WorldWideScience

Sample records for site radioactive waste

  1. Old radioactive waste storage sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    After a recall of the regulatory context for the management of old sites used for the storage of radioactive wastes with respect with their activity, the concerned products, the disposal or storage type, this document describes AREVA's involvement in the radioactive waste management process in France. Then, for the different kinds of sites (currently operated sites having radioactive waste storage, storage sites for uranium mineral processing residues), it indicates their location and name, their regulatory status and their control authority, the reference documents. It briefly presents the investigation on the long term impact of uranium mineral processing residues on health and environment, evokes some aspects of public information transparency, and presents the activities of an expertise group on old uranium mines. The examples of the sites of Bellezane (uranium mineral processing residues) and COMURHEX Malvesi (assessment of underground and surface water quality at the vicinity of this installation) are given in appendix

  2. Radioactive Solid Waste Management Site (RSMS), Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, C.P.; Agarwal, K.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear operations generate a variety of primary solid waste comprising of tissue materials, glassware, plastics, protective rubber-wears, used components like filters, piping, structural items, unserviceable equipment, etc. This type of solid waste is generally associated with low and intermediate level of beta and gamma radiation and, in some cases, by low levels of alpha contamination. Radioactive Solid Waste Management Site (RSMS), Trombay is operational with an objective of safe and efficient management of low and intermediate level solid waste generated from various nuclear fuel cycle facilities of BARC, Trombay. The RSMS also manages the spent radioactive sources, utilised in healthcare, industries and research institutes, after completion of their useful life. The radioactive solid waste is first segregated, treated for volume reduction and disposed in engineered disposal module to prevent the migration of radionuclides and isolate them from human environment

  3. Operational radioactive waste management plan for the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    The Operational Radioactive Waste Management Plan for the Nevada Test Site establishes procedures and methods for the safe shipping, receiving, processing, disposal, and storage of radioactive waste. Included are NTS radioactive waste disposition program guidelines, procedures for radioactive waste management, a description of storage and disposal areas and facilities, and a glossary of specifications and requirements

  4. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 4, Waste Management Facility report, Radioactive mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation and amount of waste

  5. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 2, Generator dangerous waste report, radioactive mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, waste designation, weight, and waste designation

  6. Radioactive waste disposal: Recommendations for a repository site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadelli, N.; Orlowski, S.

    1992-01-01

    This report is a guidebook on recommendations for site selection of radioactive waste repository, based on a consensus in european community. This report describes particularly selection criteria and recommendations for radioactive waste disposal in underground or ground repositories. 14 refs

  7. Electronic Denitration Savannah River Site Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1995-01-01

    Electrochemical destruction of nitrate in radioactive Savannah River Site Waste has been demonstrated in a bench-scale flow cell reactor. Greater than 99% of the nitrate can be destroyed in either an undivided or a divided cell reactor. The rate of destruction and the overall power consumption is dependent on the cell configuration and electrode materials. The fastest rate was observed using an undivided cell equipped with a nickel cathode and nickel anode. The use of platinized titanium anode increased the energy requirement and costs compared to a nickel anode in both the undivided and divided cell configurations

  8. Disposal facilities for radioactive waste - legislative requirements for siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markova-Mihaylova, Radosveta

    2015-01-01

    The specifics of radioactive waste, namely the content of radionuclides require the implementation of measures to protect human health and the environment against the hazards arising from ionizing radiation, including disposal of waste in appropriate facilities. The legislative requirements for siting of such facilities, and classification of radioactive waste, as well as the disposal methods, are presented in this publication

  9. Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site Safety Assessment Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, K.K.; Kendall, E.W.; Brown, J.J.

    1980-02-01

    The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Safety Assessment Document evaluates site characteristics, facilities and operating practices which contribute to the safe handling and storage/disposal of radioactive wastes at the Nevada Test Site. Physical geography, cultural factors, climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology (with emphasis on radionuclide migration), ecology, natural phenomena, and natural resources are discussed and determined to be suitable for effective containment of radionuclides. Also considered, as a separate section, are facilities and operating practices such as monitoring; storage/disposal criteria; site maintenance, equipment, and support; transportation and waste handling; and others which are adequate for the safe handling and storage/disposal of radioactive wastes. In conclusion, the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site is suitable for radioactive waste handling and storage/disposal for a maximum of twenty more years at the present rate of utilization

  10. Hanford Site radioactive mixed waste thermal treatment initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, B.G.; Riddelle, J.G.

    1993-03-01

    This paper is a progress report of current Westinghouse Hanford Company engineering activities related to the implementation of a program for the thermal treatment of the Hanford Site radioactive mixed waste. Topics discussed include a site-specific engineering study, the review of private sector capability in thermal treatment, and thermal treatment of some of the Hanford Site radioactive mixed waste at other US Department of Energy sites

  11. Basic principles and criteria on radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlouhy, Z.; Kropikova, S.

    1980-01-01

    The basic principles are stated of radiation protection of the workers at radioactive waste disposal facilities, which must be observed in the choice of radioactive waste disposal sites. The emergency programme, the operating regulations and the safety report are specified. Workplace safety regulations are cited. (author)

  12. Application to transfer radioactive waste to the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    All waste described in this application has been, and will be, generated by LANL in support of the nuclear weapons test program at the NTS. All waste originates on the NTS. DOE Order 5820.2A states that low-level radioactive waste shall be disposed of at the site where it is generated, when practical. Since the waste is produced at the NTS, it is cost effective for LANL to dispose of the waste at the NTS

  13. Safety assessment for Area 5 radioactive-waste-management site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, P.H.; Card, D.H.; Horton, K.

    1982-09-01

    The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Safety Assessment Document contains evaluations of site characteristics, facilities, and operating practices that contribute to the safe handling, storage, and disposal of low-level radioactive wastes at the Nevada Test Site. Physical geography, cultural factors, climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology (with emphasis on radionuclide migration), ecology, natural phenomena, and natural resources are discussed and determined to be suitable for effective containment of radionuclides. A separate section considers facilities and operating practices such as monitoring, storage/disposal criteria, site maintenance, equipment, and support. The section also considers the transportation and waste handling requirements supporting the new Greater Confinement Disposal Facility (GCDF), GCDF demonstration project, and other requirements for the safe handling, storage, and disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. Finally, the document provides an analysis of releases and an assessment of the near-term operational impacts and dose commitments to operating personnel and the general public from normal operations and anticipated accidental occurrences. The conclusion of this report is that the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site is suitable for low-level radioactive waste handling, storage, and disposal. Also, the new GCDF demonstration project will not affect the overall safety of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

  14. Low-Level Radioactive Waste siting simulation information package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    The Department of Energy's National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program has developed a simulation exercise designed to facilitate the process of siting and licensing disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste. The siting simulation can be conducted at a workshop or conference, can involve 14-70 participants (or more), and requires approximately eight hours to complete. The exercise is available for use by states, regional compacts, or other organizations for use as part of the planning process for low-level waste disposal facilities. This information package describes the development, content, and use of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Simulation. Information is provided on how to organize a workshop for conducting the simulation. 1 ref., 1 fig

  15. Successful characterization of radioactive waste at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, M.B.; Miles, G.M.

    1995-01-01

    Characterization of the low-level radioactive waste generated by forty five independent operating facilities at The Savannah River Site (SRS) experienced a slow start. However, the site effectively accelerated waste characterization based on findings of an independent assessment that recommended several changes to the existing process. The new approach included the development of a generic waste characterization protocol and methodology and the formulation of a technical board to approve waste characterization. As a result, consistent, detailed characterization of waste streams from SRS facilities was achieved in six months

  16. Performance of a radioactive waste internment site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, D.E.; Owen, D.H.; Mishub, R.J.; Prewett, S.V.; Cole, L.W.

    1990-01-01

    Aerojet disposed of 30,000 cubic meters of uranium and thorium wastes in an engineered 12,000 square meter (3 acre) internment site in Tennessee. The operation, performed under a State of Tennessee source material license, is based on termination of the license with the material remaining in place, and the option of future commercial use of the site. The closure plan included a long-term monitoring program. Yearly monitoring of the site has verified performance within the design criteria. Full-time construction monitored by a licensed engineer and extensive testing of materials ensured construction of the site according to or better than the specifications. Surface subsidence of the site has averaged about 2.2 cm with a range of 0 to 4.3 cm at 11 settlement markers after 4 years. The anticipated settlement, based on design parameters, was between 15 and 25 cm. The present anticipated settlement is 8 to 15 cm, based on the as-built parameters, and the long-term monitoring results. Slope stability analysis indicates the stability has improved with time due to consolidation of materials and reduced groundwater activity as a result of site construction. There has been no need for corrective action maintenance due to erosion, sluffing of slopes, or subsidence. Groundwater monitoring indicates the materials have been isolated, and there have also been no indications of springs or leakage from the site. 9 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Siting of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority was established by the 67th Legislature to assure safe and effective disposal of the state's low-level radioactive waste. The Authority operates under provisions of the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority Act, VACS 4590f-1. In Texas, low-level radioactive waste is defined as any radioactive material that has a half-life of 35 years or less or that has less than 10 nanocuries per gram of transuranics, and may include radioactive material not excluded by this definition with a half-life or more than 35 years if special disposal criteria are established. Prior to beginning the siting study, the Authority developed both exclusionary and inclusionary criteria. Major requirements of the siting guidelines are that the site shall be located such that it will not interfere with: (1) existing or near-future industrial use, (2) sensitive environmental and ecological areas, and (3) existing and projected population growth. Therefore, the site should be located away from currently known recoverable mineral, energy and water resources, population centers, and areas of projected growth. This would reduce the potential for inadvertent intruders, increasing the likelihood for stability of the disposal site after closure. The identification of potential sites for disposal of low-level radioactive waste involves a phased progression from statewide screening to site-specific exploration, using a set of exclusionary and preferential criteria to guide the process. This methodology applied the criteria in a sequential manner to focus the analysis on progressively smaller and more favorable areas. The study was divided into three phases: (1) statewide screening; (2) site identification; and (3) preliminary site characterization

  18. Radioactive waste on-site storage alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufrane, K.H.

    1983-01-01

    The first, most frequently evaluated approach for the large producer is the construction of a relatively expensive storage building. However, with the likely possibility that at least one disposal site will remain available and the building never used, such expenditures are difficult to justify. A low cost, but effective alternative, is the use of ''On-Site Storage Containers'' (OSSC) when and if required. Radwaste is only stored in the OSSC if a disposal site is not available. A small number of OSSC's would be purchased initially just to assure immediate access to storage. Only in the unlikely event of total disposal sites closure would additional OSSC's have to be obtained and even this is cost effective. With two or three months of storage available on site, production lead time is sufficient for the delivery of additional units at a rate faster than the waste can be produced. The recommended OSSC design would be sized and shielding optimized to meet the needs of the waste generator. Normally, this would duplicate the shipping containers (casks or vans) currently in use. The reinforced concrete design presented is suitable for outside storage, contains a leakproof polyethylene liner and has remote sampling capability. Licensing would be under 10CFR50.59 for interim storage with long-term storage under 10CFR30 not an impossibility. Cost comparisons of this approach vs. building construction show that for a typical reactor plant installation, the OSSC offers direct savings even under the worst case assumption that no disposal sites are available and the time value of money is zero

  19. DSEM, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site Economic Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.R.

    2005-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The Disposal Site Economic Model calculates the average generator price, or average price per cubic foot charged by a disposal facility to a waste generator, one measure of comparing the economic attractiveness of different waste disposal site and disposal technology combinations. The generator price is calculated to recover all costs necessary to develop, construct, operate, close, and care for a site through the end of the institutional care period and to provide the necessary financial returns to the site developer and lender (when used). Six alternative disposal technologies, based on either private or public financing, can be considered - shallow land disposal, intermediate depth disposal, above or below ground vaults, modular concrete canister disposal, and earth mounded concrete bunkers - based on either private or public development. 2 - Method of solution: The economic models incorporate default cost data from the Conceptual Design Report (DOE/LLW-60T, June 1987), a study by Rodgers Associates Engineering Corporation. Because all costs are in constant 1986 dollars, the figures must be modified to account for inflation. Interest during construction is either capitalized for the private developer or rolled into the loan for the public developer. All capital costs during construction are depreciated over the operation life of the site using straight-line depreciation for the private sector. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of - 100 years post-operating period, 30 years operating period, 15 years pre-operating period. The model should be used with caution outside the range of 1.8 to 10.5 million cubic feet of total volume. Depreciation is not recognized with public development

  20. Preliminary site characterization at Beishan northwest China-A potential site for China's high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju; Su Rui; Xue Weiming; Zheng Hualing

    2004-01-01

    Chinese nuclear power plants,radioactive waste and radioactive waste disposal are introduced. Beishan region (Gansu province,Northwest China)for high-level radioactive waste repository and preliminary site characterization are also introduced. (Zhang chao)

  1. Radioactive waste will be stored at desolate Cape site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    High, intermediate and low-level radioactive waste will be stored at the Vaalputs nuclear waste dump site near Springbok. This area is sparsely populated, there are no mineral deposits of any value, the agricultural potential is minimal. It is a typical semi-desert area. Geologically it lends itself towards the ground-storage of used nuclear fuel, because of the remote possibility of earthquakes

  2. Final storage site for radioactive waste. Gorleben mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    Out of more than 20 salt stocks, the Gorleben salt stock was chosen. In addition to the preliminary information available on its size and depth, detailed exploratory investigations were carried out in order to test its suitability as a site for ultimate storage of all types of radioactive waste. (orig.) [de

  3. Status of siting studies for a near surface repository site for radioactive wastes in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdezco, E.M.; Palattao, M.V.B.; Marcelo, E.A.; Caseria, E.S.; Venida, L.L.; Cruz, J.M. dela

    2002-01-01

    The Philippines, through the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), decided to conduct a study on siting a low level radioactive waste disposal facility. The infrastructure set up for this purpose, the radioactive waste disposal concept, the overall siting process, the methodology applied and preliminary results obtained are described in this paper. (author)

  4. Operational radioactive defense waste management plan for the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The Operational Radioactive Defense Waste Management Plan for the Nevada Test Site establishes procedures and methods for the safe shipping, receiving, processing, disposal, and storage of radioactive waste. Included are NTS radioactive waste disposition program guidelines, procedures for radioactive waste management, a description of storage and disposal areas and facilities, and a glossary of specifications and requirements

  5. Ranking system for mixed radioactive and hazardous waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, K.A.; Napier, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's Hazard Ranking System (HRS) is a simplified management decision tool that provides a common basis for evaluating a multitude of hazardous waste sites. A deficiency in the HRS for application to Department of Energy mixed radioactive and hazardous waste sites is its inability to explicitly handle radioactive material. A modification to the basic HRS to add the capability to consider radioactivity is described. The HRS considers the exposure routes of direct contact, fire/explosion, atmospheric release, surface-water release, and ground-water release. Each exposure route is further divided into release, route, containment, waste, and target characteristics. To maintain the basic HRS structure, only the waste characteristics section of each exposure route was modified. A ranking system was developed, using radiation dose pathway analysis, to group radionuclides by dose factors. For mixed waste sites, the ranking factor derived for radionuclides is compared with the ranking factor obtained for hazardous chemicals and the most restrictive is used in the overall ranking. The modified HRS has the advantages of being compatible with the original HRS, has reasonable information requirements, and provides scientifically defensible conclusions. 17 references, 2 figures, 6 tables

  6. Management of radioactive wastes at power reactor sites in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amalraj, R.V.; Balu, K.

    Indian nuclear power programme, at the present stage, is based on natural uranium fuelled heavy water moderated CANDU type reactors except for the first nuclear power station consisting of two units of enriched uranium fuelled, light water moderated, BWR type of reactors. Some of the salient aspects of radioactive waste management at power reactor sites in India are discussed. Brief reviews are presented on treatment of wastes, their disposal and environmental aspects. Indian experience in power reactor waste management is also summarised identifying some of the areas needing further work. (auth.)

  7. Microbial effects on radioactive wastes at SLB sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, P.

    1982-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to determine the significance of microbial degradation of organic wastes on radionuclide migration on shallow land burial for humid and arid sites, establish which mechanisms predominate and ascertain the conditions under which these mechanisms operate. Factors contolling gaseous eminations from low-level radioactive waste disposal sites are assessed. Importance of gaseous fluxes of methane, carbon dioxide and possibly hydrogen from the site stems from the inclusion of tritium and/or 14 C into the elemental composition of these compounds. In that the primary source of these gases is the biodegradation of organic components of the waste materials, primary emphasis of the study involved on examination of the biochemical pathways producing methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen, and the environmental parameters controlling the activity of the microbial community involved. Although the methane and carbon dioxide production rate indicates the degradation rate of the organic substances in the waste, it does not predict the methane evolution rate from the trench site. Methane fluxes from the soil surface are equivalent to the net synthesis minus the quantity oxidized by the microbial community as the gas passes through the soil profile. Gas studies were performed at three commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites (West Valley, New York; Beatty, Nevada; Maxey Flats, Kentucky) during the period 1976 to 1978. The results of these studies are presented. 3 tables

  8. Risk communication on the siting of radioactive waste management facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okoshi, Minoru; Torii, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Yasuhiko

    2007-01-01

    Siting of radioactive waste management facilities frequently raise arguments among stakeholders such as a municipal government and the residents. Risk communication is one of the useful methods of promoting mutual understanding on related risks among stakeholders. In Finland and Sweden, siting selection procedures of repositories for spent nuclear fuels have been carried out successfully with risk communication. The success reasons are analyzed based on the interviews with those who belong to the regulatory authorities and nuclear industries in both countries. Also, in this paper, risk communication among the Japan Radioisotope Association (JRIA), a local government and the general public, which was carried out during the establishment process of additional radioactive waste treatment facilities in Takizawa Village, Iwate Prefecture, is analyzed based on articles in newspapers and interviews with persons concerned. The analysis results showed that good risk communication was not carried out because of the lack of confidence on the JRIA, decision making rules, enough communication chances and economic benefits. In order to make good use of these experiences for the future establishment of radioactive waste management facilities, the lessons learned from these cases are summarized and proposals for good risk communication (establishment of exploratory committee and technical support system for decision making, and measurements to increase familiarity of radioactive waste) are discussed. (author)

  9. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    Managing radioactive wastes used to be a peripheral activity for the French atomic energy commission (Cea). Over the past 40 years, it has become a full-fledged phase in the fuel cycle of producing electricity from the atom. In 2005, the national radioactive waste management agency (ANDRA) presented to the government a comprehensive overview of the results drawn from 15 years of research. This landmark report has received recognition beyond France's borders. By broadening this agency's powers, an act of 28 June 2006 acknowledges the progress made and the quality of the results. It also sets an objective for the coming years: work out solutions for managing all forms of radioactive wastes. The possibility of recovering wastes packages from the disposal site must be assured as it was asked by the government in 1998. The next step will be the official demand for the creation of a geological disposal site in 2016

  10. Geotechnical site assessment for underground radioactive waste disposal in rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, J.A.

    1986-05-01

    This report contains a state-of-the-art review of the geotechnical assessment of Land 3 and Land 4 repository sites (at 100 - 300 m depth in rock) for intermediate level radioactive waste disposal. The principles established are also valid for the disposal of low and high level waste in rock. The text summarizes the results of 21 DoE research contract reports, firstly 'in series' by providing a technical review of each report and then 'in parallel' by considering the current state of knowledge in the context of the subjects in an interaction matrix framework. 1214 references are cited. It is concluded that four further research projects are required for site assessment procedures to be developed or confirmed. These are coupled modelling, mechanical properties, water flow and establishment of 2 phase site assessment procedures. (author)

  11. Financing a new low-level radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressen, A.L.; Serie, P.J.; McGarvey, R.S.; Lemmon, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    No new commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal site has been licensed in the past decade. During the time, inflation has wreaked havoc on the costs for the labor, equipment, and buildings that will be necessary to develop and operate new sites. The regulatory environment has become much more complex with enactment of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the recent issuance by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) of a draft set of comprehensive regulations for land disposal of low-level waste (10 CFR Part 61). Finally, the licensing process itself has become much lengthier as both the site developers and regulators respond to the public's desire to be more involved in decisions that may affect their lives

  12. Site selection process for radioactive waste repository (radioactive facility) in Cuba as a fundamental safety criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vital, Jose Luis Peralta; Castillo, Reinaldo Gil; Chales Suarez, Gustavo; Rodriguez Reyes, Aymee

    1999-01-01

    The paper show the process of search carried out for the selection of the safest site in the National territory, in order to sitting the Facility (Repository) that will disposal the low and intermediate level radioactive wastes, as well as the possible Storage Facility for nuclear spent Fuel (radioactive wastes of high activity). We summarize the obtained Methodology and the Criterions of exclusion adopted for the development of the Process of site selection, as well as the current condition of the researches that will permit the obtaining of the nominative objectives. (author)

  13. Immersed radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-03-01

    This document presents a brief overview of immersed radioactive wastes worldwide: historical aspects, geographical localization, type of wastes (liquid, solid), radiological activity of immersed radioactive wastes in the NE Atlantic Ocean, immersion sites and monitoring

  14. SRS: Site ranking system for hazardous chemical and radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechard, R.P.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Brown, S.L.

    1988-05-01

    This report describes the rationale and presents instructions for a site ranking system (SRS). SRS ranks hazardous chemical and radioactive waste sites by scoring important and readily available factors that influence risk to human health. Using SRS, sites can be ranked for purposes of detailed site investigations. SRS evaluates the relative risk as a combination of potentially exposed population, chemical toxicity, and potential exposure of release from a waste site; hence, SRS uses the same concepts found in a detailed assessment of health risk. Basing SRS on the concepts of risk assessment tends to reduce the distortion of results found in other ranking schemes. More importantly, a clear logic helps ensure the successful application of the ranking procedure and increases its versatility when modifications are necessary for unique situations. Although one can rank sites using a detailed risk assessment, it is potentially costly because of data and resources required. SRS is an efficient approach to provide an order-of-magnitude ranking, requiring only readily available data (often only descriptive) and hand calculations. Worksheets are included to make the system easier to understand and use. 88 refs., 19 figs., 58 tabs

  15. Selection of radioactive waste disposal site considering natural processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, H.

    1991-01-01

    To dispose the radioactive waste, it is necessary to consider the transfer of material in natural environment. The points of consideration are 1) Long residence time of water 2) Independence of biosphere from the compartment containing the disposal site in the natural hydrologic cycle 3) Dilution with the natural inactive isotope or the same group of elements. Isotope dilution for 129 I and 14 C can be expected by proper selection of the site. 241 Am and 239 Pu will be homogenized into soil or sediment with insoluble elements such as iron and aluminium. For 237 Np and 99 Tc anionic condition is important for the selection. From the point of view of hydrologic cycle, anoxic dead water zone avoiding beneath mountain area is preferable for the disposal site. (author)

  16. Characterisation of Radioactive Waste located at Shelter Industrial Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.D.; Billon, F.; Rudko, V.M.; Batiy, V.G.; Panasyuk, N.I.

    2001-04-01

    As a result of the accident at the unit 4 reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant on the 26 April 1986 there was widespread radioactive contamination of the surrounding area. The area immediately surrounding Unit 4, referred to as the Industrial Site, was very heavily contaminated with fuel and core debris ejected from the reactor. Immediate action was undertaken to reduce the local radiation hazard and mitigate the potential of secondary contamination of the environment. This action involved (a) the removal and collection of fuel fragments (b) removal of the top layer of soil around unit 4 and (c) preparation of a new surface over the Industrial Site. This new surface is referred to colloquially as the Techno-genic Layer. This report provides an overview of a project undertaken for DG-Environment of European Commission by a Consortium consisting of SGN (France) and AEA Technology (UK) working in collaboration with the Organisation, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine; the Interdisciplinary Scientific and Technical Centre Shelter''. The project consisted of 3 Phases and a total of 14 Tasks. The main purpose of Phase 1 was to review previous work and available information and data on the contamination of the Industrial Site, construction of the Techno-genic Layer, Buttress and Pioneer Walls. Phase 2 was directed at additional measurements being carried out on existing boreholes and core samples to improve and/or substantiate existing information and data. Estimation of likely radioactive waste arisings, recovery procedures and a generalised strategy with indicative costs for the management of the waste was also covered by Phase 2. In Phase 3 new boreholes (3 off) were drilled and subsequently investigated. The justification behind Phase 3 was the desire/need to obtain more reliable information on the so-called high-active waste buried in the Industrial Site. (author)

  17. Three multimedia models used at hazardous and radioactive waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Pardi, R.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Holtzman, S.; Sun, L.C.; Rambaugh, J.O.; Potter, S.

    1996-02-01

    Multimedia models are used commonly in the initial phases of the remediation process where technical interest is focused on determining the relative importance of various exposure pathways. This report provides an approach for evaluating and critically reviewing the capabilities of multimedia models. This study focused on three specific models MEPAS Version 3.0, MMSOILS Version 2.2, and PRESTO-EPA-CPG Version 2.0. These models evaluate the transport and fate of contaminants from source to receptor through more than a single pathway. The presence of radioactive and mixed wastes at a site poses special problems. Hence, in this report, restrictions associated with the selection and application of multimedia models for sites contaminated with radioactive and mixed wastes are highlighted. This report begins with a brief introduction to the concept of multimedia modeling, followed by an overview of the three models. The remaining chapters present more technical discussions of the issues associated with each compartment and their direct application to the specific models. In these analyses, the following components are discussed: source term; air transport; ground water transport; overland flow, runoff, and surface water transport; food chain modeling; exposure assessment; dosimetry/risk assessment; uncertainty; default parameters. The report concludes with a description of evolving updates to the model; these descriptions were provided by the model developers

  18. Analyses of soils at commercial radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piciulo, P.L.; Shea, C.E.; Barletta, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory, in order to provide technical assistance to the NRC, has measured a number of physical and chemical characteristics of soils from three commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Samples were collected from an area adjacent to the disposal site at Sheffield, IL, and from two operating sites: one at Barnwell, SC, and the other near Richland, WA. The soil samples, which were analyzed from each site, were believed to include soil which was representative of that in contact with buried waste forms. Results of field measurements of earth resistivity and of soil pH will be presented. Additionally, the results of laboratory measurements of resistivity, moisture content, pH, exchange acidity and the soluble ion content of the soils will be discussed. The soluble ion content of the soils was determined by analysis of aqueous extracts of saturated soil pastes. The concentrations of the following ions were determined: Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , K + , Na + , HCO 3 - , CO 3 2- , SO 4 2- , Cl - , S 2-

  19. Site selection handbook: Workshop on site selection for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA) requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to provide technical assistance to ''...those compact regions, host States and nonmember States determined by the Secretary to require assistance.'' Technical assistance has been defined to include, but not be limited to, ''technical guidelines for site selection.'' This site selection workshop was developed to assist States and Compacts in developing new low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal sites in accordance with the requirements of the LLRWPAA. The workshop comprises a series of lectures, discussion topics, and exercises, supported by this Site Selection Workshop Handbook, designed to examine various aspects of a comprehensive site selection program. It is not an exhaustive treatment of all aspects of site selection, nor is it prescriptive. The workshop focuses on the major elements of site selection and the tools that can be used to implement the site selection program

  20. The Blue Ribbon Commission and siting radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.

    2010-01-01

    On 21 September 2010, the NEA Secretariat was invited to address the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future. This paper is a summary of the remarks made. The successful siting of radioactive waste disposal facilities implies creating the conditions for continued ownership of the facility over time. Acceptance of the facility at a single point in time is not good enough. Continued ownership implies the creation of conscious, constructive and durable relationships between the (most affected) communities and the waste management facility. Being comfortable about the technical safety of the facility requires a degree of familiarity and control . Having peace of mind about the safety of the facility requires trust in the waste management system and its actors as well as some control over the decision making. Regulators are especially important players who need to be visible in the community. The ideal site selection process should be step- wise, combining procedures for excluding sites that do not meet pre-identified criteria with those for identifying sites where nearby and more distant residents are willing to discuss acceptance of the facility. The regional authorities are just as important as the local authorities. Before approaching a potential siting region or community, there should be clear results of national (and state) debates establishing the role of nuclear power in the energy mix, as well as information on the magnitude of the ensuing waste commitment and its management end-points, and the allocation of the financial and legal responsibilities until the closure of the project. Once the waste inventories and type of facilities have been decided upon, there should be agreement that all significant changes will require a new decision-making process. Any proposed project has a much better chance to move forward positively if the affected populations can participate in its definition, including, at the appropriate time, its technical details. A

  1. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teillac, J.

    1988-01-01

    This study of general interest is an evaluation of the safety of radioactive waste management and consequently the preservation of the environment for the protection of man against ionizing radiations. The following topics were developed: radiation effects on man; radioactive waste inventory; radioactive waste processing, disposal and storage; the present state and future prospects [fr

  2. Low-level radioactive waste disposal at a humid site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.W.

    1987-03-01

    Waste management in humid environments poses a continuing challenge because of the potential contamination of groundwater in the long term. Short-term needs for waste disposal, regulatory uncertainty, and unique site and waste characteristics have led to the development of a site-specific waste classification and management system proposed for the Oak Ridge Reservation. The overlying principle of protection of public health and safety is used to define waste classes compatible with generated waste types, disposal sites and technologies, and treatment technologies. 1 fig., 1 tab

  3. The disposal of solid radioactive wastes to land sites in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginniff, M.E.; Phillipson, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Solid radioactive waste management by land disposal, using a strategy laid down by the government, is discussed. Waste disposal at Drigg, and the proposals for the two preferred sites at Elstow (shallow burial) and Billingham (deep burial) are outlined. Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive (NIREX); safety; public acceptance; and the role of the private sector; are also described. (U.K.)

  4. Success in siting low-level radioactive waste management facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, P.; McCauley, D.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The Government of Canada is about to conclude a legal agreement with three municipalities that will result in a $260-million 10-year multi-phase project to cleanup low-level radioactive wastes and contaminated soils and establish long-term low-level radioactive waste management facilities. Over the last two decades, numerous efforts were undertaken to resolve this long-standing environmental issue. Finally, the communities where the wastes are located came forward with resolutions that they were willing to develop local solutions to the problem. All three municipalities, facilitated by Government funding and assistance, put forward their own local solution to their own waste problem. Government accepted the municipalities' proposals as the basis of a comprehensive approach for dealing with the local problem. Negotiations ensued on Principles of Understanding under which the cleanup would proceed and new long-term waste management facilities would be established. Government's acceptance of the negotiated Principles led to the preparation of a legal agreement that was subsequently signed by each of the municipalities and is now about to be ratified by the Government of Canada. Resolution of the issue will be a major milestone in the Government's environmental agenda. The project will result in an environmentally-responsible, safe, and publicly-accepted approach to the long-term management of the wastes and remove one of the largest contaminated sites issues from the Government's agenda. It also advances the Government's nuclear waste policy and indicates to waste producers that the Government is developing and implementing solutions for wastes for which it is responsible. A key lesson for the Government of Canada in this process has been the advantages of a locally-generated solution. Through the process, the Government empowered the local municipalities to develop their own solution to the local waste problem. It facilitated and supported that effort

  5. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Yutaka

    2008-01-01

    Radioactive waste generated from utilization of radioisotopes and each step of the nuclear fuel cycle and decommissioning of nuclear facilities are presented. On the safe management of radioactive waste management, international safety standards are established such as ''The Principles of Radioactive Waste Management (IAEA)'' and T he Joint Convention on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management . Basic steps of radioactive waste management consist of treatment, conditioning and disposal. Disposal is the final step of radioactive waste management and its safety is confirmed by safety assessment in the licensing process. Safety assessment means evaluation of radiation dose rate caused by radioactive materials contained in disposed radioactive waste. The results of the safety assessment are compared with dose limits. The key issues of radioactive waste disposal are establishment of long term national strategies and regulations for safe management of radioactive waste, siting of repository, continuity of management activities and financial bases for long term, and security of human resources. (Author)

  6. Uncertainty management in radioactive waste repository site assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, J.f.; Martin, T.P.; Tocatlidou

    1994-01-01

    The problem of performance assessment of a site to serve as a repository for the final disposal of radioactive waste involves different types of uncertainties. Their main sources include the large temporal and spatial considerations over which safety of the system has to be ensured, our inability to completely understand and describe a very complex structure such as the repository system, lack of precision in the measured information etc. These issues underlie most of the problems faced when rigid probabilistic approaches are used. Nevertheless a framework is needed, that would allow for an optimal aggregation of the available knowledge and an efficient management of the various types of uncertainty involved. In this work a knowledge-based modelling of the repository selection process is proposed that through a consequence analysis, evaluates the potential impact that hypothetical scenarios will have on a candidate site. The model is organised around a hierarchical structure, relating the scenarios with the possible events and processes that characterise them, and the site parameters. The scheme provides for both crisp and fuzzy parameter values and uses fuzzy semantic unification and evidential support logic reference mechanisms. It is implemented using the artificial intelligence language FRIL and the interaction with the user is performed through a windows interface

  7. Nevada Test Site 2008 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site. These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2008 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities

  8. Unsaturated zone investigation at the radioactive waste storage facility site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuratovic, Zana; Mazeika, Jonas; Petrosius, Rimantas; Jakimaviciute-Maseliene, Vaidote [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos St. 2, LT-08412, Vilnius (Lithuania); Klizas, Petras; Mokrik, Robert [Vilnius University, M.K. Ciurlionio St. 21/27, LT-03101 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2014-07-01

    Unsaturated zone is an important part of water circulation cycle and an integral part of many hydrological and hydrogeological factors and processes. The soils of unsaturated zone are regarded as the first natural barrier to a large extent able to limit the spread of contaminants. Nuclear waste disposal site (Maisiagala radioactive waste storage facility site) was analysed in terms of the moisture movement through the unsaturated zone. Extensive data sets of the hydraulic properties, water content and isotope composition have been collected and summarized. The main experimental and observational tasks included the collection of soil samples; determination of the physical properties and the hydraulic conductivity values of soil samples, moisture extraction from the soil sample for isotopic studies; observation of the groundwater dynamics at the Maisiagala piezometer; groundwater sampling for isotopic analysis ({sup 3}H, {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O, {sup 2}H/{sup 1}H ); and monthly precipitation isotopic analysis. Distribution features of globally widespread radionuclide tritium ({sup 3}H) and the water molecule tracer isotopes in precipitation, unsaturated zone soil moisture profiles and groundwater were determined. It was used the well-known unsaturated flow and transport model of HYDRUS-1D (Simunek et al., 2008). In this study, van Genuchten equations for the retention and conductivity estimations have been used. The retention characteristics and van Genuchten model parameters were estimated internally by HYDRUS based on the empirical equations involved in the program. Basic inputs of the tritium transport simulation are the tritium input function and meteorological variables (precipitation and potential evapotranspiration). In order to validate the representativeness of the hydraulic parameters, the model has been used to estimate the tritium distribution in the unsaturated zone, which properly represents the dynamics of the unsaturated zone. The uniformity of the daily

  9. Building arrangement and site layout design guides for on site low level radioactive waste storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMullen, J.W.; Feehan, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    Many papers have been written by AE's and utilities describing their onsite storage facilities, why they are needed, NRC regulations, and disposal site requirements. This paper discusses a typical storage facility and address the design considerations and operational aspects that are generally overlooked when designing and siting a low level radioactive waste storage facility. Some topics to be addressed are: 1. Container flexibility; 2. Modular expansion capabilities; 3. DOT regulations; 4. Meterological requirements; 5. OSHA; 6. Fire protection; 7. Floods; 8. ALARA

  10. Nevada Test Site 2000 Annual Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. E.Townsend

    2001-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the calendar year 2000 groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). Contamination indicator data are presented in control chart and tabular form with investigation levels (IL) indicated. Gross water chemistry data are presented in graphical and tabular form. Other information in the report includes, the Cumulative Chronology for Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, a brief description of the site hydrogeology, and the groundwater sampling procedure.

  11. Nevada Test Site 2000 Annual Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Y. E.Townsend

    2001-01-01

    This report is a compilation of the calendar year 2000 groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). Contamination indicator data are presented in control chart and tabular form with investigation levels (IL) indicated. Gross water chemistry data are presented in graphical and tabular form. Other information in the report includes, the Cumulative Chronology for Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, a brief description of the site hydrogeology, and the groundwater sampling procedure

  12. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grass, F.

    1982-01-01

    Following a definition of the term 'radioactive waste', including a discussion of possible criteria allowing a delimitation of low-level radioactive against inactive wastes, present techniques of handling high-level, intermediate-level and low-level wastes are described. The factors relevant for the establishment of definitive disposals for high-level wastes are discussed in some detail. Finally, the waste management organization currently operative in Austria is described. (G.G.)

  13. Nuclear waste and social peace - Strategies of site selection for radioactive waste disposal. Proceeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dally, A.

    2003-01-01

    In February 1999, BMU appointed a working party to establish site selection procedures for repositories (AkEnd) which was to develop a transparent procedure of finding and selecting sites for the final storage of all kinds of radioactive waste in Germany. The procedure finally proposed by AkEnd implies considerable uncertainty, inter alia, about its legal implementability, the time required, and funding. The discussion papers of the meeting ''atomic waste and social peace'' show a tightrope walk between society, clerical aspects and scientists taking into account also a right of say for critical citizens. (GL)

  14. Environmental impact assessment of decommissioning treatment about radioactive model plant waste ore storage site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bei Xinyu

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at decommissioning treatment project of radioactive model plant waste ore storage site, based on the detailed investigations of source terms and project description, systematic environmental impacts have been identified. The environmental impacts both during decommissioning treatment, radioactive waste transportation and after treatment are assessed. Some specific environmental protection measures are proposed so as to minimize the adverse environmental impacts. (author)

  15. Methodology of site generation for evaluation of the behaviour of radioactive waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Rivas, C.; Eguilior Diez, S.

    1997-01-01

    The present report summarizes the purpose of methodology for the site generation in the evaluation of high-level radioactive waste storage for long-term. This work is developed into the project Safety analysis long-term of high-level radioactive waste. This project is carried on for CIEMAT and ENRESA

  16. Closure Strategy Nevada Test Site Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of the strategy for closure of part of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is about 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). The Area 5 RWMS is in the northern part of Frenchman Flat, approximately 14 miles north of Mercury. The Area 5 RWMS encompasses 732 acres subdivided into quadrants, and is bounded by a 1,000-foot (ft)-wide buffer zone. The northwest and southwest quadrants have not been developed. The northeast and southeast quadrants have been used for disposal of unclassified low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and indefinite storage of classified materials. This paper focuses on closure of the 38 waste disposal and classified material storage units within the southeast quadrant of the Area 5 RWMS, called the ''92-Acre Area''. The U.S Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is currently planning to close the 92-Acre Area by 2011. Closure planning for this site must take into account the regulatory requirements for a diversity of waste streams, disposal and storage configurations, disposal history, and site conditions. For ease of discussion, the 92-Acre Area has been subdivided into six closure units defined by waste type, location, and similarity in regulatory requirements. Each of the closure units contains one or more waste disposal units; waste disposal units are also called waste disposal cells. The paper provides a brief background of the Area 5 RWMS, identifies key closure issues for the 92-Acre Area, recommends actions to address the issues, and provides the National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), schedule for closure.

  17. Analyses of soils at commercial radioactive-waste-disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piciulo, P.L.; Shea, C.E.; Barletta, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory, in order to provide technical assistance to the NRC, has measured a number of physical and chemical characteristics of soils from two currently operating commercial radioactive waste disposal sites; one at Barnwell, SC, and the other near Richland, WA. Soil samples believed to be representative of the soil that will contact the buried waste were collected and analyzed. Earth resistivities (field measurements), from both sites, supply information to identify variations in subsurface material. Barnwell soil resistivities (laboratory measurements) range from 3.6 x 10 5 ohm-cm to 8.9 x 10 4 ohm-cm. Soil resistivities of the Hanford sample vary from 3.0 x 10 5 ohm-cm to 6.6 x 10 3 ohm-cm. The Barnwell and Hanford soil pH ranges from 4.8 to 5.4 and from 4.0 to 7.2 respectively. The pH of a 1:2 mixture of soil to 0.01 M CaCl 2 resulted in a pH for the Barnwell samples of 3.9 +- 0.1 and for the Hanford samples of 7.4 +- 0.2. These values are comparable to the pH measurements of the water extract of the soils used for the analyses of soluble ion content of the soils. The exchange acidity of the soils was found to be approximately 7 mg-eq per 100 g of dry soil for clay material from Barnwell, whereas the Hanford soils showed an alkaline reaction. Aqueous extracts of saturated pastes were used to determine the concentrations of the following ions: Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , K + , Na + , HCO 3 - , SO 4 /sup =/, and Cl - . The sulfide content of each of the soils was measured in a 1:2.5 mixture of soil to an antioxidant buffer solution. The concentrations of soluble ions found in the soils from both sites are consistent with the high resistivities

  18. A survey of citizen's attitude to disposal sites of industrial waste and radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaka, Kaoru; Tanaka, Masaru; Tokizawa, Takayuki; Sato, Kazuhiko; Koga, Osamu

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate a risk perception about landfill sits for industrial waste or radioactive waste through the questionnaire survey. As a result, it was shown that most of people worried about health and environmental impact of radioactive waste; and moreover, high ratios of the peoples felt dangerous and scary sensuously. Public trust to the central government was very low. Over 60 percent of people do not trust that countermeasures will be taken at the times of accident' and nearly 70 percent of people do not trust that 'the information about the accident is disclosed'. Answers to questions concerning about public trust regarding countermeasures at the accident, information disclosure at the accident, environmental standard, and environmental technology show significant correlation with risk perception of landfill sites. (author)

  19. Use of compensation and incentives in siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.P.; Jaffe, M.

    1984-09-01

    In discussing the use of compensation and incentives in siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities, chapters are devoted to: compensation and incentives in disposal facility siting (definitions and effects of compensation and incentives and siting decisions involving the use of compensation and incentives); the impacts of regional and state low-level radioactive waste facilities; the legal framework of compensation; and recommendations regarding the use of compensation

  20. Secrets of successful siting legislation for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasternak, A.D.

    1988-01-01

    California's users of radioactive materials, working together through the California Radioactive Materials Management Forum (Cal Rad), have played a role in fostering development of our state's low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. One of Cal Rad's contributions was to develop and sponsor California's siting legislation in 1983. In this paper, the elements of the state's LLRW siting law, California Senate Bill 342 (Chapter 1177, Statutes a 1983), and their relationship to a successful siting program are described

  1. Geological setting of the Novi Han radioactive waste storage site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evstatiev, D.; Kozhukharov, D.

    2000-01-01

    The geo environment in the area of the only operating radioactive waste repository in Bulgaria has been analysed. The repository is intended for storage of all kinds of low and medium level radioactive wastes with the exception of these from nuclear power production. The performed investigations prove that the 30 years of operation have not caused pollution of the geo environment. Meanwhile the existing complex geological settings does not provide prerequisites to rely on the natural geological safety barriers. The studies performed so far are considered to be incomplete since they do not provide the necessary information for the development of a model describing the radionuclide migration as well as for understanding of the neotectonic circumstances. The tasks of the future activities are described in order to obtain more detailed information about the geology in the area. (authors)

  2. Status and advice of the low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal sites in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng Keyan; Lu Caixia

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of nuclear power industry in China, as well as the decommissioning of the nuclear facilities, and the process of radioactive waste management, a mount of the low and intermediate level radioactive solid wastes will increase rapidly. How to dispose the low and intermediate level radioactive solid wastes, that not only related to Chinese nuclear energy and nuclear technology with sustainable development, but also related to the public health, environment safety. According to Chinese « long-term development plan of nuclear power (2005- 2020) », when construct the nuclear power, should simultaneous consider the sites that dispose the low and intermediate level radioactive waste, In order to adapt to the needs that dispose the increasing low and intermediate level radioactive waste with development of nuclear power. In the future, all countries are facing the enormous challenge of nuclear waste disposal. (authors)

  3. Operational Strategies for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site in Egypt - 13513

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Yasser T.

    2013-01-01

    The ultimate aims of treatment and conditioning is to prepare waste for disposal by ensuring that the waste will meet the waste acceptance criteria of a disposal facility. Hence the purpose of low-level waste disposal is to isolate the waste from both people and the environment. The radioactive particles in low-level waste emit the same types of radiation that everyone receives from nature. Most low-level waste fades away to natural background levels of radioactivity in months or years. Virtually all of it diminishes to natural levels in less than 300 years. In Egypt, The Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center has been established since 1983, as a waste management facility for LLW and ILW and the disposal site licensed for preoperational in 2005. The site accepts the low level waste generated on site and off site and unwanted radioactive sealed sources with half-life less than 30 years for disposal and all types of sources for interim storage prior to the final disposal. Operational requirements at the low-level (LLRW) disposal site are listed in the National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control NCNSRC guidelines. Additional procedures are listed in the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility Standards Manual. The following describes the current operations at the LLRW disposal site. (authors)

  4. Closure Plan for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2008-01-01

    The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RMWS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is managed and operated by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This document is the first update of the preliminary closure plan for the Area 5 RWMS at the NTS that was presented in the Integrated Closure and Monitoring Plan (DOE, 2005a). The major updates to the plan include a new closure schedule, updated closure inventory, updated site and facility characterization data, the Title II engineering cover design, and the closure process for the 92-Acre Area of the RWMS. The format and content of this site-specific plan follows the Format and Content Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Closure Plans (DOE, 1999a). This interim closure plan meets closure and post-closure monitoring requirements of the order DOE O 435.1, manual DOE M 435.1-1, Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 191, 40 CFR 265, Nevada Administrative Code (NAC) 444.743, and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements as incorporated into NAC 444.8632. The Area 5 RWMS accepts primarily packaged low-level waste (LLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and asbestiform low-level waste (ALLW) for disposal in excavated disposal cells

  5. Closure Plan for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2008-09-01

    The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RMWS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is managed and operated by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This document is the first update of the preliminary closure plan for the Area 5 RWMS at the NTS that was presented in the Integrated Closure and Monitoring Plan (DOE, 2005a). The major updates to the plan include a new closure schedule, updated closure inventory, updated site and facility characterization data, the Title II engineering cover design, and the closure process for the 92-Acre Area of the RWMS. The format and content of this site-specific plan follows the Format and Content Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Closure Plans (DOE, 1999a). This interim closure plan meets closure and post-closure monitoring requirements of the order DOE O 435.1, manual DOE M 435.1-1, Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 191, 40 CFR 265, Nevada Administrative Code (NAC) 444.743, and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements as incorporated into NAC 444.8632. The Area 5 RWMS accepts primarily packaged low-level waste (LLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and asbestiform low-level waste (ALLW) for disposal in excavated disposal cells.

  6. Annual Transportation Report for Radioactive Waste Shipments to and from the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    In February 1997, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Nevada Operations Office (now known as the Nevada Site Office) issued the Mitigation Action Plan which addressed potential impacts described in the 'Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Nevada Test Site and Off-Site Locations in the State of Nevada' (DOE/EIS 0243). The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office committed to several actions, including the preparation of an annual report, which summarizes waste shipments to and from the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at Area 5 and Area 3. No shipments were disposed of at Area 3 in fiscal year (FY) 2008. This document satisfies requirements regarding low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) transported to or from the NTS during FY 2008. No transuranic (TRU) waste shipments were made from or to the NTS during FY 2008

  7. Geohydrologic aspects for siting and design of low-level radioactive-waste disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    The objective for siting and design of low-level radioactive-waste repository sites is to isolate the waste from the biosphere until the waste no longer poses an unacceptable hazard as a result of radioactive decay. Low-level radioactive waste commonly is isolated at shallow depths with various engineered features to stabilize the waste and to reduce its dissolution and transport by ground water. The unsaturated zone generally is preferred for isolating the waste. Low-level radioactive waste may need to be isolated for 300 to 500 years. Maintenance and monitoring of the repository site are required by Federal regulations for only the first 100 years. Therefore, geohydrology of the repository site needs to provide natural isolation of the waste for the hazardous period following maintenance of the site. Engineering design of the repository needs to be compatible with the natural geohydrologic conditions at the site. Studies at existing commercial and Federal waste-disposal sites provide information on the problems encountered and the basis for establishing siting guidelines for improved isolation of radioactive waste, engineering design of repository structures, and surveillance needs to assess the effectiveness of the repositories and to provide early warning of problems that may require remedial action.Climate directly affects the hydrology of a site and probably is the most important single factor that affects the suitability of a site for shallow-land burial of low-level radioactive waste. Humid and subhumid regions are not well suited for shallow isolation of low-level radioactive waste in the unsaturated zone; arid regions with zero to small infiltration from precipitation, great depths to the water table, and long flow paths to natural discharge areas are naturally well suited to isolation of the waste. The unsaturated zone is preferred for isolation of low-level radioactive waste. The guiding rationale is to minimize contact of water with the waste and to

  8. Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  9. Assessment of mixed hazardous and radioactive waste sites at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, T.J.; Cramer, K.H.; Lamar, D.A.; Sherwood, D.R.; Stenner, R.D.; Schulze, W.B.

    1987-10-01

    The US Department of Energy and Pacific Northwest Laboratory recently completed a preliminary assessment of 685 inactive hazardous waste sites located on the Hanford Site. The preliminary assessment involved collecting historical data and individual site information, conducting site inspections, and establishing an environmental impact priority, using the Hazard Ranking System, for each of these 685 sites. This preliminary assessment was the first step in the remediation process required by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act. This paper presents the results of that preliminary assessment. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  10. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources.

  11. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources

  12. Economics model for new low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    This report describes LLWECON, an interactive computer mode for evaluating financial factors involved in low-level radioactive waste disposal. The logic by which LLWECON calculates the final generator price (price per cubic foot the disposal site operator charges waste generators) is detailed. Required user input and hypothetical examples, covering sites with different capacities, and both public and private-sector development, are included

  13. NRC perspective on extended on-site storage of low-level radioactive waste after 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remick, Forrest J.

    1992-01-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA) requires that each State, which has not provided for disposal capacity by January 1, 1993, must take title and possession of the low-level radioactive wastes generated in the State. If the states do not take title and possession of the wastes, the rebates to which the states would have been entitled to would be returned to the waste generators. in considering the matter, the Commission solicited comments from States) low-level radioactive waste compacts, local governments, and the general public so that the public's views could be factored into the Commission's deliberations on this issue. This paper addresses the current status of NRC positions on the adequacy of the NRC's existing regulatory framework associated with the title transfer provisions of the LLRWPAA and the Commission's views on extended on-site storage of low-level radioactive wastes after the 1993 and 1996 milestones. (author)

  14. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devarakonda, M.S.; Melvin, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is part of the Annual Literature Review issue of Water Environment Research. The review attempts to provide a concise summary of important water-related environmental science and engineering literature of the past year, of which 40 separate topics are discussed. On the topic of radioactive wastes, the present paper deals with the following aspects: national programs; waste repositories; mixed wastes; waste processing and decommissioning; environmental occurrence and transport of radionuclides; and remedial actions and treatment. 178 refs

  15. High-level radioactive waste repositories site selection plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castanon, A.; Recreo, F.

    1985-01-01

    A general vision of the high level nuclear waste (HLNW) and/or nuclear spent fuel facilities site selection processes is given, according to the main international nuclear safety regulatory organisms quidelines and the experience from those countries which have reached a larger development of their national nuclear programs. (author)

  16. Computer models used to support cleanup decision-making at hazardous and radioactive waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Pardi, R.; DePhillips, M.P.; Meinhold, A.F.

    1992-07-01

    Massive efforts are underway to cleanup hazardous and radioactive waste sites located throughout the US To help determine cleanup priorities, computer models are being used to characterize the source, transport, fate and effects of hazardous chemicals and radioactive materials found at these sites. Although, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the US Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have provided preliminary guidance to promote the use of computer models for remediation purposes, no Agency has produced directed guidance on models that must be used in these efforts. To identify what models are actually being used to support decision-making at hazardous and radioactive waste sites, a project jointly funded by EPA, DOE and NRC was initiated. The purpose of this project was to: (1) Identify models being used for hazardous and radioactive waste site assessment purposes; and (2) describe and classify these models. This report presents the results of this study.

  17. Computer models used to support cleanup decision-making at hazardous and radioactive waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Pardi, R.; DePhillips, M.P.; Meinhold, A.F.

    1992-07-01

    Massive efforts are underway to cleanup hazardous and radioactive waste sites located throughout the US To help determine cleanup priorities, computer models are being used to characterize the source, transport, fate and effects of hazardous chemicals and radioactive materials found at these sites. Although, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the US Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have provided preliminary guidance to promote the use of computer models for remediation purposes, no Agency has produced directed guidance on models that must be used in these efforts. To identify what models are actually being used to support decision-making at hazardous and radioactive waste sites, a project jointly funded by EPA, DOE and NRC was initiated. The purpose of this project was to: (1) Identify models being used for hazardous and radioactive waste site assessment purposes; and (2) describe and classify these models. This report presents the results of this study

  18. Incentives and the siting of radioactive waste facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnes, S.A.; Copenhaver, E.D.; Reed, J.H.; Soderstrom, E.J.; Sorensen, J.H.; Peelle, E.; Bjornstad, D.J.

    1982-08-01

    The importance of social and institutional issues in the siting of nuclear waste facilities has been recognized in recent years. Limited evidence from a survey of rural Wisconsin residents in 1980 indicates that incentives may help achieve the twin goals of increasing local support and decreasing local opposition to hosting nuclear waste facilities. Incentives are classified according to functional categories (i.e., mitigation, compensation, and reward) and the conditions which may be prerequisites to the use of incentives are outlined (i.e., guarantee of public health and safety, some measure of local control, and a legitimation of negotiations during siting). Criteria for evaluating the utility of incentives in nuclear waste repository siting are developed. Incentive packages may be more useful than single incentives, and nonmonetary incentives, such as independent monitoring and access to credible information, may be as important in eliciting support as monetary incentives. Without careful attention to prerequisites in the siting process it is not likely that incentives will facilitate the siting process.

  19. Incentives and the siting of radioactive waste facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnes, S.A.; Copenhaver, E.D.; Reed, J.H.; Soderstrom, E.J.; Sorensen, J.H.; Peelle, E.; Bjornstad, D.J.

    1982-08-01

    The importance of social and institutional issues in the siting of nuclear waste facilities has been recognized in recent years. Limited evidence from a survey of rural Wisconsin residents in 1980 indicates that incentives may help achieve the twin goals of increasing local support and decreasing local opposition to hosting nuclear waste facilities. Incentives are classified according to functional categories (i.e., mitigation, compensation, and reward) and the conditions which may be prerequisites to the use of incentives are outlined (i.e., guarantee of public health and safety, some measure of local control, and a legitimation of negotiations during siting). Criteria for evaluating the utility of incentives in nuclear waste repository siting are developed. Incentive packages may be more useful than single incentives, and nonmonetary incentives, such as independent monitoring and access to credible information, may be as important in eliciting support as monetary incentives. Without careful attention to prerequisites in the siting process it is not likely that incentives will facilitate the siting process

  20. Siting a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, S.A.; Gaynor, R.K.

    1991-01-01

    US Ecology is the State of California's designee to site, develop and operate a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. In March 1988, a site in the Ward Valley of California's Mojave Desert was chosen for development. Strong local community support has been expressed for the site. US Ecology anticipates licensing and constructing a facility to receive waste by early 1991. This schedule places California well ahead of the siting milestones identified in Federal law. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs

  1. High level radioactive waste siting processes: critical lessons from Canadian siting successes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    While not without controversy, Canada's Crown Corporations, municipalities, agencies and private companies have had success in siting and achieving approval for operating: toxic and hazardous waste facilities; dry radioactive materials storage facilities; the Federal low-level radioactive waste disposal facility; and, several large and small domestic landfills. The cumulative experience gained from these siting and approval processes provides valuable advice in support of the siting and approval of high-level radioactive disposal facilities. Among the critical elements for the success of these siting efforts are: 1) the tinting, scope and character of the siting process reflects the cultural and social values of affected people; 2) the siting and approval processes has integrity -- characterized as rational processes in pursuit of the public interest; 3) sufficient time and resources are dedicated to listening carefully and examining issues seen to be important by the public; 4) all information is shared -- even if the information is potentially detrimental to the approval of the facility; 5) proponent has a prioritized multiple focus on 'health, safety and environment issues', on 'insuring that the environmental assessment process is socially acceptable' as well as on the 'approval considerations'; 6) the implementing agency seeks cooperation and win-win solutions with the local community; 7) the community has the option of opting-out of the process and the do-nothing and/or the not here option continues to be considered by the proponent; 8) local emergency response people are well-trained and accepting of the facility; 9) the community has a strong role in determining the terms, conditions and compensation related to the future facility. (author)

  2. Overview of Nevada Test Site Radioactive and Mixed Waste Disposal Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carilli, J.T.; Krenzien, S.K.; Geisinger, R.G.; Gordon, S.J.; Quinn, B.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Environmental Management Program is responsible for carrying out the disposal of on-site and off-site generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and low-level radioactive mixed waste (MW) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Core elements of this mission are ensuring safe and cost-effective disposal while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. This paper focuses on the impacts of new policies, processes, and opportunities at the NTS related to LLW and MW. Covered topics include: the first year of direct funding for NTS waste disposal operations; zero tolerance policy for non-compliant packages; the suspension of mixed waste disposal; waste acceptance changes; DOE Consolidated Audit Program (DOECAP) auditing; the 92-Acre Area closure plan; new eligibility requirements for generators; and operational successes with unusual waste streams

  3. Techniques for site investigations for underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The report provides a more detailed description of the capabilities and applications of the various earth science investigation techniques outlined in the IAEA Technical Reports Series Nos. 177, 215 and 216. These methods are generally appropriate during at least one of the stages of the assessment or selection of a site for any type of waste disposal facility, in shallow ground or in deep geological formations. This report is addressed to technical authorities responsible for or involved in planning, approving, executing and reviewing national waste disposal programmes. It may also help administrative authorities in this field to select appropriate techniques for obtaining the majority of the required information at minimum cost

  4. Interdisciplinary Cooperation in the Exploration of appropriate sites for the Radioactive Waste Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Slavkovský

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the interdisciplinary cooperation in the processes of exploration of appropriate sites for radioactive waste deposits. This work is based on trends in the environmental laws for radioactive wastes. For the exploration, a knowledge about the geological structures, properties of rocks and safety manipulation with radioactive wastes are necessary. The interdisciplinary cooperation is needed with geophysics to define the particularly hazardous areas of an earthquake shaking. In this article, a method of the seismic analysis by Ricker impuls and Gabor´s function are presented.

  5. Design and Construction of Deinococcus Radiodurans for Biodegradation of Organic Toxins at Radioactive DOE Waste Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, Michael J.; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Fredrickson, James K.

    2001-01-01

    Seventy million cubic meters of ground and three trillion liters of groundwater have been contaminated by leaking radioactive waste generated in the United States during the Cold War. A cleanup technology is being developed based on the extremely radiation resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans that is being engineered to express bioremediating functions. Research aimed at developing D. radiodurans for organic toxin degradation in highly radioactive waste sites containing radionuclides, heavy metals, and toxic organic compounds was started by this group.Work funded by the existing grant has already contributed to eleven papers on the fundamental biology of D. radiodurans and its design for bioremediation of highly radioactive waste environments

  6. Low level radioactive waste disposal/treatment technology overview: Savannah River site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, H.F. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The Savannah River Site will begin operation of several low-level waste disposal/treatment facilities during the next five years, including a new low-level solid waste disposal facility, a low-level liquid effluent treatment facility, and a low-level liquid waste solidification process. Closure of a radioactive hazardous waste burial ground will also be completed. Technical efforts directed toward waste volume reduction include compaction, incineration, waste avoidance, and clean waste segregation. This paper summarizes new technology being developed and implemented. 11 refs., 1 fig

  7. Geographical information system (GIS) suitability analysis of radioactive waste repository site in Pahang, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faizal Azrin Abd Razalim; Noraini Surip; Ahmad Hasnulhadi; Nazran Harun; Nurul Nadia Abd Malek; Roziah Che Musa

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this project is to identify a suitable site for radioactive waste repository in Pahang using remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) technologies. There are ten parameters considered in the analysis, which divided into Selection Criteria and Exclusion Criteria. The Selection Criteria parameters consists of land use, rainfall, lineament, slope, groundwater potential and elevation while Exclusion Criteria parameters consist of urban, protected land and island. Furthermore, all parameters were integrated, given weight age and ranked for site selection evaluation in GIS environment. At the first place, about twelve sites have been identified as suitable sites for radioactive waste repository throughout the study area. These sites were further analysed by ground checking on the physical setting including geological, drainage, and population density in order to finalise three most suitable sites for radioactive waste repository. (author)

  8. The Cigeo project: an industrial storage site for radioactive wastes in deep underground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieguer, Jean-Marie

    2017-01-01

    In 2006, France has decided to store its high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes, mostly issued from the nuclear industry, in a deep geological underground disposal site. This document presents the Cigeo project, a deep underground disposal site (located in the East of France) for such radioactive wastes, which construction is to be started in 2021 (subject to authorization in 2018). After a brief historical review of the project, started 20 years ago, the document presents the radioactive waste disposal context, the ethical choice of underground storage (in France and elsewhere) for these types of radioactive wastes, the disposal site safety and financing aspects, the progressive development of the underground facilities and, of most importance, its reversibility. In a second part, the various works around the site are presented (transport, buildings, water and power supply, etc.) together with a description of the various radioactive wastes (high and intermediate level and long-lived wastes and their packaging) that will be disposed in the site. The different steps of the project are then reviewed (the initial design and initial construction phases, the pilot industrial phase (expected in 2030), the operating phase, and the ultimate phases that will consist in the definitive closure of the site and its monitoring), followed by an extensive description of the various installations of surface and underground facilities, their architecture and their equipment

  9. Radioactive safety analysis and assessment of waste rock pile site in uranium tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Changrong; Liu Zehua; Wang Zhiyong; Zhou Xinghuo

    2007-01-01

    Based on theoretical calculation and in-situ test results, distribution and emissions of radioactive nuclides of uranium tailings impoundment and waste rock pile sites are analyzed in this paper. It is pointed out that 222 Rn is the main nuclide of uranium tailings impoundment and waste rock pile site. Also 222 Rn is the main source term of public dose. 222 Rn concentrations in the atmospheric environment around and individual dose to Rn gradually decrease with increasing distances to uranium tailings impoundment and waste rock pile site. Based on in-situ tests on five uranium tailings impoundment and waste rock pile sites, a decisive method and safety protection distance are presented, which can be used to guide the validation and design of radioactive safety protection in uranium tailings impoundment and waste rock pile sites. (authors)

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF BENTONITE FOR ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEMS IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravko Domitrović

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Engineered barrier systems are used in radioactive waste disposal sites in order to provide better protection of humans and the environment from the potential hazards associated with the radioactive waste disposal. The engineered barrier systems usually contain cement or clay (bentonite because of their isolation properties and long term performance. Quality control tests of clays are the same for all engineering barrier systems. Differences may arise in the required criteria to be met due for different application. Prescribed clay properties depend also on the type of host rocks. This article presents radioactive waste management based on best international practice. Standard quality control procedures for bentonite used as a sealing barrier in radioactive waste disposal sites are described as some personal experiences and results of the index tests (free swelling index, water adsorption capacity, plasticity limits and hydraulic permeability of bentonite (the paper is published in Croatian.

  11. Hydrological performance assessment on siting the high level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghai; Liu Shufen; Wang Ju; Wang Zhiming; Su Rui; Lv Chuanhe; Zong Zihua

    2007-01-01

    Based on the research experiences in China and some developed countries in the world, the processes and methods on hydrological performance assessment for the siting of high radioactive repository are discussed in this paper. The methods and contents of hydrological performance assessment are discussed respectively for region, area and site hydrological investigation stages. At the same time, the hydrological performance assessment of the potential site for high level radioactive waste in China is introduced. (authors)

  12. Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) management at the Nevada Test Site (NTS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, B.D.; Gertz, C.P.; Clayton, W.A.; Crowe, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    In 1978, the Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), established a managed LLW disposal project at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Two, sites which were already accepting limited amounts of on-site generated waste for disposal and off-site generated Transuranic Waste for interim storage, were selected to house the disposal facilities. In those early days, these sites, located about 15 miles apart, afforded the DOE/NV the opportunity to use at least two technologies to manage its waste cost effectively. The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose packaged waste while the Area 3 RWMS uses subsidence craters formed from underground testing of nuclear weapons for the disposal of packaged and unpackaged bulk waste. The paper describes the technical attributes of both Area 5 and Area 3 facilities, the acceptance process, the disposal processes, and present and future capacities of both sites

  13. User's manual for applicants proposing on-site burial of self-generated radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolbert, M.E.M.; Loretan, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    This document describes, for medical and research institutions as well as industrial generators of low-level radioactive waste, the NRC or state submittal requirements for authorizing the on-site burial of self-generated radioactive waste. An important part of completing the license application for operation justifying this alternative for waste disposal over other alternatives. Reasons that might be considered acceptable might include the need to dispose of large volumes of low activity waste that would otherwise take up valuable space in commercial sites; the ability to demonstrate that this method of disposal will result in reduced exposures to the public; the ability to show that the prohibitive costs of other methods of disposal would be detrimental to the progress of significant research which generates radioactive waste. 19 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  14. Radioactive solid waste inventories at United States Department of Energy burial and storage sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, T.

    1987-06-01

    Radioactive solid waste inventories are given for United States Department of Energy (DOE) burial and storage sites. These data are obtained from the Solid Waste Information Management System (SWIMS) and reflect the inventories as of the end of the calendar year 1986. 4 figs., 7 tabs

  15. Use of compensation and incentives in siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    This report assumes that local opposition is a critical issue in siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Although it recognizes the importance of local health and safety concerns, this report only addresses the economic issues facing local officials in the siting process. Finding ways to overcome local opposition through economic compensation and incentives is a basic step in the waste facility siting process. The report argues that the use of these compensation and incentive mechanisms can help achieve greater local acceptance of waste facilities and also help ease the economic burdens that many communities bear when they agree to host a low-level waste disposal facility. The growing national need for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities requires that state and local planning agencies develop creative new procedures for siting facilities, procedures that are sensitive to local perceptions and effects

  16. Radioactive mixed waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste

  17. Geo-scientific considerations on evaluation of possible sites for radioactive waste isolation in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, K [Radioactive Waste Management Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    1980-08-01

    Japan is located on the Circum-Pacific Arc, which is a geoscientifically difficult area for selecting sites suitable as repositories for isolating radioactive waste. The writer has analyzed the problems relevant to radioactive waste isolation in this aqueous and active structural territory, with a view to examining the possibility of finding geological formations suitable for such repositories. As a result, certain parts in Neogene sedimentary rocks and Palaeozoic calcarious rocks were found to present geological characteristics that appeared favorable for radioactive waste isolation, while, on the other hand, the study indicated that much difficulty would be foreseen in crystalline rocks such as are currently suitable in the US and in Europe for high level radioactive waste isolation.

  18. Revised Draft Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This ''Revised Draft Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement'' (HSW EIS) covers three primary aspects of waste management at Hanford--waste treatment, storage, and disposal. It also addresses four kinds of solid waste--low-level waste (LLW), mixed (radioactive and chemically hazardous) low-level waste (MLLW), transuranic (TRU) waste, and immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW). It fundamentally asks the question: how should we manage the waste we have now and will have in the future? This EIS analyzes the impacts of the LLW, MLLW, TRU waste, and ILAW we currently have in storage, will generate, or expect to receive at Hanford. The HSW EIS is intended to help us determine what specific facilities we will continue to use, modify, or construct to treat, store, and dispose of these wastes (Figure S.1). Because radioactive and chemically hazardous waste management is a complex, technical, and difficult subject, we have made every effort to minimize the use of acronyms (making an exception for our four waste types listed above), use more commonly understood words, and provide the ''big picture'' in this summary. An acronym list, glossary of terms, and conversions for units of measure are provided in a readers guide in Volume 1 of this EIS

  19. Geochemical investigations at Maxey Flats radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayal, R.; Pietrzak, R.F.; Clinton, J.

    1984-09-01

    As part of the NRC efforts to develop a data base on source term characteristics for low level wastes, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has produced and analyzed a large amount of data on trench leachate chemistry at existing shallow land burial sites. In this report, we present the results of our investigations at the Maxey Flats, Kentucky disposal site. In particular, data on trench leachate chemistry are reviewed and discussed in terms of mechanisms and processes controlling the composition of trench solutes. Particular emphasis is placed on identifying both intra- and extra-trench factors and processes contributing to source term characteristics, modifications, and uncertainties. BNL research on the Maxey Flats disposal site has provided important information not only on the source term characteristics and the factors contributing to uncertainties in the source term but also some generic insights into such geochemical processes and controls as the mechanics of leachate formation, microbial degradation and development of anoxia, organic complexation and radionuclide mobility, redox inversion and modification of the source term, solubility constraints on solute chemistry, mineral authigenesis, corrosion products and radionuclide scavenging, and the role of organic complexants in geochemical partitioning of radionuclides. A knowledge of such processes and controls affecting the geochemical cycling of radionuclides as well as an understanding of the important factors that contribute to variability and uncertainties in the source term is essential for evaluating the performance of waste package and the site, making valid predictions of release for dose calculations, and for planning site performance monitoring as well as remedial actions. 43 references, 47 figures, 30 tables

  20. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This eighth chapter presents the radioactive wastes and waste disposal; classification of radioactive wastes; basis requests of the radioactive waste management; conditions for a radioactive waste disposal; registers and inventories; transport of radioactive wastes from a facility to another and the radioactive waste management plan

  1. Flood Assessment Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2007-01-01

    A flood assessment was conducted at the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada (Figure 1-1). The study area encompasses the watershed of Yucca Flat, a closed basin approximately 780 square kilometers (km2) (300 square miles) in size. The focus of this effort was on a drainage area of approximately 94 km2 (36 mi2), determined from review of topographic maps and aerial photographs to be the only part of the Yucca Flat watershed that could directly impact the Area 3 RWMS. This smaller area encompasses portions of the Halfpint Range, including Paiute Ridge, Jangle Ridge, Carbonate Ridge, Slanted Buttes, Cockeyed Ridge, and Banded Mountain. The Area 3 RWMS is located on coalescing alluvial fans emanating from this drainage area

  2. Waste management practices to control biological transport of radioactivity at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conklin, A.W.

    1985-01-01

    One of the goals of waste management in the Hanford Site 200 Areas is to prevent biological intrusion into, and transport from, waste storage and disposal sites. Practices established to achieve these goals include the elimination of deep-rooted vegetation on waste sites to prevent plant root intrusion into radioactivity, selective herbicide application to prevent regrowth of these plants, planting of shallow-rooted plants to successfully compete with deep-rooted plants for moisture, surface stabilization, and environmental surveillance. Past biological transport incidents have included transport by Russian thistle by way of physiological plant processes, bird access into exposed contamination, and animals burrowing into radioactive waste disposal sites. Rockwell Hanford Operations, through mitigative actions and continued surveillance, has made significant progress in eliminating, or better isolating source terms, thus preventing or inhibiting problems from recurring. Approximately 60% of source term acreage requiring stabilization or decontamination has been completed

  3. Introduction to Envirocare of Utah's low activity radioactive waste disposal site located at Clive, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    Envirocare of Utah was licensed by the state of Utah on February 2, 1988, to become fully operational to receive low-activity radioactive waste at its disposal site near Clive, Utah. This paper discusses the organization of the firm, political support, acceptable materials, benefits of the operation, site characteristics, construction, health physics program, and environmental program

  4. Research in the selection of very low level radioactive waste disposal site in southwest China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuo, Xianguo; Long, Qiong; Zhong, Hongmei; Xu, Zhengqi; Mu, Keliang; Gao, Lan

    2008-01-01

    The ultimate goal of Chinese Radioactive Nuclear Waste Management and Disposal Security is that must use proper and optimized ways to manage radioactive waste and make sure human beings and the environment either at the present or in the future can be free from any unacceptable risks. According to the goal, this paper presents an overview of comprehensive site characterization work that comprises investigations of physical geography, climatology, geology and hydrogeology, as well as geological hazard on two candidate Very Low Level Radioactive Waste (VLLW) disposal sites (Site 1 and Site 2) which are both located in the south west of China. The results showed that there are many similarities in the regional extent of the two sites, but many distinct differences are found in terrain and topographic features, granule stratum, hydraulic gradient, and so on. On the whole, the two alternative sites are in line with the requirements for very low level radioactive waste disposal, and Site 1 is superior to Site 2. (author)

  5. Methodology applied in Cuba for siting, designing, and building a radioactive waste repository under safety conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orbera, L.; Peralta, J.L.; Franklin, R.; Gil, R.; Chales, G.; Rodriguez, A.

    1993-01-01

    The work presents the methodology used in Cuba for siting, designing, and building a radioactive waste repository safely. This methodology covers both the technical and socio-economic factors, as well as those of design and construction so as to have a safe siting for this kind of repository under Cuba especial condition. Applying this methodology will results in a safe repository

  6. Evaluation of site-generated radioactive waste treatment and disposal methods for the Yucca Mountain repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, C.V.; Jardine, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    This study identifies the sources of radioactive wastes that may be generated at the proposed high-level waste (HLW) repository at Yucca Mountain, NV, estimates the waste quantities and characteristics, compares technologies available for waste treatment and disposal, and develops recommended concepts for site-generated waste treatment and disposal. The scope of this study is limited to operations during the emplacement phase, in which 70,000 MTU of high-level waste will be received and emplaced at the proposed repository. The evaluations consider all radioactive wastes generated during normal operations in surface and underground facilities. Wastes generated as a result of accidents are not addressed; accidents that could result in large quantities of radioactive waste are expected to occur very infrequently and temporary, portable systems could be used for any necessary cleanup. The results of this study can be used to develop more definitive plans for managing the site-generated wastes and as a basis for the design of associated facilities at the proposed repository

  7. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlouhy, Z.

    1982-01-01

    This book provides information on the origin, characteristics and methods of processing of radioactive wastes, as well as the philosophy and practice of their storage and disposal. Chapters are devoted to the following topics: radioactive wastes, characteristics of radioactive wastes, processing liquid and solid radioactive wastes, processing wastes from spent fuel reprocessing, processing gaseous radioactive wastes, fixation of radioactive concentrates, solidification of high-level radioactive wastes, use of radioactive wastes as raw material, radioactive waste disposal, transport of radioactive wastes and economic problems of radioactive wastes disposal. (C.F.)

  8. Radioactive waste (disposal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkin, P.

    1985-01-01

    The disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes was discussed. The following aspects were covered: public consultation on the principles for assessing disposal facilities; procedures for dealing with the possible sites which the Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive (NIREX) had originally identified; geological investigations to be carried out by NIREX to search for alternative sites; announcement that proposal for a site at Billingham is not to proceed further; NIREX membership; storage of radioactive wastes; public inquiries; social and environmental aspects; safety aspects; interest groups; public relations; government policies. (U.K.)

  9. Drumlins - Potential low-level radioactive waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    A drumlin is a subglacially produced low, streamlined elongate oval hill, mound or ridge with its long axis parallel to the direction of ice flow. It may be composed entirely of till, particularly basal till, or it may have a bedrock core and a relatively thin till outer layer. Most drumlins are less than a half mile long, 400 to 600 feet wide at their base and less than 100 feet high. There are some that are more than a mile long, 1500 to 2000 feet wide and more than 200 feet high. A drumlin has many characteristics which are advantageous to the siting of a low-level radioactive disposal facility. Most drumlins in New York State are composed of basal till which, because of its mode of deposition, may be as dense and impervious as concrete. This composition makes several disposal concepts feasible. Preliminary data and conceptualization indicates a subsurface mined repository paralleling the long axis of a drumlin would meet physical, environmental and long range public safety requirements. A drumlin site could answer many intervenor concerns such as longevity, esthetics, monitoring ability, and inadvertent entry. This paper will describe the structure, composition and engineering significant of the components of a drumlin and will present some alternative concepts for LLRW disposal using a drumlin as a host

  10. Development of closure criteria for inactive radioactive waste disposal sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, specifies that cleanup of inactive waste disposal sites at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities shall at least attain legally applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for cleanup or control of environmental contamination. This paper discusses potential ARARs for cleanup of inactive radioactive waste disposal sites and proposes a set of closure criteria for such sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The most important potential ARARs include Federal standards for radiation protection of the public, radioactivity in drinking water, and near-surface land disposal of radioactive wastes. On the basis of these standards, we propose that cleanup and closure of inactive radioactive waste disposal sites at ORNL shall achieve (1) limits on annual effective dose equivalent for off-site individuals and inadvertent intruders that conform to the DOE's performance objectives for new low-level waste disposal facilities and (2) to the extent reasonably achievable, limits on radionuclide concentrations in ground water and surface waters in accordance with Federal drinking water standards and ground-water protection requirements

  11. Site investigations for repositories for solid radioactive wastes in shallow ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report provides an overview and technical guidelines for investigations on a national level for the selection and confirmation of a repository site that will provide adequately safe performance for disposal of solid radioactive wastes that are low- or intermediate-level and short-lived. It also provides basic information on technical activities to be undertaken and on techniques that are available for such investigations in the various steps in selecting suitable sites. The report supplements the information given in Shallow Ground Disposal of Radioactive Wastes: A Guidebook, IAEA Safety Series No. 53 (1981). This report focuses mainly on different aspects of earth sciences and the various investigative techniques relative to earth sciences that may be necessary for site investigations. Some major related studies in other fields are discussed briefly. It is assumed that no previous investigations have been undertaken, and the report proceeds through area site selection to the stage when the site is confirmed as suitable for a waste repository

  12. Site investigations for repositories for solid radioactive wastes in shallow ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This report provides an overview and technical guidelines for investigations on a national level for the selection and confirmation of a repository site that will provide adequately safe performance for disposal of solid radioactive wastes that are low- or intermediate-level and short-lived. It also provides basic information on technical activities to be undertaken and on techniques that are available for such investigations in the various steps in selecting suitable sites. The report supplements the information given in Shallow Ground Disposal of Radioactive Wastes: A Guidebook, IAEA Safety Series No. 53 (1981). This report focuses mainly on different aspects of earth sciences and the various investigative techniques relative to earth sciences that may be necessary for site investigations. Some major related studies in other fields are discussed briefly. It is assumed that no previous investigations have been undertaken, and the report proceeds through area site selection to the stage when the site is confirmed as suitable for a waste repository.

  13. Nevada Test 1999 Waste Management Monitoring Report, Area 3 and Area 5 radioactive waste management sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yvonne Townsend

    2000-01-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These monitoring data include radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, and biota data. Although some of these media (radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are reported in detail in other Bechtel Nevada reports (Annual Site Environmental Report [ASER], the National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants [NESHAP] report, and the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report), they are also summarized in this report to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and environmental compliance. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure at and around the RWMSs is not above background levels. Air monitoring data indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels, whereas radon concentrations are not above background levels. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the alluvial aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS has not been affected by the facility. Meteorology data indicate that 1999 was a dry year: rainfall totaled 3.9 inches at the Area 3 RWMS (61 percent of average) and 3.8 inches at the Area 5 RWMS (75 percent of average). Vadose zone monitoring data indicate that 1999 rainfall infiltrated less than one foot before being returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Soil-gas tritium data indicate very slow migration, and tritium concentrations in biota were insignificant. All 1999 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing as expected at isolating buried waste

  14. Application of remote sensing technique to site selection for low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhangru; Jin Yuanxin; Liu Yuemiao; Hou Dewen

    2001-01-01

    Based on the relative criteria of selection of disposal site for low and intermediate level radioactive waste, the social-economic conditions, landform, morphologic properties, regional geological stability, hydrogeological and engineering geological characters of adjacent area of Anhui, Zhejiang and Jiangsu provinces were investigated. The geological interpretation of thematic mapper images, field reconnaissance and data analysis were conducted during the research work. The results show that three areas in the west part of Zhejiang Province were recommended as potential site for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste. They are Bajiaotang area, Tiebanchong area and Changxing-Guangde-Anji nabes

  15. Low-level radioactive waste management at the Nevada Test Site - Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, B.D.; Crowe, B.M.; Gertz, C.P.; Clayton, W.A.

    1999-01-01

    The performance objectives of the Department of Energy's Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) disposal facilities located at the Nevada Test Site transcend those of any other radioactive waste disposal site in the US. Situated at the southern end of the Great Basin, 800 feet above the water table, the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) has utilized a combination of engineered shallow land disposal cells and deep augured shafts to dispose a variety of waste streams. These include high volume low-activity wastes, classified materials, and high-specific-activity special case wastes. Twenty miles north of Area 5 is the Area 3 RWMS. Here bulk LLW disposal takes place in subsidence craters formed from underground testing of nuclear weapons. Earliest records indicate that documented LLW disposal activities have occurred at the Area 5 and Area 3 RWMS's since 1961 and 1968, respectively. However, these activities have only been managed under a formal program since 1978. This paper describes the technical attributes of the facilities, present and future capacities and capabilities, and provides a description of the process from waste approval to final disposition. The paper also summarizes the current status of the waste disposal operations

  16. UK safety and standards for radioactive waste management and decommissioning on nuclear licensed sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the regulation of radioactive waste and decommissioning in the United Kingdom and identifies the factors considered by HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate in examining the adequacy arrangements for their management on nuclear licensed sites. The principal requirements are for decommissioning to be undertaken as soon as reasonably practicable and that radioactive wastes should be minimised, disposed of or contained and controlled by storage in a passively safe form. However, these requirements have to be considered in the context of major organisational changes in the UK nuclear industry and the non-availability of disposal routes for some decommissioning wastes. The legislative framework used to regulate decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the UK is described. Reference is made to radioactive waste and decommissioning strategies, quinquennial reviews criteria for delicensing and the forthcoming Environmental Impact Assessment Regulations. (author)

  17. In situ vitrification of a mixed radioactive and hazardous waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, B.E.; Koegler, S.S.

    1990-11-01

    A large-scale test of the in situ vitrification (ISV) process was performed on a mixed radioactive and hazardous-chemical contaminated waste site on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. A mixed-waste site was selected for this large-scale test to demonstrate the applicability of ISV to mixed wastes common to many US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. In situ vitrification is a thermal process that converts contaminated soil into a durable, leach-resistant product. Electrodes are inserted into the ground. The goals of the test are to demonstrate at least 99% retention of fission products and hazardous metals in the ISV glass during the test; demonstrate the ability of the ISV off-gas treatment system to process a waste site containing significant quantities of combustible material and demonstrate the ability of ISV to vitrify the site to a depth of 20 ft or greater. The test was completed in April 1990. 5 figs

  18. Radioactive waste disposal programme and siting regions for geological deep repositories. Executive summary. November 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-11-01

    There are radioactive wastes in Switzerland. Since many decades they are produced by the operation of the five nuclear power plants, by medicine, industry and research. Important steps towards the disposal of these wastes are already realized; the corresponding activities are practised. This particularly concerns handling and packaging of the radioactive wastes, their characterization and inventory, as well as the interim storage and the inferred transportations. Preparatory works in the field of scientific research on deep geological repositories have allowed to acquire high level of technical and scientific expertise in that domain. The feasibility of building long-term safe geological repositories in Switzerland was demonstrated for all types of radioactive wastes; the demonstration was accepted by the Federal Council. There is enough knowledge to propose geological siting regions for further works. The financial funds already accumulated guaranty the financing of the dismantling of the power plants as well as building deep geological repositories for the radioactive wastes. The regulations already exist and the organisational arrangements necessary for the fruitful continuation of the works already done have been taken. The programme of the disposal of radioactive wastes also describes the next stages towards the timely realization of the deep repositories as well as the level of the financial needs. The programme is updated every five years, checked by the regulatory bodies and accepted by the Federal Council who reports to the parliament. The process of choosing a site, which will be completed in the next years, is detailed in the conceptual part of the programme for deep geological repositories. The NAGRA proposals are based exclusively on technical and scientific considerations; the global evaluation taking into account also political considerations has to be performed by the authorities and the Federal Council. The programme states that at the beginning of

  19. A Study on Site Selecting for National Project including High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kilyoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Many national projects are stopped since sites for the projects are not determined. The sites selections are hold by NIMBY for unpleasant facilities or by PYMFY for preferable facilities among local governments. The followings are the typical ones; NIMBY projects: high level radioactive waste disposal, THAAD, Nuclear power plant(NPP), etc. PIMFY projects: South-east new airport, KTX station, Research center for NPP decommission, etc. The site selection for high level radioactive waste disposal is more difficult problem, and thus government did not decide and postpone to a dead end street. Since it seems that there is no solution for site selection for high level radioactive waste disposal due to NIMBY among local governments, a solution method is proposed in this paper. To decide a high level radioactive waste disposal, the first step is to invite a bid by suggesting a package deal including PIMFY projects such as Research Center for NPP decommission. Maybe potential host local governments are asked to submit sealed bids indicating the minimum compensation sum that they would accept the high level radioactive waste disposal site. If there are more than one local government put in a bid, then decide an adequate site by considering both the accumulated PESS point and technical evaluation results. By considering how fairly preferable national projects and unpleasant national projects are distributed among local government, sites selection for NIMBY or PIMFY facilities is suggested. For NIMBY national projects, risk, cost benefit analysis is useful and required since it generates cost value to be used in the PESS. For many cases, the suggested method may be not adequate. However, similar one should be prepared, and be basis to decide sites for NIMBY or PIMFY national projects.

  20. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    According to the Section 24 of the Finnish Radiation Decree (1512/91), the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety shall specify the concentration and activity limits and principles for the determination whether a waste can be defined as a radioactive waste or not. The radiation safety requirements and limits for the disposal of radioactive waste are given in the guide. They must be observed when discharging radioactive waste into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste disposal plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilization of nuclear energy of natural resources. (4 refs., 1 tab.)

  1. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Abdul Malik Syed Zain

    2005-01-01

    This chapter discussed the basic subjects covered in the radioactive waste management. The subjects are policy and legislation, pre-treatment, classification, segregation, treatment, conditioning, storage, siting and disposal, and quality assurance

  2. Development of closure criteria for inactive radioactive waste-disposal sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) specifies that the U.S. Department of Energy shall comply with the procedural and substantive requirements of CERCLA regarding cleanup of inactive waste-disposal sites. Remedial actions require a level of control for hazardous substances that at least attains legally applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARAR). This requirement may be waived if compliance with ARAR results in greater risk to human health and the environment than alternatives or is technically impractical. It will review potential ARAR for cleanup of inactive radioactive waste-disposal sites and propose a set of closure criteria for such sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Important potential ARAR include federal standards for radiation protection of the public, radioactivity in drinking water, and near-surface land disposal of radioactive wastes. Proposed criteria for cleanup of inactive radioactive waste-disposal sites are: (1) a limit of 0.25 mSv on annual effective dose equivalent for offsite individuals; (2) limits of 1 mSv for continuous exposures and 5 mSv for occasional exposures on annual effective dose equivalent for inadvertent intruders, following loss of institutional controls over disposal sites; and (3) limits on concentrations of radionuclides in potable ground and surface waters in accordance with federal drinking-water standards, to the extent reasonably achievable

  3. Radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkhout, F.

    1991-01-01

    Focusing on radioactive waste management and disposal policies in the United Kingdom, Sweden and the Federal Republic of Germany, this book gives a detailed historical account of the policy process in these three countries, and draws out the implications for theory and public policy. This comparative approach underlines how profoundly different the policy process has been in different countries. By comparing the evolution of policy in three countries, fundamental questions about the formation and resolution of technical decisions under uncertainty are clarified. The analysis of nuclear strategy, the politics of nuclear power, and the shifting emphasis of government regulation redefines the issue of radwaste management and sets it at the heat of the current debate about power, the environment and society. The combination of up-to-date technological assessment with an account of the social and political implications of radwaste management makes'Radioactive Waste'particularly useful to students of environmental studies, geography and public administration. (author)

  4. Radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkhout, F

    1991-01-01

    Focusing on radioactive waste management and disposal policies in the United Kingdom, Sweden and the Federal Republic of Germany, this book gives a detailed historical account of the policy process in these three countries, and draws out the implications for theory and public policy. This comparative approach underlines how profoundly different the policy process has been in different countries. By comparing the evolution of policy in three countries, fundamental questions about the formation and resolution of technical decisions under uncertainty are clarified. The analysis of nuclear strategy, the politics of nuclear power, and the shifting emphasis of government regulation redefines the issue of radwaste management and sets it at the heat of the current debate about power, the environment and society. The combination of up-to-date technological assessment with an account of the social and political implications of radwaste management makes'Radioactive Waste'particularly useful to students of environmental studies, geography and public administration. (author).

  5. Technical factors in the site selection for a radioactive wastes storage of low and intermediate level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badillo A, V. E.; Ramirez S, J. R.; Palacios H, J. C.

    2009-10-01

    The storage on surface or near surface it is viable for wastes of low and intermediate level which contain radio nuclides of short half life that would decay at insignificant levels of radioactivity in some decades and also radio nuclides of long half life but in very low concentrations. The sites selection, for the construction of radioactive waste storages, that present an appropriate stability at long term, a foreseeable behavior to future and a capacity to fulfill other operational requirements, is one of the great tasks that confront the waste disposal agencies. In the selection of potential sites for the construction of a radioactive wastes storage of low and intermediate level, several basic judgments should be satisfied that concern to physiography, climatology, geologic, geo-hydrology, tectonic and seismic aspects; as well as factors like the population density, socioeconomic develops and existent infrastructure. the necessary technician-scientific investigations for the selection of a site for the construction of radioactive waste storages are presented in this work and they are compared with the pre-selection factors realized in specify areas in previous studies in different regions of the Mexican Republic. (Author)

  6. Selection of low-level radioactive waste disposal sites using screening models versus more complex methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uslu, I.; Fields, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    The task of choosing a waste-disposal site from a set of candidate sites requires an approach capable of objectively handling many environmental variables for each site. Several computer methodologies have been developed to assist in the process of choosing a site for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste; however, most of these models are costly to apply, in terms of computer resources and the time and effort required by professional modelers, geologists, and waste-disposal experts. The authors describe how the relatively simple DRASTIC methodology (a standardized system for evaluating groundwater pollution potential using hydrogeologic settings) may be used for open-quotes pre-screeningclose quotes of sites to determine which subset of candidate sites is worthy of more detailed screening. Results of site comparisons made with DRASTIC are compared with results obtained using PRESTO-II methodology, which is representative of the more complex release-transport-human exposure methodologies. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  7. Effects on residential property values of proximity to a site contaminated with radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, B.A.; Olshansky, S.J.; Segel, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    An issue often raised by the public regarding projects that involve hazardous chemical or radioactive waste sites is whether distance from these sites affects residential property values. Previous research has studied changes in the housing market in communities near Three Mile Island after the 1979 accident and legal precedents of compensation for loss of property value because of proximity to hazardous areas. However, this research has not addressed effects on residential property values of proximity specifically to hazardous chemical or radioactive waste sites. The effects of the proximity of residence to such a site in West Chicago, Illinois - used for many years for disposal of thorium waste from processing ores - were investigated in this study. Single-family residence sales located within about 0.4 km of the West Chicago site were compared with residence sales located between 0.4 km and 1.6 km from the site. Trends in average annual selling prices were analyzed both before and after publicity appeared about the existence of the radioactive material at the site. Results indiate that older residences (built before 1950) located within about 0.4 km of the disposal site experienced a prolonged depression in selling prices after the publicity, in comparison with older residences located farther from the site and with all transactions on newer residences. These results confirm to some extent public perceptions and potentially raise legal issues associated with property values. Suggestions are provided for mitigative measures to alleviate these issues. 22 references, 1 figure

  8. Criteria for the siting, construction, management and evaluation of low and intermediate activity radioactive waste stores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granero, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    The experience acquired by Spain for the storage of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes, is presented. General considerations related to the technology, financing, administrative measures and risk determination are done. The criteria of site selection for construction and management of the waste storage facility are described, evaluating the specific criteria for the licensing procedure, and taking in account the safety and the radiation protection during periods of the system operation. (M.C.K.) [pt

  9. Radioactive solid waste inventories at United States Department of Energy burial and storage sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, T.

    1986-06-01

    Radioactive solid waste inventories are given for United States Department of Energy (DOE) burial and storage sites. These data are obtained from the Solid Waste Information Management System (SWIMS) and reflect the inventories as of the end of the calendar year 1985. This report differs from previous issues in that the data cutoff date is December 31, 1985, rather than the fiscal year end. Another difference from previous issues is that data for the TRU categories 1 and 6 have been omitted

  10. Development of a low level radioactive waste disposal site in Texas - 1994 status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, L.R. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The Texas Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority, an agency of the State of Texas, has been trying to develop a site for the disposal of low level radioactive waste in Texas for over ten years. Since 1991, the agency has been evaluating a site near Sierra Blanca, in far west Texas. Site characterization has been completed and a license application has been filed with the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission. Construction plans were completed in 1993, and the agency is prepared to begin construction and operations as soon as a license can be issued. Development costs for the site are borne by the utility companies and other major generators in Texas through the assessment of a planning and implementation fee. Total costs to date are approximately $26 million. As the project moves toward completion, state and national anti-nuclear activist groups have become more involved in attempts to thwart the Texas government's effort to solve the radioactive waste problem. To counter this increased opposition, the Texas utility companies and medical radioactive waste generators have also become more active in responding to these groups. This has been very helpful and is in keeping with the elements of building block 12 of the Nuclear Power Oversight Committee's Strategic Plan for Building New Nuclear Power Plants. This paper and poster session look at the schedule, design, and long term prospects for ultimate success of the project

  11. A methodology for evaluating alternative sites for a near-surface radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, S.R.; Brownlow, S.A.

    1986-02-01

    This report addresses the issue of constructing an evaluation procedure for a near-surface radioactive waste repository. It builds on earlier work of the authors, and describes a basis for a practicable methodology for assessing the relative merits of different sites. (author)

  12. Modeling of a sedimentary rock alternative for the siting of the radioactive waste disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, Nestor O.

    2007-01-01

    Here are described the main concepts, the approximations, and all those simulation aspects that characterize the modeling performed using the unsaturated saturated approach for porous media. The objective of this work is to obtain a generic description of a sedimentary rock soil as an alternative site for the low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal system. (author) [es

  13. The transport implications of siting policies for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, I.A.

    1986-01-01

    This report has been produced to be complementary to the previously issued report ''The Transport Implications of Regional Policies for The Disposal of Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes''. The same combinations of disposal facilities have been used so that direct comparison with intermediate waste results can be made. Low level wastes and short-lived intermediate level wastes for near-surface disposal are assumed to share a common infrastructure on the rail system and hence a methodology of separating total costs between these two waste types has been derived. Two transport modes, road and rail have been analysed. Hybrid transport, a combination of road and rail systems, has not been examined since no site is considered to produce sufficient waste to justify a dedicated rail service. Sellafield, has not been included in this examination since it is assumed to be served by its own disposal site at Drigg. (author)

  14. Composite Analysis for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Yucel

    2001-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of a Composite Analysis (CA) for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The Area 5 RWMS is a US Department of Energy (DOE)-operated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) management site located in northern Frenchman Flat on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Area 5 RWMS has disposed of low-level radioactive waste in shallow unlined pits and trenches since 1960. Transuranic waste (TRU) and high-specific activity waste was disposed in Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes from 1983 to 1989. The purpose of this CA is to determine if continuing operation of the Area 5 RWMS poses an acceptable or unacceptable risk to the public considering the total waste inventory and all other interacting sources of radioactive material in the vicinity. Continuing operation of the Area 5 RWMS will be considered acceptable if the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) is less than 100 mrem in a year. If the TEDE exceeds 30 mrem in a year, a cost-benefit options analysis must be performed to determine if cost-effective management options exist to reduce the dose further. If the TEDE is found to be less than 30 mrem in a year, an analysis may be performed if warranted to determine if doses are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA).

  15. Composite Analysis for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    V. Yucel

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a Composite Analysis (CA) for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The Area 5 RWMS is a US Department of Energy (DOE)-operated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) management site located in northern Frenchman Flat on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Area 5 RWMS has disposed of low-level radioactive waste in shallow unlined pits and trenches since 1960. Transuranic waste (TRU) and high-specific activity waste was disposed in Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes from 1983 to 1989. The purpose of this CA is to determine if continuing operation of the Area 5 RWMS poses an acceptable or unacceptable risk to the public considering the total waste inventory and all other interacting sources of radioactive material in the vicinity. Continuing operation of the Area 5 RWMS will be considered acceptable if the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) is less than 100 mrem in a year. If the TEDE exceeds 30 mrem in a year, a cost-benefit options analysis must be performed to determine if cost-effective management options exist to reduce the dose further. If the TEDE is found to be less than 30 mrem in a year, an analysis may be performed if warranted to determine if doses are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)

  16. High-level radioactive waste disposal: Key geochemical issues and information needs for site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, D.J.; Bembia, P.J.; Bradbury, J.W.; Jackson, K.C.; Kelly, W.R.; Kovach, L.A.; Mo, T.; Tesoriero, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Geochemistry plays a key role in determining the potential of a high-level radioactive waste disposal site for long-term radionuclide containment and isolation. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed a set of issues and information needs important for characterizing geochemistry at the potential sites being investigated by the Department of Energy Basalt Waste Isolation Project, Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations project, and Salt Repository Project. The NRC site issues and information needs consider (1) the geochemical environment of the repository, (2) changes to the initial geochemical environment caused by construction and waste emplacement, and (3) interactions that affect the transport of waste radionuclides to the accessible environment. The development of these issues and information needs supports the ongoing effort of the NRC to identify and address areas of geochemical data uncertainty during prelicensing interactions

  17. Siting Criteria for Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Disposal in Egypt (Proposal approach)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdellatif, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of radioactive waste disposal is to isolate waste from the surrounding media so that it does not result in undue radiation exposure to humans and the environment. The required degree of isolation can be obtained by implementing various disposal methods and suitable criteria. Near surface disposal method has been practiced for some decades, with a wide variation in sites, types and amounts of wastes, and facility designs employed. Experience has shown that the effective and safe isolation of waste depends on the performance of the overall disposal system, which is formed by three major components or barriers: the site, the disposal facility and the waste form. The site selection process for low-level and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility addressed a wide range of public health, safety, environmental, social and economic factors. Establishing site criteria is the first step in the sitting process to identify a site that is capable of protecting public health, safety and the environment. This paper is concerning a proposal approach for the primary criteria for near surface disposal facility that could be applicable in Egypt.

  18. Experience in selection and characterization of sites for geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    An important matter in the development of a geological repository for disposal radioactive waste is the selection of a site that has characteristics that are favorable for isolation. A number of Member States have had national programmes under way for several decades to investigate sites to gather the geological information needed to design and construct a safe repository. The purpose of this report is to document this experience and to summarize what has been learned about the site selection and investigation process. It is hoped it will be of interest to scientists and engineers working in national disposal programmes by providing them information and key references regarding the disposal programmes in other countries. It may also be of interest to members of the public and to decision makers wanting an overview of the worldwide status of programmes to select and characterize geological disposal sites for radioactive waste

  19. Opting for cooperation: A case study in siting a low level radioactive waste management facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, A.

    1991-01-01

    In 1976, the Canadian federal government called a halt to efforts by a crown corporation to site a low-level radioactive waste management facility when it became apparent that continuation of the siting process would likely result in significant social disruption and political conflict. It established an independent six-person Task Force to advise it on how to proceed. Twelve months later, the Task Force put forward a radically different siting process based on the voluntary participation of communities and collaborative, joint problem-solving and decision making. Cabinet endorsed the approach and in September 1988 authorized the Task Force to begin implementing the recommended process. The first three phases of the process have been implemented and so far it appears to be achieving its desired objective -- to encourage less confrontation and more cooperation in the siting of the low-level radioactive waste management facility

  20. National inventory of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    There are in France 1064 sites corresponding to radioactive waste holders that appear in this radioactive waste inventory. We find the eighteen sites of E.D.F. nuclear power plants, The Cogema mine sites, the Cogema reprocessing plants, The Cea storages, the different factories and enterprises of nuclear industry, the sites of non nuclear industry, the Andra centers, decommissioned installations, disposals with low level radioactive wastes, sealed sources distributors, national defence. (N.C.)

  1. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straub, C.P.

    1975-01-01

    A review is presented on the environmental behavior of radioactive wastes. The management of high-level wastes and waste disposal methods were discussed. Some topics included were ore processing, coagulation, absorption and ion exchange, fixation, ground disposal, flotation, evaporation, transmutation and extraterrestrial disposal. Reports were given of the 226 Ra, 224 Ra and tritium activity in hot springs, 90 Sr concentrations in the groundwater and in White Oak Creek, radionuclide content of algae, grasses and plankton, radionuclides in the Danube River, Hudson River, Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Lake Michigan, Columbia River and other surface waters. Analysis showed that 239 Pu was scavenged from Lake Michigan water by phytoplankton and algae by a concentration factor of up to 10,000. Benthic invertebrates and fish showed higher 239 Pu concentrations than did their pelagic counterparts. Concentration factors are also given for 234 Th, 60 Co, Fe and Mr in marine organisms. Two models for predicting the impact of radioactivity in the food chain on man were mentioned. In an accidental release from a light-water power reactor to the ocean, the most important radionuclides discharged were found to be 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 239 Pu and activation products 65 Zr, 59 Fe, and 95 Zr

  2. Radioactive waste repository site selection in the Republic of Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeran, M.

    1992-01-01

    The report shows the procedure for the low and intermediate level radwaste (LLW and ILW) repository site selection and the work performed up to the present. The procedure for the repository site selection is divided into four steps. In the first step the unsuitable areas are excluded by taking into consideration the rough exclusion criteria. In the second step, the remaining suitable areas are screened to identify the potential sites with respect to preference criteria. In the third step three to five candidate sites will be assessed and selected among the potential sites. In the final, the fourth step, detailed site investigation and confirmation of one or two most suitable sites will follow. In Slovenia the 1st and the 2nd step of site selection have been completed, while step 3 is now in its final stage. (author) [sl

  3. Disposal of low-level radioactive waste at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauls, V.W. [Dept. of Energy, Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Field Office

    1993-03-01

    An important objective of the Savannah River Site`s low-level radioactive waste management program is to isolate the waste from the environment both now and well into the future. A key element in achieving this is the disposal of low-level radioactive waste in sealed concrete vaults. Historically the Site has disposed of low-level radioactive waste via shallow land burial. In 1987, it was decided that better isolation from the environment was required. At that time several options for achieving this isolation were studied and below grade concrete vaults were chosen as the best method. This paper discusses the performance objectives for the vaults, the current design of the vaults and plans for the design of future vaults, the cost to construct the vaults, and the performance assessment on the vaults. Construction of the first set of vaults is essentially complete and readiness reviews before the start of waste receipt are being performed. Startup is to begin late in calendar year 1992 and continue through early CY 1993. The performance assessment is under way and the first draft is to be completed in early 1993.

  4. Nevada Test Site 2005 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David B. Hudson, Cathy A. Wills

    2006-01-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site. These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2005 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (U.S. Department of Energy, 2005; Grossman, 2005; Bechtel Nevada, 2006). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure levels around the RWMSs are at or below background levels. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. There is no detectable man-made radioactivity by gamma spectroscopy, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits at the Area 3 RWMS. Measurements at the Area 5 RWMS show that radon flux from waste covers is no higher than natural radon flux from undisturbed soil in Area 5. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. Precipitation during 2005 totaled 219.1 millimeters (mm) (8.63 inches [in.]) at the Area 3 RWMS and 201.4 mm (7.93 in.) at the Area 5 RWMS. Soil-gas tritium monitoring continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Moisture from precipitation at Area 5 has percolated to the bottom of the bare-soil weighing lysimeter, but this same moisture has been removed from the vegetated weighing lysimeter by evapotranspiration. Vadose zone data from the operational waste pit covers show that precipitation from the fall of 2004 and the spring of 2005 infiltrated past the deepest sensors at 188 centimeters (6.2 feet) and remains in the pit cover

  5. Nevada National Security Site 2014 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, David [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada. Groundwater samples from the aquifer immediately below the Area 5 RWMS have been collected and analyzed and static water levels have been measured in this aquifer since 1993. This report updates these data to include the 2014 results. Analysis results for leachate contaminants collected from the mixed-waste cell at the Area 5 RWMS (Cell 18) are also included. During 2014, groundwater samples were collected and static water levels were measured at three wells surrounding the Area 5 RWMS. Groundwater samples were collected at wells UE5PW-1, UE5PW-2, and UE5PW-3 on March 11 and August 12, 2014, and static water levels were measured at each of these wells on March 10, June 2, August 11, and October 14, 2014. Groundwater samples were analyzed for the following indicators of contamination: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon, total organic halides, and tritium. General water chemistry (cations and anions) was also measured. Results from samples collected in 2014 are within the limits established by agreement with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for each analyte. The data from the shallow aquifer indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Area 5 RWMS, and there were no significant changes in measured groundwater parameters compared to previous years. Leachate from above the primary liner of Cell 18 drains into a sump and is collected in a tank at the ground surface. Cell 18 began receiving waste in January 2011. Samples were collected from the tank when the leachate volume approached the 3,000-gallon tank capacity. Leachate samples have been collected 16 times since January 2011. During 2014, samples were collected on February 25, March 5, May 20, August 12, September 16, November 11, and December 16. Each leachate sample was

  6. Report on site-independent environmental impacts of radioactive waste storage and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    The organisation responsible for radioactive wastes in the Netherlands is COVRA: Centrale Organisatie Voor Radioactief Afval. It deals especially with storage and management of these wastes. For that purpose, COVRA will build a waste managing and storage facility at a central site in the Netherlands. In this report, environmental impacts of these activities are studied, that are independent of the location. The report is readable and useful for a broad audience. In the main report, the general features are outlined starting from figures and tables on environmental effects. In a separate volume, detailed numerical data are presented. (G.J.P.)

  7. Description of INR-Pitesti own strategy for on site radioactive solid waste storage concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuturici, I.L.; Toma, V.; Bujoreanu, D.; Prava, M.

    1993-01-01

    The Post Irradiation Examination Laboratory (PIEL) produces and will produce the majority of institute's alpha-contaminated solid radioactive waste, generated by the process of examination of irradiated CANDU-600 type nuclear fuel. The wastes will be divided into three categories: low-level, medium-level, and high-level general process trash (LLGPT, MLGPT, and HLGPT). The paper describes the strategy adopted for immobilization, conditioning and on-site long-term storage of these wastes. The proposed strategy is based on the best experience acquired by other nuclear centers, confronted with same problems. (Author)

  8. Radioactive Waste Management and Environmental Contamination Issues at the Chernobyl Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Schmieman, Eric A.; Voitsekhovitch, Oleg V.

    2007-01-01

    The destruction of the Unit 4 reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant resulted in the generation of radioactive contamination and radioactive waste at the site and in the surrounding area (referred to as the Exclusion Zone). In the course of remediation activities, large volumes of radioactive waste were generated and placed in temporary near surface waste-storage and disposal facilities. Trench and landfill type facilities were created from 1986 to 1987 in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone at distances 0.5 to 15 km from the NPP site. This large number of facilities was established without proper design documentation, engineered barriers, or hydrogeological investigations and they do not meet contemporary waste-safety requirements. Immediately following the accident, a Shelter was constructed over the destroyed reactor; in addition to uncertainties in stability at the time of its construction, structural elements of the Shelter have degraded as a result of corrosion. The main potential hazard of the Shelter is a possible collapse of its top structures and release of radioactive dust into the environment. A New Safe Confinement (NSC) with a 100-years service life is planned to be built as a cover over the existing Shelter as a longer-term solution. The construction of the NSC will enable the dismantlement of the current Shelter, removal of highly radioactive, fuel-containing materials from Unit 4, and eventual decommissioning of the damaged reactor. More radioactive waste will be generated during NSC construction, possible Shelter dismantling, removal of fuel containing materials, and decommissioning of Unit 4. The future development of the Exclusion Zone depends on the future strategy for converting Unit 4 into an ecologically safe system, i.e., the development of the NSC, the dismantlement of the current Shelter, removal of fuel containing material, and eventual decommissioning of the accident site. To date, a broadly accepted strategy for radioactive waste

  9. Radioactive waste management and environmental contamination issues at the Chernobyl site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, B A; Schmieman, E A; Voitsekovitch, O

    2007-11-01

    The destruction of the Unit 4 reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant resulted in the generation of radioactive contamination and radioactive waste at the site and in the surrounding area (referred to as the Exclusion Zone). In the course of remediation activities, large volumes of radioactive waste were generated and placed in temporary near-surface waste storage and disposal facilities. Trench and landfill type facilities were created from 1986-1987 in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone at distances 0.5-15 km from the nuclear power plant site. This large number of facilities was established without proper design documentation, engineered barriers, or hydrogeological investigations and they do not meet contemporary waste-safety requirements. Immediately following the accident, a Shelter was constructed over the destroyed reactor; in addition to uncertainties in stability at the time of its construction, structural elements of the Shelter have degraded as a result of corrosion. The main potential hazard of the Shelter is a possible collapse of its top structures and release of radioactive dust into the environment. A New Safe Confinement (NSC) with a 100 y service life is planned to be built as a cover over the existing Shelter as a longer-term solution. The construction of the NSC will enable the dismantlement of the current Shelter, removal of highly radioactive, fuel-containing materials from Unit 4, and eventual decommissioning of the damaged reactor. More radioactive waste will be generated during NSC construction, possible Shelter dismantling, removal of fuel-containing materials, and decommissioning of Unit 4. The future development of the Exclusion Zone depends on the future strategy for converting Unit 4 into an ecologically safe system, i.e., the development of the NSC, the dismantlement of the current Shelter, removal of fuel-containing material, and eventual decommissioning of the accident site. To date, a broadly accepted strategy for radioactive waste

  10. Investigations of the unsaturated zone at two radioactive waste disposal sites in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuratovič, Žana; Mažeika, Jonas; Petrošius, Rimantas; Martma, Tõnu

    2016-01-01

    The unsaturated zone is an important part of the water cycle, governed by many hydrological and hydrogeological factors and processes and provide water and nutrients to the terrestrial ecosystem. Besides, the soils of the unsaturated zone are regarded as the first natural barrier to a large extent and are able to limit the spread of contaminants depending on their properties. The unsaturated zone provides a linkage between atmospheric moisture, groundwater, and seepage of groundwater to streams, lakes, or other surface water bodies. The major difference between water flow in saturated and unsaturated soils is that the hydraulic conductivity, which is conventionally assumed to be a constant in saturated soils, is a function of the degree of saturation or matrix suction in the unsaturated soils. In Lithuania, low and intermediate level radioactive wastes generated from medicine, industry and research were accumulated at the Maisiagala radioactive waste repository. Short-lived low and intermediate levels radioactive waste, generated during the operation of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) and arising after the INPP decommissioning will be disposed of in the near surface repository close to the INPP (Stabatiske site). Extensive data sets of the hydraulic properties and water content attributed to unsaturated zone soil profiles of the two radioactive waste disposal sites have been collected and summarized. Globally widespread radionuclide tritium ((3)H) and stable isotope ratio ((18)O/(16)O and (2)H/(1)H) distribution features were determined in precipitation, unsaturated zone soil moisture profiles and groundwater.

  11. The cleanup of releases of radioactive materials from commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites: Whose jurisdiction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartnett, C.

    1994-01-01

    There exists an overlap between the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Recovery Act (open-quotes CERCLAclose quotes) and the Atomic Energy Act (open-quotes AEAclose quotes) regarding the cleanup of releases of radioactive materials from commercial low-level radioactive waste sites. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (open-quotes NRCclose quotes) and Agreement States have jurisdiction under the AEA, and the Environmental Protection Agency (open-quotes EPAclose quotes) has jurisdiction pursuant to CERCLA. This overlapping jurisdiction has the effect of imposing CERCLA liability on parties who have complied with AEA regulations. However, CERCLA was not intended to preempt existing legislation. This is evidenced by the federally permitted release exemption, which explicitly exempts releases from CERCLA liability pursuant to an AEA license. With little guidance as to the applicability of this exemption, it is uncertain whether CERCLA's liability is broad enough to supersede the Atomic Energy Act. It is the purpose of this paper to discuss the overlapping jurisdiction for the cleanup of releases of radioactive materials from commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites with particular emphasis on the cleanup at the Maxey Flats, West Valley and Sheffield sites

  12. Management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendee, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes is perhaps the most controversial and least understood aspect of the use of nuclear materials in generating electrical power, the investigation of biochemical processes through tracer kinetics, and the diagnosis and treatment of disease. In the siting of nuclear power facilities, the disposal of radioactive wastes is invariably posed as the ultimate unanswerable question. In the fall of 1979, biochemical and physiologic research employing radioactive tracers was threatened with a slowdown resulting from temporary closure of sites for disposal of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW). Radioactive pharmaceuticals used extensively for diagnosis and treatment of human disease have increased dramatically in price, partly as a result of the escalating cost of disposing of radioactive wastes created during production of the labeled pharmaceuticals. These problems have resulted in identification of the disposal of LLW as the most pressing issue in the entire scheme of management of hazardous wastes. How this issue as well as the separate issue of disposal of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) are being addressed at both national and state levels is the subject of this chapter

  13. Status of the Texas low-level radioactive waste disposal site - construction sequencing and staffing patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, L.R. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority, an agency of the State of Texas, has been attempting to develop a site for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste in Texas for more than fourteen years. Since 1991, the agency has been evaluating a site near Sierra Blanca, in far west Texas. Site characterization was completed in 1992, and a license application was filed that year. Construction plans were completed in 1993. In April 1996, the licensing agency, the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, completed its review and proposed to issue a license. The administrative hearings on the proposed license should be completed by July 1997. The Authority is prepared to begin construction and operations as soon as a final license can be issued

  14. Geohydrologic problems at low-level radioactive waste disposal sites in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.N.; Robertson, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    Several commercial and US Department of Energy low-level radioactive waste disposal sites in the USA have not adequately contained the waste products. Studies of these sites indicate a number of causes for the problems, including water accumulation in filled trenches, breaches of trench cap integrity, erosion, high water table, hydrogeological complexity, flooding, complex leachate chemistry, and rapid radionuclide migration in groundwater. These problems can be avoided through the application of practical, comprehensive, and common sense earth-science guidelines discussed in this paper. (author)

  15. 4th Quarter Transportation Report FY 2014: Radioactive Waste Shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, Louis

    2014-01-01

    This report satisfies the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) commitment to prepare a quarterly summary report of radioactive waste shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at Area 5. There were no shipments sent for offsite treatment and returned to the NNSS this quarter. There was one shipment of two drums sent for offsite treatment and disposal. This report summarizes the 4th quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) shipments. This report also includes annual summaries for FY 2014.

  16. Closure Plan for the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2007-09-01

    The Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RMWS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is managed and operated by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec) for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This document is the first update of the interim closure plan for the Area 3 RWMS, which was presented in the Integrated Closure and Monitoring Plan (ICMP) (DOE, 2005). The format and content of this plan follows the Format and Content Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Closure Plans (DOE, 1999a). The major updates to the plan include a new closure date, updated closure inventory, the new institutional control policy, and the Title II engineering cover design. The plan identifies the assumptions and regulatory requirements, describes the disposal sites and the physical environment in which they are located, presents the design of the closure cover, and defines the approach and schedule for both closing and monitoring the site. The Area 3 RWMS accepts low-level waste (LLW) from across the DOE Complex in compliance with the NTS Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSA/NSO, 2006). The Area 3 RWMS accepts both packaged and unpackaged unclassified bulk LLW for disposal in subsidence craters that resulted from deep underground tests of nuclear devices in the early 1960s. The Area 3 RWMS covers 48 hectares (119 acres) and comprises seven subsidence craters--U-3ax, U-3bl, U-3ah, U-3at, U-3bh, U-3az, and U-3bg. The area between craters U-3ax and U-3bl was excavated to form one large disposal unit (U-3ax/bl); the area between craters U-3ah and U-3at was also excavated to form another large disposal unit (U-3ah/at). Waste unit U-3ax/bl is closed; waste units U-3ah/at and U-3bh are active; and the remaining craters, although currently undeveloped, are available for disposal of waste if required. This plan specifically addresses the closure of the U-3ah/at and the U-3bh LLW units. A final closure

  17. Closure Plan for the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2007-01-01

    The Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RMWS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is managed and operated by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec) for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This document is the first update of the interim closure plan for the Area 3 RWMS, which was presented in the Integrated Closure and Monitoring Plan (ICMP) (DOE, 2005). The format and content of this plan follows the Format and Content Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Closure Plans (DOE, 1999a). The major updates to the plan include a new closure date, updated closure inventory, the new institutional control policy, and the Title II engineering cover design. The plan identifies the assumptions and regulatory requirements, describes the disposal sites and the physical environment in which they are located, presents the design of the closure cover, and defines the approach and schedule for both closing and monitoring the site. The Area 3 RWMS accepts low-level waste (LLW) from across the DOE Complex in compliance with the NTS Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSA/NSO, 2006). The Area 3 RWMS accepts both packaged and unpackaged unclassified bulk LLW for disposal in subsidence craters that resulted from deep underground tests of nuclear devices in the early 1960s. The Area 3 RWMS covers 48 hectares (119 acres) and comprises seven subsidence craters--U-3ax, U-3bl, U-3ah, U-3at, U-3bh, U-3az, and U-3bg. The area between craters U-3ax and U-3bl was excavated to form one large disposal unit (U-3ax/bl); the area between craters U-3ah and U-3at was also excavated to form another large disposal unit (U-3ah/at). Waste unit U-3ax/bl is closed; waste units U-3ah/at and U-3bh are active; and the remaining craters, although currently undeveloped, are available for disposal of waste if required. This plan specifically addresses the closure of the U-3ah/at and the U-3bh LLW units. A final closure

  18. Geology Report: Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site DOE/Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2006-07-01

    Surficial geologic studies near the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) were conducted as part of a site characterization program. Studies included evaluation of the potential for future volcanism and Area 3 fault activity that could impact waste disposal operations at the Area 3 RWMS. Future volcanic activity could lead to disruption of the Area 3 RWMS. Local and regional studies of volcanic risk indicate that major changes in regional volcanic activity within the next 1,000 years are not likely. Mapped basalts of Paiute Ridge, Nye Canyon, and nearby Scarp Canyon are Miocene in age. There is a lack of evidence for post-Miocene volcanism in the subsurface of Yucca Flat, and the hazard of basaltic volcanism at the Area 3 RWMS, within the 1,000-year regulatory period, is very low and not a forseeable future event. Studies included a literature review and data analysis to evaluate unclassified published and unpublished information regarding the Area 3 and East Branch Area 3 faults mapped in Area 3 and southern Area 7. Two trenches were excavated along the Area 3 fault to search for evidence of near-surface movement prior to nuclear testing. Allostratigraphic units and fractures were mapped in Trenches ST02 and ST03. The Area 3 fault is a plane of weakness that has undergone strain resulting from stress imposed by natural events and underground nuclear testing. No major vertical displacement on the Area 3 fault since the Early Holocene, and probably since the Middle Pleistocene, can be demonstrated. The lack of major displacement within this time frame and minimal vertical extent of minor fractures suggest that waste disposal operations at the Area 3 RWMS will not be impacted substantially by the Area 3 fault, within the regulatory compliance period. A geomorphic surface map of Yucca Flat utilizes the recent geomorphology and soil characterization work done in adjacent northern Frenchman Flat. The approach taken was to adopt the map unit boundaries (line

  19. Geology Report: Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site DOE/Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2006-01-01

    Surficial geologic studies near the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) were conducted as part of a site characterization program. Studies included evaluation of the potential for future volcanism and Area 3 fault activity that could impact waste disposal operations at the Area 3 RWMS. Future volcanic activity could lead to disruption of the Area 3 RWMS. Local and regional studies of volcanic risk indicate that major changes in regional volcanic activity within the next 1,000 years are not likely. Mapped basalts of Paiute Ridge, Nye Canyon, and nearby Scarp Canyon are Miocene in age. There is a lack of evidence for post-Miocene volcanism in the subsurface of Yucca Flat, and the hazard of basaltic volcanism at the Area 3 RWMS, within the 1,000-year regulatory period, is very low and not a forseeable future event. Studies included a literature review and data analysis to evaluate unclassified published and unpublished information regarding the Area 3 and East Branch Area 3 faults mapped in Area 3 and southern Area 7. Two trenches were excavated along the Area 3 fault to search for evidence of near-surface movement prior to nuclear testing. Allostratigraphic units and fractures were mapped in Trenches ST02 and ST03. The Area 3 fault is a plane of weakness that has undergone strain resulting from stress imposed by natural events and underground nuclear testing. No major vertical displacement on the Area 3 fault since the Early Holocene, and probably since the Middle Pleistocene, can be demonstrated. The lack of major displacement within this time frame and minimal vertical extent of minor fractures suggest that waste disposal operations at the Area 3 RWMS will not be impacted substantially by the Area 3 fault, within the regulatory compliance period. A geomorphic surface map of Yucca Flat utilizes the recent geomorphology and soil characterization work done in adjacent northern Frenchman Flat. The approach taken was to adopt the map unit boundaries (line

  20. 2016 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, David [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2017-08-30

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) within the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data include direct radiation exposure, as well as radiation from the air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2016 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports, developed by National Security Technologies, LLC Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show that tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are below Derived Concentration Standards for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. Leachate samples collected from the leachate collection system at the mixed low-level waste cell were below established contaminant regulatory limits. During 2016, precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS was 8% below average, and precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS was 8% above average. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward percolation of precipitation more effectively than evaporation as measured from the bare-soil weighing lysimeter. Vadose zone monitoring on Area 5 and Area 3 RWMS cell covers shows no evidence of precipitation percolating through the covers

  1. Effects on residential property values of proximity to a site contaminated with radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, B.A.; Olshansky, S.J.; Segel, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    An issue often raised by the public regarding waste sites is whether distance from these sites affects residential property values. Previous research has studied changes in the housing market in communities near Three Mile Island after the 1979 accident and after the 1979 accident and legal precedents of compensation for loss of property value because of proximity to hazardous areas. However, this research has not addressed effects on residential property values of proximity specifically to hazardous chemical or radioactive waste sites. The effects of the proximity of residences to such a site in West Chicago, Illinois - used for many years for disposal of thorium waste from processing ores - were investigated in this study. Sales of single-family residences located within about 0.4 km and 1.6 km from the site. Trends in average annual selling prices were analyzed both before and after publicity appeared about the existence of the radioactive material at the site. Results indicate that older residences (built before 1950) located within about 0.4 km of the disposal site experienced a prolonged depression in selling prices after the publicity in comparison with older residences located farther from the site and with all transactions on newer residences. These results confirm to some extent public perceptions and potentially raise legal issues associated with property values. Suggestions are provided for mitigative measures to alleviate these issues

  2. Low-level radioactive waste facility siting in the Rocky Mountain compact region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitman, M.

    1983-09-01

    The puprose of the Rocky Mountain Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact is to develop a regional management system for low-level waste (LLW) generated in the six states eligible for membership: Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming. Under the terms of the compact, any party state generating at least 20% of the region's waste becomes responsible for hosting a regional LLW management facility. However, the compact prescribes no system which the host state must follow to develop a facility, but rather calls on the state to fulfill its responsibility through reliance on its own laws and regulations. Few of the Rocky Mountain compact states have legislation dealing specifically with LLW facility siting. Authority for LLW facility siting is usually obtained from radiation control statutes and solid or hazardous waste statutes. A state-by-state analysis of the siting authorities of each of the Rock Mountain compact states as they pertain to LLW disposal facility siting is presented. Siting authority for LLW disposal facilities in the Rocky Mountain compact region runs from no authority, as in Wyoming, to general statutory authority for which regulations would have to be promulgated, as in Arizona and Nevada, to more detailed siting laws, as in Colorado and New Mexico. Barring an amendment to, or different interpretation of, the Utah Hazardous Waste Facility Siting Act, none of the Rocky Mountain States' LLW facility siting authorities preempt local veto authorities

  3. Site selection of radioactive waste repository in the Republic of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saler, A.

    1992-01-01

    The radioactive waste repository site-selection procedure in Croatia is divided into two stages: the first, related to the exclusionary screening of the national territory and comparison of potential areas in order to identify preferred sites, acceptable for inclusion into the Regional Plan; and the second, comprising all necessary field investigations as well as additional site-characterization tasks planned to be worked out at a preferred sites. Several potential areas, representing an intermediate goal of the first stage, are defined till now. (author) [hr

  4. Hydrologic and geologic aspects of low-level radioactive-waste site management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutshall, N.H.; Vaughan, N.D.; Haase, C.S.; Olsen, C.R.; Huff, D.D.

    1982-01-01

    Hydrologic and geologic site characterization is a critical phase in development of shallow land-burial sites for low-level radioactive-waste disposal, especially in humid environments. Structural features such as folds, faults, and bedding and textural features such as formation permeability, porosity, and mineralogy all affect the water balance and water movement and, in turn, radionuclide migration. Where these features vary over short distance scales, detailed mapping is required in order to enable accurate model predictions of site performance and to provide the basis for proper design and planning of site-disposal operations

  5. Identification of scenarios in the safety assessment of a deep geological site for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escalier des Orres, P.; Devillers, C.; Cernes, A.

    1990-01-01

    The selection and qualification procedure of a site for radioactive wastes disposal in a deep geologic formation, has begun in France in the early eighties. The public authorities, on ANDRA's proposal, has preselected in 1987 four sites, each of them corresponding to a type of geologic formations (granite, clay, salt and shale). Within two years, one of these sites will be chosen for the location of an underground laboratory. The safety analysis for the site's qualification uses evolution scenarios of the repository and its environment, chosen according to a deterministic method. With an appropriate detail level, are defined a reference scenario and scenario with random events. 4 refs., 1 tab [fr

  6. Potential site selection for radioactive waste repository using GIS (Study area: Negeri Sembilan) - Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Hasnulhadi Che Kamaruddin; Faizal Azrin Abdul Razalim; Mohd Abdul Wahab Yusof; Nik Marzukee Nik Ibrahim; Nazran Harun; Muhammad Fathi Sujan; Karuppiah, T.; Surip, N.; Malik, N.N.A.; Che Musa, R.

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose in this paper is to create the Geographic Information System (GIS) based analysis on the potential site area for near-surface radioactive waste repository in the state of Negeri Sembilan. There are several parameters should be considered related to the safety assessment in selecting the potential site. These parameters such as land-use, urban area, soil, rainfall, lithology, lineament, geomorphology, landslide potential, slope, elevation, hydrogeology and protected land need to be considered before choosing the site. In this phase, we only consider ten parameters for determining the potential suitable site. (author)

  7. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the INL Waste Associated with the Unirradiated Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shott, Gregory [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-03-21

    This special analysis (SA) evaluates whether the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Waste Associated with the Unirradiated Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) waste stream (INEL167203QR1, Revision 0) is suitable for shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). Disposal of the INL Waste Associated with the Unirradiated LWBR waste meets all U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Manual DOE M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management Manual,” Chapter IV, Section P performance objectives (DOE 1999). The INL Waste Associated with the Unirradiated LWBR waste stream is recommended for acceptance with the condition that the total uranium-233 (233U) inventory be limited to 2.7E13 Bq (7.2E2 Ci).

  8. Radioactive waste disposal sites: Two successful closures at Tinker Air Force Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, G.; Mohatt, J.V.; Kowall, S.J.; Jarvis, M.F.

    1993-06-01

    This article describes remediation and closure of two radioactive waste disposal sites at Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma, making them exemption regulatory control. The approach consisted of careful exhumation and assessment of soils in sites expected to be contaminated based on historical documentation, word of mouth, and geophysical surveys; removal of buried objects that had gamma radiation exposure levels above background; and confirmation that the soil containing residual radium-226 was below an activity level equal to no more than a 10 mrem/yr annual dose equivalent. In addition, 4464 kg of chemically contaminated excavated soils were removed for disposal. After remediation, the sites met standards for unrestricted use. These sites were two of the first three Air Force radioactive disposal sites to be closed and were the first to be closed under Draft NUREG/CR-5512

  9. Hydrogeologic data for science trench boreholes at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    A program to conduct drilling, sampling, and laboratory testing was designed and implemented to obtain important physical, geochemical, and hydrologic property information for the near surface portion of thick unsaturated alluvial sediments at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). These data are required to understand and simulate infiltration and redistribution of water as well as the transport of solutes in the immediate vicinity of existing and future low-level, mixed, and high-specific-activity waste disposal cells at the site. The program was designed specifically to meet data needs associated with a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application for disposal of hazardous mixed waste, possible RCRA waivers involving mixed waste, DOE Order 5820.2A, ''Radioactive Waste Management,'' and 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 191 requirements for land disposal of radioactive waste. The hydrologic condition data, when combined with hydrologic property data, indicate that very little net liquid flow (if any) is occurring in the upper vadose zone, and the direction of movement is upward. It follows that vapor movement is probably the dominant mechanism of water transport in this upper region, except immediately following precipitation events

  10. Dynamics of radioactive waste generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogaru, Daniela; Virtopeanu, Cornelia; Ivan, Alexandrina

    2008-01-01

    In Romania there are in operation three facilities licensed for collection, treatment and storage of radioactive waste resulted from industry, research, medicine, and agriculture, named institutional radioactive waste. The repository, which is of near surface type, is designed for disposing institutional radioactive waste. The institutional radioactive wastes generated are allowed to be disposed into repository according to the waste acceptance criteria, defined for the disposal facility. The radioactive wastes which are not allowed for disposal are stored on the site of each facility which is special authorised for this. The paper describes the dynamics of generation of institutional waste in Romania, both for radioactive waste which are allowed to be disposed into repository and for radioactive waste which are not allowed to be disposed of. (authors)

  11. The Cabril: The Spanish Storage Site for Low and medium Level Radioactive Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuloaga, P.

    1993-01-01

    The new installations at El Cabril are one of the most modern storage sites for low and medium level radioactive wastes worldwide. The site was conceived in such a way that it is possible its reutilization without any radiological restriction after its current surveillance period of 300 years. Additionally, the installations have enough of a capacity to store all the medium and low level wastes to be produced in Spain during the next 30 years plus all the already gathered ones at the three old installations. In order to achieve all the objectives a storage system, a control network and installations for sewage water treatment are available. An incinerator to burn biological and organic wastes from hospitals and a laboratory of wastes characterization complete the variety of installations

  12. Estimating and coping with public response to radioactive waste repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, B.A.

    1984-01-01

    The siting, construction, and operation of a radioactive waste repository is likely to be controversial in the communities being considered and at the state and national levels as well. Public response can be conceptualized at two levels: individual and group or organizational. At the individual level, public response is the behavior of people motivated by their attitudes, knowledge, and perceptions of radioactive waste and its hazards and risks. Groups or organizations provide a structure to public response through which to pool resources and talents, set up a division of labor, hire experts, develop a skilled leadership, take legal action, and so on. A broad range of organizations is possible: ad hoc, existing community groups with an added purpose, nationally-recognized organizations, or government offices and agencies. Two cases of response to radioactive waste disposal sites illustrate these sources and kinds of response and suggest indicators to estimate the nature and level of response. Specific coping strategies take different forms, depending on the nature and level of response (either supporting or opposing) to the proposed siting, the past experience of community members with similar projects, with federal agencies, and with citizens' action groups, and sources and accuracy of information individuals and groups have. All strategies are based on a policy of honesty and straight-forwardness, with a sincere effort on the part of site evaluators and decision-makers to be attentive and responsive to the public's concerns

  13. Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohm, H.; Closs, K.D.; Kuhn, K.

    1981-01-01

    The solutions to the technical problem of the disposal of radioactive waste are limited by a) the state of knowledge of reprocessing possibilites, b) public acceptance of the use of those techniques which are known, c) legislative procedures linking licensing of new nuclear power plants to the solution of waste problems, and d) other political constraints. Wastes are generated in the mining and enriching of radioactive elements, and in the operation of nuclear power plants as well as in all fields where radioactive substances may be used. Waste management will depend on the stability and concentration of radioactive materials which must be stored, and a resolution of the tension between numerous small storage sites and a few large ones, which again face problems of public acceptability

  14. Use of petrophysical data for siting of deep geological repository of radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, Liliana; Shestopalov, Vyacheslav

    2017-11-01

    The paper is devoted to analyzing the petrophysical properties and petrographical characteristics of Volyn region with the view to choosing the least permeable and so the most suitable geological formation for the radioactive waste disposal. On a basis of the petrophysical estimations of the granitoids properties the argumentation of permeability has been developed for the petrotypes of Volyn region. Also method of classification of the petrotypes with their relative rate of suitability for radioactive waste disposal was developed. As a result of studying the perspectives were shown of the zhytomyr and korosten types of the granitoids as host rock for the radioactive waste disposal. According to the results of investigations performed by Swedish researchers a comparative analysis of rocks based on the age of formation, composition, structural features and some petrophysical properties of granitoids as host rocks for repository of radioactive waste was performed. Detail comparison the data of the granitoids of the Forsmark site in Sweden and the data of the granitoids of the Volyn megablock can be one of the next steps in researching the host rocks for the development of the RW disposal system in Ukraine.

  15. Use of petrophysical data for siting of deep geological repository of radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrenko Liliana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to analyzing the petrophysical properties and petrographical characteristics of Volyn region with the view to choosing the least permeable and so the most suitable geological formation for the radioactive waste disposal. On a basis of the petrophysical estimations of the granitoids properties the argumentation of permeability has been developed for the petrotypes of Volyn region. Also method of classification of the petrotypes with their relative rate of suitability for radioactive waste disposal was developed. As a result of studying the perspectives were shown of the zhytomyr and korosten types of the granitoids as host rock for the radioactive waste disposal. According to the results of investigations performed by Swedish researchers a comparative analysis of rocks based on the age of formation, composition, structural features and some petrophysical properties of granitoids as host rocks for repository of radioactive waste was performed. Detail comparison the data of the granitoids of the Forsmark site in Sweden and the data of the granitoids of the Volyn megablock can be one of the next steps in researching the host rocks for the development of the RW disposal system in Ukraine.

  16. Characterization Report for the 92-Acre Area of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtel Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office manages two low-level Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site. The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste. This report summarizes characterization and monitoring work pertinent to the 92-Acre Area in the southeast part of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites. The decades of characterization and assessment work at the Area 5 RWMS indicate that the access controls, waste operation practices, site design, final cover design, site setting, and arid natural environment contribute to a containment system that meets regulatory requirements and performance objectives for the short- and long-term protection of the environment and public. The available characterization and Performance Assessment information is adequate to support design of the final cover and development of closure plans. No further characterization is warranted to demonstrate regulatory compliance. U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office is proceeding with the development of closure plans for the six closure units of the 92-Acre Area

  17. Characterization Report for the 92-Acre Area of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office manages two low-level Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site. The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste. This report summarizes characterization and monitoring work pertinent to the 92-Acre Area in the southeast part of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites. The decades of characterization and assessment work at the Area 5 RWMS indicate that the access controls, waste operation practices, site design, final cover design, site setting, and arid natural environment contribute to a containment system that meets regulatory requirements and performance objectives for the short- and long-term protection of the environment and public. The available characterization and Performance Assessment information is adequate to support design of the final cover and development of closure plans. No further characterization is warranted to demonstrate regulatory compliance. U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office is proceeding with the development of closure plans for the six closure units of the 92-Acre Area.

  18. On-Site Decontamination System for Liquid Low Level Radioactive Waste - 13010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OSMANLIOGLU, Ahmet Erdal [Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Kucukcekmece Istanbul (Turkey)

    2013-07-01

    This study is based on an evaluation of purification methods for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) by using natural zeolite. Generally the volume of liquid low-level waste is relatively large and the specific activity is rather low when compared to other radioactive waste types. In this study, a pilot scale column was used with natural zeolite as an ion exchanger media. Decontamination and minimization of LLLW especially at the generation site decrease operational cost in waste management operations. Portable pilot scale column was constructed for decontamination of LLW on site. Effect of temperature on the radionuclide adsorption of the zeolite was determined to optimize the waste solution temperature for the plant scale operations. In addition, effect of pH on the radionuclide uptake of the zeolite column was determined to optimize the waste solution pH for the plant scale operations. The advantages of this method used for the processing of LLLW are discussed in this paper. (authors)

  19. Canadian experiences in characterizing two low-level and intermediate-level radioactive waste management sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heystee, R.J.; Rao, P.K.M.

    1984-02-01

    Low-level waste (LLW) and intermediate-level reactor waste (ILW) arise in Canada from the operation of nuclear power reactors for the generation of electricity and from the operation of reactors for nuclear research and development as well as for the production of separated radioisotopes. The majority of this waste is currently being safely managed at two sites in the Province of Ontario: (1) Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, and (2) Ontario Hydro's Bruce Nuclear Power Development Radioactive Waste Operations Site 2. Although these storage facilities can safely manage the waste for a long period of time, there are advantages in disposal of the LLW and ILW. The design of the disposal facilities and the assessment of long-term performance will require that the hydrologic and geologic data be gathered for a potential disposal site. Past site characterization programs at the two aforementioned waste storage sites have produced information which will be useful to future disposal studies in similar geologic materials. The assessment of long-term performance will require that predictions be made regarding the potential subsurface migration of radionuclides. However there still remain many uncertainties regarding the chemical and physical processes which affect radionuclide mobility and concentrations, in particular hydrodynamic dispersion, geochemical reactions, and transport through fractured media. These uncertainties have to be borne in mind when conducting the performance assessments and adequate conservatism must be included to account for the uncertainties. (author)

  20. A radioactive waste repository for Australia: methods for choosing the right site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This study has developed and used an open and objective approach to site selection. A geographic information system was used to assemble continental-scale information. The information was classified according to suitability criteria and processed to show how the most suitable areas for locating Australia's radioactive waste repository can be identified. The test results show that different regions are identified when different selection criteria are used. The results in this discussion paper are indicative only and are intended to provide a focus for more detailed studies at regional and local levels following public comment on the criteria and methodology. The methodology for identifying a suitable site for a national repository for radioactive wastes will be re-applied with more detailed information to areas identified in this study and on the basis of public comments. 6 figs

  1. Procedures for the site location of an storage centre of medium and low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena G, P.; Garcia B, M.

    2001-01-01

    In order to establish the procedures for the location of a new and definitive storage center for medium and low level radioactive wastes which will be the place where confining, controlling and keeping those waste products of radioactive materials which were used in the hospitable centers, clinics and institutions (research and techniques development) as well as those obtained from industry. The site studies for nuclear facilities, require the participation of a several professionals with different specialities to be able to make use of competence in different disciplines. The result is the exclusion of unacceptable zones followed them by a pre-selection, a selection and a systematic comparison of those sites which are in the remaining zones considered as acceptable. (Author)

  2. Low level radioactive waste disposal siting: a social and technical plan for Pennsylvania. Volume 2. Socioeconomic analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aron, G.; Bord, R.J.; Clemente, F.A.; Dornsife, W.P.; Jarrett, A.R.; Jester, W.A.; Schmalz, R.F.; Witzig, W.F.

    1984-09-01

    Volume II comprises five chapters: Socioeconomic Screening Criteria for LLRW Facility Siting and An Application to Counties in Pennsylvania; Evaluating Public Participation Options for the Case of Low Level Radioactive Waste Siting in Pennsylvania; Potential Socioeconomic Impacts of a LLRW Facility in Pennsylvania; The Role of Community Incentives in Low Level Radioactive Waste Management; and Institutional Aspects of LLRW Site Development and Operations in Pennsylvania

  3. Siting, design and construction of underground repositories for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of the Symposium were to provide a forum for exchange of information internationally on the various scientific, technological, engineering and safety bases for the siting, design and construction of underground repositories, and to highlight current important issues and identify possible approaches. Forty-nine papers were presented, covering general approaches and regulatory aspects, disposal in shallow ground and rock cavities, disposal in deep geological formations and safety assessments related to the subject of the Symposium. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of these papers

  4. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive waste management and disposal requirements options available are discussed. The possibility of beneficial utilization of radioactive wastes is covered. Methods of interim storage of transuranium wastes are listed. Methods of shipment of low-level and high-level radioactive wastes are presented. Various methods of radioactive waste disposal are discussed

  5. Nevada Test Site, 2006 Waste Management Monitoring Report, Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David B. Hudson

    2007-01-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site. These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2006 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (U.S. Department of Energy, 2006; Warren and Grossman, 2007; National Security Technologies, LLC, 2007). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure levels around the RWMSs are at or below background levels. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. There is no detectable man-made radioactivity by gamma spectroscopy, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits at the Area 3 RWMS. Measurements at the Area 5 RWMS show that radon flux from waste covers is no higher than natural radon flux from undisturbed soil in Area 5. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. Precipitation during 2006 totaled 98.6 millimeters (mm) (3.9 inches [in.]) at the Area 3 RWMS and 80.7 mm (3.2 in.) at the Area 5 RWMS. Soil-gas tritium monitoring continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Moisture from precipitation at Area 5 remains at the bottom of the bare-soil weighing lysimeter, but this same moisture has been removed from the vegetated weighing lysimeter by evapotranspiration. Vadose zone data from the operational waste pit covers show that evaporation continues to slowly remove soil moisture that came from the heavy precipitation in the fall of 2004 and the spring of

  6. Radioactive Waste Disposal Pilot Plant concept for a New Mexico site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weart, W.D.

    1976-01-01

    Twenty years of investigation have shown that disposal of nuclear wastes in deep salt formations is the surest means of isolating these wastes from the biosphere for the extremely long period of time required. A large scale demonstration of this capability will soon be provided by a Radioactive Waste Disposal Pilot Plant (RWDPP) to be developed in southeastern New Mexico. Initially, the pilot plant will accept only ERDA generated waste; high level waste from the commercial power reactor fuel cycle will eventually be accommodated in the pilot plant and the initial RWDPP design will be compatible with this waste form. Selection of a specific site and salt horizon will be completed in June 1976. Conceptual design of the RWDPP and assessment of its environmental impact will be completed by June 1977. Construction is expected to start in 1978 with first waste accepted in 1982. The present concept develops disposal areas for all nuclear waste types in a single salt horizon about 800 meters deep. This single level can accommodate all low level and high level waste generated in the United States through the year 2010. A major constraint on the RWDPP design is the ERDA requirement that all waste be ''readily'' retrievable during the duration of pilot plant operation

  7. Nevada Test Site 2000 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yvonne Townsend

    2001-01-01

    Environmental monitoring data, subsidence monitoring data, and meteorology monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (refer to Figure 1). These monitoring data include radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota data. Although some of these media (radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are reported in detail in other Bechtel Nevada reports (Annual Site Environmental Report [ASER], the National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants [NESHAP] report, and the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report), they are also summarized in this report to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and environmental compliance. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure at and around the RWMSs is not above background levels. Air monitoring data indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels, whereas radon concentrations are not above background levels. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS has not been affected by the facility. Meteorology data indicate that 2000 was an average rainfall year: rainfall totaled 167 mm (6.6 in) at the Area 3 RWMS (annual average is 156 mm [6.5 in]) and 123 mm (4.8 in) at the Area 5 RWMS (annual average is 127 mm [5.0 in]). Vadose zone monitoring data indicate that 2000 rainfall infiltrated less than one meter (3 ft) before being returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Soil-gas tritium monitoring data indicate slow subsurface migration, and tritium concentrations in biota were lower than in previous years. All 2000 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing well at isolating buried waste

  8. Radioactive liquid waste discharged from Nuclear Electric licensed sites during 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, L.S.; Odell, K.J.

    1993-03-01

    This report presents the detailed isotopic composition of radioactive liquid waste discharged from Nuclear Electric licensed sites in 1991. Liquid discharges from those Magnox stations using pond storage of irradiated fuel contained low levels of activation and fission products, while those from Wylfa and the AGR stations contained lower levels of activation products with only traces of fission products. Discharges were similar to those observed in previous years, with any changes concordant with changes in stations' generation performance. (author)

  9. Strategy and plan for siting and licensing a Rocky Mountain low-level radioactive waste facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitman, M.

    1983-09-01

    In 1979, the States of Nevada and Washington temporarily closed their commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities and South Carolina, the only other state hosting such a facility, restricted the amount of waste it would accept. All three states then announced that they did not intend to continue the status quo of accepting all of the country's commercial low-level radioactive waste. Faced with this situation, other states began considering alternative LLW management and disposal options. In the Rocky Mountain region, this evolved into discussions for the development of an interstate compact to manage low-level waste. Inherent in this management plan was a strategy to site and license a new LLW disposal facility for the Rocky Mountain region. The Rocky Mountain Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact was negotiated over the course of a year, with final agreement on the language of the compact agreed to in early 1982. States eligible to join the compact are Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. Colorado adopted the compact into law in 1982, and Nevada, New Mexico and Wyoming adopted it in 1983. Utah has joined the Northwest Compact, although it may decide to join the Rocky Mountain Compact after a new disposal facility is developed for the region. Arizona has taken no action on the Rocky Mountain Compact

  10. Site selection experience for a new low-level radioactive waste storage/disposal facility at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towler, O.A.; Cook, J.R.; Helton, B.D.

    1985-10-01

    Preliminary performance criteria and site selection guides specific to the Savannah River Plant, were developed for a new low-level radioactive waste storage/disposal facility. These site selection guides were applied to seventeen potential sites identified at SRP. The potential site were ranked based on how well they met a set of characteristics considered important in site selection for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. The characteristics were given a weighting factor representing its relative importance in meeting site performance criteria. A candidate site was selected and will be the subject of a site characterization program

  11. Studies on site characterization methodologies for high level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju; Guo Yonghai; Chen Weiming

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the final achievement of the project 'Studies of Site-specific Geological Environment for High Level Waste Disposal and Performance Assessment Methodology, Part Ⅰ: Studies on Site Characterization Methodologies for High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal', which is a 'Key Scientific and Technological Pre-Research Project for National Defense' during 2001-2005. The study area is Beishan area, Gansu Province, NW China--the most potential site for China's underground research laboratory and high level radioactive waste repository. The boreholes BS01, BS2, BS03 and BS04 drilled in fractured granite media in Beishan are used to conduct comprehensive studies on site characterization methodologies, including: bore hole drilling method, in situ measurement methods of hydrogeological parameters, underground water sampling technology, hydrogeochemical logging method, geo-stress measurement method, acoustic borehole televiewer measurement method, borehole radar measurement method, fault stability evaluation methods and rock joint evaluation method. The execution of the project has resulted in the establishment of an 'Integrated Methodological System for Site Characterization in Granite Site for High Level Radioactive Waste Repository' and the 8 key methodologies for site characterization: bore hole drilling method with minimum disturbance to rock mass, measurement method for hydrogeological parameters of fracture granite mass, in situ groundwater sampling methods from bore holes in fractured granite mass, fracture measurement methods by borehole televiewer and bore radar system, hydrogeochemical logging, low permeability measurement methods, geophysical methods for rock mass evaluation, modeling methods for rock joints. Those methods are comprehensive, advanced, innovative, practical, reliable and of high accuracy. The comprehensive utilization of those methods in granite mass will help to obtain systematic parameters of

  12. Radioactive Waste Management Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This strategy defines methods and means how collect, transport and bury radioactive waste safely. It includes low level radiation waste and high level radiation waste. In the strategy are foreseen main principles and ways of storage radioactive waste

  13. Comparative approaches to siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newberry, W.F.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes activities in nine States to select site locations for new disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste. These nine States have completed processes leading to identification of specific site locations for onsite investigations. For each State, the status, legal and regulatory framework, site criteria, and site selection process are described. In most cases, States and compact regions decided to assign responsibility for site selection to agencies of government and to use top-down mapping methods for site selection. The report discusses quantitative and qualitative techniques used in applying top-down screenings, various approaches for delineating units of land for comparison, issues involved in excluding land from further consideration, and different positions taken by the siting organizations in considering public acceptance, land use, and land availability as factors in site selection

  14. Hydrogeologic factors in the selection of shallow land burial sites for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, John N.

    1986-01-01

    In the United States, low-level radioactive waste is disposed of by shallow land burial. Commercial low-level radioactive waste has been buried at six sites, and low-level radioactive waste generated by the Federal Government has been buried at nine major and several minor sites. Several existing low-level radioactive waste sites have not provided expected protection of the environment. These shortcomings are related, at least in part, to an inadequate understanding of site hydrogeology at the time the sites were selected. To better understand the natural systems and the effect of hydrogeologic factors on long-term site performance, the U.S. Geological Survey has conducted investigations at five of the six commercial low-level radioactive waste sites and at three Federal sites. These studies, combined with those of other Federal and State agencies, have identified and confirmed important hydrogeologic factors in the effective disposal of low-level radioactive waste by shallow land burial. These factors include precipitation, surface drainage, topography, site stability, geology, thickness of the host soil-rock horizon, soil and sediment permeability, soil and water chemistry, and depth to the water table.

  15. National radioactive waste repository site selection study. Phase 2. A report on public comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    Agreement was reached in principle between State/Territory and the Commonwealth of Australia Governments that a suitable site for a radioactive wastes repository must be found. The discussion papers resulting from the Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the site selection study were released for public comment. The national repository will be for disposal of low level and short-lived intermediate level radioactive wastes streaming from the medical, research and industrial use of radioisotopes in Australia. The purpose of this report is to summarise and respond in general terms to comment received on the discussion paper -Phase 2 of the study. Forty five submissions were received. Of these: 18 supported the Phase 2 study approach and the concept of a national repository; 13 did not state a clear position but either requested more information or provided constructive comment on the siting process; 7 supported the site selection approach and the repository concept but suggested that the repository should not be sited in a particular area; 3 opposed the siting of the repository in their vicinity but not necessarily the repository concept and site selection approach; 4 opposed the concept of a national repository. This compares with 124 submissions on Phase 1 of the study, of which 57 opposed the national repository concept (52 of these were from letters elicited by Greenpeace) and 48 supported the establishment of a national repository and the site selection approach proposed. 3 figs

  16. The principles of design of a shallow disposal site for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    This paper addresses the principles of design of a shallow disposal site for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. The objective of the author is to review the need for shallow land disposal facilities in the UK and to propose design principles which will protect the public and operatives from excessive risk. It is not the intent of the author to present a detailed design of facility which will meet the design standards proposed although such a design is feasible and within the scope of currently available technology. The principles and standards proposed in this paper are not necessarily those of PPC Consultant Services Ltd. or NEI Waste Technologies Ltd. (author)

  17. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management. The siting process: establishing a low-level waste-disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    The siting of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility encompasses many interrelated activities and, therefore, is inherently complex. The purpose of this publication is to assist state policymakers in understanding the nature of the siting process. Initial discussion focuses on the primary activities that require coordination during a siting effort. Available options for determining site development, licensing, regulating, and operating responsibilities are then considered. Additionally, the document calls attention to technical services available from federal agencies to assist states in the siting process; responsibilities of such agencies are also explained. The appendices include a conceptual plan for scheduling siting activities and an explanation of the process for acquiring agreement state status. An agreement state takes responsibility for licensing and regulating a low-level waste facility within its borders

  18. A data base for low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daum, M.L.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1989-07-01

    A computerized database was developed to assist the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in evaluating methods and data for characterizing health hazards associated with land and ocean disposal options for low-level radioactive wastes. The data cover 1984 to 1987. The types of sites considered include Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensed commercial disposal sites, EPA National Priority List (NPL) sites, US Department of Energy (DOE) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Project (FUSRAP) and DOE Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP) sites, inactive US ocean disposal sites, and DOE/Department of Defense facilities. Sources of information include reports from EPA, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), as well as direct communication with individuals associated with specific programs. The data include site descriptions, waste volumes and activity levels, and physical and radiological characterization of low-level wastes. Additional information on mixed waste, packaging forms, and disposal methods were compiled, but are not yet included in the database. 55 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Annual Transportation Report for Radioactive Waste Shipments to and from the Nevada Test Site, Fiscal Year 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In February 1997, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Nevada Operations Office (now known as the Nevada Site Office) issued the Mitigation Action Plan which addressed potential impacts described in the ''Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Nevada Test Site and Off-Site Locations in the State of Nevada'' (DOE/EIS 0243). The DOE, Nevada Operations Office committed to several actions, including the preparation of an annual report, which summarizes waste shipments to and from the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at Area 5 and Area 3. Since 2006, the Area 3 RWMS has been in cold stand-by. This document satisfies requirements regarding low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) transported to and from the NTS during FY 2009. In addition, this document provides shipment, volume, and route information on transuranic (TRU) waste shipped from the NTS to the Idaho National Laboratory, near Idaho Falls, Idaho.

  20. Sites and projects for the disposal of radioactive waste and repositories in Russia and other states of the former USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, L.; Herzog, C.

    2000-01-01

    The nuclear industry in Russia and other states of the former USSR contents the whole nuclear fuel cycle - Uranium mining, fuel element production, nuclear power and research reactors, nuclear powered ships and reprocessing of nuclear fuel. High amounts of radioactive waste are already disposed at the sites of these industrial centers and further radioactive waste is arising in production, reprocessing and decommissioning processes. Spent fuel elements are reprocessed or stored onsite. Solid and liquid wastes are disposed near surface at the sites of nuclear power plants, radiochemical plants, 'Radon'- and other sites. High volumes of high-, medium- and low-level liquid waste with high radioactivity has been injected into deep geologic formations at the sites of radiochemical plants. In Russia perspective all spent fuel elements shall be reprocessed and dry storage facilities are planned for long term storage until reprocessing. Repositories for solid waste are foreseen in deep geological formations (e.g. salt, granite) at several sites. (author)

  1. Application of GIS in siting disposal repository for high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Xia; Wang Ju; Huang Shutao

    2010-01-01

    High level radioactive waste geo-disposal is directly related to environment protection and Sustainable Utilization of nuclear energy. To ensure both success and long-term safe disposal of the high level-radioactive waste, finding suitable sites is an important step in the research. Meanwhile, siting and evaluation the geo-disposal repository for high level-radioactive waste need a wide range of relevant information, including geology and geophysical surveys data, geochemistry data and other geoscience data in the field. At the same time, some of the data has its spatial property. Geographic information system (GIS) have a role to play in all geographic and spatial aspects of the development and management of the siting disposal repository. GIS has greatly enhanced our ability to store, analyze and communicate accounts of the information. This study was conducted to compare the more suitable sites for the repository using GIS -based on the data which belongs to the preselected area in BeiShan, Gansu Province, China. First, the data of the pre-selected site is captured by GIS and stored in the geoscience database. Then, according to the relevant guide line in the field, the analysis models based on GIS are build. There are some thematic layers of the sites character grouped into two basic type, namely social factors(town, traffic and nuclear plant) and natural factors (water, land and animals and plants).In the paper, a series of GIS models was developed to compare the pre-selected areas in order to make optimal decision. This study shows that with appropriate and enough information GIS used in modeling is a powerful tool for site selection for disposal repository. (authors)

  2. The partnership approach to siting and developing radioactive waste management facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    History shows that the search for sites for radioactive waste management facilities has been marred by conflicts and delays. Affected communities have often objected that their concerns and interests were not addressed. In response, institutions have progressively turned away from the traditional 'decide, announce and defend' model, and are learning to 'engage, interact and co-operate'. This shift has fostered the emergence of partnerships between the proponent of the facility and the potential host community. Working in partnership with potential host communities enables pertinent issues and concerns to be raised and addressed, and creates an opportunity for developing a relationship of mutual understanding and mutual learning, as well as for developing solutions that will add value to the host community and region. Key elements of the partnership approach are being incorporated into waste management strategies, leading increasingly to positive outcomes. National radioactive waste management programmes are in various phases of siting facilities and rely on different technical approaches for the various categories of waste. In all cases, it is necessary for institutional actors and the potential or actual host community to build a meaningful, workable relationship. Partnership approaches are effective in achieving a desirable combination of licensable site and management concept while meeting the sometimes competing requirements of fair representation and competent participation. Partnership arrangements facilitate reaching agreement on measures for local control, financial support and future development

  3. Radioactive wastes management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, Ph.

    1999-01-01

    This article presents the French way to deal with nuclear wastes. 4 categories of radioactive wastes have been defined: 1) very low-level wastes (TFA), 2) low or medium-wastes with short or medium half-life (A), 3) low or medium-level wastes with long half-life (B), and 4) high-level wastes with long half-life (C). ANDRA (national agency for the management of radioactive wastes) manages 2 sites of definitive surface storage (La-Manche and Aube centers) for TFA-wastes. The Aube center allows the storage of A-wastes whose half-life is less than 30 years. This site will receive waste packages for 50 years and will require a regular monitoring for 300 years after its decommissioning. No definitive solutions have been taken for B and C wastes, they are temporarily stored at La Hague processing plant. Concerning these wastes the French parliament will have to take a decision by 2006. At this date and within the framework of the Bataille law (1991), scientific studies concerning the definitive or retrievable storage, the processing techniques (like transmutation) will have been achieved and solutions will be proposed. These studies are numerous, long and complex, they involve fresh knowledge in geology, chemistry, physics,.. and they have implied the setting of underground facilities in order to test and validate solutions in situ. This article presents also the transmutation technique. (A.C.)

  4. Low-level radioactive waste management: transitioning to off-site disposal at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorries, Alison M.

    2010-01-01

    Facing the closure of nearly all on-site management and disposal capability for low-level radioactive waste (LLW), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is making ready to ship the majority of LLW off-site. In order to ship off-site, waste must meet the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facility's (TSDF) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). In preparation, LANL's waste management organization must ensure LANL waste generators characterize and package waste compliantly and waste characterization documentation is complete and accurate. Key challenges that must be addressed to successfully make the shift to off-site disposal of LLW include improving the detail, accuracy, and quality of process knowledge (PK) and acceptable knowledge (AK) documentation, training waste generators and waste management staff on the higher standard of data quality and expectations, improved WAC compliance for off-site facilities, and enhanced quality assurance throughout the process. Certification of LANL generators will allow direct off-site shipping of LLW from their facilities.

  5. Review of Tank Lay-Up Status at US Department of Energy Radioactive Waste Tank Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmore, Monte R.; Henderson, Colin

    2002-01-01

    During fiscal year (FY) 2001 as part of a Tanks Focus Area strategic initiative, tank lay-up options were developed and evaluated for the two high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks at the West Valley Demonstration Project. As follow-on task, a list of key waste tank contacts throughout the US Department of Energy complex was developed. Visits were then made to the primary DOE sites with radioactive waste storage tanks to discuss the concept and applicability of tank lay-up. This report documents the results of individual discussions with tank closure staff at the four DOE Sites concerning tank closure status and plans as well as lay-up options and activities

  6. Workshops for state review of site suitability criteria for high-level radioactive waste repositories: analysis and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    The responses from various discussion groups on site suitability criteria for high-level radioactive waste repositories are presented. The consensus, principal concern, and minority opinion on each issue are given. The visual aids used in the workshop are included

  7. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program. Use of compensation and incentives in siting Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This document was prepared to increase understanding of compensation and incentives as they pertain to the siting of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities. Compensation and incentives are discussed as methods to facilitate siting Low-Level Radioactive Waste Facilities. Compensations may be in the form of grants to enable host communities to evaluate potential impacts of the proposed facility. Compensations may also include reimbursements to the host community for costs incurred during facility construction, operation and closure. These may include required improvements to local roads, new equipment, and payments for revenue losses in local property taxes when disposal sites are removed from the tax base. Incentives provide benefits to the community beyond the costs directly related to the operation of the facility. Greater local control over waste facilities can be a powerful incentive. Local officials may be more willing to accept a facility if they have some control over the operation and monitoring associated with the facility. Failure to secure new disposal sites may cause such problems as illegal dumping which would create public health hazards. Also, lack of disposal capacity may restrict research and medical use of radioactive materials. The use of compensation and incentives may increase acceptance of communities for hosting a low-level waste disposal facility

  8. OPEN SPATIAL DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM: CASE FOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL SITE SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Perković

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the scientific and professional circles frequently discussed about radioactive waste and site selection for radioactive waste disposal. This issue will be further updated with accession of Republic of Croatia to the European Union and the only issue is politicized view of the fact that nuclear power plant Krško Croatia shares with neighbouring Republic of Slovenia. All the necessary studies have been made and these are attended by experts from different areas. Also, all Croatian residents should be familiar with this subject matter in a manner accessible to the general public through all available media. There are some questions: What are the institutions have taken on the issue of informing the public and can it be enough? When selecting a suitable site, with many parameters, the basic element is suitable geological formation, although the landfill must be socially acceptable. Well established methods used in the selection of eligible areas are multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA, geographic information system (GIS and combined GIS-MCDA method. The application of these methods is of great help in making decisions about the location of disposal of radioactive waste. Presentation of results, designed in the form of an open spatial decision support system, could help in education and informing the general public (the paper is published in Croatian.

  9. Technical, normative and social aspects of the site selection process for radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branco, Otavio E.A.; Rodrigues, Paulo C.H.; Carvalho Filho, Carlos A.; Cota, Stela D.S.; Ferreira, Vinicius V.M.; Peres, Sueli S.; Hiromoto, Goro

    2009-01-01

    In force since 2001, the Federal Law 10.308 states, in article 37, that the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN should start studies for the implementation of a final radioactive waste repository, 'in the shortest timeframe technically feasible'. Nevertheless, not only technical aspects have to be taken into account to accomplish with this schedule, but, also factors of political, economic and social nature. In this paper, the importance and impact of public acceptance aspects are discussed, as well as the methodology of site selection for radioactive wastes repositories, and proposals to accommodate the emanated criteria from the existing legislation. Additionally, practical results from the international experience in the implementation of such deposits are presented. (author)

  10. Hydraulic containment of low-level radioactive waste disposal sites: [Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostendorf, D.W.; Noss, R.R.; Miller, A.B.; Phillips, H.S.

    1987-01-01

    This document describes the use of impermeable barriers for the containment of liquid radioactive wastes at low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Included are a review of existing barrier systems, assessments of laboratory and field data, and simulations of system performance under humid and arid conditions. Alternatives are identified as the most promising of the existing systems based on retention of irradiated water, field installation feasibility, and response to aggressive permeation. In decreasing order of preference, the favored systems are asphalt slurry, high density polyethylene synthetic liner, polyvinyl chloride synthetic liner, lean portland cement concrete, and compacted bentonite liner. It should be stressed that all five of these alternatives effectively retain irradiated water in the humid and arid simulations. Recommendations on the design and operation of the hydraulic containment system and suggestions on avenues for future research are included. 102 refs., 27 figs., 23 tabs

  11. Concept and Planning of Site Preparation for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Jawa and Surrounding Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heru Sriwahyuni; Sastrowardoyo, Pratomo B.; Teddy Sumantri; Dewi Susilowati; Hendra Adhi Pratama; Syarmufni, A.

    2008-01-01

    Concept and planning for radioactive waste disposal in Jawa and surrounding area have been done. These activities were part of the investigation for preparation of repository location in Jawa. In this report, the summary of previous sitting activities, the waste inventory in Radioactive Waste Technology Centre, and list of important factors for sitting on radioactive waste disposal location. Several potential areas such as Karawang, Subang, Majalengka, Rembang, Tuban, Madura will be the focus for next activities. The result will be part of activities report regarding the preparation of repository location in Jawa and surrounding area, that will be used as recommendation prior to radioactive waste management policy. (author)

  12. Criteria and technical concept for demonstrating greater confinement disposal of radioactive wastes at Arid Western Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, P.H.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes the work of two documents; the Criteria for Greater Confinement of Radioactive Wastes at Arid Western Sites, NVO-234, March 1981, (within this report, referred to as the GCDF Criteria Document); and the Draft Technical Concept for a Test of Greater Confinement Disposal of Radioactive Waste in Unsaturated Media at the Nevada Test Site, FBDU-343-004, June 1981, (referred within this report as the Technical Concept for the GCDF). For the past two years, Ford, Bacon and Davis has been performing technical services for the Department of Energy at the Nevada Test Site in development of defense low-level waste management concepts, including the greater confinement disposal concept with particular application to arid sites. The investigations have included the development of Criteria for Greater Confinement Disposal, NVO-234, which we published in May of this year; then the draft for the technical concept for greater confinement disposal, published in June; leading up to the point where we are now. The final technical concept and design specifications should be published imminently. The document is prerequisite to the actual construction and implementation of the demonstration facility this fiscal year

  13. Nonradiological groundwater quality at low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goode, D.J.

    1986-04-01

    The NRC is investigating appropriate regulatory options for disposal of low-level radioactive waste containing nonradiological hazardous constituents, as defined by EPA regulations. Standard EPA/RCRA procedures to determine hazardous organics, metals, indicator parameters, and general water quality are applied to samples from groundwater monitoring wells at two commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. At the Sheffield, IL site (nonoperating), several typical organic solvents are identified in elevated concentrations in onsite wells and in an offsite area exhibiting elevated tritium concentrations. At the Barnwell, SC site (operating), only very low concentrations of three organics are found in wells adjacent to disposal units. Hydrocarbons associated with petroleum products are detected at both sites. Hazardous constituents associated with previosuly identified major LLW mixed waste streams, toluene, xylene, chromium, and lead, are at or below detection limits or at background levels in all samples. Review of previously collected data also supports the conclusion that organic solvents are the primary nonradiological contaminants associated with LLW disposal

  14. Disposal of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This Safety Requirements publication applies to the disposal of radioactive waste of all types by means of emplacement in designed disposal facilities, subject to the necessary limitations and controls being placed on the disposal of the waste and on the development, operation and closure of facilities. The classification of radioactive waste is discussed. This Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements to provide assurance of the radiation safety of the disposal of radioactive waste, in the operation of a disposal facility and especially after its closure. The fundamental safety objective is to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. This is achieved by setting requirements on the site selection and evaluation and design of a disposal facility, and on its construction, operation and closure, including organizational and regulatory requirements.

  15. Engineering study of 50 miscellaneous inactive underground radioactive waste tanks located at the Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    This engineering study addresses 50 inactive underground radioactive waste tanks. The tanks were formerly used for the following functions associated with plutonium and uranium separations and waste management activities in the 200 East and 200 West Areas of the Hanford Site: settling solids prior to disposal of supernatant in cribs and a reverse well; neutralizing acidic process wastes prior to crib disposal; receipt and processing of single-shell tank (SST) waste for uranium recovery operations; catch tanks to collect water that intruded into diversion boxes and transfer pipeline encasements and any leakage that occurred during waste transfer operations; and waste handling and process experimentation. Most of these tanks have not been in use for many years. Several projects have, been planned and implemented since the 1970's and through 1985 to remove waste and interim isolate or interim stabilize many of the tanks. Some tanks have been filled with grout within the past several years. Responsibility for final closure and/or remediation of these tanks is currently assigned to several programs including Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS), Environmental Restoration and Remedial Action (ERRA), and Decommissioning and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Closure (D ampersand RCP). Some are under facility landlord responsibility for maintenance and surveillance (i.e. Plutonium Uranium Extraction [PUREX]). However, most of the tanks are not currently included in any active monitoring or surveillance program

  16. Final Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, M.S.; Borgstrom, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    The Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement (HSW EIS) provides environmental and technical information concerning U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposed waste management practices at the Hanford Site. The HSW EIS updates analyses of environmental consequences from previous documents and provides evaluations for activities that may be implemented consistent with the Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS) Records of Decision (RODs). Waste types considered in the HSW EIS include operational low-level radioactive waste (LLW), mixed low-level waste (MLLW), immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW), and transuranic (TRU) waste (including TRU mixed waste). MLLW contains chemically hazardous components in addition to radionuclides. Alternatives for management of these wastes at the Hanford Site, including the alternative of No Action, are analyzed in detail. The LLW, MLLW, and TRU waste alternatives are evaluated for a range of waste volumes, representing quantities of waste that could be managed at the Hanford Site. A single maximum forecast volume is evaluated for ILAW. The No Action Alternative considers continuation of ongoing waste management practices at the Hanford Site and ceasing some operations when the limits of existing capabilities are reached. The No Action Alternative provides for continued storage of some waste types. The other alternatives evaluate expanded waste management practices including treatment and disposal of most wastes. The potential environmental consequences of the alternatives are generally similar. The major differences occur with respect to the consequences of disposal versus continued storage and with respect to the range of waste volumes managed under the alternatives. DOE's preferred alternative is to dispose of LLW, MLLW, and ILAW in a single, modular, lined facility near PUREX on Hanford's Central Plateau; to treat MLLW using a combination of onsite and

  17. Characterization and evaluation of sites for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in fractured rocks. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The third Aespoe International Seminar was organised by SKB to assess the state of the art in characterisation and evaluation of sites for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in fractured rocks. Site characterisation and evaluation are important elements for determining the site suitability and long-term safety of a geological repository for radioactive waste disposal. Characterisation work also provides vital information for the design of the underground facility and the engineered barrier system that will contain the waste. The aim of the seminar was to provide a comprehensive assessment of the current know-how on this topic based on world-wide experience from more than 20 years of characterisation and evaluation work. The seminar, which was held at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory was attended by 72 scientists from 10 different countries. The program was divided into four sessions of which two were run in parallel. A total of 38 oral and 5 poster presentations were given at the seminar. The presentations gave a comprehensive summary of recently completed and current work on site characterisation, modelling and application in performance assessments. The results presented at the seminar generally show that significant progress has been made in this field during the last decade. New characterisation techniques have become available, strategies for site investigations have developed further, and model concepts and codes have reached new levels of refinement. Data obtained from site characterisation have also successfully been applied in several site specific performance assessments. The seminar clearly showed that there is a solid scientific basis for assessing the suitability of sites for actual repositories based on currently available site characterisation technology and modelling capabilities. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 38 of the presentations

  18. Soil Characterization Database for the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remortel, R. D. Van; Lee, Y. J.; Snyder, K. E.

    2005-01-01

    Soils were characterized in an investigation at the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nevada. Data from the investigation are presented in four parameter groups: sample and site characteristics, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) particle size fractions, chemical parameters, and American Society for Testing Materials-Unified Soil Classification System (ASTM-USCS) particle size fractions. Spread-sheet workbooks based on these parameter groups are presented to evaluate data quality, conduct database updates, and set data structures and formats for later extraction and analysis. This document does not include analysis or interpretation of presented data

  19. Soil Characterization Database for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y. J.; Remortel, R. D. Van; Snyder, K. E.

    2005-01-01

    Soils were characterized in an investigation at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nevada. Data from the investigation are presented in four parameter groups: sample and site characteristics, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) particle size fractions, chemical parameters, and American Society for Testing Materials-Unified Soil Classification System (ASTM-USCS) particle size fractions. Spread-sheet workbooks based on these parameter groups are presented to evaluate data quality, conduct database updates,and set data structures and formats for later extraction and analysis. This document does not include analysis or interpretation of presented data

  20. Program for closure of an inactive radioactive waste disposal site at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The 643-G Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility was operated at the Savannah River Plant from 1952 through 1974, and has been inactive since that time. The actions leading to closure of 643-G will involve a combination of activities consisting of limited waste removal, stabilization, capping, and monitoring. The overall effect of these closure actions will be to place the 643-G site in a physically and chemically stable state which will remain stable over a long period of time. During a one-hundred year institutional control period surveillance and monitoring of the site will be carried out to verify that the performance of the system is acceptable, and access of the general public to the site will be restricted. The program described in this paper is a recommendation; the actual closure plan will be negotiated with regulatory authorities. 2 figs., 1 tab

  1. Topographical survey and soil characterization of a candidate site for Radioactive Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peconick, Diva Godoi de O.; Mourao, Rogerio P., E-mail: godiva@cdtn.br, E-mail: mouraor@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nucelar (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Brazil has already initiated the establishment of a national near-surface repository for the low- and intermediate short-lived radioactive wastes generated within its territory. With two nuclear power plants in operation and a third one under construction, five active nuclear research institutes and another one planned for the intermediate future, operational constraints and social pressure built up for a disposal solution for such a waste category. The Brazilian Nuclear Commission CNEN was tasked at designing, building and commissioning this repository, which implies, among other activities, finding a suitable place for the facility. After an initial technical desk job, a federal land, not far from the NPPs, was appointed and in situ studies for the site characterization were started. This paper describes the topographical survey and soil drilling campaign carried out for the initial evaluation of the feasibility of the site vis-a-vis the applicable national regulations for site selection and disposal facilities licensing. (author)

  2. Topographical survey and soil characterization of a candidate site for Radioactive Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peconick, Diva Godoi de O.; Mourao, Rogerio P.

    2015-01-01

    Brazil has already initiated the establishment of a national near-surface repository for the low- and intermediate short-lived radioactive wastes generated within its territory. With two nuclear power plants in operation and a third one under construction, five active nuclear research institutes and another one planned for the intermediate future, operational constraints and social pressure built up for a disposal solution for such a waste category. The Brazilian Nuclear Commission CNEN was tasked at designing, building and commissioning this repository, which implies, among other activities, finding a suitable place for the facility. After an initial technical desk job, a federal land, not far from the NPPs, was appointed and in situ studies for the site characterization were started. This paper describes the topographical survey and soil drilling campaign carried out for the initial evaluation of the feasibility of the site vis-a-vis the applicable national regulations for site selection and disposal facilities licensing. (author)

  3. Nevada Test Site 2001 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Y. E. Townsend

    2002-06-01

    Environmental monitoring data, subsidence monitoring data, and meteorology monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (refer to Figure 1). These monitoring data include radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota data. Although some of these media (radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are reported in detail in other Bechtel Nevada (BN) reports (Annual Site Environmental Report [ASER], the National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants [NESHAP] report, and the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report), they are also summarized in this report to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and environmental compliance. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure at and around the RWMSs is not above background levels. Air monitoring data indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS has not been affected by the facility. Meteorology data indicate that 2001 was an average rainfall year: rainfall totaled 150 mm (5.9 in) at the Area 3 RWMS and 120 mm (4.7 in) at the Area 5 RWMS. Vadose zone monitoring data indicate that 2001 rainfall infiltrated less than one meter (3 ft) before being returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Soil-gas tritium monitoring data indicate slow subsurface migration, and tritium concentrations in biota were lower than in previous years. All 2001 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing within expectations of the model and parameter assumptions for the facility performance assessments

  4. Nevada Test Site 2001 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Y. E. Townsend

    2002-01-01

    Environmental monitoring data, subsidence monitoring data, and meteorology monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (refer to Figure 1). These monitoring data include radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota data. Although some of these media (radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are reported in detail in other Bechtel Nevada (BN) reports (Annual Site Environmental Report[ASER], the National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants[NESHAP] report, and the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report), they are also summarized in this report to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and environmental compliance. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure at and around the RWMSs is not above background levels. Air monitoring data indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS has not been affected by the facility. Meteorology data indicate that 2001 was an average rainfall year: rainfall totaled 150 mm (5.9 in) at the Area 3 RWMS and 120 mm (4.7 in) at the Area 5 RWMS. Vadose zone monitoring data indicate that 2001 rainfall infiltrated less than one meter (3 ft) before being returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Soil-gas tritium monitoring data indicate slow subsurface migration, and tritium concentrations in biota were lower than in previous years. All 2001 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing within expectations of the model and parameter assumptions for the facility performance assessments

  5. On-site Destruction of Radioactive Oily Wastes Using Adsorption Coupled with Electrochemical Regeneration - 12221

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.W. [Arvia Technology Ltd, Daresbury Innovation Centre, Daresbury, WA4 4FS (United Kingdom); Wickenden, D.A. [Magnox Ltd, Berkeley Centre, Gloucestershire, GL13 9PB (United Kingdom); Roberts, E.P.L. [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Arvia{sup R}, working with Magnox Ltd, has developed the technology of adsorption coupled with electrochemical regeneration for the degradation of orphan radioactive oil wastes. The process results in the complete destruction of the organic phase where the radioactivity is transferred to liquid and solid secondary wastes that can then be processed using existing authorised on-site waste-treatment facilities.. Following on from successful laboratory and pilot scale trials, a full scale, site based demonstrator unit was commissioned at the Magnox Trawsfynydd decommissioning site to destroy 10 l of LLW and ILW radioactive oils. Over 99% of the emulsified oil was removed and destroyed with the majority of activity (80 - 90%) being transferred to the aqueous phase. Secondary wastes were disposed of via existing routes with the majority being disposed of via the sites active effluent treatment plant. The regeneration energy required to destroy a litre of oil was 42.5 kWh/l oil. This on-site treatment approach eliminates the risks and cost associated with transporting the active waste oils off site for incineration or other treatment. The Arvia{sup R} process of adsorption coupled with electrochemical regeneration has successfully demonstrated the removal and destruction of LLW and ILW radioactive oils on a nuclear site. Over 99.9% of the emulsified oil was removed, with the majority of the radioactive species transferred to the aqueous, supernate, phase (typically 80 - 90 %). The exception to this is Cs-137 which appears to be more evenly distributed, with 43% associated with the liquid phase and 33 % with the Nyex, the remainder associated with the electrode bed. The situation with Plutonium may be similar, but this requires confirmation, hence further work is underway to understand the full nature of the electrode bed radioactive burden and its distribution within the body of the electrodes. - Tritium gaseous discharges were negligible; hence no off-gas treatment

  6. Critical (public) masses: a case study of a radioactive waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.G.; Payne, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    Increasing public sensitivity to radioactive and other hazardous waste issues often results in opposition that ranges from presentations by individuals at various public meetings to organizations initiating legal action in the courts. Organized opposition to proposed plans by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for a Surplus Facilities Management Program site near Weldon Spring, Missouri, has emerged during the two years that DOE has been involved in developing plans for this waste management site. An important aspect in the development of the major interest group in this case was the reliance on extra-local expertise at both the state and national levels. The group received organizational strategies, information on radioactive waste, legal advice, and direction from state and local environmental interest groups and various state agencies. In this paper, we present the historical development of organized public response and agency response to DOE's plans for the Weldon Spring site. The role of the interest group has emerged as one of a watchdog, scrutinizing and evaluating data, publications, and plans. Other organizations now rely on the group as a clearinghouse for information. This case is of particular importance to other waste management projects because it demonstrates the effective use of networking between various interest groups and agencies from the local to the national level. We believe that the emergence of such groups and their ties with a variety of extra-local organizations will be the rule rather than the exception in future waste projects. Agency personnel and project sponsors will find that an interactive, cooperative approach with such groups is an effective way to resolve waste issues

  7. Critical (public) masses: a case study of a radioactive waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.G.; Payne, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    Increasing public sensitivity to radioactive and other hazardous waste issues often results in opposition that ranges from presentations by individuals at various public meetings to organizations initiating legal action in the courts. Organized opposition to proposed plans by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for a Surplus Facilities Management Program site near Weldon Spring, Missouri, has emerged during the two years that DOE has been involved in developing plans for this waste management site. An important aspect in the development of the major interest group in this case was the reliance on extra-local expertise at both the state and national levels. The group received organizational strategies, information on radioactive waste, legal advice, and direction from state and local environmental interest groups and various state agencies. In this paper, the authors present the historical development of organized public response and agency response to DOE's plans for the Weldon Spring site. The role of the interest group has emerged as one of a watchdog, scrutinizing and evaluating data publications, and plans. Other organizations now rely on the group as a clearinghouse for information. This case is of particular importance to other waste management projects because it demonstrates the effective use of networking between various interest groups and agencies from the local to the national level. The authors believe that the emergence of such groups and their ties with a variety of extra-local organizations will be the rule rather than the exception in future waste projects. Agency personnel and project sponsors will find that an interactive, cooperative approach with such groups is an effective way to resolve waste issues. 9 references

  8. Selection and investigation of sites for the disposal of radioactive wastes in hydraulically induced subsurface fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Injection of intermediate-level radioactive wastes (specific activity of less than 6 x 10 3 μCi/mL, consisting mainly of radionuclides, such as strontium and cesium, having half-lives of less than 50 years) mixed with cement into a thick shale formation is a promising and feasible disposal method. Hydraulic fracturing provides openings in the shale to accommodate the wastes. Ion exchange and radionuclide-adsorption materials can be added to the grout during mixing to further increase the radionuclide-retaining capacity of the grout. After solidification of the grout, the injected wastes become an integral part of the shale formation, and therefore the wastes will remain at depth and in place as long as the injection zone is not subjected to erosion and dissolution. Problems concerning safety of the disposal method are (1) the potential for inducing vertical fractures, (2) phase separation during and after the injections, (3) the reliability of methods for determining the orientation of induced fractures, (4) the possibility of triggering earthquakes, and (5) radionuclides being leached and transported by ground water. Theoretical considerations about inducing nearly horizontal bedding-plane fractures in shale are discussed, as are field procedures for site selection, safety, and the monitoring and operation of radioactive waste disposal. Case histories are used as examples to demonstrate the application of the theory and techniques of field operations

  9. Siting the high level radioactive waste repository in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourtellotte, J.

    1992-01-01

    For more than twenty-five years after the National Academy of Science issued its 1957 report recommending a Mined Geologic Disposal System (''MGDS'') for high level radioactive waste, no substantial progress was made in selecting and siting a repository. The United States Congress attempted to give substantive and procedural direction to the program in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Seeing that very little had been accomplished some five years later, Congress gave further direction and tentatively selected a single site, Yucca Mountain in Nevada, in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act Amendments of 1987. Selection of the Yucca Mountain site created a political conflict between federal and state authorities. Until recently, that conflict stalled the site characterization and evaluation program. Standards development under a polycentric regulatory regime has also been slow and has created a number of technical, legal and policy controversies. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), charged with setting radiation protection rules, may be developing regulatory standards which are technically unachievable and, therefore, legally unprovable in a licensing proceeding. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), having the responsibility for licensing and setting performance objectives, may be taking an overly conservative approach. This approach could seriously impact the cost and may preclude the ability to reach an affirmative finding on license issuance. The Department of Energy (DOE) has responsibility for siting, construction and operation of the repository. In so doing, DOE must apply both EPA and NRC standards. To the extent that EPA and NRC standards are untimely, poorly defined, unrealistic, inconsistent, and technically or legally unsound, DOE may be forestalled from fulfilling its responsibilities. The US must rethink its approach to siting the high level radioactive waste repository and take realistic, timely action to preserve the nuclear option. (Author)

  10. Remediation and assessment of the national radioactive waste storage and disposal site in Tajikistan - 59110

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buriev, Nazirzhon T.; Abdushukurov, Dzhamshed A.; Vandergraaf, Tjalle T.

    2012-01-01

    The National Radioactive Waste Storage and Disposal Site was established in 1959 in the Faizabad region approximately 50 km east of the capital, Dushanbe. The site is located on the southern flank of the Fan Mountains facing the Gissar Valley in a sparsely populated agricultural area, with the nearest villages located a few km from the site. The site was initially designed to accept a wide range of contaminated materials, including obsolete smoke detectors, sealed radioactive sources, waste from medical institutions, and radioactive liquids. Between 1962 and 1976, 363 tonnes and 1146 litres of material, contaminated with a range of radionuclides were shipped to the site. Between 1972 - 1980 and 1985 - 1991, ∼4.8 x 10 14 and 2 x 10 13 Bq, respectively, were shipped to the site. An additional 7 x 10 14 Bq was shipped to the site in 1996. Partly as a result of the dissolution of the former Soviet Union, the disposal site had fallen into disrepair and currently presents both an environmental hazard and a potential for the proliferation of radionuclides that could potentially be used for illicit purposes. Remediation of the disposal site was started in 2005. New security fences were erected and a new superstructure over an in-ground storage site constructed. A central alarm monitoring and observation station has been constructed and is now operational. The geology, flora, and fauna of the region have been documented. Radiation surveys of the buildings and the storage and disposal sites have been carried out. Samples of soil, surface water and vegetation have been taken and analyzed by gamma spectrometry. Results show a slight extent of contamination of soils near the filling ports of the underground liquid storage container where a Cs-137 concentration of 2.3 x 104 Bq/kg was obtained. Similar values were obtained for Ra- 226. Radiation fields of the in-ground storage site were generally 3 . Most of the activity appears to be associated with the sediments in the tank

  11. Radioactive waste storage issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state's boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected

  12. Assessment of microbial processes on gas production at radioactive low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, A.J.; Tate, R.L. III; Colombo, P.

    1982-05-01

    Factors controlling gaseous emanations from low level radioactive waste disposal sites are assessed. Importance of gaseous fluxes of methane, carbon dioxide, and possible hydrogen from the site, stems from the inclusion of tritium and/or carbon-14 into the elemental composition of these compounds. In that the primary source of these gases is the biodegradation of organic components of the waste material, primary emphasis of the study involved an examination of the biochemical pathways producing methane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen, and the environmental parameters controlling the activity of the microbial community involved. Initial examination of the data indicates that the ecosystem is anaerobic. As the result of the complexity of the pathway leading to methane production, factors such as substrate availability, which limit the initial reaction in the sequence, greatly affect the overall rate of methane evolution. Biochemical transformations of methane, hydrogen and carbon dioxide as they pass through the soil profile above the trench are discussed. Results of gas studies performed at three commercial low level radioactive waste disposal sites are reviewed. Methods used to obtain trench and soil gas samples are discussed. Estimates of rates of gas production and amounts released into the atmosphere (by the GASFLOW model) are evaluated. Tritium and carbon-14 gaseous compounds have been measured in these studies; tritiated methane is the major radionuclide species in all disposal trenches studied. The concentration of methane in a typical trench increases with the age of the trench, whereas the concentration of carbon dioxide is similar in all trenches

  13. Characterization of organics in leachates from low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.; Iden, C.R.; Nine, B.; Chang, C.

    1979-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes generated by the nuclear industry, universities, research institutions, and hospitals are disposed of in shallow-land trenches and pits. In 1962 the first commercial disposal site was opened in Beatty, Nevada. Since then, the industry has grown to include three private companies operating six disposal areas located in sparsely populated areas: at Maxey Flats (Morehead), Kentucky; Beatty, Nevada; Sheffield, Illinois; Barnwell, South Carolina; West Valley, New York; and Richland, Washington. Although the facilities are operated by private industry, they are located on public land and are subject to federal and state regulation. Although inventories of the radioactive materials buried in the disposal sites are available, no specific records are kept on the kinds and quantities of organic wastes buried. In general, the organic wastes consist of contaminated paper, packing materials, clothing, plastics, ion-exchange resins, scintillation vials, solvents, chemicals, decontamination fluids, carcasses of experimental animals, and solidification agents. Radionuclides such as 14 C, 3 H, 90 Sr, 134 137 Cs, 60 Co, 241 Am, and 238 239 240 Pu have been identified in leachate samples collected from several trenches at Maxey Flats and West Valley. The purpose of this report is to identify some of the organic compounds present in high concentrations in trench leachates at the disposal sites in order to begin to evaluate their effect on radionuclide mobilization and contamination of the environment

  14. 1997 State-by-State Assessment of Low-Level Radioactive Wastes Received at Commercial Disposal Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, R. L.

    1998-01-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed in the United States. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included in this report are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1997 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1993 through 1997; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1997

  15. Bibliography of reports by US Geological Survey personnel pertaining to underground nuclear testing and radioactive waste disposal at the Nevada Test Site, and radioactive waste disposal at the WIPP Site, New Mexico, January 1, 1979-December 31, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glanzman, V.M.

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography presents reports released to the public between January 1, 1979, and December 31, 1979, by personnel of the US Geological Survey. Reports include information on underground nuclear testing and waste management projects at the NTS (Nevada Test Site) and radioactive waste projects at the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) site, New Mexico. Reports on Project Dribble, Tatum Dome, Mississippi, previously prepared as administrative reports and released to the public as 474-series reports during 1979 are also included in this bibliography

  16. Importance of geologic characterization of potential low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, C.P.; Berg, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    Using the example of the Geff Alternative Site in Wayne County, Illinois, for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste, this paper demonstrates, from a policy and public opinion perspective, the importance of accurately determining site stratigraphy. Complete and accurate characterization of geologic materials and determination of site stratigraphy at potential low-level waste disposal sites provides the frame-work for subsequent hydrologic and geochemical investigations. Proper geologic characterization is critical to determine the long-term site stability and the extent of interactions of groundwater between the site and its surroundings. Failure to adequately characterize site stratigraphy can lead to the incorrect evaluation of the geology of a site, which in turn may result in a lack of public confidence. A potential problem of lack of public confidence was alleviated as a result of the resolution and proper definition of the Geff Alternative Site stratigraphy. The integrity of the investigation was not questioned and public perception was not compromised. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  17. A successful case site selection for low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bongwoo

    2007-01-01

    Korea decided on Gyeongju-si as the site of low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility by referendum in November, 2005. Five success factors are considered; 1) the mayor and municipal assembly leaded the public opinion of inhabitants, 2) an invitation group was formed by citizen, social and religious group, 3) Gyeongju-si has operated the nuclear power plant since 20 years ago, and this radioactive waste disposal facility brings large financial support, 4) many kinds of public information means were used for invitation agreement and 5) the preconception, a nuclear facility is danger, was removed by visiting citizen, social group and local inhabitants at the nuclear power plant facility. Promotion process of the project, invitation process of Gyeongju-si and success factors, construction of an invitation promotion group and development of public information activities, publicity of financial effects and safety of radioactive waste disposal facility, increase of general acceptance among inhabitants by many kinds of public information means, and P.R. of safety of nuclear power plant facility by visiting leadership layers are reported. (S.Y.)

  18. Overview of the site selection, geological and engineering problems facing radioactive waste disposal at Sellafield, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haszeldine, R.S.; Smythe, D.K.

    1996-01-01

    UK Nirex Ltd is the company charged with finding a suitable site for the disposal of radioactive waste in the United Kingdom. Since 1991, Nirex has concentrated its site investigation work at Longlands Farm which is owned by British Nuclear Fuels Ltd and is near their Sellafield site. Planning permission was sought for the development of an underground Rock Characterisation Facility (RCF) at the site in 1994. A public Planning Inquiry began in September 1995. A wide range of scientific and technical objections were put by expert witnesses against the Nirex Proposal. These witnesses were co-ordinated by three Objecting Organisations - Cumbria County Council, Friends of the Earth and Greenpeace. Their written evidence is presented in this book. The grounds of the objections include: the inadequacy of the methodology adopted by Nirex for site selection and investigation; The unsuitability of the site geology, hydrology and geochemistry; that construction of the RCF would destroy the data essential to deciding site suitability; that the RCF would provide a conduit for the release of radioactivity; a number of features in the Nirex risk assessment that would lead to an underestimation of the potential risks of a repository at this site. (UK)

  19. Review of the Scientific Understanding of Radioactive Waste at the U.S. DOE Hanford Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Reid A; Buck, Edgar C; Chun, Jaehun; Daniel, Richard C; Herting, Daniel L; Ilton, Eugene S; Lumetta, Gregg J; Clark, Sue B

    2018-01-16

    This Critical Review reviews the origin and chemical and rheological complexity of radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. The waste, stored in underground tanks, was generated via three distinct processes over decades of plutonium extraction operations. Although close records were kept of original waste disposition, tank-to-tank transfers and conditions that impede equilibrium complicate our understanding of the chemistry, phase composition, and rheology of the waste. Tank waste slurries comprise particles and aggregates from nano to micro scales, with varying densities, morphologies, heterogeneous compositions, and complicated responses to flow regimes and process conditions. Further, remnant or changing radiation fields may affect the stability and rheology of the waste. These conditions pose challenges for transport through conduits or pipes to treatment plants for vitrification. Additionally, recalcitrant boehmite degrades glass quality and the high aluminum content must be reduced prior to vitrification for the manufacture of waste glass of acceptable durability. However, caustic leaching indicates that boehmite dissolves much more slowly than predicted given surface normalized rates. Existing empirical models based on ex situ experiments and observations generally only describe material balances and have not effectively predicted process performance. Recent advances in the areas of in situ microscopy, aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy, theoretical modeling across scales, and experimental methods for probing the physics and chemistry at mineral-fluid and mineral-mineral interfaces are being implemented to build robustly predictive physics-based models.

  20. Management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Van Iseghem, P.; Volckaert, G.; Wacquier, W.

    1998-09-01

    The document gives an overview of of different aspects of radioactive waste management in Belgium. The document discusses the radioactive waste inventory in Belgium, the treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste as well as activities related to the characterisation of different waste forms. A separate chapter is dedicated to research and development regarding deep geological disposal of radioactive waste. In the Belgian waste management programme, particular emphasis is on studies for disposal in clay. Main results of these studies are highlighted and discussed

  1. Estimating and coping with public response to radioactive waste repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, B.A.

    1984-01-01

    The siting and construction of a radioactive waste disposal operation is likely to be controversial in the communities being considered, and at the state and national levels as well. Public response can be conceptualized at two levels: individual, and group or organizational. At the individual level, public response is the behavior of people motivated by their attitudes, knowledge, and perceptions of radioactive waste and its hazards and risks. On the group or organizational level, public response is the organized activity of individuals. Organizations provide the ability to pool resources and talents, set up a division of labor, hire experts, develop a skilled leadership, take legal action, and so on. A broad range of organizations is possible: ad hoc, existing community groups with an added purpose, nationally-recognized organizations, or government offices and agencies. Two cases of response to radioactive waste disposal sites illustrate these sources and kinds of response and lead to indicators to estimate the nature and level of response. Finally, drawing from the theoretical discussion of the sources and levels of public response, on the estimation techniques, and on the examples, specific coping strategies are developed. These strategies take different forms, based on the nature and level of response (either supporting or opposing) to the proposed siting, and the past experience of the community members with similar projects, with other federal requirements, and with citizens' action groups, as well as sources and accuracy of information individuals and groups have. However, all strategies are based on a policy of honesty and straight-forwardness, with a sincere effort on the part of site evaluators and decision-makers to be attentive and responsive to the public's concerns. 10 references

  2. Development of cleanup criteria for historic low-level radioactive waste sites in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, R.W.; Chambers, D.B.; Lowe, L.M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper will describe recent work performed to develop cleanup criteria, and their current status, for historic low-level radioactive waste sites in Canada. These historic wastes date back to 1933, when a radium refinery began operation in Port Hope, Ontario. The problem of residual wastes and contaminated buildings and soils in Port Hope, resulting from the practices in the early years of radium and uranium production, was discovered in the mid-1970s, and a large scale cleanup program carried out. This work was concentrated on developed properties. As a result, substantial quantities of contaminated materials remained in a number of large undeveloped areas. A number of additional historic waste sites have subsequently been discovered at other locations in Canada, where buildings and/or soils were contaminated with uranium ores or concentrates spilled during transport, or with processing residues, or as a result of the use of radium containing materials. There has been substantial evolution of the criteria for cleanup of these sites over the almost 20 year period since work started at the first sites

  3. Regulation on radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A national calculator control system for the metropolitan radioactive waste banks was developed in 1999. The NNSA reviewed by the regulations the feasibility of some rectification projects for uranium ore decommissioning and conducted field inspections on waste treating systems and radioactive waste banks at the 821 plant. The NNSA realized in 1999 the calculator control for the disposal sites of low and medium radioactive waste. 3 routine inspections were organized on the reinforced concrete structures for disposal units and their pouring of concrete at waste disposal site and specific requirements were put forth

  4. Geological Consideration for the Site Selection of Radioactive Waste at the PPTN Serpong Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sucipta

    2002-01-01

    Geological consideration is a main aspect in the exploration or selection of site for radioactive waste repository, because, really that repository site must be surrounded by geological system (geosphere). The objective of the site selection is to obtain a site which geologically capable to prevent the escape of waste pollution from repository to biosphere. Beside that the site must be free from geological processes which harmfull to longterm stability of the site. Descriptive analysis method was applied in this research and combined with evaluation by scoring methods. From the analysis result could be identified that PPTN Serpong morphologically consist of undulatory plains (elevation 80-100 m above msl), the lithology are alluvial deposits. Quarternary tuffs, pumiceous tuffs, clayey tuffs. sandy tuffs and limestone. The geological structure was supposed a horst and graben which buried more than 15 m since Pleistocene. Hydrological condition are moderately run-off, and the distance to the river is about 160 m. The depth of groundwater is 8.3 m, with parallel drainage system. Geological resources found in the site are land and groundwater. The most potential of geological hazard is supposed a rock mass movement. By the land evaluation could be concluded that PPTN Serpong area have moderate suitability for NSD site. (author)

  5. 1992 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, R.L.; McDonald, S.D.

    1993-09-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed in the United States. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included in this report are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1992 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1988 through 1992; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1992. This report distinguishes between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly for disposal by generators and waste that was handled by an intermediary, a reporting change introduced in the 1988 state-by-state report

  6. 1995 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed in US. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1995 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1991 through 1995; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in US as of Dec. 31, 1994. This report distinguishes low-level radioactive waste shipped directly for disposal by generators and waste handled by an intermediary.

  7. 1994 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed in the United States. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included in this report are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1994 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1990 through 1994; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1994. This report distinguishes between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly for disposal by generators and waste that was handled by an intermediary, a reporting change introduced in the 1988 state-by-state report.

  8. 1996 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, R.L.

    1997-09-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed in the US. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included in this report are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1996 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1992 through 1996; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the US as of December 31, 1996. This report distinguishes between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly for disposal by generators and waste that was handled by an intermediary, a reporting change introduced in the 1988 state-by-state report.

  9. Safe disposal of radionuclides in low-level radioactive-waste repository sites; Low-level radioactive-waste disposal workshop, U.S. Geological Survey, July 11-16, 1987, Big Bear Lake, Calif., Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, Marion S.; Stevens, Peter R.

    1990-01-01

    In the United States, low-level radioactive waste is disposed by shallow-land burial. Low-level radioactive waste generated by non-Federal facilities has been buried at six commercially operated sites; low-level radioactive waste generated by Federal facilities has been buried at eight major and several minor Federally operated sites (fig. 1). Generally, low-level radioactive waste is somewhat imprecisely defined as waste that does not fit the definition of high-level radioactive waste and does not exceed 100 nCi/g in the concentration of transuranic elements. Most low-level radioactive waste generated by non-Federal facilities is generated at nuclear powerplants; the remainder is generated primarily at research laboratories, hospitals, industrial facilities, and universities. On the basis of half lives and concentrations of radionuclides in low-level radioactive waste, the hazard associated with burial of such waste generally lasts for about 500 years. Studies made at several of the commercially and Federally operated low-level radioactive-waste repository sites indicate that some of these sites have not provided containment of waste nor the expected protection of the environment.

  10. Siting of a low-level radioactive waste management facility - environmental assessment experiences of the Canadian siting task force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorber, D.M.; Story, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    After public opposition to the plans for a low-level radioactive waste facility at one of two candidate areas at Port Hope, Canada the Environmental Assessment process was postponed, and an independent Siting Process Task Force was set-up to assess the most suitable technologies for LLRW disposal, the areas with the best potential in the province to use these technologies, and the most promising approaches to site selection. The Task Force recommended a five-phased siting process known as the 'Co-operative Siting Process', which was based on the voluntary participation of local communities and a collaborative, joint-planning style of decision making. An independent Siting Task Force was to be established to ensure that the principles of the recommended process was upheld. This siting process is still underway, and problems and successes that have been encountered are summarized in this contribution

  11. Environmental assessment for the off-site volume reduction of low-level radioactive waste from the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1061) for the proposed off-site volume reduction of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  12. Annual Transportation Report for Radioactive Waste Shipments to and from the Nevada Test Site, Fiscal Year 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    In February 1997, the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office issued the Mitigation Action Plan which addressed potential impacts described in the ''Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Nevada Test Site and Off-Site Locations in the State of Nevada'' (DOE/EIS 0243). The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office committed to several actions, including the preparation of an annual report, which summarizes waste shipments to and from the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMS) at Area 3 and Area 5. This document satisfies requirements with regard to low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) transported to or from the NTS during fiscal year (FY) 2006

  13. Groundwater geochemistry near the storage sites of low-level radioactive waste: Implications for uranium migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaskova, Olga L.; Boguslavsky, Anatoly E. [Institute of Geology and Mineralogy SB RAS, Ac. Koptyug prosp. 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents results of detailed sampling of groundwater and surface water near the storage sites of radioactive waste from the Electrochemical Plant ECP (Zelenogorsk, Krasnoyarsk region, Russia) and the Angarsk Electrolysis Chemical Complex AEC (Angarsk, Irkutsk region, Russia), both of which have produced enriched uranium since 1960's. The liquid (LRW) and solid (SRW) radioactive wastes belong to the category of low-level activity waste. The main result is that the uranium is below the recommended MPC for drinking waters in all types of groundwater around the sludge of ECP and AEC. But alkaline nitrate solutions have been penetrating and spreading into the aquifers under the LRW sludge pits. According to our calculations, redox conditions in the groundwater influenced by discharge are controlled by the couple NO{sub 3}{sup -}/NO{sub 2}{sup -} that facilitates U(VI) migration. The groundwater under SRW repositories is distinguished by its low mineralization and neutral pH. Co-contaminants, such as Mo, V, and Zr may serve as markers of techno-genous contamination in storage sites of the LRW sludge. (authors)

  14. 1980 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes shipped to commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    Information is presented on the volumes, curie values, sources, and disposal of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) in each state. The wastes are segmented into 2 broad categories - institutional/industrial and commercial power reactor wastes. The volumes and curie values were obtained from the commercial site operators. The percentage of LLW disposed of at each of the 3 operating disposal sites located at Barnwell, SC, Beatty, NV, and Richland, WA are included

  15. Transportation risk assessment of radioactive wastes generated by the N-Reactor stabilization program at the Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, T.

    1994-12-01

    The potential radiological and nonradiological risks associated with specific radioactive waste shipping campaigns at the Hanford Site are estimated. The shipping campaigns analyzed are associated with the transportation of wastes from the N-Reactor site at the 200-W Area, both within the Hanford Reservation, for disposal. The analysis is based on waste that would be generated from the N-Reactor stabilization program

  16. Siting a low-level radioactive waste incinerator in North Carolina: the impacts of public opposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    Establishing low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) facilities has become increasingly difficult due to public opposition to siting proposals. Widespread opposition to siting new waste management facilities of all types has focused sharp attention on the technical, political, and socioeconomic problems associated with siting controversial, but necessary facilities. This paper reviews a recent private sector initiative to site a LLRW incinerator in Bladen County, NC. Public reactions to the proposed facility are documents, as well as reasons for public opposition to the facility. The impacts of public opposition on the siting process, regulatory agencies, the media, industry, the general public, and elected officials are examined. The paper points out how public opposition to proposed waste management facilities may have both positive and negative impacts on the long-term management of LLRW. In doing so, the paper addresses policy questions, processes, and perceptions that will shape the debate over the development and location of new treatment and disposal facilities for managing LLRW. 14 references

  17. Parameters for characterizing sites for disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutton, R.J.; Malone, P.G.; Meade, R.B.; Patrick, D.M.

    1982-05-01

    Sixty-seven site parameters and parameter groups are identified as important characteristics of sites for disposal of low-level radioactive waste and require detailed evaluation. Several of the most important parameters are needed for hydrological analysis while others are needed for facility design, construction, and operation. Still others are needed for baseline and detection stages of monitoring. It is recommended that all parameters be evaluated by technically qualified personnel. Appropriate tests and documentation methods are discussed in a second report, which will follow. However, site-specific testing or elaborate field measurement will not always be necessary, i.e., where indicated to be unnecessary on a technical basis. Much of this report, Appendices A through G, is directed to explaining the importances of parameters and to establishing site-specific limitations

  18. 1982 State-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes shipped to commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    This report uses the volume of low-level waste reported as received at each commercial disposal site as the national baseline figure. A volume of 75,891 cubic meters of radioactive waste containing 413,898 curies of activity was reported disposed at the commercial sites in 1982. The distribution of these waste volumes by disposal site is presented in Table 1. Table 2 summarizes estimated volumes by generator categories. The total volume and curie values tabulated for each state were obtained directly from the commercial disposal site operators. The total is the sum of the volume and radioactivity by disposal site for each state. Summary information on commercial nuclear power plant wastes was obtained from semiannual waste reports submitted to the NRC in accordance with the NRC Regulatory Guide 1.21. Data reported for the calendar year 1982 were used for this report where available. When report data were not available, reactor information was obtained directly from the utility

  19. Nevada Test Site 2009 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2009 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NTS. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. All gamma spectroscopy results for air particulates collected at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS were below the minimum detectable concentrations, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. Radon flux from waste covers is well below regulatory limits. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. The 87.6 millimeters (mm) (3.45 inches (in.)) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2009 is 43 percent below the average of 152.4 mm (6.00 in.), and the 62.7 mm (2.47 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2009 is 49 percent below the average of 122.5 mm (4.82 in.). Soil-gas tritium monitoring at borehole GCD-05 continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward percolation of precipitation more effectively than evaporation

  20. Nevada Test Site 2007 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2008-01-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site. These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2007 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2007a; 2008; Warren and Grossman, 2008). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are at background levels. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. A single gamma spectroscopy measurement for cesium was slightly above the minimum detectable concentration, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits at the Area 3 RWMS. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. Radon flux from waste covers is well below regulatory limits. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. The 136.8 millimeters (mm) (5.39 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2007 is 13 percent below the average of 158.1 mm (6.22 in.), and the 123.8 mm (4.87 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2007 is 6 percent below the average of 130.7 mm (5.15 in.). Soil-gas tritium monitoring at borehole GCD-05U continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward movement percolation of precipitation more effectively

  1. Rooting Characteristics of Vegetation near Areas 3 and 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis J. Hansen and W. Kent Ostler

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy emplaced high-specific-activity low-level radioactive wastes and limited quantities of classified transuranic wastes in Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes from 1984 to 1989. The boreholes are located at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in southern Nevada. The boreholes were backfilled with native alluvium soil. The surface of these boreholes and trenches is expected to be colonized by native vegetation in the future. Considering the long-term performance of the disposal facilities, bioturbation (the disruption of buried wastes by biota) is considered a primary release mechanism for radionuclides disposed in GCD boreholes as well as trenches at both Areas 3 and 5 RWMSs. This report provides information about rooting characteristics of vegetation near Areas 3 and 5 RWMSs. Data from this report are being used to resolve uncertainties involving parameterization of performance assessment models used to characterize the biotic mixing of soils and radionuclide transport processes by biota. The objectives of this study were to: (1) survey the prior ecological literature on the NTS and identify pertinent information about the vegetation, (2) conduct limited field studies to describe the current vegetation in the vicinity of Areas 3 and 5 RWMSs so as to correlate findings with more extensive vegetation data collected at Yucca Mountain and the NTS, (3) review prior performance assessment documents and evaluate model assumptions based on current ecological information, and (4) identify data deficiencies and make recommendations for correcting such deficiencies

  2. Review of the Scientific Understanding of Radioactive Waste at the U.S. DOE Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Reid A.; Buck, Edgar C.; Chun, Jaehun; Daniel, Richard C.; Herting, Daniel L. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Ilton, Eugene S.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Clark, Sue B. [Chemistry

    2018-01-02

    This paper reviews the origin and chemical and rheological complexity of radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site. The waste, stored in underground tanks, was generated via three distinct processes over decades of plutonium extraction operations. Although close records were kept of original waste disposition, tank-to-tank transfers and conditions that impede equilibrium complicate our understanding of the chemistry, phase composition, and rheology of the waste. Tank waste slurries comprise particles and aggregates from nano to micron scales, with varying densities, morphologies, heterogeneous compositions, and complicated responses to flow regimes and process conditions. Further, remnant or changing radiation fields may affect the stability and rheology of the waste. These conditions pose challenges for transport through conduits or pipes to treatment plants for vitrification. Additionally, recalcitrant boehmite degrades glass quality and must be reduced prior to vitrification, but dissolves much more slowly than predicted given surface normalized rates. Existing empirical models based on ex situ experiments and observations lack true predictive capabilities. Recent advances in in situ microscopy, aberration corrected TEM, theoretical modeling across scales, and experimental methods for probing the physics and chemistry at mineral-fluid and mineral-mineral interfaces are being implemented to build robustly predictive physics-based models.

  3. Hydrogeologic data for existing excavations and the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    The Special Projects Section of Reynolds Electrical ampersand Engineering Co., Inc. is responsible for characterizing the subsurface geology and hydrology of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Waste Management Division. Geologic description, in situ testing, and laboratory analyses of alluvium exposed in existing excavations are important subparts to the Area 5 Site Characterization Program designed to determine the suitability of the RWMS for disposal of low level waste mixed waste and transuranic waste. The primary purpose of the Existing Excavation Project is two-fold: first, to characterize important hydrologic properties of the near surface alluvium, thought to play an important role in the infiltration and redistribution of water and solutes through the upper unsaturated zone at the Area 5 RWMS; and second, to provide guidance for the design of future sampling and testing programs. The justification for this work comes from the state of Nevada review of the original DOE/NV Part B Permit application submitted in 1988 for disposal of mixed wastes at the RWMS. The state of Nevada determined that the permit was deficient in characterization data concerning the hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone. DOE/NV agreed with the state and proposed the study of alluvium exposed in existing excavations as one step toward satisfying these important site characterization data requirements. Other components of the site characterization process include the Science Trench Borehole and Pilot Well Projects

  4. A framework of dynamic analysis for risks asociated with human activity at radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeki, H.; Masuda, S.

    1989-01-01

    Human intrusive actions at radioactive waste disposal sites which cause radiological impact were identified in connection with other events and processes on the influence diagram. The scenarios of less likely events including human intrusive actions were generated from the diagram and then treated by probabilistic way. For assigning probabilities of events dynamically, simultaneous difference equations were introduced and simple general solutions which satisfy the equations were used to illustrate the example calculations for both direct and indirect impacts by human intrusive actions such as drilling/mining and pumping of groundwater. The method developed here will be useful for both scenario screening in overall scenario study and risk calculation combined with consequence analysis

  5. Trench water chemistry at commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrzak, R.F.; Dayal, R.; Kinsley, M.T.; Clinton, J.; Czyscinski, K.S.; Weiss, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    Water samples from the disposal trenches of two low-level radioactive-waste-disposal sites were analyzed for their inorganic, organic, and radionuclide contents. Since oxidation of the trench waters can occur during their movement along the groundwater flow path, experiments were performed to measure the chemical and physical changes that occur in these waters upon oxidation. Low concentrations of chelating agents, shown to exist in trench waters, may be responsible for keeping radionuclides, particularly 60 Co, in solution. 4 figures, 5 tables

  6. Stakeholder opinions on the use of the added value approach in siting radioactive waste management facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojo, Matti [University of Tampere, School of ManagementTampere (Finland); Richardson, Phil [Galson Sciences Ltd, Oakham (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    In some countries nuclear waste facility siting programs include social and economic benefits, compensation, local empowerment and motivation measures and other incentives for the potential host community. This can generally be referred to as an 'added value approach'. Demonstration of the safety of a repository is seen as a precondition of an added value approach. Recently much focus has been placed on studying and developing public participation approaches but less on the use of such incentive and community benefit packages, although they are becoming a more common element in many site selection strategies for nuclear waste management facilities. The primary objective of this paper is to report on an ongoing study of stakeholders' opinions of the use of an added value approach in siting a radioactive waste facility in the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovenia. The paper argues that an added value approach should adapt to the interests and needs of stakeholders during different stages of a siting process. The main question posed in the study is as follows: What are the measures which should be included in 'added value approach' according to the stakeholders? The research data consists of stakeholders' responses to a survey focusing on the use of added value (community benefits) and incentives in siting nuclear waste management facilities. The survey involved use of a questionnaire developed as part of the EU-funded IPPA* project in three countries: the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovenia. (* Implementing Public Participation Approaches in Radioactive Waste Disposal, FP7 Contract Number: 269849). The target audiences for the questionnaires were the stakeholders represented in the national stakeholder groups established to discuss site selection for a nuclear waste repository in their country. A total of 105 questionnaires were sent to the stakeholders between November 2011 and January 2012. 44 questionnaires were returned, resulting in a

  7. Stakeholder opinions on the use of the added value approach in siting radioactive waste management facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojo, Matti; Richardson, Phil

    2013-01-01

    In some countries nuclear waste facility siting programs include social and economic benefits, compensation, local empowerment and motivation measures and other incentives for the potential host community. This can generally be referred to as an 'added value approach'. Demonstration of the safety of a repository is seen as a precondition of an added value approach. Recently much focus has been placed on studying and developing public participation approaches but less on the use of such incentive and community benefit packages, although they are becoming a more common element in many site selection strategies for nuclear waste management facilities. The primary objective of this paper is to report on an ongoing study of stakeholders' opinions of the use of an added value approach in siting a radioactive waste facility in the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovenia. The paper argues that an added value approach should adapt to the interests and needs of stakeholders during different stages of a siting process. The main question posed in the study is as follows: What are the measures which should be included in 'added value approach' according to the stakeholders? The research data consists of stakeholders' responses to a survey focusing on the use of added value (community benefits) and incentives in siting nuclear waste management facilities. The survey involved use of a questionnaire developed as part of the EU-funded IPPA* project in three countries: the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovenia. (* Implementing Public Participation Approaches in Radioactive Waste Disposal, FP7 Contract Number: 269849). The target audiences for the questionnaires were the stakeholders represented in the national stakeholder groups established to discuss site selection for a nuclear waste repository in their country. A total of 105 questionnaires were sent to the stakeholders between November 2011 and January 2012. 44 questionnaires were returned, resulting in a

  8. Safety and optimization aspects of radioactive waste long-term storage at the ''Vector'' site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarevs'kij, O.V.; Kondrat'jev, S.M.; Aleksjejeva, Z.M.; Ribalka, N.V.

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyzes links between the final disposal option and needs for long-term storage of radioactive waste taking into proposals on possible changes in radwaste classification as regards disposal. It considers the conceptual approach to design facilities for long-term storage of long-lived radioactive waste at the Vector site and approaches to apply requirements of regulatory documents, radiation safety principles and criteria for long-term storage of radwaste and safety assessment.

  9. Characterization of trench water at the Maxey Flats low-level radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, A.J.; Francis, A.J.; Colombo, P.

    1977-01-01

    Currently the United States Geological Survey is conducting a study of the hydrogeological and geochemical behavior of commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. The data collected from this study will be used to establish criteria for selection of new sites for disposal of radioactive wastes. As part of this study, water samples from trenches at the Maxey Flats, Kentucky site were analyzed at Brookhaven National Laboratory to determine the source terms of the radionuclides and other components in solution in the trenches. Procedures for collection and filtration of the samples under anoxic conditions are described. The samples were analyzed for inorganic, radiochemical and organic constituents. The inorganic analysis includes the measurements of pH, specific conductance, alkalinity, and various cations and anions. The radionuclides were measured by the gross alpha, gross beta, tritium, and gamma activities, followed by specific measurements of strontium-90 and plutonium isotopes. The organics were extracted, concentrated, and identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Considerable quantities of organics were detected in all of the trench waters sampled. Specific organics were found in most of the trenches, however, the organic composition of the trench waters vary. The presence of a variety of organic compounds in trench waters suggest that they may play an important role in the transport of radionuclides

  10. Final disposal of radioactive wastes. Site selection criteria. Technical and economical factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granero, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    General considerations, geological and socioeconomical criteria for final disposal of radioactive wastes in geological formations are treated. More attention is given to the final disposal of high level radioactive wastes and different solutions searched abroad which seems of interest for Spain. (author)

  11. Geophysical survey aimed at selecting the radioactive waste repository site (Czech republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Dostál

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available G IMPULS Praha has been executing a set of geophysical measurements for the Radioactive Waste Repository Authority of the Czech Republic from 2001 (the work continues to be carried out. The measurements are aimed at studying the behaviour of the rock massif, focusing on the Excavation Damaged or Disturbed Zone (EDZ and on selecting an appropriate area for the radioactive material repository site. The geophysical studies use a complex of methods as follows: Airborne geophysical measurement (regional studies, Seismic measurement (detailed studies, G.P.R. (detailed studies, Resistivity tomography (detailed studies, Geoelectric measurement and magnetic survey (stray earth currents. The paper informs about first results and conclusions. The airborne work was executed as a part of the complex study of „GEOBARIERA“ the group and the geophysical measurements of EDZ were executed in co-operation with the Czech Geological Survey.

  12. In situ vitrification of a mixed radioactive and hazardous waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koegler, S.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a large-scale test of the in situ vitrification (ISV) process being performed on a mixed radioactive and hazardous-chemical contaminated waste site on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington state. A mixed-waste site was selected for this large-scale test to demonstrate the applicability of ISV to mixed wastes common to many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites. In situ vitrification is a thermal process that converts contaminated soil into a durable, leach-resistant product. Electrodes are inserted into the ground to the desired treatment depth, and a layer of electrically conductive material (a starter path) is placed between the electrodes. Electrical power is applied to the electrodes causing the conductive material to melt, thus melting the surrounding soil. Electrical energy is transferred to the molten soil through Joule (resistance) heating and the soil continues to melt to the desired depth, at which time the power to the electrodes is discontinued. A hood placed over the area to be vitrified allows the off gases from the process to be treated before their release to the atmosphere. After completion of the melt, the molten-soil cools and solidifies, and soil is backfilled over the subsided area

  13. The siting dilemma: Low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    The 1980 Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act ushered in a new era in low-level waste disposal; one with vastly increased state responsibilities. By a 1985 amendment, states were given until January 1993 to fulfill their mandate. In this dissertation, their progress is reviewed. The focus then turns to one particularly intractable problem: that of finding technically and socially acceptable sites for new disposal facilities. Many lament the difficulty of siting facilities that are intended to benefit the public at large but are often locally unwanted. Many label local opposition as purely self-interested; as simply a function of the NIMBY (Not In My Backyard) syndrome. Here, it is argued that epithets such as NIMBY are unhelpful. Instead, to lay the groundwork for widely acceptable solutions to siting conflicts, deeper understanding is needed of differing values on issues concerning authority, trust, risk, and justice. This dissertation provides a theoretical and practical analysis of those issues as they pertain to siting low-level waste disposal facilities and, by extension, other locally unwanted facilities

  14. Environmental assessment: Solid waste retrieval complex, enhanced radioactive and mixed waste storage facility, infrastructure upgrades, and central waste support complex, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) needs to take action to: retrieve transuranic (TRU) waste because interim storage waste containers have exceeded their 20-year design life and could fail causing a radioactive release to the environment provide storage capacity for retrieved and newly generated TRU, Greater-than-Category 3 (GTC3), and mixed waste before treatment and/or shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP); and upgrade the infrastructure network in the 200 West Area to enhance operational efficiencies and reduce the cost of operating the Solid Waste Operations Complex. This proposed action would initiate the retrieval activities (Retrieval) from Trench 4C-T04 in the 200 West Area including the construction of support facilities necessary to carry out the retrieval operations. In addition, the proposed action includes the construction and operation of a facility (Enhanced Radioactive Mixed Waste Storage Facility) in the 200 West Area to store newly generated and the retrieved waste while it awaits shipment to a final disposal site. Also, Infrastructure Upgrades and a Central Waste Support Complex are necessary to support the Hanford Site`s centralized waste management area in the 200 West Area. The proposed action also includes mitigation for the loss of priority shrub-steppe habitat resulting from construction. The estimated total cost of the proposed action is $66 million.

  15. Radioactive waste management in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ik Hwan

    1997-01-01

    In order to meet the increasing energy demand in Korea, continuous promotion of nuclear power program will be inevitable in the future. However, the use of nuclear energy eventually requires effective and reliable radioactive waste management. For the safe and economical management of radioactive waste, first of all, volume reduction is essentially required and hence the development of related technologies continuously be pursued. A site for overall radioactive waste management has to be secured in Korea. KEPCO-NETEC will improve public understanding by reinforcing PA and will maintain transparency of radioactive waste management. (author). 1 fig

  16. Collapse and erosion at the low-level radioactive-waste burial site near Sheffield, Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.R.; McGovern, L.L.

    1986-01-01

    Collapse and erosion are the dominant landform-modification processes at the Sheffield, Illinois, low-level radioactive-waste burial site. Records on collapse have been collected by the site contractor since 1978 and include data of inspection, location, and cavity dimensions. Fluvial sediment yield was measured by the US Geological Survey beginning in July 1982 from three gaged areas which drained two-thirds of the 20-acre site, and from a gaged 3.5-acre area in undisturbed terrain 0.3 mile south of the site. A total of 302 collapse cavities were recorded from October 1978 through September 1985. Based on the weight of earth material equivalent to cavity volume, an annual average of 6 tons of sediment per acre of site area has moved downward due to collapse. Sixty-two percent of the collapses occurred in swales between waste-disposal trenches or near trench boundaries, while the remainder occurred in earth material covers over trench interiors. Two-thirds of the collapses occurred during the months of February, March, and April. On-site fluvial sediment yield averaged 2 tons per acre per year from July 1982 through July 1984. Although this yield was approximately 200 times that from the undisturbed area, it is about one-half the annual sediment yield expected from a 20-acre row-crop agricultural basin on an 8% slope near Sheffield

  17. Development of new low level radioactive waste disposal sites: A progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Robert T.; Antonucci, George J.; Ryan, Michael T.

    1992-01-01

    The status of the development of three new low level radioactive waste disposal facilities for the Central Midwest (Illinois), Southeastern (North Carolina) and Appalachian (Pennsylvania) compacts is presented. These three sites will dispose of about 50-65 percent of the commercial low-level waste (LLW) generated in the U.S. annually. Chem-Nuclear, as developer and proposed operator of all three sites has used a common approach to site development. This approach has been based on their twenty-plus years of operating experience and a standard technical approach. The technology employed is an above-grade, multiple engineered barrier design. The paper also contrasts actual progress at each site with a generalized project schedule. Areas of schedule delays are noted along with the steps being taken to accelerate schedule. Finally, we note that continued progress and timely start-up of operations of these new sites is critical on a national basis. This is due to the possibility of near-term closure of the existing LLW disposal sites. (author)

  18. Nevada National Security Site 2012 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, David B.

    2013-09-10

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2012 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2012; 2013a; 2013b). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are only slightly above detection limits and background levels. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below Derived Concentration Standards for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. Leachate samples collected from the leachate collection system at the mixed low-level waste cell were below established contaminant regulatory limits. The 133.9 millimeters (mm) (5.27 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2012 is 12% below the average of 153.0 mm (6.02 in.), and the 137.6 mm (5.42 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2012 is 11% below the average of 122.4 mm (4.82 in.). Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents

  19. Nevada National Security Site 2013 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, D. B. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) within the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2013 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2013; 2014a; 2014b). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are close to detection limits and background levels. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below Derived Concentration Standards for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. Leachate samples collected from the leachate collection system at the mixed low-level waste cell were below established contaminant regulatory limits. The 105.8 millimeters (mm) (4.17 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2013 is 30% below the average of 150.3 mm (5.92 in.), and the 117.5 mm (4.63 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2013 is 5% below the average of 123.6 mm (4.86 in.). Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents

  20. Nevada National Security Site 2015 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, David; Hudson, David

    2016-01-01

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) within the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data include direct radiation exposure, as well as radiation from the air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2015 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports developed by National Security Technologies, LLC. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show that tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are below Derived Concentration Standards for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. Leachate samples collected from the leachate collection system at the mixed low-level waste cell were below established contaminant regulatory limits. During 2015, precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS was 0.9% above average, and precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS was 25% above average. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward percolation of precipitation more effectively than evaporation as measured from the bare-soil weighing lysimeter. The 1.8 inches of precipitation in September reached the lowest sensors at 180 cm on the Cell 5S and 5N covers, however the

  1. Nevada National Security Site 2015 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, David [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States); Hudson, David [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2016-08-20

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) within the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data include direct radiation exposure, as well as radiation from the air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2015 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports developed by National Security Technologies, LLC. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show that tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are below Derived Concentration Standards for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. Leachate samples collected from the leachate collection system at the mixed low-level waste cell were below established contaminant regulatory limits. During 2015, precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS was 0.9% above average, and precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS was 25% above average. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward percolation of precipitation more effectively than evaporation as measured from the bare-soil weighing lysimeter. The 1.8 inches of precipitation in September reached the lowest sensors at 180 cm on the Cell 5S and 5N covers, however the

  2. Radioactive waste disposal at Sellafield, UK: site selection, geological and engineering problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haszeldine, R.S.; Smythe, D.K.

    1996-01-01

    UK Nirex is the company charged with finding a suitable site for the underground disposal of radioactive waste in the United Kingdom. Since 1991, Nirex has concentrated its investigation work at a site owned by British Nuclear Fuels Ltd near Sellafield. Planning permission was sought in 1994 for the development of an underground Rock Characterisation Facility at the site. A public Planning Inquiry began in September 1995. A wide range of scientific and technical objections were put by expert witnesses against the Nirex proposal. These witnesses were co-ordinated by three Objecting Organisations - Cumbria County Council, Friends of the Earth and Greenpeace. Their written evidence is presented in the 34 chapters of this book and separate abstracts have been written for each contribution. (UK)

  3. Use of geostatistics in high level radioactive waste repository site characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doctor, P G [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (USA)

    1980-09-01

    In evaluating and characterizing sites that are candidates for use as repositories for high-level radioactive waste, there is an increasing need to estimate the uncertainty in hydrogeologic data and in the quantities calculated from them. This paper discusses the use of geostatistical techniques to estimate hydrogeologic surfaces, such as the top of a basalt formation, and to provide a measure of the uncertainty in that estimate. Maps of the uncertainty estimate, called the kriging error, can be used to evaluate where new data should be taken to affect the greatest reduction in uncertainty in the estimated surface. The methods are illustrated on a set of site-characterization data; the top-of-basalt elevations at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington.

  4. Hydrogeologic investigation of the Maxey Flats radioactive waste burial site, Fleming County, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehner, H.H.

    1983-01-01

    Burial trenches at the Maxey Flats radioactive waste burial site cover an area of about 20 acres, and are located on a plateau, about 300 to 400 feet above surrounding valleys. All waste is buried in the Nancy Member of the Borden Formation, and most is in the weathered shale (regolith) part of this member. Recharge to the rocks is probably by infiltration of rainfall through regolith at the top of the hill. At least two water tables are present: near the base of the regolith, at a depth of about 25 feet and; in the Ohio Shale, at a depth of about 300 feet. About 95 percent of ground-water discharge to streams is from colluvium on hillsides and valley alluvium. The remaining 5 percent is discharge from bedrock, of which about 0.5 percent is from rocks underlying the burial area. Waste radionuclides in the subsurface, other than tritium, were observed only in the regolith of the Nancy Member. Only tritium was observed with certainty in deeper rocks and in the adjacent valley alluvium. Other waste radionuclides were in streamwater and stream sediment, and may have been transported with overland runoff from the surface of the burial site. (USGS)

  5. Building trust with the public in site selection of radioactive waste repository in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerskov Klika, Mirjana; Schaller, Antun

    1995-01-01

    It should be emphasised that the Republic of Croatia ought to find a solution to dispose not only radioactive waste generated on its own territory, i.e. waste derived from diverse medical, industrial and scientific nuclear applications which does not exceed some 70 cubic metres: in total. It is also obliged to find acceptable solutions for disposal of a half of total radioactive waste accumulating in the Krsko NPP which is situated in Slovenia, but is a joint venture facility of both countries, Slovenia and Croatia. Therefore, one of essential duties of the APO - Hazardous Waste Management Agency is just performance of these activities in Croatia. The site selection process of low- and intermediate radioactive waste disposal in Croatia started in 1988. The site selection process itself is organized in two stages: (1) site survey stage; and 2) site evaluation stage. The first stage, being currently in progress, is related to all activities directed to inclusion of preferred sites into the Regional Plan of Croatia, whilst the second stage includes a necessary on-field investigations at few preferred sites and identification of the most suitable one, i.e. the final repository site. Eight potential areas containing even 42 potential sites have been determined so far. Promotion of several preferred sites is expected to be done until July 1995. Official announcement of preferred sites will be followed by public debate on their acceptance at a level of political-territorial organization, including local communities. The people working in APO - Hazardous Waste Management Agency have been aware of considerable public resistance to most of activities the Agency is dealing with since the very beginning of its operation. Consequently, permanent education and honest information to the public have been taken as the Agency's high priority tasks. Namely, if the public is treated as a competent participant in decision making process then it gets obvious that publicity of work is

  6. Microbial activity of trench leachates from shallow-land, low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.; Dobbs, S.; Nine, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    Trench leachate samples collected anoxically from shallow-land, low-level radioactive waste disposal sites were analyzed for total aerobic and anaerobic populations, sulfate reducers, denitrifiers, and methanogens. Among the several aerobic and anaerobic bacteria isolated, only Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Citrobacter sp., and Clostridium sp. were identified. Mixed bacterial cultures isolated from the trench leachates were able to grow anaerobically in trench leachates, which indicates that the radionuclides and organic chemicals present were not toxic to these bacteria. Changes in concentrations of several of the organic constituents of the waste leachate samples were observed due to anaerobic microbial activity. Growth of a mixed culture of trench-water bacteria in media containing a mixture of radionuclides, 60 Co, 85 Sr, and 134 137 Cs, was not affected at total activity concentrations of 2.6 x 10 2 and 2.7 x 10 3 pCi/ml

  7. Surficial geology and performance assessment for a Radioactive Waste Management Facility at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, K.E.; Gustafson, D.L.; Huckins-Gang, H.E.; Miller, J.J.; Rawlinson, S.E.

    1995-02-01

    At the Nevada Test Site, one potentially disruptive scenario being evaluated for the Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) Facility Performance Assessment is deep post-closure erosion that would expose buried radioactive waste to the accessible environment. The GCD Facility located at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) lies at the juncture of three alluvial fan systems. Geomorphic surface mapping in northern Frenchman Flat indicates that reaches of these fans where the RWMS is now located have been constructional since at least the middle Quaternary. Mapping indicates a regular sequence of prograding fans with entrenchment of the older fan surfaces near the mountain fronts and construction of progressively younger inset fans farther from the mountain fronts. At the facility, the oldest fan surfaces are of late Pleistocene and Holocene age. More recent geomorphic activity has been limited to erosion and deposition along small channels. Trench and pit wall mapping found maximum incision in the vicinity of the RWMS to be less than 1.5 m. Based on collected data, natural geomorphic processes are unlikely to result in erosion to a depth of more than approximately 2 m at the facility within the 10,000-year regulatory period

  8. Deep disposal of long-lived radioactive waste in France: The volunteering approach in site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynal, M.; Barber, P.

    1995-01-01

    The French Waste Act of December 1991 set up important dispositions among which the deep disposal of long-lived waste should be evaluated before 2006. ANDRA, the French National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management, is particularly responsible for the siting, the construction and the operation of underground laboratories designed to study potential geologic host-formations for deep disposal. An open decision-making process started up in 1992, specially to restore the public confidence after strong contest in the early 1990. The mission of negotiation conducted in 1993 all over the country by the appointed Member of Parliament, Mr. Bataille, allowed volunteer candidates for the siting surveyed by ANDRA in 1994 and 1995. Four areas are presently under characterization investigations, proceeding with the first phase of the underground laboratory program with the objective of choosing two sites for two underground laboratories. France is now entering a new and very important phase on the long path towards the creation of an underground repository where public's understanding and acceptance is an important part of the overall process as it is shown in this paper

  9. Regulatory supervision of sites for spent fuel and radioactive waste storage in the Russian northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandala, N K; Sneve, M K; Smith, G M; Kiselev, M F; Kochetkov, O A; Savkin, M N; Simakov, A V; Novikova, N Ya; Titov, A V; Romanov, V V; Seregin, V A; Filonova, A V; Semenova, M P

    2008-12-01

    In the 1960s two technical bases for the Northern Fleet were created in the Russian northwest at Andreeva Bay in the Kola Peninsula and Gremikha village on the coast of the Barents Sea. They maintained nuclear submarines, receiving and storing radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. No further waste was received after 1985, and the technical bases have since been re-categorised as temporary storage sites. The handling of these materials to put them into a safe condition is especially hazardous because of their degraded state. This paper describes regulatory activities which have been carried out to support the supervision of radiological protection during recovery of waste and spent fuel, and to support regulatory decisions on overall site remediation. The work described includes: an assessment of the radiation situation on-site; the development of necessary additional regulatory rules and standards for radiation protection assurance for workers and the public during remediation; and the completion of an initial threat assessment to identify regulatory priorities. Detailed consideration of measures for the control of radiation exposure of workers and radiation exposure of the public during and after operations and emergency preparedness and response are complete and provided in sister papers. The continuing requirements for regulatory activities relevant to the development and implementation of on-going and future remediation activities are also outlined. The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority supports the work, as part of the Norwegian Government's plan of action to promote improvements in radiation protection and nuclear safety in northwest Russia.

  10. Regulatory supervision of sites for spent fuel and radioactive waste storage in the Russian Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shandala, N K; Kochetkov, O A; Savkin, M N; Simakov, A V; Novikova, N Ya; Titov, A V; Seregin, V A; Filonova, A V; Semenova, M P [Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Centre, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sneve, M K [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oslo (Norway); Smith, G M [GMS Abingdon Ltd (United Kingdom); Kiselev, M F; Romanov, V V [Federal Medical-Biological Agency, Moscow (Russian Federation)], E-mail: shandala@srcibph.ru

    2008-12-15

    In the 1960s two technical bases for the Northern Fleet were created in the Russian northwest at Andreeva Bay in the Kola Peninsula and Gremikha village on the coast of the Barents Sea. They maintained nuclear submarines, receiving and storing radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. No further waste was received after 1985, and the technical bases have since been re-categorised as temporary storage sites. The handling of these materials to put them into a safe condition is especially hazardous because of their degraded state. This paper describes regulatory activities which have been carried out to support the supervision of radiological protection during recovery of waste and spent fuel, and to support regulatory decisions on overall site remediation. The work described includes: an assessment of the radiation situation on-site; the development of necessary additional regulatory rules and standards for radiation protection assurance for workers and the public during remediation; and the completion of an initial threat assessment to identify regulatory priorities. Detailed consideration of measures for the control of radiation exposure of workers and radiation exposure of the public during and after operations and emergency preparedness and response are complete and provided in sister papers. The continuing requirements for regulatory activities relevant to the development and implementation of on-going and future remediation activities are also outlined. The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority supports the work, as part of the Norwegian Government's plan of action to promote improvements in radiation protection and nuclear safety in northwest Russia.

  11. Site investigations for repositories for solid radioactive wastes in deep continental geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report reviews the earth-science investigations and associated scientific studies that may be needed to select a repository site and confirm that its characteristics are such that it will provide a safe confinement for solidified high-level and alpha-bearing and certain other solid radioactive wastes. Site investigations, as used in this report, cover earth sciences and associated safety analyses. Other site-investigation activities are identified but not otherwise considered here. The repositories under consideration are those consisting of mined cavities in deep continental rocks for accepting wastes in the solid and packaged form. The term deep as used in this report is used solely to emphasize the distinction between the repositories discussed in this report and those for shallow-ground disposal. In general, depths under consideration here are greater than 200 metres. The term continental refers to those geological formations that occur either beneath present-day land masses and adjoining islands or beneath the shallow seas. One of the objectives of site investigations is to collect the site-specific data necessary for the different evaluations, such as modelling required to assess the long-term safety of an underground repository

  12. Site investigations for repositories for solid radioactive wastes in deep continental geological formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This report reviews the earth-science investigations and associated scientific studies that may be needed to select a repository site and confirm that its characteristics are such that it will provide a safe confinement for solidified high-level and alpha-bearing and certain other solid radioactive wastes. Site investigations, as used in this report, cover earth sciences and associated safety analyses. Other site-investigation activities are identified but not otherwise considered here. The repositories under consideration are those consisting of mined cavities in deep continental rocks for accepting wastes in the solid and packaged form. The term deep as used in this report is used solely to emphasize the distinction between the repositories discussed in this report and those for shallow-ground disposal. In general, depths under consideration here are greater than 200 metres. The term continental refers to those geological formations that occur either beneath present-day land masses and adjoining islands or beneath the shallow seas. One of the objectives of site investigations is to collect the site-specific data necessary for the different evaluations, such as modelling required to assess the long-term safety of an underground repository.

  13. West Valley low-level radioactive waste site revisited: Microbiological analysis of leachates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J.

    1990-10-01

    The abundance and types of microorganisms in leachate samples from the West Valley low-level radioactive waste disposal site were enumerated. This study was undertaken in support of the study conducted by Ecology and Environment, Inc., to assess the extent of radioactive gas emissions from the site. Total aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were enumerated as colony forming units (CFU) by dilution agar plate technique, and denitrifiers, sulfate-reducers and methanogens by the most probable number technique (MPN). Of the three trenches 3, 9, and 11 sampled, trench 11 contained the most number of organisms in the leachate. Concentrations of carbon-14 and tritium were highest in trench 11 leachate. Populations of aerobes and anaerobes in trench 9 leachate were one order of magnitude less than in trench 11 leachate while the methanogens were three orders of magnitude greater than in trench 11 leachate. The methane content from trench 9 was high due to the presence of a large number of methanogens; the gas in this trench also contained the most radioactivity. Trench 3 leachate contained the least number of microorganisms. Comparison of microbial populations in leachates sampled from trenches 3 and 9 during October 1978 and 1989 showed differences in the total number of microbial types. Variations in populations of the different types of organisms in the leachate reflect the changing nutrient conditions in the trenches. 14 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. West Valley low-level radioactive waste site revisited: Microbiological analysis of leachates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J.

    1990-10-01

    The abundance and types of microorganisms in leachate samples from the West Valley low-level radioactive waste disposal site were enumerated. This study was undertaken in support of the study conducted by Ecology and Environment, Inc., to assess the extent of radioactive gas emissions from the site. Total aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were enumerated as colony forming units (CFU) by dilution agar plate technique, and denitrifiers, sulfate-reducers and methanogens by the most probable number technique (MPN). Of the three trenches 3, 9, and 11 sampled, trench 11 contained the most number of organisms in the leachate. Concentrations of carbon-14 and tritium were highest in trench 11 leachate. Populations of aerobes and anaerobes in trench 9 leachate were one order of magnitude less than in trench 11 leachate while the methanogens were three orders of magnitude greater than in trench 11 leachate. The methane content from trench 9 was high due to the presence of a large number of methanogens; the gas in this trench also contained the most radioactivity. Trench 3 leachate contained the least number of microorganisms. Comparison of microbial populations in leachates sampled from trenches 3 and 9 during October 1978 and 1989 showed differences in the total number of microbial types. Variations in populations of the different types of organisms in the leachate reflect the changing nutrient conditions in the trenches. 14 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Multi-method characterization of low-level radioactive waste at two Sandia National Laboratories environmental restoration sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.E. Jr.; Galloway, R.B.; Dotson, P.W.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of multiple characterization methods to radioactive wastes generated by the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Environmental Restoration (ER) Project during the excavation of buried materials at the Classified Waste Landfill (CWLF) and the Radioactive Waste Landfill (RWL). These waste streams include nuclear weapon components and other refuse that are surface contaminated or contain sealed radioactive sources with unknown radioactivity content. Characterization of radioactive constituents in RWL and CWLF waste has been problematic, due primarily to the lack of documented characterization data prior to burial. A second difficulty derives from the limited information that ER project personnel have about weapons component design and testing that was conducted in the early days of the Cold War. To reduce the uncertainties and achieve the best possible waste characterization, the ER Project has applied both project-specific and industry-standard characterization methods that, in combination, serve to define the types and quantities of radionuclide constituents in the waste. The resulting characterization data have been used to develop waste profiles for meeting disposal site waste acceptance criteria

  16. Environmental assessment: Solid waste retrieval complex, enhanced radioactive and mixed waste storage facility, infrastructure upgrades, and central waste support complex, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) needs to take action to: retrieve transuranic (TRU) waste because interim storage waste containers have exceeded their 20-year design life and could fail causing a radioactive release to the environment provide storage capacity for retrieved and newly generated TRU, Greater-than-Category 3 (GTC3), and mixed waste before treatment and/or shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP); and upgrade the infrastructure network in the 200 West Area to enhance operational efficiencies and reduce the cost of operating the Solid Waste Operations Complex. This proposed action would initiate the retrieval activities (Retrieval) from Trench 4C-T04 in the 200 West Area including the construction of support facilities necessary to carry out the retrieval operations. In addition, the proposed action includes the construction and operation of a facility (Enhanced Radioactive Mixed Waste Storage Facility) in the 200 West Area to store newly generated and the retrieved waste while it awaits shipment to a final disposal site. Also, Infrastructure Upgrades and a Central Waste Support Complex are necessary to support the Hanford Site's centralized waste management area in the 200 West Area. The proposed action also includes mitigation for the loss of priority shrub-steppe habitat resulting from construction. The estimated total cost of the proposed action is $66 million

  17. Characterization Report Operational Closure Covers for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtel Nevada Geotechnical Sciences

    2005-01-01

    Bechtel Nevada (BN) manages two low-level Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). The Area 3 RWMS is located in south-central Yucca Flat and the Area 5 RWMS is located about 15 miles south, in north-central Frenchman Flat. Though located in two separate topographically closed basins, they are similar in climate and hydrogeologic setting. The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste, while the Area 3 RWMS uses subsidence craters formed from underground testing of nuclear weapons for the disposal of packaged and unpackaged bulk waste. Over the next several decades, most waste disposal units at both the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are anticipated to be closed. Closure of the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs will proceed through three phases: operational closure, final closure, and institutional control. Many waste disposal units at the Area 5RWMS are operationally closed and final closure has been placed on one unit at the Area 3 RWMS (U-3ax/bl). Because of the similarities between the two sites (e.g., type of wastes, environmental factors, operational closure cover designs, etc.), many characterization studies and data collected at the Area 3 RWMS are relevant and applicable to the Area 5 RWMS. For this reason, data and closure strategies from the Area 3 RWMS are referred to as applicable. This document is an interim Characterization Report - Operational Closure Covers, for the Area 5 RWMS. The report briefly describes the Area 5 RWMS and the physical environment where it is located, identifies the regulatory requirements, reviews the approach and schedule for closing, summarizes the monitoring programs, summarizes characterization studies and results, and then presents conclusions and recommendations

  18. Aspects of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutoiu, Dan

    2003-01-01

    The origin and types of radioactive waste, the objective and the fundamental principles of radioactive waste management and the classification of radioactive waste are presented. Problems of the radioactive waste management are analyzed. (authors)

  19. Radioactive waste in Federal Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.; Schumacher, J.; Warnecke, E.

    1988-01-01

    The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is responsible for the long-term storage and disposal of radioactive waste according to the Federal Atomic Energy Act. On behalf of the Federal Minister of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, since 1985, the PTB has been carrying out annual inquiries into the amounts of radioactive waste produced in the Federal Republic of Germany. Within the scope of this inquiry performed for the preceding year, the amounts of unconditioned and conditioned waste are compiled on a producer- and plant-specific basis. On the basis of the inquiry for 1986 and of data presented to the PTB by the waste producers, future amounts of radioactive waste have been estimated up to the year 2000. The result of this forecast is presented. In the Federal Republic of Germany two sites are under consideration for disposal of radioactive waste. In the abandoned Konrad iron mine in Salzgitter-Bleckenstedt it is intended to dispose of such radioactive waste which has a negligible thermal influence upon the host rock. The Gorleben salt dome is being investigated for its suitability for the disposal of all kinds of solid and solidified radioactive wastes, especially of heat-generating waste. Comparing the estimated amount of radioactive wastes with the capacity of both repositories it may be concluded that the Konrad and Gorleben repositories will provide sufficient capacity to ensure the disposal of all kinds of radioactive waste on a long-term basis in the Federal Republic of Germany. 1 fig., 2 tabs

  20. Transport of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuller, C.

    2003-01-01

    In this article author describes the system of transport and processing of radioactive wastes from nuclear power of Slovenske elektrarne, plc. It is realized the assurance of transport of liquid and solid radioactive wastes to processing links from places of their formation, or of preliminary storage and consistent transports of treated radioactive wastes fixed in cement matrix of fibre-concrete container into Rebublic storage of radioactive wastes in Mochovce

  1. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balek, V.

    1994-01-01

    This booklet is a publication by International Atomic Energy Agency for general awareness of citizens and policy-makers to clarify their concept of nuclear wastes. In a very simple way it tells what is radioactivity, radiations and radioactive wastes. It further hints on various medial and industrial uses of radiations. It discusses about different types of radioactive wastes and radioactive waste management. Status of nuclear power plants in Central and Eastern European countries are also discussed

  2. Nevada National Security Site 2010 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2010 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2010a; 2010b; 2011). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. All gamma spectroscopy results for air particulates collected at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS were below the minimum detectable concentrations, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. The 246.9 millimeters (mm) (9.72 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2010 is 56 percent above the average of 158.7 mm (6.25 in.), and the 190.4 mm (7.50 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2010 is 50 percent above the average of 126.7 mm (4.99 in.). Soil-gas tritium monitoring at borehole GCD-05 continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward percolation of precipitation more effectively than

  3. Product consistency leach tests of Savannah River Site radioactive waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.; Bates, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    The product consistency test (PCT) is a glass leach test developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to confirm the durability of radioactive nuclear waste glasses that will be produced in the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The PCT is a seven day, crushed glass leach test in deionized water at 90C. Final leachates are filtered and acidified prior to analysis. To demonstrate the reproducibility of the PCT when performed remotely, SRS and Argonne National Laboratory have performed the PCT on samples of two radioactive glasses. The tests were also performed to compare the releases of the radionuclides with the major nonradioactive glass components and to determine if radiation from the glass was affecting the results of the PCT. The test was performed in triplicate at each laboratory. For the major soluble elements, B, Li, Na, and Si, in the glass, each investigator obtained relative precisions in the range 2-5% in the triplicate tests. This range indicates good precision for the PCT when performed remotely with master slave manipulators in a shielded cell environment. When the results of the two laboratories were compared to each other, the agreement was within 20%. Normalized concentrations for the nonradioactive and radioactive elements in the PCT leachates measured at both facilities indicated that the radionuclides were released from the glass slower than the major soluble elements in the glass. For both laboratories, the normalized releases for both glasses were in the general order Li ∼ B ∼ Na > Si > Cs - 137 > Sb - 125 < Sr - 90. The normalized releases for the major soluble elements and the final pH values in the tests with radioactive glass are consistent with those for nonradioactive glasses with similar compositions. This indicates that there was no significant effect of radiation on the results of the PCT

  4. Radioactive wastes in Oklo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcazar, M.; Flores R, J.H.; Pena, P.; Lopez, A.

    2006-01-01

    The acceptance of the Nuclear Energy as electric power supply implies to give answer to the population on the two main challenges to conquer in the public opinion: the nuclear accidents and the radioactive wastes. Several of the questions that are made on the radioactive wastes, its are the mobility migration of them, the geologic stability of the place where its are deposited and the possible migration toward the aquifer mantels. Since the half lives of the radioactive waste of a Nuclear Reactor are of several hundred of thousands of years, the technical explanations to the previous questions little convince to the public in general. In this work summary the results of the radioactive waste generated in a natural reactor, denominated Oklo effect that took place in Gabon, Africa, it makes several thousands of millions of years, a lot before the man appeared in the Earth. The identification of at least 17 reactors in Oklo it was carried out thanks to the difference in the concentrations of Uranium 235 and 238 prospective, and to the analysis of the non-mobility of the radioactive waste in the site. It was able by this way to determine that the reactors with sizes of hardly some decimeter and powers of around 100 kilowatts were operating in intermittent and spontaneous form for space of 150,000 years, with operation cycles of around 30 minutes. Recent studies have contributed information valuable on the natural confinement of the radioactive waste of the Oklo reactors in matrixes of minerals of aluminum phosphate that caught and immobilized them for thousands of millions of years. This extracted information from the nature contributes guides and it allows 'to verify' the validity of the current proposals on the immobilization of radioactive wastes of a nuclear reactor. This work presents in clear and accessible form to the public in general on the secure 'design', operation, 'decommissioning' and 'storage' of the radioactive waste of the reactors that the nature put

  5. 1st Quarter Transportation Report FY 2015: Radioactive Waste Shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, Louis [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-02-20

    This report satisfies the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) commitment to prepare a quarterly summary report of radioactive waste shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at Area 5. There were no shipments sent for offsite treatment and returned to the NNSS this quarter. This report summarizes the 1st quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 2015 low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) shipments. Tabular summaries are provided which include the following: Sources of and carriers for LLW and MLLW shipments to and from the NNSS; Number and external volume of LLW and MLLW shipments; Highway routes used by carriers; and Incident/accident data applicable to LLW and MLLW shipments. In this report shipments are accounted for upon arrival at the NNSS, while disposal volumes are accounted for upon waste burial. The disposal volumes presented in this report include minor volumes of non-radioactive classified waste/material that were approved for disposal (non-radioactive classified or nonradioactive classified hazardous). Volume reports showing cubic feet generated using the Low-Level Waste Information System may vary slightly due to rounding conventions for volumetric conversions from cubic meters to cubic feet.

  6. Environmental justice: Implications for siting of Federal Radioactive Waste Management Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterling, J.B.; Poles, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental justice is a term that has developed as a result of our need to address whether some of the environmental decisions we have made -- and others we will make -- are fair. The idea of environmental justice has been actively pursued by the Clinton Administration, and this consideration has resulted in Executive Order 12898, which was signed by President Clinton on February 11, 1994. The Executive Order calls for adverse impacts of Federal actions on minority or low-income populations to be identified before decisions implementing those actions are made. Numerous studies show that noxious facilities, such as incinerators and landfills, have been constructed in minority or low-income communities. And since the Department has not yet decided on sites for high-level waste storage or disposal facilities, it will have to take the new Executive Order into consideration as another piece in the complicated quilt of requirements that cover facility siting. An interesting twist to this is the fact that twenty Native American Indian Tribes expressed interest in voluntarily hosting a high-level radioactive waste management facility for temporary storage. They made these expressions on their own initiative, and several Tribes continue to pursue the idea of negotiations with either the Federal Government or private entities to locate a temporary storage site on Tribal land. The Executive Order goes beyond simply studying the effect of siting a facility and addresses in spirit a criticism that the Federal Government has been guilty of open-quotes environmental racismclose quotes in its siting policies -- that it has intentionally picked minority or low-income communities for waste management facilities. What Department of Energy staff and others may have considered foregone conclusions in terms of interim storage facility siting and transportation options will have to be reevaluated for compatibility with provisions of the new Executive Order

  7. Site characterization and performance assessment for a low-level radioactive waste management site in the American Southwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shott, G.J.; Sully, M.J.; Muller, C.J.; Hammermeister, D.P.; Ginanni, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site located in southern Nevada, has been used for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste since 1961. The site is located in the Mohave Desert of the American Southwest, an extremely arid region receiving as little as 0.1 m/yr of precipitation. Site characterization studies have measured the physical, hydrologic, and geochemical properties of core samples collected from 10 shallow boreholes and 3 deep boreholes that extend through the unsaturated zone to the uppermost aquifer. Results indicate that the unsaturated zone consists of 240 m of dry alluvial sediments and is remarkably uniform with respect to most physical parameters. Measurements of saturated hydraulic conductivity with depth showed no evidence of trends, layering, or anisotropy. Parameters for hydraulic functions were not highly variable and exhibited little trend with depth. Water potential profiles indicate that water movement in the upper alluvium is upward, except immediately following a precipitation event. Below the evaporative zone, the liquid flux was downward and of the same order of magnitude as the upward thermal vapor flux induced by the geothermal gradient. The extreme climatic conditions at the site reduce or eliminate many radionuclide release and transport mechanisms. Downward transport of radionuclides to the uppermost aquifer appears unlikely under current climatic conditions. Important radionuclide transport pathways appear to be limited to upward diffusion and advection of gases and biologically-mediated transport. Conceptual models of disposal site performance have been developed based on site characterization studies. The limited transport pathways and limited land use potential of the site provide reasonable assurance that regulatory performance objectives can be met

  8. Trees as indicators of subterranean water flow from a retired radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, W.H.; Kirby, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    Tree sampling helped locate a subterranean flow of tritiated water from a low-level radioactive waste disposal site that had not been detected by well water monitoring alone. Deciduous trees growing in a natural forest on the hillsides downslope from the site were sampled for the presence of tritiated water in sap of maple trees and in leaf water extracted from oak and hickory trees. Elevated concentrations of 3 H were detected in the leaf water extracted from several trees located 50 m downslope from the western boundary of the fenced exclusion zone. A 3-m-deep well drilled near these trees indicated that the source of tritiated water was a narrow zone of subterranean flow

  9. Use of artificial barriers in a site for surface storage of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gros, J.C.; Madoz-Escande, C.; Metivier, J.M.; Grimaud, P.

    1990-01-01

    The objective is the on site study of the influence of an injection screen on the flow in a water table of a porous medium, in order to improve the safety of a surface radioactive waste storage site. A hydrodispersive study has provided information for the definition of the role of the screen: the transfer times of the pollutant in the water table are increased by a factor of 2 and, in comparison, the concentration are clearly reduced by a factor of 10. The implantation of an injection screen in the ground should result in an improvement in the restrictive quality of the barrier and the contamination of an aquifer should be slower without interruption to the flow

  10. Tritium migration from a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Chicago, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, J.R.; Healy, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a study to determine the geologic and hydrologic factors that control migration of tritium from a closed, low-level radioactive-waste disposal site. The disposal site, which operated from 1943 to mid1949, contains waste generated by research activities at the world's first nuclear reactors. Tritium has migrated horizontally at least 1,300 feet northward in glacial drift and more than 650 feet in the underlying dolomite. Thin, gently sloping sand layers in an otherwise clayey glacial drift are major conduits for ground-water flow and tritium migration in a perched zone beneath the disposal site. Tritium concentrations in the drift beneath the disposal site exceed 100,000 nanocuries per liter. Regional horizontal joints in the dolomite are enlarged by solution and are the major conduits for ground-water flow and tritium migration in the dolomite. A weathered zone at the top of the dolomite also is a pathway for tritium migration. The maximum measured tritium concentration in the dolomite is 29.4 nanocuries per liter. Fluctuations of tritium concentration in the dolomite are the result of dilution by seasonal recharge from the drift.

  11. A Probabilistic Performance Assessment Study of Potential Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, R. G.; Arnold, B. W.; Mattie, P. D.; Kuo, M.; Tien, N.

    2006-12-01

    For several years now, Taiwan has been engaged in a process to select a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal site. Taiwan is generating LLW from operational and decommissioning wastes associated with nuclear power reactors, as well as research, industrial, and medical radioactive wastes. The preliminary selection process has narrowed the search to four potential candidate sites. These sites are to be evaluated in a performance assessment analysis to determine the likelihood of meeting the regulatory criteria for disposal. Sandia National Laboratories and Taiwan's Institute of Nuclear Energy Research have been working together to develop the necessary performance assessment methodology and associated computer models to perform these analyses. The methodology utilizes both deterministic (e.g., single run) and probabilistic (e.g., multiple statistical realizations) analyses to achieve the goals. The probabilistic approach provides a means of quantitatively evaluating uncertainty in the model predictions and a more robust basis for performing sensitivity analyses to better understand what is driving the dose predictions from the models. Two types of disposal configurations are under consideration: a shallow land burial concept and a cavern disposal concept. The shallow land burial option includes a protective cover to limit infiltration potential to the waste. Both conceptual designs call for the disposal of 55 gallon waste drums within concrete lined trenches or tunnels, and backfilled with grout. Waste emplaced in the drums may be solidified. Both types of sites are underlain or placed within saturated fractured bedrock material. These factors have influenced the conceptual model development of each site, as well as the selection of the models to employ for the performance assessment analyses. Several existing codes were integrated in order to facilitate a comprehensive performance assessment methodology to evaluate the potential disposal sites. First, a need

  12. Alternatives to land disposal of solid radioactive mixed wastes on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, P.H.

    1992-03-01

    This report is a detailed description of the generation and management of land disposal restricted mixed waste generated, treated, and stored at the Hanford Site. This report discusses the land disposal restricted waste (mixed waste) managed at the Hanford Site by point of generation and current storage locations. The waste is separated into groups on the future treatment of the waste before disposal. This grouping resulted in the definition of 16 groups or streams of land disposal restricted waste

  13. Performance Assessment Transport Modeling of Uranium at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada National Security Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Following is a brief summary of the assumptions that are pertinent to the radioactive isotope transport in the GoldSim Performance Assessment model of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, with special emphasis on the water-phase reactive transport of uranium, which includes depleted uranium products. The Area 5 PA model assumes activity disposed in trenches is well mixed within the native alluvium of the trench at the time the facility is closed. Waste containers and waste forms are assumed not to limit the release of radionuclides for transport. In the Area 5 RWMS PA model, the pathways that are considered to bring radioactivity in the waste zone to the surface soils of the closure covers are (1) plant uptake, (2) burrowing animal activity, and (3) advection/dispersion/diffusion in the pore water. Water-phase transport is a minor component of the transport, which is dominated by plant uptake and burrowing animal activity. Because the soil column is mostly dry, upward water flux rates are extremely small, resulting in small advective/dispersive transport of radioactive isotopes in pore water of the unsaturated zone. Reactive transport of radioactive elements in the Area 5 soil pore water are modeled using element-specific partition coefficients (Kds) that partition radioactivity between pore water and soil of the disposal cell, and solubility limits that control the solubility of elements in pore water. Geochemical modeling is not performed in the Area 5 RWMS GoldSim PA model; however, Kds and solubility limits were derived from previous geochemical modeling performed using Area 5 geochemical data. Kds for uranium were developed based on geochemical modeling using the mineral characteristics of soil (alluvium) and the chemical characteristics of water at the site (Carle et al., 2002). In the GoldSim model, uranium Kd is represented with a lognormal distribution with a mean value of 0.8 milliliter per gram (taken from Figure 4.11, Page 4-19 of Carle et al

  14. Review of institutional and socioeconomic issues for radioactive waste repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copenhaver, E.D.; Carnes, S.A.; Soderstrom, E.J.; Sorensen, J.H.; Peelle, E.; Bjornstad, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    In recent years, the importance of social and institutional issues in the siting of radioactive waste management repositories has been recognized. This study deals with the possibility of using incentives to assist in siting repositories and outlines some of their uses, limitations, and preconditions. Limited survey data and other studies indicate that incentives may help encourage people to formulate positive positions on radioactive waste repositories. In an overall siting strategy, incentives are just one part of a structured process involving the creation of a mutually acceptable set of arrangements that make certain guarantees and confer certain benefits in exchange for the acceptance of the proposed facility. Because the range of needs to be fulfilled is varied, a package of incentives is likely to be more acceptable than any one single incentive. The purpose of incentives is to encourage local approval by minimizing and redressing costs and providing missing benefits. Most previous discussions of incentives have emphasized mitigation mechanisms only. This paper also identifies compensation, incentives, and criteria by which compensation or an incentive system can be evaluated. The study provides the means by which incentives can be identified, assessed, negotiated, and implemented by affected parties and attempts to show where incentives fit into an overall siting strategy by developing a classification scheme and an analytical framework that capture: (1) the preconditions that must exist before any incentive system can be considered; (2) the objective features of an incentive; such as adequacy and ease of administration; (3) community perceptions of an incentive, such as interpretability and relevance; and (4) the consequences of implementing an incentive, such as distributional effects and conflict and consensus. 38 references, 1 figure, 2 tables

  15. Radionuclide dynamics and health implications for the New York nuclear service center's radioactive waste burial site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuszek, J.M.; Strnisa, F.V.; Baxter, C.F.

    1976-01-01

    A commercial radioactive waste burial site has operated since 1963 at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center. Solid low-level radioactive wastes are buried in trenches excavated from a very fine-grained heterogeneous mixture of silt and clay (silty till) and are then covered with the excavated material. Despite many operational precautions, water levels in three burial trenches rose to within a few centimeters of the covering material by late 1973. Activity levels of HTO, 90 Sr, and 137 Cs in trench water and core samples were measured to obtain preliminary information on the degree of subsurface radionuclide migration from the burial trenches into the surrounding soil. Tritium concentrations measured in void-space water from vertical cores appeared to peak in the cover material 1.5 to 2m below the ground surface. Concentrations of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the silty till were greatest near the surface of the cover material. Concentrations of HTO and 90 Sr, measured in a series of slant-hole core samples collected until the trench was intercepted, showed tritium migration to have progressed less than 0.3m, while 90 Sr migration appeared to be somewhat less. The preliminary data suggest that: (a) radionuclide migration from the burial trenches into the undisturbed silty till is slight; (b) radioactivity in the surface soil is not necessarily caused by migration of trench water; (c) groundwater movement is not massive; (d) rainwater infiltration, with settlement and compaction of buried wastes, is the most likely cause of rising trench water levels; and (e) surface contamination may occur from spills during burial operations, from trench digging, and from deposition of stack effluents from a nearby nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. By January 1975 the steadily rising water levels in three trenches were approximately 1m above the undisturbed soil from which the trenches were excavated, resulting in increased radioactivity levels in local streams draining the site. To

  16. Radioactive waste computerized management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Communaux, M.; Lantes, B.

    1993-01-01

    Since December 31, 1990, the management of the nuclear wastes for all the power stations has been computerized, using the DRA module of the Power Generation and Transmission Group's data processing master plan. So now EDF has a software package which centralizes all the data, enabling it to declare the characteristics of the nuclear wastes which are to be stored on the sites operated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA). Among other uses, this application makes it possible for EDF, by real time data exchange with ANDRA, to constitute an inventory of validated, shippable packs. It also constitutes a data base for all the wastes produced on the various sites. This application was developed to meet the following requirements: give the producers of radioactive waste a means to fully manage all the characteristics and materials that are necessary to condition their waste correctly; guarantee the traceability and safety of data and automatically assure the transmission of this data in real time between the producers and the ANDRA; give the Central Services of EDF an operation and statistical tool permitting an experienced feed-back based on the complete national production (single, centralized data base); and integrate the application within the products of the processing master plan in order to assure its maintenance and evolution

  17. Radioactive Waste Management Program Activities in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matanic, R.

    2000-01-01

    The concept of radioactive waste management in Croatia comprises three major areas: management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILRW), spent fuel management and decommissioning. All the work regarding radioactive waste management program is coordinated by Hazardous Waste Management Agency (APO) and Croatian Power Utility (HEP) in cooperation with other relevant institutions. Since the majority of work has been done in developing low and intermediate level radioactive waste management program, the paper will focus on this part of radioactive waste management, mainly on issues of site selection and characterization, repository design, safety assessment and public acceptance. A short description of national radioactive waste management infrastructure will also be presented. (author)

  18. The performance assessment impacts of disposal of high-moisture, low-level radioactive waste at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.; Hansen, W.; Hechnova, A.; Voss, C.; Waters, R.; Sully, M.; Levitt, D.

    1999-01-01

    A panel of independent scientists was convened by the Department of Energy to assess the performance impacts of disposal of low-level radioactive waste from the Fernald Environmental Management Project. This waste stream was involved in a transportation incident in December 1997. A resulting outgrowth of investigations of the transportation incident was the recognition that the waste was transported and disposed in stress-fractured metal boxes and some of the waste contained excess moisture (high volumetric water contents). The panel was charged with determining whether disposal of this waste in the Area 5 radioactive waste management site on the Nevada Test Site has impacted the conclusions of the completed performance assessment. Three questions were developed by the panel to assess performance impacts: (1) the performance impacts of reduced container integrity, (2) the impact of reduced container integrity on subsidence of waste in the disposal pits and (3) the performance impacts of excess moisture. No performance or subsidence impacts were noted from disposal of the Fernald waste. The impacts of excess moisture were assessed through simulation modeling of the movement of moisture in the vadose zone assuming high water contents (wet waste) for different percentages of the waste inventory. No performance impacts were noted for either the base-case scenario (ambient conditions) or a scenario involving subsidence and flooding of the waste cells. The absence of performance impacts results form the extreme conservatism used in the Area 5-performance assessment and the robust nature of the disposal site

  19. Intermodal transportation of low-level radioactive waste to the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) presently serves as a disposal site for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated by DOE-approved generators. The environmental impacts resulting from the disposal of LLW at the NTS are discussed in the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Nevada Test Site Off-Site Locations in the State of Nevada (NTS EIS). During the formal NTS EIS scoping period, it became clear that transportation of LLW was an issue that required attention. Therefore, the Nevada Transportation Protocol Working Group (TPWG) was formed in 1995 to identify, prioritize, and understand local issues and concerns associated with the transportation of LLW to the NTS. Currently, generators of LLW ship their waste to the NTS by legal-weight truck. In 1995, the TPWG suggested the DOE could reduce transportation costs and enhance public safety by using rail transportation. The DOE announced, in October 1996, that they would study the potential for intermodal transportation of LLW to the NTS, by transferring the LLW containers from rail cars to trucks for movements to the NTS. The TPWG and DOE/NV prepared the NTS Intermodal Transportation Facility Site and Routing Evaluation Study to present basic data and analyses on alternative rail-to-truck transfer sites and related truck routes for LLW shipments to the NTS. This Environmental Assessment (EA) identifies the potential environmental impacts and transportation risks of using new intermodal transfer sites and truck routes or continuing current operations to accomplish the objectives of minimizing radiological risk, enhancing safety, and reducing cost. DOE/NV will use the results of the assessment to decide whether or not to encourage the LLW generators and their transportation contractors to change their current operations to accomplish these objectives

  20. Defense radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindman, T.B. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The Office of Defense Programs (DP), U.S. Department of Energy, is responsible for the production of nuclear weapons and materials for national defense. Pursuant to this mission, DP operates a large industrial complex that employs over 60,000 people at various installations across the country. As a byproduct of their activities, these installations generate radioactive, hazardous, or mixed wastes that must be managed in a safe and cost-effective manner in compliance with all applicable Federal and STate environmental requirements. At the Federal level such requirements derive primarily from the Atomic Energy Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA). Responsibility for DP activities in connection with the disposal of defense wastes is consolidated within the Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management (DWTM). This paper discusses these activities which consist of five principal elements: the environmental restoration of inactive DP facilities and sites, the processing storage and disposal of wastes associated with ongoing operations at active DP facilities, research and development directed toward the long-term disposal of radioactive, hazardous, mixed wastes, technology development directly supporting regulatory compliance, and the development of policies, procedures, and technologies for assuring the safe transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials

  1. Development of joint regulatory guidance on the management of higher activity radioactive wastes on nuclear licensed sites - 16095

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacon, Mick; Ilett, Doug; Whittall, Andy

    2009-01-01

    In 2006 the UK Government's response (1) to recommendations by its Committee on Radioactive Waste Management (CoRWM) established, in England and Wales, that geological disposal, supported by safe and secure interim storage, is the preferred route for the long-term management of higher-activity radioactive waste (i.e. that which is not suitable for near-surface disposal). It also gave the responsibility for delivering the programme for a deep geological repository to the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA). The Scottish Government has a policy of long term, near site, near surface safe and secure interim storage. To support the open and transparent approach promised by Government, the Health and Safety Executive (HSE), the Environment Agency and the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) are developing joint guidance on the management of higher-activity radioactive waste to explain regulatory objectives in securing safe and secure interim storage and the associated management of radioactive wastes. The guidance comes in two parts: - Guidance on the regulatory process; - Technical guidance modules. The guidance promotes a cradle to grave approach to radioactive waste management and by aligning the regulatory interests of environmental and safety regulators it delivers one of the Government's 'Better Regulation' objectives. This paper describes the process by which the joint guidance was produced with particular emphasis on stakeholder engagement. It describes the key features of the guidance, including the concept of the radioactive waste management case (RWMC). Finally the problems encountered with dissemination and implementation are discussed together with measures taken by the regulators to improve these aspects. (1) : UK Government and the devolved administrations, 'Response to the Report and Recommendations from the Committee on Radioactive Waste Management (CoRWM)', (PB 12303) October 2006. www.defra.gov.uk/environment/radioactivity/waste

  2. Preliminary hydrogeologic investigation of the Maxey Flats radioactive waste burial site, Fleming County, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehner, Harold H.

    1979-01-01

    Burial trenches at the Maxey Flats radioactive waste burial site , Fleming County, Ky., cover an area of about 0.03 square mile, and are located on a plateau, about 300 to 400 feet above surrounding valleys. Although surface-water characteristics are known, little information is available regarding the ground-water hydrology of the Maxey Flats area. If transport of radionuclides from the burial site were to occur, water would probably be the principal mechanism of transport by natural means. Most base flow in streams around the burial site is from valley alluvium, and from the mantle of regolith, colluvium, and soil partially covering adjacent hills. Very little base flow is due to ground-water flow from bedrock. Most water in springs is from the mantle, rather than from bedrock. Rock units underlying the Maxey Flats area are, in descending order, the Nancy and Farmers Members of the Borden Formation, Sunbury, Bedford, and Ohio Shales, and upper part of the Crab Orchard Formation. These units are mostly shales, except for the Farmers Member, which is mostly sandstone. Total thickness of the rocks is about 320 feet. All radioactive wastes are buried in the Nancy Member. Most ground-water movement in bedrock probably occurs in fractures. The ground-water system at Maxey Flats is probably unconfined, and recharge occurs by (a) infiltration of rainfall into the mantle, and (b) vertical, unsaturated flow from the saturated regolith on hilltops to saturated zones in the Farmers Member and Ohio Shale. Data are insufficient to determine if saturated zones exist in other rock units. The upper part of the Crab Orchard Formation is probably a hydrologic boundary, with little ground-water flow through the formation. (USGS)

  3. Background studies: human-induced effects on the evolution of shallow land burial sites for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    This report presents the results of a programme of background research on the human-induced effects on the long term evolution of shallow disposal sites for low level radioactive wastes. The work is intended to support development and use of the TIME2 simulation code. Within the context of climatic change up to the next glacial maximum three areas are addressed: planning and legislative control over site usage, biosphere state changes and intrusion. An appendix presents a discussion of some planning aspects of radioactive waste disposal. (author)

  4. Specified radioactive waste final disposal act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasui, Masaya

    2001-01-01

    Radioactive wastes must be finally and safely disposed far from human activities. Disposal act is a long-range task and needs to be understood and accepted by public for site selection. This paper explains basic policy of Japanese Government for final disposal act of specified radioactive wastes, examination for site selection guidelines to promote residential understanding, general concept of multi-barrier system for isolating the specific radioactive wastes, and research and technical development for radioactive waste management. (S. Ohno)

  5. 1990 State-by-State assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, R.L.; Culbertson-Arendts, K.

    1991-09-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This annual report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive wastes. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volume, and activity. Included in this report are tables showing a distribution of wastes by state for 1990 and a comparison of waste volumes by state for 1986 through 1990; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1990. In this year's report, a distinction has been made between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly by generators for disposal and that which was handled by an intermediary. 5 refs., 4 tabs

  6. 1990 State-by-State assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, R.L.; Culbertson-Arendts, K.

    1991-09-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This annual report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive wastes. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volume, and activity. Included in this report are tables showing a distribution of wastes by state for 1990 and a comparison of waste volumes by state for 1986 through 1990; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1990. In this year's report, a distinction has been made between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly by generators for disposal and that which was handled by an intermediary. 5 refs., 4 tabs.

  7. 1981 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes shipped to commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-12-01

    This state-by-state report again uses the volume of low-level waste reported as received at each commercial disposal site as the nation baseline figure. A volume of 87,789 m 3 of radioactive waste containing 279,863 Ci of activity was reported disposed at the commercial sites in 1981. The distribution of these waste volumes by disposal site is presented in Table 1 and a summary of estimated volumes by generator categories is contained in Table 2. The total volume and curie values tabulated for each state were obtained directly from the commercial disposal site operators. Summary information on commercial nuclear power plant wastes was obtained from semiannual waste reports submitted to the NRC in accordance with the NRC Regulatory Guide 1.21. Data reported for the calendar year 1981 were used for this report where available. When report data were not available reactor information was obtained directly from the utility. The reported quantities of solid radioactive wastes generated by government installations shipped to commercial disposal sites are annually summarized in the SWIMS report. Records of radioactive wastes shippped to commercial disposal sites from the US Navy nuclear-powered ships and support facilities are maintained by the Nuclear Power Directorate, Naval Sea Systems Command, Department of the Navy, and are reported on an annual basis. Available information from other military departments such as the Army and the Air Force were included in this study. Wastes from these other military commands do not constitute a significant volume of radioactive source

  8. Meeting performance objectives for Low-Level Radioactive Disposal Waste Facility at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.E.

    1992-01-01

    A new Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) disposal facility at the Savannah River Site is presently being constructed. The facility was designed to meet specific performance objectives (derived from DOE Order 5820.2A and proposed EPA Regulation 40CFR 193) in the disposal of containerized Class A and B wastes. The disposal units have been designed as below-grade concrete vaults. These vaults will be constructed using uniquely designed blast furnace slag + fly as concrete mix, surrounded by a highly permeable drainage layer, and covered with an engineered clay cap to provide the necessary environmental isolation of the waste form to meet the stated performance objectives. The concrete mix used in this facility, is the first such application in the United States. These vaults become operational in September 1992 and will become the first active facility of its kind, several years ahead of those planned in the commercial theater. This paper will discuss the selection of the performance objectives and conceptual design

  9. The Savannah River Site Replacement High Level Radioactive Waste Evaporator Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brock Presgrove, S.

    1992-01-01

    The Replacement High Level Waste Evaporator Project was conceived in 1985 to reduce the volume of the high level radioactive waste currently stored at the DOE Savannah River Site Tank Farm. Process of the high level waste has been accomplished up to this time using Bent Tube type evaporators and therefore, that type evaporator was selected for this project. The Title I Design of the project was 70% completed in late 1990. The Department of Energy at that time hired an independent consulting firm to perform a complete review of the project. The DOE placed a STOP ORDER on purchasing the evaporator in January 1991. Essentially, no construction was to be done on the project until all findings and concerns dealing with the type and design of the evaporator are resolved. This report addresses two aspects of the DOE design review: Comparing the Bent Tube Evaporator with the Forced Circulation Evaporator; The design portion of the DOE Project Review - concentrated on the mechanical design properties of the evaporator. (author)

  10. Data base for a site-specific migration analysis radioactive elements out of a waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadermann, J

    1981-11-01

    Migration analysis is of considerable importance in long-term safety analysis of radioactive waste repositories. In a first step our plans are to calculate transport of radionuclides using data - as far as possible - for an undisturbed hydrogeology. Thereby a reference case is defined. In a later step, possible events and processes can be considered leading to a deviation from the reference case. The present work gives the data base for a selected part of a comprehensive geosphere transport calculation. We restrict ourselves to a critical evaluation of parameters pertinent to the migration analysis of the /sup 245/Cm chain. This includes the important nuclide /sup 237/Np. For the first time we are able to perform a site specific calculation for repositories planned in deep geologic formations in Switzerland. The well-known fact that the data basis is extremely sparse is pointed out once more and concretized in detail.

  11. 1983 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes shipped to commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    The 1983 report uses the volume of low-level waste reported as received at each commercial disposal site as the national baseline figure. A volume of 76,702 m 3 of radioactive waste containing 505,340 Ci of activity was reported disposed at the commercial sites in 1983. The distribution of these waste volumes by disposal site is tabulated. Typical radionuclides in low-level wastes by sector are given. Predominant waste forms associated with low-level waste by sector are tabulated. Sometimes the amount of waste reported by power facilities is equal to or exceeds the state volume reported from commercial disposal site operators. Discrepancies may be a result of waste volumes being credited to the home state of the waste broker instead of the actual state location of the generator. Additionally, waste volumes may have been in transit from the generator to the disposal site at year's end. The Low-Level Waste Management Program felt a responsibility to report information accurately from the various sources, so did not alter the figures to make them balance

  12. Final storage high-level radioactive waste in Sweden - the way to the 2009 siting decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Horst

    2010-01-01

    In Sweden, high-level radioactive waste producing heat, i.e. spent fuel, is to be emplaced for final storage on the site of Forsmark, which also holds three reactor units. The siting decision was taken in June 2009. A 100 percent private company, a merger of the commercial nuclear power plant operators as producers of the waste, is responsible for the siting decision as well as for waste storage. Major impulses were given to the back-end fuel cycle policy in the early 1970s. Sweden practically gave up the reprocessing option very soon, but kept on pursuing final storage in deep geologic formations. Between 1977, when legislation was adopted with conditions relating to repository storage, and 2009, when the decision in favour of the Forsmark site was taken, the path followed was not always a straight line. The boundary conditions, such as the organization of the repository and procedural and safety criteria established by the government, are interesting with regard to their influence on the siting decision, if any. For this reason, the approaches chosen and their connections with government criteria and with geological conditions in Sweden, including their impacts on the repository concept chosen, will be examined. After a summary review of developments in Sweden, filing of the licensing application and the accompanying documents up to commissioning of the repository, a short comparison will be made with the situation in Germany, especially the status reached of the Gorleben salt dome, highlighting and evaluating important criteria and parameters. Sweden as a model is important especially in these respects: A repository site was found by a private company in consensus with the local government within the framework of government criteria, and with ultimate responsibility resting with the government; the local government of a place not winning the siting decision is disappointed although it will have the conditioning plant and receive higher grants; it was not only

  13. Decision Support System For Management Of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal At The Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shott, G.; Yucel, V.; Desotell, L.; Carilli, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    The long-term safety of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) low-level radioactive disposal facilities is assessed by conducting a performance assessment -- a systematic analysis that compares estimated risks to the public and the environment with performance objectives contained in DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Before site operations, facilities design features such as final inventory, waste form characteristics, and closure cover design may be uncertain. Site operators need a modeling tool that can be used throughout the operational life of the disposal site to guide decisions regarding the acceptance of problematic waste streams, new disposal cell design, environmental monitoring program design, and final site closure. In response to these needs the National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) has developed a decision support system for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site in Frenchman Flat on the Nevada Test Site. The core of the system is a probabilistic inventory and performance assessment model implemented in the GoldSim R simulation platform. The modeling platform supports multiple graphic capabilities that allow clear documentation of the model data sources, conceptual model, mathematical implementation, and results. The combined models have the capability to estimate disposal site inventory, contaminant concentrations in environmental media, and radiological doses to members of the public engaged in various activities at multiple locations. The model allows rapid assessment and documentation of the consequences of waste management decisions using the most current site characterization information, radionuclide inventory, and conceptual model. The model is routinely used to provide annual updates of site performance, evaluate the consequences of disposal of new waste streams, develop waste concentration limits, optimize the design of new disposal cells, and assess the adequacy of environmental

  14. The application of magnetic gradiometry and electromagnetic induction at a former radioactive waste disposal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Dale Franklin

    2010-04-01

    A former radioactive waste disposal site is surveyed with two non-intrusive geophysical techniques, including magnetic gradiometry and electromagnetic induction. Data were gathered over the site by towing the geophysical equipment mounted to a non-electrically conductive and non-magnetic fibre-glass cart. Magnetic gradiometry, which detects the location of ferromagnetic material, including iron and steel, was used to map the existence of a previously unknown buried pipeline formerly used in the delivery of liquid waste to a number of surface disposal trenches and concrete vaults. The existence of a possible pipeline is reinforced by historical engineering drawing and photographs. The electromagnetic induction (EMI) technique was used to map areas of high and low electrical conductivity, which coincide with the magnetic gradiometry data. The EMI also provided information on areas of high electrical conductivity unrelated to a pipeline network. Both data sets demonstrate the usefulness of surface geophysical surveillance techniques to minimize the risk of exposure in the event of future remediation efforts.

  15. Water balance at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, R.W.; Gray, J.R.; De Vries, G. M.; Mills, P.C.

    1989-01-01

    The water balance at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site in northwestern Illinois was studied from July 1982 through June 1984. Continuous data collection allowed estimates to be made for each component of the water-balance equation independent of other components. The average annual precipitation was 948 millimeters. Average annual evapotranspiration was estimated at 637 millimeters, runoff was 160 millimeters, change in water storage in a waste-trench cover was 24 millimeters, and deep percolation was 208 millimeters. The magnitude of the difference between precipitation and all other components (81 millimeters per year) indicates that, in a similar environment, the water-budget method would be useful in estimating evapotranspiration, but questionable for estimation of other components. Precipitation depth and temporal distribution had a very strong effect on all other components of the water-balance equation. Due to the variability of precipitation from year to year, it appears that two years of data are inadequate for characterization of the long-term average water balance at the site.

  16. Cost estimate of high-level radioactive waste containers for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, E.W.; Clarke, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Domian, H.A. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Lynchburg, VA (United States); Madson, A.A. [Kaiser Engineers California Corp., Oakland, CA (United States)

    1991-08-01

    This report summarizes the bottoms-up cost estimates for fabrication of high-level radioactive waste disposal containers based on the Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design (SCP-CD). These estimates were acquired by Babcock and Wilcox (B&S) under sub-contract to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The estimates were obtained for two leading container candidate materials (Alloy 825 and CDA 715), and from other three vendors who were selected from a list of twenty solicited. Three types of container designs were analyzed that represent containers for spent fuel, and for vitrified high-level waste (HLW). The container internal structures were assumed to be AISI-304 stainless steel in all cases, with an annual production rate of 750 containers. Subjective techniques were used for estimating QA/QC costs based on vendor experience and the specifications derived for the LLNL-YMP Quality Assurance program. In addition, an independent QA/QC analysis is reported which was prepared by Kasier Engineering. Based on the cost estimates developed, LLNL recommends that values of $825K and $62K be used for the 1991 TSLCC for the spent fuel and HLW containers, respectively. These numbers represent the most conservative among the three vendors, and are for the high-nickel anstenitic steel (Alloy 825). 6 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Risk assessment and monitoring at the Farallon Islands (CA) radioactive waste dump sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curl, H. Jr.; Ueber, E.; Roletto, J.

    1993-01-01

    Between 1946 and 1965 over 47,000 drums, concrete blocks and other containers of radioactive waste were dumped at three sites southwest of the Farallon Islands off the coast of San Francisco, CA. A total of approximately 4,500 Ci of thorium, uranium and other radionuclides was dumped. After 1965, and until 1972, dumping of dredged spoils, laboratory waste, etc. containing unknown amounts of toxic materials, continued. Concerns have arisen from time to time about the integrity of the containers and possible release of radionuclides and toxic materials into the ecosystem and the human food chain. Based on evaluation of all dumping records, sampling of fish and sediments, and modeling the authors conclude: the risk to resources at present is well below the level of concern. Hazard quotients of 4.7 x 10 exp -2 or less were calculated for all target species. The dominant radiation source is from external gamma radiation from the short-lived daughter of 137 Cs, 137 Ba, in sediments. Much of the 137 Cs has already decayed. The long-lived isotopes of Pu and Am will reach maximum advective release rates 80--200 after disposal. The maximum dose from these isotopes is an order of magnitude less than from 137 Cs. Radioanalysis of fish and sediments from one dumpsite in 1992 show values equal to those from two nearby reference sites

  18. Cost estimate of high-level radioactive waste containers for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, E.W.; Clarke, W.; Domian, H.A.; Madson, A.A.

    1991-08-01

    This report summarizes the bottoms-up cost estimates for fabrication of high-level radioactive waste disposal containers based on the Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design (SCP-CD). These estimates were acquired by Babcock and Wilcox (B ampersand S) under sub-contract to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The estimates were obtained for two leading container candidate materials (Alloy 825 and CDA 715), and from other three vendors who were selected from a list of twenty solicited. Three types of container designs were analyzed that represent containers for spent fuel, and for vitrified high-level waste (HLW). The container internal structures were assumed to be AISI-304 stainless steel in all cases, with an annual production rate of 750 containers. Subjective techniques were used for estimating QA/QC costs based on vendor experience and the specifications derived for the LLNL-YMP Quality Assurance program. In addition, an independent QA/QC analysis is reported which was prepared by Kasier Engineering. Based on the cost estimates developed, LLNL recommends that values of $825K and $62K be used for the 1991 TSLCC for the spent fuel and HLW containers, respectively. These numbers represent the most conservative among the three vendors, and are for the high-nickel anstenitic steel (Alloy 825). 6 refs., 7 figs

  19. Water balance at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, R.W.; Gray, J.R.; de Vries, M.P.; Mills, P.C.

    1989-01-01

    The water balance at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site in northwestern Illinois was studied from July 1982 through June 1984. Continuous data collection allowed estimates to be made for each component of the water-balance equation independent of other components. The average annual precipitation was 948 millimeters. Average annual evapotranspiration was estimated at 637 millimeters, runoff was 160 millimeters, change in water storage in a waste-trench cover was 24 millimeters, and deep percolation was 208 millimeters. The magnitude of the difference between precipitation and all other components indicates that, in a similar environment, the water-budget method would be useful in estimating evapotranspiration, but questionable for estimation of other components. Precipitation depth and temporal distribution had a very strong effect on all other components of the water-balance equation. Due to the variability of precipitation from year to year, it appears that two years of data are inadequate for characterization of the long-term average water balance at the site

  20. Radioactive waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejonghe, P.

    1978-01-01

    This article gives an outline of the present situation, from a Belgian standpoint, in the field of the radioactive wastes processing. It estimates the annual quantity of various radioactive waste produced per 1000 MW(e) PWR installed from the ore mining till reprocessing of irradiated fuels. The methods of treatment concentration, fixation, final storable forms for liquid and solid waste of low activity and for high level activity waste. The storage of radioactive waste and the plutonium-bearing waste treatement are also considered. The estimated quantity of wastes produced for 5450 MW(e) in Belgium and their destination are presented. (A.F.)

  1. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohl, P.

    1985-01-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) attaches considerable importance to its cooperation with Japan. It was said in the annual conference in 1977 that the presentation of the acceptable policy regarding radioactive waste management is the largest single factor for gaining public confidence when nuclear power is adopted with assurance. The risk connected with radioactive wastes was often presented as the major obstacle to the development of nuclear energy, however, an overall impression of optimism and confidence prevailed by the technical appraisal of the situation in this field by the committee of the NEA. This evolution can be easily explained by the significant progress achieved in radioactive waste management both at the technical level and with respect to the implementation of special legislation and the establishment of specialized institutions and financing schemes. More research will focus on the optimization of the technical, safety and economic aspects of specific engineering designs at specific sites on the long term isolation of wastes, and the NEA contributes to this general effort. The implementation of disposal programs is also in progress. (Kako, I.)

  2. 3rd Quarter Transportation Report FY 2014: Radioactive Waste Shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, Louis

    2014-01-01

    This report satisfies the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) commitment to prepare a quarterly summary report of radioactive waste shipments to the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at Area 5. There were no shipments sent for offsite treatment and returned to the NNSS this quarter. This report summarizes the 3rd quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) shipments. This report also includes annual summaries for FY 2014 in Tables 4 and 5. Tabular summaries are provided which include the following: Sources of and carriers for LLW and MLLW shipments to and from the NNSS; Number and external volume of LLW and MLLW shipments; Highway routes used by carriers; and Incident/accident data applicable to LLW and MLLW shipments. In this report shipments are accounted for upon arrival at the NNSS, while disposal volumes are accounted for upon waste burial. The disposal volumes presented in this report do not include minor volumes of non-radioactive materials that were approved for disposal. Volume reports showing cubic feet generated using the Low-Level Waste Information System may vary slightly due to differing rounding conventions.

  3. Botanical aspects of the ecological integrity of a radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    Botanical factors play a key role in maintaining the long term integrity of ecosystems. The results of botanical research at the Vaalputs radioactive waste disposal site in Bushmanland, South Africa, are outlined. Vaalputs is in an arid region and its vegetation is a patchy mosaic of low shrub and grass communities. Soil variation from site to site is the main determinant of community structure and erratic precipitation is a major stochastic forcing factor. Management measures to conserve taxa, ecosystems and local genetic biogeography are discussed in relation to natural and artificial disturbances which may occur over long time-scales. Restoration of vegetation over the burial trenches should as far as possible be to the site's former ecotypes except that deep-rooted species should be excluded. Precautions should be taken against the accidental establishment of exotic plant invaders at Vaalputs especially if they are deep-rooted. More is now known about plant ecology at Vaalputs than any other part of Bushmanland. It would be valuable to develop such studies further and establish Vaalputs as a permanent reserve for arid-zone biological research

  4. Optimization of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site Closure Cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shott, Greg; Yucel, Vefa

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Manual DOE M 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' requires that performance assessments demonstrate that releases of radionuclides to the environment are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Quantitative cost benefit analysis of radiation protection options is one component of the ALARA process. This report summarizes a quantitative cost benefit analysis of closure cover thickness for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada Test Site. The optimum cover thickness that maintains doses ALARA is shown to be the thickness with the minimum total closure cost. Total closure cost is the sum of cover construction cost and the health detriment cost. Cover construction cost is estimated based on detailed cost estimates for closure of the 92-acre Low-Level Waste Management Unit (LLWMU). The health detriment cost is calculated as the product of collective dose and a constant monetary value of health detriment in units of dollars per unit collective dose. Collective dose is the sum of all individual doses in an exposed population and has units of person-sievert (Sv). Five discrete cover thickness options ranging from 2.5 to 4.5 meters (m) (8.2 to 15 feet (ft)) are evaluated. The optimization was subject to the constraints that (1) options must meet all applicable regulatory requirements and that (2) individual doses be a small fraction of background radiation dose. Total closure cost is found to be a monotonically increasing function of cover thickness for the 92-ac LLWMU, the Northern Expansion Area, and the entire Area 5 RWMS. The cover construction cost is orders of magnitude greater than the health detriment cost. Two-thousand Latin hypercube sampling realizations of the relationship between total closure cost and cover thickness are generated. In every realization, the optimum cover thickness is 2.5 m (8.2 ft) for the 92-ac Low-Level Waste Management Unit, the Northern Expansion Area, and the entire Area

  5. Optimization of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site Closure Cover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shott, Greg; Yucel, Vefa

    2009-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Manual DOE M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management Manual,” requires that performance assessments demonstrate that releases of radionuclides to the environment are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Quantitative cost benefit analysis of radiation protection options is one component of the ALARA process. This report summarizes a quantitative cost benefit analysis of closure cover thickness for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada Test Site. The optimum cover thickness that maintains doses ALARA is shown to be the thickness with the minimum total closure cost. Total closure cost is the sum of cover construction cost and the health detriment cost. Cover construction cost is estimated based on detailed cost estimates for closure of the 92-acre Low-Level Waste Management Unit (LLWMU). The health detriment cost is calculated as the product of collective dose and a constant monetary value of health detriment in units of dollars per unit collective dose. Collective dose is the sum of all individual doses in an exposed population and has units of person-sievert (Sv). Five discrete cover thickness options ranging from 2.5 to 4.5 meters (m) (8.2 to 15 feet [ft]) are evaluated. The optimization was subject to the constraints that (1) options must meet all applicable regulatory requirements and that (2) individual doses be a small fraction of background radiation dose. Total closure cost is found to be a monotonically increasing function of cover thickness for the 92-ac LLWMU, the Northern Expansion Area, and the entire Area 5 RWMS. The cover construction cost is orders of magnitude greater than the health detriment cost. Two-thousand Latin hypercube sampling realizations of the relationship between total closure cost and cover thickness are generated. In every realization, the optimum cover thickness is 2.5 m (8.2 ft) for the 92-ac Low-Level Waste Management Unit, the Northern Expansion Area, and the entire

  6. Grimsel test site. Research on safe geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-07-01

    The Grimsel Test Site is located at an altitude of 1730 meters in the granitic formations of the Aare Massif. Some 300 million years ago, magmas solidified to form granitic rocks in the Grimsel area. New molten masses flowed into fissures of the cooling rock and formed dyke rocks. During the alpine orogeny around 40 million years ago, the rocks of the Aare Massif were passed over by the northwards-moving alpine layers and subsided by around 12 kilometres. The rocks were then overprinted under high temperature and pressure conditions and shear zones and fracture systems were formed. Uplift (0.5 to 0.8 mm/a) and erosion processes, which are still continuing today, brought the rocks of the Aare Massif to the surface once more. The mineral fractures for which the Grimsel area is famous, formed around 14 million years ago. Deep in the rock, the range of geological conditions found in the laboratory present ideal boundary conditions for investigating the functioning of both the geological and engineered barriers of deep repositories. Projects that look at the disposal concepts on a large scale are also an important aspect of the work at the Test Site. A radiation controlled zone allows radionuclides to be used under monitored conditions, giving a direct insight into the transport of radioactive substances in the rock. Around 25 partner organisations from various countries are involved in the projects at the Test Site. The European Union and the Swiss State Secretariat for Education and Research provide financial support to several experiments. In Switzerland, deep geological disposal is required by law for all types of radioactive waste. Field investigations for determining the suitability of potential disposal sites are an important component of a waste management programme. The field work is complemented by laboratory studies, investigations of relevant natural processes and research projects in underground rock laboratories; these provide a better understanding of the

  7. Grimsel test site. Research on safe geological disposal of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-15

    The Grimsel Test Site is located at an altitude of 1730 meters in the granitic formations of the Aare Massif. Some 300 million years ago, magmas solidified to form granitic rocks in the Grimsel area. New molten masses flowed into fissures of the cooling rock and formed dyke rocks. During the alpine orogeny around 40 million years ago, the rocks of the Aare Massif were passed over by the northwards-moving alpine layers and subsided by around 12 kilometres. The rocks were then overprinted under high temperature and pressure conditions and shear zones and fracture systems were formed. Uplift (0.5 to 0.8 mm/a) and erosion processes, which are still continuing today, brought the rocks of the Aare Massif to the surface once more. The mineral fractures for which the Grimsel area is famous, formed around 14 million years ago. Deep in the rock, the range of geological conditions found in the laboratory present ideal boundary conditions for investigating the functioning of both the geological and engineered barriers of deep repositories. Projects that look at the disposal concepts on a large scale are also an important aspect of the work at the Test Site. A radiation controlled zone allows radionuclides to be used under monitored conditions, giving a direct insight into the transport of radioactive substances in the rock. Around 25 partner organisations from various countries are involved in the projects at the Test Site. The European Union and the Swiss State Secretariat for Education and Research provide financial support to several experiments. In Switzerland, deep geological disposal is required by law for all types of radioactive waste. Field investigations for determining the suitability of potential disposal sites are an important component of a waste management programme. The field work is complemented by laboratory studies, investigations of relevant natural processes and research projects in underground rock laboratories; these provide a better understanding of the

  8. Radioactive waste management solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    One of the more frequent questions that arise when discussing nuclear energy's potential contribution to mitigating climate change concerns that of how to manage radioactive waste. Radioactive waste is produced through nuclear power generation, but also - although to a significantly lesser extent - in a variety of other sectors including medicine, agriculture, research, industry and education. The amount, type and physical form of radioactive waste varies considerably. Some forms of radioactive waste, for example, need only be stored for a relatively short period while their radioactivity naturally decays to safe levels. Others remain radioactive for hundreds or even hundreds of thousands of years. Public concerns surrounding radioactive waste are largely related to long-lived high-level radioactive waste. Countries around the world with existing nuclear programmes are developing longer-term plans for final disposal of such waste, with an international consensus developing that the geological disposal of high-level waste (HLW) is the most technically feasible and safe solution. This article provides a brief overview of the different forms of radioactive waste, examines storage and disposal solutions, and briefly explores fuel recycling and stakeholder involvement in radioactive waste management decision making

  9. Radioactive Waste Management Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, B.K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  10. Objectives for radioactive waste packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, R.H.

    1982-04-01

    The report falls under the headings: introduction; the nature of radioactive wastes; how to manage radioactive wastes; packaging of radioactive wastes (supervised storage; disposal); waste form evaluation and test requirements (supervised storage; disposal); conclusions. (U.K.)

  11. Understanding radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes)

  12. Understanding radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  13. Radioactive Waste Evaporation: Current Methodologies Employed for the Development, Design, and Operation of Waste Evaporators at the Savannah River Site and Hanford Waste Treatment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calloway, T.B.

    2003-01-01

    Evaporation of High level and Low Activity (HLW and LAW) radioactive wastes for the purposes of radionuclide separation and volume reduction has been conducted at the Savannah River and Hanford Sites for more than forty years. Additionally, the Savannah River Site (SRS) has used evaporators in preparing HLW for immobilization into a borosilicate glass matrix. This paper will discuss the methodologies, results, and achievements of the SRTC evaporator development program that was conducted in support of the SRS and Hanford WTP evaporator processes. The cross pollination and application of waste treatment technologies and methods between the Savannah River and Hanford Sites will be highlighted. The cross pollination of technologies and methods is expected to benefit the Department of Energy's Mission Acceleration efforts by reducing the overall cost and time for the development of the baseline waste treatment processes

  14. The geology of some United Kingdom nuclear sites related to the disposal of low and medium level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robins, N.S.

    1980-04-01

    The geological sequences beneath ten British nuclear sites are extrapolated from the available data. Formations that are potentially suitable hosts for low and medium level radioactive waste are identified and their relative merits assessed. Of the sites investigated, formations beneath five afford little or no potential, formations beneath a further three offer only moderate potential and sites underlain by the most favourable formations are at Dounreay and Harwell. (author)

  15. The geology of some United Kingdom nuclear sites related to the disposal of low and medium level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robins, N.S.

    1980-06-01

    The geological sequences beneath a further twelve nuclear sites in Britain are predicted from available data. Formations that are potentially suitable hosts for low and medium-level radioactive waste are identified and their relative merits assessed. Of the sites investigated, formations beneath six afford little or no potential, formations beneath a further 4 offer only moderate potential and sites underlain by the most favourable formations are Dungeness and Hinkley Point. (author)

  16. Special Analysis of Transuranic Waste in Trench T04C at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greg Shott; Vefa Yucel; Lloyd Desotell

    2008-01-01

    This Special Analysis (SA) was prepared to assess the potential impact of inadvertent disposal of a limited quantity of transuranic (TRU) waste in classified Trench 4 (T04C) within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Area 5 RWMS is a low-level radioactive waste disposal site in northern Frenchman Flat on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Area 5 RWMS is regulated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under DOE Order 435.1 and DOE Manual (DOE M) 435.1-1. The primary objective of the SA is to evaluate if inadvertent disposal of limited quantities of TRU waste in a shallow land burial trench at the Area 5 RWMS is in compliance with the existing, approved Disposal Authorization Statement (DAS) issued under DOE M 435.1-1. In addition, supplemental analyses are performed to determine if there is reasonable assurance that the requirements of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 191, Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level, and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, can be met. The 40 CFR 191 analyses provide supplemental information regarding the risk to human health and the environment of leaving the TRU waste in T04C. In 1989, waste management personnel reviewing classified materials records discovered that classified materials buried in trench T04C at the Area 5 RWMS contained TRU waste. Subsequent investigations determined that a total of 102 55-gallon drums of TRU waste from Rocky Flats were buried in trench T04C in 1986. The disposal was inadvertent because unclassified records accompanying the shipment indicated that the waste was low-level. The exact location of the TRU waste in T04C was not recorded and is currently unknown. Under DOE M 435.1-1, Chapter IV, Section P.5, low-level waste disposal facilities must obtain a DAS. The DAS specifies conditions that must be met to operate within the radioactive waste management basis, consisting of a

  17. Special Analysis of Transuranic Waste in Trench T04C at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Shott, Vefa Yucel, Lloyd Desotell

    2008-05-01

    This Special Analysis (SA) was prepared to assess the potential impact of inadvertent disposal of a limited quantity of transuranic (TRU) waste in classified Trench 4 (T04C) within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Area 5 RWMS is a low-level radioactive waste disposal site in northern Frenchman Flat on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Area 5 RWMS is regulated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under DOE Order 435.1 and DOE Manual (DOE M) 435.1-1. The primary objective of the SA is to evaluate if inadvertent disposal of limited quantities of TRU waste in a shallow land burial trench at the Area 5 RWMS is in compliance with the existing, approved Disposal Authorization Statement (DAS) issued under DOE M 435.1-1. In addition, supplemental analyses are performed to determine if there is reasonable assurance that the requirements of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 191, Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level, and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, can be met. The 40 CFR 191 analyses provide supplemental information regarding the risk to human health and the environment of leaving the TRU waste in T04C. In 1989, waste management personnel reviewing classified materials records discovered that classified materials buried in trench T04C at the Area 5 RWMS contained TRU waste. Subsequent investigations determined that a total of 102 55-gallon drums of TRU waste from Rocky Flats were buried in trench T04C in 1986. The disposal was inadvertent because unclassified records accompanying the shipment indicated that the waste was low-level. The exact location of the TRU waste in T04C was not recorded and is currently unknown. Under DOE M 435.1-1, Chapter IV, Section P.5, low-level waste disposal facilities must obtain a DAS. The DAS specifies conditions that must be met to operate within the radioactive waste management basis, consisting of a

  18. Hinkley Point 'C' power station public inquiry: proof of evidence on on-site radioactive waste management and decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passant, F.H.

    1988-09-01

    A public inquiry has been set up to examine the planning application made by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) for the construction of a 1200 MW Pressurized Water Reactor power station at Hinkley Point (Hinkley Point ''C'') in the United Kingdom. The CEGB evidence to the Inquiry presented here provides information on the on-site management of solid, liquid and gaseous radioactive wastes both during station operation and during decommissioning. Estimates are given of current and projected future discharges of liquid and gaseous wastes from the site and packaging and transport arrangements for solid radioactive wastes are described. The framework of waste management policy, disposal strategy and legislation in the United Kingdom which will determine procedure at Hinkley Point ''C'' is given. (UK)

  19. Radioactive wastes. Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaumont, R.

    2001-01-01

    Many documents (journal articles, book chapters, non-conventional documents..) deal with radioactive wastes but very often this topic is covered in a partial way and sometimes the data presented are contradictory. The aim of this article is to precise the definition of radioactive wastes and the proper terms to describe this topic. It describes the main guidelines of the management of radioactive wastes, in particular in France, and presents the problems raised by this activity: 1 - goal and stakes of the management; 2 - definition of a radioactive waste; 3 - radionuclides encountered; 4 - radio-toxicity and radiation risks; 5 - French actors of waste production and management; 6 - French classification and management principles; 7 - wastes origin and characteristics; 8 - status of radioactive wastes in France per categories; 9 - management practices; 10 - packages conditioning and fabrication; 11 - storage of wastes; 12 - the French law from December 30, 1991 and the opportunities of new ways of management; 13 - international situation. (J.S.)

  20. The 1985 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes shipped to commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The 1985 report uses the volume of low-level waste reported as received at each commercial disposal site as the national baseline figure. A volume of 75,909 m 3 of radioactive waste containing 748,903 Ci of activity was reported disposed at the commercial sites in 1985. The distribution of these waste volumes by disposal site is presented in Table 1. Table 2 displays typical radionuclides in low-level wastes by sector. Table 3 presents predominant waste forms associated with low-level waste by sector. The total volume and curie values tabulated for each state were obtained directly from the commercial disposal site operators. The total is the sum of the volume and radioactivity reported by Chem Nuclear and US Ecology for each state. Figure 1 displays the disposal capacity remaining at Barnwell, Richland, and Beatty commercial disposal sites as of December 31, 1985. Summary information on commercial nuclear power plant wastes was obtained from semiannual waste and effluent reports submitted to the NRC in accordance with the NRC Regulatory Guide 1.21. Where reported data were not available, data were obtained by communication with the utility. Nonreactor waste volumes are actual amounts recorded as received at the commercial waste repositories in 1985. Waste categories are defined as academic, medical, government, and industrial. New to the 1985 report is Appendix B, 1985 Assessments Listed By Ratified Compacts, as well as the proposed Western and Appalachian compacts. Inclusion of the most accurate information available from all sources has resulted in an improved national waste distribution profile of generator sectors. 11 refs

  1. Geological criteria for site selection of an LILW radioactive waste repository in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurelio, Mario; Taguibao, Kristine Joy; Vargas, Edmundo; Palattao, Maria Visitacion; Reyes, Rolando; Nohay, Carl; Singayan, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    In the selection of sites for disposal facilities involving low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommendations require that 'the region in which the site is located shall be such that significant tectonic and surface processes are not expected to occur with an intensity that would compromise the required isolation capability of the repository'. Evaluating the appropriateness of a site therefore requires a deep understanding of the geological and tectonic setting of the area. The Philippines sits in a tectonically active region frequented by earthquakes and volcanic activity. Its highly variable morphology coupled with its location along the typhoon corridor in the west Pacific region subjects the country to surface processes often manifested in the form of landslides. The Philippine LILW near surface repository project site is located on the north eastern sector of the Island of Luzon in northern Philippines. This island is surrounded by active subduction trenches; to the east by the East Luzon Trough and to the west by the Manila Trench. The island is also traversed by several branches of the Philippine Fault System. The Philippine LILW repository project is located more than 100 km away from any of these major active fault systems. In the near field, the project site is located less than 10 km from a minor fault (Dummon River Fault) and more than 40 km away from a volcanic edifice (Mt. Caguas). This paper presents an analysis of the potential hazards that these active tectonic features may pose to the project site. The assessment of such geologic hazards is imperative in the characterization of the site and a crucial input in the design and safety assessment of the repository. (authors)

  2. Geological criteria for site selection of an LILW radioactive waste repository in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurelio, Mario; Taguibao, Kristine Joy [National Institute of Geological Sciences, University of the Philippines, Quezon City (Philippines); Vargas, Edmundo; Palattao, Maria Visitacion; Reyes, Rolando; Nohay, Carl; Singayan, Alfonso [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Department of Science and Technology, Quezon City (Philippines)

    2013-07-01

    In the selection of sites for disposal facilities involving low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommendations require that 'the region in which the site is located shall be such that significant tectonic and surface processes are not expected to occur with an intensity that would compromise the required isolation capability of the repository'. Evaluating the appropriateness of a site therefore requires a deep understanding of the geological and tectonic setting of the area. The Philippines sits in a tectonically active region frequented by earthquakes and volcanic activity. Its highly variable morphology coupled with its location along the typhoon corridor in the west Pacific region subjects the country to surface processes often manifested in the form of landslides. The Philippine LILW near surface repository project site is located on the north eastern sector of the Island of Luzon in northern Philippines. This island is surrounded by active subduction trenches; to the east by the East Luzon Trough and to the west by the Manila Trench. The island is also traversed by several branches of the Philippine Fault System. The Philippine LILW repository project is located more than 100 km away from any of these major active fault systems. In the near field, the project site is located less than 10 km from a minor fault (Dummon River Fault) and more than 40 km away from a volcanic edifice (Mt. Caguas). This paper presents an analysis of the potential hazards that these active tectonic features may pose to the project site. The assessment of such geologic hazards is imperative in the characterization of the site and a crucial input in the design and safety assessment of the repository. (authors)

  3. Radioactive Wastes. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Charles H.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This booklet deals with the handling, processing and disposal of radioactive wastes. Among the topics discussed are: The Nature of Radioactive Wastes; Waste Management; and Research and Development. There are…

  4. Radioactive waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.

    1983-06-01

    The speaker discusses the development of government policy regarding radioactive waste disposal in Canada, indicates overall policy objectives, and surveys the actual situation with respect to radioactive wastes in Canada. He also looks at the public perceptions of the waste management situation and how they relate to the views of governmental decision makers

  5. Various problems concerning radioactive waste disposal sites and parameters for their evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Masami

    1990-01-01

    The present report first describes various methods used for low-level radioactive waste disposal in the U.S. and then discusses major factors affecting the parameters used for quantitative evaluation of the behavior of radioactive nuclides existing in the environment, focusing on the distribution coefficient which is assumed in a model widely used for such evaluation. Some problems encountered in applying these parameters to practical evaluation are also discussed together with further studies required in the future. The distribution coefficient varies with many physical, chemical and biological factors, and it may be unavoidable to rely on experiments with a simplified system in determining the effect of each factor separately. However, the values obtained from such experiments cannot be used as parameters to reflect the behaviors of these nuclides in real environments. They should be considered as such. Efforts should be made to develop techniques to obtain effective values for the distribution coefficient that properly reflect their behaviors in real environments near disposal sites or in far fields. (N.K.)

  6. Technologies for in situ immobilization and isolation of radioactive wastes at disposal and contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This report describes technologies that have been developed worldwide and the experiences applied to both waste disposal and contaminated sites. The term immobilization covers both solidification and embedding of wastes

  7. Obstacle factors and overcoming plans of public communication: With an emphasis on radioactive waste disposal facility siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Hae-Woon; Oh, Chang-Taeg

    1996-01-01

    Korea is confronting a serious social conflict, which is phenomenon of local residents reaction to radioactive waste disposal facility. This phenomenon is traced back to the reason that the project sponsors and local residents do not communicate sufficiently each other. Accordingly, in order to overcome local residents' reaction to radioactive waste disposal facility siting effectively, it is absolutely necessary to consider the way of solutions and strategies with regard to obstacle factors for public communication. In this content, this study will review three cases (An-myon Island, Gul-up Island, Yang-yang) on local residents reaction to facility siting. As a result of analysis, authoritarian behavior of project sponsors, local stigma, risk, antinuclear activities of environmental group, failures in siting the radioactive waste disposal facility, etc. has negative impact on public communication of the radioactive waste disposal facility siting. In this study, 5 strategies (reform of project sponsor's authoritarianism, incentive offer, strengthening PA activities, more active talks with environmental groups, promoting credibility of project sponsors) arc suggested to cope with obstacle factors of public communication

  8. HSE policy on decommissioning and radioactive waste management at licensed nuclear sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacon, M.

    1997-01-01

    In the UK, radioactive waste management and decommissioning on a licensed nuclear is regulated by the Health and Safety Executive. The same legislative framework used for operating nuclear power stations is also applied to radioactive waste management and decommissioning activities. This provides a continuous but flexible safety regime until there is no danger from ionizing radiations. The regulatory policy is discussed, taking into account the implications of the 1995 White Paper reviewing radioactive waste management policy. For both radioactive waste management and decommissioning the key element of HSE policy is the need for strategic planning. This should ensure that problems are not allowed to build up and to demonstrate that, taking into account all factors, the proposed actions are the optimum in terms of safety. There is a presumption in HSE's policy towards disposal of radioactive waste as soon as possible where disposal routes exist. Where long-term storage is necessary passively safe forms are preferred over those requiring continuous monitoring or frequent intervention. (author)

  9. Addendum 1 Composite Analysis for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vefa Yucel

    2001-01-01

    A disposal authorization statement (DAS) was issued by the U.S. Department of Energy/Headquarters (DOE/HQ) on December 5, 2000, authorizing the DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office to continue the operation of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site for the disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste. Prior to the issuance of the DAS, the Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group (LFRG) had conducted reviews of the performance assessment (PA) and the composite analysis (CA) for the Area 5 RWMS, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE Radioactive Waste Management Order DOE O 435.1. A brief history of the reviews is as follows. (The reviews were conducted by independent review teams chartered by the LFRG; the review findings and recommendations were issued in review team reports to the LFRG.) The LFRG accepted the initial PA, with conditions, on August 30, 1996. Revision 2.1 to the PA was issued in January 1998, implementing the conditions of acceptance of the 1996 PA. The LFRG reviewed Revision 2.1 as part of the Area 5 RWMS CA review during 2000, and found it acceptable. The CA and the Supplemental Information provided in response to issues identified during the initial review of the CA were accepted by the LFRG. The Supplemental Information (including the responses to four key issues) is included in the Review Team Report to the LFRG, which recommends that it be incorporated into the CA and issued to all known holders of the CA. The Area 5 RWMS DAS requires that the Supplemental Information generated during the DOE/HQ review of the CA be incorporated into the CA within one year of the date of issuance of the DAS. This report, the first addendum to the Area 5 CA, is prepared to fulfill that requirement. The Supplemental Information includes the following: Issues Identified in the Review Team Report; Crosswalk Presentation; and Maintaining Doses As Low As Reasonably

  10. Predisposal Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Recognition of the importance of the safe management of radioactive waste means that, over the years, many well-established and effective techniques have been developed, and the nuclear industry and governments have gained considerable experience in this field. Minimization of waste is a fundamental principle underpinning the design and operation of all nuclear operations, together with waste reuse and recycling. For the remaining radioactive waste that will be produced, it is essential that there is a well defined plan (called a waste treatment path) to ensure the safe management and ultimately the safe disposal of radioactive waste so as to guarantee the sustainable long term deployment of nuclear technologies

  11. Radioactive Waste in Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are produced each year, however only a small proportion of them are radioactive. While disposal options for hazardous wastes are generally well established, some types of hazardous waste face issues similar to those for radioactive waste and also require long-term disposal arrangements. The objective of this NEA study is to put the management of radioactive waste into perspective, firstly by contrasting features of radioactive and hazardous wastes, together with their management policies and strategies, and secondly by examining the specific case of the wastes resulting from carbon capture and storage of fossil fuels. The study seeks to give policy makers and interested stakeholders a broad overview of the similarities and differences between radioactive and hazardous wastes and their management strategies. Contents: - Foreword; - Key Points for Policy Makers; - Executive Summary; - Introduction; - Theme 1 - Radioactive and Hazardous Wastes in Perspective; - Theme 2 - The Outlook for Wastes Arising from Coal and from Nuclear Power Generation; - Risk, Perceived Risk and Public Attitudes; - Concluding Discussion and Lessons Learnt; - Strategic Issues for Radioactive Waste; - Strategic Issues for Hazardous Waste; - Case Studies - The Management of Coal Ash, CO 2 and Mercury as Wastes; - Risk and Perceived Risk; - List of Participants; - List of Abbreviations. (authors)

  12. An interdisciplinary geoscientific investigation of a proposed site for radioactive waste disposal in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, H.; Stumpfl, E.; Weber, F.; Oszuszky, F.; Rudan, P.

    1980-01-01

    A geological reconnaissance of potentially suitable formations for long-term storage of highly active radioactive waste in Austria showed that such formations could be expected within the Bohemian Massif. Careful interpretation of LANDSAT imagery and available air-photo coverage led to the selection of an unfaulted area, approximately in the centre of a large body of granodiorite. Field geology confirmed the homogeneity of granodiorite; hydrologic investigations revealed the absence of a groundwater table except for small amounts of surface water in the soil cover and weathering zone. A morphological analysis showed that erosional processes are minimal at present and will remain so in the foreseeable geological future. Geophysical investigations included, amongst others, magnetic measurements (vertical intensity). The area chosen for further investigation is situated in a region of positive measurements of vertical intensity. Some minor flat anomalies are due to higher magnetite content of the granodiorite, which has magnetic susceptibilities of (4.0-5.8)x10 -4 (SI) or (32-46)x10 -6 (CGS). Well-logging demonstrated high electric resistivities (some 1000 ohm.m) in fresh rock; these values are reduced to about 100 ohm.m in weathered and fractured rock. Temperature logs reveal undisturbed increase with depth; the average temperature gradient (to 90 m depth) is 0.018 0 C/m. There is no microscopic evidence of tectonism or fracturing. In conclusion, the large-scale regional features which indicate stability and lack of tectonism, and geophysical data, are supported by a detailed petrological investigation of the granodiorite. The chosen area and site seem to be well suited to meet the containment and isolation requirements for disposal of all sorts of radioactive waste to be expected. (author)

  13. National Public Information Symposium on Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, NUC Info' 2000. Radioactive Waste Management and Site Restoration in Uranium Industry. Proceedings. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobos, Ion; Comsa, Olivia

    2000-01-01

    These proceedings published in two volumes contain materials presented at the National Public Information Symposium on Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, NUC Info' 2000. Radioactive Waste Management and Site Restoration in Uranium Industry - held on 5th September to 8th September 2000 at Baita - Bihor, Romania. The proceedings are structured in 4 sections: 1. Management of radioactive wastes arising from uranium mining, milling and decommissioning; 2. Uranium mine closing down; 3. Environmental restoration of uranium mining and milling sites; 4. Management of radioactive wastes arising from nuclear applications. The contributions in this volume debate the issues of environment restoration at uranium ore mining and management of radioactive wastes resulted from nuclear applications

  14. Product consistency leach tests of Savannah River Site radioactive waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.; Bates, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    The Product Consistency Test (PCT) is a glass leach test that was developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to routinely confirm the durability of nuclear waste glasses that will be produced in the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The PCT is a 7 day, crushed glass leach test in deionized water at 90 degree C. Final leachates are filtered and acidified prior to analysis. To demonstrate the reproducibility of the PCT when performed remotely, SRS and Argonne National Laboratory have performed the PCT on samples of two radioactive glasses. The tests were also performed to compare the releases of the radionuclides with the major nonradioactive glass components and to determine if radiation from the glass was affecting the results of the PCT. The test was performed in triplicate at each laboratory. For the major soluble elements, B, Li, Na, and Si, in the glass, each investigator obtained relative precisions in the range 2--5% in the triplicate tests. This range indicates good precision for the PCT when performed remotely with master slave manipulators in a shielded cell environment

  15. Characterization and assessment for the Weldon Spring Quarry low-level radioactive waste storage site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    The Weldon Spring Quarry is located approximately 4 miles from the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and 20 miles west of St. Louis. Originally a limestone and sand quarry, the 9 acre site was later used for the disposal of TNT-contaminated soils during the 1940's and the disposal of low-level radioactive waste during the 1960's. The most important potential hazards posed by the quarry are contamination of groundwater, radiation exposure and contamination of trespassers, and contamination of surface waters. The potential for groundwater contamination was identified at an early date by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as the most important of these potential hazards. Particular concern exists for the future of the municipal well field located between the quarry and the Missouri River. At the present time the well field supplies drinking water for the area from Weldon Spring up to and including parts of the city of St. Charles. Chapters are devoted to geology, waste inventory, hydrology, investigations of radionuclide migration from the quarry, numerical modeling of engineering options, and raffinate pits. 40 references, 182 figures, 49 tables, 7 appendixes

  16. 1984 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes shipped to commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    The 1984 report uses the volume of low-level waste reported as received at each commercial disposal site as the national baseline figure. A volume of 75,429 m 3 of radioactive waste containing 600,909 Ci of activity was reported disposed at the commercial sites in 1984. The distribution of these waste volumes by disposal site is presented in Table 1. Table 2 displays typical radionuclides in low-level wastes by sector. Table 3 presents predominant waste forms associated with low-level waste by sector. The total volume and curie values tabulated for each state were obtained directly from the commercial disposal site operators. The total is the sum of the volume and radioactivity reported by Chem Nuclear and US Ecology for each state. Figure 1 displays the disposal capacity remaining at Barnwell, Richland, and Beatty commercial disposal sites as of December 31, 1984. Summary information on commercial nuclear power plant wastes was obtained from semiannual waste and effluent reports submitted to the NRC in accordance with the NRC Regulatory Guide 1.21. Where reported data were not available, data were obtained by communication with the utility. Non-reactor waste volumes are actual amounts recorded as received at the commercial waste repositories in 1984. Waste categories are defined as academic, medical, government, and industrial. Academic includes university hospitals and medical and nonmedical research facilities. The medical category includes hospitals and clinics, research facilities, and private medical offices. The industrial category includes private entities such as research and development companies, manufacturers, nondestructive testing, mining, and radiopharmaceutical manufacturers. Government includes state and federal agencies. Data from previous publications were also used as a comparison. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  17. Topic I: Induced changes in hydrology at low-level radioactive waste repository sites: A section in Safe disposal of radionuclides in low-level radioactive-waste repository sites; Low-level radioactive-waste disposal workshop, U.S. Geological Survey, July 11-16, 1987, Big Bear Lake, Calif., Proceedings (Circular 1036)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudic, David E.; Dennehy, Kevin F.; Bedinger, Marion S.; Stevens, Peter R.

    1990-01-01

    Engineering practices, including the excavation of trenches, placement of waste, nature of waste forms, backfilling procedures and materials, and trench-cover construction and materials at low-level radioactive-waste repository sites greatly affect the geohydrology of the sites. Engineering practices are dominant factors in eventual stability and isolation of the waste. The papers presented relating to Topic I were discussions of the hydrogeologic setting at existing low-level radioactive-waste repository sites and changes in the hydrology induced by site operations. Papers summarizing detailed studies presented at this workshop include those at sites near Sheffield, Ill.; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tenn.; West Valley, N.Y.; Maxey Flats, Ky.; Barnwell, S.C.; and Beatty, Nev. 

  18. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Almost all IAEA Member States use radioactive sources in medicine, industry, agriculture and scientific research, and countries remain responsible for the safe handling and storage of all radioactively contaminated waste that result from such activities. In some cases, waste must be specially treated or conditioned before storage and/or disposal. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme with the support of the Nuclear Energy Department aimed at establishing appropriate technologies and procedures for managing radioactive wastes. (IAEA)

  19. Handling of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanhueza Mir, Azucena

    1998-01-01

    Based on characteristics and quantities of different types of radioactive waste produced in the country, achievements in infrastructure and the way to solve problems related with radioactive waste handling and management, are presented in this paper. Objectives of maintaining facilities and capacities for controlling, processing and storing radioactive waste in a conditioned form, are attained, within a great range of legal framework, so defined to contribute with safety to people and environment (au)

  20. Risk assessment for the on-site transportation of radioactive wastes for the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biwer, B.M.; Monette, F.A.; Chen, S.Y.

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the risk assessment performed for the on-site transportation of radioactive wastes in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management (WM) Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). Risks for the routine shipment of wastes and the impacts from potential accidental releases are analyzed for operations at the Hanford Site (Hanford) near Richland, Washington. Like other large DOE sites, Hanford conducts waste management operations for all wastes types; consequently, the impacts calculated for Hanford are expected to be greater than those for smaller sites. The risk assessment conducted for on-site transportation is intended to provide an estimate of the magnitude of the potential risk for comparison with off-site transportation risks assessed for the WM PEIS

  1. Risk assessment for the on-site transportation of radioactive wastes for the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biwer, B.M.; Monette, F.A.; Chen, S.Y.

    1996-12-01

    This report documents the risk assessment performed for the on-site transportation of radioactive wastes in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). Risks for the routine shipment of wastes and the impacts from potential accidental releases are analyzed for operations at the Hanford Site (Hanford) near Richland, Washington. Like other large DOE sites, hanford conducts waste management operations for all wastes types; consequently, the impacts calculated for Hanford are expected to be greater than those for smaller sites. The risk assessment conducted for on-site transportation is intended to provide an estimate of the magnitude of the potential risk for comparison with off-site transportation risks assessed for the WM PEIS

  2. The 1986 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    The data are grouped and presented by compact regions. The data include activity and volume by waste classes, generator type, and disposal site. The report uses the volume of low-level waste reported as received at each commercial disposal site as the national baseline figure. A volume of 1,804,998 cubic feet (51,113 cubic meters) of radioactive waste containing 233,726 curies of activity was reported disposed at the commercial sites in 1986. The total volume and curie values tabulated for each state were obtained directly from the commercial disposal site operators. The total is the sum of the volume and radioactivity reported by Chem Nuclear Systems, Inc., and US Ecology for each state. Sixty-three percent of low-level waste volumes disposed at commercial sites was assigned to the state of origin. These volumes represent those disposed at Beatty and Barnwell disposal sites. Thirty-seven percent, or 665,066 cubic feet (18,831 cubic meters), of the waste disposed in the US in 1986 went to the Richland site. 8 refs., 75 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Radiobiological effects in small mammals populations dwelled at radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sypin, V.D.; Osipov, A.N.; Pol'skij, O.G.; Elakov, A.L.; Egorov, V.G.; Synsynys, B.I.

    2004-01-01

    A major issue in evaluating the ecological acceptability of a disposal system for radioactive waste is in preventing the ecological risk that may arise from exposures in the distant future. There is uncertainty surrounding any estimate of these doses or risks due to lack of knowledge about future conditions. Therefore, the adequate estimation of the ecological acceptability of a radioactive waste disposal system required a complex radioecological and radiobiological approach. Environmental surveillance at the Sergievo-Posadsky radioactive waste disposal system of the Scientific and Industrial Association Radon in additional to a standard complex radiological testing includes also the study of the radiobiological effects in different biological objects sampled from the contaminated areas. In present report the results obtained on small rodents (mice and voles) sampled from the strict mode and fence zones of this disposal system are displayed and discussed. (author)

  4. Radioactive waste management - a safe solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This booklet sets out current United Kingdom government policy regarding radioactive waste management and is aimed at reassuring members of the public concerned about the safety of radioactive wastes. The various disposal or, processing or storage options for low, intermediate and high-level radioactive wastes are explained and sites described, and the work of the Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive (NIREX) is outlined. (UK)

  5. Konrad transport study: Safety analysis of the transportation of radioactive waste to the Konrad waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, F.; Gruendler, D.; Schwarz, G.

    1992-05-01

    For the purpose of the study the anticipated waste transport volume and the waste properties were analysed in detail. This included information on the transport containers, waste product properties, activity inventories and local dose rates of the waste packages being transported. The envisaged practical implementation, i.e. the transport arrangements including shunting operations at the Braunschweig marshalling yard and the Beddingen interchange station, were also included. The two shipping scenarios 100% transportation by rail and 80% transportation by rail, 20% by road, which could be considered to bound the real conditions, were analysed. The relevant transport regulations contain the requirements to be met by the transport of shipping units carrying radioactive waste. In addition, the ''Konrad preliminary waste acceptance criteria'' contain activity limits for waste packages being disposed of in conjunction with further requirements relating to the properties of waste products and waste containers. (orig./DG)

  6. Regulatory controls on the hydrogeological characterization of a mixed waste disposal site, Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruebelmann, K.L.

    1990-01-01

    Following the detection of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in the groundwater beneath the SDA in the summer of 1987, hydrogeological characterization of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) was required by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The waste site, the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA), is the subject of a RCRA Corrective Action Program. Regulatory requirements for the Corrective Action Program dictate a phased approach to evaluation of the SDA. In the first phase of the program, the SDA is the subject of a RCRA Facility Investigation (RIF), which will obtain information to fully characterize the physical properties of the site, determine the nature and extent of contamination, and identify pathways for migration of contaminants. If the need for corrective measures is identified during the RIF, a Corrective Measures Study (CMS) will be performed as second phase. Information generated during the RIF will be used to aid in the selection and implementation of appropriate corrective measures to correct the release. Following the CMS, the final phase is the implementation of the selected corrective measures. 4 refs., 1 fig

  7. Controlling radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurtinger, W.

    1992-01-01

    The guideline of the Ministry for Environmental Protection for controlling radioactive waste with a negligible development of heat defines in detail what data are relevant to the control of radioactive waste and should be followed up on and included in a system of documentation. By introducing the AVK (product control system for tracing the course of waste disposal) the operators of German nuclear power plants have taken the requirements of this guideline into account. In particular, possibilities for determining the degree of radioactivity of radioactive waste, which the BMU-guidelines call for, were put into practice by means of the programming technology of the product control system's module MOPRO. (orig.) [de

  8. Methodology for selecting low-level radioactive waste disposal sites with application to the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.W.; Ketelle, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    A methodology was developed to select an environmentally acceptable site for low-level radioactive waste disposal for a predetermined region of interest using prescribed site suitability requirements. The methodology provides a defensible means for identifying candidate areas within the region, candidate sites within the areas, and an environmentally preferred site from the candidate sites. This is accomplished in site screening and site characterization stages. The site screening stage relies on reconnaissance data to identify a preferred site. The site characterization stage relies on a detailed site investigation to determine site acceptability. The methodology was applied to the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation through the site screening stage. 6 references, 3 figures, 7 tables

  9. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1990-04-24

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs.

  10. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs

  11. Central interstate low-level radioactive waste compact region site exclusionary screening study. Phase I. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 assigns to the states the responsibility for disposal of the low-level radioactive waste generated within their boundaries. It also provides for regional compacts among states to address their needs on a broader basis and permits restriction of the use of regional disposal facilities after January 1, 1986, to generators of low-level waste within the region. Each state, either individually or as a member of a compact, must therefore consider the establishment of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility within its borders. The states of Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Nebraska, and Oklahoma adopted the Central Interstate Low-Level Waste Compact (CILLWC) and legislation was submitted to Congress for consent in June of 1983 legislation is being reintroduced in the 99th Congress. In August of 1984, the CILLWC selected and contracted Dames and Moore to conduct a Phase I-Site Suitability Screening Study for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in the five-state region. This report presents the results of the Phase I Screening Study. Dames and Moore reported to the Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) of the CILLWC which provided guidance and comment on work progress and direction

  12. Institutional Control Policies and Implementation for the Area 5 and Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vefa Yucel; Greg Shott; Denise Wieland

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) has implemented varying institutional control policies in performance assessment/composite analysis (PA/CA) calculations for the Area 5 and Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) (Shott et al., 1998; 2000; Bechtel Nevada [BN] and Neptune and Company Inc. [Neptune], 2006). The facilities are within the actively maintained boundaries of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) that are enforced by NNSA/NSO. Under current policies, access required for exposure of the member of public (MOP) or the inadvertent human intruder (IHI) is prohibited. Uncertainties affecting institutional control policies are the duration and effectiveness of the controls during the post-closure period. Implementing a uniform set of institutional control policies for the RWMSs that encompasses waste management and environmental restoration programs and is consistent with the end-state vision for the environmental management programs for the NTS (DOE, 2006) is a primary goal of the maintenance program. The NNSA/NSO Performance Management Plan (DOE, 2002) complies with DOE Policy P455.1, 'Use of Risk-Based End States' (DOE, 2003a). Expected future land uses are a driver in selecting acceptable end state conditions and clean-up goals for the NTS. NNSA/NSO Environmental Management's (EM's) land management assumptions and framework for Environmental Management activities are as follows: The NTS will remain under federal control in perpetuity as an NNSA test site, and the large buffer zone surrounding the NTS (the Nevada Test and Training Range) is assumed to remain under the control of the U.S. Air Force. There are no plans for transfer of any NTS lands to other agencies or public entities. Access will continue to be restricted to the NTS and the surrounding areas. For management purposes, NNSA/NV EM activities have been established based on the source of contamination and type of waste

  13. Institutional Control Policies and Implementation for the Area 5 and Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vefa Yucel, Greg Shott, Denise Wieland, et al.

    2007-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) has implemented varying institutional control policies in performance assessment/composite analysis (PA/CA) calculations for the Area 5 and Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) (Shott et al., 1998; 2000; Bechtel Nevada [BN] and Neptune and Company Inc. [Neptune], 2006). The facilities are within the actively maintained boundaries of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) that are enforced by NNSA/NSO. Under current policies, access required for exposure of the member of public (MOP) or the inadvertent human intruder (IHI) is prohibited. Uncertainties affecting institutional control policies are the duration and effectiveness of the controls during the post-closure period. Implementing a uniform set of institutional control policies for the RWMSs that encompasses waste management and environmental restoration programs and is consistent with the end-state vision for the environmental management programs for the NTS (DOE, 2006) is a primary goal of the maintenance program. The NNSA/NSO Performance Management Plan (DOE, 2002) complies with DOE Policy P455.1, 'Use of Risk-Based End States' (DOE, 2003a). Expected future land uses are a driver in selecting acceptable end state conditions and clean-up goals for the NTS. NNSA/NSO Environmental Management's (EM's) land management assumptions and framework for Environmental Management activities are as follows: The NTS will remain under federal control in perpetuity as an NNSA test site, and the large buffer zone surrounding the NTS (the Nevada Test and Training Range) is assumed to remain under the control of the U.S. Air Force. There are no plans for transfer of any NTS lands to other agencies or public entities. Access will continue to be restricted to the NTS and the surrounding areas. For management purposes, NNSA/NV EM activities have been established based on the source of contamination and

  14. Use of engineered soils and other site modifications for low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requires that low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities be designed to minimize contact between waste and infiltrating water through the use of site design features. The purpose of this investigation is to identify engineered barriers and evaluate their ability to enhance the long-term performance of an LLW disposal facility. Previously used barriers such as concrete overpacks, vaults, backfill, and engineered soil covers, are evaluated as well as state-of-the-art barriers, including an engineered sorptive soil layer underlying a facility and an advanced design soil cover incorporating a double-capillary layer. The purpose of this investigation is also to provide information in incorporating or excluding specific engineered barriers as part of new disposal facility designs. Evaluations are performed using performance assessment modeling techniques. A generic reference disposal facility design is used as a baseline for comparing the improvements in long-term performance offered by designs incorporating engineered barriers in generic and humid environments. These evaluations simulate water infiltration through the facility, waste leaching, radionuclide transport through the facility, and decay and ingrowth. They also calculate a maximum (peak annual) dose for each disposal system design. A relative dose reduction factor is calculated for each design evaluated. The results of this investigation are presented for concrete overpacks, concrete vaults, sorptive backfill, sorptive engineered soil underlying the facility, and sloped engineered soil covers using a single-capillary barrier and a double-capillary barrier. Designs using combinations of barriers are also evaluated. These designs include a vault plus overpacks, sorptive backfill plus overpacks, and overpack with vault plus sorptive backfill, underlying sorptive soil, and engineered soil cover

  15. Disposal of radioactive wastes from Czechoslovak nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, L.

    In gaseous radioactive waste disposal, aerosol particles are filtered and gaseous wastes are discharged in the environment. The filters and filter materials used are stored on solid radioactive waste storage sites in the individual power plants. Liquid radioactive wastes are concentrated and the concentrates are stored. Distillates and low-level radioactive waste water are discharged into the hydrosphere. Solid radioactive wastes are stored without treatment in power plant bunkers. Bituminization and cementation of liquid radioactive wastes are discussed. (H.S.)

  16. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set out the Government's current strategy for the long term in the management of radioactive wastes. It takes account of the latest developments, and will be subject to review in the light of future developments and studies. The subject is discussed under the headings: what are radioactive wastes; who is responsible; what monitoring takes place; disposal as the objective; low-level wastes; intermediate-level wastes; discharges from Sellafield; heat generating wastes; how will waste management systems and procedures be assessed; how much more waste is there going to be in future; conclusion. (U.K.)

  17. Tests for evaluating sites for disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutton, R.J.; Butler, D.K.; Meade, R.B.; Patrick, D.M.; Strong, A.B.; Taylor, H.M. Jr.

    1982-12-01

    This report, the second of a series, identifies the tests and other means of evaluating or documenting the important characteristics of sites for disposal of low-level radioactive waste. The specific parameters were identified and explained in regard to their importance in characterizing disposal facilities in the previous report. More than half of the tests and procedures are standard methods recognized and used nationwide, most conspicuously the numerous chemical tests. Other tests are commonly used methods recognized widely as state of the art, e.g., geological and geophysical methods. The basis for choosing these state-of-the-art methods is discussed, and the concepts and procedures themselves are reviewed in the absence of standards for ready reference. Besides standards and state-of-the-art practices a third category of methods involves the use of existing data sources or recognized correlations in place of new testing or documentation. It is particularly important that mapping, logging, sampling, testing, interpretation, and analysis be conducted by technically qualified and professionally motivated personnel using appropriate equipment and facilities, and general guidance is provided in this direction. There will be cases where site-specific testing and measurement are indicated to be unnecessary on a technical basis. This report calls attention to the usual subordinate role of such parameters and their only infrequent need for testing

  18. Geology of the Vaalputs radioactive waste disposal site in the Republic of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreoli, M.A.G.; Andersen, N.J.B.; Levin, M.; Niemand, N.

    1987-01-01

    The Vaalputs site is underlain by an extensive veneer of Tertiary and Quaternary deposits covering a crystalline basement of Precambrian age. The geological history of the area, from the oldest to the youngest event, may be summarized as follows: 1. Polyphasic ductile/ductile-brittle deformation and 1 100 Ma old granulite facies metamorphism of a (volcano) sedimentary sequence, and of associated syntectonic to late-tectonic granitic and basic intrusions. 2. Deposition of glacial tillite after a long erosional hiatus in Karoo (Permian) times. The preservation of these rocks is limited to down-faulted structural blocks within the area investigated. 3. Lower Tertiary rejuvenation of older faults and shear zones, accompanied by kimberlitic volcanism, resulted in the uplift of the Kamiesberge mountain range west of the site. Intense erosion of these mountains shed abundant detritus, which accumulated in tectonically controlled troughs and fans. 4. From ca. 25 Ma ago to the Present, tectonic stability and (semi)arid conditions have generally prevailed, leading to an extensive thin cover of calcrete and wind-blown Kalahari sands. The unfaulted, highly impermeable nature of the Vaalputs formation renders it very suitable for the safe disposal of low- to medium-level radioactive waste in the area selected. However, the numerous faults and shear zones in the granitic and gneissic basement will need in-depth investigations should a high-level radwaste repository be required

  19. Framework for evaluating the utility of incentive systems for radioactive waste repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnes, S.A.; Soderstrom, E.J.; Sorensen, J.; Peelle, E.; Reed, J.H.; Bjornstad, D.J.; Copenhaver, E.D.

    1982-01-01

    The importance of social and institutional issues in siting radioactive waste repositories has been recognized in recent years. Within this set of issues, the siting of repositories over the objections of members of potential host communities is viewed as especially problematic. Incentives to potential host communities have been suggested as a means of increasing local support for and offsetting local opposition to such facilities. Incentives are classified according to their function as mitigation, compensation or reward. Our analysis of results of a 1980 survey (conducted by John Kelly, Complex Systems Group, University of New Hampshire) of 420 rural Wisconsin residents indicates that incentives may achieve the purpose of increasing support for and decreasing opposition to accepting a repository. Criteria for evaluating the utility of incentives are identified. They respond to four basic questions: (1) What is absolutely necessary. (2) Will the incentive work. (3) Can the incentive be understood. and (4) What are the consequences of implementing the incentive. It is suggested that meaningful evaluations of incentives can only be performed by members of potential host communities

  20. Radioactivity and nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saas, A.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive wastes generated by nuclear activities must be reprocessed using specific treatments before packaging, storage and disposal. This digest paper gives first a classification of radioactive wastes according to their radionuclides content activity and half-life, and the amount of wastes from the different categories generated each year by the different industries. Then, the radiotoxicity of nuclear wastes is evaluated according to the reprocessing treatments used and to their environmental management (surface storage or burial). (J.S.)

  1. Geochemical information for sites contaminated with low-level radioactive wastes: II. St. Louis Airport Storage Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeley, F.G.; Kelmers, A.D.

    1985-01-01

    The St. Louis Airport Storage Site (SLASS) became radioactively contaminated as a result of wastes that were being stored from operations to recover uranium from pitchblende ores in the 1940s and 1950s. The US Department of Energy is considering various remedial action options for the SLASS under the Formerly Utilized Site Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). This report describes the results of geochemical investigations, carried out to support the FUSRAP activities and to aid in quantifying various remedial action options. Soil and groundwater samples from the site were characterized, and sorption ratios for uranium and radium and apparent concentration limit values for uranium were measured in soil/groundwater systems by batch contact methodology. The uranium and radium concentrations in soil samples were significantly above background near the old contaminated surface horizon (now at the 0.3 - to 0.9 - m depth); the maximum values were 1566 μg/g and 101 pCi/g, respectively. Below about the 6 - m depth, the concentrations appeared to be typical of those naturally present in soils of this area (3.8 +- 1.2 μg/g and 3.1 +- 0.6 pCi/g). Uranium sorption ratios showed stratigraphic trends but were generally moderate to high (100 to 1000 L/kg). The sorption isotherm suggested an apparent uranium concentration limit of about 200 mg/L. This relatively high solubility can probably be correlated with the carbonate content of the soil/groundwater systems. The lower sorption ratio values obtained from the sorption isotherm may have resulted from changes in the experimental procedure or the groundwater used. The SLASS appears to exhibit generally favorable behavior for the retardation of uranium solubilized from waste in the site. Parametric tests were conducted to estimate the sensitivity of uranium sorption and solubility to the pH and carbonate content of the system

  2. Stigma and radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Stigma is a special impact of radioactive waste disposal resulting from the perceptions of risk people have of nuclear waste. In this case, stigma is the devaluing or discrediting of a person, group, or geographical area because of proximity to a nuclear waste disposal site, resulting in negative consequences for the individual and collective (e.g., local economy, community relations, perceived quality of life). As part of a social and economic impact assessment of the proposed HLWR at Hanford Site, WA for Washington State, focus groups were conducted in the Tri-Cities near Hanford to identify stigma effects. Results from the groups showed strong evidence of individual impacts of stigmatization: local residents described prejudice towards them because they live near Hanford which appeared to affect their self-respect, the use of the phrase glowing in the dark by outsiders to symbolize the stigma, and showed concern about the possibility that local products might suffer from reduced demand because of products becoming associated with radioactivity in the public's mind. These results indicate that stigma effects are real and should be studied in research and assessments

  3. Law no. 10.308 of 20th November, 2001 on radioactive waste repositories siting, construction, licensing, operation, inspection, costs, indemnity, civil liability and guarantees concerning to the radioactive wastes repositories and other provisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This Act was published on November 20, 2001 and set forth regulations on the final disposal of radioactive wastes produced in Brazil, including siting, construction, licensing, operation, inspection, costs, indemnities, civil liability and guarantees concerning to the radioactive wastes repositories. This act allows for installation and operation of initial, intermediary and final repositories in accordance with the criteria established by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy National Commission - CNEN. The person or organization granted with CNEN authorization for operation of the initial repositories shall be liable for personal, patrimony and environmental radiological damages. The civil liability of CNEN is concerned to the radioactive waste intermediary and final disposals and transportation

  4. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INCIPIENT SLUDGE MIXING IN RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE STORAGE TANKS DURING SALT SOLUTION BLENDING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Lee, S.; Steeper, T.; Fowley, M.; Parkinson, K.

    2011-01-12

    This paper is the second in a series of four publications to document ongoing pilot scale testing and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of mixing processes in 85 foot diameter, 1.3 million gallon, radioactive liquid waste, storage tanks at Savannah River Site (SRS). Homogeneous blending of salt solutions is required in waste tanks. Settled solids (i.e., sludge) are required to remain undisturbed on the bottom of waste tanks during blending. Suspension of sludge during blending may potentially release radiolytically generated hydrogen trapped in the sludge, which is a safety concern. The first paper (Leishear, et. al. [1]) presented pilot scale blending experiments of miscible fluids to provide initial design requirements for a full scale blending pump. Scaling techniques for an 8 foot diameter pilot scale tank were also justified in that work. This second paper describes the overall reasons to perform tests, and documents pilot scale experiments performed to investigate disturbance of sludge, using non-radioactive sludge simulants. A third paper will document pilot scale CFD modeling for comparison to experimental pilot scale test results for both blending tests and sludge disturbance tests. That paper will also describe full scale CFD results. The final paper will document additional blending test results for stratified layers in salt solutions, scale up techniques, final full scale pump design recommendations, and operational recommendations. Specifically, this paper documents a series of pilot scale tests, where sludge simulant disturbance due to a blending pump or transfer pump are investigated. A principle design requirement for a blending pump is UoD, where Uo is the pump discharge nozzle velocity, and D is the nozzle diameter. Pilot scale test results showed that sludge was undisturbed below UoD = 0.47 ft{sup 2}/s, and that below UoD = 0.58 ft{sup 2}/s minimal sludge disturbance was observed. If sludge is minimally disturbed, hydrogen will not be

  5. Management of Radioactive Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchokosa, P.

    2010-01-01

    Management of Radioactive Wastes is to protect workers and the public from the radiological risk associated with radioactive waste for the present and future. It application of the principles to the management of waste generated in a radioisotope uses in the industry. Any material that contains or is contaminated with radionuclides at concentrations or radioactivity levels greater than ‘exempt quantities’ established by the competent regulatory authorities and for which no further use is foreseen or intended. Origin of the Radioactive Waste includes Uranium and Thorium mining and milling, nuclear fuel cycle operations, Operation of Nuclear power station, Decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities and Institutional uses of isotopes. There are types of radioactive waste: Low-level Waste (LLW) and High-level Waste. The Management Options for Radioactive Waste Depends on Form, Activity, Concentration and half-lives of the radioactive waste, Storage and disposal methods will vary according to the following; the radionuclides present, and their concentration, and radio toxicity. The contamination results basically from: Contact between radioactive materials and any surface especially during handling. And it may occur in the solid, liquid or gas state. Decontamination is any process that will either reduce or completely remove the amount of radionuclides from a contaminated surface

  6. Open site tests on corrosion of carbon steel containers for radioactive waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barinov, A.S.; Ojovan, M.I.; Ojovan, N.V.; Startceva, I.V.; Chujkova, G.N.

    1999-01-01

    Testing of waste containers under open field conditions is a component part of the research program that is being carried out at SIA Radon for more than 20 years to understand the long-term behavior of radioactive waste forms and waste packages. This paper presents the preliminary results of these ongoing studies. The authors used a typical NPP operational waste, containing 137 Cs, 134 Cs, and 60 Co as the dominant radioactive constituents. Bituminized and vitrified waste samples with 30--50 wt.% waste loading were prepared. Combined effects of climatic factors on corrosion behavior of carbon steel containers were estimated using gravimetric and chemical analyses. The observations suggest that uniform corrosion of containers prevails under open field conditions. The upper limits for the lifetime of containers were derived from calculations based on the model of atmospheric steel corrosion. Estimated lifetime values range from 300 to 600 years for carbon steel containers with the wall thickness of 2 mm containing vitrified waste, and from 450 to 500 years for containers with the wall thickness of 2.5 mm that were used for bituminized waste. However, following the most conservative method, pitting corrosion may cause container integrity failure after 60 to 90 years of exposure

  7. Croatian radioactive waste management program: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matanic, R.; Lebegner, J.

    2001-01-01

    Croatia has a responsibility to develop a radioactive waste management program partly due to co-ownership of Krsko nuclear power plant (Slovenia) and partly because of its own medical and industrial radioactive waste. The total amount of generated radioactive waste in Croatia is stored in temporary storages located at two national research institutes, while radioactive waste from Krsko remains in temporary storage on site. National power utility Hrvatska Elektroprivreda (HEP) and Hazardous Waste Management Agency (APO) coordinate the work regarding decommissioning, spent fuel management and low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILRW) management in Croatia. Since the majority of work has been done in developing the LILRW management program, the paper focuses on this part of radioactive waste management. Issues of site selection, repository design, safety assessment and public acceptance are being discussed. A short description of the national radioactive waste management infrastructure has also been presented. (author)

  8. Native Plant Uptake Model for Radioactive Waste Disposal Areas at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Theresa J.; Wirth, Sharon

    1999-01-01

    This report defines and defends the basic framework, methodology, and associated input parameters for modeling plant uptake of radionuclides for use in Performance Assessment (PA) activities of Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). PAs are used to help determine whether waste disposal configurations meet applicable regulatory standards for the protection of human health, the environment, or both. Plants adapted to the arid climate of the NTS are able to rapidly capture infiltrating moisture. In addition to capturing soil moisture, plant roots absorb nutrients, minerals, and heavy metals, transporting them within the plant to the above-ground biomass. In this fashion, plant uptake affects the movement of radionuclides. The plant uptake model presented reflects rooting characteristics important to plant uptake, biomass turnover rates, and the ability of plants to uptake radionuclides from the soil. Parameters are provided for modeling plant uptake and estimating surface contaminant flux due to plant uptake under both current and potential future climate conditions with increased effective soil moisture. The term ''effective moisture'' is used throughout this report to indicate the soil moisture that is available to plants and is intended to be inclusive of all the variables that control soil moisture at a site (e.g., precipitation, temperature, soil texture, and soil chemistry). Effective moisture is a concept used to simplify a number of complex, interrelated soil processes for which there are too little data to model actual plant available moisture. The PA simulates both the flux of radionuclides across the land surface and the potential dose to humans from that flux. Surface flux is modeled here as the amount of soil contamination that is transferred from the soil by roots and incorporated into aboveground biomass. Movement of contaminants to the surface is the only transport mechanism evaluated with the model presented here

  9. Native Plant Uptake Model for Radioactive Waste Disposal Areas at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROWN,THERESA J.; WIRTH,SHARON

    1999-09-01

    This report defines and defends the basic framework, methodology, and associated input parameters for modeling plant uptake of radionuclides for use in Performance Assessment (PA) activities of Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). PAs are used to help determine whether waste disposal configurations meet applicable regulatory standards for the protection of human health, the environment, or both. Plants adapted to the arid climate of the NTS are able to rapidly capture infiltrating moisture. In addition to capturing soil moisture, plant roots absorb nutrients, minerals, and heavy metals, transporting them within the plant to the above-ground biomass. In this fashion, plant uptake affects the movement of radionuclides. The plant uptake model presented reflects rooting characteristics important to plant uptake, biomass turnover rates, and the ability of plants to uptake radionuclides from the soil. Parameters are provided for modeling plant uptake and estimating surface contaminant flux due to plant uptake under both current and potential future climate conditions with increased effective soil moisture. The term ''effective moisture'' is used throughout this report to indicate the soil moisture that is available to plants and is intended to be inclusive of all the variables that control soil moisture at a site (e.g., precipitation, temperature, soil texture, and soil chemistry). Effective moisture is a concept used to simplify a number of complex, interrelated soil processes for which there are too little data to model actual plant available moisture. The PA simulates both the flux of radionuclides across the land surface and the potential dose to humans from that flux. Surface flux is modeled here as the amount of soil contamination that is transferred from the soil by roots and incorporated into aboveground biomass. Movement of contaminants to the surface is the only transport mechanism evaluated with the model

  10. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomek, D.

    1980-01-01

    The prospects of nuclear power development in the USA up to 2000 and the problems of the fuel cycle high-level radioactive waste processing and storage are considered. The problems of liquid and solidified radioactive waste transportation and their disposal in salt deposits and other geologic formations are discussed. It is pointed out that the main part of the high-level radioactive wastes are produced at spent fuel reprocessing plants in the form of complex aqueous mixtures. These mixtures contain the decay products of about 35 isotopes which are the nuclear fuel fission products, about 18 actinides and their daughter products as well as corrosion products of fuel cans and structural materials and chemical reagents added in the process of fuel reprocessing. The high-level radioactive waste management includes the liquid waste cooling which is necessary for the short and middle living isotope decay, separation of some most dangerous components from the waste mixture, waste solidification, their storage and disposal. The conclusion is drawn that the seccessful solution of the high-level radioactive waste management problem will permit to solve the problem of the fuel cycle radioactive waste management as a whole. The salt deposits, shales and clays are the most suitable for radioactive waste disposal [ru

  11. Evaluation of Uncertainty and Sensitivity in Environmental Modeling at a Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, T. B.; Black, P. K.; Catlett, K. M.; Tauxe, J. D.

    2002-05-01

    Environmental modeling is an essential component in the evaluation of regulatory compliance of radioactive waste management sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada, USA. For those sites that are currently operating, further goals are to support integrated decision analysis for the development of acceptance criteria for future wastes, as well as site maintenance, closure, and monitoring. At these RWMSs, the principal pathways for release of contamination to the environment are upward towards the ground surface rather than downwards towards the deep water table. Biotic processes, such as burrow excavation and plant uptake and turnover, dominate this upward transport. A combined multi-pathway contaminant transport and risk assessment model was constructed using the GoldSim modeling platform. This platform facilitates probabilistic analysis of environmental systems, and is especially well suited for assessments involving radionuclide decay chains. The model employs probabilistic definitions of key parameters governing contaminant transport, with the goals of quantifying cumulative uncertainty in the estimation of performance measures and providing information necessary to perform sensitivity analyses. This modeling differs from previous radiological performance assessments (PAs) in that the modeling parameters are intended to be representative of the current knowledge, and the uncertainty in that knowledge, of parameter values rather than reflective of a conservative assessment approach. While a conservative PA may be sufficient to demonstrate regulatory compliance, a parametrically honest PA can also be used for more general site decision-making. In particular, a parametrically honest probabilistic modeling approach allows both uncertainty and sensitivity analyses to be explicitly coupled to the decision framework using a single set of model realizations. For example, sensitivity analysis provides a guide for analyzing the value of collecting more

  12. Management of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site using Decision-based, Probabilistic Performance Assessment Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carilli, J.; Crowe, B.; Black, P.; Tauxe, J.; Stockton, T.; Catlett, K.; Yucel, V.

    2003-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste from cleanup activities at the Nevada Test Site and from multiple sites across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex is disposed at two active Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMS) on the Nevada Test Site. These facilities, which are managed by the DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, were recently designated as one of two regional disposal centers and yearly volumes of disposed waste now exceed 50,000 m3 (> 2 million ft3). To safely and cost-effectively manage the disposal facilities, the Waste Management Division of Environmental Management has implemented decision-based management practices using flexible and problem-oriented probabilistic performance assessment modeling. Deterministic performance assessments and composite analyses were completed originally for the Area 5 and Area 3 RWMSs located in, respectively, Frenchman Flat and Yucca Flat on the Nevada Test Site. These documents provide the technical bases for issuance of disposal authorization statements for continuing operation of the disposal facilities. Both facilities are now in a maintenance phase that requires testing of conceptual models, reduction of uncertainty, and site monitoring all leading to eventual closure of the facilities and transition to long-term stewardship

  13. Radioactive waste problems in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridges, O.; Bridges, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    The collapse of the former Soviet Union, with the consequent shift to a market driven economy and demilitarisation, has had a profound effect on the nuclear and associated industries. The introduction of tighter legislation to control the disposal of radioactive wastes has been delayed and the power and willingness of the various government bodies responsible for its regulation is in doubt. Previously secret information is becoming more accessible and it is apparent that substantial areas of Russian land and surface waters are contaminated with radioactive material. The main sources of radioactive pollution in Russia are similar to those in many western countries. The existing atomic power stations already face problems in the storage and safe disposal of their wastes. These arise because of limited on site capacity for storage and the paucity of waste processing facilities. Many Russian military nuclear facilities also have had a sequence of problems with their radioactive wastes. Attempts to ameliorate the impacts of discharges to important water sources have had variable success. Some of the procedures used have been technically unsound. The Russian navy has traditionally dealt with virtually all of its radioactive wastes by disposal to sea. Many areas of the Barents, Kola and the Sea of Japan are heavily contaminated. To deal with radioactive wastes 34 large and 257 small disposal sites are available. However, the controls at these sites are often inadequate and illegal dumps of radioactive waste abound. Substantial funding will be required to introduce the necessary technologies to achieve acceptable standards for the storage and disposal of radioactive wastes in Russia. (author)

  14. Radioactive waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werthamer, N.R.

    1977-01-01

    The State of New York, some 15 years ago, became a party to an attempt to commercialize the reprocessing and storage of spent nuclear fuels at the West Valley Reprocessing Facility operated by Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. (NFS). That attempted commercialization, and the State of New York, have fallen victim to changing Federal policies in the United States, leaving an outstanding and unique radioactive waste management problem unresolved. At the beginning of construction in 1963, the AEC assured both NFS and New York State of the acceptability of long-term liquid tank storage for high level wastes, and New York State ERDA therefore agreed to become the responsible long-lived stable institution whose oversight was needed. It was understood that perpetual care and maintenance of the wastes, as liquid, in on-site underground tanks, would provide for safe and secure storage in perpetuity. All that was thought to be required was the replacement of the tanks near the end of their 40-year design life, and the transferring of the contents; for this purpose, a perpetual care trust fund was established. In March of 1972, NFS shut West Valley down for physical expansion, requiring a new construction permit from the AEC. After four years of administrative proceedings, NFS concluded that changes in Federal regulations since the original operating license had been issued would require about 600 million dollars if operations were to resume. In the fall of 1976, NFS informed the NRC, of its intention of closing the reprocessing business. The inventories of wastes left are listed. The premises upon which the original agreements were based are no longer valid. Federal responsibilities for radioactive wastes require Federal ownership of the West Valley site. The views of New York State ERDA are discussed in detail

  15. Site selection criteria for the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falconer, K.L.; Hull, L.C.; Mizell, S.A.

    The shallow land burial of low-level waste must be accomplished in a manner that ensures the public and biosphere are protected from harmful amounts of radiation. This can be attained by selecting, designing, operating and closing sites such that contaminants never leave the site boundary in levels above regulatory limits. Site design, operation and closure are all functions of the characteristics of the site selected. As a result, the site selection process offers the most effective means for optimizing safe, efficient and economical low-level waste burial practices. The purpose of this document is to set forth criteria for the selection of shallow land burial sites. Criteria are standard rules, by which the ability of a site to meet waste management goals can be judged. They are comprehensive, universal, and qualitative and are applicable in any geologic environment. Site selection criteria provide the framework for the siting process

  16. Radioactive waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  17. Understanding radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    This book discusses the sources and health effects of radioactive wastes. It reveals the techniques to concentrate and immobilize radioactivity and examines the merits of various disposal ideas. The book, which is designed for the lay reader, explains the basic science of atoms,nuclear particles,radioactivity, radiation and health effects

  18. ORNL radioactive waste operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sease, J.D.; King, E.M.; Coobs, J.H.; Row, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    Since its beginning in 1943, ORNL has generated large amounts of solid, liquid, and gaseous radioactive waste material as a by-product of the basic research and development work carried out at the laboratory. The waste system at ORNL has been continually modified and updated to keep pace with the changing release requirements for radioactive wastes. Major upgrading projects are currently in progress. The operating record of ORNL waste operation has been excellent over many years. Recent surveillance of radioactivity in the Oak Ridge environs indicates that atmospheric concentrations of radioactivity were not significantly different from other areas in East Tennesseee. Concentrations of radioactivity in the Clinch River and in fish collected from the river were less than 4% of the permissible concentration and intake guides for individuals in the offsite environment. While some radioactivity was released to the environment from plant operations, the concentrations in all of the media sampled were well below established standards

  19. 2010 Annual Summary Report for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office performed an annual review of the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) Performance Assessments (PAs) and Composite Analyses (CAs) in fiscal year (FY) 2010. This annual summary report presents data and conclusions from the FY 2010 review, and determines the adequacy of the PAs and CAs. Operational factors (e.g., waste forms and containers, facility design, and waste receipts), closure plans, monitoring results, and research and development (R and D) activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the PAs. Likewise, the environmental restoration activities at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) (formerly the Nevada Test Site) relevant to the sources of residual radioactive material that are considered in the CAs, the land-use planning, and the results of the environmental monitoring and R and D activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the CAs.

  20. Regional groundwater chemical characteristics of Aqishan pre-selected site for high level radioactive waste repository and its hydrogeological significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghai; Dong Jiannan; Liu Shufen; Zhou Zhichao

    2014-01-01

    Aqishan area located in Xinjiang Uygur Automonous Region is one of the main preselected site of disposal repository for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in our country. Groundwater chemical feature is one of the most important consideration factors in the siting and site evaluation for high-level radioactive waste repository, From 2012 to 2013, the regional field hydrogeochemical investigation was carried out in study area and more than 30 groundwater samples were collected. According to the measurement data, the groundwater chemical features for different subareas are discussed in the paper. Furthermore, the location of discharge area of groundwater in Aqishan area was estimated according to the chemical features of different subareas. (authors)

  1. Issues on safe radioactive waste management at ChNPP site in International Shelter Implementation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bykov, V.; Kilochytska, T.; Gromyko, S.; Kadkin, Y.; Kondratiev, S.; Pavlenko, A.; Bogorinski, P.

    2003-01-01

    The International Shelter Implementation Plan (SIP) [1], is aimed to convert the ChNPP unit 4, destroyed by a beyond-design accident in 1986, into an environmentally safe facility by means of large-scale projects such as stabilization of the existing Sarcophagus (Shelter), construction of a New Safe Confinement (NSC), and installation of engineering and monitoring systems. This report presents some important safety issues concerning radioactive waste (RAW) management at the Shelter. One of the main problems of RAW management is to dispose of large volumes of RAW generated during ground preparation work. It is necessary that RAW be sorted carefully to separate low-active radioactive waste (LLW), which will be the majority, from high-level waste. Considering the fact that the Shelter is in the exclusion zone, the interim storage of LLW in this zone is possible, but a set of safety measures is required, e.g. prevention of dust generation or spreading of radioactivity with water. Another problem is high level RAW management. Highly radioactive fragments of the core, including fuel were ejected during the accident and are now buried under the man-made layer around the Shelter. Unanticipated disclosure of such fragments may happen during any ground preparation work as well as during clearing of premises inside the damaged buildings. Therefore, permanent radiation monitoring is required to prevent any intolerable exposure of workers. Unanticipated disclosure of high-active radioactive waste (HLW) could lead to considerable delay of any work. Since it is particularly difficult to remove HLW from those locations, which can not be easily accessed with removal equipment, such waste needs to be confined and properly shielded at in situ. Due to absence of a permanent HLW storage, an interim storage needs to be provided for in the territory of the Sarcophagus. (author)

  2. Geotechnical reduction of void ratio in low-level radioactive waste burial sites: treatment alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Carlson, R.A.; McGuire, H.E.

    1981-01-01

    A substantial quantity of low-level radioactive and hazardous wastes has been interred in shallow land burial structures throughout the United States. Many of these structures (trenches, pits, and landfills) have proven to be unstable. Some surface feature manifestations such as large cracks, basins, and cave-ins are caused by voids filling and physico-chemical degradation and solubilization of the buried wastes which could result in the release of contamination. The surface features represent a potential for increased contamination transport to the biosphere via water, air, biologic, and direct pathways. Engineering alternatives for the reduction of buried waste and matrix materials voids are identified and discussed. As a guideline, a reduction of the voids within the waste to 80% or more of maximum relative dry density (a measure of in situ voids within the waste) is proposed. The advantages, disadvantages, and costs of each alternative are evaluated. Falling mass and pile driving engineering alternatives were selected for further development

  3. Review of the continued suitability of the dumping site for radioactive waste in the North-East Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    Under the terms of the Decision of the OECD Council establishing a Multilateral Consultation and Surveillance Mechanism for Sea Dumping of Radioactive Waste, NEA is requested to assess, in consultation with the Environment Committee, the suitability of dumping sites proposed by the national authorities of Participating countries and to keep under review those previously considered suitable. Since 1974 radioactive waste sea dumping operations have been carried out in a single site located in the North-East Atlantic region. To fulfil the objectives of the Council Decision, an international group of oceanographic and radiation protection experts was convened by NEA in November 1979 to undertake a review of the continued suitability of the dumping site, taking into account the relevant provisions of the London Dumping Convention and the IAEA Definition and Recommendations for the purposes of the Convention. The results of the review are contained in this Report. The Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy confirmed in April 1980 that, on the basis of the review, the existing site was suitable for continued dumping of radioactive waste for the next five years, under the conditions specified by the Group of Experts in their conclusions and recommendations. At the same time, the Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy agreed on the need for developing a co-ordinated site-specific scientific programme to increase current knowledge of the processes controlling the transfert of radionuclides in the marine environment, so that future assessments can be based on more accurate and comprehensive scientific data

  4. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 5. Thise, Skive Municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area Thise, in the Municipality of Skive, northern Jutland. (LN)

  5. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 2. Roedbyhavn, Lolland Municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area at Roedbyhavn in the Municipality of Lolland, southern Denmark. (LN)

  6. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 3. Kertinge Mark, Kerteminde Municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area Kertinge Mark in the Municipality of Kerteminde, the island Funen. (LN)

  7. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 4. Hvidbjerg, Thyholm, Struer Municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area Hvidbjerg, Thyholm, in the Municipality of Struer, northern Jutland. (LN)

  8. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 6. Skive Vest, Skive Municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area Skive Vest, in the Municipality of Skive, northern Jutland. (LN)

  9. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 1. Oestermarie - Paradisbakkerne, Bornholm Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area at Oestermarie-Paradisbakkerne in the region of Bornholm, East Denmark. (LN)

  10. Krsko NPP radioactive waste characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skanata, D.; Kroselj, V.; Jankovic, M.

    2007-01-01

    In May 2005 Krsko NPP initiated the Radioactive Waste Characterization Project and commissioned its realization to the consulting company Enconet International, Zagreb. The Agency for Radwaste Management was invited to participate on the Project. The Project was successfully closed out in August 2006. The main Project goal consisted of systematization the existing and gathering the missing radiological, chemical, physical, mechanical, thermal and biological information and data on radioactive waste. In a general perspective, the Project may also be considered as a part of broader scope of activities to support state efforts to find a disposal solution for radioactive waste in Slovenia. The operational low and intermediate level radioactive waste has been structured into 6 waste streams that contain evaporator concentrates and tank sludges, spent ion resins, spent filters, compressible and non-compressible waste as well as specific waste. For each of mentioned waste streams, process schemes have been developed including raw waste, treatment and conditioning technologies, waste forms, containers and waste packages. In the paper the main results of the Characterization Project will be briefly described. The results will indicate that there are 17 different types of raw waste that have been processed by applying 9 treatment/conditioning technologies. By this way 18 different waste forms have been produced and stored into 3 types of containers. Within each type of container several combinations should be distinguished. Considering all of this, there are 34 different types of waste packages altogether that are currently stored in the Solid Radwaste Storage Facility at the Krsko NPP site. Because of these findings a new identification system has been recommended and consequently the improvement of the existing database on radioactive waste has been proposed. The potential areas of further in depth characterization are indicated. In the paper a brief description on the

  11. Environmental monitoring report for commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites (1960`s through 1990`s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    During the time period covered in this report (1960`s through early 1990`s), six commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities have been operated in the US. This report provides environmental monitoring data collected at each site. The report summarizes: (1) each site`s general design, (2) each site`s inventory, (3) the environmental monitoring program for each site and the data obtained as the program has evolved, and (4) what the program has indicated about releases to off-site areas, if any, including a statement of the actual health and safety significance of any release. A summary with conclusions is provided at the end of each site`s chapter. The six commercial LLRW disposal sites discussed are located near: Sheffield, Illinois; Maxey Flats, Kentucky; Beatty, Nevada; West Valley, New York; Barnwell, South Carolina; Richland, Washington.

  12. Site selection criteria for shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falconer, K.L.; Hull, L.C.; Mizell, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    Twelve site selection criteria are presented. These are: (1) site shall be of sufficient area and depth to accommodate the projected volume of waste and a three dimensional buffer zone; (2) site should allow waste to be buried either completely above or below the transition zone between the unsaturated and saturated zones; (3) site should be located where flooding will not jeopardize performance; (4) site should be located where erosion will not jeopardize performance; (5) site should be located in areas where hydrogeologic conditions allow reliable performance prediction; (6) site should be located where geologic hazards will not jeopardize performance; (7) site should be selected with considerations given to those characteristics of earth materials and water chemistry that favor increased residence times and/or attenuation of radionuclide concentrations within site boundaries; (8) site should be selected with consideration given to current and projected population distributions; (9) site should be selected with consideration given to current and projected land use and resource development; (10) site should be selected with consideration given to location of waste generation, access to all-weather highway and rail routes, and access utilities; (11) site should be selected consistent with federal laws and regulations; (12) site should not be located within areas that are protected from such use by federal laws and regulations. These criteria are considered preliminary and do not necessarily represent the position of the Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program

  13. Guidelines for radiological performance assessment of DOE low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, M.J.; Otis, M.D.

    1988-07-01

    This document provides guidance for conducting radiological performance assessments of Department of Energy (DOE) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. The guidance is specifically intended to provide the fundamental approach necessary to meet the performance assessment requirements. The document is written for LLW facility operators or other personnel who will manage the performance assessment task. The document is meant to provide guidance for conducting performance assessments in a generally consistent manner at all DOE LLW disposal facilities. The guidance includes a summary of performance objectives to be met by LLW disposal facilities (these objectives are derived from current DOE and other applicable federal regulatory guidelines); specific criteria for an adequate performance assessment and from which a minimum set of required calculations may be determined; recommendations of methods for screening critical components of the analysis system so that these components can be addressed in detail; recommendations for the selection of existing models and the development of site-specific models; recommendations of techniques for comparison of assessment results with performance objectives; and a summary of reporting requirements

  14. Site characterization program at the radioactive waste management complex of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, D.L.; Rawson, S.A.; Hubbell, J.M.; Minkin, S.C.; Baca, R.G.; Vigil, M.J.; Bonzon, C.J.; Landon, J.L.; Laney, P.T.

    1989-07-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Site Characterization Program is a continuation of the Subsurface Investigation Program (SIP). The scope of the SIP has broadened in response to the results of past work that identified hazardous as well as radionuclide contaminants in the subsurface environment and in response to the need to meet regulatory requirements. Two deep boreholes were cored at the RWMC during FY-1988. Selected sediment samples were submitted for Appendix IX of 40 CFR Part 264 and radionuclide analyses. Detailed geologic logging of archived core was initiated. Stratigraphic studies of the unsaturated zone were conducted. Studies to determine hydrologic properties of sediments and basalts were conducted. Geochemical studies and analyses were initiated to evaluate contaminant and radionuclide speciation and migration in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) geochemical environment. Analyses of interbed sediments in boreholes D15 and 8801D did not confirm the presence of radionuclide contamination in the 240-ft interbed. Analyses of subsurface air and groundwater samples identified five volatile organic compounds of concern: carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, chloroform, and tetrachloroethylene. 33 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Site characterization program at the radioactive waste management complex of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElroy, D.L.; Rawson, S.A.; Hubbell, J.M.; Minkin, S.C.; Baca, R.G.; Vigil, M.J.; Bonzon, C.J.; Landon, J.L.; Laney, P.T.

    1989-07-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Site Characterization Program is a continuation of the Subsurface Investigation Program (SIP). The scope of the SIP has broadened in response to the results of past work that identified hazardous as well as radionuclide contaminants in the subsurface environment and in response to the need to meet regulatory requirements. Two deep boreholes were cored at the RWMC during FY-1988. Selected sediment samples were submitted for Appendix IX of 40 CFR Part 264 and radionuclide analyses. Detailed geologic logging of archived core was initiated. Stratigraphic studies of the unsaturated zone were conducted. Studies to determine hydrologic properties of sediments and basalts were conducted. Geochemical studies and analyses were initiated to evaluate contaminant and radionuclide speciation and migration in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) geochemical environment. Analyses of interbed sediments in boreholes D15 and 8801D did not confirm the presence of radionuclide contamination in the 240-ft interbed. Analyses of subsurface air and groundwater samples identified five volatile organic compounds of concern: carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, chloroform, and tetrachloroethylene. 33 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Social assessment of siting a low-level radioactive waste storage facility in Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffle, R.W.; Traugott, M.J.; Stone, J.V.; McIntyre, P.D.; Davidson, C.C.; Jensen, F.V.; Coover, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents findings from a social assessment of siting a low-level radioactive waste storage facility in Michigan. Social assessments derive from direct interaction between researchers and study participants. The report is organized into five chapters. Chapter One, Summary of Findings, focuses on key findings from the statewide telephone surveys and the in-depth ethnographic study conducted by the SNR/ISR study team. These and additional findings are discussed in greater detail in the three subsequent chapters. Chapter Two, Statewide Telephone Survey Findings, presents the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs statewide residents have regarding the LLRW project. Chapter Three, Statewide Demographic Findings, presents a detailed examination of differences among various demographic groups and includes regional analysis. Chapter Four, Hillsdale-area Ethnographic Study Findings, discusses perceived impacts of the proposed LLRW storage facility on local residents who mistakenly came to believe that their area had been specially selected as the location for the facility. Specifically, the chapter presents the development, spread, shape and persistence of what is termed a risk perception shadow in the greater Hillsdale area. Possible causes of the shadow also are discussed, and comparisons are made between statewide and Hillsdale-area survey populations. Chapter Five, Research Methods, presents a discussion of the social assessment research methods used to derive these findings

  17. Social acceptance process model for ensuring the high-level radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Ryutaro; Tanaka, Satoru; Nagasaki, Shinya

    2009-01-01

    Generally speaking, a vast, advanced and unfamiliar science and technology are unacceptable to the public for fear of their unknown nature. Here, the social acceptance process model was examined on the basis of the analysis of the cause phenomenon and numerical grounds, by referring to the problems on the application of literature documentation for location examination of a high-level radioactive waste disposal site in Toyo town in Kochi Pref. in April 2007. In analyzing the Toyo town case, we have found a possibility that the majority of local residents knew very little about the object opposed by the fringe route processing. To ensure a healthy decision making by the public, it is vital to convey fundamental information using sufficient wide-area PR media before the issue becomes actual. After the issue becomes actual, dialog with residents through a careful technology assessment is indispensable. The authors focus attention on the decision-making process of human beings from the social and psychological viewpoints, and point out that it is desirable for promoting social acceptance by adopting two approaches: a direct approach aiming at better intelligibility for the different resident layers and a deductive approach in technological essence. (author)

  18. Analysis and evaluation of a radioactive waste package retrieved from the Farallon Islands 900-meter disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, P.; Kendig, M.W.

    1990-09-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was given a Congressional mandate to develop criteria and regulations governing the ocean disposal of all forms of waste. The EPA taken an active role both nationally and within the international nuclear regulatory community to develop the effective controls necessary to protect the health and safety of man and the marine environment. The EPA Office of Radiation Programs (ORP) first initiated feasibility studies to determine whether current technologies could be applied toward determining the fate of radioactive waste disposed of in the past. After successfully locating actual radioactive waste packages in formerly used disposal sites, in the United States, the Office of Radiation Programs developed an intensive program of site characterization studies to examine biological, chemical and physical characteristics including evaluations of the concentration and distribution of radionuclides within these sites, and has conducted a performance evaluation of past packaging techniques and materials. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has performed container corrosion and matrix analysis studies on the recovered radioactive waste packages. This report presents the final results of laboratory analyses performed. 17 refs., 40 figs., 7 tabs

  19. Analysis and evaluation of a radioactive waste package retrieved from the Farallon Islands 900-meter disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombo, P.; Kendig, M.W.

    1990-09-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was given a Congressional mandate to develop criteria and regulations governing the ocean disposal of all forms of waste. The EPA taken an active role both nationally and within the international nuclear regulatory community to develop the effective controls necessary to protect the health and safety of man and the marine environment. The EPA Office of Radiation Programs (ORP) first initiated feasibility studies to determine whether current technologies could be applied toward determining the fate of radioactive waste disposed of in the past. After successfully locating actual radioactive waste packages in formerly used disposal sites, in the United States, the Office of Radiation Programs developed an intensive program of site characterization studies to examine biological, chemical and physical characteristics including evaluations of the concentration and distribution of radionuclides within these sites, and has conducted a performance evaluation of past packaging techniques and materials. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has performed container corrosion and matrix analysis studies on the recovered radioactive waste packages. This report presents the final results of laboratory analyses performed. 17 refs., 40 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Fate and transport processes controlling the migration of hazardous and radioactive materials from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrella, R.

    1994-10-01

    Desert vadose zones have been considered as suitable environments for the safe and long-term isolation of hazardous wastes. Low precipitation, high evapotranspiration and thick unsaturated alluvial deposits commonly found in deserts make them attractive as waste disposal sites. The fate and transport of any contaminant in the subsurface is ultimately determined by the operating retention and transformation processes in the system and the end result of the interactions among them. Retention (sorption) and transformation are the two major processes that affect the amount of a contaminant present and available for transport. Retention processes do not affect the total amount of a contaminant in the soil system, but rather decrease or eliminate the amount available for transport at a given point in time. Sorption reactions retard the contaminant migration. Permanent binding of solute by the sorbent is also possible. These processes and their interactions are controlled by the nature of the hazardous waste, the properties of the porous media and the geochemical and environmental conditions (temperature, moisture and vegetation). The present study summarizes the available data and investigates the fate and transport processes that govern the migration of contaminants from the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). While the site is currently used only for low-level radioactive waste disposal, past practices have included burial of material now considered hazardous. Fundamentals of chemical and biological transformation processes are discussed subsequently, followed by a discussion of relevant results

  1. Fate and transport processes controlling the migration of hazardous and radioactive materials from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrella, R.

    1994-10-01

    Desert vadose zones have been considered as suitable environments for the safe and long-term isolation of hazardous wastes. Low precipitation, high evapotranspiration and thick unsaturated alluvial deposits commonly found in deserts make them attractive as waste disposal sites. The fate and transport of any contaminant in the subsurface is ultimately determined by the operating retention and transformation processes in the system and the end result of the interactions among them. Retention (sorption) and transformation are the two major processes that affect the amount of a contaminant present and available for transport. Retention processes do not affect the total amount of a contaminant in the soil system, but rather decrease or eliminate the amount available for transport at a given point in time. Sorption reactions retard the contaminant migration. Permanent binding of solute by the sorbent is also possible. These processes and their interactions are controlled by the nature of the hazardous waste, the properties of the porous media and the geochemical and environmental conditions (temperature, moisture and vegetation). The present study summarizes the available data and investigates the fate and transport processes that govern the migration of contaminants from the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). While the site is currently used only for low-level radioactive waste disposal, past practices have included burial of material now considered hazardous. Fundamentals of chemical and biological transformation processes are discussed subsequently, followed by a discussion of relevant results.

  2. Disposal of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-01-15

    The problem of disposal can be tackled in two ways: the waste can be diluted and dispersed so that the radiation to which any single individual would be subjected would be negligible, or it can be concentrated and permanently isolated from man and his immediate environment. A variety of methods for the discharge of radioactive waste into the ground were described at the Monaco conference. They range from letting liquid effluent run into pits or wells at appropriately chosen sites to the permanent storage of high activity material at great depth in geologically suitable strata. Another method discussed consists in the incorporation of high level fission products in glass which is either buried or stored in vaults. Waste disposal into rivers, harbours, outer continental shelves and the open sea as well as air disposal are also discussed. Many of the experts at the Monaco conference were of the view that most of the proposed, or actually applied, methods of waste disposal were compatible with safety requirements. Some experts, felt that certain of these methods might not be harmless. This applied to the possible hazards of disposal in the sea. There seemed to be general agreement, however, that much additional research was needed to devise more effective and economical methods of disposal and to gain a better knowledge of the effects of various types of disposal operations, particularly in view of the increasing amounts of waste material that will be produced as the nuclear energy industry expands

  3. In-service Inspection of Radioactive Waste Tanks at the Savannah River Site – 15410

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, Bruce [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Maryak, Matthew [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Baxter, Lindsay [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States); Harris, Stephen [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Elder, James [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-12

    Liquid radioactive wastes from the Savannah River Site (SRS) separation process are stored in large underground carbon steel tanks. The high level wastes are processed in several of the tanks and then transferred by piping to other site facilities for further processing before they are stabilized in a vitrified or grout waste form. Based on waste removal and processing schedules, many of the tanks will be required to be in service for times exceeding the initial intended life. Until the waste is removed from storage, transferred, and processed, the materials and structures of the tanks must maintain a confinement function by providing a barrier to the environment and by maintaining acceptable structural stability during design basis events, which include loadings from both normal service and abnormal (e.g., earthquake) conditions. A structural integrity program is in place to maintain the structural and leak integrity functions of these waste tanks throughout their intended service life. In-service inspection (ISI) is an essential element of a comprehensive structural integrity program for the waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The ISI program was developed to determine the degree of degradation the waste tanks have experienced due to service conditions. As a result of the inspections, an assessment can be made of the effectiveness of corrosion controls for the waste chemistry, which precludes accelerated localized and general corrosion of the waste tanks. Ultrasonic inspections (UT) are performed to detect and quantify the degree of general wall thinning, pitting and cracking as a measure of tank degradation. The results from these inspections through 2013, for the 27 Type III/IIIA tanks, indicate no reportable in-service corrosion degradation in the primary tank (i.e., general, pitting, or cracking). The average wall thickness for all tanks remains above the manufactured nominal thickness minus 0.25 millimeter and the largest pit identified is

  4. Radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alter, U.

    1988-01-01

    For the Federal Government the safe disposal of waste from nuclear power plants constitutes the precondition for their further operation. The events in the year 1987 about the conditioning and transport of low activity waste and medium activity waste made it clear that it was necessary to intensify state control and to examine the structures in the field of waste disposal. A concept for the control of radioactive waste with negligible heat development (LAW) from nuclear installations is presented. (DG) [de

  5. Socio-economic aspects and public opinion concerning radioactive waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, V.

    1998-01-01

    Spain has nine nuclear power units in operation covering 33% of the country's electricity consumption. Radioactive waste management in Spain is carried out by Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S.A. (ENRESA), a public sector company created by the Government in 1984. ENRESA has developed a management system for low and intermediate level waste. For spent fuel and high level waste, it has enlarged the capacity of the reactor pools and has licensed, in the United States and in Spain, a dual-use container for use in case the capacity of any pool is exhausted before the end of the reactor's service life. In Spain, as in all other countries, there is public opposition to radioactive waste management. This opposition is basically attributable to the lack of objective information causing the public to base its opinion on the alarmist approach taken by the mass media reports on radioactivity or nuclear power plants. ENRESA has had to conduct its activities in this context, pursuing an active policy of communication and information. (author)

  6. An informal judgment assessment of subsidence mitigation options for low-level radioactive waste management on the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.; Besinger, H.; Dolenc, M.

    1999-01-01

    An assessment of options to mitigate the effects of subsidence at low-level radioactive waste disposal sites on the Nevada Test Site was conducted using an informal method of expert judgment. Mitigation options for existing waste cells and future waste cells were identified by a committee composed of knowledgeable personnel from the DOE and DOE-contractors. Eight ranking factors were developed to assess the mitigation options and these factors were scored through elicitation of consensus views from the committee. Different subsets of the factors were applied respectively, to existing waste cells and future waste cells, and the resulting scores were ranked using weighted and unweighted scores. These scores show that there is a large number of viable mitigation options and considerable flexibility in assessing the subsidence issue with a greater range of options for future waste cells compared to existing waste cells. A highly ranked option for both existing and future waste cells is covering the waste cells with a thick closure cap of native alluvium

  7. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morley, F.

    1980-01-01

    A summary is given of the report of an Expert Group appointed in 1976 to consider the 1959 White Paper 'The Control of Radioactive Wastes' in the light of the changes that have taken place since it was written and with the extended remit of examining 'waste management' rather than the original 'waste disposal'. The Group undertook to; review the categories and quantities present and future of radioactive wastes, recommend the principles for the proper management of these wastes, advise whether any changes in practice or statutory controls are necessary and make recommendations. (UK)

  8. Encapsulation of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pordes, O.; Plows, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for encapsulating a particular radioactive waste which consists of suspending the waste in a viscous liquid encapsulating material, of synthetic resin monomers or prepolymers, and setting the encapsulating material by addition or condensation polymerization to form a solid material in which the waste is dispersed. (author)

  9. Radioactive Waste and Clean-up Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collard, G.

    2001-01-01

    The main objectives of the Radioactive Waste and Clean-up division of SCK-CEN are outlined. The division's programme consists of research, development and demonstration projects and aims to contribute to the objectives of Agenda 21 on sustainable development in the field of radioactive waste and rehabilitation of radioactively contaminated sites

  10. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Neutron Products Incorporated Sealed Source Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-08-31

    The purpose of this special analysis (SA) is to determine if the Neutron Products Incorporated (NPI) Sealed Sources waste stream (DRTK000000056, Revision 0) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The NPI Sealed Sources waste stream consists of 850 60Co sealed sources (Duratek [DRTK] 2013). The NPI Sealed Sources waste stream requires a special analysis (SA) because the waste stream 60Co activity concentration exceeds the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels.

  11. Problems in siting low level radioactive wastes: A focus on public participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bord, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Public participation programs must develop a means to enlist meaningful public feedback. Besides the traditional public meetings, which generally mobilize the opposition, careful surveys can be done of a representative spectrum of the public getting their judgments about specific criteria. These judgments can be used to shape siting policy. Such an approach would help avoid the criticism that public input is not taken into account. While the suggestions included in this paper go far in dealing with public fear and distrust they cannot guarantee siting success. There are a number of uncontrollable contingencies that can affect any siting program. Another energy crises, for example, may increase the prestige of the nuclear industry and make LLRW siting less onerous. Or, new broadcasts of waste site failures or of nuclear accidents could make LLRW siting more problematic. The problems of waste siting will not disappear nor are the solutions easy ones. They demand serious consideration by talented scientists of all kinds. Waste siting difficulties certainly rank near the top of challenges facing advanced industrial societies. Attempts to site wastes of all kinds have foundered because of strong public opposition. LLRW siting attempts are certain to meet similar problems. Local communities tend to see little or no benefits but high costs in hosting waste sites. Fear of pollution, the unknown aspects of radiation risks, a lack of confidence in governmental agencies, are all factors promoting public resistance. Compounding these problems has been the failure of citizen participation programs to fulfill the functions for which they were designed. Instead of fostering more open communication, regulating conflict, and generating better ideas, participation programs dealing with waste siting tend to generate more conflict and mobilize determined opposition

  12. Classification of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive wastes are generated in a number of different kinds of facilities and arise in a wide range of concentrations of radioactive materials and in a variety of physical and chemical forms. To simplify their management, a number of schemes have evolved for classifying radioactive waste according to the physical, chemical and radiological properties of significance to those facilities managing this waste. These schemes have led to a variety of terminologies, differing from country to country and even between facilities in the same country. This situation makes it difficult for those concerned to communicate with one another regarding waste management practices. This document revises and updates earlier IAEA references on radioactive waste classification systems given in IAEA Technical Reports Series and Safety Series. Guidance regarding exemption of materials from regulatory control is consistent with IAEA Safety Series and the RADWASS documents published under IAEA Safety Series. 11 refs, 2 figs, 2 tab

  13. Radioactive waste interim storage in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    The short summary on the radioactive waste interim storage in Germany covers the following issues: importance of interim storage in the frame of radioactive waste management, responsibilities and regulations, waste forms, storage containers, transport of vitrified high-level radioactive wastes from the reprocessing plants, central interim storage facilities (Gorleben, Ahaus, Nord/Lubmin), local interim storage facilities at nuclear power plant sites, federal state collecting facilities, safety, radiation exposure in Germany.

  14. Characterization and hydrogeological modelling of a site for disposal of medium- and low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavie, J.; Peaudecerf, P.

    1993-01-01

    Characterization studies of the French low-and intermediate-level radwaste site in the Aube Department includes a significant hydrogeological appraisal element. These studies are based upon geological, hydrogeological, and hydrodynamic measurements. The data are compiled into a model of the ground water- body. Data collection is continuous. The hydrodynamic model and the transport model is regularly validated for ANDRA (French National Radioactive Waste Disposal Agency) with a reliable and up-dated tool

  15. Mobile hot cell transition design phase study for radioactive waste treatment on the Hanford reservation site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pons, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: At the US Department of Energy's Hanford Reservation site, 4 caissons in under ground storage contain approximately 23 cubic meters of Transuranic (TRU) waste, in over 5,000 small packages. The retrieval of these wastes presents a number of very difficult issues, including the configuration of the vaults, approximately 50,000 curies of activity, high dose rates, and damaged/degraded waste packages. The waste will require remote retrieval and processing sufficient to produce certifiable RH-TRU waste packages. This RH-TRU will be packaged for staging on site until certification by CCP is completed to authorize shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The project has introduced AREVA' s innovative Hot Mobile Cell (HMC) technology to perform size reduction, sorting, characterization, and packaging of the RH waste stream at the point of generation, the retrieval site in the field. This approach minimizes dose and hazard exposure to workers that is usually associated with this operation. The HMC can also be used to provide employee protection, weather protection, and capacity improvements similar to those realized in general burial ground. AREVA TA and his partner AFS will provide this technology based on the existing HMCs developed and operated in France: - ERFB (Bituminized Waste Drum Retrieval Facility): ERFB was built specifically for retrieving the bituminized waste drums (approximately 6,000 stored in trenches in the North zone on the Marcoule site (in operation since 2001). - ERCF (Waste Drum Recovery and Packaging Facility): The ERCF was built specifically to retrieve bituminized waste drums stored in 35 pits located in the south area on Marcoule site (in operation) - FOSSEA (Legacy Waste Removal and Trench Cleanup): The FOSSEA project consists of the retrieval of waste stored on the Basic Nuclear Facility. Waste from the 56 trenches will be inspected, characterised, and if necessary processed or repackaged, and

  16. A Comparison of Rheology Data for Radioactive and Stimulant Savannah River Site Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KOOPMAN, DAVIDC.

    2004-01-01

    This document reviews radioactive and simulant rheology data on SRS waste slurries. Simulant sludge slurries have been prepared at Optima: Tank 51 for Sludge Batch 1A (SB1A) and trimmed for Sludge Batch 1B (SB1B), at USC-Columbia: Tank 8 and Tank 40 for Sludge Batch 2 (SB2), and at Clemson Environmental Technology Laboratory (CETL): SB2, Sludge Batch 3 (SB3), and several generic simulants. Various radioactive waste tank slurry samples have been analyzed for rheology in the SRTC Shielded Cells during the past 25 years. More recently, some rheological measurements have been made on the DWPF qualification samples for new sludge batches or on special samples pulled to help with resolution of processing issues. This document attempts to make comparisons of rheological data for systems where there were both some radioactive slurry data and some potentially similar simulant slurry data. The Approach section describes the basic data types encountered, e.g. sludges, Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) products, and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) products. The last are equivalent to melter feeds. This is followed by a discussion of rheometry and the Bingham Plastic fluid model. This model has been used to reduce rheological data on SRS waste slurries over the past twenty years

  17. 222-S radioactive liquid waste line replacement and 219-S secondary containment upgrade, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to: (1) replace the 222-S Laboratory (222-S) radioactive liquid waste drain lines to the 219-S Waste Handling Facility (219-S); (2) upgrade 219-S by replacing or upgrading the waste storage tanks and providing secondary containment and seismic restraints to the concrete cells which house the tanks; and (3) replace the transfer lines from 219-S to the 241-SY Tank Farm. This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended, the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing the Procedural Provisions of NEPA (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 1500-1508), and the DOE Implementing Procedures for NEPA (10 CFR 1021). 222-S is used to perform analytical services on radioactive samples in support of the Tank Waste Remediation System and Hanford Site environmental restoration programs. Activities conducted at 222-S include decontamination of analytical processing and support equipment and disposal of nonarchived radioactive samples. These activities generate low-level liquid mixed waste. The liquid mixed waste is drained through pipelines in the 222-S service tunnels and underground concrete encasements, to two of three tanks in 219-S, where it is accumulated. 219-S is a treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) unit, and is therefore required to meet Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303, Dangerous Waste Regulations, and the associated requirements for secondary containment and leak detection. The service tunnels are periodically inspected by workers and decontaminated as necessary to maintain as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) radiation levels. Although no contamination is reaching the environment from the service tunnels, the risk of worker exposure is present and could increase. 222-S is expected to remain in use for at least the next 30 years to serve the Hanford Site environmental cleanup mission

  18. Radioactive waste management and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, R.; Orlowski, S.

    1980-01-01

    The first European Community conference on Radioactive Waste Management and Disposal was held in Luxembourg, where twenty-five papers were presented by scientists involved in European Community contract studies and by members of the Commission's scientific staff. The following topics were covered: treatment and conditioning technology of solid intermediate level wastes, alpha-contaminated combustible wastes, gaseous wastes, hulls and dissolver residues and plutonium recovery; waste product evaluation which involves testing of solidified high level wastes and other waste products; engineering storage of vitrified high level wastes and gas storage; and geological disposal in salt, granite and clay formations which includes site characterization, conceptual repository design, waste/formation interactions, migration of radionuclides, safety analysis, mathematical modelling and risk assessment

  19. Geological storage of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthoux, A.

    1983-01-01

    Certain radioactive waste contains substances which present, although they disappear naturally in a progressive manner, a potential risk which can last for very long periods, of over thousands of years. To ensure a safe long-term handling, provision has been made to bury it deep in stable geological structures which will secure its confinement. Radioactive waste is treated and conditioned to make it insoluble and is then encased in matrices which are to immobilize them. The most radioactive waste is thus incorporated in a matrix of glass which will ensure the insulation of the radioactive substances during the first thousands of years. Beyond that time, the safety will be ensured by the properties of the storage site which must be selected from now on. Various hydrogeological configurations have been identified. They must undergo detailed investigations, including even the creation of an underground laboratory. This document also presents examples of underground storage installations which are due to be built [fr

  20. Radioactive wastes of Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This conference studies the radioactive waste of nuclear industry. Nine articles and presentations are exposed here; the action of the direction of nuclear installations safety, the improvement of industrial proceedings to reduce the waste volume, the packaging of radioactive waste, the safety of radioactive waste disposal and environmental impact studies, a presentation of waste coming from nuclear power plants, the new waste management policy, the international panorama of radioactive waste management, the international transport of radioactive waste, finally an economic analysis of the treatment and ultimate storage of radioactive waste. (N.C.)

  1. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Materials and Energy Corporation Sealed Sources at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shott, Gregory [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2017-05-15

    This special analysis (SA) evaluates whether the Materials and Energy Corporation (M&EC) Sealed Source waste stream (PERM000000036, Revision 0) is suitable for shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). Disposal of the M&EC Sealed Source waste meets all U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Manual DOE M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management Manual,” Chapter IV, Section P performance objectives (DOE 1999). The M&EC Sealed Source waste stream is recommended for acceptance without conditions.

  2. Japan's Siting Process for the Geological Disposal of High-level Radioactive Waste - An International Peer Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brassinnes, Stephane; Fabbri, Olivier; Rubenstone, James; Seppaelae, Timo; Siemann, Michael; ); Kwong, Gloria; )

    2016-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy Agency carried out an independent peer review of Japan's siting process and criteria for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in May 2016. The review concluded that Japan's site screening process is generally in accordance with international practices. As the goal of the siting process is to locate a site - that is both appropriate and accepted by the community - to host a geological disposal facility for high-level radioactive waste, the international review team emphasises in this report the importance of maintaining an open dialogue and interaction between the regulator, the implementer and the public. Dialogue should begin in the early phases and continue throughout the siting process. The international review team also underlines the importance of taking into account feasibility aspects when selecting a site for preliminary investigations, but suggests that it would be inappropriate to set detailed scientific criteria for nationwide screening at this stage. The team has provided extensive advisory remarks in the report as opportunities for improvement, including the recommendation to use clear and consistent terminology in defining the site screening criteria as it is a critical factor in a successful siting process. (authors)

  3. Geotechnical, geological, and selected radionuclide retention characteristics of the radioactive waste disposal site near the Farallon Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, J.S.; Winters, W.J.; Poppe, L.J.; Neiheisel, J.; Dyer, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    A geotechnical and geological investigation of the Farallon Islands low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal area was conducted to qualitatively assess the host sediments' relative effectiveness as a barrier to radionuclide migration, to estimate the portion of the barrier that is in contact with the waste packages at the three primary disposal sites, and to provide a basic physical description of the sediments. Box cores recovered from within the general disposal area at depths of 500, 1000, and 1500 m were subcored to provide samples (~30 cm in length) for detailed descriptions, textural and mineralogical analyses, and a suite of geotechnical tests (index property, CRS consolidation, and CIU triaxial compression). -from Authors

  4. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This book highlights the main issues of public concern related to radioactive waste management and puts them into perspective. It provides an overview of radioactive waste management covering, among other themes, policies, implementation and public communication based on national experiences. Its purpose is to assists in increasing the understanding of radioactive waste management issues by public and national authorities, organizations involved in radioactive waste management and the nuclear industry; it may also serve as a source book for those who communicate with the public. Even in the unlikely event that nuclear power does not further develop around the world, the necessity for dealing with nuclear waste from past usages, from uranium mining and milling, decontamination and decommissioning of existing nuclear facilities and from the uses of radioactive materials in medicine, industry and research would still exist. In many countries, radioactive waste management planning involves making effective institutional arrangements in which responsibilities and liabilities are well established for the technical operation and long term surveillance of disposal systems. Financing mechanisms are part of the arrangements. Continuous quality assurance and quality control, at all levels of radioactive waste management, are essential to ensure the required integrity of the system. As with any other human activity, improvements in technology and economics may be possible and secondary problems avoided. Improvements and confirmation of the efficiency of processes and reduction of uncertainties can only be achieved by continued active research, development and demonstration, which are the goals of many national programmes. International co-operation, also in the form of reviews, can contribute to increasing confidence in the ongoing work. The problem of radioactive wastes is not a unique one; it may be compared with other problems of toxic wastes resulting from many other

  5. Environmental isotopes assist in the site assessment of Vaalputs radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B.T.; Levin, M.

    1986-01-01

    The first South African nuclear waste disposal facility is to be sited in an arid environment with an average annual rainfall of about 78mm. The ground water might therefore be virtually stationary, making the geohydrology of the area crucial in the assessment of radionuclide dispersal difficult to study with standard hydraulic methods. Environmental isotopes, which label the water itself and some of its dissolved constituents are able to give synoptic information about the ground water; from this, some projections about future mobility can be made. Tritium profiles in the unsaturated zone show the limited extent of rain water infiltration, which generally extends down to 3-4 metres, with sporadic evidence of deeper penetration through cracks and rootholes in the thick clay cover. Soil moisture therefore seems to occur in tightly bound and more mobile components. This is confirmed by occasionally measurable tritium observed in the saturated zone. Radiocarbon in the ground water cannot be simply interpreted on account of the nature of the granite aquifer. Although suggesting ages of several thousands of years, radiocarbon proves that the water is not 'fossil' or derived from the last pluvial period, postulated to have occurred some 12 000 years ago. Recharge appears to be more ongoing and to occur periodically and locally as a result of outliers within the present climatological regime. Regional movement of ground water is however very limited, as spatial variations seen in the radiocarbon data of the ground water are non-systematic. These conclusions are supported by the distribution of the non-radioactive isotopes, such as oxygen-18

  6. Contaminant migration at two low-level radioactive waste sites in arid western United States - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilshire, H.G.; Friedman, I.

    1999-01-01

    Contamination of the unsaturated zone and ground water at the Beatty, Nevada and Richland, Washington low-level radioactive waste sites shows that pathways exist for rapid lateral and vertical migration of contaminants through unconsolidated clastic sediments that comprise the 100 m-thick unsaturated zones of those arid disposal sites. Disposal of liquid wastes at the Beatty site until 1975 may have contributed to rapid migration of contaminants, but negligible amounts of liquid wastes reportedly were disposed at the Richland LLRW site and similar problems of contaminant migration exist. Pathways for vertical migration in the unsaturated zone include fractures and, at Richland, clastic dikes; lateral migration pathways likely are facies-controlled. Disturbance of the disposal sites contributed to increased infiltration of the unlined waste trenches after closure; simulations that used Beatty sample data show dramatic increases in recharge with disturbances necessary to develop the site. Because neither and arid climate nor presence of a thick unsaturated zone offer effective barriers to ground-water contamination, reliance on those factors at proposed sites such as Ward Valley, California and elsewhere is unwarranted. (orig.)

  7. Radioactive waste management in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejonghe, P.

    1977-01-01

    In 1975 the research association BELGOWASTE was founded in order to prepare a technical and administrative plan for radioactive waste management in Belgium and to take the preliminary steps for establishing an organization which would be responsible for this activity. The association made a survey of all forecasts concerning radioactive waste production by power reactors and the fuel cycle industry based on various schemes of development of the nuclear industry. From the technical point of view, the reference plan for waste management envisages: Purification at the production site of large volumes of low-level effluents; construction of a central facility for the treatment and intermediate storage of process concentrates (slurries, resins, etc.) and medium-level waste; centralization assumes the making of adequate arrangements for transporting waste before final treatment; maximum recovery of plutonium from waste and treatment of resiudal material by incineration at very high temperatures; treatment at the production site of high-level effluents from irradiated fuel reprocessing; construction of an underground long-term storage site for high-level treated waste and plutonium fuel fabrication waste; deep clay formations are at present preferred; disposal of low-level treated waste into the Atlantic ocean. It is intended to entrust the entire responsibility for treatment, disposal and storage of treated waste to a single body with participation by the State, the Nuclear Energy Research Centre (CEN/SCK), the electricity companies and Belgonucleaire. The partners intend to set up their facilities and services in the area of Mol [fr

  8. Integration of CERCLA and RCRA requirements at the Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, W.D.; Wyatt, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper to is present the comprehensive approach being taken at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to consolidate regulatory documents, characterization and assessment activities for 3 contiguous waste management facilities. These facilities cover 7.12 x 10 5 m 2 (194 acres) and include an Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground, a Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility, and a closed Mixed Waste Management Facility. Each of these facilities include one or more operable units including solvent tanks, transuranic waste storage pads, research lysimeters and experimental confinement disposal vaults. All of these facilities have differing submittal dates for regulatory documents but similar and continuous environmental problems. The characterization and risk assessment require simultaneous efforts for all facilities to adequately define the nature and extent of past, present and future environmental impact. Current data indicates that contaminant plumes in both soil and water are comingled, interspersed and possibly exist internally within the contiguous facilities, requiring a combined investigative effort. This paper describes the combination of regulatory documents leading to this comprehensive and integrative approach for burial ground characterization at the Savannah River Site

  9. Integrated Closure and Monitoring Plan for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2005-01-01

    This document is an integrated plan for closing and monitoring two low-level radioactive waste disposal sites at the Nevada Test Site. This document is an integrated plan for closing and monitoring two low-level radioactive waste disposal sites at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) are managed and operated by Bechtel Nevada (BN) for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). The Integrated Closure and Monitoring Plan (ICMP) for these sites is based on guidance for developing closure plans issued by the DOE (DOE, 1999a). The plan does not closely follow the format suggested by the DOE guidance to better accommodate differences between the two RWMSs, especially in terms of operations and site characteristics. The modification reduces redundancy and provides a smoother progression of the discussion. Further, much of the information that would be included in the individual plans is the same, and integration provides efficient presentation. A cross-walk between the contents of the ICMP and the DOE guidance is given in Appendix A. Closure and monitoring were integrated because monitoring measures the degree to which the operational and closed disposal facilities are meeting performance objectives specified in the manual to DOE Order O 435.1. Department of Energy Order 435.1 governs management of radioactive waste, and associated with it are Manual DOE M 435.1-1 and Guidance DOE G 435.1-1. The performance objectives are intended to ensure protection of workers, the public, and the environment from radiological exposure associated with the RWMSs now and in the future

  10. The Savannah River Site Replacement High Level Radioactive Waste Evaporator Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presgrove, S.B.

    1992-01-01

    The Replacement High Level Waste Evaporator Project was conceived in 1985 to reduce the volume of the high level radioactive waste Process of the high level waste has been accomplished up to this time using Bent Tube type evaporators and therefore, that type evaporator was selected for this project. The Title I Design of the project was 70% completed in late 1990. The Department of Energy at that time hired an independent consulting firm to perform a complete review of the project. The DOE placed a STOP ORDER on purchasing the evaporator in January 1991. Essentially, no construction was to be done on this project until all findings and concerns dealing with the type and design of the evaporator are resolved. This report addresses two aspects of the DOE design review; (1) Comparing the Bent Tube Evaporator with the Forced Circulation Evaporator, (2) The design portion of the DOE Project Review - concentrated on the mechanical design properties of the evaporator. 1 ref

  11. Alternatives to control subsidence at low-level radioactive waste burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Carlson, R.A.

    1981-09-01

    A substantial quantity of low-level radioactive and hazardous wastes has been interred in shallow land burial structures throughout the United States. Many of these structures (trenches, pits, and landfills) have experienced geotechnical subsidence problems and may require stabilization. Ground surface manifestations of subsidence include: large cracks, basins, and cave-ins. Subsidence is primarily caused by void filling, and physicochemical degradation and solubilization of buried wastes. These surface features represent a potential for increased contamination transport to the biosphere via water, air, biologic, and direct pathways. Engineering alternatives for the reduction of buried waste and matrix materials voids are identified and discussed. The advantages, disadvantages, and costs of each alternative are evaluated. Falling mass, pile driving and in situ incineration engineering alternatives were selected for further development

  12. Environmental monitoring report for commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites (1960's through 1990's)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    During the time period covered in this report (1960's through early 1990's), six commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities have been operated in the US. This report provides environmental monitoring data collected at each site. The report summarizes: (1) each site's general design, (2) each site's inventory, (3) the environmental monitoring program for each site and the data obtained as the program has evolved, and (4) what the program has indicated about releases to off-site areas, if any, including a statement of the actual health and safety significance of any release. A summary with conclusions is provided at the end of each site's chapter. The six commercial LLRW disposal sites discussed are located near: Sheffield, Illinois; Maxey Flats, Kentucky; Beatty, Nevada; West Valley, New York; Barnwell, South Carolina; Richland, Washington

  13. Development of site selection criteria for radioactive waste disposal in view of favourable geological settings in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltes, B.; Brewitz, W.

    2001-01-01

    In Germany it is intended to dispose of all types of radioactive waste in deep geological formations. Since the government has doubts regarding the suitability of the Gorleben site, further sites in different host rock formations have to be investigated. This investigation process has to be carried out with respect to technical suitability and safety as well as to public acceptance. A Committee has been established whose mandate is to develop a comprehensible procedure for the selection of sites for radioactive waste disposal in Germany. The Committee developed an iterative procedure which provides, besides the increase of transparency, the necessary flexibility in dealing with assessment results. The method is governed by geo-scientific and social-scientific criteria that are presented in this paper. 7 steps have been identified in the procedure: 1) exclusion of areas with obviously unfavourable conditions, 2) identification of areas with favourable geological settings, 3) exclusion of areas for socio-scientific reasons, 4) identification of regions with favourable conditions and ranking of regions, 5) identification of sites for further identification, 6) above-ground site investigation and ranking of potentially suitable sites, and 7) identification of sites for suitability investigations. The first 3 steps give the remaining areas that meet the minimum requirements. The criteria of the first 3 steps are: extensive vertical movements, active disturbance zones, seismic activity and volcanic activity, as for the 4 last steps criteria are based on geo- and socio- scientific weighing, voluntariness and regional mediation. (A.C.)

  14. Development of site selection criteria for radioactive waste disposal in view of favourable geological settings in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltes, B.; Brewitz, W. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Cologne (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    In Germany it is intended to dispose of all types of radioactive waste in deep geological formations. Since the government has doubts regarding the suitability of the Gorleben site, further sites in different host rock formations have to be investigated. This investigation process has to be carried out with respect to technical suitability and safety as well as to public acceptance. A Committee has been established whose mandate is to develop a comprehensible procedure for the selection of sites for radioactive waste disposal in Germany. The Committee developed an iterative procedure which provides, besides the increase of transparency, the necessary flexibility in dealing with assessment results. The method is governed by geo-scientific and social-scientific criteria that are presented in this paper. 7 steps have been identified in the procedure: 1) exclusion of areas with obviously unfavourable conditions, 2) identification of areas with favourable geological settings, 3) exclusion of areas for socio-scientific reasons, 4) identification of regions with favourable conditions and ranking of regions, 5) identification of sites for further identification, 6) above-ground site investigation and ranking of potentially suitable sites, and 7) identification of sites for suitability investigations. The first 3 steps give the remaining areas that meet the minimum requirements. The criteria of the first 3 steps are: extensive vertical movements, active disturbance zones, seismic activity and volcanic activity, as for the 4 last steps criteria are based on geo- and socio- scientific weighing, voluntariness and regional media