The adjusted excess OR (EOR) per 100 Bq m -3 was -0.13 (95% CI: -0.30 to 0.44) for males, 0.29 (95% CI: -0.12 to 1.70) for females and 0.05 (95% CI: -0.14 to 0.56) for all subjects combined. An analysis of radon effects by histological type of lung cancer showed that the OR was strongest for small/oat cell carcinomas in both males and females. There was no statistical heterogeneity of radon effects by demographic factors (age at disease occurrence, education level and type of respondent). Analysis by categories of smoking status, frequency or duration did not modify the risk estimates of radon on lung cancer. The findings of this study are consistent with an earlier population-based study of radon and lung cancer among New Jersey women, and with the North American pooling of case control radon seven studies, including the previous New Jersey study. Several uncertainties regarding radon measurements and assumptions of exposure history may have resulted in underestimation of a true exposure-response relationship. (authors)

  15. Comparative study of radon concentration in selected modern and traditional building at Kenyatta University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chege, W.M.; Rathore, I.V.S.; Chhabra, S.C.; Mustapha, A.O.

    2010-01-01

    Radon is leading source of radiation exposure to the public and increases risk of cancer (UNSCEAR, 2000). There is general lack of data on indoor radon in Kenya especially on building design-traditional versus modern. In rural Kenya traditional mud huts coexist with modern stone building. Indoor radon found to vary widely in Kenya: Mustapha et al (2002): 5-1200 Bqm3, Maina et al (2004): 5-704 Bqm3. None of previous works indicates radon variation with building design. The aim of the current study is to compare radon concentrations in coexisting stone buildings and mud huts. Such data would be useful in formulation of policies regarding housing, as part of radon data base in Kenya Experimental Techniques Characteristic of selected buildings: Traditional Huts: Single roomed, Wall made of wood and plastered using mud, bare floor and no ceiling, grass-thatched or mud plastered, doors and windows remained open during the sampling period. Modern Buildings: (Classes used to represent modern building). Those made of natural stone, wooden floor, ceiling, doors and windows remained shut during the sampling period. Measurement of Radon Concentration Radon sampling was done using Charcoal canisters (EPA type). They were activated, and then exposed simultaneously at sampling sites for 48 hours. Analysis and data acquisition was done using NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer. Radon concentration was calculated based on gamma rays emitted by 214Pb (295 and 352 keV) and 214Bi (609 keV). 13 Results and Discussion Radon levels were higher in classrooms and significantly high in huts. Mean (Bqm-3 ) Minimum (Bqm-3 ) Maximum (Bqm-3 ). Traditional huts had 170.3 15.6 30.2 315.4 while modern buildings had 193 ±19.3 115.76 257.2. There were higher levels in classroom despite lower levels of 226Ra (50.18 Bqkg-1) in natural stone. Possible source of high concentrations: - radon seeping in through floor boards building up over time as building more closed up - Radon concentration was more varied

  16. A nationwide survey of radon concentration in Japan. Indoor, outdoor and workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, Tetsuya; Oikawa, Shinji; Kanno, Nobuyuki; Abukawa, Johji; Higuchi, Hideo

    2004-01-01

    The nationwide indoor, outdoor and workplace radon concentrations were surveyed in Japan. These surveys were conducted to estimate the natural radiation dose due to radon and its progeny for the general public. The radon concentration was measured using passive type radon monitor. The number of radon monitors were installed at indoor, outdoor and workplace for 940 houses, 705 points and 705 sites, respectively. The radon concentration was measured for one year at each measurement site. Annual mean radon concentration was obtained from four quarters measurements of 47 prefectures in Japan. The nationwide indoor, outdoor and workplace annual mean radon concentration were 15.5 Bq m -3 , 6.1 Bq m -3 and 20.8 Bq m -3 , respectively. Their radon concentration shows approximately a logarithmic normal distribution. Workplace showed relatively high radon concentration compared with other environments, may be due to construction materials and low ventilation rate. The indoor radon concentration found to be seasonal variation and architectural dependences. Seasonal variation and regional distribution of outdoor radon concentration was also observed. From the results of these radon surveys, the annual effective dose to the general public due to radon and its progeny was estimated to be 0.49 mSv y -1 in Japan. (author)

  17. Radon gas sampler for indoor and soil measurements and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azimi-Garakani, D.; Flores, B.; Piermattei, S.; Susanna, A.F.; Seidel, J.L.; Tommasino, L.; Torri, G.

    1988-01-01

    A national large scale survey of indoor radon (based on an optimised sampling strategy) is needed in Italy to obtain average population dose for use in epidemiological studies. Since in the great majority of cases, one of the most important radon sources is the soil and rock beneath the houses, it would be interesting to combine this survey with measurements of bed-soil radon. With these objectives in mind, a new radon monitor device has been developed consisting of two etched track detectors enclosed in a heat-sealed polyethylene bag. When compared with existing techniques, this radon gas sampler presents several advantages for both indoor and outdoor measurements. As a pilot project, radon gas measurements have been carried out in hundreds of different sites and for several locations; measurements have been made for different years. Typical houses with relatively high radon concentrations have also been thoroughly investigated. (author)

  18. A study of Radon-Concentration Distribution in Buildings in Gyeong-ju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, C. H.; Jang, S. Y.; Jung, O. J.; Moon, J. H. [Dongguk University, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Radon({sup 222}Rn) gas is the natural radiation generated by radioactive decay of uranium({sup 238}U) nuclide. The radon which exists in ground flows into the inside by the atmospheric temperature, the differential-pressure or a gap of building underground and a ejection by a drywall with a phosphoric In Korea, Korean Institute of Nuclear Safety had been studied about the inside-radon radioactivity investigation over the nation. In the area around the nuclear power plant, it is possible to exist both of a radioactivity nuclide and a natural. Therefore it is necessary to investigate the radon radioactivity in surrounding area of nuclear power plants. In this study, it is purpose to develop the method of establishing the on-line monitoring system to minimize the radiological effect due to radon gas, based on the real state of radon exposure in Gyeong-ju surrounding Nuclear Power Plant

  19. Effects of various tailings covers on radon gas emanation from pyritic uranium tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dave, N.K.; Lim, T.P.

    1987-01-01

    Radon emanation studies were carried out at an inactive pyritic uranium tailings site in Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada, to evaluate the effects of various existing dry and wet covers on radon flux rates. Measurements were taken using activated charcoal cartridges for various surface covers consisting of bare, vegetated, acidophilic moss with high degree of water saturation, compacted crushed rock and gravel, and winter snow. The results showed that at a given site, there was no significant difference in radon emanation rates between various tailings covers and bare tailings. In particular, no increase In radon emanation rates from vegetated areas compared to bare tailings was observed. Radon emanation rates varied spatially depending on tailings grain size, porosity, moisture content and on pressure and water table variations. The emanation rates were higher for tailings with low water contents compared to those for wet and moss covered tailings

  20. Radon in coal power plant areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauna, Traian; Mauna, Andriesica

    2006-01-01

    Radon, the radioactive colourless and inodorous noble gas, represents more than 55% of the natural average radioactivity. It is permanently released from the soil and majority of building materials, it builds up in the mine galleries, in dwelling houses and in other closed rooms. Radon gained increasingly in importance, particularly after 1990 when was doubtless identified as the second cause of lung cancer if a given concentration threshold is surpassed. This threshold is established differentially by each country as a function of the particular site and generally ranges between 150 Bq.m -3 and 600 Bq.m -3 . The telluric radon consists of two isotopes, 222 Rn, a daughter of radium descending from uranium, which induces 90% of the effects, and 220 Rn from thorium series which have too short a lifetime to count in the risk assessments of radon inhalation. The interest of the authorities and population for diminishing the radon effects was illustrated by specific studies which in USA were managed by the National Counsel of Research, the BEIR VI committee of which has issued a report concerning the lung cancer produced by radon and its descendants. Coal mining, the transport, processing, burning, slag and ash disposal are activities entailing radon release. The miners' dwellings are placed in areas with the high radon potential. The local building materials have a high content of radioactive elements from the uranium or thorium series so that radon can build up in the closed rooms of these buildings. Hence the social responsible authorities in the coal power industry zones should consider this aspect long time ignored in the Balkans macro zone so far. The radon issue must be differentially approached in different areas hence a zonal mapping of the radon emission should be first done. It is worth to underline that the gaseous radioactive emission from operational nuclear power plants amounts up to a few percents of the radon natural emissions what entails a

  1. EPA's radon study results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowd, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    Last winter, in cooperation with agencies in 10 states and two metropolitan area counties, EPA measured the indoor air radon concentrations of 14,000 houses, some chosen statistically at random and some by request of the homeowner. Passive measurement methodologies were used, such as exposing a charcoal canister to the air for a few days and allowing the air to migrate in to the charcoal naturally. To reduce dilution of radon by the outside air, the protocol required that the house be shut up; therefore, the study was conducted during winter. The measuring device was placed in the lowest livable area (usually the basement) of each house to maximize potential concentration. It should be noted that these procedures are generally considered to be screening tests because they result in a worst-case measurement rather than a best value. The results of these findings are presented

  2. Radon in Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilic, R.; Rusov, V.D.; Pavlovych, V.N.; Vaschenko, V.M.; Hanzic, L.; Bondarchuk, Y.A.

    2005-01-01

    The paper reviews results of radon measurements obtained in Antarctic research stations in the last 40 years by both active and passive radon monitors. A brief description of the radon laboratory set-up in the Ukrainian Academician Vernadsky station on the Antarctic Peninsula (W 64 o 16 ' , S 65 o 15 ' ), where radon is measured by two types of etched track Rn dosimeter and 4 types of continuous radon monitoring devices is presented. Some selected results of research work are described related to: (i) analysis of radon storms, defined as an abrupt increase of 222 Rn during the occurrence of a cyclone, and its applicability for the study of the transport of air masses of continental origin to Antarctica; (ii) a study of the correlation of changes of radon concentration and geomagnetic field induced by tectonic activity and its application to predicting tectonomagnetic anomalies, and (iii) verification of a newly developed theoretical model based on noise analysis of the measured radon signal for earthquake prediction. Suggestions for future utilization of radon for basic research in Antarctica (and not only in Antarctica) conclude the contribution. conclude the contribution

  3. Relationship between indoor radon and lung cancer: a study of feasibility of an epidemiological study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, S.; Neuberg, D.; DuMouchel, W.; Kleitman, D.; Chernoff, H.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes a study to assess the feasibility of an epidemiologic investigation of the relationship between residential radon exposure and lung cancer. Field measurements of residential radon levels in the State of Maine are described. Using these radon measurements and BEIR, 1980 risk assessments, it is estimated that at most 10% of lung cancers in Maine can be considered attributable to residential radon exposure. Calculations are made of sample sizes necessary for a case-control study of radon and lung cancer, for several levels of radon and smoking health effects. The effects of misclassification of exposure variables on the probability of detecting a radon health effect are discussed. A comparison is made of three different mathematical models which could be used for sample size estimation. Dollar cost estimates are given for conducting an epidemiologic case-control study of the relationship between residential radon exposure and lung cancer.

  4. Relationship between indoor radon and lung cancer: a study of feasibility of an epidemiological study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, S.; Neuberg, D.; DuMouchel, W.; Kleitman, D.; Chernoff, H.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes a study to assess the feasibility of an epidemiologic investigation of the relationship between residential radon exposure and lung cancer. Field measurements of residential radon levels in the State of Maine are described. Using these radon measurements and BEIR, 1980 risk assessments, it is estimated that at most 10% of lung cancers in Maine can be considered attributable to residential radon exposure. Calculations are made of sample sizes necessary for a case-control study of radon and lung cancer, for several levels of radon and smoking health effects. The effects of misclassification of exposure variables on the probability of detecting a radon health effect are discussed. A comparison is made of three different mathematical models which could be used for sample size estimation. Dollar cost estimates are given for conducting an epidemiologic case-control study of the relationship between residential radon exposure and lung cancer

  5. Investigations of radon and radon daughters in surficial aquifers of florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The principal purpose of the investigation was to test the hypothesis that radon soil flux, considered the principal source of indoor radon contamination, has an underlying relationship to the radon content of associated shallow groundwaters. The working hypothesis was that radon build-up in both soil and shallow groundwater is basically a consequence of the same factor, radon emanation from soil grains and the solid surfaces of the aquifers. Groundwater may be advantageous as an indicator of radon potential. Another object of the project was to investigate temporal and spatial trends of radon daughter products in shallow aquifers. After analyzing all of the radon soil, flux, and groundwater measurements made over the two-year study period, it is clear that while there is no direct relationship between either radon soil concentration or flux and groundwater radon. Measurements in wells where polonium is present at very high concentrations have shown that 210Po is largely unsupported by its radioactive predecessor, and that polonium is considerably more variable, in both space and time than other parameters measured in the same wells, including radon

  6. Radiation Protection Research: Radon in the Indoor Environment and enhanced natural radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paridaens, J.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of R and D on epidemiological studies concerning radon related to health risks at SCK-CEN is to (1) to apply new techniques for retrospective radon measurements in real field conditions and to assess radon decay product exposure by combining these techniques; and (2) to increase capabilities in mapping and surveying sites possibly or likely contaminated with enhanced levels of natural radiation. Progress and main achievements in 1999 are reported on

  7. Radon exhalation study in cements and other building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.; Sharma, N.

    2012-01-01

    Radon is a radioactive inert gas, which is produced during the decay of radium, an element present in the naturally occurring uranium series. In the recent past, environmental scientists all over the world have been expressing great concern about the radiation hazard from radon and its short lived daughter products inside buildings. The radon concentration inside a building depends upon the radon exhalation from the building materials used for the construction and the soil underneath the building. In the present investigations, a comparative study for radon exhalation rate has been carried out in some Indian and Pakistani cements and other building materials being used locally such as sand, soil, bricks, marbles, CaCO 3 , POPs by using Track Etch Technique. The Pakistani cement with the trade name 'Elephant' shows the minimum mass exhalation rate while the Indian 'Birla White' cement has shown the maximum. Among the other building materials studied, CaCO 3 has shown the minimum, while local soil the maximum mass exhalation rate. Out of the fired clay bricks, roof tiles, floor tiles and different marbles, floor tiles have the minimum areal exhalation rate while roof tiles the maximum. (author)

  8. The Montana Radon Study: Social Marketing via Digital Signage Technology for Reaching Families in the Waiting Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. I tested a social marketing intervention delivered in health department waiting rooms via digital signage technology for increasing radon program participation among priority groups. Methods. I conducted a tri-county, community-based study over a 3-year period (2010–2013) in a high-radon state by using a quasi-experimental design. We collected survey data for eligible participants at the time of radon test kit purchase. Results. Radon program participation increased at the intervention site (t38 = 3.74; P = .001; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.8, 16.0) with an increase in renters (χ21,228 = 4.3; P = .039), Special Supplementary Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children families (χ21,166 = 3.13; P = .077) and first-time testers (χ21,228 = 10.93; P = .001). Approximately one third (30.3%; n = 30) attributed participation in the radon program to viewing the intervention message. The intervention crossover was also successful with increased monthly kit sales (t37 = 2.69; P = .01; 95% CI = 1.20, 8.47) and increased households participating (t23 = 4.76; P marketing message was an effective population-based intervention for increasing radon program participation. The results prompted policy changes for Montana radon programming and adoption of digital signage technology by 2 health departments. PMID:25121816

  9. Review of high-sensitivity Radon studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, M.; Zuzel, G.; Simgen, H.

    2017-10-01

    A challenge in many present cutting-edge particle physics experiments is the stringent requirements in terms of radioactive background. In peculiar, the prevention of Radon, a radioactive noble gas, which occurs from ambient air and it is also released by emanation from the omnipresent progenitor Radium. In this paper we review various high-sensitivity Radon detection techniques and approaches, applied in the experiments looking for rare nuclear processes happening at low energies. They allow to identify, quantitatively measure and finally suppress the numerous sources of Radon in the detectors’ components and plants.

  10. Radon and risk of death from cancer and cardiovascular diseases in the German uranium miners cohort study. Follow-up 1946-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreuzer, Michaela; Grosche, B.; Schnelzer, M.; Tschense, A.; Dufey, F.; Walsh, L.

    2010-01-01

    Data from the German uranium miners cohort study were analyzed to investigate the radon-related risk of mortality from cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The Wismut cohort includes 58,987 men who were employed for at least 6 months from 1946 to 1989 at the former Wismut uranium mining company in Eastern Germany. By the end of 2003, a total of 3,016 lung cancer deaths, 3,355 deaths from extrapulmonary cancers, 5,141 deaths from heart diseases and 1,742 deaths from cerebrovascular diseases were observed. Although a number of studies have already been published on various endpoints in the Wismut cohort, the aim of the present analyses is to provide a direct comparison of the magnitude of radon-related risk for different cancer sites and cardiovascular diseases using the same data set, the same follow-up period and the same statistical methods. A specific focus on a group of cancers of the extrathoracic airways is also made here, due to the assumed high organ doses from absorbed radon progeny. Internal Poisson regression was used to estimate the excess relative risk (ERR) per unit of cumulative exposure to radon in working level months (WLM) and its 95% confidence limits (CI). There was a statistically significant increase in the risk of lung cancer with increasing radon exposure (ERR/WLM = 0.19%; 95% CI: 0.17%; 0.22%). A smaller, but also statistically significant excess was found for cancers of the extrathoracic airways and trachea (ERR/WLM = 0.062%; 95% CI: 0.002%; 0.121%). Most of the remaining nonrespiratory cancer sites showed a positive relationship with increasing radon exposure, which, however, did not reach statistical significance. No increase in risk was noted for coronary heart diseases (ERR/WLM = 0.0003%) and cerebrovascular diseases (ERR/WLM = 0.001%). The present data provide clear evidence of an increased radon-related risk of death from lung cancer, some evidence for an increased radon-related risk of death from cancers of the extrathoracic airways

  11. Radon and risk of death from cancer and cardiovascular diseases in the German uranium miners cohort study: follow-up 1946-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzer, Michaela; Grosche, B; Schnelzer, M; Tschense, A; Dufey, F; Walsh, L

    2010-05-01

    Data from the German uranium miners cohort study were analyzed to investigate the radon-related risk of mortality from cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The Wismut cohort includes 58,987 men who were employed for at least 6 months from 1946 to 1989 at the former Wismut uranium mining company in Eastern Germany. By the end of 2003, a total of 3,016 lung cancer deaths, 3,355 deaths from extrapulmonary cancers, 5,141 deaths from heart diseases and 1,742 deaths from cerebrovascular diseases were observed. Although a number of studies have already been published on various endpoints in the Wismut cohort, the aim of the present analyses is to provide a direct comparison of the magnitude of radon-related risk for different cancer sites and cardiovascular diseases using the same data set, the same follow-up period and the same statistical methods. A specific focus on a group of cancers of the extrathoracic airways is also made here, due to the assumed high organ doses from absorbed radon progeny. Internal Poisson regression was used to estimate the excess relative risk (ERR) per unit of cumulative exposure to radon in working level months (WLM) and its 95% confidence limits (CI). There was a statistically significant increase in the risk of lung cancer with increasing radon exposure (ERR/WLM = 0.19%; 95% CI: 0.17%; 0.22%). A smaller, but also statistically significant excess was found for cancers of the extrathoracic airways and trachea (ERR/WLM = 0.062%; 95% CI: 0.002%; 0.121%). Most of the remaining nonrespiratory cancer sites showed a positive relationship with increasing radon exposure, which, however, did not reach statistical significance. No increase in risk was noted for coronary heart diseases (ERR/WLM = 0.0003%) and cerebrovascular diseases (ERR/WLM = 0.001%). The present data provide clear evidence of an increased radon-related risk of death from lung cancer, some evidence for an increased radon-related risk of death from cancers of the extrathoracic airways

  12. Multidimensional simulation of radon diffusion through earthen covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, D.W.; Gee, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document applications of the RADMD model used at PNL to perform analyses of radon diffusion through uranium mill tailings cover systems. The accuracy of the numerical formulation of the RADMD model was demonstrated through a comparison with a two-dimensional analytic solution to the radon diffusion equation. Excellent agreement was obtained between two-dimensional radon concentration profiles predicted by RADMD and those obtained with the analytic solution. A simulation was made of radon diffusion into a test canister using the two dimensional capabilities of RADMD. The radon flux profile was computed and illustrates the effects of the canister on the surface radon flux. The influence of the canister on the radon flux was shown to be significant under certain circumstances. Defects in earthen cover systems were evaluated using the three dimensional capabilities of RADMD. The results support the expectation that defective covers can increase the surface flux from a covered talings pile. Compared to a cover with no defects, radon flux could be elevated by as much as a factor of three when 20% of the radon control layer area contained pockets of reduced moisture. The effects of temporal and spatial variations in moisture content have been modeled by coupling RADMD with a variable saturated flow model. Two dimensional simulations were made of the time dependence of radon flux from a tailings site before and after cover placement. The results demonstrated the expected flux reduction produced by a thick earthen cover. Time dependence of the radon flux after cover placement was attributed to slight changes in moisture content of the cover material with time. The particular cover studied had a compacted clay layer that effectively attenuated the radon

  13. Radon in drinking water in Co. Wicklow. A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, T.P.; Sequeira, S.; McKittrick, L.; Colgan, P.A.

    2003-02-01

    Attention has been focused on the issue of radon in drinking water by a European Commission recommendation proposing that surveys should be undertaken in Member States to determine the scale and nature of exposures caused by radon in domestic drinking water supplies. The Commission recommends 1000 Bq/l as the radon activity concentration in private drinking water supplies above which remedial action to reduce the concentration should be taken. The logic behind the proposed action level is that it would broadly correspond to the risk posed to an individual from exposure to radon in the home at the current Reference Level of 200 Bq/m3 in air. A pilot study to assess the distribution and concentrations of radon in private ground water supplies was recently completed in Co. Wicklow. County Wicklow was selected for the study primarily on the basis that the underlying geology is predominantly granite with elevated uranium content. Furthermore, there is an estimated 1200 to 5000 private ground water supplies in use in the county and high radon activity concentrations in air in a significant number of dwellings have previously been predicted. As part of the pilot study, a number of scientific issues were addressed in order to underpin the results obtained and these are also discussed in the report. Radon activity concentrations were measured in the private ground water supplies of 166 houses in Co. Wicklow. In all cases the ground water was the principal source of drinking water for the house occupants. Four supplies had activity concentrations in excess of the Recommended EC action level of 1000 Bq/l, fifteen had activity concentrations between 500 and 1000 Bq/l, 51 were between 100 and 500 Bq/l and 96 had activity concentrations below 100 Bq/l. The doses estimated for the ingestion of radon bearing water vary significantly with the quantity of drinking water consumed and the degree to which the water has been processed prior to consumption. However dose estimates based

  14. Radon in drinking water in Co. Wicklow. A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, T.P.; Sequeira, S.; McKittrick, L.; Colgan, P.A.

    2003-01-01

    Attention has been focused on the issue of radon in drinking water by a European Commission recommendation proposing that surveys should be undertaken in Member States to determine the scale and nature of exposures caused by radon in domestic drinking water supplies. The Commission recommends 1000 Bq/l as the radon activity concentration in private drinking water supplies above which remedial action to reduce the concentration should be taken. The logic behind the proposed action level is that it would broadly correspond to the risk posed to an individual from exposure to radon in the home at the current Reference Level of 200 Bq/m 3 in air. A pilot study to assess the distribution and concentrations of radon in private ground water supplies was recently completed in Co. Wicklow. County Wicklow was selected for the study primarily on the basis that the underlying geology is predominantly granite with elevated uranium content. Furthermore, there is an estimated 1200 to 5000 private ground water supplies in use in the county and high radon activity concentrations in air in a significant number of dwellings have previously been predicted. As part of the pilot study, a number of scientific issues were addressed in order to underpin the results obtained and these are also discussed in the report. Radon activity concentrations were measured in the private ground water supplies of 166 houses in Co. Wicklow. In all cases the ground water was the principal source of drinking water for the house occupants. Four supplies had activity concentrations in excess of the Recommended EC action level of 1000 Bq/l, fifteen had activity concentrations between 500 and 1000 Bq/l, 51 were between 100 and 500 Bq/l and 96 had activity concentrations below 100 Bq/l. The doses estimated for the ingestion of radon bearing water varies significantly with the quantity of drinking water consumed and the degree to which the water has been processed prior to consumption. However dose estimates

  15. Comparative study of short- and long-term indoor radon measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jarallah, M.I. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)], E-mail: mibrahim@kfupm.edu.sa; Fazal-ur-Rehman,; Abdalla, Khalid [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2008-08-15

    Short-term indoor radon measurements are used widely. Therefore, it is interesting to find out a correlation between these measurements and long-term measurements which reflect a better average radon concentration of individual measurement. To find the correlation between the two measurements of indoor radon concentrations at low radon levels, a study was carried out at 34 locations of King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM), Dhahran, Saudi Arabia using active and passive methods. In the short-term active method, a radon gas analyzer (AlphaGUARD) was used for a duration of 24 h in each measurement. In the long-term passive method, CR-39 based radon dosimeters were utilized for a period of 6 months, from January 2006 to June 2006. The short-term active measurements showed that the average, minimum and maximum radon concentrations were 19, 8 and 58Bqm{sup -3}, respectively, with a standard deviation of 8.6Bqm{sup -3}. The long-term passive measurements showed that the average, minimum and maximum radon concentrations were 25, 10 and 67Bqm{sup -3}, respectively, with a standard deviation of 12Bqm{sup -3}. The two measurements showed a poor correlation (R{sup 2}=0.38). The long-term measurements showed on the average higher concentrations by a factor of 1.3.

  16. Radon and thoron measurements at special underground circumstances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, Tibor; Somlai, Janos; Szeiler, Gabor; Nemeth, Csaba; Tokonami, Shinji; Takahashi, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    In this study a comparative integrating radon ( 222 Rn) and thoron ( 220 Rn) survey executed at underground workplaces are discussed. Two types of solid state nuclear track detectors (Radopot and Raduet) were applied for survey at four sites: a manganese mine, a bauxite mine, a tourist cave and a hospital cave. Several numbers of detecting points were chosen at each site and 1-1 Raduet and Radopot detector were placed at each point. Both detector types contains two polycarbonate (CR-39) foils in different holders in order to determinate the radon as well as the thoron levels. The detectors were changed in 30-60 days periods (approximately monthly) and the survey continued for a year. This study had two aims: 1) To gain information about the radon and thoron concentrations at the chosen places including the seasonal variations; 2) To compare the performance of the two types of detectors and check their response in the special circumstances indicates by these underground places. Concerning the first point the radon concentrations were found to be as the expected ones at the given underground places and were similar to our former measurements. In the case of thoron the results are very variable and significant part of the detectors provides no data or unrealistic data. Concerning the second point there was only a little difference (<10%) between the radon results provided by the two types of detectors. In the case of thoron the two detector types showed high inconsistency. The study suggests that both types of detectors are fit for the integrating radon measurement at these special circumstances but it cannot be stated the same for the thoron measurement. The reason of the unreliability of the thoron measurement could be the high humidity (especially in the caves), the high aerosol concentration (especially in the mines) and the air change rate variation. To find the reasons needs further study. (author)

  17. Radon Measurements in Vojvodina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikit, I.; Bikit, K.; Forkapic, S.; Mrda, D.; Nikolov, J.; Todorovic, N.; Veskovic, M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent analyses of epidemiological studies of lung cancer risk from residential exposures demonstrate a statistically significant increase per unit of exposure below average annual concentrations of about 200 Bq/m 3 . Indoor radon measurements performed in Novi Sad in about 400 houses and flats are presented and discussed in this paper. By measuring gamma-activity of radon daughters, radon activity concentration was determined to be 50 Bq/m 3 . In Vojvodina region indoor radon levels were measured by alpha track detectors CR-39 on about 3000 locations during the winter seasons in the period of three years (2003-2005). The main aim of the present study was to explore the critical group of population for radon exposure and to estimate maximal annual doses. Existing radon maps which identify regions with elevated radon levels will improve data collection and analysis for the future radon campaigns. Collaboration on the JRC program of European indoor radon map and implementation of grid system are also discussed.(author)

  18. Radon gas. A review with emphasis on site investigations and measurements of soil gas and indoor house levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, Seamus.

    1992-09-01

    A review of radon gas, with particular reference to its source and transport through soils and into buildings is examined. The principal parameters affecting the movement of radon has been discussed. The levels of radon gas in soils and in dwelling houses has been examined. Radon levels in the soil gas were highest in mineral soils with pear soils giving low readings but there was no significant differences between the results. Houses situated over granite and limestone bedrock gave similar results for indoor radon concentrations, with no significant differences being recorded. Results were expected to be much higher in houses over granite areas, in view of the higher uranium series activity in granites. It is concluded that high radon gas levels in soils under and in he vicinity of houses is the probable explanation for the indoor radon levels found. The influence of the underlying bedrock is not the most important parameter as was surmised before the study. (author)

  19. Study of temporal variation of radon concentrations in public drinking water supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    York, E.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed a Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for radon-222 in public drinking water supplies of 300 pCi/L. Proposed monitoring requirements include collecting quarterly grab samples for the first year, then annual samples for the remainder of the compliance cycle provided first year quarterly samples average below the MCL. The focus of this research was to study the temporal variation of groundwater radon concentrations to investigate how reliably one can predict an annual average radon concentration based on the results of grab samples. Using a open-quotes slow-flowclose quotes collection method and liquid scintillation analysis, biweekly water samples were taken from ten public water supply wells in North Carolina (6 month - 11 month sampling periods). Based on study results, temporal variations exist in groundwater radon concentrations. Statistical analysis performed on the data indicates that grab samples taken from each of the ten wells during the study period would exhibit groundwater radon concentrations within 30% of their average radon concentration

  20. Control of indoor radon and radon progeny concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sextro, R.G.

    1985-05-01

    There are three general categories of techniques for the control of radon and radon progeny concentrations in indoor air - restriction of radon entry, reduction of indoor radon concentrations by ventilation or air cleaning, and removal of airborne radon progeny. The predominant radon entry process in most residences appears to be pressure driven flow of soil gas through cracks or other openings in the basement, slab, or subfloor. Sealing these openings or ventilation of the subslab or subfloor space are methods of reducing radon entry rates. Indoor radon concentrations may be reduced by increased ventilation. The use of charcoal filters for removal of radon gas in the indoor air by adsorption has also been proposed. Concentrations of radon progeny, which are responsible for most of the health risks associated with radon exposures, can be controlled by use of electrostatic or mechanical filtration. Air circulation can also reduce radon progeny concentrations in certain cases. This paper reviews the application and limitations of each of these control measures and discusses recent experimental results

  1. A 2-year study of seasonal indoor radon variations in northern Virginia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mose, D.G.; Mushrush, G.W.; Chrosniak, C.E.

    1991-01-01

    The concentrations of indoor radon in the basements of homes located in northern Virginia average about 1.4 times the first-floor radon concentrations. Basement indoor radon concentrations exhibit seasonal variations that can be related to home use patterns of the occupants. Little indoor radon difference was seen between homes that have concrete block basement walls and poured concrete basement walls, but homes that use oil or gas furnaces for heating have ∼ 25% lower indoor radon than homes that use electrical heating systems. Particular geological units seem to be associated with elevated indoor radon concentrations, and several units are associated with indoor radon concentrations that exceed 4 pCi/l (the U.S. Environmental Agency action level) at some time in more than 40% of the homes. Comparative studies between indoor radon and total gamma aeroradioactivity show that aeroradioactivity can be accurately used to estimate community radon hazards. When combined with information about the home heating system, geology and aeroradioactivity can be used to identify problem homes

  2. Aerosol properties of indoor radon decay products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martell, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    Lung cancer risks attributable to indoor radon are highly dependent on the properties of radon progeny aerosols which, in turn, are dependent on the nature and concentration of small particles in indoor air. In clean filtered air, radon progeny are attached to small hygroscopic particles of high mobility which are rapidly deposited on surfaces. By contrast, radon progeny attached to cigarette smoke are on large particles of low mobility which persist in air. Radon progeny ingaled by smokers are largely associated with smoke particles from 0.5 to 4.0 μm diameter. Such particles are selectively deposited at bronchial bifurcations and are highly resistant to dissolution. The attached radon progeny undergo a substantial degree of radioactive decay at deposition sites before clearance which gives rise to large alpha radiation doses in small volumes of bronchial epithelium. These processes provide new insights on mechanisms of bronchial cancer induction and on relative risks of lung cancer in smokers, passive smokers, and other non-smokers. (Author)

  3. A study of indoor radon levels and radon effective dose in dwellings of some cities of Gezira State in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzain Abd-Elmoniem Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to natural sources of radiation, especially 222Rn and its short-lived daughter products has become an important issue throughout the world because sustained exposure of humans to indoor radon may cause lung cancer. The indoor radon concentration level and radon effective dose rate were carried out in the dwellings of Medani, El Hosh, Elmanagil, Haj Abd Allah, and Wad Almahi cities, Gezira State - Central Sudan, in 393 measurements, using passive integrated solid-state nuclear track devices containing allyl diglycol carbonate plastic detectors. The radon concentration in the corresponding dwellings was found to vary from (57 ± 8 Bq/m3 in Medani to 41 ± 9 Bq/m3 in Wad Almahi, with an average of 49 ± 10 Bq/m3. Assuming an indoor occupancy factor of 0.8 and 0.4 for the equilibrium factor of radon indoors, we found that the annual effective dose rate from 222Rn in the studied dwellings ranges from 1.05 to 1.43 mSv per year and the relative lung cancer risk for radon exposure was 1.044%. In this research, we also correlated the relationship of radon concentration and building age. From our study, it is clear that the annual effective dose rate is larger than the “normal” background level as quoted by UNSCEAR, lower than the recommended action level of ICRP, and less than the maximum permissible dose defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency.

  4. Evaluation of Radon Pollution in Underground Parking Lots by Discomfort Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Bu-Olayan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Recent studies of public underground parking lots showed the influence of radon concentration and the probable discomfort caused by parking cars. Materials and Methods Radon concentration was measured in semi-closed public parking lots in the six governorates of Kuwait, using Durridge RAD7radon detector (USA. Results The peak radon concentration in the parking lots of Kuwait governorates was relatively higher during winter (63.15Bq/m3 compared to summer (41.73 Bq/m3. Radon in the evaluated parking lots revealed a mean annual absorbed dose (DRn: 0.02mSv/y and annual effective dose (HE: 0.06mSv/y.  Conclusion This study validated the influence of relative humidity and temperature as the major components of discomfort index (DI. The mean annual absorbed and effective dose  of radon in the evaluated parking lots were found below the permissible limits. However, high radon DRn and HE were reported when the assessment included the parking lots, the surrounding residential apartments, and office premises. Furthermore, the time-series analysis indicated significant variations of the seasonal and site-wise distribution of radon concentrations in the indoor evaluated parking lots of the six Kuwait governorates

  5. Measurements of indoor radon and radon progeny in Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Y.S.; Rodriguez, G.P.

    1996-01-01

    Indoor radon has been a public concern associated with increased lung cancer risks. Radon decay products interact with indoor aerosols to form progeny with different size distributions, which may influence the lung dosimetry when the progeny are inhaled. Air pollution in Mexico City is a serious problems with high particulate concentrations, but there are few reports of indoor radon measurement. The purposes of this study were to measure the aerosol concentration, radon concentration, and radon activity size distribution in the living area of three houses in Mexico City. The radon concentration was monitored by a RGM-3 radon gas monitor (Eberline, Inc., Santa Fe, NM). A graded diffusion battery was used to determine the progeny concentration and activity size distribution. The concentration and size distribution of the indoor aerosols were monitored by a quartz, crystal microbalance cascade impactor. Our measurements showed high concentrations of indoor aerosols (20-180 gg m -3 ). However, the radon concentrations-were low ( -1 ), but showed a clear diurnal pattern with peak concentrations from 2-10 AM. The activity size distributions of radon progeny were trimodal, with peaks of 0.6 nm, 4-5 nm, and 100 rim. Most activities were associated with large particle sizes. Our results indicated that indoor radon concentration was not high, due in part to a relatively high air exchange with outdoor air. The high aerosol concentration may also play an important part in the activity size distribution of radon progeny

  6. Failure of preventive measures against radon penetration from the ground in a new-built family house - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neznal, M.; Neznal, M.; Jiranek, M.; Fronka, A.

    2006-01-01

    A system of preventive protection of houses against radon penetration from the ground [1] has been in operation for more than 15 years in the Czech Republic. The determination of a so-called radon index of the building site represents the first step. The assessment is based on measurements of soil gas radon concentration and on the determination of soil permeability. During the years, the method was modified several times, especially the recommendation dealing with the classification of soil permeability, but the base remains stable: The soil characteristics are measured in-situ and protective measures are designed with respect to the measured properties of the soil and to the dwelling design. The site-specific, individual approach should enable to propose an optimal preventive strategy corresponding to local conditions. If the radon index is other than low (i.e. medium, or high), the building must be protected against radon in accordance with the Czech Atomic Law. Protective measures should be designed and installed according to the Czech National Standard [2]. Basic principles of the protection can be summarized in the following way: If the radon index of a building site is low, no special provisions are required. Normal damp-proofing that is designed in accordance with hydro-geological conditions provides sufficient building protection. Nevertheless, the insulation has to be installed over the whole ground area of the building. It is also recommended that the corridor with stairs leading from the underground floor to the upper floors should be separated by the door. In case of medium radon index of a building site, each high-quality and long life damp-proofing, with the measured radon diffusion coefficient, may be considered as radon-proof insulation in compliance with C.S.N. 73 06 01. A required insulation thickness is calculated using the known value of radon diffusion coefficient. The insulation must be laid down continuously on the whole area of the

  7. Study of the calibration of the medical physics department - radon dosimeter in a radon facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikololpoulos, D.; Louizi, A.; Papadimitriou, D.; Proukakis, C.

    1997-01-01

    Several techniques have been developed to measure radon indoors.The use of a Solid State Nuclear Track Detector closed in a cup, has turned out to be the most appropriate for long term measurements. The Medical Physics Department of the Athens University is carrying out radon measurements in dwellings, apartments, outdoor air and mines since 1996. For this purpose a simple device, the so called Medical Physics Department radon dosimeter, has been constructed, which measures the radon concentration averaged over a long period of time. In the present paper the calibration technique introduced and the results of the calibration of the Medical Physics Department. (authors)

  8. Investigating Local and Remote Terrestrial Influence on Air Masses at Contrasting Antarctic Sites Using Radon-222 and Back Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, S. D.; Choi, T.; Park, S.-J.; Williams, A. G.; Hong, S.-B.; Tositti, L.; Griffiths, A. D.; Crawford, J.; Pereira, E.

    2017-12-01

    We report on the first summer of high-sensitivity radon measurements from a two-filter detector at Jang Bogo Station (Terra Nova Bay) and contrast them with simultaneous observations at King Sejong Station (King George Island). King Sejong radon concentrations were characteristic of a marine baseline station (0.02-0.3 Bq m-3), whereas Jang Bogo values were highly variable (0.06-5.2 Bq m-3), mainly due to emissions from exposed coastal ground (estimated mean flux 0.09-0.11 atoms cm-2 s-1) and shallow atmospheric mixing depths. For wind speeds of ≤3.5 m s-1 the influence of local radon emissions became increasingly more prominent at both sites. A cluster analysis of back trajectories from King Sejong (62°S) revealed a fairly even distribution between air masses that had passed recently over South America, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica, whereas at Jang Bogo (75°S) 80% of events had recently passed over the Ross Ice Shelf and West Antarctica, 12% were synoptically forced over Cape Adare, and 8% were associated with subsidence over the Antarctic interior and katabatic flow to the station. When cross-checked against radon concentrations, only half of the back trajectories ending at Jang Bogo that had indicated distant contact with nonpolar southern hemisphere continents within the past 10 days showed actual signs of terrestrial influence. A simple-to-implement technique based on high-pass filtered absolute humidity is developed to distinguish between predominantly katabatic, oceanic, and near-coastal air masses for characterization of trace gas and aerosol measurements at coastal East Antarctic sites.

  9. Pre- and post construction radon measurements in a new housing development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rydock, J.P.; Naess-Rolstad, A.; Brunsell, J.T.

    2001-01-01

    Results from pre- and post construction radon measurements in a new housing development are presented. The houses were built in an area that had not been previously associated with elevated indoor radon concentrations. Exhalation measurements of gravel and stone from the site and soil gas measurements under several houses did not indicate an elevated radon potential. However, 4 of 21 finished houses (or 19%) exhibited annual average indoor radon concentrations over 200 Bq.m -3 (5.4 pCi/l). The highest concentrations were observed in the first house built in 1 of the 6 houses built differently than the original designs, with the elements of a sub floor ventilation system included for possible radon control if necessary. These results suggest that site investigations can be of limited value in determining where not to include radon protection measures in new housing. Also, that care must be taken to adequately inform everyone involved in the building process of the importance of maintaining a tight seal against the ground to prevent possible radon gas entry into a house. (author)

  10. Ambient Radon-222 Monitoring in Amargosa Valley, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L.H. Karr; J.J. Tappen; D. Shafer; K.J. Gray

    2008-01-01

    As part of a program to characterize and baseline selected environmental parameters in the region around the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, ambient radon-222 monitoring was conducted in the rural community of Amargosa Valley, the community closest to the proposed repository site. Passive integrating radon monitors and a continuous radon monitoring instrument were deployed adjacent to the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) (http://www.cemp.dri.edu/index.html) station located in the Amargosa Valley Community Center near the library. The CEMP station provided real-time ambient gamma exposure and meteorological data used to correct the integrated radon measurements as well as verify meteorological data collected by the continuous radon monitoring instrument. Additionally, different types of environmental enclosures that housed the monitors and instrument were used to determine if particular designs influenced the ambient radon measurements

  11. Radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigel, F [Muenchen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie

    1978-09-01

    The noble gas radon, formerly called emanation, was discovered a few years after radium. /sup 222/Rn, the longest-lived isotope, has a half-life of 3,82 days. This half life is so short that the experimental techniques available at present (1978) are not sufficient for a characterization of defined radon compounds, even though there are definite indications for the existence of such compounds, and one may expect such radon compounds to be even more stable than the numerous known xenon compounds. - The radon isotopes /sup 219/Rn (Actinon), /sup 220/Rn (Thoron), and /sup 222/Rn (Radon) occur in nature despite their rather short half-lives, because they are continously generated from their mothers /sup 223/Ra, /sup 224/Ra, and /sup 226/Ra, which are in secular equilibrium with long-lived isotopes /sup 235/U, /sup 238/U, and /sup 232/Th, and are in turn continously formed from these long-lived isotopes. Since the radon isotopes are gases, they enter the atmosphere and are carried for long distances with air currents. - Because radon is so short-lived, its practical applications are rather limited. For medical applications, small sealed glass tubes filled with radon are used as radiation sources after the radon has decayed, because the whole series of Po-, Bi-, and Pb-isotopes of the radium decay chain are formed, whose penetrating radiation is useful for therapy. When solids are spiked with Ra isotopes, radon is evolved at a constant rate. On heating such solids, phase transitions show up by sudden increased radon evolution (Hahn's emanation method). - On the basis of nuclear theoretical calculations, there is hardly a chance for the discovery of a long-lived radon species. Therefore, major progress in radon chemistry is hardly to be expected in the near future.

  12. Radon, gas geochemistry, groundwater, and earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Chi-Yu [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tono Geoscience Center, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    Radon monitoring in groundwater, soil air, and atmosphere has been continued in many seismic areas of the world for earthquake-prediction and active-fault studies. Some recent measurements of radon and other geochemical and hydrological parameters have been made for sufficiently long periods, with reliable instruments, and together with measurements of meteorological variables and solid-earth tides. The resultant data are useful in better distinguishing earthquake-related changes from various background noises. Some measurements have been carried out in areas where other geophysical measurements are being made also. Comparative studies of various kinds of geophysical data are helpful in ascertaining the reality of the earthquake-related and fault-related anomalies and in understanding the underlying mechanisms. Spatial anomalies of radon and other terrestrial gasses have been observed for many active faults. Such observations indicate that gas concentrations are very much site dependent, particularly on fault zones where terrestrial fluids may move vertically. Temporal anomalies have been reliably observed before and after some recent earthquakes, including the 1995 Kobe earthquake, and the general pattern of anomaly occurrence remains the same as observed before: They are recorded at only relatively few sensitive sites, which can be at much larger distances than expected from existing earthquake-source models. The sensitivity of a sensitive site is also found to be changeable with time. These results clearly show the inadequacy of the existing dilatancy-fluid diffusion and elastic-dislocation models for earthquake sources to explain earthquake-related geochemical and geophysical changes recorded at large distances. (J.P.N.)

  13. The Montana Radon Study: social marketing via digital signage technology for reaching families in the waiting room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Laura S

    2015-04-01

    I tested a social marketing intervention delivered in health department waiting rooms via digital signage technology for increasing radon program participation among priority groups. I conducted a tri-county, community-based study over a 3-year period (2010-2013) in a high-radon state by using a quasi-experimental design. We collected survey data for eligible participants at the time of radon test kit purchase. Radon program participation increased at the intervention site (t38 = 3.74; P = .001; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.8, 16.0) with an increase in renters (χ(2)1,228 = 4.3; P = .039), Special Supplementary Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children families (χ(2)1,166 = 3.13; P = .077) and first-time testers (χ(2)1,228 = 10.93; P = .001). Approximately one third (30.3%; n = 30) attributed participation in the radon program to viewing the intervention message. The intervention crossover was also successful with increased monthly kit sales (t37 = 2.69; P = .01; 95% CI = 1.20, 8.47) and increased households participating (t23 = 4.76; P signage technology by 2 health departments.

  14. Radon study in underground buildings in Chongqing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Wen; Jiang Rende; Liu Yigang

    1993-01-01

    Radon concentration measurements using a scintillation detector were conducted in 51 large underground buildings, which have been used as hotels, entertainment halls, restaurants, shops and factories, etc, in Chongqing, China. The results showed that the radon concentrations in these underground buildings ranged from 3.2 to 616.2 Bqm -3 . The arithmetic mean was 57.6 Bqm -3 , which was about 4 times as much as the mean radon concentration in ground buildings in Chongqing. The underground buildings with the highest radon concentrations were correlated with the high content of radium-226 in building materials, mechanical ventilation through interior circulatory ducts, underground depth of the building, and particularly, fissures in the walls. Measures of radon mitigation in underground buildings were recommended. (orig.). (3 refs., 5 tabs.)

  15. A detailed study of inexpensive radon control techniques in New York state houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, I.A.; Wadach, J.B.; Clarke, W.A.; Traynor, G.W.; Adams, G.P.; Rizzuto, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    As part of a comprehensive indoor air quality and infiltration field study, radon concentrations were measured in 60 houses in upstate New York using passive integrating monitors. Indoor air radon concentrations ranged from 0.2 pCi/l to 50 pCi/l. Four houses with the highest radon levels were then extensively monitored using real-time continuous instruments for the measurement of radon, radon daughters, respirable particles, infiltration, inside-outside pressure difference, and weather parameters. Several inexpensive radon mitigation techniques were tested in these four houses. Their effectiveness ranged widely. Techniques identified as effective were permanently installed in 14 houses having indoor air radon concentration above 2 pCi/l. Finally, the long-term effectiveness of the installed control techniques is being tested using passive integrating radon monitors. (Author)

  16. Radon measurements in well and spring water in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, Samer M.; Habib, Rima R.; Nuwayhid, Rida Y.; Chatila, Malek; Katul, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    The variation of dissolved radon ( 222 Rn) levels in water supplies remains of interest because of the radiation-induced public health hazards. A large part of the Lebanese population relies on springs and wells for their drinking water. 222 Rn measurements in spring and well water sources were conducted using the E-PERM method at sites ranging from sea level to 1200m above sea level and across several geologic formations within Lebanon. The dissolved radon concentrations ranged from a low of 0.91BqL -1 in a coastal well source to a high of 49.6BqL -1 for a spring source in a mountainous region. Of the 20 sites sampled, only five had radon levels above 11BqL -1 and these mostly occurred in areas adjacent to well-known geological fault zones. A preliminary national average radon level was determined to be about 11.4BqL -1 . In general, as all determined concentrations were well below the 100 and 146BqL -1 revised reference levels proposed in the European Union and the United States, respectively, it is concluded that there is no reason to believe these water sources pose any radon-related hazard. On the other hand, at locations where water is collected directly from the springhead, it is advisable to have a settling/piping system installed allowing for further radon decay and radon loss into the air to alleviate any possible radon problem

  17. Radiation doses due to natural radon gas releases from the final disposal facility of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesterbacka, K.; Arvela, H.

    1998-03-01

    Building an underground repository for the spent nuclear fuel increases releases of natural radon gas. In the report the radon releases, the resulting doses as well as the radon concentration in the repository air are investigated. There are four optional building locations for the underground repository and three different strategies of construction. Optional sites are Olkiluoto of Eurajoki, Romuvaara of Kuhmo, Haestholmen of Loviisa and Kivetty of Aeaenekoski. The most significant radon sources in the underground repository are the rockwalls and the groundwater leaking to the repository. High groundwater radon concentrations can increase significantly radon concentration in the repository air despite the groundwater leak rate is low. The radon source strength from the rockwalls, groundwater and macadam spreaded on the floor of the repository is estimated in this report. Using these results the radon concentration in the repository is calculated for several air exchange rates. Data from petrological studies performed at the optional building sites as well as the measurement data of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority has been utilized. Rough approximations were needed when estimating the radon source strength. The estimated total radon source strength varies between 1 - 600 MBq/h depending on the repository construction strategy. Repository indoor air radon concentration with no air exchange varies between 0,7 - 120 kBq/m 3 . Using the most probable estimates on radon source strength, the allowed indoor radon concentration of 400 Bq/m 3 at workplaces is achieved by using the air exchange rate of 0,5 l/h in every optional repository. Repository exhaust air and the pile of macadam increases the radon levels in the environment. The radiation dose to the critical person depends on the open volume of the repository. The annual radiation dose calculated from the most probable radon source strength at the distance of 500 metres is below 0,005 mSv at all sites

  18. Study and treatment of situations implying radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robe, M.Ch.

    2005-01-01

    The radon is a radioactive gas with a natural origin. It comes from a disintegration of uranium and radium present in the soils. It comes from granitic and volcanic subsoils. The radon can accumulate in buildings. It is the principal source of natural exposure and the second one after medical exposures. It is the only one source of radiations on which man is susceptible to act. Ventilation and airtightness are solutions to reduce radon concentration. (N.C.)

  19. Radon measurement studies in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevost'yanov, V.N.

    2003-01-01

    Today, one has to admit that despite the important role and certain achievements in providing the radiation control in Kazakhstan, radon measurements still present some problems related to clear definition of physical quantities applied, correct use of methods, and application of adequate measuring devices to meet requirements of regulatory documents currently in effect, such as NRB-99. The paper provides some data on radon measurements, describes the problem status in Kazakhstan and proposes ways to solve it. (author)

  20. A reconnaissance study of radon concentrations in Hamadan city, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Gillmore, G.; Jabarivasal, N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents results of a reconnaissance study that used CR-39 alpha track-etch detectors to measure radon concentrations in dwellings in Hamadan, western Iran, significantly, built on permeable alluvial fan deposits. The indoor radon levels recorded varied from 4 (i.e. below the lower limit of detection for the method) to 364 Bq/m3 with a mean value of 108 Bq/m3 which is 2.5 times the average global population-weighted indoor radon concent...

  1. Seasonal variation measurements of radon levels in caves using SSNTD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, G.; Golzarri, J.I.; Gammage, R.B.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Viccon-Pale, J.; Signoret-Poillon, M.

    2008-01-01

    The results of radon concentration measurements inside of the Gabriel caves of Mexico, during three consecutive two-month periods covering almost three seasons, are reported in the present work. The radio-ecological importance of this site is related to the radon and its concentration-dynamic behavior in the cave. Further interest in radiation safety motivated this initiative since routine biological field work is done, with people spending long periods of time there. CR-39 passive nuclear track detector was chosen for this survey. Radon concentration levels decrease during the rainy season and show different values depending on the ventilation and geometeorological structure. Measured values range between 956 and 4931Bqm -3 , an indication that radon doses may exceed the allowed values for workers. This project is part of a larger study of indoor radon alpha emitters in Mexican caves

  2. Seasonal variation measurements of radon levels in caves using SSNTD method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa, G. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: espinosa@fisica.unam.mx; Golzarri, J.I. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Gammage, R.B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6480 (United States); Sajo-Bohus, L. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Simon Bolivar (Venezuela); Viccon-Pale, J.; Signoret-Poillon, M. [El Hombre y su Ambiente, UAM-Xochimilco, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-08-15

    The results of radon concentration measurements inside of the Gabriel caves of Mexico, during three consecutive two-month periods covering almost three seasons, are reported in the present work. The radio-ecological importance of this site is related to the radon and its concentration-dynamic behavior in the cave. Further interest in radiation safety motivated this initiative since routine biological field work is done, with people spending long periods of time there. CR-39 passive nuclear track detector was chosen for this survey. Radon concentration levels decrease during the rainy season and show different values depending on the ventilation and geometeorological structure. Measured values range between 956 and 4931Bqm{sup -3}, an indication that radon doses may exceed the allowed values for workers. This project is part of a larger study of indoor radon alpha emitters in Mexican caves.

  3. Study of radon 222 permeation through plastic membranes. Application to a measurement method of radon in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labed, V.; Rannou, A.; Robe, M.C.

    1990-01-01

    Gaseous permeation is a complex phenomenon of gas transfer through some polymers. Original in respect of conventional studies where permeation occurs between two gaseous phases, the present study concerns radon 222 transfer between water and air through a membrane. Polypropylene membranes are tested with an experimental device following time evolution of the phenomenon by measurement of volume activity in water and in air. An application of this study to a method for determination of radon concentration in water by measurement of concentration in air is discussed [fr

  4. Study on the influence factors about the soil radon measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zixiang; Liu Yanbin; Jia Yuxin; Mai Weiji; Liu Xiaolian; Yang Yuhua

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore relevant factors about the soil radon measurement and provide gist of formulating correct measure method by studying the way of the soil radon measurement. Methods: Deflation-ionization room standard is adopted. Results: The concentration of soil radon becomes higher with the sample's volume added, it also augmented with the measure depth increased in certain degree; The concentration of soil radon changes little when sample's depth is above 60 cm; The time of deflation has no obvious influence on the concentration of soil radon, but microwave show serious effect on it; The results will be lowered when the desiccant is humidified, raining has the same affection on it; Plant has some impact on it. Conclusion: The measured results will be affected by microwave, oscillate and plant. Sample's volume and depth, soil's humidity can influence it too. The result's veracity can be guaranteed by choosing appropriate sample and measure condition. (authors)

  5. Radiological impact of exposure to radon-thoron and their progeny present in the environment of fly ash dumping site in Faridabad (Haryana)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Nitin; Kant, Krishan; Garg, Maneesha

    2013-01-01

    Radon-Thoron and their Progeny monitoring was carried out in dwellings near fly ash dumping sites in Faridabad (Haryana), as it is very important from health and hygiene point of view of the occupants. For the measurements, the track etch technique was used. The dosimeter employed for the measurement consisted of twin chamber systems with LR-115 Type II SSNTDs placed on the two sides of the central partition inside the cup and a bare film placed outside it. The detectors were exposed in the mixed field of radon-thoron in the environment of dwellings. The detectors were placed in about 100 dwellings and the choice of the dwelling was random. The value of PAEC, radon concentration, annual exposure, annual effective dose in the dwellings near fly ash dumping sites in District Faridabad (Haryana) varied from 1.34 mWL to 14.05 mWL with an average value of (4.95 0.85) mWL, 12.41 Bqm -3 to 129.91 Bqm -3 with an average value of (45.77 7.87) Bqm -3 , 0.55 10 -1 WLM to 5.83 10 -1 WLM with an average value of (2.04 0.28) 10 -1 WLM and 0.21 mSv to 2.23 mSv with an average value of (0.79 0.13) mSv. The value of PAEC, thoron concentration, annual exposure, annual effective dose in the dwellings near fly ash dumping sites in District Faridabad (Haryana) varied from 1.34 mWL to 14.0 SmWL with an average value of (4.95 0.85) mWL, 1.16 Bq/m 3 to 65.08 Bq/m 3 with an average value of (32.77 7.87) Bqm -3 , 0.55 10 -1 WLM to 5.83 10 -1 WLM with an average value of (2.04 0.28) 10 -1 WLM and 0.21 mSv to 2.23 mSv with an average value of (0.79 0.13) mSv. The measurements indicate that the radon concentration was below the safety levels (action levels) as recommended by various regulatory bodies. The maximum value of 129.91 Bqm -3 was found in a cave inside a temple, where there was no ventilation. The different values of radon concentrations are due to different ventilation conditions and house structures. The radon concentration was found to decrease with the increase in distance of the

  6. The ORNL Indoor Air Quality Study: Re-cap, Context, and Assessment on Radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rose, Erin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ternes, Mark P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-01

    As part of the retrospective evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy s low-income Weatherization Assistance Program that was led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), an assessment of the impacts of weatherization on indoor air quality (IAQ) was conducted. This assessment included nearly 500 treatment and control homes across the country. Homes were monitored for carbon monoxide, radon, formaldehyde, temperature and humidity pre- and post-weatherization. This report focuses on the topic of radon and addresses issues not thoroughly discussed in the original IAQ report. The size, scope and rigor of the radon component of the IAQ study are compared to previous studies that assessed the impacts of weatherization on indoor radon levels. It is found that the ORNL study is by far the most extensive study conducted to date, though the ORNL results are consistent with the findings of the other studies. However, the study does have limitations related to its reliance on short-term measurements of radon and inability to attribute changes in radon levels in homes post-weatherization to specific weatherization measures individually or in combination.

  7. A simulation of the transport and fate of radon-220 derived from thorium-232 low-level waste in the near-surface zone of the Radioactive Waste Management Site in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstrom, F.T.; Cawlfield, D.E.; Donahue, M.E.; Emer, D.F.; Shott, G.J.

    1992-07-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A (DOE, 1988) requires performance assessment of all new and existing low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal sites. An integral part of performance assessment is estimating the fluxes of radioactive gases such as radon-220 and radon-222. Mathematical models, which point out data needs and therefore drive site characterization, provide a logical means of performing the required flux estimations. Thorium-232 Waste, consisting largely of thorium hydroxide and thorium oxides, has been approved for disposal in shallow trenches and pits at the LLW Radioactive Waste Management Site in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site. A sophisticated gas transport model, CASCADR8 (Lindstrom et al., 1992), was used to simulate the transport and fate of radon-220 from its source of origin nine feet below a closure cap of native soil, through the dry alluvial earth, to its point of release to the atmosphere. CASCADR8 is an M-chain gas-phase radionuclide transport and fate model. It has been tailored to the site-specific needs of the dry desert environment of southern Nevada. It is based on the mass balance principle for each radionuclide and uses gas-phase diffusion as well as barometric pressure-induced advection as its main modes of transport

  8. Design issues in studies of radon and lung cancer: Implications of the joint effect of smoking and radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upfal, M.; Divine, G.; Siemiatycki, J.

    1995-01-01

    Many case-control studies have been undertaken to assess whether and to what extent residential radon exposure is a risk factor for lung cancer. Nearly all these studies have been conducted in populations including smokers and nonsmokers. In this paper, we show that, depending on the nature of the joint effect of radon and tobacco on lung cancer risk, it may be very difficult to detect a main effect due to radon in mixed smoking and nonsmoking populations. If the joint effect is closer to additive than multiplicative, the most cost-effective way to achieve adequate statistical power may be to conduct a study among never-smokers. Because the underlying joint effect is unknown, and because many studies have been carried out among mixed smoker and nonsmoker populations, it would be desirable to conduct some studies with adequate power among never-smokers only. 30 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Earthquake forecasting studies using radon time series data in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, Vivek; Kumar, Arvind; Fu, Ching-Chou; Lin, Shih-Jung; Chou, Kuang-Wu; Wen, Kuo-Liang; Chen, Cheng-Hong

    2017-04-01

    For few decades, growing number of studies have shown usefulness of data in the field of seismogeochemistry interpreted as geochemical precursory signals for impending earthquakes and radon is idendified to be as one of the most reliable geochemical precursor. Radon is recognized as short-term precursor and is being monitored in many countries. This study is aimed at developing an effective earthquake forecasting system by inspecting long term radon time series data. The data is obtained from a network of radon monitoring stations eastblished along different faults of Taiwan. The continuous time series radon data for earthquake studies have been recorded and some significant variations associated with strong earthquakes have been observed. The data is also examined to evaluate earthquake precursory signals against environmental factors. An automated real-time database operating system has been developed recently to improve the data processing for earthquake precursory studies. In addition, the study is aimed at the appraisal and filtrations of these environmental parameters, in order to create a real-time database that helps our earthquake precursory study. In recent years, automatic operating real-time database has been developed using R, an open source programming language, to carry out statistical computation on the data. To integrate our data with our working procedure, we use the popular and famous open source web application solution, AMP (Apache, MySQL, and PHP), creating a website that could effectively show and help us manage the real-time database.

  10. Seismic and radon monitoring of Algocen site at Elliot Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    Remedial works to reduce radon/radon daughters to acceptable levels in houses in Elliot Lake have been going on for the last three years under the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) remedial action program. In December 1978, a routine inspection of treated houses showed extensions to cracks already filled, and the opening up of filled cracks. The homeowners attributed this to the blasting operations for building construction which were going on in town at that time. This prompted the need to monitor any subsequent major scale blasting in the town and to record the damages in nearby houses. This report presents the results of monitoring one such major blasting operation which was carried out between March 1979 and June 1979 for the building of the Algocen Shopping Mall east of Hutchison Avenue. The AECB were concerned about the possible damage to the houses along Hutchison Avenue which had already received remedial treatment to prevent the entry of radon gas, and authorized DSMA/Acres to record the level of vibrations and damages in these houses during the blasting period. (author)

  11. Studies on spatial distribution of indoor radon concentration at Mysore city, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruthvi Rani, K.S.; Chandrashekara, M.S.; Paramesh, L.

    2016-01-01

    Radon is a radioactive inert gas, with a half life of 3.82 days. Radium present in soil rocks and building material are the sources of atmospheric radon. Radon and its short-lived decay products ( 218 Po, 214 Pb, 214 Bi, and 214 Po) can be deposited in the lung tissues and give rise to higher radiation doses. Radon is now recognized as the second most important cause of lung cancer after smoking in the general population. In the present investigation a systematic study of the distribution of radon concentration has been carried out in a small room at different co-ordinates and time scales

  12. A study of indoor radon in greenhouses in Mexico City, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillermo Espinosa; Allan Chavarria; Jose-Ignacio Golzarri

    2013-01-01

    Enclosed spaces in contact with soil, the main source of radon, like greenhouses have potentially high radon ( 222 Rn) concentrations. Greenhouses are frequented by visitors and also are workplaces. The study of radon concentrations in greenhouses is, thus, a relevant concern for public health and environmental radiation authorities. For this study, the radon concentrations in 12 greenhouses in different locations within Mexico City were measured using nuclear track methodology. The detectors used for the study consisted of the well-known closed-end cup device, with CR-39 Lantrack R as detector material. The measurements were carried out over a period of one year, divided into four three-month sub-periods. The lowest and highest annual mean radon concentrations found in individual greenhouses were 17.0 and 45.1 Bq/m 3 , respectively. The annual mean averaged over all 12 greenhouses was 27.3 Bq/m 3 . No significant seasonal variation was observed. Using the highest annual mean radon concentration found in an individual greenhouse, and an equilibrium factor of 0.4, the effective dose from 222 Rn and its progenies was calculated to be 339.9 nSv/h. This corresponds to an annual dose rate of 679.8 μSv/y (0.057 WLM/y) for a worker spending 4 h a day, 5 days a week, 50 weeks a year, inside the greenhouse. For a visitor spending 12 h a year inside the greenhouse the annual dose is 2.469 μSv/y. The study of indoor radon concentrations in closed buildings such as greenhouses, which are both workplaces and open to visitors, is an important public health consideration. (author)

  13. Studying radon exhalation rates variability from phosphogypsum piles in the SW of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Coto, I., E-mail: israel.lopez@dfa.uhu.es [Dpto. Física Aplicada, Facultad CC. Experimentales, University of Huelva, Campus de El Carmen s/n, 21007 Huelva (Spain); Mas, J.L. [Dpto. Física Aplicada I. Escuela Politécnica Superior, University of Sevilla, C/Virgen de Africa 7, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Vargas, A. [Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Instituto de Técnicas Energéticas, Campus Sud Edificio ETSEIB, Planta 0, Pabellón C, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Bolívar, J.P. [Dpto. Física Aplicada, Facultad CC. Experimentales, University of Huelva, Campus de El Carmen s/n, 21007 Huelva (Spain)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Variability of radon exhalation rates from PG piles has been studied using numerical simulation supported by experimental data. • Most relevant parameters controlling the exhalation rate are radon potential and moisture saturation. • Piling up the waste increasing the height instead of the surface allows the reduction of the exhalation rate. • A proposed cover here is expected to allow exhalation rates reductions up to 95%. - Abstract: Nearly 1.0 × 10{sup 8} tonnes of phosphogypsum were accumulated during last 50 years on a 1200 ha disposal site near Huelva town (SW of Spain). Previous measurements of exhalation rates offered very variable values, in such a way that a worst case scenario could not be established. Here, new experimental data coupled to numerical simulations show that increasing the moisture contents or the temperature reduces the exhalation rate whilst increasing the radon potential or porosity has the contrary effect. Once the relative effects are compared, it can be drawn that the most relevant parameters controlling the exhalation rate are radon potential (product of emanation factor by {sup 226}Ra concentration) and moisture saturation of PG. From wastes management point of view, it can be concluded that piling up the waste increasing the height instead of the surface allows the reduction of the exhalation rate. Furthermore, a proposed cover here is expected to allow exhalation rates reductions up to 95%. We established that the worst case scenario corresponds to a situation of extremely dry winter. Under these conditions, the radon exhalation rate (0.508 Bq m{sup −2} s{sup −1}) would be below though close to the upper limit established by U.S.E.P.A. for inactive phopsphogypsum piles (0.722 Bq m{sup −2} s{sup −1})

  14. Experimental animal studies of radon and cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.; Dagle, G.E.; Gies, R.A.; Smith, L.G.; Buschbom, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Cigarette-smoking is a dominant cause of lung cancer and confounds risk assessment of exposure to radon decay products. Evidence in humans on the interaction between cigarette-smoking and exposure to radon decay products, although limited, indicates a possible synergy. Experimental animal data, in addition to showing synergy, also show a decrease or no change in risk with added cigarette-smoke exposures. This article reviews previous animal data developed at Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) on mixed exposures to radon and cigarette smoke, and highlights new initiation-promotion-initiation (IPI) studies at PNL that were designed within the framework of a two-mutation carcinogenesis model. Also presented are the PNL exposure system, experimental protocols, dosimetry, and biological data observed to date in IPI animals

  15. Study on indoor radon exposure and its effect on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xinwei

    2005-01-01

    Radon and its daughters relate to people health. Radon widely exists in the nature. The paper discusses the source, exposure and activity level of indoor radon, systematically analyzes the hazards and dose-response of residential radon exposure, and at last indicates the concrete method of controlling residential radon concentration. By interdicting radon pollution source and ventilation might effectively reduce indoor radon concentration and improve environmental air quality. (authors)

  16. Measurements of radon activity concentrations in air at Niska spa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrovic, F.; Vuckovic, B.; Ninkovic, M.

    2004-01-01

    Radon activity concentrations in air were measured in the recreational-tourist center of Niska Banja. Alpha Guard PQ 2000/ MC50 instrumentation (Genitron instruments, Frankfurt) was used. The observed indoor radon concentrations in the air of the Radon Hotel pool lay within the range of 0.980-1.908 kBq/m 3 and were directly dependent on the exhalation of radon from thermomineral waters. Radon concentrations were also measured outdoors, at locations for capping thermomineral water, as well as at locations for draining used water from the Radon Hotel pool. Outdoor radon concentrations as high as over 500 Bq/m 3 were observed. Gamma dose rates were measured in parallel and found to lie within the range of 72-420 nSv/h. The gamma doses correlated well with the observed radon levels. The largest gamma dose rates in air were measured in the pool of Radon Hotel and at the site where this thermomineral water is being capped

  17. Error in measuring radon in soil gas by means of passive detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    Passive detection of radon isotopes depends on diffusion of radon atoms from the sites of their generation to the location of the detecting or collecting device. Because some radon decays en route to a passive detector in soil, the radon concentration measured by the detector must be less than the concentration in those soil pores where it is undiminished by diffusion to the detector cavity. The true radon concentration may be significantly underestimated in moist soils. (author)

  18. A study of radon emanation from waste rock at Northern Territory uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, G.C.; Gan, T.H.; Elliott, G.

    1983-01-01

    Field measurements were made of radon emanation rates from waste rock sources at Ranger, Nabarlek and Rum Jungle, three Northern Territory uranium mine sites. The preliminary mean emanation rate was approximately 50 Bq m - 2 s - 2 per percent ore grade

  19. Training and accreditation for radon professionals in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mjoenes, L.; Soederman, A.-L.

    2004-01-01

    Radon training courses and seminars on radon have been arranged in Sweden since the early 1980s. A commercial educational company initiated the first regular training courses in 1987. Up to 1990 about 400 persons had attended courses in radon measurement and radon mitigation methods. In 1991 the training programme was taken over by the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, SSI. Today SSI's Radon Training Programme comprises three different two-day courses, a Basic Radon Course and two continuation courses: Radon Measurements and Radon in Water. Until 2003 SSI also arranged courses about Radon Remedial Measures and Radon Investigation and Risk Map Production. The courses are arranged twice a year. Altogether, about 750 municipal environmental health officers and technicians from private companies have been educated in the SSI training programme between 1991 and 2003. The continuation courses are completed with an examination, consisting of a theoretical test. The names of the persons who pass are being published in a list that is found on the SSI web site. Since no certification system is currently in place for radon professionals in Sweden, this list helps people who need to get in contact with radon counsellors to find one in their area and is used by authorities as well as private house-owners. Since 1991 it has been possible to obtain accreditation for measurements of indoor radon in Sweden and since 1997, also for measurements of radon in water. Although accreditation is voluntary in Sweden, accredited laboratories perform most measurements, both for indoor air and water. Passing the examination in the SSI training courses is a condition for accreditation. The Swedish Board for Accreditation and Conformity Assessment, SWEDAC, is in charge of the accreditation. So far, three major companies have obtained accreditation for measurement of indoor radon and four have been accredited for measurements of radon in water

  20. Radon therapy; Radon in der Therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spruck, Kaija [Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen, Giessen (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik und Strahlenschutz

    2017-04-01

    Radon therapies are used since more than 100 years in human medicine. Today this method is controversially discussed due to the possible increase of ionizing radiation induced tumor risk. Although the exact mode of biological radiation effect on the cell level is still not known new studies show the efficiency of the radon therapy without side effect for instance for rheumatic/inflammatory or respiratory disorders.

  1. Radon in Dwellings in the Republic of Kalmykia. Results from the National Radon Survey 2006-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aakerblom, Gustav; German, Olga; Soederman, Ann-Louise; Stamat, Ivan; Venkov, Vladimir

    2009-02-01

    The National Radon Survey in the Republic of Kalmykia, Russian Federation during 2006-2007 was carried out in a cooperation project between the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) and the Russian Institute of Radiation Hygiene (RIRH). In August 2006 SSI, RIRH, federal and local authorities carried out a field study in Kalmykia when radon daughter measurements (equilibrium equivalent radon concentrations in the air) and gamma radiation measurements were made in 103 buildings. Gamma spectrometry measurements were made at several sites. During the visit the cooperating parties devoted some time to the education of local authorities on radon related issues. During three months in the winter season 2006-2007, long term radon trace measurements were made in 525 randomly chosen dwellings in the Republic of Kalmykia. The radon gas activity varied between 3 and 973 Bq/m 3 , with a mean value of 122 Bq/m 3 . In 19 of a total of 835 measurement points, the radon activity exceeded the maximum permitted value in Russia of 200 Bq/m 3 of EERC. The year-round radon trace measurement were made in 20 houses in Elista, the capital of the Republic of Kalmykia, for comparison with the three-month measurements. The year-round measurements showed some higher values for the radon activity, and a correction factor of 0.85 was applied. Using data on the number of people living in detached houses and apartments, and applying the radon activities measured, the number of new lung cancer cases caused by radon was calculated to be 20 to 40 of the 100 new cases reported annually. The methods of construction of the dwellings in Kalmykia is greatly influenced by the history and culture. Most of them were built after World War II and there are only a few that are newly built because of the poor economic situation and the low population growth rate in the Republic. Most people live in detached houses, one-storied with 3-5 rooms, built directly on the ground or on coquina blocks or on a cast

  2. Study of radon emanation from uranium mill tailings. Relations between radon emanating power and physicochemical properties of the material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrini, D.

    1999-01-01

    The uranium extraction from ores leads to large amounts of mill tailings still containing radionuclides, such as thorium-230 and radium-226, which generate radon-222. Without protective action, radon exposition may be high enough to cause concern for health of populations living in the vicinity of an uranium mill tailings disposal. This exposition pathway has therefore to be taken into account in the radiological impact studies. The emanating power, i.e. the part of radon atoms which escape from the solid particles, is directly involved in the radon source term evaluation. It may be determined for a given material by laboratory measurements. Emanating powers from 0.08 to 0.33 have been obtained for mill tailings from Jouac (Limousin, France), at various moisture contents. In order to reduce the relations of dependence between some of the emanation parameters, more simple phases, kaolinite and polymeric resins, have been studied. Those experiments have led us to the selection of the mechanisms and the parameters to consider for the development of an emanation modelling. The whole of the results obtained point out the radon sorption, in various proportions depending on the materials. The moisture content influence on the emanation from materials containing fine particles have been confirmed: the emanation increases with this parameter until a continuous water film surrounding the particles have been formed, and then become constant. This 'water effect' occurs in a moisture content range, which depends on the material porosity. Elsewhere, the presence of amorphous phases may led to a high radon emanation. (author)

  3. Study of a Greek area with enhanced indoor radon concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louizi, A.; Nikolopoulos, D.; Koukouliou, V.; Kehagia, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the focus is on Arnea Chalkidikis, an area in Greece with granitic geological background and indications of possible elevated radon concentration indoors. Data are reported of indoor radon measurements with etched track detectors and those used for dosimetric estimations. Moreover, data are reported on soil gas and soil radon concentrations in Arnea, as well as radon and uranium concentrations in water samples. From the measured radon concentrations in water samples the contribution to the overall dose has been calculated. For a period of 1 month, indoor radon and progeny activity has also been monitored in the dwelling that has the maximum indoor radon concentration in Greece. This dwelling is in Arnea and the dose delivered to the inhabitants has been calculated. Mean annual effective dose due to indoor radon was 4.5 mSv and about 11% of this was due to the use of water. Mean soil gas concentration and soil radon concentration were (90 ± 30) kBq m -3 (P -3 (P -1 (P<0.05). (author)

  4. Contribution to the study of radon risk assessment - Use of Solid State Nuclear Tracks Detectors (SSNTD) for the measurement of radon in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RALAIARISOA, H.L

    2004-01-01

    222 Rn is a natural radioactive gas, originating from the decay of 226 Ra. Both of these radionuclides are elements of 238 U series. Uranium is naturally present in the rocks and soils, therefore radon is always present too because it is a soil gas. Radon takes the most important part in man exposure to natural sources of ionizing radiations. Moreover, it causes lung cancer. It can accumulate in confined environments such as buildings, so that its inhalation is a potential risk for human health. Thus radon measurement is necessary for radiation protection. Integrated measurement using Solid State Nuclear Tracks Detector (SSNTD) is a very common method for radon measurement in buildings because of the low cost of the detectors and their easy application. The measurement technics are based on the interaction of alpha particles emitted by radon with a polymer. Alpha particles produce in the polymer latent tracks, which need chemical revelation to be observable with optical microscopy. The number of revealed tracks is proportionnal to the average volumic activity of 222 Rn corresponding to the time exposure of the detectors.The aim of this thesis work is the continuation of previous study on the preliminary investigations of radon levels in the city of Antananarivo, and to extend this study in Antsirabe, which has been shown as a region of interest. The levels of radon measured in buildings in Antananarivo and Antsirabe are typical values of indoor radon concentration. The average values of concentrations are inferior to 60 Bq.m - 3. The health risk is negligible but not nul. A typical protocol of radon level measurement in Malagasy buildings is suggested to allow the implementation of a risk management policy related to radon within the Malagasy context. [fr

  5. CONTRIBUTION OF RADON FLOWS AND RADON SOURCES TO THE RADON CONCENTRATION IN A DWELLING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEMEIJER, RJ; STOOP, P; PUT, LW

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a model is presented for analysis of the radon concentrations in a compartment in terms of contributions from transport by flows of air between compartments and from radon sources in the compartment. Measurements were made to study the effect of increased natural ventilation of the

  6. Radon

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radon-resistant features. These features include gravel and plastic sheeting below the foundation, along with proper sealing ... lower the radon level. Detailed information about radon reduction in your home or building can be found ...

  7. Principles and characteristics of surface radon and helium techniques used in uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacer, J.C.; Czarnecki, R.F.

    1980-09-01

    Studies were carried out to determine the nature of some of the surface radon and helium techniques used for uranium exploration. By performing radon and helium measurements at three sites with differing geology and accessibility, we were able to examine the constraints on the features determined. The sites are the Red Desert in south central Wyoming, Copper Mountain in central Wyoming, and Spokane Mountain in eastern Washington. The radon techniques employed were: zinc sulfide detectors, an ionization chamber, alpha track detectors, thermoluminescence detectors, charcoal canisters, and the partial extraction of lead-210 from soil samples. Helium was measured in soil-gas samples, soil gas from collectors, and soil samples. The ratio helium-4/argon-36 was measured in soil gas

  8. Studies on deposition of radon daughters on glass surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loerinc, M.; Feher, I.; Palfalvi, J.

    1998-01-01

    In a certain village in Northern Hungary, in some houses the radon concentration was found to be in the order of kBq.m -3 . In an attempt to decide whether an earthquake or the near-by mining activity is to blame, past radon concentration was studied making use of radon daughters embedded in the surface layer of glass sheets. In the investigation several conclusions were reached: drastic changes in Rn concentration could be excluded, ie., the high Rn concentration existed over the last 50 years; the continuing deposition of dirt on the glass surface and the occasional cleaning had no significant effect; the effect of corrosion processes at the glass surface should be further investigated. (A.K.)

  9. The therapeutic use of radon; Radon als Heilmittel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deetjen, P [Innsbruck Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Physiologie und Balneologie

    1995-09-01

    Spas with a somewhat elevated concentration of Radon{sup 222} (between 300 and 3000 Bq/l) are described to achieve good clinical results in the treatment of chronic rheumatic diseases. Recently a prospective randomized doubel-blind-study proved the pain reducing efficacy of Radon therapy in patients with cervical pain. Studies in experimental animal models have accumulated remarkable data in tissues and organs that provide a rationale to explain the observed effects of Radon therapy in patients. (orig.) [Deutsch] In verschiedenen europaeischen und asiatischen Laendern werden oft schon seit vielen Jahrhunderten Quellen als besonders heilkraeftig beschrieben, die eine etwas erhoehte Aktivitaet an Radon{sup 222} aufweisen (etwas zwischen 300 und 3000 Bq/l). Neuerdings liegt auch eine prospektive randomisierte Doppelblind-Studie vor, die den klinischen Nachweis der Schmerzlinderung durch eine Radonkur erbringt. In tierexperimentellen Untersuchungen wurden unter Radonexposition zahlreiche stimulierende Effekte auf Zellstoffwechsel, Immunabwehr, Abbau toxischer Radikale, DNA-Reparatur-Systeme oder Synthese von Mediatorsubstanzen gemessen, die rationale Ansaetze fuer das Verstaendnis der Wirkung einer Radonexposition im niedrigen Dosisbereich ergeben. (orig.)

  10. A study of radon 222 permeation through plastic membranes. Application to a method of radon measurement in water and saturated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labed, V.

    1991-04-01

    In order to improve the BARASOL R device and to use it in water-saturated soils and in pressure constraint conditions, we have studied radon 222 permeation through plastic membranes. While the permeation process usually takes place between two media being in the same state, most often gaseous, the present study describes the transfer of radon 222 from the water to the air via a membrane. Polypropylene membranes have been tested with an experimental set-up by monitoring the evolution of radon concentrations in water and in air. The permeation coefficient and the activation energy were calculated in various conditions. With a second experimental set-up, we have tested the polyethylene membrane which has been adapted on the BARASOL. In these conditions, we have shown that it is possible to measure radon in water at concentrations around 10 3 Bq.m -3 [fr

  11. National radon measurement-proficiency program: Individual proficiency report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    In February 1986, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the Radon Measurement Proficiency (RMP) Program to assist the public in identifying organizations capable of providing reliable radon measurement services. In December 1991, EPA announced the new individual proficiency listing category in the RMP Program. Individuals applying for this new listing status must demonstrate knowledge of radon measurement fundamentals by passing a written proficiency examination, maintain affiliation with an RMP listed organization, and meet other program requirements. This report lists those individuals who have met the requirements of the RMP Program as of April 30, 1992. These requirements are designed to provide minimum proficiency criteria for individuals who provide radon measurement services on-site in a residential environment

  12. The radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This booklet is intended to answer briefly the most important questions about the nature and sources of radon, its pathways from environment to organism, as well as the ways to minimize its concentration in the habitat's atmosphere. The radon is a naturally appearing radioactive gas, produced through the decay of uranium and radium present in the terrestrial crust. It can be found everywhere on the planet's surface and it is emitted particularly from the granite and volcanic underground rocks as well as from certain construction materials. It is one of the agents producing pulmonary cancer, although not so dangerous as the tobacco is. The following items are elaborated in this booklet: - the place of radon in the average exposure to ionizing radiations of the French population; - the risk; - the radon in the environment (the meteorological conditions, the nature of the rocks); - radon in dwellings (radon measurements in the French dwellings, the entrance pathways of radon, the dependence of radon concentration on the profession and way of life of the inhabitants); - radon measurements; - how to reduce the radon concentration in dwellings

  13. Radon entry into a simple test structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.E.; Søgaard-Hansen, J.; Majborn, B.

    1992-01-01

    A simple test structure for studies of radon entry into houses has been constructed at a field site at Riso National Laboratory. It consists of a 40 1, stainless-steel cylinder placed in a 0.52 m deep quadratic excavation with a side length of 2.4 m. The excavation is lined with an airtight...... membrane, and soil gas enters the cylinder through a changeable interface in the bottom. The depressurisation of the cylinder is controlled by a mass-flow controller, thereby limiting the influence of natural driving forces. Pressures, temperatures and radon concentrations are measured continuously...... in the cylinder and in selected locations in the soil. In this paper, the test structure is described, and initial results concerning the transport of soil gas and radon under steady-state conditions are reported. It is found that the soil in the vicinity of the structure is partially depleted with respect...

  14. Indoor radon and risk of lung cancer: an epidemiological study in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruosteenoja, E.

    1991-03-01

    The main aim of the present study was to establish whether high radon concentrations in dwellings in Finland had increased the risk of lung cancer. Previous studies had shown an association between the α-active radon daughters and elevated lung cancer risk among miners. Convincing evidence of the risk among the general population exposed to radon indoors was, however, lacking. A descriptive analysis was first conducted in an area in southern Finland with high indoor radon exposure. In 18 rural municipalities this analysis yielded no significant correlation between the average radon exposure and incidence of male lung cancer. A case-control study within a cohort of the same rural population was then designed. The data included 238 male cases of lung cancer diagnosed in 1980-85 and 434 controls (390 smokers and 44 nonsmokers) from the male population. Radon exposure was measured, when possible, in all the dwellings occupied by a case or control in 1950-1975. Measurements were available for the total 25-year period, or for a proportion of it, for 164 cases and 334 controls; for the rest only estimates were available. In spite of the fact that the controls were mainly selected among smokers, the amount smoked still appeared to be the most important lung cancer risk factor in the data, the risk increasing linearly with the quantity of cigarettes smoked in a lifetime. The risk of lung cancer was not associated with the radon exposure level when the whole data were studied. In heavy smokers, however, a positive though not significant, effect on the risk from radon exposure was found. In the range of uncertainty the findings do not conflict with most of those observed among miners or the general population so far. (orig.)

  15. Children's Exposure to Radon in Nursery and Primary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Pedro T B S; Nunes, Rafael A O; Alvim-Ferraz, Maria C M; Martins, Fernando G; Sousa, Sofia I V

    2016-03-30

    The literature proves an evident association between indoor radon exposure and lung cancer, even at low doses. This study brings a new approach to the study of children's exposure to radon by aiming to evaluate exposure to indoor radon concentrations in nursery and primary schools from two districts in Portugal (Porto and Bragança), considering different influencing factors (occupation patterns, classroom floor level, year of the buildings' construction and soil composition of the building site), as well as the comparison with IAQ standard values for health protection. Fifteen nursery and primary schools in the Porto and Bragança districts were considered: five nursery schools for infants and twelve for pre-schoolers (seven different buildings), as well as eight primary schools. Radon measurements were performed continuously. The measured concentrations depended on the building occupation, classroom floor level and year of the buildings' construction. Although they were in general within the Portuguese legislation for IAQ, exceedances to international standards were found. These results point out the need of assessing indoor radon concentrations not only in primary schools, but also in nursery schools, never performed in Portugal before this study. It is important to extend the study to other microenvironments like homes, and in time to estimate the annual effective dose and to assess lifetime health risks.

  16. Soil gas radon response to environmental and soil physics variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.M.; Chen, C.; Holford, D.

    1991-01-01

    During the last three years a field study of soil gas radon activities conducted at Poamoho, Oahu, has shown that the primary environmental variables that control radon transport in shallow tropical soils are synoptic and diurnal barometric pressure changes and soil moisture levels. Barometric pressure changes drive advective transport and mixing of soil gas with atmospheric air; soil moisture appears to control soil porosity and permeability to enhance or inhibit advective and diffusive radon transport. An advective barrier test/control experiment has shown that advective exchange of soil gas and air may account for a substantial proportion of the radon loss from shallow soils but does not significantly affect radon activities at depths greater than 2.3 m. An irrigation test/control experiment also suggests that, at soil moisture levels approaching field capacity, saturation of soil macroporosity can halt all advective transport of radon and limit diffusive mobility to that occurring in the liquid phase. The results of the authors field study have been used to further refine and extend a numerical model, RN3D, that has been developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratories to simulate subsurface transport of radon. The field data have allowed them to accurately simulate the steady state soil gas radon profile at their field site and to track transient radon activities under the influence of barometric pressure changes and in response to changes in soil permeability that result from variations in soil moisture levels. Further work is continuing on the model to enable it to properly account for the relative effects of advective transport of soil gas through cracks and diffusive mobility in the bulk soils

  17. Radon dynamics in underwater thermal radon therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettner, H.; Hofmann, W.; Winkler, R.; Rolle, R.; Foisner, W.

    1998-01-01

    At a facility for underwater thermal radon therapy in Bad Hofgastein, experiments were carried out with the aim of establishing radon in the air exhaled by the treated patients and of radon decay products on the skin of the patients. The time course of radon concentration in the exhaled air shows a maximum a few minutes after entering the bath, then the Rn concentration remains constant over the remaining time spent in the bath. Taking into account several simplifying assumptions, the average dose to the epidermis from radon daughters is about 50 μGy. (A.K.)

  18. Radon-222 in boundary layer and free tropospheric continental outflow events at three ACE-Asia sites

    OpenAIRE

    Zahorowski, Wlodek; Chambers, Scott; Wang, Tao; Kang, Chang-Hee; Uno, Itsushi; Poon, Steven; Oh, Sung-Nam; Werczynski, Sylvester; Kim, Jiyoung; Henderson-Sellers, Ann

    2011-01-01

    A 1-year record of hourly atmospheric radon-222 concentration observations at three ACE-Asia network sites—Hok Tsui (Hong Kong), Gosan (Jeju Island) and Mauna Loa Observatory (Hawaii)—is presented and discussed. The observations include the spring 2001 ACE-Asia intensive operation period. Site locations were chosen for the experimental characterization of both boundary layer (Hok Tsui, Gosan) and free tropospheric (Mauna Loa) continental outflow to the Pacific. A significant seasonal variabil...

  19. A combined analysis of North American case-control studies of residential radon and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krewski, Daniel; Lubin, Jay H; Zielinski, Jan M; Alavanja, Michael; Catalan, Vanessa S; Field, R William; Klotz, Judith B; Létourneau, Ernest G; Lynch, Charles F; Lyon, Joseph L; Sandler, Dale P; Schoenberg, Janet B; Steck, Daniel J; Stolwijk, Jan A; Weinberg, Clarice; Wilcox, Homer B

    2006-04-01

    Cohort studies have consistently shown underground miners exposed to high levels of radon to be at excess risk of lung cancer, and extrapolations based on those results indicate that residential radon may be responsible for nearly 10-15% of all lung cancer deaths per year in the United States. However, case-control studies of residential radon and lung cancer have provided ambiguous evidence of radon lung cancer risks. Regardless, alpha-particle emissions from the short-lived radioactive radon decay products can damage cellular DNA. The possibility that a demonstrated lung carcinogen may be present in large numbers of homes raises a serious public health concern. Thus, a systematic analysis of pooled data from all North American residential radon studies was undertaken to provide a more direct characterization of the public health risk posed by prolonged radon exposure. To evaluate the risk associated with prolonged residential radon exposure, a combined analysis of the primary data from seven large scale case-control studies of residential radon and lung cancer risk was conducted. The combined data set included a total of 4081 cases and 5281 controls, representing the largest aggregation of data on residential radon and lung cancer conducted to date. Residential radon concentrations were determined primarily by a-track detectors placed in the living areas of homes of the study subjects in order to obtain an integrated 1-yr average radon concentration in indoor air. Conditional likelihood regression was used to estimate the excess risk of lung cancer due to residential radon exposure, with adjustment for attained age, sex, study, smoking factors, residential mobility, and completeness of radon measurements. Although the main analyses were based on the combined data set as a whole, we also considered subsets of the data considered to have more accurate radon dosimetry. This included a subset of the data involving 3662 cases and 4966 controls with a-track radon

  20. Radon in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Search Radon Contact Us Share Radon in Schools Related Information Managing Radon in Schools Radon Measurement ... Radon Could Be a Serious Threat to Your School Chances are you've already heard of radon - ...

  1. Studies on indoor radon concentrations in Karimanagar district of Telangana State, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas Reddy, G.; Vinay Kumar Reddy, K.; Sreenivasa Reddy, B.; Ch Gopal Reddy, P.; Yadagiri Reddy, P.; Rama Reddy, K.

    2015-01-01

    Karimnagar district of Telangana state in India falls geologically under the Karimnagar Granulite Terrain (KGT) and, is well known for several types of granites. Studies revealed that the radiation levels are elevated with these granitic rocks. The indoor radon concentrations are estimated in about 80 dwellings, selected randomly in Karimnagar district, using LR-115 Type-II Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors based Twin Chamber Cup dosimeters for a period of one year on quarterly basis. The dose rates due to the radon concentrations are calculated. The seasonal variations of the indoor radon concentrations have been studied. Further, the dependency of indoor radon concentrations on different types of dwellings is also discussed in the present paper. (author)

  2. Public perceptions of radon risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainous, A.G. III; Hagen, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    Since 1984, a significant amount of media attention has focused on health threats from radon gas exposure. Using a probability telephone survey of adults (n = 685), we studied public perceptions of risk from radon exposure versus other environmental health risks. The results indicated that 92% of those individuals who had heard of radon believe radon to be a health risk, although only 4% believe they are currently exposed to high levels of radon gas. Perception of risk from radon was positively related to other perceptions of environmental risks. Younger and less educated individuals were more likely to perceive radon as a health risk. Women were three-and-one-half times as likely as men to perceive risk from radon. However, there was no significant relationship between perceived risk from radon and cigarette smoking. Media attention has apparently led to public awareness of radon hazards, but further attention is needed to improve smokers' awareness of their special risks from radon

  3. Radon Research Program, FY 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    The scientific information being sought in this program encompasses research designed to determine radon availability and transport outdoors, modeling transport into and within buildings, physics and chemistry of radon and radon progeny, dose response relationships, lung cancer risk, and mechanisms of radon carcinogenesis. The main goal of the DOE/OHER Radon Research Program is to develop information to reduce these uncertainties and thereby provide an improved health risk estimate of exposure to radon and its progeny as well as to provide information useful in radon control strategies. Results generated under the Program were highlighted in a National Research Council report on radon dosimetry. The study concluded that the risk of radon exposure is 30% less in homes than in mines. This program summary of book describes the OHER FY-1991 Radon Research Program. It is the fifth in an annual series of program books designed to provide scientific and research information to the public and to other government agencies on the DOE Radon Research Program

  4. Residential radon and lung cancer: a cohort study in Galicia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Barbosa-Lorenzo

    Full Text Available Case-control studies show an association between residential radon and lung cancer. The aim of this paper is to investigate this association through a cohort study. We designed an ambispective cohort study using the Galician radon map, Spain, with controls drawn from a previous case-control study. Subjects were recruited between 2002 and 2009. The data were cross-checked to ascertain lung cancer incidence and then analysed using a Cox regression model. A total of 2,127 subjects participated; 24 lung cancer cases were identified; 76.6% of subjects were drawn from the radon map. The adjusted hazard ratio was 1.2 (95%CI: 0.5-2.8 for the category of subjects exposed to 50Bq/m3 or more. This risk rose when subjects from the case-control study were analyzed separately. In conclusion, we did not observe any statistically significant association between residential radon exposure and lung cancer; however, it appears that with a sample of greater median age (such as participants from the case-control study, the risk of lung cancer would have been higher.

  5. Radon-technical design methods based on radon classification of the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kettunen, A.V.

    1993-01-01

    Radon-technical classification of the foundation soil divides the foundation soil into four classes: negligible, normal, high and very high. Separate radon-technical designing methods and radon-technical solutions have been developed for each class. On regions of negligible class, no specific radon-technical designing methods are needed. On regions of normal radon class, there is no need for actual radon-technical designing based on calculations, whereas existing radon-technical solutions can be used. On regions of high and very high radon class, a separate radon-technical designing should be performed in each case, where radon-technical solutions are designed so that expected value for indoor radon content is lower than the maximum allowable radon content. (orig.). (3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.)

  6. A simulation of the transport and fate of radon-222 derived from thorium-230 low-level waste in the near-surface zone of the Radioactive Waste Management Site in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstrom, F.T.; Cawlfield, D.E.; Donahue, M.E.; Emer, D.F.; Shott, G.J.

    1993-12-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A (DOE, 1988) requires performance assessments on all new and existing low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal sites. An integral part of performance assessment is estimating the fluxes of radioactive gases such as radon-220 and radon-222. Data needs pointed out by mathematical models drive site characterization. They provide a logical means of performing the required flux estimations. Thorium-230 waste, consisting largely of thorium hydroxide and thorium oxides, has been approved for disposal in shallow trenches and pits at the LLW Radioactive Waste Management Site in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site. A sophisticated gas transport model, CASCADR8 (Lindstrom et al., 1992b), was used to simulate the transport and fate of radon-222 from its source of origin, nine feet below a closure cap of native soil, through the dry alluvial earth, to its point of release into the atmosphere. CASCADR8 is an M-chain gas-phase radionuclide transport and fate model. It has been tailored to the site-specific needs of the dry desert environment of southern Nevada. It is based on the mass balance principle for each radionuclide and uses gas-phase diffusion as well as barometric pressure-induced advection as its main modes of transport. CASCADR8 uses both reversible and irreversible sorption kinetic rules as well as the usual classical Bateman (1910) M-chain decay rules for its kinetic processes. Worst case radon-222 gas-phase concentrations, as well as surface fluxes, were estimated over 40 days. The maximum flux was then used in an exposure assessment model to estimate the total annual dose equivalent received by a person residing in a standard 2500-square-foot house with 10-foot walls. Results are described

  7. Radon diffusion through multilayer earthen covers: models and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, D.W.; Oster, C.A.; Nelson, R.W.; Gee, G.W.

    1981-09-01

    A capability to model and analyze the fundamental interactions that influence the diffusion of radon gas through uranium mill tailings and cover systems has been investigated. The purpose of this study is to develop the theoretical basis for modeling radon diffusion and to develop an understanding of the fundamental interactions that influence radon diffusion. This study develops the theoretical basis for modeling radon diffusion in one, two and three dimensions. The theory has been incorporated into three computer models that are used to analyze several tailings and cover configurations. This report contains a discussion of the theoretical basis for modeling radon diffusion, a discussion of the computer models used to analyze uranium mill tailings and multilayered cover systems, and presents the results that have been obtained. The study has been conducted using a four-phase approach. The first phase develops the solution to the steady-state radon-diffusion equation in one-dimensieered barriers; disposal charge analysis; analysis of spent fuel policy implementation; spent f water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables and maps. Uranium concentrations in the sediments which were above detection limits ranged from 0.10 t 51.2 ppM. The mean of the logarithms of the uranium concentrations was 0.53. A group of high uranium concentrations occurs near the junctions of quadrangles AB, AC, BB, a 200 mK. In case 2), x-ray studies of isotopic phase separation in 3 He-- 4 He bcc solids were carried out by B. A. Fraass

  8. Radon in houses due to radon in potable water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, C.T.; Korsah, J.K.; Einloth, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    Radon concentration in the air of 10 houses has been measured as a function of water use and meterological parameters such as barometric pressure, wind velocity and direction, indoor and outdoor temperature, and rainfall. Results of calibrations and data collected in winter, spring, fall, and summer are given for selected houses. Average values of radon concentration in air are from 0.80 to 77 rhoCi/1. Water use average ranges from 70 to 240 gal/day. Average potential alpha energy concentrations in these houses range from 0.02 to 1.6 working levels. The radon level due to water use ranges from 0 to 36% of the house radon from soil and water combined. The radon level change due to use of a filter on the water supply shows a 60% reduction in radon in the house. Conclusions are that water radon can be a major fraction of the radon in houses. The ratio of airborne radon concentration due to water use to the radon concentration in water is 4.5 x 10/sup -5/ - 13 x 10/sup -5/

  9. Report on correlation between radon outgassing and aftershocks activity along the Bam Fault in Kerman province of Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabipour, Jamshid Soltani [Bio-Nuclear and Medical Radiation Engineering Department, Parand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Parand (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khorshidi, Abdollah, E-mail: abkhorshidi@yahoo.com [Cellular and Molecular Gerash Research Center, Gerash University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-09-01

    After the Earthquake in Bam in December 26, 2003, a team was dispatched to this area to monitor the relationship between Variation in the Radon ({sup 222}Rn) concentration and the magnitude of aftershocks. Meteorological parameters such as air pressure, temperature and humidity were measured. Radon concentration at depth of 90 cm of soil was also measured using AlphaGuard (Model 2000PRO) in 10 minutes periods. The measurement site was near the fault location and the radon concentration was systemically measured for a period of three months. A correlation between radon concentration and the available aftershocks data is discussed. More than 150 small to moderate aftershocks with a magnitude ranging from M=2.1 to 6.5 in scale of Richter occurred in the region during the period of this study at the various distances (below 20 km of epicenter) from the radon monitoring sites. When the magnitude of aftershocks increased, variations of radon concentration could be observed more clearly. (author)

  10. Radon Concentration in Groundwater in the Central Region of Gyeongju, Korea - 13130

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Min; Lee, A. Rim; Park, Chan Hee; Moon, Joo Hyun [Dongguk University, Seokjangdong, Gyeongju, Gyeongbuk, 780-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that is a well known cause of lung cancer through inhalation. Nevertheless, stomach cancer can also occur if radon-containing water is ingested. This study measured the radon concentration in groundwater for drinking or other domestic uses in the central region of Gyeongju, Korea. The groundwater samples were taken from 11 points chosen from the 11 administrative districts in the central region of Gyeongju by selecting a point per district considering the demographic distribution including the number of tourists who visit the ancient ruins and archaeological sites. The mean radon concentrations in the groundwater samples ranged from 14.38 to 9050.73 Bq.m{sup -3}, which were below the recommendations by the U.S. EPA and WHO. (authors)

  11. Preliminary Study for 3D Radon Distribution Modelling in the Room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, ChoongWie; Kim, HeeReyoung [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Radon exists in the form of noble gas, which comes from decay of {sup 238}U, becoming stable {sup 206}Pb going through 4 alpha and 4 beta decays. If this process occurred in human body after inhalation, lung could be damaged by interaction with these radiations causing lung cancer. Most radon in indoor air comes from soil (85 - 97%) through crack of the wall but it also came from wall (2 - 5%) itself in home. Due to its hazardous and unpredictable characteristic, radon became one of the concerning nuclides in indoor air. Hence, the number of survey and research about radon has been increased. Although accurate radon measurement is important to evaluate health risk, it is hard to actually achieve because radon is affected by many conditions, where its concentration can vary easily. Moreover, radon concentration can vary according to the height because of density of radon in the spatial aspect. 3D distribution modelling in the room of radon with aerodynamic features and sources variations was carried out to find average and maximum radon concentration. 3D radon distribution in the room would be find through this computational analysis and it is thought to be possible to correct measured radon concentration with spatial variation to fit the height of nose where inhalation occur. The methodological concept for 3D modelling was set up to solve transport equation for radon behavior by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software such as FLUENT.

  12. Inter-comparison of different direct and indirect methods to determine radon flux from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossi, C.; Vargas, A.; Camacho, A.; Lopez-Coto, I.; Bolivar, J.P.; Xia Yu; Conen, F.

    2011-01-01

    The physical and chemical characteristics of radon gas make it a good tracer for use in the application of atmospheric transport models. For this purpose the radon source needs to be known on a global scale and this is difficult to achieve by only direct experimental methods. However, indirect methods can provide radon flux maps on larger scales, but their reliability has to be carefully checked. It is the aim of this work to compare radon flux values obtained by direct and indirect methods in a measurement campaign performed in the summer of 2008. Different systems to directly measure radon flux from the soil surface and to measure the related parameters terrestrial γ dose and 226 Ra activity in soil, for indirect estimation of radon flux, were tested. Four eastern Spanish sites with different geological and soil characteristics were selected: Teruel, Los Pedrones, Quintanar de la Orden and Madrid. The study shows the usefulness of both direct and indirect methods for obtaining radon flux data. Direct radon flux measurements by continuous and integrated monitors showed a coefficient of variation between 10% and 23%. At the same time, indirect methods based on correlations between 222 Rn and terrestrial γ dose rate, or 226 Ra activity in soil, provided results similar to the direct measurements, when these proxies were directly measured at the site. Larger discrepancies were found when proxy values were extracted from existing data bases. The participating members involved in the campaign study were the Institute of Energy Technology (INTE) of the Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Huelva University (UHU), and Basel University (BASEL).

  13. Local deposition patterns of inhaled radon progeny in human bronchial airways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heistracher, T.; Hofmann, W.; Balashazy, I.

    1996-01-01

    The local distribution of radon decay products deposited within bronchial bifurcations, particularly the formation of hot spots, may be more relevant for the determination of cellular doses in bronchial tissue than the commonly computed deposition efficiency, which is conceptually equivalent to the assumption of a uniform nuclide distribution. It is well known that the initial states of lung cancer in humans preferably occur in upper airways close to the cardinal location. In this study we use a recently developed geometric approach of a physiologically realistic bifurcation to demonstrate the site sensitivity of radon progeny deposition for two particle sizes, which are representative of the unattached and attached fraction of radon progeny

  14. The effect and the amendment of thermoregulation to the stability of radon concentration in radon chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiongjie; Wang Renbo; Qu Jinhui; Tang Bin; Zhu Zhifu; Man Zaigang

    2010-01-01

    When the temperature in the airtight radon chamber was adjusted, it would induce the frequent changes of the air pressure in chamber, then the radon concentration in the radon chamber would continuously reduce, which could seriously destroy the stability of the radon concentration in radon chamber. In this paper, on the study of the effect reasons to the stability of radon concentration in airtight radon chamber due to the thermoregulation, a new amendment scheme was put forward, and the solutions of the relevant parameters were discussed. The amendment scheme had been successfully applied to HD-6 radon chamber, and achieved good results. (authors)

  15. Models for retrospective quantification of indoor radon exposure in case-control studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerken, M.; Kreienbrock, L.; Wellmann, J.; Kreuzer, M.; Wichmann, H.E.

    2000-01-01

    In epidemiologic studies on lung cancer risk due to indoor radon the quantification of individual radon exposure over a long time period is one of the main issues. Therefore, radon measurements in one or more dwellings, which in total have been inhabited by the participants for a sufficient time-period, are necessary as well as consideration of changes of building characteristics and ventilation habits, which influence radon concentration. Given data on 1-y alpha-track measurements and personal information from 6,000 participants of case-control studies in West and East Germany, and improved method is developed to assess individual radon exposure histories. Times spent in different rooms of the dwelling, which are known from a personal questionnaire, are taken into account. The time spent outside the house varies substantially among the participants. Therefore, assuming a substantially lower radon exposure outside the dwelling, the residence time constitutes an important aspect of total radon exposure. By means of an analysis of variance, important determinants of indoor radon are identified, namely constant conditions such as type of house, type of construction, year of construction, floor and type of basement, and changeable conditions such as heating system, window insulation, and airing habits. A correction of measurements in former dwellings by factors derived from the analysis is applied if current living conditions differ from those of the participants at the time when they were living in the particular dwellings. In rare cases the adjustment for changes leads to a correction of the measurements with a factor of about 1.4, but a reduction of 5% on average only. Exposure assessment can be improved by considering time at home and changes of building and ventilation conditions that affect radon concentration. The major concern that changes in ventilation habits and building conditions lead to substantial errors in exposure assessment cannot be confirmed in the

  16. Novel determination of radon-222 velocity in deep subsurface rocks, and the feasibility to using radon as an earthquake precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafrir, Hovav; Benhorin, Yochy; Malik, Uri; Chemo, Chaim

    2016-04-01

    An enhanced radon monitoring system was designed in order to study shallow versus deep subsurface processes affecting the appearance of radon anomalies. The method is based on the assumption that the climatic influence is limited since its energy decreases with the decrease in thickness of the geological cover whereby its effect is reduced to a negligible value at depth. Hence, lowering gamma and alpha detectors into deep boreholes and monitoring their temporal variations relative to a reference couple at shallow depths of 10-40 m eliminates the ambient thermal and pressure-induced contribution from the total radon time series. It allows highlighting the residual portion of the radon signals that might be associated with the geodynamic processes. The primary technological key is the higher sensitivity of the gamma detectors - in comparison to the solid-state alpha detectors, which are also suitable for threading into narrow boreholes in parallel to the narrow gamma detector (Zafrir et al., 2013*). The unique achievements of the novel system that was installed at the Sde Eliezer site close to the Hula Valley western border fault (HWBF) in northern Israel are: a) Determination, for the first time, of the radon movement velocity within rock layers at depths of several tens of meters, namely, 25 m per hour on average; b) Distinguishing between the diurnal periodical effect of the ambient temperature and the semi-diurnal effect of the ambient pressure on the radon temporal spectrum; c) Identification of a radon random pre-seismic anomaly preceding the Nuweiba, M 5.5 earthquake of 27 June 2015 that occurred within Dead Sea Fault Zone. * Zafrir, H., Barbosa, S.M. and Malik, U., 2013. Differentiation between the effect of temperature and pressure on radon within the subsurface geological media, Radiat. Meas., 49, 39-56. doi:10.1016/j.radmeas.2012.11.019.

  17. Radon exposure and lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planinic, J.; Vukovic, B.; Faj, Z.; Radolic, V.; Suveljak, B.

    2003-01-01

    Although studies of radon exposure have established that Rn decay products are a cause of lung cancer among miners, the lung cancer risk to the general population from indoor radon remains unclear and controversial. Our epidemiological investigation of indoor radon influence on lung cancer incidence was carried out for 201 patients from the Osijek town. Ecological method was applied by using the town map with square fields of 1 km 2 and the town was divided into 24 fields. Multiple regression study for the lung cancer rate on field, average indoor radon exposure and smoking showed a positive linear double regression for the mentioned variables. Case-control study showed that patients, diseased of lung cancer, dwelt in homes with significantly higher radon concentrations, by comparison to the average indoor radon level of control sample. (author)

  18. Indoor radon and radon daughters survey at Campinas-Brazil using CR-39: First results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedes, S.; Hadler, J.C.N.; Iunes, P.J.; Navia, L.M.S.; Neman, R.S.; Paulo, S.R.; Rodrigues, V.C.; Souza, W.F.; Tello, C.A.S.; Zuniga, A.

    1999-01-01

    The first results of a radon and radon daughters (RD) survey performed at Campinas-SP, Brazil, are presented. We employed a technique that, potentially, makes possible to measure the radon and RD activity in the air and to separate from this result the activity of radon, alone. In this preliminary paper only the former activity is studied

  19. Indoor radon and radon daughters survey at Campinas-Brazil using CR-39: First results

    CERN Document Server

    Guedes, S; Iunes, P J; Navia, L M S; Neman, R S; Paulo, S R; Rodrigues, V C; Souza, W F; Tello, C A S; Zúñiga, A G

    1999-01-01

    The first results of a radon and radon daughters (RD) survey performed at Campinas-SP, Brazil, are presented. We employed a technique that, potentially, makes possible to measure the radon and RD activity in the air and to separate from this result the activity of radon, alone. In this preliminary paper only the former activity is studied.

  20. Human Lung Cancer Risks from Radon – Part III - Evidence of Influence of Combined Bystander and Adaptive Response Effects on Radon Case-Control Studies - A Microdose Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Bobby E.; Thompson, Richard E.; Beecher, Georgia C.

    2012-01-01

    Since the publication of the BEIR VI (1999) report on health risks from radon, a significant amount of new data has been published showing various mechanisms that may affect the ultimate assessment of radon as a carcinogen, in particular the potentially deleterious Bystander Effect (BE) and the potentially beneficial Adaptive Response radio-protection (AR). The case-control radon lung cancer risk data of the pooled 13 European countries radon study (Darby et al 2005, 2006) and the 8 North American pooled study (Krewski et al 2005, 2006) have been evaluated. The large variation in the odds ratios of lung cancer from radon risk is reconciled, based on the large variation in geological and ecological conditions and variation in the degree of adaptive response radio-protection against the bystander effect induced lung damage. The analysis clearly shows Bystander Effect radon lung cancer induction and Adaptive Response reduction in lung cancer in some geographical regions. It is estimated that for radon levels up to about 400 Bq m−3 there is about a 30% probability that no human lung cancer risk from radon will be experienced and a 20% probability that the risk is below the zero-radon, endogenic spontaneous or perhaps even genetically inheritable lung cancer risk rate. The BEIR VI (1999) and EPA (2003) estimates of human lung cancer deaths from radon are most likely significantly excessive. The assumption of linearity of risk, by the Linear No-Threshold Model, with increasing radon exposure is invalid. PMID:22942874

  1. Prospect of radon as a tracer in studying of landslide forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huifeng; Ding Dexin

    2004-01-01

    Radon, as a chemical element of radioactivity, is widely used in the fields of earth-quake monitoring, prospecting mine and exploring resource. This paper discussed the theory of radon's separating out from the soil and the theory and means of surveying radon. It also relates the radon anomaly in the measuring process of soil radon, caused by the interferring of the environmental factors in measurement results. It further clarifies the wilde application of radon as a tracer in landslide forecast. (authors)

  2. Geographical associations between radon and cancer: is domestic radon level a marker of socioeconomic status?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, S.P.; Stern, G.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies showing a geographical association between radon and various cancers, particularly the leukaemias and lymphomas, appear to be confounded by the role of radon levels as a surrogate for socioeconomic status. Higher socioeconomic status (at least at the UK county level) is correlated with higher levels of domestic radon. Controlling for the relationship between socioeconomic status and radon removes the correlation between radon exposure and lymphoproliferative disease. Reported associations between radon and lymphoproliferative disease (and possibly other cancers) may be secondary to socioeconomic variables. (author)

  3. Studies on the migration rule and mechanism of radon and its daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Wenyi; Fang Fang; Zhou Rongsheng; Ma Yingjie; Qiu Yuande; Hou Xinsheng; Wu Yunping; Zu Xiulan; Wang Xiaoqin

    2000-01-01

    By using very precise, highly sensitive, static accumulated, easily repeated CD-1 α-cup, the migration rule and mechanism of radon and its daughters was studied. Significant results were obtained: (1) Under laboratory conditions, the vertical component of migration of radon and its daughters was much greater than the horizontal component, the former was over 90% and the latter was less than 10%. (2) Despite the very big specific gravity of radon and its daughters, the descending component of migration was less than 45%, while the ascending component was more than 45%. (3) After α-particles (emitted from radon and its daughters) being slowed down. 4 He combined with the radon and its daughters to form clusters. When the density of the cluster was less than that of the air, the self-ascending would occur

  4. Automated radon-thoron monitoring for earthquake prediction research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, M.H.; Melvin, J.D.; Copping, N.A.; Tombrello, T.A.; Whitcomb, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes an automated instrument for earthquake prediction research which monitors the emission of radon ( 222 Rn) and thoron ( 220 Rn) from rock. The instrument uses aerosol filtration techniques and beta counting to determine radon and thoron levels. Data from the first year of operation of a field prototype suggest an annual cycle in the radon level at the site which is related to thermoelastic strains in the crust. Two anomalous increases in the radon level of short duration have been observed during the first year of operation. One anomaly appears to have been a precursor for a nearby earthquake (2.8 magnitude, Richter scale), and the other may have been associated with changing hydrological conditions resulting from heavy rainfall

  5. Intercomparison of passive radon-detectors under field conditions in epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreienbrock, L; Poffijn, A; Tirmarche, M; Feider, M; Kies, A; Darby, S C

    1999-05-01

    The Ardennes and Eifel region is a geologically distinct area covering parts of Germany, Belgium, France, and Luxembourg where enhanced concentrations of radon occur in some houses and other buildings. An international case-control study is being conducted to examine the role of radon in the etiology of lung cancer in this area. The radon detectors used are issued by different laboratories involving a variety of detector types and processes. A series of intercomparisons in houses was therefore conducted under similar conditions of exposure in the field. In most situations the different detectors gave similar results. Nevertheless, in some situations open and closed detectors yielded different results. Therefore, estimates of radon exposure have to be adjusted if results are to be pooled.

  6. Studies on radon concentration in underground water samples in and around Kabini river basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashaswini, T.; Ningappa, C.; Niranjan, R.S.; Sannappa, J.

    2017-01-01

    Radon is a radioactive inert gas, a decay product of radium, causes environmental health problems like lung cancer. Radium present in the earth crest continuously releases radon into underground water. From the point view of health, the study of radon concentration level in underground water base line data is important. In the present study, radon concentration in underground water have been measured in 40 underground water samples collected in and around Kabini River of Karnataka State by using Emanometry technique. The radon concentration in the study area varies from 21.2 to 168.2Bq.l -1 with a geometrical mean value of 73.3 Bq.l -1 . The physicochemical parameters of water such as chloride, Fluoride, nitrite, sulphate, TDS are measured in the same samples in order to know about the impact of these parameters on radon concentration and their health risks to the general public. The experimental techniques and results obtained are discussed in the presentation. (author)

  7. Radon and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chobanova, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Radon is radioactive noble gas that can be found in soil, water, outdoor and indoor air. Since environmental radon on average accounts for about half of all human exposure to radiation from natural sources, increasing attention has been paid to exposure to radon and its associated health risks. Many countries have introduced regulations to protect their population from radon in dwellings and workplaces. In this article are discussed main characteristics of radon, including sources of exposure, variation in radon exposure, how managing risks from radon exposure, how to measure the concentration of radon. There are results of measurements conducted under the 'National radon programme' in Bulgaria also. Key words: radon, sources of exposure, risk, cancer, measure to decrease the concentration [bg

  8. Radon in balneology - measurement of radon retention by patients and radiation protection for personell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just, G.; Falkenbach, A.; Grunewald, W.A.; Philipsborn, H. von

    2001-01-01

    In radon balneology patients are exposed to radon either from water or air through the skin or through inhalation. Drinking radon water was not included in the study. Previously, the radon transfer has been determined for an estimate of the medically active amount of radon retained in the patient. A simpler approach of measuring radon in expiration under and after exposure has now been standardised and applied to probands under different conditions of exposure. In addition, radon decay products were measured in sweat, saliva and in the skin. Experimental parameters were evaluated for a comparison of different concentrations observed under different conditions. Results are likely to improve both therapy for patients and radiation protection for members of the personnel. (orig.) [de

  9. Earthquake precursory studies in Kangra valley of North West Himalayas, India, with special emphasis on radon emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Arvind; Singh, Surinder; Mahajan, Sandeep; Bajwa, Bikramjit Singh; Kalia, Rajeev; Dhar, Sunil

    2009-01-01

    The continuous soil gas radon monitoring is carried out at Palampur and the daily monitoring of radon concentration in water is carried out at Dharamshala region of Kangra valley of North West Himalayas, India, a seismic zone V, to study the correlation of radon anomalies in relation to seismic activities. In this study, radon monitoring in soil was carried out by using barasol probe manufactured by Algade France, whereas the radon content in water was recorded using RAD 7 radon monitoring system of Durridge Company USA. The effect of meteorological parameters viz. temperature, pressure, wind velocity, rainfall, and humidity on radon emission has been studied. The seasonal average value and standard deviation of radon in soil and water is calculated to find the radon anomaly to minimize the effect of meteorological parameters on radon emission. The radon anomalies observed in the region have been correlated with the seismic events of M≥2 reported by Wadia Institute of Himalayas Geology Dehradoon and Indian Meteorological Department, New Delhi in NW Himalayas within 250 km distance from the monitoring stations.

  10. Biological basis of inhalation exposure of radon and its daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Osamu

    1989-01-01

    Since inhalation exposure by radon and its daughters is very specific type of internal exposure, it is necessary to understand its characteristic nature. The specificity originates from the nuclear feature of radon daughters and the biological micro-environment in the respiratory tract. Inhaled radon and its daughters exist in the respiratory tract as ions attached to air dusts and deposit on the mucus surface of the respiratory tract by various mechanisms such as impaction, sedimentation and diffusion. Deposition of radon daughters is predominant around the site of the fourth generation according to Weibel's model. Deposited particles with radon daughters are cleared by muco-ciliary transportation. Its speed is estimated to be about 1.0 cm/min, at the upper region. Alpha decay will happen during transportation in the respiratory tract. Radon has no tissue affinity metabolically. Therefore, the irradiation is limited to the epithelial cells of respiratory tract. The cell components within 30-70 micron in depth are irradiated with alpha particle. Biological effectiveness of alpha radiation is very high compared with beta or gamma radiation. The target cell for carcinogenesis by radon exposure is considered to be the basal cell of epithelium. Lung cancer induced by radon inhalation is recognized to be squamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, or oat-cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The modification factors which influence the effect of radon exposure are co-inhalation of ore dust and smoking habit. According to epidemiological studies on lung cancer which occurred in uranium miners, it is suggested that the smoking habit strongly promotes lung cancer induction. (author)

  11. Environmental radon studies using solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Surinder; Sharma, Dinesh Kumar; Kumar, Ajay

    2004-01-01

    The results of radon activity recorded in 70 dwellings of Nurpur area, Kangra district, Himachal Pradesh, India are reported. LR-115 Type 2 films in the bare mode were exposed for four seasons of three months each covering a period of one year for the measurement of indoor radon levels. The calibration constant of 0.020 tracks cm -2 d -1 per Bq m -3 has been used to express radon activity in Bq m -3 . The annual average indoor radon concentrations in 17 different villages of the area are found to vary from 168±46 to 429±71 Bq m -3 . Most of the indoor radon values lie in the range of action levels (200-600 Bq m -3 ) recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection

  12. High radon exposure in a Brazilian underground coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, L H S; Melo, V; Koifman, S; Amaral, E C S

    2004-01-01

    The main source of radiation exposure in most underground mining operations is radon and radon decay products. The situation of radon exposure in underground mining in Brazil is still unknown, since there has been no national regulation regarding this exposure. A preliminary radiological survey in non-uranium mines in Brazil indicated that an underground coal mine in the south of Brazil had high radon concentration and needed to be better evaluated. This paper intends to present an assessment of radon and radon decay product exposure in the underground environment of this coal mining industry and to estimate the annual exposure to the workers. As a product of this assessment, it was found that average radon concentrations at all sampling campaign and excavation sites were above the action level range for workplaces of 500-1500 Bq m -3 recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection-ICRP 65. The average effective dose estimated for the workers was almost 30 times higher than the world average dose for coal miners

  13. Long term population dose due to radon (Rn-222) released from uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, D.B.; Lower, L.M.; Stager, R.H.

    2001-01-01

    The results of a study undertaken by the European Commission on the external costs (environmental and social) of various energy production systems is likely to be influential in determining how the European Union will develop its energy supply systems. The estimated costs for nuclear power from the study will be based on the findings of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), with the costs being dominated by the estimated long term (10,000 y) population doses due to radon (Rn-222) released from mill tailings. UNSCEAR developed a central estimate of 150 person-Sv per GW y and a range of 1 to 1,000 person-Sv per GW y. However, the generic data available to and being used by UNSCEAR are dated and are not appropriate for the current and planned future conditions in the uranium production industry, with the result that the estimated external costs of nuclear power (specifically, the doses due to radon emitted from mill tailings) are overestimated. The Uranium Institute sponsored a study to estimate long term population doses based on the most recent 1993 UNSCEAR methodology, but using data that would be more appropriate to the current major uranium production facilities. Site-specific information obtained from the owners/operators and the Uranium Institute included: present and proposed tailings management plans; tailings volumes and areas; ore grades and reserves; measurements and estimates of radon emission rates; and population densities. Tailings at closed facilities that no longer contribute to uranium production were not evaluated since it was assumed that these radon sources need not be considered in evaluating the external costs of current and future nuclear power production. Based on the same approach as UNSCEAR, but using a more sophisticated air dispersion model, and more site-specific data relative to existing sites and proposed tailings management practices, radon emission rates and population densities (that

  14. Study on radon and thoron progeny levels in Gudalore in South India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvasekarapandian, S.; Sivakumar, R.; Mugunthamanikandan, N.; Meenakshisundaram, V.; Santhanam, R.

    2000-01-01

    One of the important route of radiation exposure to man is through inhalation of air containing radioisotopes. A major contribution to inhalation dose comes from radon, thoron and its progenies. The indoor radon and thoron progeny levels are determined by two count method. In this method the radon and thoron progenies are collected on a glass fiber filter paper using volume air sampler (Staplex) and counted for alpha activity in ZnS (Ag) alpha counting system. It is observed that thoron working level is higher than the radon working level in all houses except few houses with stone walls and mosaic floor. Behavior of indoor radon and thoron working levels for different seasons at different houses are determined and discussed in detail. Radon and thoron working levels are measured high in winter, autumn, and low in summer and rainy seasons. Among all seasons highest value is measured in winter and low in summer and rainy seasons. Radon progeny working level varies from 1.659 to 6.675 mWL, whereas thoron progeny working level varies from 1.670 to 12.671 mWL. The geometric mean values of radon and thoron progeny concentration in the present study are 2.836 and 4.133 mWL. The high thoron progeny level observed in this is attributed to the high thorium content observed in soils of this area. (author)

  15. RADON MITIGATION IN SCHOOLS: CASE STUDIES OF RADON MITIGATION SYSTEMS INSTALLED BY EPA IN FOUR MARYLAND SCHOOLS ARE PRESENTED

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first part of this two-part paper discusses radon entry into schools, radon mitigation approaches for schools, and school characteristics (e.g., heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning -- HVAC-- system design and operation) that influence radon entry and mitigation system ...

  16. Predicting radon/radon daughter concentrations in underground mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed description of a computer programme is outlined for the calculation of radon/radon daughter concentrations in air. This computer model is used to predict the radon/radon daughter concentrations in Working Level (WL) at the workplace and at the various junctions at either end of the branches in a typical ventilation network proposed for the Jabiluka mine in the Northern Territory

  17. Radon in public buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, H.; Flesch, K.; Hermann, E.; Loebner, W.; Leissring, B.

    2009-01-01

    From the Free State of Saxony, a study was commissioned to survey how reliable measurements to characterize the radon situation in public buildings at a reasonable financial and human effort can be carried out to reduce radiation exposure in public buildings. The study approach was for 6 objects. To characterize the radon situation the time evolution measurement of radon concentrations of more than 1 to 2 weeks turned out to be sufficient. A novel data analysis enables the identification of a ''typical daily alteration of the radon concentration'' depending on the ventilation conditions and the daily use of the offices or class rooms. The identification of typical diurnal radon variations for the working time and weekends or holidays is of fundamental importance for assessing the exposure situation in public buildings. It was shown that the radon concentration during working time are in general much lower than in the times when the buildings (offices) are unused. It turned out that the long-term radon measurements with nuclear track detectors within distinct time regimes (day / night, working hours / leisure time) by utilizing switch modules are very efficient to estimate the actual exposure. (orig.)

  18. Prediction of indoor radon concentration based on residence location and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekelaeinen, I.; Voutilainen, A.; Castren, O.

    1992-01-01

    We have constructed a model for assessing indoor radon concentrations in houses where measurements cannot be performed. It has been used in an epidemiological study and to determine the radon potential of new building sites. The model is based on data from about 10,000 buildings. Integrated radon measurements were made during the cold season in all the houses; their geographic coordinates were also known. The 2-mo measurement results were corrected to annual average concentrations. Construction data were collected from questionnaires completed by residents; geological data were determined from geological maps. Data were classified according to geographical, geological, and construction factors. In order to describe different radon production levels, the country was divided into four zones. We assumed that the factors were multiplicative, and a linear concentration-prediction model was used. The most significant factor in determining radon concentration was the geographical region, followed by soil type, year of construction, and type of foundation. The predicted indoor radon concentrations given by the model varied from 50 to 440 Bq m -3 . The lower figure represents a house with a basement, built in the 1950s on clay soil, in the region with the lowest radon concentration levels. The higher value represents a house with a concrete slab in contact with the ground, built in the 1980s, on gravel, in the region with the highest average radon concentration

  19. The significance of radon in radioactive pollution of environment. Pt. 2. Radon effect on living organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossakowski, S.; Dziura, A.; Kossakowski, A.

    1998-01-01

    Authors review the history of radon monitoring. Epidemiological studies of lung cancer and its correlation to radon concentration in mines and buildings are described. The influence of radon on animals living in the buildings built from waste materials is described. Authors review plans concerning creation of radon monitoring system in Poland. The necessity of monitoring influence of radon on animals is described

  20. Radon risk in the house; Il rischio radon nelle abitazioni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressa, G. [Padua Univ., Padua (Italy). Dipt. di Farmacologia e Anestesiologia, Lab. di Tossicologia

    2001-04-01

    Radon was discovered in 1900, but its potential dangerousness for man was fully understood only in 1950. Being a radioactive natural gas - and therefore particularly dangerous - radon results from the long decay chain of radionuclides, such as thorium and radium. Some igneous rocks (granite, tufa and lava) as well as coal are considered to be the main sources of this radionuclide. A number of epidemiologic studies have shown the carcinogenicity of this element, particularly among miners and workers subjected to high level exposure in confined spaces such as basements, garages, cellars, etc. There are, however, some techniques to remove radon in order to reduce exposure to minimum values. [Italian] Il radon fu scoperto nel 1900, ma solo nel 1950 si comprese la sua potenziale pericolosita' per l'uomo. Il radon e' particolarmente pericoloso essendo un gas naturale radioattivo. Esso proviene dalla lunga catena di decadimento di radionuclidi come il torio e di radio. Sorgenti di tale radionuclide sono da considerarsi principalmente alcune rocce ignee (graniti, tufi e lave) e il carbone. Diversi studi epidemiologici hanno evidenziato la cancerogenicita' di tale elemento, specie tra i minatori e soggetti esposti ad alti livelli in ambienti confinati quali scantinati, garage sotterranei, ecc.. Esistono comunque tecniche di intervento per la rimozione del gas radon in modo tale da ridurre l'esposizione a valori minimi.

  1. Radon measurement and its risk in the development of lung cancer in indoor spaces at the historical center of Quito, Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, Omar

    2006-01-01

    In Ecuador, as in other countries around the world, the presence of radon is eminent. This study compiles some information about the effects that radon has over human beings, its incidence in lung cancer and the methodologies used to determine radon. High concentrations of radon, superior to international limits have been found in indoor sites in the center of Quito and Cuenca Ecuador. (The author)

  2. Risks from radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, Richard

    1992-01-01

    The best estimate of risk to which everyone is exposed from natural radon in buildings is now obtained by extrapolation from observations on men exposed to radon in mines. The relationship between dose and effect derived by the US National Research Council implies that about 6% of the current life-time risk of developing the disease in the UK is attributable to radon, but for residents of some houses it will be much greater. This estimate is dependent on many assumptions, some of which are certainly wrong, and reliable estimates can be obtained only by direct observations on people living in different houses. It is possible that radon may also cause some risk of other cancers, notably leukaemia, but such risks, if real, are certainly small. Studies in progress should provide reliable estimates of all radon induced risks within a few years. (author)

  3. Indoor radon and environmental gamma radiation in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, K.N.; Young, E.C.M.; Stokes, M.J.; Luo, D.L.; Zhang, C.X.

    1992-01-01

    Activated charcoal canisters have been used to measured the indoor radon concentrations of 160 sites in different buildings in Hong Kong during the period from July to October 1990. The average value is 40.0 Bq.m -3 . Furthermore, CR-39 nuclear track detectors and two kinds of LiF TLDs have been used to measure the average indoor radon concentrations and the absorbed gamma dose rates in air of 71 sites over the period from January to April 1991. The results all show log-normal distribution. The indoor radon concentrations are respectively 72.2 Bq.m -3 and 155.4 Bq.m -3 for dwellings and offices, while the absorbed gamma dose rates in air are respectively 213.0 nGy.h -1 and 198.3 nGy.h -1 . (author)

  4. Correlation of radon volume activity in bedrock and in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnet, I.

    1993-01-01

    Derived radon risk maps set up by the Czech Geological Institute can be applied with advantage when seeking out regions with a high probability of radon occurrence in drinking water at concentrations exceeding regulatory limits. Data of radon concentrations in drinking water sources as obtained from health physics stations were used to calculate the average values for various rock types and to compare them with soil air radon data for the same sites. The two sets of data were found to correlate. The measurements concerned southern and eastern Bohemia. (M.D.). 4 tabs., 3 figs

  5. Swiss radon programme 'RAPROS'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeller, W.

    1992-03-01

    The results of the five-year radon research program RAPROS presented in this report, allow for scientifically valid statements on the origin of elevated levels of indoor radon in Switzerland. These results form a basis for recommendations and for actions to be taken. Indoor radon concentrations have been measured in more than 4000 living-rooms and 2000 basements; a sampling density of about 0.2% of the Swiss housing stock. According to these measurements radon leads to an estimated average annual effective dose of 2 milli-Sievert, although in some regions the annual dose may be much higher. Extrapolation of the existing data shows that in about 10'000 Swiss houses radon may exceed 1000 Bq/m 3 . For these houses remedial actions are recommended. There seems to be no radon problem in the large cities in the Swiss Plateau. High indoor radon concentrations in Switzerland are due to the soil beneath the buildings. Data from the study indicated that the most important soil characteristic influencing indoor radon concentrations was its gas permeability. Because natural ventilation in a heated house creates a slight underpressure in the lower levels with respect to surrounding soils, radon is driven from the soil into the building. Weatherization of the houses to reduce energy consumption had in most cases no effect on the indoor radon concentrations. Radon from tap water or from building materials does not contribute significantly to indoor radon levels in Switzerland. The high levels in the Jura Mountains are thought to be associated with karstic limestone bedrock. Several houses within Switzerland have now been modified to reduce radon levels. The most successful mitigation technique combined forced-air ventilation with tightening of the basement to decrease or prevent air infiltration from the soil. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  6. Geochemical studies of potential source minerals of radon: case studies in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajnai, G.; Nagy-Balogh, J.; Gal-Solymos, K.; Konc, Z.; Breitner, D.; Barabas, A.; Szabo, C. [Eotvos Univ., Lithosphere Fluid Research Lab, Dept. of Petrology and Geochemistry, Budapest (Hungary); Barabas, A. [Eotvos Univ., Dept. of Geophysics, Budapest (Hungary)

    2006-07-01

    In Hungary, during the past decade five distinct regions have been chosen to find possible explanations of the uncommonly high radon background radiation values. The main aim of the research is to study U- and Th-bearing minerals in petrographic and geochemical characters. Besides the microscopic techniques, whole rock and in situ geochemical analytical methods were applied to determine the bulk U and Th content of the studied geological samples. We assume that some of the radon measured is related to the U and Th contents of the samples. (authors)

  7. Measurements of thoron and radon progeny concentrations in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lei; Liu Cuihong; Guo Qiuju

    2008-01-01

    It has been reported that thoron levels in China are above the world average and may therefore make a significant contribution to the natural background radiation dose. We therefore conducted a pilot study of concentrations of both thoron and radon progeny during the spring of 2006 in the Beijing area, China. A new type of portable 24 h integrating monitor with a CR-39 detector was used during the survey. Seventy dwellings and eight outdoor sites were measured during the survey. For country houses built of red bricks and slurry, the average equilibrium equivalent concentrations (EEC) of thoron and radon were 1.02 ± 0.48 and 16.41 ± 9.02 Bq m -3 , respectively, whereas for city dwellings built of cement blocks and floor slabs, the results were 0.48 ± 0.47 and 11.50 ± 6.99 Bq m -3 for thoron and radon, respectively. For outdoor air, concentrations of thoron and radon progeny were 0.29 ± 0.28 and 7.05 ± 2.68 Bq m -3 , respectively. Radiation exposures from thoron and radon progeny were also evaluated; the ratio of dose contribution from thoron progeny to that of radon progeny was evaluated to be 28% and 17% in country houses and city dwellings, respectively. (note)

  8. Investigation of radon concentration in drinking water from wells in Khartoum state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idriss, H. I. M.

    2009-07-01

    Radon( 2 ''2''2Rn) is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that is released into the surrounding environment. The presence of this gas in water mainly depends on its source in building material, soil and rocks. The main reason for radon determination in water comes from the fact that radon and its daughters are suspected to be directly responsible of hung cancer and some kidney diseases. This study covers the area Khartoum, state (Khartoum, Khartoum North and Omdurman). The study investigated the levels of radon concentration in water of 72 wells from Khartoum state was performed using gamma spectrometry system. The results showed that radon levels range between 1.6 and 345 Bq/L with mean value of 59 Bq/I. Comparing these values with global data indicates acceptable levels that can be observed for most of the samples. It is observed that 14 locations of the sites exceed the recommended levels adopted by some countries (Sweden, Finland, Slovak and Russia). On the basis of the results obtained, the annual effective dose received by the public due to ingestion of radon was calculated and found to be below the WHO reference dose level of 0.1 mSv.y - ''1, except 14 sites exceed the recommended levels. Three age categories were considered for dose estimation (1 years, 10 years and adults). The mean value of dose for the one year age is 0.49 mSv.y -1 and the mean value of dose for 10 years age 0.13 mSv.y - ''1 while the mean value obtained for adult is 0.11 mSv.y - ''1. (Author)

  9. Studying the possibility of recharging E-Perm for radon measurement in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shweikani, R.; Bardan, R.

    2011-03-01

    In this work recharging electret detectors and studying their responding for radioactive gases (radon gas) was studied and the results were compared with solid state nuclear detectors (CR-39). After several experiments we found that using a metal nozzle which is connected to a high voltage supply (poling method) was useful to polarize the electret material and get a stable electrostatic charge. The stability of electret was studied after each experiment ,the results showed that the best charging parameters were: (7 mm as a nozzle height.- 15 sec as a charging time.- 5 kV as a charging voltage). Depending on the charging and stability studying results the electrets were calibrated in radon calibration cell and the calibration factors were defined The charged electrets were examined to measure radon concentration in the open environmental and were compared with CR-39 detectors; the charged electrets appeared a liner response for radon gas as CR-39 detectors.(author)

  10. Radon dosimetry for workers: ICRP's approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, James W.; Laurier, Dominique; Tirmarche, Margot

    2017-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recently published two reports on radon exposure; Publication 115 on lung cancer risks from radon and radon progeny and Publication 126 on radiological protection against radon exposure. A specific graded approach for the control of radon in workplaces is recommended where a dose assessment is required in certain situations. In its forthcoming publication on Occupational Intakes of Radionuclides (OIR) document, Part 3, effective dose coefficients for radon and thoron will be provided. These will be calculated using ICRP reference biokinetic and dosimetric models. Sufficient information and dosimetric data will be given so that site-specific dose coefficients can be calculated based on measured aerosol parameter values. However, ICRP will recommend a single dose coefficient of 12 mSv per working level month (WLM) for inhaled radon progeny to be used in most circumstances. This chosen reference value was based on both dosimetry and epidemiological data. In this paper, the application and use of dose coefficients for workplaces are discussed including the reasons for the choice of the reference value. Preliminary results of dose calculations for indoor workplaces and mines are presented. The paper also briefly describes the general approach for the management of radon exposure in workplaces based both on ICRP recommendations and the European directive (2013/59/EURATOM). (authors)

  11. Study on radon and thoron levels in different types of granitic work industries around Tumkur city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagabhushan, S.R.; Ningappa, C.; Srilatha; Shekar, Usha; Sannappa, J.

    2011-01-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive noble gas generated by the decay of uranium and thorium bearing minerals in rocks, soils and building materials. Radon and decay products are the major contributors to human exposure from natural radiation sources. Epidemiological evidence indicates that indoor radon and thoron were responsible for a substantial number of lung cancer in publics. UNSCEAR reported recently indicates that there is a remarkable coherence between the risk estimates developed from epidemiological studies from miners and residential case-control radon studies. Hence to select the study area for the estimation of dose due to radon and thoron to the publics and workers, concentration of radon, thoron and their progeny were measured by using SSNTD. Since, activity concentration in granite more, higher concentrations of radon and thoron have been observed in the dwellings near to granite industry and lesser concentration of radon and thoron have been observed in the dwellings near brick industries of Tumkur city. From the study, the concentration of radon and thoron varied from 31 to 70.4 Bq.m 3 and 11.6 to 46.3 Bq.m 3 , respectively. Corresponding progeny level varied from 0.11 to 2.5 mWL and 1.1 to 3.4 mWL, respectively. (author)

  12. Radon analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The process claimed includes the steps of transferring radon gas produced by a sample to a charcoal trap, cooled to a temperature whereby the radon is absorbed by the charcoal, heating the charcoal trap to a sufficient temperature to release the radon, and transferring the radon to a counting device where the gas particles are counted

  13. Study of lung cancer and residential radon in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasek, L.; Mueller, T.; Kunz, E.; Heribanova, A.; Matzner, J.; Placek, V.; Burian, I.; Holecek, J.

    2001-01-01

    The lung cancer mortality study was designed as a follow-up study of the population (N = 12,004) in a radon-prone area in the Czech Republic, covering the 1960-1999 period. Information on the vital status and causes of death was mostly obtained from local authorities and extracted from the national population registry. Exposure estimates were based on one-year measurements of radon progeny in the majority of houses within the study area (74 %). Exposures outside the area (16%) were based on radon mapping of the Czech Republic. The mean concentration, 509 Bq/m 3 , is five-fold higher than the country-wide average. By 1999, a total of 210 lung cancers had been observed, which is somewhat more than the nationally expected value (O/E = 1.10), as compared to the generally low numbers regarding cancer types other than lung cancer (O/E = 0.81). The excess relative risk for the standard radon concentration (100 Bq/m 3 ) was 0.087 (90 % CI: 0.017-0.208), which is consistent with the risk coefficients derived from other indoor studies. The increased lung cancer incidence was found to depend linearly on exposure in terms of the mean radon concentration during the past 5-34 years. The estimate was not affected appreciably by adjustment to smoking; although the risk coefficient was higher for non-smokers than for smokers (0.130 vs 0.069), the difference was not statistically significant

  14. Radon thematic days - Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-03-01

    This document brings together the available presentations given at the Radon thematic days organized by the French society of radiation protection (SFRP). Twenty five presentations (slides) are compiled in the document and deal with: 1 - General introduction about radon (Sebastien Baechler, IRA); 2 - Survey of epidemiological studies (Dominique Laurier, IRSN); 3 - Dosimetric model (Eric Blanchardon, Estelle Davesne, IRSN); 4 - Radon issue in Franche-Comte: measurement of the domestic exposure and evaluation of the associated health impact (Francois Clinard, InVS); 5 - WHO's (World Health Organization) viewpoint in limiting radon exposure in homes (Ferid Shannoun, OMS); 6 - Radon measurement techniques (Roselyne Ameon, IRSN); 7 - Quality of radon measurements (Francois Bochud, IRA); 8 - International recommendations (Jean-Francois Lecomte, IRSN); 9 - Radon management strategy in Switzerland - 1994-2014 (Christophe Murith, OFSP); 10 - 2011-2015 action plan for radon risk management (Jean-Luc Godet, Eric Dechaux, ASN); 11 - Radon at work place in Switzerland (Lisa Pedrazzi, SUVA); 12 - Strategies of radiation protection optimization in radon exposure situations (Cynthia Reaud, CEPN); 13 - Mapping of the radon potential of geologic formations in France (Geraldine Ielsch, IRSN); 14 - Radon database in Switzerland (Martha Gruson, OFSP); 15 - Radon 222 in taps water (Jeanne Loyen, IRSN); 16 - Buildings protection methods (Bernard Collignan, CSTB, Roselyne Ameon, IRSN); 17 - Preventive and sanitation measures in Switzerland (Claudio Valsangiacomo, SUPSI); 18 - Training and support approach for building specialists (Joelle Goyette-Pernot, Fribourg engineers and architects' school); 19 - Status of radon bulk activity measurements performed between 2005-2010 in public areas (Cyril Pineau, ASN); 20 - Neuchatel Canton experiments (Didier Racine, SENE); 21 - Montbeliard region experience in the radon risk management (Isabelle Netillard, Pays de Montbeliard Agglomeration); 22

  15. Radon concentrations in homes in an area of dolomite bedrock: Door County, Wisconsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawk, K.; Stieglitz, R.D.; Norman, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    A statewide survey by the Wisconsin Department of Health and Social Services with U.S.E.P.A. assistance reported an anomalously high percentage of homes in Door County with radon concentrations in excess of 20 pCi/L. The results were of interest because the county is underlain by marine sedimentary rocks rather than the igneous and metamorphic crystalline types usually associated with elevated radon concentrations. A voluntary population of 55 homes was tested for radon using activated charcoal canisters. This population was also asked to provide questionnaire response data on family, home, and socioeconomic aspects. The data were separated into socioeconomic, energy efficiency, radon access, and karst level categories and statistically analyzed. A subpopulation was selected from the larger population for detailed site investigation, which included additional in-home air testing and, at some sites, water supply analysis and in-ground testing for radon. The field investigations collected information on the geology, soil, topography, and home construction and use. The results of the investigation verified and characterized the radon occurrences in Door County. The presence or absence of karst features is shown to be statistically significant to radon levels. 23 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Health effects of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, C.

    1994-01-01

    Exposure of people to radon has taken on increased interest during the last decade because of the understanding that buildings can serve to trap radon and its daughters, and thereby build up undesirable concentrations of these radioactive elements. Numerous studies of underground miners (often uranium miners) have shown an increased risk of lung cancer in comparison with nonexposed populations. Laboratory animals exposed to radon daughters also develop lung cancer. The abundant epidemiological and experimental data have established the carcinogenicity of radon progeny. Those observations are of considerable importance, because uranium, from which radon and its progeny arise, is ubiquitous in the earth's crust, including coal mines. Risk estimates of the health effects of long-term exposures at relatively low levels require continued development, especially to address the potential health effects of radon and radon daughters in homes and occupational settings where the exposure levels are less than levels in underground uranium and other metal mines that have been the subject of epidemiological studies. Two approaches can be used to characterize the lung-cancer risks associated with radon-daughter exposure: mathematical representations of the respiratory tract that model radiation doses to target cells and epidemiological investigation of exposed populations, mainly underground uranium miners. The mathematically-based dosimetric approach provides an estimate of lung cancer risk related to radon-daughter exposure based specifically on modeling of the dose to target cells. The various dosimetric models all require assumptions, some of which are not subject to direct verification, as to breathing rates; the deposition of radon daughters in the respiratory tract; and the type, nature, and location of the target cells for cancer induction. The most recent large committee effort drawn together to evaluate this issue was sponsored by the National Research Council

  17. Indoor radon levels and inhalation doses in dwellings near the some sites of Himachal Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajwa, B.S.; Singh, S.; Virk, H.S.

    2005-01-01

    In view of the fact that radon and its daughters are a major source of natural radiation exposure, the measurement of radon concentration levels in dwellings has assumed ever-increasing importance. Keeping this in view, the indoor radon level measurements were carried out in the dwellings of different villages known to be located in the vicinity of uranium-mineralized pockets of Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh. Track-etch technique, a passive method using the Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs), LR-115 type II, was utilized for these measurements. An attempt has been made to assess the levels of the indoor radon in the dwellings and inhalation dose rates of the population living in these villages. The radon concentrations were found to be varying with seasonal changes, building materials and mode of construction of houses. The radon concentrations were found to be higher in houses made from local sandstone and with mud floor in comparison to the houses having cemented brick floors. The annual indoor radon concentration and thus annual effective dose in most of the dwellings of these villages is certainly quite higher and even in some of the dwellings it even exceeds the upper limit of the proposed action level of ICRP, 1993. The inhalation dose rates in dwellings of these villages located in the vicinity of uranium mineralized pockets of Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh have been found to be quite higher than dose rate in the dwellings in the Amritsar city, Punjab, which is located in a completely uranium free zone. The radon survey in the dwellings of these villages has also been carried out using the Alpha-Guard technique, which is based on the pulse ionization chamber. The indoor radon concentration levels measured using the active technique of Alpha Guard have been found to be quite different from those measured in these dwellings by the passive technique of SSNTDs; indicating the importance of the SSNTDs in the long-term integrated measurement

  18. Radon in Syrian houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Hushari, M.; Raja, G.; Alsawaf, A.

    1996-01-01

    A nationwide investigation of radon levels in Syrian houses was carried out during the period 1991-1993. Passive radon diffusion dosemeters using polycarbonate detectors were distributed in houses all over Syria. Detectors were subjected to electrochemical etching to reveal latent tracks of alpha particles. The mean radon concentration in Syrian houses was found to be 45 Bq m -3 with some values several times higher. This investigation indicated that there were a few houses in Syria that require remedial action. Most houses that have high levels of radon were found in the southern area, especially in the Damascus governorate. The study also indicated that radon concentrations were higher in old houses built from mud with no tiling. (author)

  19. Technique and equipment for measuring volume activity of radon in the air of radon laboratories and clinics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'ev, I.B.; Krivokhatskij, A.S.; Nekrasov, E.V.; Nikolaev, V.A.; Potapov, V.G.; Terent'ev, M.V.

    1990-01-01

    Usability of a new equipment-technique combination for measuring radon activity in the air of radon laboratories and balneological clinics is studied. The complex includes nitrate-cellulose detector, radon chamber, Aist, Istra type spark counters and technique of spark counting. The method sensitivity is 50 Bqxm 3 , the error is 30%. Usability and advisability of track method in radon laboratories and balneological clinics for simultaneous measurement in several points of integral volumetric radon activities are confirmred. The method permits to carry out rapid and accurate bulk investigations. The results of determining mean volumetric radon activity in the air in different points of radon laboratory and radon clinics are presented

  20. Radon risk communication research: Practical lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, A.; Johnson, F.R.

    1990-01-01

    Those responsible for state and local radon programs often express frustration about the small share of homes that have been tested for radon, and the small share of those with high readings that have been mitigated. There are now a number of completed studies that have examined how well alternative ways of communicating about radon risk have accomplished the goals of motivating appropriate testing and mitigation. This paper summarizes the research results that are most crucial for planning and implementing effective radon risk communication programs. We identify six reasons why people do not respond to radon as a serious threat and provide some remedies suggested by radon studies

  1. Radon measurements in indoor workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokonami, S.; Matsumoto, M.; Furukawa, M.; Fujimoto, K.; Fujitaka, K.; Pan, J.; Kurosawa, R.

    1996-01-01

    Radon measurements in several office buildings located in Tokyo were carried out with two types of device to study the time-dependent radon concentration in indoor workplaces. Both types of device use the electrostatic field for the collection of 218 Po onto the electrode of the detector. One provides an average radon concentration throughout the day. The other, in which a weekly timer is installed in the circuit of the electrode of the device, provides an average radon concentration during working hours (9:00-17:00, Monday-Friday). Although radon concentrations in Japanese dwellings have been found to be generally low, relatively high concentrations were observed in the office buildings. No consistent seasonal variation was recognised in this study. Little difference of average radon concentrations between working hours and the whole day was found throughout the year in two offices. On the other hand, a significant difference was observed in other offices. The operation of an air conditioner might change the radon concentration during working hours. From the results of radon measurements the average effective dose in the workplace was estimated to be 0.23 mSv for 2000 working hours in a year. (Author)

  2. Radon as an indicator of environmental contamination by hydrocarbons in free-phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateus, Crislene

    2016-01-01

    , reinforcing the theory that radon gas is retained in sites where NAPL contamination is present. Results obtained during environmental remediation proved that the methodology employed in this study was more efficient than the conventional investigation techniques, specially for the 'D' and 'G' monitoring stations to the investigated site. (author)

  3. Monitoring of soil radon by SSNTD in Eastern India in search of possible earthquake precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Argha; Gazi, Mahasin; Ghosh, Jayita; Chowdhury, Saheli; Barman, Chiranjib

    2018-04-01

    The present paper deals with monitoring soil radon-222 concentration at two different locations, designated Site A and Site B, 200 m apart at Jadavpur University campus, Kolkata, India, with a view to find possible precursors for the earthquakes that occurred within a few hundred kilometers from the monitoring site. The solid state nuclear track detector CR-39 has been used for detection of radon gas coming out from soil. Radon-222 time series at both locations during the period August 2012-December 2013 have been analysed. Distinct anomalies in the soil radon time series have been observed for seven earthquakes of magnitude greater than 4.0 M that occurred during this time. Of these, radon anomalies for two earthquakes have been observed at both locations A and B. Absence of anomalies for some other earthquakes has been discussed, and the observations have been compared with some earthquake precursor models. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Radon Survey in Hospitals in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaupotic, J.

    2003-01-01

    In Slovenia, several radon studies at workplaces have been carried out in last years, supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Sport, and the Ministry of Health. After radon surveys in kindergartens, schools and homes, within which about 2600 buildings were checked for radon and which provided the level of radon problem in the country, next investigations were focused on the workplaces with potentially higher radon risk. Hence, in the Postojna Cave permanent radon monitoring was introduced in 1995 and comprehensive radon studies were performed: in 5 bigger spas during 1996-1998, in major waterworks and wine cellars in 2001, and in major Slovene hospitals in 2002. This paper reports the results of radon study in 26 major Slovene hospitals, comprising radon concentrations in 201 rooms and dose estimates for 1025 persons working in these rooms. Radon survey in 201 rooms of 26 major hospitals in Slovenia revealed only 7 rooms in which monthly average radon concentration in the indoor air exceeded 400 Bqm -3 . Generally, concentrations in basement were on average for about 30% higher than in ground floor, although exceptionally high values have also been found in the ground floor. For 966 persons (94.2%) of the total of 1025 persons working in the rooms surveyed, the annual effective dose, estimated according to the Basic Safety Standards was below 1 mSv, while for 59 it exceeded 1 mSv. In 7 rooms with more than 400 Bqm -3 in which 16 persons receive between 2.1 and 7.3 mSv per year radon monitoring is continued. (author)

  5. Measurement of exhalation rate of radon and radon concentration in air using open vial method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Kimiko; Ishii, Tadashi.

    1991-01-01

    It was recognized that more than half of total exposure dose on human subject is caused by radon and its decay products which originate from naturally occurring radioactive substances (1988 UNSCEAR). Since then the exhalation of radon from the ground surface has received increasing attention. The authors have developed a new method for the determination of radon in natural water using toluene extraction of radon and applying a liquid scintillation counter of an integral counting technique which is able to get the absolute counting of radon. During these studies, the authors found out that when a counting vial containing of Liquid scintillator (LS)-toluene solution, without a lid, is exposed to the atmosphere for a while, dissolution of radon clearly occurs due to high solubility of radon into toluene layer. To extend this finding for the determination of radon in the atmosphere, the authors devised a new method to actively collect the atmosphere containing radon in a glass bottle by discharging a definite amount of water in it, which is named as open-vial dynamic method. The radon concentration can be easily calculated after the necessary corrections such as the partition coefficient and others. Applying proposed method to measure the radon exhalation rate from the ground surface and radon concentration in air of the dwelling environment, radioactive mineral spring zone and various geological formation such as granitic or sedimentary rocks. (author)

  6. A comparative study of indoor radon concentrations between dwellings and schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapdan, E.; Altinsoy, N.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the relationship of radon concentrations between dwellings and the schools located in the same regions and to obtain related indoor average radon concentration dwelling–school correction factor for similar locations. The research has been carried out by determining indoor radon concentrations at schools and dwellings located at the same districts in the selected two separate research fields called The Former Adapazari region and The New Adapazari region in the city of Adapazari using a total of 81 Cr-39 passive radon detectors for 75 days. The average radon concentrations have been determined for the dwellings and the schools in 15 districts of the Former Adapazari region as 59.9 Bq m −3 and 57.1 Bq m −3 , respectively. The results in 4 districts of the New Adapazari region were 63.5 Bq m −3 for the dwellings and 61.0 Bq m −3 for the schools. Moreover, the annual effective doses were calculated as 1.33 mSv/y and 1.41 mSv/y for the dwellings of Former Adapazari and New Adapazari, respectively. It was seen that the doses received in the dwellings are about four times the doses received in the schools. The indoor radon concentration dwelling–school correction factor was found to be 1.04±0.01 for the research area.

  7. Background concentrations of radon and radon daughters in Canadian homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, R.G.; Vasudev, P.; Letourneau, E.G.; McCullough, R.S.; Prantl, F.A.; Taniguchi, H.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of radon and radon daughters were carried out in 14 Canadian cities on a total of 9999 homes selected in a statistically random manner. The geometric means of the different cities varied from 0.14 to 0.88 pCi/l. for radon and 0.0009 to 0.0036 Working Levels for radon daughters. The radon originates from natural radioactivity in the soil surrounding the homes. (author)

  8. Basic study on positive effects of radon inhalation on pet's health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, Takahiro; Sakoda, Akihiro; Kawabe, Atsushi; Hanamoto, Katsumi; Yamaoka, Kiyonori; Tokunaga, Rikizo

    2012-01-01

    Radon inhalation using our radon exposure device activated anti-oxidative function in some organs of mouse. To assess the possibility of its application to veterinary care, healthy dogs and cats with chronic renal failure were inhaled radon at a concentration of 5500 Bq/m 3 for 30 minutes every 2 days for 30 days. In result, radon inhalation within a relatively long time period significantly decreased the triglyceride level of dogs. On the other hand, some cats increased the volume of drinking water by radon inhalation and the creatinine level in blood of these cats was decreased to normal level. These findings suggest that radon inhalation may have curative properties against chronic renal failure. (author)

  9. In-soil radon anomalies as precursors of earthquakes: a case study in the SE slope of Mt. Etna in a period of quite stable weather conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vizzini, Fabio; Brai, Maria

    2012-01-01

    In-soil radon concentrations as well as climatic parameters (temperature, atmospheric pressure and relative humidity) were collected in St. Venerina (Eastern Sicily – Italy) from March 19th to May 22nd 2009, close to an active fault system called Timpe Fault System (TFS), which is strictly linked to the geodynamics of Mt. Etna. During the monitoring period no drastic climatic variations were observed and, on the other hand, important seismic events were recorded close to the monitoring site. A seismic swarm composed of 5 earthquakes was observed in the Milo area on March 25th (M max = 2.7) at just 5.1 km from the site, and on May 13th an earthquake of 3.6 magnitude was recorded in the territory of St. Venerina, at just 3.2 km from the site; the earthquake was felt by the population and reported by all local and regional media. The in-soil radon concentrations have shown anomalous increases possibly linked to the earthquakes recorded, but certainly not attributable to local meteorology. To verify this assumption the average radon concentration and the standard deviation (σ) have been calculated and the regions of ±1.5σ and ±2σ deviation from the average concentration have been investigated. Moreover, to further minimise the contribution of the meteorological parameters on the in-soil radon fluctuations, a multiple regressions method has been used. To distinguish those earthquakes which could generate in-soil radon anomalies as precursors, the Dobrovolsky radius has been applied. The results obtained suggests that a clear correlation between earthquakes and in-soil radon increases exist, and that the detection of the in-soil radon anomalies becomes surely simpler in particular favourable conditions: weather stability, earthquakes within the Dobrovolsky radius and close to the monitoring area. Moreover, the absence of large variations of the climatic parameters, which could generate incoherent noise components to the radon signal, has made the radon

  10. Pilot study of the application of Tellus airborne radiometric and soil geochemical data for radon mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appleton, J.D. [British Geological Survey, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom)], E-mail: jda@bgs.ac.uk; Miles, J.C.H.; Green, B.M.R. [Health Protection Agency (HPA) - Radiation Protection Division, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0RQ (United Kingdom); Larmour, R. [Environment and Heritage Service, Department of the Environment, Belfast BT7 2JA (United Kingdom)

    2008-10-15

    The scope for using Tellus Project airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and soil geochemical data to predict the probability of houses in Northern Ireland having high indoor radon concentrations is evaluated, in a pilot study in the southeast of the province, by comparing these data statistically with in-house radon measurements. There is generally good agreement between radon maps modelled from the airborne radiometric and soil geochemical data using multivariate linear regression analysis and conventional radon maps which depend solely on geological and indoor radon data. The radon maps based on the Tellus Project data identify some additional areas where the radon risk appears to be relatively high compared with the conventional radon maps. One of the ways of validating radon maps modelled on the Tellus Project data will be to carry out additional indoor measurements in these areas.

  11. Studies of radon mitigation in well water by aeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mafra, Karina Cristina; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Denyak, Valeriy; Reque, Marilson; Correa, Janine Nicolosi; Barbosa, Laercio

    2011-01-01

    The 222 Rn concentration in natural water in different countries usually is about few Bq/L and is the subject of the National legislation as well as International norms and recommendations. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) established a limit of 11.1 Bq/L for the radon level in drinking water and this limit is considered as guideline in Canada and many countries of the European Union. This work presents the results of study of radon ( 222 Rn) concentration reduction in well water using the aeration process developed at the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of the Federal University of Technology (UTFPR). The water samples were collected from a well at Pinheirinho region of Curitiba in 2011. Experimental setup was based on the Radon Monitor (AlphaGUARD). The 222 Rn concentration was analyzed using the software DataEXPERT by Genitron Instruments, taking into account the volume of water sample, its temperature, atmospheric pressure and the total volume of the air in the vessels. Initial concentration of radon in water samples was 28,67 Bq/L which is bigger than maximum concentration recommended by USEPA. The mitigation was performed by means of diffusion aeration of water samples of 15L during the time interval of 24 hours following a period of 4 days. The efficiency of aeration mitigation was controlled by comparing the activity of radon in aerated water with reference water samples that were not aerated. Obtained results show very satisfactory decrease of 222 Rn activity in water samples even after few hours of intense aeration. (author)

  12. Study of radon diffusion from RHA-modified ordinary Portland cement using SSNTD technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narula, A.K.; Goyal, S.K.; Chauhan, R.P.; Chakarvarti, S.K.

    2013-01-01

    The diffusion coefficient of radon is a very important factor in estimating the rate of indoor radon inflow. The aim of this work is to develop and assess the potential of radon resistant construction materials in residential buildings. Of late, rice husk ash (RHA) has been used as a component in cement. The X-ray diffraction of RHA indicates that the RHA contains mainly amorphous materials while the X-ray fluorescence analysis shows that the major percentage of it is composed of silica. The amorphous silica present in the RHA is responsible for the pozzolonic activity of the ash. The results of the present study indicate that the RHA when mixed with cement initially reduces radon diffusion coefficient, followed by enhancement when the percentage of RHA is increased above 30% by weight. - Highlights: ► Radon diffusion coefficient has been measured in Portland cement with different percentage of rice husk ash (RHA). ► The mixing of RHA to cement changes the radon diffusion coefficient. ► The mixture of cement and RHA can be used to make building materials more resistant to radon entry through diffusion

  13. Review of epidemiological studies on hazards of radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.; Stewart, C.G.; Johnson, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    A review, with nearly 100 references, of the biological effects of radon and radon daughters is presented. Calculations of the relative dose from daughter products, as well as of the variation in dose with such things as unattached fraction, particle size, age and breathing rate are discussed. Estimates of annual risk of lung cancer in miners after inhalation of thoron daughters are given, and compared with hazards of employment in various US industries. The implications of these epidemiological studies for future regulations are discussed

  14. Evaluation of the performance characteristics of radon and radon-daughter concentration measurement devices under controlled environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, M.D.

    1989-04-01

    The Technical Measurements Center (TMC) conducted a study to expose 10 radon and 7 radon-daughter concentration measurement devices in the DOE/GJPO Radon/Radon-Daughter Environmental Chamber for a series of 24 controlled-environment tests. The tests evaluated the devices' response to temperature, relative humidity, dew point, condensation-nuclei concentration, radon-daughter/radon equilibrium ratio, and non-uniform radon and radon-daughter concentration. Devices were evaluated for linear response as a function of concentration. In addition to response to environmental parameters, the evaluation included determining the utility of the devices in providing reasonable assurance of compliance with the radon and radon-daughter concentration standards for DOE remedial action programs. This reasonable assurance criterion is based on a coefficient of variation of 25 percent for devices deployed for year-long measurements and a coefficient of variation of 18 percent for devices deployed for intermittent sampling. 39 refs., 65 figs., 33 tabs

  15. Radon in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedmann, H.

    2000-01-01

    Several projects in Austria deal with the problem of enhanced radon exposure to the public. The Austrian Radon Project is the largest project within this task, with the aim of investigating the radon concentrations in Austrian homes. Another project concerns mitigation methods. According to the EU directive EURATOM 96/29 it is also necessary to check working places for possibly enhanced radon concentrations. These projects are and will be funded by the government. The federal government of Upper Austria sponsored a project to test the indoor air quality in kindergartens including radon measurements. Within an EU research project, the radon concentrations in Austrian springs and groundwater were systematically listed and analyzed. Additional investigations will focus on methods to improve the radon potential maps from the Austrian Radon Project by including geological and other information. (author)

  16. Study on absolute humidity influence of NRL-1 measuring apparatus for radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan Jian; Xiao Detao; Zhao Guizhi; Zhou Qingzhi; Liu Yan; Qiu Shoukang; Meng Yecheng; Xiong Xinming; Liu Xiaosong; Ma Wenrong

    2014-01-01

    The absolute humidity and temperature's effects on the NRL-1 measuring apparatus for radon were studied in this paper. By controlling the radon activity concentration of the radon laboratory in University of South China and improving the temperature and humidity adjust strategy, different correction factor values under different absolute humidities were obtained. Moreover, a correction curve between 1.90 and 14.91 g/m"3 was also attained. The results show that in the case of absolute humidity, when it is less than 2.4 g/m"3, collection efficiency of the NRL-1 measuring apparatus for radon tends to be constant, and the correction factor of the absolute humidity closes to 1. However, the correction factor increases nonlinearly along with the absolute humidity. (authors)

  17. Radon and radon daughters in South African underground mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolle, R.

    1980-01-01

    Radon and the radon daughters are the radionuclides which primarily determine the level of the radiation hazard in underground uranium mines and to a smaller extent in non-uranium mines. Radon is a gas, and its daughters adsorb on aerosol particles which are of respirable size. The hazard thus arises from the alpha decay of radon and its daughters in contact with lung tissue. Radon is itself part of the uranium decay chain. The major radionuclide, 238 U, decays successively through thirteen shorter-lived radionuclides to 206 Pb. Radon is the only gaseous decay product at room temperature; the other twelve are solids. The main hazard presented by the uranium decay chain is normally determined by the radon concentration because gaseous transport can bring alpha emitters close to sensitive tissue. There is no such transport route for the other alpha emitters, and the level of beta and gamma radiation caused by the uranium decay chain generally presents a far lower external radiation hazard. Radon itself is the heaviest of the noble gases, which are He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe and Rn. Its chemical reactions are of no concern in regard to its potential hazard in mines as it may be considered inert. It does, however, have a solubility ten times higher than oxygen in water, and this can play a significant part in assisting the movement of the gas from the rock into airways. Radon continuously emanates into mine workings from uranium ores and from the uranium present at low concentrations in practically any rock. It has been found that the control of the exposure level is most effectively achieved by sound ventilation practices. In South African mines the standard of ventilation is generally high and exposure to radon and radon daughters is at acceptably low levels

  18. Radon in the workplace: Implications of studies of post-remediation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A. R.; Parkinson, S.; Johnstone, M.; Crockett, R. G. M.; Phillips, P. S.

    2004-01-01

    Radon gas has been shown to cause an increased incidence of lung cancer. In affected areas, levels in the overground workplace can be sufficiently high to be a health risk and remediation is required. In the UK, the workplace Action Level is 400 Bq m -3 . The variation of radon levels in the workplace was studied both before and after remediation. In most rooms, remediation resulted in a greater reduction at night than during the working day. The dose reduction, and therefore the health benefit, to workers is less than that predicted by the drop in radon averaged over 24 h. In order to obtain a health benefit to 75% of workers in our series, the 24 h average radon level in each room must be reduced to -3 . It is recommended that UK Regulatory Agencies adopt a post-remediation workplace Action Level of 225 Bq m -3 . (authors)

  19. Radon-222 Study in Ceramics and Indoor Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, N.L.A.A.

    2011-01-01

    A total 50 samples of 13 different ceramic tiles companies collected from the Egyptian market for the measurements of radon exhalation rate. Three homes include twenty rooms were selected. The period of the survey was in range 2-3 months for homes for each season while it was about 15 days for ceramic tiles. The radon exhalation rate of ceramic tiles (clay and glaze) and indoor radon activity concentration were measured by alpha tracks technique. The average radon exhalation rate in three homes was observed to be in the range 2.2-5.2 mBq.m -2 .h -1 . The average of Ra-226 activity for all ceramic tiles either the floor or wall tile is in the range 16-64 Bq.kg -1 . The porosity of ceramic tiles is found in the range 0.19-0.29. The effective dose in all rooms is found in the range 0.9- 1.3 mSv.y -1 .

  20. Instrumentation for a radon research house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaroff, W.W.; Revzan, K.L.; Robb, A.W.

    1981-07-01

    A highly automated monitoring and control system for studying radon and radon-daughter behavior in residences has been designed and built. The system has been installed in a research house, a test space contained in a two-story wood-framed building, which allows us to conduct controlled studies of (1) pollutant transport within and between rooms, (2) the dynamics of radon daughter behavior, and (3) techniques for controlling radon and radon daughters. The system's instrumentation is capable of measuring air-exchange rate, four-point radon concentration, individual radon daughter concentrations, indoor temerature and humidity, and outdoor weather parameters (temperature, humidity, modules, wind speed, and wind direction). It is also equipped with modules that control the injection of radon and tracer gas into the test space, the operation of the forced-air furnace, the mechanical ventilation system, and the mixing fans located in each room. A microcomputer controls the experiments and records the data on magnetic tape and on a printing terminal. The data on tape is transferred to a larger computer system for reduction and analysis. In this paper we describe the essential design and function of the instrumentation system, as a whole, singling out those components that measure ventilation rate, radon concentration, and radon daughter concentrations

  1. Radon in Estonian dwellings - Results from a National Radon Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahapill, Lia; Rulkov, Anne; Rajamaee, Raivo [Estonian Radiation Protection Centre (Kiirguskeskus), Tallinn (Spain); Aakerblom, Gustav [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    A countrywide survey of radon concentrations in Estonian dwellings was carried out during the period 1998-2001. The survey formed a part of the cooperation program on radiation protection between the Estonian Radiation Protection (Kiirguskeskus) Centre and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). The survey included measurements in a number of dwellings representative for Estonia in detached houses and multifamily buildings (only dwellings on the bottom floor were included in the survey). Altogether, radon concentrations were measured in 515 dwellings, a number large enough to be statistically significant. All measurements were made with alphatrack film detectors of the same type that SSI uses in Sweden. The measurements were made during a 2-3 month period during the winter half-year. Two detectors were used in each dwelling. In Estonia there are 0.17 million dwellings in detached houses and 0.45 million in multi apartment buildings. Of the 1.26 million inhabitants in Estonia. 0.36 million live in detached houses and 0.90 million in multi apartment buildings. Most of the latter were built during the Soviet occupation. Of the dwellings in multifamily buildings 30 % are assumed to be situated on the first floor. The mean radon concentration in dwellings in detached hoses, according to the survey results, is 103 Bq/m{sup 3}, in dwellings on the bottom floor in multi apartment buildings it is 78 Bq/m{sup 3}. In 1% of the dwellings the radon concentration exceeded 400 Bq/m{sup 3}. The highest radon concentration found in the study was 1040 Bq/m{sup 3}. Based on the assumption that the average radon concentration in the dwellings in multi-apartment buildings that are not situated on the bottom floor is 30 Bq/m{sup 3}, and that these dwellings constitute 70% of all dwellings in multi apartment buildings, the mean radon concentration in dwellings in multi apartment buildings is calculated to be 44 Bq/m{sup 3}. The mean value for all Estonia dwellings is calculated

  2. Radon in Estonian dwellings - Results from a National Radon Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahapill, Lia; Rulkov, Anne; Rajamaee, Raivo; Aakerblom, Gustav

    2003-10-01

    A countrywide survey of radon concentrations in Estonian dwellings was carried out during the period 1998-2001. The survey formed a part of the cooperation program on radiation protection between the Estonian Radiation Protection (Kiirguskeskus) Centre and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). The survey included measurements in a number of dwellings representative for Estonia in detached houses and multifamily buildings (only dwellings on the bottom floor were included in the survey). Altogether, radon concentrations were measured in 515 dwellings, a number large enough to be statistically significant. All measurements were made with alphatrack film detectors of the same type that SSI uses in Sweden. The measurements were made during a 2-3 month period during the winter half-year. Two detectors were used in each dwelling. In Estonia there are 0.17 million dwellings in detached houses and 0.45 million in multi apartment buildings. Of the 1.26 million inhabitants in Estonia. 0.36 million live in detached houses and 0.90 million in multi apartment buildings. Most of the latter were built during the Soviet occupation. Of the dwellings in multifamily buildings 30 % are assumed to be situated on the first floor. The mean radon concentration in dwellings in detached hoses, according to the survey results, is 103 Bq/m 3 , in dwellings on the bottom floor in multi apartment buildings it is 78 Bq/m 3 . In 1% of the dwellings the radon concentration exceeded 400 Bq/m 3 . The highest radon concentration found in the study was 1040 Bq/m 3 . Based on the assumption that the average radon concentration in the dwellings in multi-apartment buildings that are not situated on the bottom floor is 30 Bq/m 3 , and that these dwellings constitute 70% of all dwellings in multi apartment buildings, the mean radon concentration in dwellings in multi apartment buildings is calculated to be 44 Bq/m 3 . The mean value for all Estonia dwellings is calculated to be 60 Bq/m 3 . Using

  3. New-construction techniques and HVAC overpressurization for radon reduction in schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saum, D.; Witter, K.A.; Craig, A.B.

    1988-01-01

    Construction of a school in Fairfax County, Virginia, is being carefully monitored since elevated indoor radon levels have been identified in many existing houses near the site. Soil gas radon concentrations measured prior to pouring of the slabs were also indicative of a potential radon problem should the soil gas enter the school; however, subslab radon measurements collected thus far are lower than anticipated. Radon-resistant features have been incorporated into construction of the school and include the placing of at least 100 mm of clean coarse aggregate under the slab and a plastic film barrier between the aggregate and the slab, the sealing of all expansion joints, the sealing or plugging of all utility penetrations where possible, and the painting of interior block walls. In addition, the school's heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system has been designed to operate continuously in overpressurization to help reduce pressure-driven entry of radon-containing soil gas into the building. Following completion, indoor radon levels in the school will be monitored to determine the effectiveness of these radon-resistant new-construction techniques and HVAC overpressurization in limiting radon entry into the school

  4. Result of the intercomparison exercise on radon measuring instruments and radon detectors 'bev- radon ring 2005'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, A.; Maringer, F.J.; Michai, P.; Kreuziger, M.

    2006-01-01

    In spring 2005 the Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying (B.E.V.) invited all in Austria working radon measuring institutes to an intercomparison exercise at the radon calibration laboratory in the Arsenal. The aim of this intercomparison was on the one hand an objective inquiry and documentation of the current metrological potential on the section of radon measurement in Austria - both quantitative and qualitative- and on the other hand an initiative for the participating laboratories to optimize and improve their applied calibration-, measurement and analyse technique. Ten contacted Austrian radon laboratories were prepared to participate on the radon intercomparison exercise. The intercomparison exercise was carried out from 14. till 29. June at the radon calibration laboratory in the Arsenal of the B.E.V.. As radon emanation source a five stepped arranged, at the Arsenal built radon source was used. The source ( A.D.O.T.T.O. 1 is filled with a certified Ra- 226-standard solution of the Czech Metrological Institute (C.M.I.), Prag. A simple statistic based model was used for the evaluation and assessment of the results from the participants, which consider the statistic nature of the radioactive decay combined uncertainty. Altogether 183 measuring instruments participated the intercomparison exercise. Two reference measuring instruments, 22 active and 159 passive measuring instruments. The active measuring instruments formed 6 types of instruments and as passive radon detectors were 7 different types used from the participants. The positioning of the radon measuring instruments and detectors in the radon calibration laboratory was executed in regard to statistic points of view. From the active measuring instruments 17 could qualify and from the passive methods six from eight participants were in compliance to the given criteria. Radon measurements, which could have financial and economics relating implications (e.g. architectural redevelopment or

  5. Is environmental radon gas associated with the incidence of neurodegenerative conditions? A retrospective study of multiple sclerosis in radon affected areas in England and Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groves-Kirkby, Christopher J.; Denman, Antony R.; Campbell, Jackie; Crockett, Robin G.M.; Phillips, Paul S.; Rogers, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    To test whether an association exists between radon gas concentration in the home and increased multiple sclerosis (MS) incidence, a retrospective study was undertaken of MS incidence in known areas of raised domestic radon concentration in England and Wales, using The Health Improvement Network (THIN) clinical research database. The study population comprised 20,140,498 person-years of clinical monitoring (males: 10,056,628: 49.93%; females: 10,083,870: 50.07%), representing a mean annual population of 2.5 million individuals. To allow for the possible latency of MS initiation following exposure, data extraction was limited to patients with at least five years registration history with the same GP practice before first diagnosis. Patient records were allocated to one of nine radon concentration bands depending on the average radon level in their postcode sector. MS incidence was analysed by searching for patients with first MS diagnosis over the eight calendar years 2005–2012 inclusive. 1512 new MS cases were diagnosed, 1070 females, 442 males, equivalent to raw incidence rates of 7.51, 10.61 and 4.40 per 10 5 person-years respectively, comparable to previously reported results. Of these new cases, 115 could be allocated to one of the radon bands representing high radon areas. Standardising to the UK 2010 population, excess relative risk (ERR) figures for MS were calculated for each radon band. Linear regression of ERR against mean band radon concentration shows a positive gradient of 0.22 per 100 Bq·m −3 (R 2  = 0.25, p = 0.0961) when forced through the origin to represent a linear-no-threshold response. The null hypothesis falls inside the 95% confidence interval for the linear fit and therefore this fit is not statistically significant. We conclude that, despite THIN sampling around 5% of the population, insufficient data was available to confirm or refute the hypothesised association between MS incidence and radon concentration. - Highlights:

  6. Radon surveys and their implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, J.C.H.; Cliff, K.D.; Dixon, D.W.; Green, B.M.R.; Strong, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    In the UK, as in other countries, radon daughter inhalation is the most significant cause of human exposure to ionising radiation either at home or at work whether one considers the mean or the maximum dose. Substantial studies of radon are under way in the UK, and the importance of radon is recognised in several spheres. NRPB investigations of the radon levels in buildings and mines are reported, the distributions of doses presented and risk factors calculated. The bases of radon limitation for workers and members of the public are given and the means of compliance discussed. (author)

  7. A study of radon levels in NHS premises in affected areas around the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.; Lewis, G.T.R.; Brennen, S.E.

    2002-01-01

    Radon gas contributes a significant fraction of the natural background radiation dose, and in some areas raised levels are found in buildings, both homes and the workplace. Different UK Action Levels apply to homes and the workplace, because of the diurnal variation of radon. This study reviews the results for a number of hospitals throughout England and Wales, and suggests that the likelihood of finding raised radon levels is similar in the workplace and homes in the same area. Radon measurements and consequent remediation of any raised levels are appropriate in all workplaces in radon Affected Areas with over 5% of houses above the UK domestic Action Level of 200 Bq m -3

  8. Development of the charcoal adsorption technique for determination of radon content in natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paewpanchon, P.; Chanyotha, S.

    2017-01-01

    A technique for the determination of the radon concentration in natural gas using charcoal adsorption has been developed to study the effects of parameters that influence the adsorption efficiency of radon onto activated charcoal. Several sets of experiments were conducted both in the laboratory and in an actual natural gas field for comparison. The results show that the adsorption capability of radon onto activated charcoal varies inversely with temperature, hydrocarbon concentration and the humidity contained within the natural gas. A technique utilizing dry ice as a coolant was found to be the most effective for trapping radon in natural gas samples at the production site. A desiccant can be used to remove moisture from the sampling gas. The technique described here increases the adsorption efficiency of activated charcoal by 10-20% compared to our previous study. (authors)

  9. Radon exhalation rates corrected for leakage and back diffusion – Evaluation of radon chambers and radon sources with application to ceramic tile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abo-Elmagd

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The natural radon decay, leakage and back diffusion are the main removal processes of radon from its container. Ignoring these processes leads to underestimate the measured value of radon related parameters like exhalation rate and radium content. This work is aimed to evaluate two different radon chambers through determining their leakage rate λv and evaluation of radon source by determine its back diffusion rate λb inside the evaluated radon chambers as well as a small sealed cup. Two different methods are adapted for measuring both the leakage rate and the back diffusion rate. The leakage rate can be determined from the initial slope of the radon decay curve or from the exponential fitting of the whole decay curve. This can be achieved if a continuous monitoring of radon concentration inside the chamber is available. Also, the back diffusion rate is measured by sealing the radon source in the chamber and used the initial slope of the buildup curve to determine λb and therefore the exhalation rate of the source. This method was compared with simple equation for λb based on the ratio of the source to the chamber volume. The obtained results are applied to ceramic tile as an important radon source in homes. The measurement is targeted the ceramic glaze before and after firing as well as the obtained tile after adhere the glaze on the tile main body. Also, six different tile brands from Egyptian market are subjected to the study for comparison.

  10. A study of the physico-chemical characteristics of a solid radon 222 source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuiton, G.

    1990-01-01

    A solid radon 222 source is described; it is made of a manganese oxide impregnated acrylic felt disc on which radium 226 is fixed. The disc is incorporated into a scanning device allowing the passage through the felt of a radon 222 free gas (air or nitrogen) previously led to a relative humidity of air near to saturation. At the device outlet, a stable activity of radon 222 is obtained. The preparation, characteristics and radiochemical stability conditions of the 226 radium source are presented. Following a description of the scanning device, the radon 222 emanation coefficient is studied as a function of the relative humidity of air. The reliability of the device is assessed by an uncertainty calculation for the utilisation conditions recommended. Finally, an approach to the physico-chemical processes governing radon 222 emanation rate in the device is set forth [fr

  11. Open charcoal chamber method for mass measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsapalov, Andrey; Kovler, Konstantin; Miklyaev, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Radon exhalation rate from the soil surface can serve as an important criterion in the evaluation of radon hazard of the land. Recently published international standard ISO 11665-7 (2012) is based on the accumulation of radon gas in a closed container. At the same time since 1998 in Russia, as a part of engineering and environmental studies for the construction, radon flux measurements are made using an open charcoal chamber for a sampling duration of 3–5 h. This method has a well-defined metrological justification and was tested in both favorable and unfavorable conditions. The article describes the characteristics of the method, as well as the means of sampling and measurement of the activity of radon absorbed. The results of the metrological study suggest that regardless of the sampling conditions (weather, the mechanism and rate of radon transport in the soil, soil properties and conditions), uncertainty of method does not exceed 20%, while the combined standard uncertainty of radon exhalation rate measured from the soil surface does not exceed 30%. The results of the daily measurements of radon exhalation rate from the soil surface at the experimental site during one year are reported. - Highlights: • Radon exhalation rate from the soil surface area of 32 cm"2 can be measured at level of 10 mBq/(m"2s) at the uncertainty ≤30%. • The method has a metrological justification. • No need to consider climate conditions, soil properties and conditions, mechanism and rate of radon transport in the soil.

  12. Correlations between radon in soil gas and the activity of seismogenic faults in the Tangshan area, North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Ying; Du, Jianguo; Zhou, Xiaocheng

    2014-01-01

    The spatial variation of soil gas radon values were correlated with the seismogenic faults and earthquakes in the Tangshan area (north China). Radon concentrations were measured at 756 sites in an area about 2500 km 2 from April to May 2010. The background and anomaly threshold values calculated were 4730.4 Bq/m 3 and 8294.1 Bq/m 3 , respectively. Radon concentrations highlight a decreasing gradient from NE to SW in the area. Higher values mostly distributed in the NE sector of the Tangshan fault and the Luanxian fault where the Tangshan (Ms 7.8), and Luanxian (MS 7.1) earthquakes occurred in 1976 and 17 earthquakes with MS = 3.0 occurred in this area since 2005. Radon values illustrated a close relation with the shallow fault trace and earthquake activity in the area. The active fault zones and the associated fractures formed by the larger earthquakes, act as paths for radon migration. - Highlights: • Radon concentrations at 756 sites were attained in the Tangshan area. • The background value and anomaly threshold of Rn were calculated out. • Radon concentration decreasing from NE to SW in the study area. • Rn value has a close relation with the fault and earthquake activity

  13. Radon in Finnish dwellings. Sample survey 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekelaeinen, I.; Kinnunen, T.; Reisbacka, H.; Valmari, T.; Arvela, H.

    2009-12-01

    Indoor radon concentration was measured in 2882 dwellings randomly selected by the Population Register Centre of Finland. Radon measurements were made in two half-year periods, the first one lasting from April to November 2006 and the second one from November 2006 to April 2007. Measurements were made using STUK's alpha track detectors. According to the decree 944 / 92 by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, the indoor radon concentration should not exceed the 400 Bq /m 3 , whereas new buildings should be built so that 200 Bq /m 3 is not exceeded. In addition, the part D2 of the National Building Code of Finland (Indoor climate and ventilation of buildings) sets 200 Bq /m 3 as a reference value for planning of new buildings. Since 2004, according to the regulation B3 (Foundations), radon should be taken into account in new building in the whole country. A radon technical plan should be included into the building licence application. This plan can be exceptionally ignored only when building in areas where exceeding of 200 Bq / m 3 seldom occurs. In this study the nationwide means weighted by number of inhabitants in provinces in houses and flats were 121 Bq /m 3 and 49 Bq /m 3 , and 96 Bq /m 3 for all dwellings. The percentages of dwellings exceeding 200 Bq /m 3 for houses and flats were 15.1% and 1.5%, and 10.4% for all dwellings. The respective values for the reference value 400 Bq/m 3 were 3.8%, 0.7%, and 2.7%. The numbers of dwellings exceeding 200 Bq /m 3 were 204 000 for houses and 16 000 for flats, respectively. The respective numbers of dwellings exceeding 400 Bq /m 3 were 51 000 and 8.000. The highest radon concentrations were measured in the areas of Tavastia and South-Eastern Finland, in the provinces Eastern Uusimaa, Kymenlaakso, Paeijaenne Tavastia, Tavastia Proper, Pirkanmaa and South Karelia. In these provinces 29 - 51 per cent of small houses exceed 200 Bq /m 3 . The lowest radon concentrations were achieved with a crawl space foundation. Radon

  14. Behaviors of radon in indoor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Sadamu; Shimo, Michikuni.

    1987-01-01

    The source of radon ( 222 Rn) in the atmosphere is radioactive nuclide, uranium ( 238 U), which exists fairly common throughout the earth's crust. Radium ( 226 Ra) descended from uranium produce radon ( 222 Rn) of noble gas by decay. After formation in the ground, radon diffuses into the atmosphere. Without exception radon decay products are heavy metals which soon become attached to natural aerosols. Therefore, radon and its daughters (decay products) appear also in indoor environment, and generally, their concentration levels become higher than that of outdoor air due to build-up effects in the closed indoor environments. With the progress of the study on the influence of radon and its daughers on human health, it has become clear that they act effectively as an exciting cause of lung cancer. So, the study on the risk evaluation of them in room air has become to be very important. Concequently, the behaviors of radon and its daughters in indoor environment, first of all, should be studied in detail for the accurate estimation of the risk caused by them. In this special edition, fundamental characteristics of radon and its daughters, some measuring methods, theoretical considerations and some observational evidences obtained from various circumstances of indoor environment are described inorder to grasp and understand the behaviors of radon and its daughters in the indoor environment. (author)

  15. Prediction of residential radon exposure of the whole Swiss population: comparison of model-based predictions with measurement-based predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauri, D D; Huss, A; Zimmermann, F; Kuehni, C E; Röösli, M

    2013-10-01

    Radon plays an important role for human exposure to natural sources of ionizing radiation. The aim of this article is to compare two approaches to estimate mean radon exposure in the Swiss population: model-based predictions at individual level and measurement-based predictions based on measurements aggregated at municipality level. A nationwide model was used to predict radon levels in each household and for each individual based on the corresponding tectonic unit, building age, building type, soil texture, degree of urbanization, and floor. Measurement-based predictions were carried out within a health impact assessment on residential radon and lung cancer. Mean measured radon levels were corrected for the average floor distribution and weighted with population size of each municipality. Model-based predictions yielded a mean radon exposure of the Swiss population of 84.1 Bq/m(3) . Measurement-based predictions yielded an average exposure of 78 Bq/m(3) . This study demonstrates that the model- and the measurement-based predictions provided similar results. The advantage of the measurement-based approach is its simplicity, which is sufficient for assessing exposure distribution in a population. The model-based approach allows predicting radon levels at specific sites, which is needed in an epidemiological study, and the results do not depend on how the measurement sites have been selected. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Radon reduction and radon-resistant construction demonstrations in New York state. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    A survey of radon levels in New York State homes indicates that approximately 4.4 percent of the homes have long-term living area radon concentrations above the U.S. EPA guideline of four pCi/l. The project addressed the effectiveness of techniques to reduce the radon level in existing homes and to prevent the occurrence of high radon concentrations in new homes. The goal of the project was to demonstrate the effectiveness of radon reduction techniques in homes containing indoor radon concentrations of more than the current EPA guidelines of four pCi/l. At the same time, radon-resistant construction techniques were demonstrated in homes under construction to provide guidelines for houses being built in areas with a danger of high radon levels. The project demonstrated new radon mitigation techniques in homes containing indoor radon concentrations exceeding four pCi/l; assessed the value of previously installed radon reduction procedures, and demonstrated new radon-resistant construction methods

  17. ERRICCA radon model intercomparison exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, C.E.; Albarracin, D.; Csige, I.; Graaf, E.R. van der; Jiranek, M.; Rehs, B.; Svoboda, Z.; Toro, L.

    1999-04-01

    Numerical models based on finite-difference or finite-element methods are used by various research groups in studies of radon-222 transport through soil and building materials. Applications range from design of radon remediation systems to more fundamental studies of radon transport. To ascertain that results obtained with these models are of good quality, it is necessary that such models are tested. This document reports on a benchmark test organized by the EU project ERRICCA: European Research into Radon in Construction Concerted Action. The test comprises the following cases: 1) Steady-state diffusive radon profiles in dry and wet soils, 2) steady-state entry of soil gas and radon into a house, 3) time-dependent radon exhalation from a building-material sample. These cases cover features such as: soil heterogeneity, anisotropy, 3D-effects, time dependency, combined advective and diffusive transport of radon, flux calculations, and partitioning of radon between air and water in soil pores. Seven groups participated in the intercomparison. All groups submitted results without knowing the results of others. For these results, relatively large group-to-group discrepancies were observed. Because of this, all groups scrutinized their computations (once more) and engaged in follow-up discussions with others. During this debugging process, problems were indeed identified (and eliminated). The accordingly revised results were in better agreement than those reported initially. Some discrepancies, however, still remain. All in all, it seems that the exercise has served its purpose and stimulated improvements relating to the quality of numerical modelling of radon transport. To maintain a high quality of modelling, it is recommended that additional exercises are carried out. (au)

  18. Assessment of indoor radon doses received by the students in the Azad Kashmir schools (Pakistan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafique, M.; Rahman, S. U.; Rahman, S.; Matiullah; Shahzad, M. I.; Ahmed, N.; Iqbal, J.; Ahmed, B.; Ahmed, T.; Akhtar, N.

    2010-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies conducted on thousands of underground miners suggest that long-term exposure to high radon concentration can increase the risk of lung cancer. Keeping in view the importance of the subject, numerous studies throughout the world have been carried out to measure indoor radon concentration and its resulting doses at occupational and non-occupational sites. The purpose of the current study was to measure indoor radon concentration and its resulting doses received by the students of Azad Kashmir government schools. For this purpose, CR-39 radon detectors were installed in 80 carefully selected schools. The detectors were placed at a height of 3-5 ft. (depending upon average height of students in particular class) from the ground. After exposure of 90 d detectors were etched for 9 h in 6 M NaOH at 70 deg. C and the observed track densities were related to radon concentrations. The measured indoor radon concentration ranged from 22 ± 9 to 228 ± 3 Bq m -3 with a mean value of 78 ± 5 Bq m -3 . Based on the measured indoor radon data, the annual effective doses were found to vary from 0.55 ± 0.04 to 0.71 ± 0.03 mSv y -1 . The overall mean effective dose for the studied area was found to be 0.63 ± 0.04 mSv y -1 . Reported values for radon concentrations and corresponding doses are lower than ICRP recommended limits for workplaces. (authors)

  19. Evaluation of experiences in long-term radon and radon-daughter measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.A.; Jackson, P.O.; Thomas, V.W.

    1982-12-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is performing side-by-side measurements of radon and radon daughter concentrations using several instruments and techniques, and is comparing these measurements with side-by-side measurements made by other investigators at other locations. The standard deviation of the differences between the (natural) logarithms of the Terradex Track Etch radon concentrations and the logarithms of the Radon Progency Integrating Sampling Units (RPISU) radon daughter concentrations (S.D.-ln) measured in 50 buildings in Edgemont, South Dakota, was 0.37. Using this S.D.-ln, it can be calculated that if the Track Etch radon daughter concentration is 0.010 WL there should be only a 14% probability that the RPISU average would be greater than 0.015 WL, and only a 3% probability tht the RPISU average would be greater than 0.020 WL. If buildings had been cleared from remedial action when the Track Etch averages were less than 0.10 WL, then about 61% of the buildings would have been cleared from remedial action, and only a few percent of these buildings would have actually had average RPISU concentrations greater than 0.015 WL. The S.D.-ln between the Track Etch radon measurements and the RPISU radon daughter measurements made by ALARA at Grand Junction, the PERM radon measurements and the MOD-225 radon daughter measurements made by Mound Facility at Canonsburg and Middlesex, and the PERM and Track Etch radon measurements made by Mound Facility at Salt Lake City were similar to the S.D.-ln between the Track Etch radon measurements and the RPISU radon daughter measurements at Edgemont

  20. The use of mechanical ventilation with heat recovery for controlling radon and radon-daughter concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaroff, W.W.; Boegel, M.L.; Hollowell, C.D.; Roseme, G.D.

    1980-01-01

    An energy research house in Maryland was found to have radon concentrations far in excess of recommended guidelines. A mechanical ventilation system with heat recovery was installed in this house to test its effectiveness as an energy-efficient control technique for indoor radon. Radon concentration was monitored continuously for two weeks under varying ventilation conditions (0.07 to 0.8 air changes per hour (ach)) and radon daughter concentrations were measured by grab-sample techniques about nine times daily during this period. At ventilation rates of 0.6 ach and higher radon and radon daughter levels dropped below guidelines for indoor concentrations. Comparison with other studies indicates that indoor radon buildup may be a problem in a considerable portion of houses characterized by their low infiltration rates. The use of mechanical ventilation systems with air-to-air heat exchangers may offer a practical, cost-effective, and energy-efficient means of alleviating not only the radon problem specifically but also the general deterioration of indoor air quality in houses designed or retrofitted to achieve low infiltration

  1. Residential radon exposure and risk of incident hematologic malignancies in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teras, Lauren R., E-mail: lauren.teras@cancer.org [Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA (United States); Diver, W. Ryan [Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA (United States); Turner, Michelle C. [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); McLaughlin Centre for Population Health Risk Assessment, University of Ottawa, Ottawa (Canada); Krewski, Daniel [McLaughlin Centre for Population Health Risk Assessment, University of Ottawa, Ottawa (Canada); School of Epidemiology, Public Health and Disease Prevention, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Sahar, Liora [Statistics and Evaluation Center, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA (United States); Ward, Elizabeth [Intramural Research, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA (United States); Gapstur, Susan M. [Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Dosimetric models show that radon, an established cause of lung cancer, delivers a non-negligible dose of alpha radiation to the bone marrow, as well as to lymphocytes in the tracheobronchial epithelium, and therefore could be related to risk of hematologic cancers. Studies of radon and hematologic cancer risk, however, have produced inconsistent results. To date there is no published prospective, population-based study of residential radon exposure and hematologic malignancy incidence. We used data from the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort established in 1992, to examine the association between county-level residential radon exposure and risk of hematologic cancer. The analytic cohort included 140,652 participants (66,572 men, 74,080 women) among which 3019 incident hematologic cancer cases (1711 men, 1308 women) were identified during 19 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for radon exposure and hematologic cancer risk. Women living in counties with the highest mean radon concentrations (>148 Bq/m{sup 3}) had a statistically significant higher risk of hematologic cancer compared to those living in counties with the lowest (<74 Bq/m{sup 3}) radon levels (HR=1.63, 95% CI:1.23–2.18), and there was evidence of a dose-response relationship (HR{sub continuous}=1.38, 95% CI:1.15–1.65 per 100 Bq/m{sup 3}; p-trend=0.001). There was no association between county-level radon and hematologic cancer risk among men. The findings of this large, prospective study suggest residential radon may be a risk factor for lymphoid malignancies among women. Further study is needed to confirm these findings. - Highlights: • This is the first prospective, general population study of residential radon and risk of hematologic cancer. • Findings from this study suggest that residential radon exposure may be a risk factor

  2. Residential radon exposure and risk of incident hematologic malignancies in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teras, Lauren R.; Diver, W. Ryan; Turner, Michelle C.; Krewski, Daniel; Sahar, Liora; Ward, Elizabeth; Gapstur, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Dosimetric models show that radon, an established cause of lung cancer, delivers a non-negligible dose of alpha radiation to the bone marrow, as well as to lymphocytes in the tracheobronchial epithelium, and therefore could be related to risk of hematologic cancers. Studies of radon and hematologic cancer risk, however, have produced inconsistent results. To date there is no published prospective, population-based study of residential radon exposure and hematologic malignancy incidence. We used data from the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort established in 1992, to examine the association between county-level residential radon exposure and risk of hematologic cancer. The analytic cohort included 140,652 participants (66,572 men, 74,080 women) among which 3019 incident hematologic cancer cases (1711 men, 1308 women) were identified during 19 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for radon exposure and hematologic cancer risk. Women living in counties with the highest mean radon concentrations (>148 Bq/m 3 ) had a statistically significant higher risk of hematologic cancer compared to those living in counties with the lowest (<74 Bq/m 3 ) radon levels (HR=1.63, 95% CI:1.23–2.18), and there was evidence of a dose-response relationship (HR continuous =1.38, 95% CI:1.15–1.65 per 100 Bq/m 3 ; p-trend=0.001). There was no association between county-level radon and hematologic cancer risk among men. The findings of this large, prospective study suggest residential radon may be a risk factor for lymphoid malignancies among women. Further study is needed to confirm these findings. - Highlights: • This is the first prospective, general population study of residential radon and risk of hematologic cancer. • Findings from this study suggest that residential radon exposure may be a risk factor for lymphoid

  3. Radon emission from uranium mining waste rock dumps and resulting radon immission; Radonemissionsverhalten von Halden des Uranbergbaus und daraus resultierende Radonemissionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regner, J.; Hinz, W.; Schmidt, P. [Wismut GmbH, Chemnitz (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Since more than 20 years, Wismut GmbH has been investigating the radon situation at uranium mining waste rock dumps. In the present paper the results of 19 complex studies at uranium mining dumps in the Erzgebirge (Ore Mountains) are reported. Although the mean specific activity of Ra-226 of the waste rock material was on a rather low level of about 0.5 Bq/g, the mean radon concentration in free atmosphere at the public exposure sites in the immediate vicinity of the dumps reached a value of about 1000 Bq/m{sup 3} for a half-year exposition and of about 600 Bq/m{sup 3} for a one-year exposition. Certain geometries and structures of waste rock dumps and the occurrence of convective airflows in the dumps are main reasons for the high radon emission despite of the relatively low specific Ra-226 activity. A case study for two buildings directly on the top of a waste rock dump in the town Johanngeorgenstadt is presented. The hypothetical interpolation of the results for Ra-226-activity to a value below the threshold value of 0.2 Bq/g leads to the assumption that problematic radon situations may also occur outside the areas of legacies of uranium mining. Considering the aspects mentioned, a clearance level for NORM of 1 Bq/g is questionable.

  4. Radon adsorption on present activated charcoals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazankin, Yu.N.; Trofimov, A.M.; Mikhajlova, L.K.

    1978-01-01

    Radon adsorption from helium and air has been studied on modern activated carbons of SKT-1, SKT-2a, SKT-3, SKT-2b, SKT-6, PAU-1 within the temperature range from 100 to 80 deg. It has been shown that PAU-1 carbon has the highest activity with respect to radon in the temperature range studied. With decreasing temperature the adsorption coefficients increase sharply. It has been found that for the case of radon adsorption from helium the logarythm of the Henry coefficient linearly depends on the inverse value of absolute temperature. Adsorption of radon from air is inhibited and the above-cited relationship is deviated from linear. The results of calculating differential heats of radon and air adsorption as well as coefficients of radon and air separation on carbons are presented

  5. Study of radon dispersion in typical dwelling using CFD modeling combined with passive-active measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabi, R.; Oufni, L.

    2017-10-01

    Inhalation of radon (222Rn) and its decay products are a major source of natural radiation exposure. It is known from recent surveys in many countries that radon and its progeny contribute significantly to total inhalation dose and it is fairly established that radon when inhaled in large quantity causes lung disorder. Indoor air conditions and ventilation systems strongly influence the indoor radon concentration. This study focuses on investigating both numerically and experimentally the influence of environmental conditions on the indoor radon concentration and spatial distribution. The numerical results showed that ventilation rate, temperature and humidity have significant impacts on both radon content and distribution. The variations of radon concentration with the ventilation, temperature and relative humidity are discussed. The measurement results show the diurnal variations of the indoor radon concentration are found to exhibit a positive correlation with relative humidity and negatively correlate with the air temperature. The analytic solution is used to validate the numeric results. The comparison amongst analytical, numerical and measurement results shows close agreement.

  6. Construction of radon/radon daughter calibraton chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, J.; Gan, T.H.; Leach, V.A.; Saddlier, J.; Solomon, S.B.; Tam, K.K.; Travis, E.; Wykes, P.

    1983-01-01

    The radon/radon daughter test chamber is a copper lined room 1.65x1.75x2.75m with an effective volume of 8000 litres. The air residence time is controlled by circulating the air in the chamber through absolute filters which remove 99.9% of particulates. Radon is drawn into the chamber from a 17 μCi 226 RaCl source using the pressure differential across the blowers (<3 psi)

  7. Radon in Dwellings in the Republic of Kalmykia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakerblom, Gustav (Aakerblom och Aakerblom HP, Skaerholmen (Sweden)); German, Olga; Soederman, Ann-Louise (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)); Stamat, Ivan; Venkov, Vladimir (Research Inst. of Radiation Hygiene, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation))

    2009-02-15

    The National Radon Survey in the Republic of Kalmykia, Russian Federation during 2006-2007 was carried out in a cooperation project between the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) and the Russian Institute of Radiation Hygiene (RIRH). In August 2006 SSI, RIRH, federal and local authorities carried out a field study in Kalmykia when radon daughter measurements (equilibrium equivalent radon concentrations in the air) and gamma radiation measurements were made in 103 buildings. Gamma spectrometry measurements were made at several sites. During the visit the cooperating parties devoted some time to the education of local authorities on radon related issues. During three months in the winter season 2006-2007, long term radon trace measurements were made in 525 randomly chosen dwellings in the Republic of Kalmykia. The radon gas activity varied between 3 and 973 Bq/m3, with a mean value of 122 Bq/m3. In 19 of a total of 835 measurement points, the radon activity exceeded the maximum permitted value in Russia of 200 Bq/m3 of EERC. The year-round radon trace measurement were made in 20 houses in Elista, the capital of the Republic of Kalmykia, for comparison with the three-month measurements. The year-round measurements showed some higher values for the radon activity, and a correction factor of 0.85 was applied. Using data on the number of people living in detached houses and apartments, and applying the radon activities measured, the number of new lung cancer cases caused by radon was calculated to be 20 to 40 of the 100 new cases reported annually. The methods of construction of the dwellings in Kalmykia is greatly influenced by the history and culture. Most of them were built after World War II and there are only a few that are newly built because of the poor economic situation and the low population growth rate in the Republic. Most people live in detached houses, one-storied with 3-5 rooms, built directly on the ground or on coquina blocks or on a cast

  8. Microclimatic effects on outdoor radon and its progeny in a long-term study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuetz, M.; Keller, G.; Kappel, R.J.A.

    1994-01-01

    The dose due to the long term radon exposure is estimated from the radon concentration and from an equilibrium factor that in the literature is reported with a wide uncertainty. Therefore the radon equilibrium factor outdoors and its dependence on climatic effects should be investigated in a long-term study. Both the outdoor concentrations of radon and of its progeny near Ellweiler/Hunsrueck were measured continuously during 12 months and the resulting equilibrium factors were determined. Simultaneously to the every 2 hour's radon data many meterological parameters as temperature and relative to humidity of the air, barometric pressure and duration and amount of rainfall were recorded. At a height of 6 meters above ground and in 10 minute intervals the local wind direction and velocity were registered. By that a set of more than 3000 single measurements of the equilibrium factor and of the corresponding weather conditions was collected

  9. Study of the behavior of automatic track detectors for radon determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno C, A.

    1997-01-01

    Both the alpha decay and the alpha and beta emitting radon daughters, may affect the living cells. In this thesis, experiments have been performed to study the response of environmental radon using different alpha particle detectors. A study was performed both in the laboratory and in the field of two kinds of detectors: a) Passive solid state nuclear track detectors, LR 115 type II, capable to integrate the alpha particles in a given period of time and, b) an automatic active detector, Clipperton, that continuously accumulate the alpha counting from radon decay. LR-115 track detectors were exposed in the laboratory to alpha particles from a radioactive source and a controlled radon atmosphere. The detectors were also exposed to electrons from an electron accelerator. The number of alpha tracks in the detectors were evaluated with two kinds of spark counters. The response of the track detectors as a function of the number of alpha tracks showed a reproducibility of 92%, and the effect of electron doses showed that the bulk etching velocity varied as a function of the electron dose. Additionally some changes were introduced in an SSNTD exchanger, exposed to the radon chamber in order to reduce the background in the non exposed positions. A conversion factor of 0.016 tracks/cm 2 . 10h per Bq/m 3 was obtained. The response of the two spark counters was similar. Field soil radon determinations were performed with track detectors during 11 months and with the active detector during 5 months with exposures each month and each hour respectively. When calculated for the same time periods exposure the response of both systems was similar. However differences were quite striking in the patterns of short and long term exposure periods since short term fluctuations are explicitly shown with the active detector while integrated within the passive one. (Author)

  10. Application of single-chip microcomputer to portable radon and radon daughters monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Yecheng; Huang Zhanyun; She Chengye

    1992-01-01

    Application of single-chip microcomputer to portable radon and radon daughters monitor is introduced in this paper. With the single-chip microcomputer automation comes into effect in the process from sampling to measuring of radon and radon daughters. The concentrations of radon and radon daughters can be easily shown when the conversion coefficients are pre-settled before the measurement. Moreover, the principle and design are briefly discussed according to the characteristics of the monitor

  11. Compact detector for radon and radon daughter products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alter, H.W.; Oswald, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    This invention provides an improved compact track registration detector for radon gas. The detector comprises a housing having an open mouth, a bottom, and side walls; track registration means, supported inside the housing, which forms damage tracks along paths traversed by alpha particles; a microporous filter positioned across the mouth of the housing to prevent entry of radon daughters and particulate matter; and a cap that may be placed on the mouth of the housing to retain the filter. The housing has internal wall surfaces dimensioned to optimize the registration of alpha particles from radon and radon daughters present in the housing

  12. Detecting buried radium contamination using soil-gas and surface-flux radon meaurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, K.E.

    1988-06-01

    The Technical Measurements Center (TMC) has investigated the effectiveness of using radon soil-gas under surface-flux measurments to locate radium contamination that is buried sufficiently deep to be undetectable by surface gamma methods. At the first test site studied, an indication of a buried source was revealed by mapping anomalous surface-flux and soil-gas concentrations in the near surface overburden. The mapped radon anomalies were found to correspond in rough outline to the shape of the areal extent of the deposit as determined by borehole gamma-ray logs. The 5.9pCi/g radium deposit, buried 2 feet below the surface, went undetected by conventional surface gamma measurements. Similar results were obtained at the second test site where radon and conventional surface gamma measurements were taken in an area having radium concentrations ranging from 13.3 to 341.0 pCi/g at a depth of 4 feet below the surface. The radon methods were found to have a detection limit for buried radium lower than that of the surface gamma methods, as evidenced by the discovery of the 13.3 pCi/g deposit which went undetected by the surface gamma methods. 15 refs., 33 figs., 8 tabs

  13. Potential study of bed filtration characteristics in impressed boreholes by radon tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinov, A.A.; Pinkenzon, D.B.; Makarov, M.S.; Vinarskij, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    Potential study of bed filtration characteristics in impressed boreholes by radon tracer method is shown. Effects recorded by radon tracer result from gamma radiation of short-living radon decay daughter products. During filtration of tracer through punched holes, cement stone, and rocks the products are deposited and cause a local effect for 2-3 hours. There is a shortage of short-living products in filtrated radon liquid and for some time (which is necessary for production of notable quantity of new decay products) it is practically not a gamma emitter. It is shown that the feature of effect formation governs the technique for well logging as well as interpretation of the results obtained

  14. The use of radon as an earthquake precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramola, R.C.; Singh, M.; Sandhu, A.S.; Singh, S.; Virk, H.S.

    1990-01-01

    Radon monitoring for earthquake prediction is part of an integral approach since the discovery of coherent and time anomalous radon concentrations prior to, during and after the 1966 Tashkent earthquake. In this paper some studies of groundwater and soil gas radon content in relation to earthquake activities are reviewed. Laboratory experiments and the development of groundwater and soil gas radon monitoring systems are described. In addition, radon monitoring studies conducted at the Guru Nanak Dev University Campus since 1986 are presented in detail. During these studies some anomalous changes in radon concentration were recorded before earthquakes occurred in the region. The anomalous radon increases are independent of meteorological conditions and appear to be caused by strain changes, which precede the earthquake. Anomalous changes in radon concentration before an earthquake suggest that radon monitoring can serve as an additional technique in the earthquake prediction programme in India. (author)

  15. The use of soil gas as radon source in radon chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Azmi, Darwish

    2009-01-01

    A procedure is described in which soil gas is utilized as an alternative to the 226 Ra source for the supply of the radon gas required to fill a radon chamber where radon-measuring devices are calibrated. The procedure offers opportunities to vary the radon concentration within the chamber around an average value of about 500 Bq/m 3 , which is considered to be sufficient for calibrating indoor radon detectors. The procedure is simple and the radon source does not require radiation protection certification (for import and/or use), unlike the commercially produced standard radioactive ( 226 Ra) sources.

  16. Radon-Instrumentation; Radon-Instrumentacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno y Moreno, A. [Departamento de Apoyo en Ciencias Aplicadas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, 4 Sur 104, Centro Historico 72000 Puebla (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The presentation of the active and passive methods for radon, their identification and measure, instrumentation and characteristics are the objectives of this work. Active detectors: Active Alpha Cam Continuous Air Monitor, Model 758 of Victoreen, Model CMR-510 Continuous Radon Monitor of the Signature Femto-Tech. Passive detectors: SSNTD track detectors in solids Measurement Using Charcoal Canisters, disk of activated coal deposited in a metallic box Electrets Methodology. (Author)

  17. In-soil radon anomalies as precursors of earthquakes: a case study in the SE slope of Mt. Etna in a period of quite stable weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizzini, Fabio; Brai, Maria

    2012-11-01

    In-soil radon concentrations as well as climatic parameters (temperature, atmospheric pressure and relative humidity) were collected in St. Venerina (Eastern Sicily - Italy) from March 19th to May 22nd 2009, close to an active fault system called Timpe Fault System (TFS), which is strictly linked to the geodynamics of Mt. Etna. During the monitoring period no drastic climatic variations were observed and, on the other hand, important seismic events were recorded close to the monitoring site. A seismic swarm composed of 5 earthquakes was observed in the Milo area on March 25th (M(max) = 2.7) at just 5.1 km from the site, and on May 13th an earthquake of 3.6 magnitude was recorded in the territory of St. Venerina, at just 3.2 km from the site; the earthquake was felt by the population and reported by all local and regional media. The in-soil radon concentrations have shown anomalous increases possibly linked to the earthquakes recorded, but certainly not attributable to local meteorology. To verify this assumption the average radon concentration and the standard deviation (σ) have been calculated and the regions of ±1.5σ and ±2σ deviation from the average concentration have been investigated. Moreover, to further minimise the contribution of the meteorological parameters on the in-soil radon fluctuations, a multiple regressions method has been used. To distinguish those earthquakes which could generate in-soil radon anomalies as precursors, the Dobrovolsky radius has been applied. The results obtained suggests that a clear correlation between earthquakes and in-soil radon increases exist, and that the detection of the in-soil radon anomalies becomes surely simpler in particular favourable conditions: weather stability, earthquakes within the Dobrovolsky radius and close to the monitoring area. Moreover, the absence of large variations of the climatic parameters, which could generate incoherent noise components to the radon signal, has made the radon fluctuations

  18. Comparative survey of outdoor, residential and workplace radon concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Nirmalla; Field, R. William; Field, Dan W.; Steck, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated radon concentrations in above-ground (i.e. first floor) workplace in Missouri and compared them with above-ground radon concentrations in nearby homes and outdoor locations. This study also examined the potential utility of using home and outdoor radon concentrations to predict the radon concentration at a nearby workplace (e.g. county agencies and schools). Even though workplace radon concentrations were not statistically different from home radon concentrations, the radon concentration at a particular home, or outdoor location, was a poor predictor of the radon concentration at a nearby workplace. Overall, 9.6 and 9.9 % of homes and workplace, respectively, exhibited radon concentrations of ≥148 Bq m -3 . Because of the percentage of workplace with elevated radon concentrations, the results suggest that additional surveys of workplace radon concentrations are needed, especially in areas of high radon potential, to assess the contribution of workplace radon exposure to an individual's overall radon exposure. (authors)

  19. Remedial measures in Swedish and Norwegian houses - application of radon and radon decay product measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just, G.; Philipsborn, H. von; Matolin, M.; Molzahn, D.

    1998-01-01

    Houses and apartments in Sweden and Norway with excessive indoor radon concentrations were studied in detail with a variety of methods, standard and novel ones recently developed. For suitable remediation it is necessary to distinguish soil radon and exhalation from blue (porous) concrete. Our CARBOTEST-S is a simple, sensitive, in-situ method to quantify radon exhalation from existing walls, as well as radon permeability of different protective foils and final quality control of foils applied to existing walls. (orig.) [de

  20. Accurate measurement of indoor radon concentration using a low-effective volume radon monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Aya; Minami, Nodoka; Mukai, Takahiro; Yasuoka, Yumi; Iimoto, Takeshi; Omori, Yasutaka; Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Muto, Jun

    2017-01-01

    AlphaGUARD is a low-effective volume detector and one of the most popular portable radon monitors which is currently available. This study investigated whether AlphaGUARD can accurately measure the variable indoor radon levels. The consistency of the radon-concentration data obtained by AlphaGUARD is evaluated against simultaneous measurements by two other monitors (each ∼10 times more sensitive than AlphaGUARD). When accurately measuring radon concentration with AlphaGUARD, we found that the net counts of the AlphaGUARD were required of at least 500 counts, <25% of the relative percent difference. AlphaGUARD can provide accurate measurements of radon concentration for the world average level (∼50 Bq m -3 ) and the reference level of workplace (1000 Bq m -3 ), using integrated data over at least 3 h and 10 min, respectively. (authors)

  1. Using radon-222 for tracing groundwater discharge into an open-pit lignite mining lake--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Axel; Schubert, Michael

    2007-12-01

    Groundwater discharge into an open pit lignite mining lake was investigated using radon-222 as a naturally occurring environmental tracer. The chosen study site was a meromictic lake, i.e., a water body that is divided horizontally into two separate layers--the upper mixolimnion (with seasonal mixing) and the lower monimolimnion (without seasonal mixing). For the estimation of groundwater discharge rates into the lake, a simple box model including all radon sinks and sources related to each layer was applied. Two field investigations were performed. During the October campaign, the total groundwater discharge into the lake was found to be 18.9 and 0.7 m(3) d(-1) for the mixolimnion and monimolimnion, respectively. During the December campaign, the groundwater discharge into the mixolimnion was 15.0 m(3) d(-1), whereas no discharge at all was observed into the monimolimnion. Based on the given water volumes, the residence time of lake water was 5.3 years for the monimolimnion and varies between 0.9 and 1.1 years for the mixolimnion. The investigation confirmed radon to be a useful environmental tracer for groundwater and surface water interactions in meromictic lake environments.

  2. Radon reduction in crawl-space houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, M.C.; Moore, D.G.; Southerlan, R.E.; Brennan, T.; Pyle, B.E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper gives results of an EPA study of radon-mitigation alternatives for crawl space houses in several houses in Nashville, TN. Application of one of these alternative mitigation options, suction under a polyethylene membrane, has been successful in significantly reducing radon levels in both the crawl space and the house. The large radon concentrations measured under unvented plastic ground covers and the moisture barriers found in many crawl spaces can act as radon-rich reservoirs capable of contaminating a crawl space and house during periods of depressurization. With the exhaust components of the mitigation system in place, radon levels below the plastic decreased by more than 95% under both passive and active suction conditions. Based on the study, the design of a cost-effective subplastic suction passive radon mitigation system for crawl spaces seems promising

  3. Wind direction correlated measurements of radon and radon progeny in atmosphere: a method for radon source identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akber, R.A.; Pfitzner, J.; Johnston, A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the basic principles and methodology of a wind direction correlated measurement technique which is used to distinguish the mine-related and background components of radon and radon progeny concentrations in the vicinity of the ERA Ranger Uranium Mine. Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric radon and radon progeny concentrations and wind speed and direction were conducted using automatic sampling stations. The data were recorded as a time series of half hourly averages and grouped into sixteen 22.5 degrees wind sectors. The sampling interval and the wind sector width were chosen considering wind direction variability (σ θ ) over the sampling time interval. The data were then analysed for radon and radon progeny concentrations in each wind sector. Information about the wind frequency wind speed seasonal and diurnal variations in wind direction and radon concentrations was required for proper data analysis and interpretation of results. A comparison with model-based estimates for an identical time period shows agreement within about a factor of two between the two methods. 15 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  4. Radon/helium studies for earthquake prediction N-W Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virk, H.S.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the preliminary data of radon monitoring stated in the Himalayan orogenic belt. Radon anomalies are correlated with microseismic activity in the N-W Himalaya. The He/Rn ratio will be used as a predictive tool for earthquakes

  5. Radon Progeny In Underground Phosphate Mines and Their Activity Distributions In Human Lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Hady, M.; Mohammed, A.; El-Hussein, A.; Ali, A.E.; Ahmed, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    In addition to workers in uranium mines, the staff of other underground mines, such as worker in underground phosphate mines, Can be exposed to 222 Rn and its progeny. In this study the individual radon progeny concentrations were measured in three Egyptian underground phosphate mines to estimate the occupational exposure to the workers in those sites. Active techniques are employed to fulfill the objective of measuring individual radon progeny concentrations (C RaA , C RaB and C RaC ). The mean reported values of radon progeny concentrations exceed the action levels recommended by ICRP 65 (1993). Based on the physical properties of attached radon progeny aerosol and physiological parameters for heavy work activity which recommended by ICRP 66 (1994). the deposition fraction for each airway generation was calculated. From the measured individual radon progeny concentrations in these mines and the calculated values of deposition fractions, the surface activity distribution per generation were calculated in human respiratory system (BB and regions). The maximum values of these activities were found in the upper bronchial airway generations. According to the obtained results, some of the corrective actions were recommended in this study

  6. Instruments to measure radon activity concentration or exposure to radon. Interlaboratory comparison 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, Elisabeth; Beck, Thomas; Buchroeder, Helmut; Doering, Joachim; Schmidt, Volkmar

    2011-10-01

    According to the Directive 96/29/EURATOM the monitoring of occupational radiation exposures shall base on individual measurements carried out by an approved dosimetric service. Pursuant to the European Directive an approved dosimetric service is a body responsible for the calibration, reading or interpretation of individual monitoring devices.., whose capacity to act in this respect is recognized by the competent authorities. This concept will also be applied to radon services issuing passive radon measurement devices. Passive radon measurement devices 1 using solid state nuclear track detectors or electrets are recommended for individual monitoring of exposures to radon. German regulations lay down that radon measuring devices are appropriate for purposes of occupational radiation monitoring if the devices are issued by recognized radon measurement services, and the measurement service submits devices of the same type issued for radon monitoring to regular intercomparisons conducted by BfS. A radon measuring service is recognized by the competent authority if it proves its organizational and technical competence, e. g. by accreditation. These regulations have been introduced in the area of occupational radiation exposures. Nevertheless, it is recommended that radon measuring services which carry out radon measurements in other areas (e.g. dwellings) should subject themselves to these measures voluntarily. The interlaboratory comparisons comprise the organization, exposure, and evaluation of measurements of radon activity concentration or exposure to radon. The comparisons only concern radon-222; radon-220 is not in the scope. Radon services being interested can get further information from the website www.bfs.de/de/ion/radon/fachinfomessung/vergleichspruefungen.html and from the European Information System on Proficiency Testing Schemes (eptis) available in the internet. (orig.)

  7. Uncertainties of estimating average radon and radon decay product concentrations in occupied houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronca-Battista, M.; Magno, P.; Windham, S.

    1986-01-01

    Radon and radon decay product measurements made in up to 68 Butte, Montana homes over a period of 18 months were used to estimate the uncertainty in estimating long-term average radon and radon decay product concentrations from a short-term measurement. This analysis was performed in support of the development of radon and radon decay product measurement protocols by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The results of six measurement methods were analyzed: continuous radon and working level monitors, radon progeny integrating sampling units, alpha-track detectors, and grab radon and radon decay product techniques. Uncertainties were found to decrease with increasing sampling time and to be smaller when measurements were conducted during the winter months. In general, radon measurements had a smaller uncertainty than radon decay product measurements. As a result of this analysis, the EPA measurements protocols specify that all measurements be made under closed-house (winter) conditions, and that sampling times of at least a 24 hour period be used when the measurement will be the basis for a decision about remedial action or long-term health risks. 13 references, 3 tables

  8. Chemical properties of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, L.

    1986-01-01

    Radon is frequently regarded as a totally inert element. It is, however, a ''metalloid'' - an element which lies on the diagonal of the Periodic Table between the true metals and nonmetals and which exhibits some of the characteristics of both. It reacts with fluorine, halogen fluorides, dioxygenyl salts, fluoro-nitrogen salts, and halogen fluoride-metal fluoride complexes to form ionic compounds. Several of the solid reagents can be used to collect radon from air but must be protected from moisture, since they hydrolyze readily. Recently, solutions of nonvolatile, cationic radon have been produced in nonaqueous solvents. Ion-exchange studies have shown that the radon can be quantitatively collected on columns packed with either Nafion resins or complex salts. In its ionic state, radon is able to displace H + , Na + , K + , Cs + , Ca 2+ , and Ba 2+ ions from a number of solid materials. 27 refs., 6 figs

  9. Characterization of radon levels in indoor air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose is to describe the different types of monitoring and sampling techniques that can determine the radiation burden of the general public from radon and its decay products. This is accomplished by measuring the range and distribution of radon and radon decay products through broad surveys using simple and convenient integrating monitoring instruments. For in-depth studies of the behavior of radon decay products and calculation of the radiation dose to the lung, fewer and more intensive and complex measurements of the particle size distribution and respiratory deposition of the radon decay products are required. For diagnostic purposes, the paper describes measurement techniques of the sources and exhalation rate of radon and the air exchange inside buildings. Measurement results form several studies conducted in ordinary buildings in different geographical areas of the United States, using the described monitoring techniques, indicate that the occupants of these buildings are exposed to radon and radon decay product concentrations, varying by as much as a factor of 20

  10. Geogenic factors of radiation exposure with special regard of the radon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemski, J.; Siehl, A.; Stegemann, R.; Valdivia-Manchego, M.

    1999-01-01

    Classification and mapping of geogenic radon potential in Germany is based on detailed field studies of radon activity in soil gas and in situ gas permeability, using GIS techniques. The distribution of the two parameters is combined in a ranking procedure to asses the geogenic radon potential, with regionalization based on a distance-weighted interpolation of the measurements on a regular grid and information on the corresponding geological unit as an attribute to every raster field. Thereby, the boundaries of the geological units are defined implicitly. In areas with rather homogeneous geological conditions, where lower to intermediate radon potential is present, the measuring sites are widely spaced (i.e. Meso- and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks, covering 80 % of the area). Areas with more complicated hard rock geology and suspected high geogenic radon potential, like the outcrop areas of the Palaeozoic and Precambrian basement, were mapped in detail with a higher density of the measurement grid. The data material at hand make it possible to design maps of different types of parameter combinations and classifications, taking into account also administrative units. As a result, a set of detailed maps of geogenic radon potential for selected test areas as well as a general map for Germany (1:2 000 000) are presented. (orig./SR) [de

  11. Modelling and experimental study of the behavior of radon and radon decay products in an enclosure. Application to houses; Modelisation et etude experimentale du comportement du radon et de ses descendants dans une enceinte confinee. Application a une habitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouronnec, A M

    1995-02-03

    Since the eighties, more and more studies were performed about radon and its decay products in houses with one of the aim being the estimation of the dose received by their inhabitants. Then, the principal objective of this work is to describe the behaviour of radon and its decay products within a dwelling. In the first part to the report, a few definitions are given and data from literature give an idea of indoor radon and radon decay products activities and/or size distribution. Aspects of dosimetry are presented too. In the second part of the work, a mathematical model, called `PRADDO` of Physic of Radon and radon Decay products in Domestic environment is developed on the basis of the classical model written by Jacobi in 1972. On the one hand, it has to predict radon decay products activities in systems consisting in one or more enclosure(s), from radon activity and from ambient aerosol concentration and size distribution. On the other hand, one part of the model is assigned to study the influence of the entry model parameters variation on the calculated quantities. Then, in the third part of the work, two experimental studies are realised in order to compare measurements to modelization. The first experimentation is a laboratory work, made on the test bench ICARE from IPSN, and the second one consists in describing the basement of an occupied house from Brittany. In the two cases, the comparison between experiments and modelling shows a good agreement if particles are present in the air, but any conclusion is made when is no aerosol in the enclosure. (author). 158 refs., 81 figs., 42 tabs.

  12. Radon programme: presence and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulka, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation an overview of radon programme experiences is presented. The paper summarises national radon policy, national programmes, legislation, the role of preventive measures and interventions with respect to existing and future exposure and knowledge of radon risk, problems of remediation strategies, practical protection in dwellings, radon measurements strategies, progress in radon measurement of an individual house (radon diagnosis), radon mapping process and sense of delineation of radon prone areas, natural radioactivity of building materials and radioactivity in public water and their role in the radon programme, public awareness on radon issue and publicity campaign. Some research activities are proposed aiming at effective solutions of radon issues in future

  13. Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This leaflet in the At-a-Glance Series, describes what radon is, where it is found, why it presents a risk to health, the official advice, and the remedies that are available to reduce radon levels. (author)

  14. Airflow measurement techniques applied to radon mitigation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrje, D.T.; Gadsby, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    During the past decade a multitude of diagnostic procedures associated with the evaluation of air infiltration and air leakage sites have been developed. The spirit of international cooperation and exchange of ideas within the AIC-AIVC conferences has greatly facilitated the adoption and use of these measurement techniques in the countries participating in Annex V. But wide application of such diagnostic methods are not limited to air infiltration alone. The subject of this paper concerns the ways to evaluate and improve radon reduction in buildings using diagnostic methods directly related to developments familiar to the AIVC. Radon problems are certainly not unique to the United States, and the methods described here have to a degree been applied by researchers of other countries faced with similar problems. The radon problem involves more than a harmful pollutant of the living spaces of our buildings -- it also involves energy to operate radon removal equipment and the loss of interior conditioned air as a direct result. The techniques used for air infiltration evaluation will be shown to be very useful in dealing with the radon mitigation challenge. 10 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  15. Air pressure distribution and radon entry processes in east Tennessee schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, L.D.; Dudney, C.S.; Wilson, D.L.; Saultz, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Many building characteristics have been found to influence radon entry, including building size and configuration, substructure, location of utility supply lines, and design and operation of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. One of the most significant factors is room depressurization resulting from the HVAC system exhausting more than it supplies. This paper represents a preliminary assessment of HVAC characteristics and how they may relate to radon entry. During the summer of 1989, a limited survey was made of air pressure and radon levels in four schools in eastern Tennessee. Short-term samples of radon and pressure were made in all rooms in contact with the soil using alpha scintillation cells and an electronic microanometer, respectively. The pressure difference and radon concentration changes induced by operation of the building ventilation system varied among sites within individual schools

  16. Contribution of waterborne radon to home air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    Radon-222 is a member of the uranium decay chain and is formed from the decay of radium-226. Radon and its decay products emit alpha particles during the decay process. If radon is inhaled, alpha particles emitted from inhaled radon and its daughters increase the risk of lung cancer. Radon is soluble in water; thus when radon comes in contact with groundwater it dissolves. The radon concentration in groundwater may range from 100 pCi/L to 1,000,000 pCi/L. When water with a high radon level is used in the home, radon is released from the water to the air and thus can increase indoor air radon concentration. Considering the estimated health risk from radon in public water supply systems, EPA has proposed a maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 300 pCi/L for radon in public drinking water supplies. To address the health risks of radon in water and the proposed regulations, the American Water Works Association Research Foundation (AWWARF) initiated a study to determine the contribution of waterborne radon to radon levels in indoor household air

  17. Effect of local geology on indoor radon levels: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawthorne, A.R.; Gammage, R.B.; Dudney, C.S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents the results of radon monitoring in 40 East Tennessee homes that were a component of a larger study to evaluate indoor air quality. Measurements were conducted during two 3-month time periods with passive integrating track etch monitors in each of the forty homes. In a subset of homes, measurements were also conducted with a real-time monitor that provided readings on an hourly basis. The results of the monitoring indicate that about 30% of the homes had radon levels greater that 4 pCi/L in the living space. Homes with elevated radon levels were associated with local variations in geology; most of the homes having higher levels were located on the porous dolomite ridge partially surrounding Oad Ridge, Tennessee. (Author)

  18. In-vivo measurements of Pb-210 to determine cumulative exposure to radon daughters: A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurer, G.R.; Cohen, N.; Stark, A.; Ju, C.

    1991-05-01

    The objective of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of estimating cumulative exposure of individuals to low concentrations of radon by measuring the amount of Pb-A-10 in their skeletons. This report presents progress to date establishing the validity of an vivo technique to measure skeletal burdens of Pb-210, accumulated from exposure to radon and radon progeny. With the skeletal content of Pb--210 and a model for Pb metabolism, cumulative exposure to radon and its short-lived daughters (radon/daughters) may be calculated for use in deriving a dose-response relationship between lung cancer and exposure to radon/daughters. Data are presented for 29 subjects exposed to ''above-average'' radon concentrations in their homes, showing the correlation between measured Pb--210 burdens, and measured pCi/l and WLM exposure estimates. Their results are compared to measurements of a population of 24 subject's presumed exposed to average concentrations. Measurements of a Pennsylvania family exposed for a year in a home with an extremely high radon content are also presented. Update of results of an ongoing study of the biological half-time of Pb--210 in man involving measurements, of a retired radiation worker with a 40 year old skeletal burden of Pb-210

  19. Radon emanation from soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markkanen, M.; Arvela, H.

    1992-01-01

    The results of gamma spectrometric sample measurements of radon ( 222 Rn) emanation coefficients and radium concentrations ( 226 Ra) from about 800 Finnish soil samples are presented. The radon emanation rate was measured in about 400 soil samples, using radon-tight cans and Lucas cells. The effects of water content and temperature on radon emanation were investigated, using various samples of different soil types. Radon emanation and the effect of water content on radon emanation were investigated separately for different grain sizes (samples of till). The results provide some information on radon emanation in different soil types and relate emanation in laboratory conditions to conditions in ground soil. In routine measurements of radon emanation from soil samples, use of a 5% water content was considered advisable. The correction coefficients of radon emanation varied between 0.3 and 1.5, depending on the water content and soil type. At 5% water content, hardly any difference was found between radon emanation at temperatures of 20 and 1 o C. Radon emanation was found to be an inverse function of grain sizes larger than 0.5 mm in diameter. (author)

  20. Result of the intercomparison exercise on radon measuring instruments and radon detectors 'bev- radon ring 2005'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, A. [Vienna Univ. of Technology, Atominstitut, Wien (Austria); Maringer, F.J.; Michai, P.; Kreuziger, M. [BEV-Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying, Wien (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    In spring 2005 the Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying (B.E.V.) invited all in Austria working radon measuring institutes to an intercomparison exercise at the radon calibration laboratory in the Arsenal. The aim of this intercomparison was on the one hand an objective inquiry and documentation of the current metrological potential on the section of radon measurement in Austria - both quantitative and qualitative- and on the other hand an initiative for the participating laboratories to optimize and improve their applied calibration-, measurement and analyse technique. Ten contacted Austrian radon laboratories were prepared to participate on the radon intercomparison exercise. The intercomparison exercise was carried out from 14. till 29. June at the radon calibration laboratory in the Arsenal of the B.E.V.. As radon emanation source a five stepped arranged, at the Arsenal built radon source was used. The source ( A.D.O.T.T.O. 1 is filled with a certified Ra- 226-standard solution of the Czech Metrological Institute (C.M.I.), Prag. A simple statistic based model was used for the evaluation and assessment of the results from the participants, which consider the statistic nature of the radioactive decay combined uncertainty. Altogether 183 measuring instruments participated the intercomparison exercise. Two reference measuring instruments, 22 active and 159 passive measuring instruments. The active measuring instruments formed 6 types of instruments and as passive radon detectors were 7 different types used from the participants. The positioning of the radon measuring instruments and detectors in the radon calibration laboratory was executed in regard to statistic points of view. From the active measuring instruments 17 could qualify and from the passive methods six from eight participants were in compliance to the given criteria. Radon measurements, which could have financial and economics relating implications (e.g. architectural redevelopment or

  1. Radon emanation in tectonically active areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.Y.

    1980-01-01

    Subsurface radon emanation has been continuously monitored for up to three years by the Track Etch method in shallow dry holes at more than 60 sites along several tectonic faults in central California and at 9 sites near the Kilauea volcano in Hawaii. The measured emanation in these tectonically active areas shows large long-term variations that may be related mainly to crustal strain changes

  2. High-resolution radon monitoring and hydrodynamics at Mount Vesuvius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigolini, Corrado; Salierno, Francesco; Gervino, Gianpiero; Bergese, Paolo; Marino, Ciro; Russo, Massimo; Prati, Paolo; Ariola, Vincenzo; Bonetti, Roberto; Begnini, Stefania

    A yearlong high-resolution radon survey has been carried on at Mount Vesuvius, starting in May 1998. Radon activities were acquired by exposing charcoal canisters and track-etch detectors. Sampling stations were deployed along two major summit faults and around the caldera bottom. Volcanically-related earthquakes, with MD ≥ 2.5, may be discriminated from regional seismic events since their cumulative radon anomalies are recorded from stations located along all the above structural features. On the contrary, radon anomalies correlated to regional earthquakes, with MD ≥ 4, are essentially recorded by the sampling sites located along the two summit faults (whose roots extend deeper into the Tertiary basement rocks that underlay the volcano). Radon migration to the surface is ruled by convection within a porous medium of relatively low porosity (ϕ ≈ 10-5), suggesting that fluid motion is strongly localised along fractures. It is suggested that fluid pressure build up, followed by fluid release and migration during incipient fracturing of the porous medium, precede the onset of volcanically-induced earthquakes.

  3. Ventilation influence upon indoor air radon level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Deyuan

    1995-01-01

    Levels of indoor radon in air are studied by a continuous electrostatic radon monitor under normal living conditions to evaluate the influence of air conditioned ventilation on indoor air radon level. Results show that the indoor air radon concentrations are not much more than those without household conditioner living condition, although using household conditioner requires a sealed room which should lead to a higher radon level. Turning on air conditioner helps lower indoor radon level. Therefore, the total indoor air Rn levels are normal > ventilation > exhaust or in-draft > exhaust plus in-draft

  4. Radon in geological medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hricko, J [GEOCOMPLEX, a.s., Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    The paper presented deals with behavior of the radon in geological medium and with some results of the radon survey in Bratislava and Kosice regions. 1) The a{sub v} has been detected in the holes 0.80 m deep. The density of observations - 3 reference areas (one represents 20 stations) per 1 km{sup 2}. The radon risk maps in 1:25000 and 1:50000 scales have been compiled. The 56.8% of the project area lies in low radon risk, 37.6% in medium radon risk and 5.6% in high radon risk. Follow-up monitoring of the equivalent volume radon activity (EVRA) at the flats, located in the areas with high radon risk of the surface layer, has showed values several times higher than Slovak limits (Marianka, Raca, Vajnory). The evidence that neotectonic is excellent medium for rising up emanation to the subsurface layer, is shown on the map. The tectonic zone of Liscie udolie in Bratislava-Karlova Ves area has been clearly detected by profile radon survey (a{sub v} > 50 kBq/m{sup 3}). 2) At present, northern half of the area of Kosice in question was covered by radon survey. The low and medium radon risks have been observed here, while localities with high radon risk are small in extent. The part of radon risk and soil permeability map from northern Kosice area is shown. (J.K.) 3 figs., 2 refs.

  5. Radon in geological medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hricko, J.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presented deals with behavior of the radon in geological medium and with some results of the radon survey in Bratislava and Kosice regions. 1) The a v has been detected in the holes 0.80 m deep. The density of observations - 3 reference areas (one represents 20 stations) per 1 km 2 . The radon risk maps in 1:25000 and 1:50000 scales have been compiled. The 56.8% of the project area lies in low radon risk, 37.6% in medium radon risk and 5.6% in high radon risk. Follow-up monitoring of the equivalent volume radon activity (EVRA) at the flats, located in the areas with high radon risk of the surface layer, has showed values several times higher than Slovak limits (Marianka, Raca, Vajnory). The evidence that neotectonic is excellent medium for rising up emanation to the subsurface layer, is shown on the map. The tectonic zone of Liscie udolie in Bratislava-Karlova Ves area has been clearly detected by profile radon survey (a v > 50 kBq/m 3 ). 2) At present, northern half of the area of Kosice in question was covered by radon survey. The low and medium radon risks have been observed here, while localities with high radon risk are small in extent. The part of radon risk and soil permeability map from northern Kosice area is shown. (J.K.) 3 figs., 2 refs

  6. Radon levels in Oslo schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birovlev, A.

    2004-01-01

    Radon measurements using passive CR-39 detectors have been conducted in all schools in Oslo municipality during winter 2003/2004. Results are presented and discussed in the light of qualitative and quantitative factors, some of which are specific for schools as workplaces. Analysis is conducted with respect to factors relating to building construction type, ventilation principle, age of building, building size etc. The influence of ventilation type on radon levels is studied, and problems of investigations based purely on conventional passive radon detectors are noted. Over-estimation of radon concentration by passive detectors and day-night variations of indoor radon levels in buildings with mechanical ventilation systems are discussed. Several guiding principles for planning similar investigations based on above discussions are outlined. (author)

  7. Ion climate and radon concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busbarna, L.

    1981-01-01

    Characteristic values of radon concentration in natural ion climate and in open air were compared and the effect of artificially produced negative ion excess on the radon concentration of air was studied. The results show that the radon concentration measurable at the rise of negative ion excess is smaller than that in the case of natural equilibrium. This effect can be utilized lowering the background of the scintillation chambers, thus increasing their sensitivity. The negative ions of the artificial ion climate lower radon concentration in closed space. The question arises whether only the ion climate is responsible for the effects on the organism and on the nervous system or the radon concentration of the air also contributes to them. (author)

  8. Radiation exposure due to radon and radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullmann, W.

    1976-01-01

    Underground miners working over long periods of time in mines with a high content of radon and radon daughters belong to that group of occupationally exposed persons who are subject to the greatest somatic risk, with values especially high if the permissible dose limits are exceeded. Follwing an overview of the permissible limits currently in use for radon and radon daughters as well as the results of examinations performed in nationally-owned underground mining of the G.D.R., considerations are presented on the measuring quantities requisite for statistical, control and safety measurements in this field. Finally, conclusions are drawn concerning the measuring procedures and instruments to be employed for practical work. (author)

  9. Theoretical and experimental study of radon measurement with designing and calibration domestic canister with active charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urosevic, V.; Nikezic, D.; Zekic, R.

    2005-01-01

    Radon concentration in air may change significantly large variation due to atmospheric variation. Measurement with active charcoal can be inaccurate because the variation in radon concentration. We made model to simulate radon measurements with active charcoal in order to optimize and improve integration characteristic. A numerical method and computer code based on the method of finite elements is developed for the case of variable radon concentration in air. This program simulates radon adsorption by the activated charcoal bed, enabling determination of sensitivity. The dependence of sensitivity on different parameters, such as temperature, thickness of the charcoal, etc. was studied using this program. Using results of theoretical investigation we designed and calibrated our canister with active charcoal for radon measurements. (author)

  10. Study of radon emanation variations in Morocco soil, correlations with seismic activities and atmospheric parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boukhal, H.; Cherkaoui, T.E.; Lferde, M.

    1994-01-01

    In order to verify the possibility of radon signal use in earthquake prediction, a study of radon emanation variation in soil was undertaken. Regular measurements have been carried out in five cities of Morocco ( Rabat, Tetouan, Ifrane, Khouribga, Berchid). The measuring method is based on the solid state nuclear track detectors technique. The good correlation between the different seismic activities and the variations of radon emanation rate in the five stations, have shown the interest of radon use in the earthquake prediction. 1 tab., 2 figs., 2 refs. (author)

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHARCOAL ADSORPTION TECHNIQUE FOR DETERMINATION OF RADON CONTENT IN NATURAL GAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paewpanchon, P; Chanyotha, S

    2017-11-01

    A technique for the determination of the radon concentration in natural gas using charcoal adsorption has been developed to study the effects of parameters that influence the adsorption efficiency of radon onto activated charcoal. Several sets of experiments were conducted both in the laboratory and in an actual natural gas field for comparison. The results show that the adsorption capability of radon onto activated charcoal varies inversely with temperature, hydrocarbon concentration and the humidity contained within the natural gas. A technique utilizing dry ice as a coolant was found to be the most effective for trapping radon in natural gas samples at the production site. A desiccant can be used to remove moisture from the sampling gas. The technique described here increases the adsorption efficiency of activated charcoal by 10-20% compared to our previous study. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Radon in the Environment: Friend or Foe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Radon 222 is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that is part of the Uranium decay series. Its Presence in the environment is associated mainly with trace amounts of uranium and its immediate parent, radium 226 , in rocks, soil and groundwater. About one-half of the effective doses from natural sources is estimated to be delivered by inhalation of the short lived radon progeny. Owing to this fact, radon is the most popular subject of studies on environmental radioactivity. The presence of high level of radon in indoor environment constitutes a major health hazard for man. The radon progeny is well established as causative agents of lung cancer and other types of caners. Radon unique properties as a naturally radioactive gas have led to its use as a geophysical tracer for locating buried faults and geological structures, in exploring for uranium, and for predicting earthquakes. Radon has been used as a tracer in the study of atmospheric transport process. There have been several other applications of radon in meteorology, water research and medicine. This paper summarizes the health effects and the potential benefits of radon and its progeny.

  13. Study of probes for geophysical process analysis. Radon-emanometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tidjani, A.

    1984-09-01

    This study concerns mainly the measurement of radon-222 concentration in the ground, as an indicator of underground gas displacements. With nuclear track solid state detectors (SSNTD), it has been shown that the use of a radon source, buried at 180 cm depth, provides an increase of sensitivity. In order to automatize the in-field measurements, electronic detectors (scintillators, semi-conductors) have been developed. These detectors have been used for preliminary studies in the field for further applications to the prevision of earthquakes and volcanic eruption, and on a simulation set-up to analyse the possible influence of atmospheric parameters (pressure, temperature, ...) on underground gas displacement. Some tests have been done on the use of SSNTD for tracer analysis [fr

  14. Refinement of a thoron insensitive alpha track detector for environmental radon monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    Olympic Dam Operations, a Copper/Uranium mine in the north of South Australia, currently monitors environmental radon (Rn 222) concentrations at a total of 17 sites in the area surrounding the mining lease and Roxby Downs township. During 1990 a commercial alpha track radon detector service was replaced with an on-site system resulting in lower costs, greater confidence in detector calibration, and reduction in processing time. Alpha track detectors (ATD's) are placed in triplicate at each of the 17 sites. Flow-through scintillation cell continuous radon monitors are also operated at two of these sites. Comparison of results from the two different types of monitor has raised the question of a possible thoron (Rn 220) contribution in the alpha track detectors. Laboratory experiments revealed that the diffusion membranes used in the ATD's were in fact 'transparent' to thoron. A new membrane was tested which effectively excluded thoron from the detector cup without affecting the sensitivity to radon. Field comparisons of the different membranes revealed that the thoron component was significant. Since there is only a very minor Rn220 emission from the mining operation, it is important that the monitoring be specific only to Rn222, the primary source term. The use of the new membrane will result in more accurate measurements of Rn222. 4 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

  15. Reduction of radon concentration in a basement workplace: study of the problem and characterization of the main parameters affecting the radon concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaberto, E.M.; Magnoni, M.; Righino, F.; Costa Laia, R.

    2002-01-01

    In this work is described the method used for the mitigation of high radon concentrations found in a basement workplace, the ARPA laboratory used for the metrology of EMF. In this lab was in fact measured a radon concentration up to 1900 Bq/m 3 , a value largely exceeding the Italian limit for workplaces (500 Bq/m 3 ). The basement workplace affected by radon is a room of around 500 m 3 with no windows and only one door, during work usually close, and therefore with a very low ventilation rate. In this workplace, usually two persons spent about 6 hour per day. Therefore their exposure to the radon and its decay products can attain a considerable value. For this people, accordingly to the accepted dosimetric models, an effective dose of several mSv per year could be estimated (ICRP Publication n. 65, 1993). It is thus important to reduce the radon concentration to acceptable levels, i.e. at least lower than 500 Bq/m 3 . This paper deals not only with the simple method used for the remedial action, but also to the investigation of the relevant parameters affecting the radon concentration. In particular, the monitoring of the radon concentration before and after the remedial action, allowed the calculation of the radon entry rates (Bq/s) and the ventilation rates (s-1) in the different experimental condition

  16. Working towards residential Radon survey in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, Jan M.; University of Ottawa, ON; Canoba, Analia C.; Shilnikova, Natalia S.; Veiga, Lene H. S.

    2008-01-01

    Information about residential radon levels in low and middle income countries is very sparse. In response to the World Health Organization initiative in the International Radon Project, we propose a research project that will address this knowledge gap in South America by conducting a residential radon survey. Following initial in vitro and in vivo studies of radon and studies of uranium miners exposed to radon, over twenty large case-control studies of lung cancer risk from exposure to residential radon have been completed worldwide by year 2004. Recently pooled data from these individual studies have been analyzed. These collaborative analyses of the indoor studies in Europe, North America, and China provide strong direct evidence that radon is causing a substantial number of lung cancers in the general population. To reduce radon lung cancer risk, national authorities must have methods and tools based on solid scientific evidence to develop sound public health policies. We propose to conduct a survey in ten South American countries using the distribution and analysis of passive alpha tracking detectors in houses selected at random in pre-selected cities in each participating country. We also present an approach to estimate the cost of carrying out such a survey and the radon laboratory infrastructure needed. The results of the proposed survey will allow to conduct assessment of the exposure to residential radon in the populations of South American countries and to assess the health impact of this exposure. The results of the project will also help national health authorities in developing national residential radon action levels and regulations, as well as provide public health guidance for radon awareness and mitigation. (author)

  17. Procedure for the characterization of radon potential in existing dwellings and to assess the annual average indoor radon concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collignan, Bernard; Powaga, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    Risk assessment due to radon exposure indoors is based on annual average indoor radon activity concentration. To assess the radon exposure in a building, measurement is generally performed during at least two months during heating period in order to be representative of the annual average value. This is because radon presence indoors could be very variable during time. This measurement protocol is fairly reliable but may be a limiting in the radon risk management, particularly during a real estate transaction due to the duration of the measurement and the limitation of the measurement period. A previous field study defined a rapid methodology to characterize radon entry in dwellings. The objective of this study was at first, to test this methodology in various dwellings to assess its relevance with a daily test. At second, a ventilation model was used to assess numerically the air renewal of a building, the indoor air quality all along the year and the annual average indoor radon activity concentration, based on local meteorological conditions, some building characteristics and in-situ characterization of indoor pollutant emission laws. Experimental results obtained on thirteen individual dwellings showed that it is generally possible to obtain a representative characterization of radon entry into homes. It was also possible to refine the methodology defined in the previous study. In addition, numerical assessments of annual average indoor radon activity concentration showed generally a good agreement with measured values. These results are encouraging to allow a procedure with a short measurement time to be used to characterize long-term radon potential in dwellings. - Highlights: • Test of a daily procedure to characterize radon potential in dwellings. • Numerical assessment of the annual radon concentration. • Procedure applied on thirteen dwellings, characterization generally satisfactory. • Procedure useful to manage radon risk in dwellings, for real

  18. A comparison study between radon concentration in schools and other workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clouvas, A.; Xanthos, S.

    2012-01-01

    The Nuclear Technology Laboratory of the Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki has since 1999 an open research project of indoor radon measurements in Greek workplaces. Since now 1380 measurements in 690 workplaces have been performed. Most (75 %) of the workplaces were offices in schools. The remaining 25 % were offices, mainly in public buildings. In the present study, a possible correlation between radon concentration in schools and other workplaces is investigated and discussed. (authors)

  19. A model to predict radon exhalation from walls to indoor air based on the exhalation from building material samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, B.K.; Sapra, B.K.; Gaware, J.J.; Kanse, S.D.; Mayya, Y.S.

    2011-01-01

    In recognition of the fact that building materials are an important source of indoor radon, second only to soil, surface radon exhalation fluxes have been extensively measured from the samples of these materials. Based on this flux data, several researchers have attempted to predict the inhalation dose attributable to radon emitted from walls and ceilings made up of these materials. However, an important aspect not considered in this methodology is the enhancement of the radon flux from the wall or the ceiling constructed using the same building material. This enhancement occurs mainly because of the change in the radon diffusion process from the former to the latter configuration. To predict the true radon flux from the wall based on the flux data of building material samples, we now propose a semi-empirical model involving radon diffusion length and the physical dimensions of the samples as well as wall thickness as other input parameters. This model has been established by statistically fitting the ratio of the solution to radon diffusion equations for the cases of three-dimensional cuboidal shaped building materials (such as brick, concrete block) and one dimensional wall system to a simple mathematical function. The model predictions have been validated against the measurements made at a new construction site. This model provides an alternative tool (substitute to conventional 1-D model) to estimate radon flux from a wall without relying on 226 Ra content, radon emanation factor and bulk density of the samples. Moreover, it may be very useful in the context of developing building codes for radon regulation in new buildings. - Research highlights: → A model is proposed to predict radon flux from wall using flux of building material. → It is established based on the diffusion mechanism in building material and wall. → Study showed a large difference in radon flux from building material and wall. → Model has been validated against the measurements made at

  20. Radon and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This publication proposes an overview on what is known about the carcinogenic effect of radon. It recalls the origin of radon, its presence in the environment, and its radioactivity. It comments data on the relationship between exposure to radon and lung cancer, and with other forms of cancer. It discusses the role of the exposure level, and the cases of professional and domestic exposure with respect to these risks. It indicates the hazardous areas in France which are well identified, outlines that smokers are more likely victims of risks related to radon, that this risk is still underrated and underestimated (notably by the public). It gives an overview of existing regulations regarding exposure to radon, of public health policies and national plans concerning radon, and recalls some WHO recommendations

  1. Radon concentration in a house of Calvados

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leleyter, L.; Riffault, B.; Mazenc, B.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies indicate a link between the risk of lung cancer and residential radon exposure. However, in France, awareness of this problem was made relatively late. Accordingly this study examines the radon concentration in a private home in Calvados (Normandy region). Findings show that the presence of a fireplace in a house can accelerate radon convective transfer, and that simple adjustments to interior and exterior accommodation can significantly reduce radon concentrations in the home. (authors)

  2. Radon gas as a tracer for volcanic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Radon emissions from volcanic systems have been under investigation for several decades. Soil gas and groundwater radon activities have been used to map faults and to characterize geothermal systems, and measurements of atmospheric radon and radon daughter concentrations have been used to estimate the volume of magma chambers feeding active eruptions. Several studies have also shown that temporal variations in radon concentration have been associated with the onset of volcanic eruptions or changes in the rates or character of an eruption. Some of these studies have been able to clearly define the cause of the radon anomalies but others have proposed models of radon emission and transport that are not well supported by the known physical and chemical processes that occur in a volcanic system. In order to better characterize the processes that control radon activities in volcanic systems, it is recommended that future radon monitoring programs attempt to maintain continuous recording of radon activities; individual radon measurements should be made over the shortest time intervals possible that are consistent with acceptable counting statistics and geophysical, meteorological, and hydrological parameters should be measured in order to better define the physical processes that affect radon activities in volcanic systems. (author). 63 refs

  3. An investigation into the knowledge and attitudes towards radon testing among residents in a high radon area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifford, Susan; Menezes, Gerard; Hevey, David

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of residents in the Castleisland area to radon. Castleisland in Co. Kerry was described as a high radon area following the discovery of a house in the area with radon levels 245 times that of the national reference level. Residents in this area were then asked to measure their homes for radon in the Castleisland radon survey. The uptake of this measurement was 17%. In order to investigate this response rate further, a questionnaire was designed and distributed to residents in the Castleisland area. This questionnaire measured the testing history of the participants, the reasons for testing/not testing, the factors important to them when considering having their home tested, radon knowledge and finally intentions to measure their home for radon. It was found that the main reason people do not test their home for radon is that they believe their home does not have a problem. Optimistic bias was thought to play a role here. The subjective norm component of the theory of planned behaviour was found to have a significant independent contribution in the variation in intentions to measure one’s home for radon and this in turn could be targeted to increase uptake of radon measurement in the future. (note)

  4. Radon awareness in Ireland: a assessment of the effectiveness of radon road shows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synnott, H.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In late 2004 the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (R.P.I.I.) initiated a series of radon road shows in areas designated as High Radon Areas 1 in the R.P.I.I. s national radon survey of homes. The main objective of these road shows was to provide information to a local audience on the risks of exposure to radon. These road shows target both employers and householders. Each road show has the same general format. A presentation and/or meeting with a major employer representative group within the area. The purpose is to make employers aware of the risks associated with exposure to radon in the workplace and to highlight their obligations under current Irish health and safety legislation regarding radon in the workplace. An information stand on radon manned by R.P.I.I. staff members in a local shopping centre or other similar area. This provides those concerned about radon with accessible information on radon exposure risks, how to measure radon and the steps a home owner could take to reduce radon concentrations where necessary. Where possible R.P.I.I. staff members visit one or more schools in the general area. A short presentation on radon was given to students and students were given an opportunity to asks questions Maximizing media exposure to publicize our visits is vital to the success of these visits. Each visit is preceded by a Press Release whose main aim is to brief local and national media on the radon issue so as to achieve maximum publicity mainly through radio and television coverage. In general the media are very interested in the whole radon area and R.P.I.I. staff members have given 57 radio and 10 television interviews to date since the commencement of this initiative. The four road shows carried out to date have been successful in encouraging householders to carry out radon measurements. Since the start of the road shows to the present, the R.P.I.I. has seen a 44% increase in the number of householders requesting radon

  5. Project Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekholm, S.

    1988-01-01

    The project started in March 1987. The objective is to perform radon monitoring in 2000 dwellings occupied by people employed by State Power Board and to continue to contribute to the development of radon filters. The project participates in developing methods for radon measurement and decontamination and in adapting the methods to large scale application. About 400 so called radon trace measurements (coarse measurement) and about 10 action measurements (decontamination measurement) have been made so far. Experience shows that methods are fully applicable and that the decontamination measures recommended give perfectly satisfactory results. It is also established that most of the houses with high radon levels have poor ventilation Many of them suffer from moisture and mould problems. The work planned for 1988 and 1989 will in addition to measurements be directed towards improvement of the measuring methods. An activity catalogue will be prepared in cooperation with ventilation enterprises. (O.S.)

  6. Express-Air Screen-System to protect miners against radon exposures at small underground construction sites in old mining; Express-Wetterblenden-System zum Sofort-Schutz von Bergleuten vor Radonexpositionen bei untertaegigen Bergsicherungsarbeiten im Altbergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehnert, J. [Saechsisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie (Germany). Referat Strahlenschutz; Stopp, J. [Aluminiumbau und Verwaltungs GmbH Stopp, Schneeberg (Germany); Schoenherr, B. [Bergsicherung Schneeberg GmbH (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    A new Express-Air Screen-System (EAS) for miners was developed to reduce the radon exposures of miners at small construction sites of old mining. The EAS is a lightweight, modular and reusable construction kit of interlocking telescopic aluminum tubes, plastic foils and glue foam to shut off radon rich parts of galleries in some minutes only.

  7. Radon estimation in water resources of Mandi - Dharamshala region of Himachal Pradesh, India for health risk assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gulshan; Kumari, Punam; Kumar, Mukesh; Kumar, Arvind; Prasher, Sangeeta; Dhar, Sunil

    2017-07-01

    The present study deals with the radon estimation in 40 water samples collected from different natural resources and radium content in the soils of Mandi-Dharamshala Region. Radon concentration is determined by using RAD-7 detector and radium contents of the soil in vicinity of water resources is as well measured by using LR-115 type - II detector, which is further correlated with radon concentration in water samples. The potential health risks related with 222Rn have also been estimated. The results show that the radon concentrations within the range of 1.51 to 22.7Bq/l with an average value of 5.93 Bq/l for all type of water samples taken from study area. The radon concentration in water samples is found lower than 100Bq/l, the exposure limit of radon in water recommended by the World Health Organization. The calculated average effective dose of radon received by the people of study area is 0.022 mSv/y with maximum of 0.083 mSv/y and minimum 0.0056 mSv/y. The total effective dose in all sites of the studied area is found to be within the safe limit (0.1 mSv/year) recommended by World Health Organization. The average value of radium content in the soil of study area is 6.326 Bq/kg.

  8. Study of radon progeny distribution and radiation dose rate in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujinami, Naoto

    2009-01-01

    The absorbed dose rate in air of airborne gamma-ray and the concentration of radon progeny in surface air have been observed continuously in Maizuru, Japan. When data observed on fine days were plotted, with dose rate as ordinate and contraction as abscissa, these points traced with a lapse of time illustrated an anticlockwise looping for each day. This result suggests that the variation of absorbed dose rate lags behind that of concentration of radon progeny; this is due to the delay time incurred as the concentration level gradually varies from ground surface to upper air. Radon progeny concentrations in precipitation and in surface air have been observed there in order to study the relationship between the two concentrations and the influence of precipitation patterns on the concentration in precipitation. Results obtained from analysis of the observed data suggest that radon progeny in precipitation originate mainly from scavenging within the cloud (rainout) and not from that below the cloud (washout). (author)

  9. Identifying the site of granite uranium deposit with radon survey and soil-natural themoluminescence survey. A case study of Xiazhuang granite uranium field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yaxin; Wu Yamei; Wu Xinmin; Chen Yue; Zheng Yongming; Zhang Ye; Wu Lieqin

    2007-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces the methods and procedures for field and indoor radon survey and themoluminescence (TL) survey. The application of these two methods to Xiazhuang uranium field in Guangdong province shows: (1) the positive anomalies of radon survey coincide well with fractured zone and the positive anomalies of TL survey response to uranium mineralization on granite type uranium deposit of silicated fracture zone, the uranium deposit can be effectively explored when these two kinds of anomalies match together. (2) the positive anomalies of radon survey coincide well with fractured zone and the positive anomalies of TL response to the position that intersection between the fractured zone and diabase dyke is projected on the ground. (authors)

  10. Indoor Radon Exposure in Italian Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Azara

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to assess radon concentration in schoolrooms in a city located in the midwest of Italy. Methods: A two-phase environmental study was carried out in 19 school buildings of 16 primary, secondary, and tertiary schools. Results: Median (interquartile range—IQR indoor radon concentration in schoolrooms was 91.6 (45.0–140.3 Bq/m3. The highest (median 952.8 Bq/m3 radon concentration was found in one (3.6% classroom, located in a building of a primary school whose median concentration was 185 Bq/m3. Radon concentration was significantly correlated with the number of students and teachers, foundation wall construction material, and with the absence of underground floors. A geopedological survey was performed close to the building with highest radon level, showing the presence of granite and tonalithic granodiorite in the soil. Conclusions: Radon levels should be routinely assessed where individuals live or work. Schools are susceptible targets, because of childhood stay and the long daily stay of occupants. Low-cost interventions, such as implementation of natural air ventilation and school maintenance, can reduce radon levels, limiting individual exposure.

  11. A Radon Chamber without Radium Source for Detector Calibration and Radon Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Azmi, D.; Karunakara, N.

    2008-01-01

    A radon chamber of volume 216 liters was designed and constructed for calibration of radon detectors and radon test measurements. The main feature of this chamber is that the active 226 Ra source, to generate the 222 Rn inside the chamber volume, is not required. Instead, 222 Rn from soil gas is utilized for this purpose. The supply of radon comes from the soil gas. Soil gas is drawn from the soil to fill the chamber with high radon concentration levels (∼ 80 kBq/m3). Desired radon concentration levels can be obtained by drawing the soil gas for different time durations and/or flow rate (author)

  12. Radon reduction in waterworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raff, O.; Haberer, K.; Wilken, R.D.; Funk, H.; Stueber, J.; Wanitschek, J.; Akkermann-Kubillus, A.; Stauder, S.

    2000-01-01

    The removal of radon from water using water aeration is one of the most effective methods for reducing radon in waterworks. Therefore, this report describes investigations on packed tower columns and shallow aeration devices and a method for mathematical modelling of gas exchange processes for dimensioning packed tower columns for radon removal. Moreover, possibilities for removing radon using active carbon filtration under waterworks typical conditions and for reducing indoor radon levels in waterworks are discussed. Finally, conclusions on the necessity of radon removal in German waterworks are drawn. (orig.) [de

  13. Radon and hydrotherapy: application to French spas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ameon, R.

    2004-01-01

    Owing to the use of thermal water for treatments, the dissolved radon ends up, through degassing, in the atmosphere of the various spa premises. According to the type of treatments, the radon activity concentration in the air is very variable; it depends on two factors, the supply of thermal water, and therefore of radon, and the ventilation of the various premises. In unfavourable, even non-existent, ventilation conditions, it is not uncommon to measure radon concentration reaching several thousands of becquerels per air cubic meter. These high values of radon activity concentration, with or without its short-lived daughters, may lead to a staff exposure of approximately ten or several tens of mSv per year. A French spa was subject to a radon 'expertise' during which the radon source terms, 'ground in contact with the buildings' and 'thermal water' were characterized. The radon mapping in the internal atmosphere of the various spa premises and the workstations' analysis resulted in an assessment of the exposure due to radon inhalation. This study showed that on workstations, notably linked to hydrotherapy, the staff exposure to radon is in the same range as the dose assessments from foreign studies. The implementation of an appropriate ventilation of the treatment rooms and a better management of the thermal water in the spa resulted in a significant reduction of staff exposure

  14. Radon house doctor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, I.A.; Brennan, T.; Wadach, J.B.; O'Neil, R.

    1986-01-01

    The term house doctor may be generalized to include persons skilled in the use of instruments and procedures necessary to identify, diagnose, and correct indoor air quality problems as well as energy, infiltration, and structural problems in houses. A radon house doctor would then be a specialist in radon house problems. Valuable experience in the skills necessary to be developed by radon house doctors has recently been gained in an extensive radon monitoring and mitigation program in upstate New York sponsored by Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. These skills, to be described in detail in this paper, include: (i) the use of appropriate instruments, (ii) the evaluation of the symptoms of a radon-sick house, (iii) the diagnostic procedures required to characterize radon sources in houses, (iv) the prescription procedures needed to specify treatment of the problem, (v) the supervision of the implementation of the treatment program, (vi) the check-up procedures required to insure the house cured of radon problems. 31 references, 3 tables

  15. Radon and radon daughters' concentration in spring and wells waters from Presidente Prudente: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio, Ana Maria Araya; Saenz, Carlos Alberto Tello; Pereira, Luiz Augusto Stuani

    2009-01-01

    This work presents the preliminary results about the concentration of radon and radon daughters in wells and springs water from Presidente Prudente. Six water samples were studied: three from well-water, two from springs water and one from potable water. For the determination of α-activity the samples were placed inside plastic containers where the CR-39 tracks detectors were outside the water. The track density of α-particles were measured by using optical microscopy. The results show that one sample from well-water presented higher concentration of radon and radon daughters than the other samples. (author)

  16. Relation between residential radon concentrations and housing characteristics. The Cracow study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jedrychowski, W.; Flak, E.; Wesolowski, J.; Liu Kaishen

    1995-01-01

    The survey on indoor radon exposure was undertaken to explain whether the excess in lung cancer deaths in the Cracow city center may be attributed to this particular exposure. A total of 310 detectors was placed in households randomly chosen from three homogeneous strata of residential buildings. The first stratum included houses in the old city center constructed predominantly from stone bricks. The second stratum covered the city area with big apartment condominiums built from concrete blocks. The third stratum consisted of single family houses located in a suburban area. From each of these residency strata a random sample of an equal number of households was chosen, and the radon detectors were placed in households located at various levels of the buildings. The three-month radon sampling data were used to determine the distribution of various levels of radon in the households. In the measurement of radon exposure, Landauer α-track samplers were used. The data collected show that the type of building was the best single predictor of indoor radon concentrations. Other variables found to be associated significantly with indoor concentrations were the household level in the building and the house age. In general, residences with concrete slabs and dwellings with rarely-opened windows were found to have slightly higher radon concentrations. (author) 2 tabs., 15 refs

  17. Radon gas monitoring survey for the determination of Radon Prone Areas in Lombardia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolo, D. de; Alberici, A.; Gallini, R.; Maggioni, T.; Mondini, A.; Zini, E. [A.R.P.A. della Lombardia, Milano (Italy); Arrigoni, S.; Cazzaniga, P.; Cugini, A.; Gallinari, G.; Olivieri, F.; Romanelli, M. [A.R.P.A. della Lombardia, Dipt. di Bergamo, Bergamo (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    Region Lombardia has carried out a radon gas monitoring survey on its territory to localize radon prone areas as by law 241/00 enacted. To plan the survey, the Lombardia territory has been divided into two different types according to the morphology as well as the presence of a substratum of rock. The area with hills and mountains has been investigated with more attention compared to the plain because we can assume higher variability in radon concentration distribution due to the geological and morphological characteristics. The territory subdivision was based on the standard grid.. of the techniregional cartography (8 x 5 km). To perform radon indoor concentration measurements about 3600 measuring points were selected. They are located at the ground floor of buildings with the characteristics to ensure the tests are representative and comparable. It has also been taken into account evaluations done with previous surveys in accordance with the defined specification of the sites. The measurements were carried out using C.R. 39 trace detector technique. The detectors were contained in closed plastic canisters and they were positioned in situ for one year and measured each semester. The detectors were chemically treated and the traces counted using the automated optical system installed at the Radiometric Laboratory of the A.R.P.A. Department in Bergamo. The instrument accuracy and precision were evaluated using data obtained with different methods: using detectors exposed to radon known concentrations, participating to an international intercomparison as well as exposing the detector in a national calibration centre. Due to the large amount of detectors involved, a particular attention was taken for the detector homogeneity response and for the optimization of the analysis parameters. For further investigating the reliability of the measurements, two detectors were used in parallel in 10% of the tests. The results show higher values in the areas of Bergamo, Brescia

  18. Characterizing the source of radon indoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nero, A.V.; Nazaroff, W.W.

    1983-09-01

    Average indoor radon concentrations range over more than two orders of magnitude, largely because of variability in the rate at which radon enters from building materials, soil, and water supplies. Determining the indoor source magnitude requires knowledge of the generation of radon in source materials, its movement within materials by diffusion and convection, and the means of its entry into buildings. This paper reviews the state of understanding of indoor radon sources and transport. Our understanding of generation rates in and movement through building materials is relatively complete and indicates that, except for materials with unusually high radionuclide contents, these sources can account for observed indoor radon concentrations only at the low end of the range observed. Our understanding of how radon enters buildings from surrounding soil is poorer, however recent experimental and theoretical studies suggest that soil may be the predominant source in many cases where the indoor radon concentration is high. 73 references, 3 figures, 1 table

  19. Measurements of indoor radon concentration in Libyan cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elarabiy, S. F.; Khalifa, M.; Misrati, N.; Chahboune, N.; Ahmed, M.

    2012-12-01

    Studies confirm that the risk of exposure to indor radon is attributable to lung cancer worldwide. The relationship between radon exposure and cancer is a linear one which necessitates for need for measurements of indoor radon concentration. This paper presents the results of measurements of indoor radon in several libya cities using CR-39 plastic. The results showed that the average radon concentration in the cities of Tripoli, Al-harcha and Alrajaban were 48.8 Bg/m 3 , 51.4 Bg/m 3 and 55.5 Bg/m 3 respectively. The average indoor radon concentration in Libya is low comparing with other studies. (Author)

  20. The radon anomaly of Porcheresse (Ardennes, Belgium). A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlet, J.M.; Zhu, H.C.; Poffijn, A.

    1999-01-01

    From a very high radon concentration in a dwelling of the village of Porcheresse (Belgium), the paper discusses on of the significance of the numerous radon indoor anomalies detected in the Southern part of Belgium

  1. Comparison of radon and radon-daughter grab samples obtained during the winter and summer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, K.E.

    1987-08-01

    The Technical Measurements Center (TMC), under the auspices of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) program, is investigating short-term methods for estimating annual average indoor radon-daughter concentrations (RDC). A field study at 40 sample locations in 26 residential structures in Grand Junction, Colorado, was conducted once in the winter and once in the summer. The short-term methods investigated as part of this study include ten-minute radon and radon-daughter grab sampling and hourly RDC measurements. The results of the field study indicate that ten-minute radon grab samples from basement locations are reproducible over different seasons during controlled sampling conditions. Nonbasement radon and RDC grab samples are highly variable even when the use of the location by the occupant is controlled and the ventilation rate is restricted. The grab sampling was performed under controlled occupied conditions. These results confirm that a short-term radon or RDC measurement in a nonbasement location in a house is not a standardized measurement that can be used to infer an annual average concentration. The hourly RDC measurements were performed under three sets of conditions over a 72-hour period. The three sets of conditions were uncontrolled occupied, controlled occupied, and controlled unoccupied. These results indicate that it is not necessary to relocate the occupants during the time of grab sampling. 8 refs., 8 figs., 10 tabs

  2. Study on radon concentration monitoring using activated charcoal canisters in high humidity environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuexing; Wang Haijun; Yang Yifang; Qin Sichang; Wang Zhentao; Zhang Zhenjiang

    2009-01-01

    The effects of humidity on the sensitivity using activated charcoal canisters for measuring radon concentrations in high humidity environments were studied. Every canister filled with 80 g of activated charcoal, and they were exposed to 48 h or 72 h in the relative humidity of 68%, 80%, 88% and 96% (28 degree C), respectively. The amount of radon absorbed in the canisters was determined by counting the gamma rays from 214 Pb and 214 Bi (radon progeny). The results showed that counts decreased with the increase of relative humidity. There was a negative linear relationship between count and humidity. In the relative humidity range of 68%-96%, the sensitivity of radon absorption decreased about 2.4% for every 1% (degree)rise in humidity. The results also showed that the exposure time of the activated charcoal canisters should be less than 3 days. (authors)

  3. γ-Ray spectrometry of radon in water and the role of radon to representatively sample aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talha, S.A.; Lindsay, R.; Newman, R.T.; Meijer, R.J. de; Maleka, P.P.; Hlatshwayo, I.N.; Mlwilo, N.A.; Mohanty, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of radon in water by γ-ray spectrometry using a HPGe detector has been investigated to determine aquifer characteristics. The radon activity concentration is determined by taking the weighted average of the concentrations derived from γ-ray lines associated with 214 Pb and 214 Bi decay. The role of accurate radon data to representatively sample aquifers was also investigated by studying a semi-cased borehole. A simplified physical model describing the change of radon concentration with the pumping time, reproduces the data and predicts the time for representative sampling of the aquifer

  4. Concentration variation of radon in the room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komaruzaman Mohd Noor; Haziman Hassan; Rosli Mahat; Yusof Md Amin

    1995-01-01

    The study was carried out to determine the variation of radon concentration in the room. Radon detector used was solid nuclear tracks detector (SSNTD) LR-115. From this result, suitable points to make radon measurement was determined

  5. A study on surveillance of environmental factors affecting the variation of indoor radon concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Shin Ae; Kim, Ok Ja; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Cho, Eun Ok; Choi, Yun Sun; Choi, Jin Kyeong; Park, Seon Hye; Han, Hyeon Sun [Hankook Research, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    Before the main survey, a preliminary survey was carried out to decide the most suitable type of a radon detector the most appropriate places to install such a radon detector. To this end, three types of detectors were set up in 108 locations, approximately 3% of 3,000 to measure the radon levels, and 102 detectors(94%) were collected. As a result of the preliminary survey, Radtrack was chosen as a radon detector for the main survey, and bedrooms on the first floor of houses and the first floor of public buildings were decided to be the places for the first installment of detectors. It is most desirable to survey the radon concentrations in all houses nationwide. Considering the survey period and budgets, however, 3,000 spots were targeted for the main survey at the recommendation of the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety in charge of this study. As it is important to maintain the same panels for a year to measure the radon concentrations at 3,000 locations, a total of 3,237 panels, 10% more than the target sample number, were surveyed considering the possible loss of panels during the survey period. The first radon detector was installed in each of 3,237 spots in December 1999, and collected three months later in March 2000, followed by the installment of the second detector.

  6. Instruments to measure radon-222 activity concentration or exposure to radon-222. Intercomparison 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, Elisabeth; Beck, Thomas; Buchroeder, Helmut; Doering, Joachim; Schmidt, Volkmar

    2014-10-01

    According to the Directive 96/29/EURATOM the monitoring of occupational radiation exposures shall base on individual measurements carried out by an approved dosimetric service. Pursuant to the European Directive an approved dosimetric service is a body responsible for the calibration, reading or interpretation of individual monitoring devices.., whose capacity to act in this respect is recognized by the competent authorities. This concept will also be applied to radon services issuing passive radon measurement devices. Passive radon measurement devices 1 using solid state nuclear track detectors or electrets are recommended for individual monitoring of exposures to radon. German regulations lay down that radon measuring devices are appropriate for purposes of occupational radiation monitoring if the devices are issued by recognized radon measurement services, and the measurement service submits devices of the same type issued for radon monitoring to regular intercomparisons conducted by the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS). A radon measuring service is recognized by the competent authority if it proves its organisational and technical competence, e. g. by accreditation. These regulations have been introduced in the area of occupational radiation exposures. Nevertheless, it is recommended that radon measuring services which carry out radon measurements in other areas (e.g. dwellings) should subject themselves to these measures voluntarily. The interlaboratory comparisons comprise the organization, exposure, and evaluation of measurements of radon activity concentration or exposure to radon. The comparisons only concern radon-222; radon-220 is not in the scope. Radon services being interested can get further information from the European Information System on Proficiency Testing Schemes (EPTIS) and from the BfS websites.

  7. Radon in workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, A.; Lehmann, K.-H.; Reineking, A.; Porstendoerfer, J.; Schwedt, J.; Streil, T.

    2000-01-01

    The radiological assessment of the results of radon measurements in dwellings is not automatically applicable to workplaces due to different forms of utilization, constructional conditions, time of exposure, heating and ventilation conditions, additional aerosol sources, aerosol parameters, chemical substances, etc. In order to investigate the peculiarities of the radon situation in workplaces located inside buildings compared with that in dwellings, long-time recordings of radon, attached radon progeny and unattached radon progeny concentrations ( 218 Po, 214 Pb, 214 Bi) are carried out at several categories of workplaces (e.g. offices, social establishments, schools, production rooms, workshops, kitchens, agricultural facilities). 36 workplaces have been investigated. There have been carried out at least 2-3 long-time recordings for each workplace during different seasons. At the same time the gamma dose rate, meteorological conditions, aerosol particle concentrations have been registered. Many special dates from the workplaces and the buildings have been recorded. Activity size distribution of the aerosol-attached and unattached fraction of short-lived radon decay products have been determinated in 20 workplaces. Mainly the following measurement systems were used: Radon- and Radon Progeny Monitor EQF 3020, SARAD GmbH, Germany. Alpha-Track Radon Detectors, BfS Berlin, Germany. Screen Diffusion Batteries with Different Screens, University of Goettingen, Germany. Low-Pressure Cascade Impactor, Type BERNER. Condensation Nuclei Counter, General Electric, USA. PAEC-f p -Rn-Monitor, University of Goettingen, Germany. Through the measurements, many peculiarities in the course of the radon-concentration, the equilibrium factor F, the unattached fraction f p and the activity size distribution have been determined. These amounts are influenced mainly by the working conditions and the working intervals. The influence of these peculiarities in workplaces on the dose have

  8. Appendix to radon and radon-daughter concentrations in air in the vicinity of the Anaconda Uranium Mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momeni, M.H.; Lindstrom, J.B.; Dungey, C.E.; Kisieleski, W.E.

    1979-11-01

    Information is presented on the following subjects: site characteristics - stratigraphic description and water-bearing characteristics; meteorology - pooled observations made at two stations of windspeed, wind direction, and stability class; radon concentrations in air at various stations; and, frequencies of occurrence of given working levels at various stations

  9. Evaluation of radon concentration in well and tap waters in Bursa (Turkey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akar Tarim, U.; Gurler, O.; Akkaya, G.; Kilic, N.; Yalcin, S.; Kaynak, G.; Gundogdu, O.

    2012-01-01

    222 Rn measurements in water samples collected from 27 wells and 19 taps that were supplied from the investigated wells were conducted using the AlphaGUARD PQ 2000PRO radon gas analyser at sites across several geologic formations within the city of Bursa (Turkey). The measured radon concentrations ranged from 1.46 to 53.64 Bq l -1 for well water and from 0.91 to 12.58 Bq l -1 for tap water. Of the 27 sites sampled, only 7 had radon levels above the safe limit of 11.1 Bq l -1 recommended by the USEPA. In general, all determined concentrations were well below the 100 Bq l -1 revised reference level proposed by the European Union. These values of radon concentrations in water samples are compared with those reported from other countries. Doses resulting from the consumption of these waters were calculated. The minimum and the maximum annual mean effective doses due to 222 Rn intake through water consumption were 0.02 μSv a -1 and 1.11 μSv a -1 , respectively. (authors)

  10. Behavior of radon and its decay products in physical media; Comportamiento de radon y sus productos en medios fisicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez B, A

    1990-06-15

    This study was carried out to know the radon behavior, it shows some of its decay products of short life, the same as the equations that describe the growth of the activity of each decay product in a source that initially is radon. The study threw results that they are applicable in geology, uranium prospecting, as well as in radiological safety. The use of membranes to filter the decay products of radon and the use of these for protection of the detector, it has opened a new line in the study of the radon. (Author)

  11. Environmental radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.K.; Schmalz, R.F.; Miller, E.W.

    1990-01-01

    This book covers many aspects of environmental radon, including: historical perspectives; occurrence and properties; detection, measurement, and mitigation, radon and health; and political, economic, and legislative impacts

  12. Biological radiation effects of Radon in Drosophila; Efectos biologicos del radon en Drosophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel P, A E

    1996-12-31

    In order to contribute to the knowledge on the effects of radon and its decay products, the aim of this investigation is to study the biological effects of radon using Drosophila melanogaster throught the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) and the analysis of some adaptative factors exposing larvaes to controlled radon atmosphers, considering that this insect could be used as biological monitor. Using the somatic mutation test a mutagenic effect was observed proportional to radon concentration, into an interval of 1 {+-} 0.3 to 111 {+-} 7.4 KBq/m{sup 3} equivalent to doses under 0.0106 Gy. The correlation analysis gives a linear (r=0.80) relationship with a positive slope of 0.2217. The same happens when gamma rays are used in the interval of 1 to 20 Gy, given a linear dose-dependent effect (r=0.878) is obtained; nevetheless the slop is smaller (m=0.003) than for radon. Analysing the results of adaptative factors of the nine exposed generations, it was found that probably radon exposition induced dominant lethals during gametogenesis or/and a selection of the more component gamets of the treated individuals in larval state. It was reflected in the significant decrease on fecundity of the generation exposed. Nevertheless the laying eggs had an increase in egg-to-adult viability and the develop velocity was higher than in control for 3 KBq/m{sup 3}, this suggest that radon concentrations used were able to induce repair mechanisms. These data agree with the Hormesis hypothesis that says: low doses have positive effects on health. It was not possible to obtain a dose-effect relationship except with the develop velocity where it was found a dose-effect inverse proportion. In conclusion, Drosophila melanogaster could be a good system to obtain in vivo damaged induction concentration dependent of radon and its decay products, as well as to study the effects in an exposed population by the analysis of adaptative factors. (Author).

  13. Radon derived air mass fetch regions during the ACE-Asia campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, S.; Zahorowski, W.; Werczynski, S.; Wang, T.; Poon, S.; Kim, J.; Oh, S.-N.; Knag, H.; Uematsu, M.; Matsumoto, K.

    2003-01-01

    Seasonal variations in fetch regions for air masses exhibiting the greatest and least terrestrial influence at three sites in East Asia are discussed. Results are based on the first year of hourly atmospheric radon concentration observations made as part of the Asian Aerosol Characterisation Experiment (ACE-Asia). Fetch regions for Asian continental outflow to the Pacific Basin within the boundary layer are shown to be distinct from corresponding tropospheric outflow events. Analysis of the hourly radon time series in conjunction with back trajectory analysis indicates the presence of a large localised radon source in south eastern China

  14. Measurement of radon flux and tailings parameters for quantifying the source term due to radon exhalation from U tailings pile at Jaduguda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, B.K.; Mayya, Y.S.; Sapra, B.K.; Gaware, J.J.; Khuswaha, H.S.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The exposures from radon ( 222 Rn) and its decay products have been received considerable attention in the world community because of their adverse health effect. There are various natural and man-made sources of radon present in our environment. Among the man-made sources, the U tailings (waste product from U mining and milling facility) may be considered an important one because it contains significant amount of 226 Ra activity after the U extraction from the ore bodies. These tailings (slurry form) are being impounded into a repository site nearby the facility called 'Tailings Pile' (TP). Significant amount of radon emission takes place from this area by the process of emanation and exhalation. Hence, a study was taken up to quantify the source term arising due to radon emission from uranium tailings pile at Jaduguda in Jharkhand state. In-situ experiments were conducted at 40 locations of the uranium tailings pile in three seasons namely summer, rainy and winter to measure the radon fluxes. The measurements were carried out by deploying a cylindrical chamber, attached to a continuous radon monitor, on the surface of the tailings pile. The dimension of the chamber was selected by using a recently developed two dimensional theory of soil chamber, so that radon concentration growth will be in exponential fashion and the data generated within 2-3 hours of deployment period will be sufficient for accurately deriving the actual radon flux. After the data collection, the fluxes were derived by fitting an exponential growth function to the plot of radon concentration with time. The fluxes were also predicted by diffusion theory using the measured tailings parameters such as 226 Ra content, radon emanation factor, porosity, temperature and moisture. An excellent matching between the predicted and measured fluxes was observed. The validity of diffusion theory in the matrix of U tailings pile provides an alternate method for back-calculating the tailings

  15. Radon as a remedy - radiobiological and medical aspects, risk; Radon als Heilmittel - strahlenbiologische und medizinische Aspekte, Risiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, E.R.; Nuernberger, E.; Martignoni, K. [Inst. fuer Strahlenhygiene des Bundesamtes fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim/Neuherberg (Germany)

    1995-09-01

    For years there have been controversial discussions about the benefit and risk of radon-balneo-therapy. This is particularly true where the inhalation of radon and its daughter products in curative galleries is concerned. Animal experiments and studies on uranium miners have clearly shown that the exposure with radon and its daughter products is connected with an additional risk for lung cancer. Findings on balneo-therapeutic mechanisms are, at best, incomplete and the topic of controversial discussions in radiobiology. This applies specifically to `hormesis` or `adaptive response`, as indicated in this context. Given the numerous reports of therapeutic results, there appear to be curative effects from radon-balneotherapy for special indications. (orig.) [Deutsch] Nutzen und Risiko der Radon-Balneotherapie werden seit Jahren widerspruechlich diskutiert. Dies gilt insbesondere fuer die Inhalation des Radons und seiner Folgeprodukte in Heilstollen. Tierversuche und Untersuchungen bei Uranbergleuten haben eindeutig gezeigt, dass mit der Exposition durch Radon und seinen Folgeprodukten ein zusaetzliches Lungenkrebsrisiko verbunden ist. Erkenntnisse zum Wirkungsmechanismus der Radon-Balneotherapie liegen allenfalls in Ansaetzen vor und werden in der Strahlenbiologie kontrovers diskutiert. Dies gilt insbesondere fuer die in diesem Zusammenhang angefuehrte `Hormesis` bzw. `Adaptive Response`. Geht man von den zahlreich berichteten therapeutischen Erfahrungen aus, so scheint es Hinweise auf Heileffekte der Radon-Balneotherapie fuer spezielle Indikationen zu geben. (orig.)

  16. Determination of radon in soil and water in parts of Accra, and generation of preliminary radon map for Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osei, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The research was focused on determining the radon levels in soil and water in parts of Accra, generate a preliminary radon map for Ghana and estimate a pilot reference level for the country, using the data obtained from this research and collated data from other researchers. The radon gas measurement was done with the passive method, using the SSNTDs which are sensitive to alpha particles emitted by radon. Cellulose nitrate LR – 115 type II alpha particle detectors were used. The detectors were chemically etched in a 2.5 M NaOH solution at a temperature of 60 °C for 90 minutes, after two weeks and two months of exposure to soil and water respectively. The images of the etched detectors were acquired by means of a scanner and then tracks counted with ImageJ software. Inverse Distance Weighing (IDW) method of ArcGIS 10.2 was used to spatially distribute the radon concentration on a map. The average soil radon concentration in the study area ranges from 0.191 kBqm"-"3 to 3.416 kBqm"-"3 with a mean of 1.193 kBqm"-"3. The radon concentration in water from the study area ranges from 0.00346 BqL"-"1 to 0.00538 BqL"-"1 with an average of 0.00456 BqL"-"1. A strong negative correlation has been established between radon in soil and water in the study area. The preliminary national average indoor, water and soil radon concentrations are 137 Bqm"-"3, 361.93 Bqm"-"3 and 3716.74 Bqm"-"3 respectively. The average levels of water and indoor radon exceeded WHO’s reference level of 100 Bqm"-"3. Accordingly, the pilot national indoor radon reference level for Ghana is set as 200 Bqm"-"3. (au)

  17. Public radiation exposure due to radon transport from a uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akber, R.A.; Johnston, A.; Pfitzner, J.

    1992-01-01

    Radon and radon daughter concentrations at locations several kilometres away from a uranium mine are due both to the background sources and the mine-related sources. The contribution of these two types of sources should be distinguished because the authorised limits on public radiation dose apply only to the mine-related sources. Such a distinction can be achieved by measuring radon and radon daughter concentration in the wind sectors containing only the background sources and those in the wind sectors containing both the background and the mine-related sources. This approach has been used to make estimates of public radiation dose due to radon transport from the Ranger Uranium Mine in Australia. The residential town of Jabiru, the non-residential working town of Jabiru East, and the aboriginal camp sites in the vicinity of the mine were considered. The results indicate that, for the groups of population considered, the annual mine-related dose varies between 0.04 and 0.2 mSv. (author)

  18. Radon-film-badges by solid radiators to complement track detector-based radon monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tommasino, L.; Tommasino, M.C.; Viola, P.

    2009-01-01

    Existing passive radon monitors, based on track detectors, present many shortcomings, such as a limited response sensitivity for one-week-indoor measurements and a limited response linearity for the assessment of large radon exposures indoors, in thermal spa, in caves, and in soil. Moreover, for in-soil measurements these monitors are too bulky and are often conducive to wrong results. For what concerns the radon-in-water measurements, they are just not suitable. A new generation of passive radon monitors is introduced in this paper, which are very similar to the compact badges used in neutron- and gamma-dosimetry and will be referred to as radon-film-badges. These film-badges are formed by thin-film radiators with suitable radon-sorption characteristics, facing track detectors. The key strategy adopted for these radiators is to exploit an equilibrium type of radon sorption in solids. Even though this new generation of passive monitors is at its infancy, it appears already clear that said monitors make it finally possible to overcome most of the shortcomings of existing passive radon monitors. These devices are uniquely simple and can be easily acquired by any existing radon service to complement their presently used passive radon monitors with little or no effort.

  19. Radon in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connell, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    This guide is intended to inform designers, householders and other building owners about the radon problem and to help in deciding if there is need to take any action to reduce radon levels in their homes or other buildings.It explains what radon is, how it enters buildings and what effect it may have on health. Reference is made to some of the usual ways of reducing the level of radon and guidance is given on some sources of assistance

  20. Study of radon-222 emanation from sedimentary phosphates and corresponding phosphogypsum. Temperature effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boujrhal, F.M.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effect of temperature on radon emanation from the phosphates of various regions of Morocco, from corresponding phosphogypsum and from teeth fossilized of Youssoufia phosphate. The interpretation of obtained results was carried out by the physicochemical studies with various approaches; the X-ray diffraction analysis, the measurement of the specific surface area and porousness, the determination of the oxygen content by activation analysis with 14 MeV neutron. The thermal treatment between 100 and 900 degrees C conducted to the following points: - An increase of the radon degassing rate, which is first slow when the temperature increase from 20 to 600 degrees C, then becomes brutal beyond this temperature. We attributed this variation to the training effect ( transport effect ) of radon by the others gas susceptible to be released with thermal effect, particularly the CO sub 2. - The reduction of the radon emanation power versus temperature. We could demonstrate a linear correlation between the power emanation and the specific surface area. 122 refs., 102 figs., 20 tabs. (Author)

  1. Field GE gamma spectrometry for on site measurements of some parameters characterizing radon-222 exhalation rates from soils and covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zettwoog, P.; Kobal, I.; Pineau, J.F.

    1997-01-01

    We describe a new method based on differential gamma spectrometry for on site determination of some of the parameters which are relevant for the production of radon 222 in soil gas and its transfer from soil to indoor and outdoor atmospheres. This method is investigated in the context of a 3-year Slovenian-French cooperation programme, the PROTEUS project. We are currently using a germanium detector of 100 cm 3 . The height of the 20 deg. C collimated detector above the soil surface is from 1.5 to 3 m when using a tripod. This arrangement provides results which are representative of soil areas ranging from 1 to 4 square metres. Routine measurements would require larger detector volumes. The main objective is to provide technology and methodology for an efficient mapping of zones with potential for being the source of a high level of indoor radon, eliminating the need for soil sampling followed by laboratory analysis. The feasibility of an airborne mapping laboratory flying at low altitude will be investigated. Another objective is the rapid measurement of radon profiles across covers used to reduce exhalation rates from the surface of a pile of tailings, with characterisation of the influence of humidity content of the top layer. Airborne survey would allow for measuring exhalations from surfaces of slurries not otherwise accessible. (author)

  2. Modeled atmospheric radon concentrations from uranium mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droppo, J.G.

    1985-04-01

    Uranium mining and milling operations result in the release of radon from numerous sources of various types and strengths. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Clean Air Act, is assessing the health impact of air emissions of radon from underground uranium mines. In this case, the radon emissions may impact workers and residents in the mine vicinity. To aid in this assessment, the EPA needs to know how mine releases can affect the radon concentrations at populated locations. To obtain this type of information, Pacific Northwest Laboratory used the radon emissions, release characteristics and local meterological conditions for a number of mines to model incremental radon concentrations. Long-term, average, incremental radon concentrations were computed based on the best available information on release rates, plume rise parameters, number and locations of vents, and local dispersion climatology. Calculations are made for a model mine, individual mines, and multiple mines. Our approach was to start with a general case and then consider specific cases for comparison. A model underground uranium mine was used to provide definition of the order of magnitude of typical impacts. Then computations were made for specific mines using the best mine-specific information available for each mine. These case study results are expressed as predicted incremental radon concentration contours plotted on maps with local population data from a previous study. Finally, the effect of possible overlap of radon releases from nearby mines was studied by calculating cumulative radon concentrations for multiple mines in a region with many mines. The dispersion model, modeling assumptions, data sources, computational procedures, and results are documented in this report. 7 refs., 27 figs., 18 tabs.

  3. Modeled atmospheric radon concentrations from uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droppo, J.G.

    1985-04-01

    Uranium mining and milling operations result in the release of radon from numerous sources of various types and strengths. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Clean Air Act, is assessing the health impact of air emissions of radon from underground uranium mines. In this case, the radon emissions may impact workers and residents in the mine vicinity. To aid in this assessment, the EPA needs to know how mine releases can affect the radon concentrations at populated locations. To obtain this type of information, Pacific Northwest Laboratory used the radon emissions, release characteristics and local meterological conditions for a number of mines to model incremental radon concentrations. Long-term, average, incremental radon concentrations were computed based on the best available information on release rates, plume rise parameters, number and locations of vents, and local dispersion climatology. Calculations are made for a model mine, individual mines, and multiple mines. Our approach was to start with a general case and then consider specific cases for comparison. A model underground uranium mine was used to provide definition of the order of magnitude of typical impacts. Then computations were made for specific mines using the best mine-specific information available for each mine. These case study results are expressed as predicted incremental radon concentration contours plotted on maps with local population data from a previous study. Finally, the effect of possible overlap of radon releases from nearby mines was studied by calculating cumulative radon concentrations for multiple mines in a region with many mines. The dispersion model, modeling assumptions, data sources, computational procedures, and results are documented in this report. 7 refs., 27 figs., 18 tabs

  4. Radon and its hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Guilan

    2002-01-01

    The author describes basic physical and chemical properties of radon and the emanation, introduces methods of radon measurement, expounds the hazards of non-mine radon accumulation to the health of human being and the protection, as well as the history how the human being recognizes the hazards of radon through the specific data and examples, and finally proposes protecting measures to avoid the hazards of radon to the health of human being, and to do ecologic evaluation of environments

  5. Radon and its importance for animal hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janowski, T.M.; Tombarkiewicz, B.

    1995-01-01

    Reconnaissance studies on radon concentration were carried out for various species of animal in animal housing in the Cracow region. It was found that the level of radon inside the livestock houses depended on the type of housing and animal species. In a cow shed the concentration of radon was higher by 25% than in the atmosphere, whereas in a piggery the radon level exceeded twice that in the ambient air. However, in a poultry house the radon concentration was over 20% lower then outside. (author). 9 refs

  6. A statistical evaluation of the geogenic controls on indoor radon concentrations and radon risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appleton, J.D., E-mail: jda@bgs.ac.u [British Geological Survey, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Nicker Hill, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Miles, J.C.H. [Health Protection Agency (HPA), Radiation Protection Division, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0RQ (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    ANOVA is used to show that approximately 25% of the total variation of indoor radon concentrations in England and Wales can be explained by the mapped bedrock and superficial geology. The proportion of the total variation explained by geology is higher (up to 37%) in areas where there is strong contrast between the radon potential of sedimentary geological units and lower (14%) where the influence of confounding geological controls, such as uranium mineralisation, cut across mapped geological boundaries. When indoor radon measurements are grouped by geology and 1-km squares of the national grid, the cumulative percentage of the variation between and within mapped geological units is shown to be 34-40%. The proportion of the variation that can be attributed to mapped geological units increases with the level of detail of the digital geological data. This study confirms the importance of radon maps that show the variation of indoor radon concentrations both between and within mapped geological boundaries.

  7. Indoor radon level in schools of Shillong, Meghalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, A.; Sharma, Y.; Maibam, D.; Walia, D.; Diengdoh, E.

    2010-01-01

    Radon ( 222 Rn) in the atmosphere is the most important contributor to human exposure from natural sources. Radon is a noble inert gas; and it decays to radionuclides that are chemically active and relatively short lived. Inhalation of the short lived radon progeny imparts a radiation dose to the lung, to which an increased risk of lung cancer is attributed due to the alpha particle irradiation of the secretory and basal cells of the respiratory tract. The indoor radon concentration is dependent on the texture, porosity, permeability, water content of the soil underlying the structure and the radon behaviour in soils on aspects of geology and climate. The direct cause of high radon entry rates into structures exhibiting high indoor radon concentrations are fractures in bedrock formations, cracks in the soil, and similar inhomogeneities in the materials of the foundation of the structures. Other factors influencing indoor radon concentration includes exhalations from the walls and ceilings, building design and material, cracks and openings in the foundation of the buildings. The geological factors in the study area promote radon accumulation especially in buildings and dwellings. The world average annual effective dose in the indoor environments is 1.01 mSv.y -1 . The importance of radon level measurements in school buildings is of interest as children are more sensitive to radon exposure than adults. Hence, radon measurements in 10 schools have been undertaken in the present study

  8. Radon reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    During a radon gas screening program, elevated levels of radon gas were detected in homes on Mackinac Island, Mich. Six homes on foundations with crawl spaces were selected for a research project aimed at reducing radon gas concentrations, which ranged from 12.9 to 82.3 pCi/l. Using isolation and ventilation techniques, and variations thereof, radon concentrations were reduced to less than 1 pCi/l. This paper reports that these reductions were achieved using 3.5 mil cross laminated or 10 mil high density polyethylene plastic as a barrier without sealing to the foundation or support piers, solid and/or perforated plastic pipe and mechanical fans. Wind turbines were found to be ineffective at reducing concentrations to acceptable levels. Homeowners themselves installed all materials

  9. Human perception of radon risk and radon mitigation: Some remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neznal, M.; Neznal, M.

    2008-01-01

    The Radon program in the Czech Republic has a relatively long and rich history. Procedures, which enable to evaluate the risk of radon penetration from the ground, to protect new buildings, to find existing buildings with elevated indoor radon levels and to realise remedial measures in such buildings, have been developed, published and tested. In some cases, the whole system may fail due to psychological or sociological reasons. Three types of problems (conflicts) will be presented: human behaviour affecting measurement results, conflict between individual and 'all-society' points of view, interpretation of radon risk itself. (authors)

  10. Measurements of radon and chemical elements: Popocatepetl volcano; Mediciones de radon y elementos quimicos: Volcan Popocatepetl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, P.; Segovia, N.; Lopez, B.; Reyes, A.V. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Armienta, M.A.; Valdes, C.; Mena, M. [IGFUNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Seidel, J.L.; Monnin, M. [UMR 5569 CNRS Hydrosciences, Montpellier (France)

    2002-07-01

    The Popocatepetl volcano is a higher risk volcano located at 60 Km from Mexico City. Radon measurements on soil in two fixed seasons located in the north slope of volcano were carried out. Moreover the radon content, major chemical elements and tracks in water samples of three springs was studied. The radon of soil was determined with solid detectors of nuclear tracks (DSTN). The radon in subterranean water was evaluated through the liquid scintillation method and it was corroborated with an Alpha Guard equipment. The major chemical elements were determined with conventional chemical methods and the track elements were measured using an Icp-Ms equipment. The radon on soil levels were lower, indicating a moderate diffusion of the gas across the slope of the volcano. The radon in subterranean water shown few changes in relation with the active scene of the volcano. The major chemical elements and tracks showed a stable behavior during the sampling period. (Author)

  11. Radon/radon-daughter measurement methods and instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rock, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Radon-daughter measurement equipment and techniques have been continuously improved over the last 25 years. Improvements have been in the areas of accuracy, time and convenience. We now have miniaturized scalers and detectors available for measuring the alpha particle count rates from aerosol samples collected on filter papers. We also have small lightweight efficient pumps for conveniently collecting samples and we have various counting methods which allow us to choose between making very precise measurements or nominal measurements. Radon-daughter measurement methods used in uranium mines and mills are discussed including a personal radon-daughter-exposure integrating device which can be worn by miners

  12. Investigation of features in radon soil dynamics and search for influencing factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, Grigorii; Cherepnev, Maxim; Nagorskiy, Petr; Yakovleva, Valentina

    2018-03-01

    The features in radon soil dynamics at two depths were investigated and the main influencing factors were revealed. The monitoring of radon volumetric activity in soil air was performed at experimental site of Tomsk Observatory of Radioactivity and Ionizing Radiation with using radon radiometers and scintillation detectors of alpha-radiation with 10 min sampling frequency. The detectors were installed into boreholes of 0.5 and 1 m depths. The analysis of the soil radon monitoring data has allowed revealing some dependencies at daily and annual scales and main influencing factors. In periods with clearly defined daily radon variations in the soil were revealed the next: 1) amplitude of the daily variations of the soil radon volumetric activity damps with the depth, that is related with the influence of convective fluxes in the soil; 2) temporal shift between times of occurrence of radon volumetric activity maximum (or minimum) values at 0.5 m and 1 m depths can reach 3 hours. In seasonal dynamics of the soil radon the following dependences were found: 1) maximal values are observed in winter, but minimal - in summer; 2) spring periods of snow melting are accompanied by anomaly increasing of radon volumetric activity in the soil up to about 3 times. The main influencing factors are atmospheric precipitations, temperature gradient in the soil and the state of upper soil layer.

  13. Radon survey in the high natural radiation region of Niska Banja, Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zunic, Z.S.; Yarmoshenko, I.V.; Birovljev, A.; Bochicchio, F.; Quarto, M.; Obryk, B.; Paszkowski, M.; Celikovic, I.; Demajo, A.; Ujic, P.; Budzanowski, M.; Olko, P.; McLaughlin, J.P.; Waligorski, M.P.R.

    2007-01-01

    A radon survey has been carried out around the town of Niska Banja (Serbia) in a region partly located over travertine formations, showing an enhanced level of natural radioactivity. Outdoor and indoor radon concentrations were measured seasonally over the whole year, using CR-39 diffusion type radon detectors. Outdoor measurements were performed at 56 points distributed over both travertine and alluvium sediment formations. Indoor radon concentrations were measured in 102 living rooms and bedrooms of 65 family houses. In about 50% of all measurement sites, radon concentration was measured over each season separately, making it possible to estimate seasonal variations, which were then used to correct values measured over different periods, and to estimate annual values. The average annual indoor radon concentration was estimated at over 1500 Bq/m 3 and at about 650 Bq/m 3 in parts of Niska Banja located over travertine and alluvium sediment formations, respectively, with maximum values exceeding 6000 Bq/m 3 . The average value of outdoor annual radon concentration was 57 Bq/m 3 , with a maximum value of 168 Bq/m 3 . The high values of indoor and outdoor radon concentrations found at Niska Banja make this region a high natural background radiation area. Statistical analysis of our data confirms that the level of indoor radon concentration depends primarily on the underlying soil and building characteristics

  14. Radon and radon daughters indoors, problems in the determination of the annual average

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedjemark, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    The annual average of the concentration of radon and radon daughters in indoor air is required both in studies such as determining the collective dose to a population and at comparing with limits. Measurements are often carried out during a time period shorter than a year for practical reasons. Methods for estimating the uncertainties due to temporal variations in an annual average calculated from measurements carried out during various lengths of the sampling periods. These methods have been applied to the results from long-term measurements of radon-222 in a few houses. The possibilities to use correction factors in order to get a more adequate annual average have also been studied and some examples have been given. (orig.)

  15. Study on the measurement method of diffusion coefficient for radon in the soil. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Takao

    2000-03-01

    To investigate radon behavior in the soil at Ningyo Pass, the radon concentrations in the soil and the radon exhalation rate from soil surface were measured by four continuous soil radon monitoring systems, soil gas sampling method, and accumulation method. The radon concentrations in the soil measured with continuous soil radon monitoring systems varied form 5000 Bq·m -3 to 15000 Bq·m -3 at 10 cm to 40 cm depth. On the other hand, the radon concentrations measured by soil gas sampling method was 15000 Bq·m -3 at 15 cm depth. The accumulation method gives the vales of 0. 36∼0.68 Bq·m -2 ·s -1 for radon exhalation rate from soil surface. To simulate the radon transport in soil, the following parameters of the soil are important: radon diffusion coefficients, dry density, wet density, soil particle density, true density, water content and radium concentration. The measured radon diffusion coefficients in the soil were (1.61±0.09)x10 -6 m 2 s -1 , (8.68±0.23)x10 -7 m 2 s -1 ∼ (1.53±0.12)x10 -6 m 2 s -1 and (2.99±0.32)x10 -6 m 2 s -1 ∼ (4.39±0.43)x10 -6 m 2 s -1 for sandy soils of the campus of Nagoya University, Tsuruga peninsula, and Ningyo Pass, respectively. By using these parameters, the radon transport phenomena in the soil of two layers were calculated by analytical and numerical methods. The radon profile calculated by numerical method agrees fairly well with measured values. By covering of 2 m soil, the radon exhalation rate decreases to 1/4 by analytical method, and 3/5 by numerical method. The covering of normal soil is not so effective for reducing the radon exhalation rate. (author)

  16. EML indoor radon workshop, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, A.C.; Lowder, W.; Fisenne, I.; Knutson, E.O.; Hinchliffe, L.

    1983-07-01

    A workshop on indoor radon, held at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) on November 30 and December 1, 1982, covered recent developments in radon daughter research and development. Thirty papers were presented dealing with standardization and quality assurance measurement methods, surveys, measurements strategy, physical mechanisms of radon and radon daughter transport and development of guidance standards for indoor exposures. The workshop concluded with a planning session that identified the following needs: (1) national and international intercomparisons of techniques for measuring radon and radon daughter concentrations, working level and radon exhalation flux density; (2) development and refinement of practical measurement techniques for thoron and its daughter products; (3) quantitative definition of the sources of indoor radon and the mechanisms of transport into structures; (4) better knowledge of the physical properties of radon daughters; (5) more complete and accurate data on the population exposure to radon, which can only be met by broadly based surveys; and (6) more international cooperation and information exchange among countries with major research programs

  17. Radon - To mobilise civil society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    As radon is one of the two main sources of exposure of population to ionizing radiations in France, is notably said to be responsible of 1.000 to 3.000 deaths for lung cancer per year, and could be at the origin of other cancers like child leukaemia, this set of articles evokes the different factors which promote radon transfer from soils to buildings, studies performed to better identify geological sources of radon, actions implemented to assess radon presence in dwellings (distribution of 'radon kits' in Brittany), the performance of radiological expertise by the IRSN on the request of public authorities, the project of dwelling inventory and population information. A second article reports examples of intervention by the IRSN to inform local authorities, inhabitants, academics, public utilities, building professions, and even children. Technical solutions adopted in the United Kingdom are briefly evoked

  18. Radon epidemiology: A guide to the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, S.

    1988-12-01

    This document was written as a comprehensive overview of the voluminous literature on both uranium miner and residential radon epidemiology studies. This document provides the reader with a fairly complete list of radon epidemiology publications and key features of each, so that readers may further pursue only those publications of interest in the vast body of radon literature. A companion document, exploring all on-going residential radon epidemiology studies will be published by the Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the Department of Energy (DOE) in the spring of 1989

  19. Determination of equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny using surface barrier detector for various shapes of passive radon dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamil, K. [PINSTECH, Islamabad (Pakistan). Environ. Radiat. Group; Fazal-ur-Rehman [PINSTECH, Islamabad (Pakistan). Environ. Radiat. Group; Ali, S. [PINSTECH, Islamabad (Pakistan). Environ. Radiat. Group; Khan, H.A. [PINSTECH, Islamabad (Pakistan). Environ. Radiat. Group

    1997-03-21

    In the field of radon dosimetry, it is customary to measure radon ({sup 222}Rn) concentration while potential health hazard is due to the radon short-lived progeny. When radon is in secular equilibrium, the measured activity of radon equals the activity of radon`s progeny. However, in practical cases an inequilibrium between radon and its progeny exists which is measured in terms of the equilibrium factor. To determine the equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny in a closed environment various shapes of passive dosimeters based upon solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) are employed. In order to observe the dependence of equilibrium factor upon shapes or effective volumes, experiments have been performed replacing the SSNTDs with a surface barrier detector in Karlsruhe diffusion chamber, pen-type and box-type dosimeters. Using the collected alpha spectra, the equilibrium factor has been determined for a radon-air mixture in a custom designed radon chamber simulating a closed environment of a room. The results show that the radon equilibrium factor is about 0.20 for different shapes of dosimeters studied in this research. It is concluded that the determination of equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny does not depend upon effective volume or shape of the passive dosimeters using alpha spectroscopic data acquired by surface barrier detector. (orig.).

  20. Paloma-radon: atmospheric radon 222 as a geochemical probe for water in the martian subsoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabroux, J.Ch.; Michielsen, N.; Voisin, V.

    2003-01-01

    Radon exhalation from a porous soil is known to depend strongly on the soil moisture content: a minute amount of water, or water ice, in the pore space increases dramatically the possibility for radon to migrate far from its parent mineral. We propose to take advantage of this characteristic by using atmospheric radon 222 as a geochemical probe for water in the Martian soil, at least one order of magnitude deeper than the current Mars Odyssey neutron data. Strong thermal inversions during the Martian night will accumulate radon in the lowest atmospheric boundary layer, up to measurable levels despite the comparatively high environmental (cosmic and solar) background radiation and the assumed low uranium content of the upper crust of the planet. Preliminary studies and development of an instrument for the measurement of the Martian atmospheric alpha radioactivity is part of the CNES supported PALOMA experiment. Two test benches have been implemented, one of them allowing differential measurements of the diffusion of radon in the Martian soil simulant NASA JSC Mars-1, under relevant temperatures and pressures. The other, a 1 m3 radon-dedicated test bench, aims to characterize the instrument that will measure radon in the Mars environment (7 mb CO 2 ). Tests on several nuclear radiation detectors show that semiconductor alpha-particle detectors (PIPS) are the best option. In addition, the detection volume is left open in order to capitalize upon the long (ca. 4 m) alpha track at this low pressure. A stationary diffusion model was developed in order to assess the radon flux at the Mars soil surface. Diffusion of gas in Martian soil is governed by Knudsen diffusion. The radon Knudsen diffusion coefficient was estimated, depending on the soil moisture and relevant structural properties, leading to a radon diffusion length of the order of 20 m. The landed platform PALOMA-Radon instrument will consist of a set of alpha detectors connected to an electronic spectrometer, a

  1. Paloma-radon: atmospheric radon 222 as a geochemical probe for water in the martian subsoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabroux, J.Ch.; Michielsen, N.; Voisin, V

    2003-07-01

    Radon exhalation from a porous soil is known to depend strongly on the soil moisture content: a minute amount of water, or water ice, in the pore space increases dramatically the possibility for radon to migrate far from its parent mineral. We propose to take advantage of this characteristic by using atmospheric radon 222 as a geochemical probe for water in the Martian soil, at least one order of magnitude deeper than the current Mars Odyssey neutron data. Strong thermal inversions during the Martian night will accumulate radon in the lowest atmospheric boundary layer, up to measurable levels despite the comparatively high environmental (cosmic and solar) background radiation and the assumed low uranium content of the upper crust of the planet. Preliminary studies and development of an instrument for the measurement of the Martian atmospheric alpha radioactivity is part of the CNES supported PALOMA experiment. Two test benches have been implemented, one of them allowing differential measurements of the diffusion of radon in the Martian soil simulant NASA JSC Mars-1, under relevant temperatures and pressures. The other, a 1 m3 radon-dedicated test bench, aims to characterize the instrument that will measure radon in the Mars environment (7 mb CO{sub 2}). Tests on several nuclear radiation detectors show that semiconductor alpha-particle detectors (PIPS) are the best option. In addition, the detection volume is left open in order to capitalize upon the long (ca. 4 m) alpha track at this low pressure. A stationary diffusion model was developed in order to assess the radon flux at the Mars soil surface. Diffusion of gas in Martian soil is governed by Knudsen diffusion. The radon Knudsen diffusion coefficient was estimated, depending on the soil moisture and relevant structural properties, leading to a radon diffusion length of the order of 20 m. The landed platform PALOMA-Radon instrument will consist of a set of alpha detectors connected to an electronic spectrometer

  2. A study of some factors which are related to indoor radon concentrations in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louizi, A.; Nikolopoulos, D.; Lobotesi, E.; Mavroudaki, E.; Koukouliou, V.K.; Chanioti, M.; Papadimitriou, D.; Yiakoumakis, M.; Proukakis, C.

    1997-01-01

    The Medical Physics Department of the University of Athens is conducting radon-222 measurements in Greek dwellings. It is well known that the concentration of radon gas indoors, are related to various factors. A study of these factors has started and first results are reported. (authors)

  3. A survey of radon properties in underground railway stations in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, K.N.; Young, E.C.M.; Wong, K.C.

    1996-01-01

    A number of properties related to radon have been surveyed in underground railway stations in Hong Kong. These properties include the radon concentration, the total potential alpha energy concentration of radon daughters and the equilibrium factor. The mean values were different from those of dwelling sites, and the values for different railway lines were also very different, attributable to the different ventilation efficiencies and aerosol concentrations. The values for a chosen station were observed to have temporal variation in the morning, since the air-conditioning is switched off at night. From the measurements, sample calculations of the radon dose received by different categories of people were performed. It is seen that the radon dose received by the night time maintenance worker was not insignificant, that received by an average commuter was negligible while that received by a day time employee was between the two. (author)

  4. Experience from using plastic film in radon measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensson, G.

    1999-01-01

    Plastic film is a useful detector of radon gas. The method of detection of the gas is used for several decades to measure radon concentrations both indoors and in soil. Experiences from radon measurements in Sweden indoors, in soil and in water using the plastic film Kodak LR 115-II are discussed in this report. Some examples are given from various projects. One example is taken from a large scale mapping of indoor radon levels in houses, where the building material is the main source of radon. In another example the measurements from a large scale soil radon mapping are discussed. The use of the plastic film for measurements of radon levels in water is also discussed. All the investigations are made in order to give the authorities concerned information of the radon situation and to study the connection between high indoor radon levels and various types of cancers

  5. Comparative study of different types of granular activated carbon in removing medium level radon from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alabdula'aly, A.I.; Maghrawy, H.B.

    2011-01-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) has proven its effectiveness in removing radon from water supplies. Laboratory and pilot plant studies were carried out using three different types of activated carbons (F-300, F-400, and HD-4000) to remove radon from water supply. From the experimental kinetic study, the data indicated that at least 6 h are needed to attain equilibrium between radon activity adsorbed onto carbon and its concentration in the aqueous phase. Also, it showed that HD-4000 has higher capacity for removing radon than the other two investigated carbons F-300 and F-400. The adsorption isotherms were satisfactorily explained by Freundlich equation. In the pilot plant study, the performance of the three activated carbons in removing radon at medium concentration (∼111 Bq dm -3 ) was evaluated over 60 days of continuous water flow. Four empty-bed contact times (EBCTs) corresponding to four bed depths were continuously monitored and the corresponding steady state adsorption-decay constant values were calculated and the efficiency of each carbon was used to provide a facet for comparison. The γ-radiation exposure rate distribution throughout each GAC bed was measured and compared. This study, despite paucity of literature in this field, is useful for designing a GAC adsorption system for the removal of medium level radon concentration from water supplies. (author)

  6. A study on the radon concentrations in water in Jeddah (Saudi Arabia) and the associated health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayyeb, Z.A.; Kinsara, A.R.; Farid, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    Several studies have shown that water-borne 222 Rn contributes to indoor air concentrations. A passive radon measurement method was employed to determine radon activity concentrations in the water of Jeddah city (Saudi Arabia). Tap water, flushing water and drinking water, including natural mineral water, artificial mineral water and distilled water, have been investigated for their radon concentrations. It is observed that the radon concentration in natural mineral water samples is the highest and that in flush water, it is the lowest. From these measurements, the corresponding annual effective dose for the stomach and the lung are determined. It is found that the annual effective dose resulting from direct consumption of water is far greater than that due to inhalation of radon emanated from tap water and flushing water. Moreover, it is also seen that the annual effective dose resulting from inhalation of radon emanated from tap water and flushing water is negligible compared to the total annual effective dose for indoor radon in Jeddah. (author)

  7. Generation and mobility of radon in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Objectives of this research include: (1) To determine the processes that cause large seasonal and short-term changes in the radon (Rn) content of soil gases, and to develop methods of predicting and modeling these variations; (2) to evaluate the relation of Rn emanation coefficients to form of radium (Ra) and other U-series decay products, particularly the role of Ra in organic matter and Fe-oxides; (3) to evaluate the conditions in which convection of gas in soil and bedrock may affect soil gas radon availability in houses; and, (4) to collaborate with other DOE researchers on evaluation of Rn flux into houses, using our well characterized soil sites

  8. Scopingreport radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaauboer, R.O.; Vaas, L.H.; Hesse, J.M.; Slooff, W.

    1989-09-01

    This report contains general information on radon concerning the existing standards, sources and emissions, the exposure levels and effect levels. lt serves as a basis for the discussion during the exploratory melting to be held in November/December 1989, aimed at determining the contents of the Integrated Criteria Document Radon. Attention is focussd on Rn-222 (radon) and Rn-220 (thoron), presently of public interest because of radon gas pollution in private homes. In the Netherlands air quality standards nor product standards for the exhalation rate of building materials have been recommended. The major source of radon in the Netherlands is the soil gas (> 97%), minor sources are phosphate residues and building materials (> 2% in total). Hence, the major concern is the transfer through the inhalation of air, the lung being the most critical organ at risk to develop cancer. Compared to risks for humans, the risks of radon and its daughters for aquatic and terrestric organisms, as well as for agricultural crops and livestock, are assumed to be limited. In the Netherlands the average dose for man due to radon and thoron progeny is appr. 1.2 mSv per year, the estimated dose range being 0.1-3.5 mSv per year. This dose contributes for about 50% to rhe total exposure due to all sources of ionizing radiation. Of this dose respectively 80% is caused by radon and about 90% is received indoor. The estimated dose for the general population corresponds to a risk for inducing fatal cancers of about 15 x 10-6 per year, ranging from 1.2 x 10-6 to 44 x 10-6 which exceeds the risk limit of 1 x 10-6 per year -as defined in the standardization policy in the Netherlands for a single source of ionizing radiation-with a factor 15 (1- 44). Reduction of exposure is only possible in the indoor environment. Several techniques have been described to reduce the indoor dose, resulting from exhalation of the soil and building materials. )aut- hor). 37 refs.; 3 figs.; 8 tabs

  9. Concentration en radon dans une maison du Calvados

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leleyter, Lydia; Riffault, Benoit; Mazenc, Bernard

    2010-03-01

    Recent studies indicate a link between the risk of lung cancer and residential radon exposure. However, in France, awareness of this problem was made relatively late. Accordingly this study examines the radon concentration in a private home in Calvados. Findings show that the presence of a fireplace in a house can accelerate radon convective transfer, and that simple adjustments to interior and exterior accommodation can significantly reduce radon concentrations in the home.

  10. Measurements of radon concentrations in dwelling houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholz, W.; Klink, T.

    1993-01-01

    Radon and its daughter products gain in importance in health protection and radiation safety. Especially in the southern region of Saxony radon concentrations in dwellings may be high by former silver and uranium mines. We found radon contents of about 20.000 Bq/m 3 in dwellings. To redevelop such houses it is necessary to know intrude path of radon. In present work we studied different measuring systems, active and passive detectors, short and long term integrating devices. By means of investigation of radon sources several redeveloping methods are rates as well from radiological as from civil engineering point of view. (author)

  11. Does balneotherapy with low radon concentration in water influence the endocrine system? A controlled non-randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Katalin; Berhés, István; Kovács, Tibor; Kávási, Norbert; Somlai, János; Bender, Tamás

    2009-08-01

    Radon bath is a well-established modality of balneotherapy for the management of degenerative musculoskeletal disorders. The present study was conducted to ascertain whether baths of relatively low (80 Bq/l) radon concentration have any influence on the functioning of the endocrine system. In the study, a non-randomized pilot study, 27 patients with degenerative musculoskeletal disorders received 30-min radon baths (of 31-32 degrees C temperature and 80 Bq/l average radon concentration) daily, for 15 days. Twenty-five patients with matching pathologies were subjected to balneotherapy according to the same protocol, using thermal water with negligible radon content (6 Bq/l). Serum thyroid stimulating hormone, prolactin, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and dehydroepiandrosterone levels were measured before and after a balneotherapy course of 15 sessions. Comparison of the accumulated data using the Wilcoxon test did not reveal any significant difference between pre- and post-treatment values or between the two patient groups. It is noted that while the beneficial effects of balneotherapy with radon-containing water on degenerative disorders is widely known, only few data have been published in the literature on its effect on endocrine functions. The present study failed to demonstrate any substantial effect of thermal water with relatively low radon content on the functioning of the endocrine system.

  12. The effect of natural ventilation on radon and radon progeny levels in houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavallo, A.; Gadsby, K.; Reddy, T.A.; Socolow, R.

    1992-01-01

    In contradiction to the widely held assumption that ventilation is ineffective as a means of reducing indoor radon concentrations, experiments in a research house have shown that the basement radon level can be reduced by a factor of 5-10 using only natural ventilation. Measurements of the outdoor-basement pressure differential and the radon entry rate show that this unexpectedly large reduction in indoor radon levels is caused by two complementary physical processes. The first mechanism is the obvious one: dilution. Radon concentrations are lowered by the addition of uncontaminated outdoor air. The second mechanism is less evident: an open basement window reduces basement depressurisation. This decreases the rate at which radon-laden soil gas is drawn into the house. It was also found that the radon entry rate is a linear function of basement depressurisation up to a differential pressure of about 4 Pa, as would be expected for laminar soil gas flow; opening two basement windows approximately doubles the building air exchange rate and reduces the radon entry rate by up to a factor of 5. (author)

  13. A study on the indoor radon concentrations in hospitals in the Shillong region, Meghalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Yubaraj; Maibam, Deveshwori; Saxena, Atul; Ram, Priya P.; Walia, Devesh

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report our findings on radon survey in indoor environment which consists of around 105 rooms in 8 major hospitals in Shillong region and also present experimental estimates on the associated annual effective doses and life-time fatality risks. The survey has been undertaken using LR-115 Type 2 detectors. Radon activity concentration values were found to range from 65.66 Bq.m -3 to 783.77 Bq.m -3 with an arithmetic mean value of 260.4±138.3 Bq.m -3 and a geometric mean value of 228.4±1.67 Bq.m -3 . Distribution analysis of the radon activity concentration measured at the hospital rooms has been carried out. Of the total rooms surveyed, 60% have radon concentration more than the ICRP prescribed lower limit of 200 Bq.m -3 and about 4% of the rooms higher than the upper limit of 600 Bq.m -3 . Floor-wise study has been done and a decrease in radon concentration with increase in floor-number has been observed. (author)

  14. Residential radon exposure and lung cancer risk in Misasa, Japan. A case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobue, Tomotaka; Lee, Valerie S.; Ye, Weimin; Tanooka, Hiroshi; Mifune, Masaaki; Suyama, Akihiko; Koga, Taeko; Morishima, Hiroshige; Kondo, Sohei

    2000-01-01

    In order to investigate an association between residential radon exposure and risk of lung cancer, a case-control study was conducted in Misasa Town, Tottori Prefecture, Japan. The case series consisted of 28 people who had died of lung cancer in the years 1976-96 and 36 controls chosen randomly from the residents in 1976, matched by sex and year of birth. Individual residential radon concentrations were measured for 1 year with alpha track detectors. The average radon concentration was 46 Bq/m 3 for cases and 51 Bq/m 3 for controls. Compared to the level of 24 or less Bq/m 3 , the adjusted odds ratios of lung cancer associated with radon levels of 25-49, 50-99 and 100 or more Bq/m 3 , were 1.13 (95% confidence interval; 0.29-4.40), 1.23 (0.16-9.39) and 0.25 (0.03-2.33), respectively. None of the estimates showed statistical significance, due to small sample size. When the subjects were limited to only include residents of more than 30 years, the estimates did not change substantially. This study did not find that the risk pattern of lung cancer, possibly associated with residential radon exposure, in Misasa Town differed from patterns observed in other countries. (author)

  15. Behavior of radon, chemical compounds and stable elements in underground water; Comportamiento de radon, compuestos quimicos y elementos estables en agua subterranea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez R, N.; Segovia, N.; Lopez, M.B.E.; Pena, P. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Armienta, M.A.; Godinez, L. [IGFUNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Seidel, J.L. [ISTEEM, M.S.E. Montpellier (France)

    2001-07-01

    The radon behavior, chemical compounds, major and trace elements in water samples of four springs and three wells of urban and agricultural zones around the Jocotitlan volcano and El Oro region was determined, both of them located in the medium part of the Mexican neo-volcanic axis. The {sup 222} Rn was measured by the liquid scintillation method, the analysis of major components was realized with conventional chemical techniques, while the trace elements were quantified using an Icp-Ms. The average values of the radon concentrations obtained during one year were constant relatively, in an interval from 0.97 to 4.99 Bq/lt indicating a fast transport from the reload area toward the sampling points. the compounds, major and trace elements showed differences which indicate distinct origins of water from the site studies. (Author)

  16. Radon