WorldWideScience

Sample records for site meteorological conditions

  1. Choosing the best meteorological conditions for atmospheric diffusion experiments at the Angra site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolli, D.; Thomas, P.

    1983-01-01

    The most appropriate meteorological conditions and time of the day advisable for carrying out diffusion experiments at the Angra site are described. Two emission points were defined, and the sampling area was determined with easy access to the complex terrain taken into consideration. The onsite meteorological measuring system is briefly described. (Author) [pt

  2. Meteorology in site operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    During the site selection and design phases of a plant, meteorological assistance must be based on past records, usually accumulated at stations not actually on the site. These preliminary atadvices will be averages and extremes that might be expected. After a location has been chosen and work has begun, current and forecast weather conditions become of immediate concern. On-site meteorological observations and forecasts have many applications to the operating program of an atomic energy site. Requirements may range from observations of the daily minimum temperatures to forecasts of radiation dosages from airborne clouds

  3. Meteorological conditions at the release site during the two tracer experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Batchvarova, E.; Schneiter, D.

    1998-01-01

    The state of the boundary layer at the release site during the two tracer experiments is described, based on measurements of atmospheric turbulence carried our by a sonic anemometer, profiles of horizontal and vertical wind by a SODAR as well as frequent radiosonde releases. The boundary layer...... height is derived from radiosoundings, modelled and discussed. The study is meant as background for discussions of the tracer behaviour near the release site, and possible influence of the local meteorology at the release site on the long-range dispersion. The difference in the initial mese...... model development. It is concluded that the micrometeorological measurements are very important as background information for the understanding of plume behaviour on small as well as long scales. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  4. Extreme meteorological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinger de Schwarzkopf, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    Different meteorological variables which may reach significant extreme values, such as the windspeed and, in particular, its occurrence through tornadoes and hurricanes that necesarily incide and wich must be taken into account at the time of nuclear power plants' installation, are analyzed. For this kind of study, it is necessary to determine the basic phenomenum of design. Two criteria are applied to define the basic values of design for extreme meteorological variables. The first one determines the expected extreme value: it is obtained from analyzing the recurence of the phenomenum in a convened period of time, wich may be generally of 50 years. The second one determines the extreme value of low probability, taking into account the nuclear power plant's operating life -f.ex. 25 years- and considering, during said lapse, the occurrence probabilities of extreme meteorological phenomena. The values may be determined either by the deterministic method, which is based on the acknowledgement of the fundamental physical characteristics of the phenomena or by the probabilistic method, that aims to the analysis of historical statistical data. Brief comments are made on the subject in relation to the Argentine Republic area. (R.J.S.) [es

  5. Environmental stress in German forests; assessment of critical deposition levels and their exceedances and meteorological stress for crown condition monitoring sites in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klap, J.M.; Reinds, G.J.; Bleeker, A.; Vries, de W.

    2000-01-01

    Site-specific estimations of meteorological stress and atmospheric deposition were made for the systematic 8 x 8 km2 forest condition monitoring network in Germany for the years 1987-1995. Winter cold and late frost were important temperature stress variables and relative transpiration was a good

  6. Meteorological aspects of siting large wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiester, T.R.; Pennell, W.T.

    1981-01-01

    This report, which focuses on the meteorological aspects of siting large wind turbines (turbines with a rated output exceeding 100 kW), has four main goals. The first is to outline the elements of a siting strategy that will identify the most favorable wind energy sites in a region and that will provide sufficient wind data to make responsible economic evaluations of the site wind resource possible. The second is to critique and summarize siting techniques that were studied in the Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Energy Program. The third goal is to educate utility technical personnel, engineering consultants, and meteorological consultants (who may have not yet undertaken wind energy consulting) on meteorological phenomena relevant to wind turbine siting in order to enhance dialogues between these groups. The fourth goal is to minimize the chances of failure of early siting programs due to insufficient understanding of wind behavior.

  7. Site evaluation using measured meteorology data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R. E.; Rusche, B. C. [Savannah River Lab., E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., Aiken, South Carolina (United States)

    1967-07-01

    A key factor in reactor site evaluation is the frequency of occurrence of various dispersion conditions and this relationship to potential off-site doses following a reactor accident. Detailed measurements of the wind speed, wind direction, and temperature at heights up to 1200 ft at the Savannah River Plant form the basis for a comprehensive analysis of the frequency of occurrence of potential off-site doses. A complete set of data was taken about every five minutes, and 107,000 sets (about one year of data) were analyzed. The meteorology data were converted to ordinary dispersion parameters through correlating equations developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The results were expressed on curves in dose per unit release of activity vs distance from the reactor with probability of occurrence as a parameter. Separate sets of curves were calculated for releases of noble gas and of halogens and at release heights of 200 ft (a nominal stack height) and of 850 ft (about the height of the tallest power plant stacks). Additional curves were developed to show dose as a function of direction and probability of occurrence. In addition to the dose frequency distribution analyses performed as a function of height of release, direction, and distance; more conventional frequency distributions of wind speed, wind direction, and thermal stability were developed as a function of height. All the analyses were carried out on the IBM 360/65. These results represent the first known analysis utilizing data up to 1200 ft and taken often enough to develop reliable frequency distributions for a short term release. (author)

  8. Using routine meteorological data to derive sky conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pagès

    Full Text Available Sky condition is a matter of interest for public and weather predictors as part of weather analyses. In this study, we apply a method that uses total solar radiation and other meteorological data recorded by an automatic station for deriving an estimation of the sky condition. The impetus of this work is the intention of the Catalan Meteorological Service (SMC to provide the public with real-time information about the sky condition. The methodology for deriving sky conditions from meteorological records is based on a supervised classification technique called maximum likelihood method. In this technique we first need to define features which are derived from measured variables. Second, we must decide which sky conditions are intended to be distinguished. Some analyses have led us to use four sky conditions: (a cloudless or almost cloudless sky, (b scattered clouds, (c mostly cloudy – high clouds, (d overcast – low clouds. An additional case, which may be treated separately, corresponds to precipitation (rain or snow. The main features for estimating sky conditions are, as expected, solar radiation and its temporal variability. The accuracy of this method of guessing sky conditions compared with human observations is around 70% when applied to four sites in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula. The agreement increases if we take into account the uncertainty both in the automatic classifier and in visual observations.

    Key words. Meteorological and atmospheric dynamics (instruments and techniques; radiative processes – Atmospheric composition and structure (cloud physics and chemistry

  9. Using routine meteorological data to derive sky conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pagès

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Sky condition is a matter of interest for public and weather predictors as part of weather analyses. In this study, we apply a method that uses total solar radiation and other meteorological data recorded by an automatic station for deriving an estimation of the sky condition. The impetus of this work is the intention of the Catalan Meteorological Service (SMC to provide the public with real-time information about the sky condition. The methodology for deriving sky conditions from meteorological records is based on a supervised classification technique called maximum likelihood method. In this technique we first need to define features which are derived from measured variables. Second, we must decide which sky conditions are intended to be distinguished. Some analyses have led us to use four sky conditions: (a cloudless or almost cloudless sky, (b scattered clouds, (c mostly cloudy – high clouds, (d overcast – low clouds. An additional case, which may be treated separately, corresponds to precipitation (rain or snow. The main features for estimating sky conditions are, as expected, solar radiation and its temporal variability. The accuracy of this method of guessing sky conditions compared with human observations is around 70% when applied to four sites in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula. The agreement increases if we take into account the uncertainty both in the automatic classifier and in visual observations.Key words. Meteorological and atmospheric dynamics (instruments and techniques; radiative processes – Atmospheric composition and structure (cloud physics and chemistry

  10. Blast forecasting guide for the Site 300 Meteorology Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, B.N.; Pfeifer, H.E.; Arganbright, V.E.

    1978-01-01

    These step-by-step procedures enable an occasional operator to run the Site 300 Meteorological Center. The primary function of the Center is to determine the maximum weight of high explosives that can be fired at Site 300 under any given meteorological conditions. A secondary function is to supply weather data for other programs such as ARAC (Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability). Included in the primary function are radar and theodolite operations for balloon tracking; calculation of temperatures for various altitudes using Oakland weather obtained from a teletype; computer terminal operation to obtain wind directions, wind velocities, temperatures, and pressure at various altitudes; and methods to determine high-explosive weight limits for simple inversions and focus conditions using pressure-versus-altitude information obtained from the computer. General information is included such as names, telephone numbers, and addresses of maintenance personnel, additional sources of weather information, chart suppliers, balloons, spare parts, etc

  11. Blast forecasting guide for the Site 300 Meteorology Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odell, B.N.; Pfeifer, H.E.; Arganbright, V.E.

    1978-06-01

    These step-by-step procedures enable an occasional operator to run the Site 300 Meteorological Center. The primary function of the Center is to determine the maximum weight of high explosives that can be fired at Site 300 under any given meteorological conditions. A secondary function is to supply weather data for other programs such as ARAC (Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability). Included in the primary function are radar and theodolite operations for balloon tracking; calculation of temperatures for various altitudes using Oakland weather obtained from a teletype; computer terminal operation to obtain wind directions, wind velocities, temperatures, and pressure at various altitudes; and methods to determine high-explosive weight limits for simple inversions and focus conditions using pressure-versus-altitude information obtained from the computer. General information is included such as names, telephone numbers, and addresses of maintenance personnel, additional sources of weather information, chart suppliers, balloons, spare parts, etc.

  12. Site-specific meteorology identification for DOE facility accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabin, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    Currently, chemical dispersion calculations performed for safety analysis of DOE facilities assume a Pasquill D-Stability Class with a 4.5 m/s windspeed. These meteorological conditions are assumed to conservatively address the source term generation mechanism as well as the dispersion mechanism thereby resulting in a net conservative downwind consequence. While choosing this Stability Class / Windspeed combination may result in an overall conservative consequence, the level of conservative can not be quantified. The intent of this paper is to document a methodology which incorporates site-specific meteorology to determine a quantifiable consequence of a chemical release. A five-year meteorological database, appropriate for the facility location, is utilized for these chemical consequence calculations, and is consistent with the approach used for radiological releases. The hourly averages of meteorological conditions have been binned into 21 groups for the chemical consequence calculations. These 21 cases each have a probability of occurrence based on the number of times each case has occurred over the five year sampling period. A code has been developed which automates the running of all the cases with a commercially available air modeling code. The 21 cases are sorted by concentration. A concentration may be selected by the user for a quantified level of conservatism. The methodology presented is intended to improve the technical accuracy and defensability of Chemical Source Term / Dispersion Safety Analysis work. The result improves the quality of safety analyses products without significantly increasing the cost

  13. A 20-year record (1998-2017) of permafrost, active layer and meteorological conditions at a high Arctic permafrost research site (Bayelva, Spitsbergen)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boike, Julia; Juszak, Inge; Lange, Stephan; Chadburn, Sarah; Burke, Eleanor; Overduin, Pier Paul; Roth, Kurt; Ippisch, Olaf; Bornemann, Niko; Stern, Lielle; Gouttevin, Isabelle; Hauber, Ernst; Westermann, Sebastian

    2018-03-01

    Most permafrost is located in the Arctic, where frozen organic carbon makes it an important component of the global climate system. Despite the fact that the Arctic climate changes more rapidly than the rest of the globe, observational data density in the region is low. Permafrost thaw and carbon release to the atmosphere are a positive feedback mechanism that can exacerbate global warming. This positive feedback functions via changing land-atmosphere energy and mass exchanges. There is thus a great need to understand links between the energy balance, which can vary rapidly over hourly to annual timescales, and permafrost, which changes slowly over long time periods. This understanding thus mandates long-term observational data sets. Such a data set is available from the Bayelva site at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, where meteorology, energy balance components and subsurface observations have been made for the last 20 years. Additional data include a high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) that can be used together with the snow physical information for snowpack modeling and a panchromatic image. This paper presents the data set produced so far, explains instrumentation, calibration, processing and data quality control, as well as the sources for various resulting data sets. The resulting data set is unique in the Arctic and serves as a baseline for future studies. The mean permafrost temperature is -2.8 °C, with a zero-amplitude depth at 5.5 m (2009-2017). Since the data provide observations of temporally variable parameters that mitigate energy fluxes between permafrost and atmosphere, such as snow depth and soil moisture content, they are suitable for use in integrating, calibrating and testing permafrost as a component in earth system models.The presented data are available in the Supplement for this paper (time series) and through the PANGAEA and Zenodo data portals: time series (https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.880120, https://zenodo.org/record/1139714) and

  14. A 20-year record (1998–2017 of permafrost, active layer and meteorological conditions at a high Arctic permafrost research site (Bayelva, Spitsbergen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Boike

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Most permafrost is located in the Arctic, where frozen organic carbon makes it an important component of the global climate system. Despite the fact that the Arctic climate changes more rapidly than the rest of the globe, observational data density in the region is low. Permafrost thaw and carbon release to the atmosphere are a positive feedback mechanism that can exacerbate global warming. This positive feedback functions via changing land–atmosphere energy and mass exchanges. There is thus a great need to understand links between the energy balance, which can vary rapidly over hourly to annual timescales, and permafrost, which changes slowly over long time periods. This understanding thus mandates long-term observational data sets. Such a data set is available from the Bayelva site at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, where meteorology, energy balance components and subsurface observations have been made for the last 20 years. Additional data include a high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM that can be used together with the snow physical information for snowpack modeling and a panchromatic image. This paper presents the data set produced so far, explains instrumentation, calibration, processing and data quality control, as well as the sources for various resulting data sets. The resulting data set is unique in the Arctic and serves as a baseline for future studies. The mean permafrost temperature is −2.8 °C, with a zero-amplitude depth at 5.5 m (2009–2017. Since the data provide observations of temporally variable parameters that mitigate energy fluxes between permafrost and atmosphere, such as snow depth and soil moisture content, they are suitable for use in integrating, calibrating and testing permafrost as a component in earth system models.The presented data are available in the Supplement for this paper (time series and through the PANGAEA and Zenodo data portals: time series (https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.880120, https

  15. Meteorological aspects of site selection for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artemova, N.E.

    1983-01-01

    Factors are considered that characterize the NPP safe layout in a specified region and the physicogeographical conditions determining the meteorological dilution coefficient of NPP radioactive wastes in the atmosphere. A three-point scale system is proposed for estimating physicogeographical factors in three ''fitness'' classes. The data required for calculating meteorological dilution coefficient are given

  16. Air Quality and Meteorological Boundary Conditions during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, G.; Arriaga, J.; Vega, E.; Magaña, V.; Caetano, E.; de Foy, B.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.; Ramos, R.; Retama, A.; Zaragoza, J.; Martínez, A. P.; Márquez, C.; Cárdenas, B.; Lamb, B.; Velasco, E.; Allwine, E.; Pressley, S.; Westberg, H.; Reyes, R.

    2004-12-01

    A comprehensive field campaign to characterize photochemical smog in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) was conducted during April 2003. An important number of equipment was deployed all around the urban core and its surroundings to measure gas and particles composition from the various sources and receptor sites. In addition to air quality measurements, meteorology variables were also taken by regular weather meteorological stations, tethered balloons, radiosondes, sodars and lidars. One important issue with regard to the field campaign was the characterization of the boundary conditions in order to feed meteorological and air quality models. Four boundary sites were selected to measure continuously criteria pollutants, VOC and meteorological variables at surface level. Vertical meteorological profiles were measured at three other sites : radiosondes in Tacubaya site were launched every six hours daily; tethered balloons were launched at CENICA and FES-Cuautitlan sites according to the weather conditions, and one sodar was deployed at UNAM site in the south of the city. Additionally to these measurements, two fixed meteorological monitoring networks deployed along the city were available to complement these measurements. In general, we observed that transport of pollutants from the city to the boundary sites changes every day, according to the coupling between synoptic and local winds. This effect were less important at elevated sites such as Cerro de la Catedral and ININ, where synoptic wind were more dominant during the field campaign. Also, local sources nearby boundary sites hide the influence of pollution coming from the city some days, particularly at the La Reforma site.

  17. SITE-2, Power Plant Siting, Cost, Environment, Seismic and Meteorological Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frigerio, N.A.; Habegger, L.J.; King, R.F.; Hoover, L.J.; Clark, N.A.; Cobian, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: SITE2 is designed to (1) screen candidate energy facility sites or areas within an electric utility region, based on the region's physical and socioeconomic attributes, the planned facility's characteristics, and impact assessments, and (2) evaluate the cumulative regional impacts associated with alternate energy supply options and inter-regional energy import/export practices, specifically, comparison of different energy technologies and their regional distribution in clustered or dispersed patterns. 2 - Method of solution: The SITE2 methodology is based on the quantification of three major site-related vectors. A cost vector is determined which identifies site-specific costs, such as transmission costs, cooling costs as related to water availability, and costs of specific controls needed to protect the surrounding environment. An impact vector is also computed for each potential site, using models of health and environmental impacts incurred in areas adjacent to the site. Finally, a site attribute vector is developed which reflects such characteristics as population, seismic conditions, meteorology, land use, and local ecological systems. This vector can be used to eliminate certain sites because of their inability to satisfy specific constraints. These three vectors can be displayed as density maps and combined in a simple overlay approach, similar to that developed by I. L. McHarg in reference 2, to identify candidate sites. Alternatively, the vector elements can be computationally combined into a weighted sum to obtain quantitative indicators of site suitability

  18. SITE-2, Power Plant Siting, Cost, Environment, Seismic and Meteorological Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigerio, N A [Environmental Impact Studies, Argonne National Laboratory 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Habegger, L J; King, R F; Hoover, L J [Energy and Environmental Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Clark, N A [Applied Mathematics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Cobian, J M [Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60201 (United States)

    1977-08-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: SITE2 is designed to (1) screen candidate energy facility sites or areas within an electric utility region, based on the region's physical and socioeconomic attributes, the planned facility's characteristics, and impact assessments, and (2) evaluate the cumulative regional impacts associated with alternate energy supply options and inter-regional energy import/export practices, specifically, comparison of different energy technologies and their regional distribution in clustered or dispersed patterns. 2 - Method of solution: The SITE2 methodology is based on the quantification of three major site-related vectors. A cost vector is determined which identifies site-specific costs, such as transmission costs, cooling costs as related to water availability, and costs of specific controls needed to protect the surrounding environment. An impact vector is also computed for each potential site, using models of health and environmental impacts incurred in areas adjacent to the site. Finally, a site attribute vector is developed which reflects such characteristics as population, seismic conditions, meteorology, land use, and local ecological systems. This vector can be used to eliminate certain sites because of their inability to satisfy specific constraints. These three vectors can be displayed as density maps and combined in a simple overlay approach, similar to that developed by I. L. McHarg in reference 2, to identify candidate sites. Alternatively, the vector elements can be computationally combined into a weighted sum to obtain quantitative indicators of site suitability.

  19. Numerical simulation of meteorological conditions for peak pollution in Paris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carissimo, B. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    1997-06-01

    Results obtained on the simulation of meteorological conditions during two episodes of peak pollution in Paris are presented, one in the winter, the other in the summer. The A3UR air quality modelling system is first described followed by the MERCURE mesoscale meteorological model. The conditions of simulation are described. The results obtained on these two causes show satisfactory agreement, for example on the magnitude of the urban heat island which is correctly reproduced. In this study, several areas of progress have been identified: improvement of the altitude measurement network around cities, the simulation of light wind conditions and the simulation of formation and dissipation of fog. (author) 24 refs.

  20. Modelling the meteorological forest fire niche in heterogeneous pyrologic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Antonella; Ricotta, Carlo; Conedera, Marco; Pezzatti, Gianni Boris

    2015-01-01

    Fire regimes are strongly related to weather conditions that directly and indirectly influence fire ignition and propagation. Identifying the most important meteorological fire drivers is thus fundamental for daily fire risk forecasting. In this context, several fire weather indices have been developed focussing mainly on fire-related local weather conditions and fuel characteristics. The specificity of the conditions for which fire danger indices are developed makes its direct transfer and applicability problematic in different areas or with other fuel types. In this paper we used the low-to-intermediate fire-prone region of Canton Ticino as a case study to develop a new daily fire danger index by implementing a niche modelling approach (Maxent). In order to identify the most suitable weather conditions for fires, different combinations of input variables were tested (meteorological variables, existing fire danger indices or a combination of both). Our findings demonstrate that such combinations of input variables increase the predictive power of the resulting index and surprisingly even using meteorological variables only allows similar or better performances than using the complex Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI). Furthermore, the niche modelling approach based on Maxent resulted in slightly improved model performance and in a reduced number of selected variables with respect to the classical logistic approach. Factors influencing final model robustness were the number of fire events considered and the specificity of the meteorological conditions leading to fire ignition.

  1. Wind power variations under humid and arid meteorological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Şen, Zekâi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • It indicates the role of weather parameters’ roles in the wind energy calculation. • Meteorological variables are more significant in arid regions for wind power. • It provides opportunity to take into consideration air density variability. • Wind power is presented in terms of the wind speed, temperature and pressure. - Abstract: The classical wind power per rotor area per time is given as the half product of the air density by third power of the wind velocity. This approach adopts the standard air density as constant (1.23 g/cm 3 ), which ignores the density dependence on air temperature and pressure. Weather conditions are not taken into consideration except the variations in wind velocity. In general, increase in pressure and decrease in temperature cause increase in the wind power generation. The rate of increase in the pressure has less effect on the wind power as compared with the temperature rate. This paper provides the wind power formulation based on three meteorological variables as the wind velocity, air temperature and air pressure. Furthermore, from the meteorology point of view any change in the wind power is expressed as a function of partial changes in these meteorological variables. Additionally, weather conditions in humid and arid regions differ from each other, and it is interesting to see possible differences between the two regions. The application of the methodology is presented for two meteorology stations in Istanbul, Turkey, as representative of the humid regions and Al-Madinah Al-Monawwarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, for arid region, both on daily record bases for 2010. It is found that consideration of air temperature and pressure in the average wind power calculation gives about 1.3% decrease in Istanbul, whereas it is about 13.7% in Al-Madinah Al-Monawwarah. Hence, consideration of meteorological variables in wind power calculations becomes more significant in arid regions

  2. Transport of radionuclides in the atmosphere during complex meteorological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antic, D.; Telenta, B.

    1991-01-01

    Radionuclides from various sources (nuclear and fossil fuel power plants, nuclear facilities, medical facilities, etc.) are being released to the atmosphere. The meteorological conditions determine the atmospheric turbulence, dispersion, and removal processes of the radionuclides. A two-dimensional version of the cloud model based on the Klemp-Wilhelmson dynamic and Lin et al.'s microphysics and thermodynamics has been adapted and used to simulate the transport of radionuclides emitted from a power plant or other source to the atmosphere. Calculations of the trajectories and radii for a few puffs are included in this paper. These numerical investigations show that the presented model can be used for the transport simulation of radionuclides and for the assessment of the radiological impact of power plants and other sources in safety assessments and comparative studies. Because it can simulate puff trajectories, this model is especially valuable in the presence of complex meteorological conditions

  3. Evaluating the performance of ENVI-met model in diurnal cycles for different meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acero, Juan A.; Arrizabalaga, Jon

    2018-01-01

    Urban areas are known to modify meteorological variables producing important differences in small spatial scales (i.e. microscale). These affect human thermal comfort conditions and the dispersion of pollutants, especially those emitted inside the urban area, which finally influence quality of life and the use of public open spaces. In this study, the diurnal evolution of meteorological variables measured in four urban spaces is compared with the results provided by ENVI-met (v 4.0). Measurements were carried out during 3 days with different meteorological conditions in Bilbao in the north of the Iberian Peninsula. The evaluation of the model accuracy (i.e. the degree to which modelled values approach measured values) was carried out with several quantitative difference metrics. The results for air temperature and humidity show a good agreement of measured and modelled values independently of the regional meteorological conditions. However, in the case of mean radiant temperature and wind speed, relevant differences are encountered highlighting the limitation of the model to estimate these meteorological variables precisely during diurnal cycles, in the considered evaluation conditions (sites and weather).

  4. Analysis of site-specific dispersion conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paesler-Sauer, J.

    1989-03-01

    This report presents an analysis of atmospheric dispersion conditions in the environs of nuclear power stations in the Federal Republic of Germany. The analysis is based on meteorological data measured on the power station sites (KFUe = nuclear reactor remote control records) and by neighbouring stations operated by the German Weather Service. The data are series of hourly mean values of wind and temperature gradient or stability class over the period of one or more years. The aim of the data analysis is to find types of dispersion conditions characterized by the flow field and stratification, and to assess the feasibility of calculating these quantities in the case of an emergency. Influences of terrain structures in the environs of the site are considered. The annual frequencies of types of dispersion situations are assessed, the capability to recognize the dispersion situation from meteorological data measured on the site and the applicability of dispersion models are discussed. (orig.) [de

  5. A risk evaluation model using on-site meteorological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, C.S.

    1979-01-01

    A model is considered in order to evaluate the potential risk from a nuclear facility directly combining the on site meteorological data. The model is utilized to evaluate the environmental consequences from the routine releases during normal plant operation as well as following postulated accidental releases. The doses to individual and risks to the population-at-large are also analyzed in conjunction with design of rad-waste management and safety systems. It is observed that the conventional analysis, which is done in two separate unaffiliated phases of releases and atmospheric dispersion tends to result in unnecessary over-design of the systems because of high resultant doses calculated by multiplication of two extreme values. (author)

  6. Paracas dust storms: Sources, trajectories and associated meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño-Zuluaga, F.; Castagna, A.; Rutllant, J. A.; Flores-Aqueveque, V.; Caquineau, S.; Sifeddine, A.; Velazco, F.; Gutierrez, D.; Cardich, J.

    2017-09-01

    Dust storms that develop along the Pisco-Ica desert in Southern Peru, locally known as ;Paracas; winds have ecological, health and economic repercussions. Here we identify dust sources through MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) imagery and analyze HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particles Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) model trajectories and dispersion patterns, along with concomitant synoptic-scale meteorological conditions from National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis (NCEP/NCAR). Additionally, surface pressure data from the hourly METeorological Aerodrome Report (METAR) at Arica (18.5°S, 70.3°W) and Pisco (13.7°S, 76.2°W) were used to calculate Alongshore (sea-level) Pressure Gradient (APG) anomalies during Paracas dust storms, their duration and associated wind-speeds and wind directions. This study provides a review on the occurrence and strength of the Paracas dust storms as reported in the Pisco airfield for five-year period and their correspondence with MODIS true-color imagery in terms of dust-emission source areas. Our results show that most of the particle fluxes moving into the Ica-Pisco desert area during Paracas wind events originate over the coastal zone, where strong winds forced by steep APGs develop as the axis of a deep mid-troposphere trough sets in along north-central Chile. Direct relationships between Paracas wind intensity, number of active dust-emission sources and APGs are also documented, although the scarcity of simultaneous METAR/MODIS data for clearly observed MODIS dust plumes prevents any significant statistical inference. Synoptic-scale meteorological composites from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data show that Paracas wind events (steep APGs) are mostly associated with the strengthening of anticyclonic conditions in northern Chile, that can be attributed to cold air advection associated with the incoming trough. Compared to the MODIS images, HYSPLIT outputs were able

  7. Maximum vehicle cabin temperatures under different meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundstein, Andrew; Meentemeyer, Vernon; Dowd, John

    2009-05-01

    A variety of studies have documented the dangerously high temperatures that may occur within the passenger compartment (cabin) of cars under clear sky conditions, even at relatively low ambient air temperatures. Our study, however, is the first to examine cabin temperatures under variable weather conditions. It uses a unique maximum vehicle cabin temperature dataset in conjunction with directly comparable ambient air temperature, solar radiation, and cloud cover data collected from April through August 2007 in Athens, GA. Maximum cabin temperatures, ranging from 41-76°C, varied considerably depending on the weather conditions and the time of year. Clear days had the highest cabin temperatures, with average values of 68°C in the summer and 61°C in the spring. Cloudy days in both the spring and summer were on average approximately 10°C cooler. Our findings indicate that even on cloudy days with lower ambient air temperatures, vehicle cabin temperatures may reach deadly levels. Additionally, two predictive models of maximum daily vehicle cabin temperatures were developed using commonly available meteorological data. One model uses maximum ambient air temperature and average daily solar radiation while the other uses cloud cover percentage as a surrogate for solar radiation. From these models, two maximum vehicle cabin temperature indices were developed to assess the level of danger. The models and indices may be useful for forecasting hazardous conditions, promoting public awareness, and to estimate past cabin temperatures for use in forensic analyses.

  8. BIGFOOT Meteorological Data for North and South American Sites, 1991-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The BigFoot Project has compiled daily meteorological measurements for nine EOS Land Validation Sites located from Alaska to Brazil from 1991 to 2004. Each site is...

  9. Climatic condition of Calabar as typified by some meteorological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims at analysing some meteorological data collected by the meteorological department of the Margaret Ekpo International Airport, Calabar between 1985 and 2003. The main objectives were to provide average figures and curves of Calabar climate, and to identify possible trends since 1985. Results show that ...

  10. Use of multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) to identify interactive meteorological conditions affecting relative throughfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stan, John T.; Gay, Trent E.; Lewis, Elliott S.

    2016-02-01

    Forest canopies alter rainfall reaching the surface by redistributing it as throughfall. Throughfall supplies water and nutrients to a variety of ecohydrological components (soil microbial communities, stream water discharge/chemistry, and stormflow pathways) and is controlled by canopy structural interactions with meteorological conditions across temporal scales. This work introduces and applies multiple correspondence analyses (MCAs) to a range of meteorological thresholds (median intensity, median absolute deviation (MAD) of intensity, median wind-driven droplet inclination angle, and MAD of wind speed) for an example throughfall problem: identification of interacting storm conditions corresponding to temporal concentration in relative throughfall beyond the median observation (⩾73% of rain). MCA results from the example show that equalling or exceeding rain intensity thresholds (median and MAD) corresponded with temporal concentration of relative throughfall across all storms. Under these intensity conditions, two wind mechanisms produced significant correspondences: (1) high, steady wind-driven droplet inclination angles increased surface wetting; and (2) sporadic winds shook entrained droplets from surfaces. A discussion is provided showing that these example MCA findings agree well with previous work relying on more historically common methods (e.g., multiple regression and analytical models). Meteorological threshold correspondences to temporal concentration of relative throughfall at our site may be a function of heavy Tillandsia usneoides coverage. Applications of MCA within other forests may provide useful insights to how temporal throughfall dynamics are affected for drainage pathways dependent on different structures (leaves, twigs, branches, etc.).

  11. An Extreme Meteorological Events Analysis For Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Siting Project at Bangka Island, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septiadi, Deni; S, Yarianto Sugeng B.; Sriyana; Anzhar, Kurnia; Suntoko, Hadi

    2018-03-01

    The potential sources of meteorological phenomena in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) area of interest are identified and the extreme values of the possible resulting hazards associated which such phenomena are evaluated to derive the appropriate design bases for the NPP. The appropriate design bases shall be determined according to the Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (Bapeten) applicable regulations, which presently do not indicate quantitative criteria for purposes of determining the design bases for meteorological hazards. These meteorological investigations are also carried out to evaluate the regional and site specific meteorological parameters which affect the transport and dispersion of radioactive effluents on the environment of the region around the NPP site. The meteorological hazards are to be monitored and assessed periodically over the lifetime of the plant to ensure that consistency with the design assumptions is maintained throughout the full lifetime of the facility.

  12. LBA-ECO CD-04 Meteorological and Flux Data, km 83 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Tower flux measurements of carbon dioxide,water vapor, heat, and meteorological variables were obtained at the Tapajos National Forest, km 83 site, Santarem, Para,...

  13. BIGFOOT Meteorological Data for North and South American Sites, 1991-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The BigFoot Project has compiled daily meteorological measurements for nine EOS Land Validation Sites located from Alaska to Brazil from 1991 to 2004. Each...

  14. Atmospheric corrosion in Gran Canaria specifically meteorological and pollution conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J.E.G.; Valles, M.L.; Mirza R, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    Carbon steel, copper, zinc and aluminium samples were exposed in different sizes with known ambient parameters in Gran Canaria Island and atmospheric corrosion was investigated. Weight-loss measurements used to determine corrosion damage were complemented with metallographic and XP S determination in order to characterize the structure and morphology of surface corrosion products. The ambient aggressiveness could be well evaluated from meteorological and pollution data. All atmospheric corrosion and environmental data were statistically processed for establishing general corrosion damage functions for carbon steel, copper, aluminium and zinc in terms of Gran Canaria extreme meteorological and pollution parameters. (Author)

  15. Meteorological events in site evaluation for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations and guidance on conducting hazard assessments of extreme and rare meteorological phenomena. It is of interest to safety assessors and regulators involved in the licensing process as well as to designers of nuclear power plants. This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA programme for safety standards for nuclear power plants. It supplements the IAEA Safety Requirements publication on Site Evaluation for Nuclear Facilities which is to supersede the Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Siting, Safety Series No. 50-C-S (Rev. 1), IAEA, Vienna (1988). The present Safety Guide supersedes two earlier Safety Guides: Safety Series No. 50-SG-S11A (1981) on Extreme Meteorological Events in Nuclear Power Plant Siting, Excluding Tropical Cyclones and Safety Series No. 50-SG-S11B (1984) on Design Basis Tropical Cyclone for Nuclear Power Plants. The purpose of this Safety Guide is to provide recommendations and guidance on conducting hazard assessments of extreme and rare meteorological phenomena. This Safety Guide provides interpretation of the Safety Requirements publication on Site Evaluation for Nuclear Facilities and guidance on how to fulfil these requirements. It is aimed at safety assessors or regulators involved in the licensing process as well as designers of nuclear power plants, and provides them with guidance on the methods and procedures for analyses that support the assessment of the hazards associated with extreme and rare meteorological events. This Safety Guide discusses the extreme values of meteorological variables and rare meteorological phenomena, as well as their rates of occurrence, according to the following definitions: (a) Extreme values of meteorological variables such as air temperature and wind speed characterize the meteorological or climatological environment. And (b) Rare meteorological phenomena

  16. User-Defined Meteorological (MET) Profiles from Climatological and Extreme Condition Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    ARL-TN-0876 ● MAR 2018 US Army Research Laboratory User-Defined Meteorological (MET) Profiles from Climatological and Extreme...needed. Do not return it to the originator. ARL-TN-0876 ● MAR 2018 US Army Research Laboratory User-Defined Meteorological (MET...User-Defined Meteorological (MET) Profiles from Climatological and Extreme Condition Data 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  17. Modeling the Effects of Meteorological Conditions on the Neutron Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-22

    about 2% between day and night on a given day [2]. In the 1960s, the launch of satellites allowed scientists to measure the sun’s cosmic rays outside...hour, a 20% variation, over five months of data collection with large variation between days . Meteorological data were collected with two commercially...contributes to the formation of the neutron flux. To account for the earth’s magnetic field, scientists have done extensive three-dimensional analysis

  18. Calling phenology of a diverse amphibian assemblage in response to meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenderleith, T. Lynette; Stratford, Danial; Lollback, Gregory W.; Chapple, David G.; Reina, Richard D.; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2017-12-01

    The strong association between amphibian activity, breeding and recruitment with local environmental conditions raises concerns regarding how changes in climate may affect the persistence of species populations into the future. Additionally, in a highly diverse assemblage of anurans, competition for breeding sites affects the time and duration of activity, as species compete for limited resources such as water. Meteorological conditions are strong drivers of amphibian activity, so we assessed whether temperature, rainfall, atmospheric pressure and humidity were associated with the calling phenology of an assemblage of anurans in South East Queensland, Australia. We performed calling surveys and collected digital recordings at 45 ponds in an area known for high anuran diversity. We performed detection analyses to investigate the influence of 10 meteorological variables in detection of calling activity in 19 amphibian species. Our results suggest four breeding strategies in the assemblage: explosive summer breeders, prolonged breeders, opportunistic breeders and a winter breeder. Classifying these species into associations provides a framework for understanding how species respond to environmental conditions. Explosive breeders (i.e. species demonstrating short and highly synchronised breeding periods) were particularly responsive to temperature. Our findings help elucidate the breeding phenology of frogs and provide valuable information on their mating systems in native Australian forests. This study highlights the difficulties of surveying even common anurans. We highlight the importance of predictability and stability in climate and the vulnerability of species for which reproduction appears to require highly specific environmental cues.

  19. Calling phenology of a diverse amphibian assemblage in response to meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenderleith, T. Lynette; Stratford, Danial; Lollback, Gregory W.; Chapple, David G.; Reina, Richard D.; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2018-05-01

    The strong association between amphibian activity, breeding and recruitment with local environmental conditions raises concerns regarding how changes in climate may affect the persistence of species populations into the future. Additionally, in a highly diverse assemblage of anurans, competition for breeding sites affects the time and duration of activity, as species compete for limited resources such as water. Meteorological conditions are strong drivers of amphibian activity, so we assessed whether temperature, rainfall, atmospheric pressure and humidity were associated with the calling phenology of an assemblage of anurans in South East Queensland, Australia. We performed calling surveys and collected digital recordings at 45 ponds in an area known for high anuran diversity. We performed detection analyses to investigate the influence of 10 meteorological variables in detection of calling activity in 19 amphibian species. Our results suggest four breeding strategies in the assemblage: explosive summer breeders, prolonged breeders, opportunistic breeders and a winter breeder. Classifying these species into associations provides a framework for understanding how species respond to environmental conditions. Explosive breeders (i.e. species demonstrating short and highly synchronised breeding periods) were particularly responsive to temperature. Our findings help elucidate the breeding phenology of frogs and provide valuable information on their mating systems in native Australian forests. This study highlights the difficulties of surveying even common anurans. We highlight the importance of predictability and stability in climate and the vulnerability of species for which reproduction appears to require highly specific environmental cues.

  20. The ACCENT-VOCBAS field campaign on biosphere-atmosphere interactions in a Mediterranean ecosystem of Castelporziano (Rome: site characteristics, climatic and meteorological conditions, and eco-physiology of vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fares

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Biosphere-atmosphere interactions were investigated on a sandy dune Mediterranean ecosystem in a field campaign held in 2007 within the frame of the European Projects ACCENT and VOCBAS. The campaign was carried out in the Presidential estate of Castelporziano, a peri-urban park close to Rome. Former campaigns (e.g. BEMA performed in Castelporziano investigated the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC. These campaigns focused on pseudosteppe and evergreen oak groves whereas the contribution of the largely biodiverse dune vegetation, a prominent component of the Mediterranean ecosystem, was overlooked. While specific aspects of the campaign will be discussed in companion papers, the general climatic and physiological aspects are presented here, together with information regarding BVOC emission from the most common plant species of the dune ecosystem. During the campaign regular air movements were observed, dominated by moderate nocturnal land breeze and diurnal sea breeze. A regular daily increase of ozone concentration in the air was also observed, but daily peaks of ozone were lower than those measured in summer on the same site. The site was ideal as a natural photochemical reactor to observe reaction, transport and deposition processes occurring in the Mediterranean basin, since the sea-land breeze circulation allowed a strong mixing between biogenic and anthropogenic emissions and secondary pollutants. Measurements were run in May, when plant physiological conditions were optimal, in absence of severe drought and heat stress. Foliar rates of photosynthesis and transpiration were as high as generally recorded in unstressed Mediterranean sclerophyllous plants. Most of the plant species emitted high level of monoterpenes, despite measurements being made in a period in which emissions of volatile isoprenoids could be restrained by developmental and environmental factors, such as leaf age and relatively low air temperature

  1. Resource selection by the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus relative to terrestrial-based habitats and meteorological conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Rivers

    Full Text Available Condors and vultures are distinct from most other terrestrial birds because they use extensive soaring flight for their daily movements. Therefore, assessing resource selection by these avian scavengers requires quantifying the availability of terrestrial-based habitats, as well as meteorological variables that influence atmospheric conditions necessary for soaring. In this study, we undertook the first quantitative assessment of habitat- and meteorological-based resource selection in the endangered California condor (Gymnogyps californianus within its California range and across the annual cycle. We found that condor use of terrestrial areas did not change markedly within the annual cycle, and that condor use was greatest for habitats where food resources and potential predators could be detected and where terrain was amenable for taking off from the ground in flight (e.g., sparse habitats, coastal areas. Condors originating from different release sites differed in their use of habitat, but this was likely due in part to variation in habitats surrounding release sites. Meteorological conditions were linked to condor use of ecological subregions, with thermal height, thermal velocity, and wind speed having both positive (selection and negative (avoidance effects on condor use in different areas. We found little evidence of systematic effects between individual characteristics (i.e., sex, age, breeding status or components of the species management program (i.e., release site, rearing method relative to meteorological conditions. Our findings indicate that habitat type and meteorological conditions can interact in complex ways to influence condor resource selection across landscapes, which is noteworthy given the extent of anthropogenic stressors that may impact condor populations (e.g., lead poisoning, wind energy development. Additional studies will be valuable to assess small-scale condor movements in light of these stressors to help minimize

  2. Finding a criterion for site evaluation by weighting radiological, meteorological and demographic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doury, A.; Gerard, R.

    1975-01-01

    The general problem of compatibility between given installations and their site, as well as more specific problems such as those associated with decisions to be taken in regard to demographic equilibrium in the environment, logically involve finding quantitative or at any rate semiquantitative criteria that will enable selection to be made under the least subjective conditions possible. Since the air is frequently the principal primary vector of effluents, especially in the case of an accident, atmospheric discharges are considered first separately. As the task is to find a ''site security index'' integrating the meteorological and demographic data with radiological data relating to the potential sources and the consequences of contamination, the authors first consider the possibility of using the man.rem concept, which has the advantage of possessing the dimension of a collective dose. In view of the objections that have been raised, particularly in connection with the controversy over the existence of a threshold for the dose-equivalent effect relation, a number of other practices are described and discussed. The conclusions are complex and subject to revision. Several definitions of site security indices can be identified and, pending the final decision stage, actually put into use, in conjunction with specific maps or graphs serving to reveal potentially important features which might be obscured by excessive integrations or summations

  3. Amplitude modulation of sound from wind turbines under various meteorological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Conny; Öhlund, Olof

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbine (WT) sound annoys some people even though the sound levels are relatively low. This could be because of the amplitude modulated "swishing" characteristic of the turbine sound, which is not taken into account by standard procedures for measuring average sound levels. Studies of sound immission from WTs were conducted continually between 19 August 2011 and 19 August 2012 at two sites in Sweden. A method for quantifying the degree and strength of amplitude modulation (AM) is introduced here. The method reveals that AM at the immission points occur under specific meteorological conditions. For WT sound immission, the wind direction and sound speed gradient are crucial for the occurrence of AM. Interference between two or more WTs could probably enhance AM. The mechanisms by which WT sound is amplitude modulated are not fully understood.

  4. COMPARISON OF CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS RESULTS FROM TWO METHODS OF PROCESSING SITE METEOROLOGICAL DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    , D

    2007-01-01

    Consequence analysis to support documented safety analysis requires the use of one or more years of representative meteorological data for atmospheric transport and dispersion calculations. At minimum, the needed meteorological data for most atmospheric transport and dispersion models consist of hourly samples of wind speed and atmospheric stability class. Atmospheric stability is inferred from measured and/or observed meteorological data. Several methods exist to convert measured and observed meteorological data into atmospheric stability class data. In this paper, one year of meteorological data from a western Department of Energy (DOE) site is processed to determine atmospheric stability class using two methods. The method that is prescribed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for supporting licensing of nuclear power plants makes use of measurements of vertical temperature difference to determine atmospheric stability. Another method that is preferred by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) relies upon measurements of incoming solar radiation, vertical temperature gradient, and wind speed. Consequences are calculated and compared using the two sets of processed meteorological data from these two methods as input data into the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System 2 (MACCS2) code

  5. The analysis of distribution of meteorological over China in astronomical site selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cai-yun; Weng, Ning-quan

    2014-02-01

    The distribution of parameters such as sunshine hours, precipitation, and visibility were obtained by analyzing the meteorological data in 906 stations of China during 1981~2012. And the month and annual variations of the parameters in some typical stations were discussed. The results show that: (1) the distribution of clear days is similar to that of sunshine hours, the values of which decrease from north to south and from west to east. The distributions of cloud, precipitation and vapor pressure are opposite. (2) The northwest areas in China have the characteristic such as low precipitation and vapor pressure, small cloud clever, and good visibility, which are the general conditions of astronomical site selection. (3) The parameters have obvious month variation. There are large precipitation, long sunshine hours and strong radiation in the mid months of one year, which are opposite in beginning and ending of one year. (4) In the selected stations, the value of vapor pressure decreases year by year, and the optical depth is similar or invariable. All the above results provided for astronomical site selection.

  6. The cross wavelet analysis of dengue fever variability influenced by meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Chien; Yu, Hwa-Lung; Lee, Chieh-Han

    2015-04-01

    The multiyear variation of meteorological conditions induced by climate change causes the changing diffusion pattern of infectious disease and serious epidemic situation. Among them, dengue fever is one of the most serious vector-borne diseases distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Dengue virus is transmitted by several species of mosquito and causing lots amount of human deaths every year around the world. The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of meteorological variables to the temporal variation of dengue fever epidemic in southern Taiwan. Several extreme and average indices of meteorological variables, i.e. temperature and humidity, were used for this analysis, including averaged, maximum and minimum temperature, and average rainfall, maximum 1-hr rainfall, and maximum 24-hr rainfall. This study plans to identify and quantify the nonlinear relationship of meteorological variables and dengue fever epidemic, finding the non-stationary time-frequency relationship and phase lag effects of those time series from 1998-2011 by using cross wavelet method. Results show that meteorological variables all have a significant time-frequency correlation region to dengue fever epidemic in frequency about one year (52 weeks). The associated phases can range from 0 to 90 degrees (0-13 weeks lag from meteorological factors to dengue incidences). Keywords: dengue fever, cross wavelet analysis, meteorological factor

  7. Correlation between meteorological conditions and the concentration of radionuclides in the ground layer of atmospheric air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajny, E.; Osrodka, L.; Wojtylak, M.; Michalik, B.; Skowronek, J.

    2001-01-01

    The main goal of this work was to find correlation between the concentrations of radionuclides in outdoor air and the meteorological conditions like: atmospheric pressure, wind velocity and amount of precipitation. Because the sampling period of radionuclides concentrations in air was relatively long (7 days), the average levels of meteorological parameters have been calculated within the same time. Data of radionuclide concentrations and meteorological data have been analyzed in order to find statistical correlation. The regression analysis and one of AI methods, known as neural network, were applied. In general, analysis of the gathered data does not show any strong correlation between the meteorological conditions and the concentrations of the radionuclides in air. A slightly stronger correlation we found for radionuclides with relatively short half-lives. The only positive correlation has been found between the 7 Be concentration and air temperature (at the significance level α = 0.05). In our opinion, the lack of correlation was caused by a too long sampling time in measurements of radionuclides in outdoor air (a whole week). Results of analysis received by means of the artificial neuron network are better. We were able to find certain groups of meteorological conditions, related with the corresponding concentrations of particular radionuclides in air. Preliminary measurements of radon progeny concentration support the thesis that the link between changes of meteorological parameters and concentrations of radionuclides in ambient air must exist. (author)

  8. Projections of meteorological and snow conditions in the Pyrenees using adjusted EURO-CORDEX climate projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verfaillie, Deborah; Déqué, Michel; Morin, Samuel; Soubeyroux, Jean-Michel; Lafaysse, Matthieu

    2017-04-01

    over the entire Pyrenean chain since 1980. Outputs from EURO-CORDEX simulations spanning 6 different RCMs forced by 6 different GCMs under 3 representative concentration pathways scenarios (RCP 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5) over Europe were downscaled at the massif scale and for 300 m elevation bands and statistically adjusted against the SAFRAN reanalysis. These corrected fields were then used to force the SURFEX/ISBA-Crocus land surface model over the Pyrenees. Here we present as an example a reanalysis and future projections (using adjusted EURO-CORDEX data) of meteorological and snow conditions obtained using this method at the site of La Mongie in the French Pyrenees, which we compare to in-situ observations carried out since the 1970s. These results further enable us to identify and apportion the main drivers for changes in snow conditions at the site, and the various uncertainty components at play. This work is a direct contribution of the French GICC ADAMONT project, and of the Interreg project "Clim'Py", aiming to develop the Pyrenean Observatory of Climate Change.

  9. Urban air quality assessment using monitoring data of fractionized aerosol samples, chemometrics and meteorological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yotova, Galina I; Tsitouridou, Roxani; Tsakovski, Stefan L; Simeonov, Vasil D

    2016-01-01

    The present article deals with assessment of urban air by using monitoring data for 10 different aerosol fractions (0.015-16 μm) collected at a typical urban site in City of Thessaloniki, Greece. The data set was subject to multivariate statistical analysis (cluster analysis and principal components analysis) and, additionally, to HYSPLIT back trajectory modeling in order to assess in a better way the impact of the weather conditions on the pollution sources identified. A specific element of the study is the effort to clarify the role of outliers in the data set. The reason for the appearance of outliers is strongly related to the atmospheric condition on the particular sampling days leading to enhanced concentration of pollutants (secondary emissions, sea sprays, road and soil dust, combustion processes) especially for ultra fine and coarse particles. It is also shown that three major sources affect the urban air quality of the location studied-sea sprays, mineral dust and anthropogenic influences (agricultural activity, combustion processes, and industrial sources). The level of impact is related to certain extent to the aerosol fraction size. The assessment of the meteorological conditions leads to defining of four downwind patterns affecting the air quality (Pelagic, Western and Central Europe, Eastern and Northeastern Europe and Africa and Southern Europe). Thus, the present study offers a complete urban air assessment taking into account the weather conditions, pollution sources and aerosol fractioning.

  10. Influence of meteorological conditions on electricity consumption in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvin, F.; Javelle, J.P.; Calvayrac, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    Electric consumption is modeled by Electricite de France, in taking into account temperature and cloud cover in 6 selected sites. The aim of the study is to improve this model by a better climate representation and introduction of new parameters. The model is improved by taking into account climatic characteristics of each region and a simplification of the cloudiness factor facilitates the forecast. Furthermore no new parameter is required

  11. Ozone and meteorological boundary-layer conditions at Summit, Greenland, during 3-21 June 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmig, D.; Boulter, J.; David, D.; Birks, J.W.; Cullen, N.J.; Steffen, K. [University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences; Johnson, B.J.; Oltmans, S.J. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States). Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory

    2002-06-01

    The temporal and spatial distributions of boundary-layer ozone were studied during June 2000 at Summit, Greenland, using surface-level measurements and vertical profiling from a tethered balloon platform. Three weeks of continuous ozone surface data, 133 meteorological vertical profile data and 82 ozone vertical profile data sets were collected from the surface to a maximum altitude of 1400 m above ground. The lower atmosphere at Summit was characterized by the prevalence of strong stable conditions with strong surface temperature inversions. These inversions reversed to neutral to slightly unstable conditions between {approx} 9.00 and 18.00 h local time with the formation of shallow mixing heights of {approx} 70-250 m above the surface. The surface ozone mixing ratio ranged from 39 to 68 ppbv and occasionally had rapid changes of up to 20 ppb in 12 h. The diurnal mean ozone mixing ratio showed diurnal trends indicating meteorological and photochemical controls of surface ozone. Vertical profiles were within the range of 37-76 ppb and showed strong stratification in the lower troposphere. A high correlation of high ozone/low water vapor air masses indicated the transport of high tropospheric/low stratospheric air into the lower boundary layer. An {approx} 0.1-3 ppb decline of the ozone mixing ratio towards the surface was frequently observed within the neutrally stable mixed layer during midday hours. These data suggest that the boundary-layer ozone mixing ratio and ozone depletion and deposition to the snowpack are influenced by the boundary-layer ozone mixing ratio and ozone depletion and deposition to the snowpack are influenced by photochemical processes and/or transport phenomena that follow diurnal dependencies. With 37 ppb of ozone being the lowest mixing ratio measured in all data no evidence was seen for the occurrence of ozone depletion episodes similar to those that have been reported within the boundary layer at coastal Arctic sites during springtime

  12. Relations between groundwater levels and anthropogenic and meteorological stressors at selected sites in east-central Florida, 1995-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Louis C.

    2010-01-01

    Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to define the relations of water levels in the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA) and surficial aquifer system (SAS) to anthropogenic and meteorological stressors between 1995 and 2007 at two monitoring well sites (Charlotte Street and Lake Oliver) in east-central Florida. Anthropogenic stressors of interest included municipal and agricultural groundwater withdrawals, and application of reclaimed-water to rapid-infiltration basins (source of aquifer recharge). Meteorological stressors included precipitation and potential evapotranspiration. Overall, anthropogenic and meteorological stressors accounted for about 40 to 89 percent of the variance in UFA and SAS groundwater levels and water-level changes. While mean monthly water levels were better correlated with monthly stressor values, changes in UFA and SAS water levels were better correlated with changes in stressor values. Water levels and water-level changes were influenced by system persistence as the moving-averaged values of both stressor types, which accounted for the influence of the previous month(s) conditions, consistently yielded higher adjusted coefficients of determination (R2 adj) values than did single monthly values. While monthly water-level changes tend to be influenced equally with both stressors across the hydrologically averaged 13-year period, changes were more influenced by one stressor or the other seasonally and during extended wet and dry periods. Seasonally, UFA water-level changes tended to be more influenced by anthropogenic stressors than by meteorological stressors, while changes in SAS water levels tended to be more influenced by meteorological stressors. During extended dry periods (12 months or greater), changes in UFA water levels at Charlotte Street were more affected by anthropogenic stressors than by meteorological stressors, while changes in SAS levels were more affected by meteorological stressors. At Lake Oliver, changes in both

  13. Astronomical and Meteorological Conditions of a Solar System Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proszak-Miąsik, Danuta; Bukowska, Maria; Nowak, Krzysztof; Rabczak, Sławomir

    2017-10-01

    Acquisition and processing of as much solar energy for heating and electricity generation in Poland and in the world is a very important objective in the policy of alternative energy sources. The main problem with the reception of solar energy by solar collectors is vary energy supply at different times of day and year and low flux density of radiation. The term of solar radiation one mean transmission or emission of energy in the form of electromagnetic waves. The radiation emitted from the surface of the sun spreads out in all directions in space, reaches the Earth’s surface in only partly, especially the solar collectors. The most important parameters characterizing solar radiation are daily, monthly and annual sum of solar radiation. Its express the amount of solar energy which falls on a unit area at a given time. Number of hours of sunshine during the day are dependent on two key factors. The first one is the time from the sunrise to sunset, which strongly depends on the date and latitude. The second factor is the weather (clouds), influences solar radiation, radiation in touch with clouds is absorbed and dissipated. This publication shows the impact on the energy yield of the flat collector installation and astronomical conditions (angle of inclination and declination of solar), and climate. The calculations of determining the astronomical conditions of the place where the installation is located ware analyzed. The solar installation is located in Rzeszow (Poland) and the plate collector placed on the roof of building. Based on specific methodology for selected days the calculation of the elevation angle of the Sun, hourly angle, the sun azimuth and angle of incidence of the radiation on any plane were set. The results are shown in diagrams. The effect of cloud cover on the acquisition of solar energy by the collector is also shown.

  14. The role of meteorological conditions and pollution control strategies in reducing air pollution in Beijing during APEC 2014 and Victory Parade 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Pengfei; Zhu, Tong; Fang, Yanhua; Li, Yingruo; Han, Yiqun; Wu, Yusheng; Hu, Min; Wang, Junxia

    2017-11-01

    To control severe air pollution in China, comprehensive pollution control strategies have been implemented throughout the country in recent years. To evaluate the effectiveness of these strategies, the influence of meteorological conditions on levels of air pollution needs to be determined. Using the intensive air pollution control strategies implemented during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum in 2014 (APEC 2014) and the 2015 China Victory Day Parade (Victory Parade 2015) as examples, we estimated the role of meteorological conditions and pollution control strategies in reducing air pollution levels in Beijing. Atmospheric particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5) samples were collected and gaseous pollutants (SO2, NO, NOx, and O3) were measured online at a site in Peking University (PKU). To determine the influence of meteorological conditions on the levels of air pollution, we first compared the air pollutant concentrations during days with stable meteorological conditions. However, there were few days with stable meteorological conditions during the Victory Parade. As such, we were unable to estimate the level of emission reduction efforts during this period. Finally, a generalized linear regression model (GLM) based only on meteorological parameters was built to predict air pollutant concentrations, which could explain more than 70 % of the variation in air pollutant concentration levels, after incorporating the nonlinear relationships between certain meteorological parameters and the concentrations of air pollutants. Evaluation of the GLM performance revealed that the GLM, even based only on meteorological parameters, could be satisfactory to estimate the contribution of meteorological conditions in reducing air pollution and, hence, the contribution of control strategies in reducing air pollution. Using the GLM, we found that the meteorological conditions and pollution control strategies contributed 30 and 28 % to the reduction

  15. Meteorological Conditions of Floods In The Chilean Andes Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, J.

    Catastrophic floods occurred on mountains River during 2000 and 2001. The meteo- rological conditions of flood during the last five years have analyzed. For example, the flood of June 29 of 2000 occurred after one of extremely wettest June of the last 40 years were snowfall was 991cm in the Aconcagua Valley. Infrequently storms activ- ity generated a huge snowfall and rainfall over the Andes mountains on June of 2000 (1525mm in El Maule Valley) and the end of the unusually period, the flood was trig- gered by rising temperatures on the mountains and heavy rain (199mm in 24 hours) fall over the fresh snow on the morning of June 29 and floods wave developed and moved down along of the all river located on Central part of Chile, the foods peak was 2970.5m3/s on the El Maule basin in the morning of June 29. The regional meteoro- logical models with the hydrological forecasting was used for alert of the floods.

  16. Skill of a global seasonal streamflow forecasting system, relative roles of initial conditions and meteorological forcing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Candogan Yossef, N.; Winsemius, H.C.; Weerts, A.; Van Beek, R.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the relative contributions of initial conditions (ICs) and meteorological forcing (MF) to the skill of the global seasonal streamflow forecasting system FEWS-World, using the global hydrological model PCRaster Global Water Balance. Potential improvement in forecasting skill through

  17. Effect of Meteorological Conditions and Geographical Factors in the Onset of Enterovirus 71

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-An; Yu, Hwa-Lung

    2015-04-01

    Since it was first recognized in California in 1969, enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection has been a significant cause of neurological disorder and death in children worldwide. In 1998 a historic epidemic of EV71 infection caused hand-foot-and-mouth disease and herpangina in thousands of people in Taiwan. The impact of EV71 infection is greatest during the summer months in Asia, and epidemics recur with a seasonal pattern. It was reported that seasonal patterns of EV71 differed by geographical localities. Previous studies have also showed significant relationships between meteorological variables, in particular, temperature and relative humidity, and the seasonal epidemic patterns of EV71. However, important issues that remain unclear include the spatiotemporal pattern of the EV71 outbreaks in Taiwan, and what role of favorable meteorological conditions in the transmission of the disease in the space-time domain. Thus, this study used a semiparametric generalized additive model (GAM) to understand the association between EV71 and meteorological factors across space and time. This study utilized a population-based database containing space-time data for clinic and hospital visits (i.e., hospital location and appointment times) of EV71 occurring in children less than 18 years old in Taipei from 1998 to 2008. Meteorological data (i.e., temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity) for the study period were provided by the Taiwan Central Weather Bureau. This study expect to find out an important meteorological factor and threshold.

  18. Providing Meteorological Information for Controlled Burns at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, R.

    1999-01-01

    Regional and local weather information are important for a variety of applications at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a Department of Energy (DOE) facility covering approximately 800 square kilometers of southwest South Carolina east of the Savannah River. For example, meteorological observations and forecasts are used to assess the consequences of an accidental radiological or chemical release. Traditionally, hazards posed by SRS operations have been associated with nuclear reactors, chemical reprocessing plants, fuel fabrication, or waste-vitrification facilities. However, recent events have shown site-specific meteorology to be a valuable tool to the United States Forest Service (USFS) in mitigating potential hazards from controlled burns that are conducted at the SRS. Prescribed burns at the SRS are important for a variety of reasons. The removal of thick undergrowth allows wildlife to more easily feed and migrate, accelerates the growth of young pine stands, and controls certain diseases that affect local pine forests (e.g. Adams et al. 1973). In addition, the removal of twigs, pine needles, or leaves (a fuel source) reduces the chance of serious wildfire damage. However, the threat of smoke inhalation and reduced visibility requires careful planning on the part of the fire professionals. At the SRS, approximately 100 square kilometers of land per year are burned in a controlled manner, mainly in the spring.To reduce the potentially harmful effects to any onsite activity, it is important that USFS personnel understand current and predicted weather patterns within the area. This paper discusses two sources of meteorological information that are provided to SRS-USFS personnel for use in planning forest burns: (1) a meteorological tower system which provides current data from a series of onsite locations, and (2) an operational prognostic mesoscale model used to generate forecast information. The forecast data supplements the basic National Weather Service (NWS

  19. Exchange pattern of gaseous elemental mercury in landfill: mercury deposition under vegetation coverage and interactive effects of multiple meteorological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhengkai; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Meng; Chai, Xiaoli

    2017-12-01

    Landfill is known as a potential source of atmospheric Hg and an important component of the local or regional atmospheric Hg budget. This study investigated the gaseous elemental Hg surface-air fluxes under differing conditions at a typical municipal solid waste landfill site, highlighting the interactive effects of plant coverage and meteorological conditions. The results indicated that Hg fluxes exhibited a feature represented by diel variation. In particular, Hg deposition was observed under a condition of Kochia sieversiana coverage, whereas emission that occurred after K. sieversiana was removed. Hg emission was the dominant mode under conditions of Setaria viridis coverage and its removal; however, the average Hg emission flux with the S. viridis coverage was nearly four times lower than after its removal. These findings verified that the plant coverage should be a key factor influencing the Hg emission from landfills. In addition, Hg fluxes were correlated positively with solar radiation and air/soil temperature and correlated inversely with relative humidity under all conditions, except K. sieversiana coverage. This suggested that the interactive effects of meteorological conditions and plant coverage played a jointly significant role in the Hg emission from landfills. It was established that K. sieversiana can inhibit Hg emission efficiently, and therefore, it could potentially be suitable for use as a plant-based method to control Hg pollution from landfills.

  20. Meteorological controls on the diurnal variability of carbon monoxide mixing ratio at a mountaintop monitoring site in the Appalachian Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temple R. Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The variability of trace gases such as carbon monoxide (CO at surface monitoring stations is affected by meteorological forcings that are particularly complicated over mountainous terrain. A detailed understanding of the impact of meteorological forcings on trace gas variability is challenging, but is vital to distinguish trace gas measurements affected by local pollutant sources from measurements representative of background mixing ratios. In the present study, we investigate the meteorological and CO characteristics at Pinnacles (38.61 N, 78.35 W, 1017 m above mean sea level, a mountaintop monitoring site in northwestern Virginia, USA, in the Appalachian Mountains, from 2009 to 2012, and focus on understanding the dominant meteorological forcings affecting the CO variability on diurnal timescales. The annual mean diurnal CO cycle shows a minimum in the morning between 0700 and 0900 LST and a maximum in the late afternoon between 1600 and 2000 LST, with a mean (median daily CO amplitude of 39.2±23.7 ppb (33.2 ppb. CO amplitudes show large day-to-day variability. The largest CO amplitudes, in which CO mixing ratios can change >100 ppb in <3 h, occur in the presence of synoptic disturbances. Under fair weather conditions, local- to regional-scale transport processes are found to be more important drivers of the diurnal CO variability. On fair weather days with northwesterly winds, boundary layer dilution causes a daytime CO decrease, resembling the variability observed atop tall towers in flat terrain. Fair weather days with a wind shift from the northwest to the south are characterised by an afternoon CO increase and resemble the variability observed at mountaintops influenced by the vertical transport of polluted air from adjacent valleys.

  1. Meteorological conditions of the mudflow origin in the northern part of the French Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. O. Pavlova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A mudflow phenomena are at the top of the list of dangerous natural hazards in the mountains areas all over the world. Among factors resulting in a mudflow phenomena triggering, meteorological conditions are considered to be the most relevant. The general objective of this study was to identify meteorological parameters controlling the triggering of mudflow phenomena in one part of the French Alps over the last 40 years. Major factors are quite well explored at the global scale or contrariwise in very precise territory in particular catchment areas. However, for now we have a poor knowledge of those factors at the scale of a medium-sized region (including catchments with different geomorphic characteristics over several km² especially in the French Alps. In addition, in this region only a few studies focused on relationships with climate. To understand mudflow phenomena activity and their link with meteorological parameters in the north region of the French Alps, we used a multivariate statistical approach. Regional meteorological parameters (such as mean monthly temperature and precipitation were first computed from a Principal Component Analysis of observed meteorological data from four weather stations. A binomial monthly logistic regression probability model was then fitted between the main principal components and mudflow phenomena data base composed of 298 debris flow events triggered between 1971 and 2008. Results revealed that the most successful model including two meteorological predictors (minimal monthly temperature and the number of rainy days between May and September correctly explains more than 60% of the mudflow phenomena events.

  2. The role of seasonal, climatic and meteorological conditions in modifying nuclear accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.; Proehl, G.

    1989-01-01

    One of the most important factors which influence the ingestion doses after an accidental release of radionuclides is the season of the year at which the release occurs. This is demonstrated with some examples for German conditions. This seasonal effect depends strongly on the growing periods of the different plants. Therefore it is influenced by the climatic conditions which vary to a large degree in the different countries causing very different growing periods. The influence of the meteorological conditions during and after the passing of a radioactive cloud on the initial contamination of the plants is discussed

  3. What controls stemflow? A LiDAR-based investigation of individual tree canopy structure, neighborhood conditions, and meteorological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankine, S. A.; Van Stan, J. T., II; Mesta, D. C.; Côté, J. F.; Hildebrandt, A.; Friesen, J.; Maldonado, G.

    2017-12-01

    Stemflow is a pointed hydrologic flux at the base of tree stems that has been linked to a host of biogeochemical processes in vegetated landscapes. Much work has been done to examine controls over stemflow water yield, finding three major factors: individual tree canopy structure, meteorological variables, and neighborhood conditions. However, the authors are unaware of any study to directly quantify all factors using a combination of terrestrial LiDAR and micrometeorological monitoring methods. This study directly quantifies individual Pinus palustris tree canopy characteristics (trunk volume and angle, branch volume and angle from 1st-to-3rd order, bark roughness, and height), 10-m radius neighborhood properties (number of trees, mean diameter and height, mean distance from study tree, and canopy overlap), and above-canopy storm conditions (magnitude, intensity, mean/max wind speed, and vapor pressure deficit) directly at the site. Stemflow production was 1% of rainfall, ranging from 0.3-59 L per storm from individual trees. Preliminary findings from storms (5-176 mm in magnitude) indicate that all individual tree characteristics, besides bark roughness, have little influence on stemflow generation. Bark roughness altered stemflow generation by affecting trunk water storage (0.1-0.7 mm) and wet trunk evaporation rates (0.005-0.03 mm/h). The strongest influence over stemflow generation from individual trees was the interaction between neighborhood characteristics and meteorological conditions (primarily rainfall amount and, secondarily, rainfall intensity).

  4. Numerical Simulations and Diagnostic Studies of Meteorological Conditions During PEM-Tropics B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuelberg, Henry E.

    2001-01-01

    Provides a final report on the work accomplished by several meteorological scientists under a NASA grant in conjunction with the DC-8 component of Pacific Exploratory Mission (PEM)-Tropics B. The responsibilities of the principal investigator included collaboration with the Science Team on flight planning, presentation of forecasts, and the preparation of map discussions for each flight. In a published manuscript, the principal investigator summarized the meteorological conditions during PEM-TB which included mean flow patterns, subtropical anticyclones, the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ), and the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Methodologies used included streamlines, ten day backward trajectories, thermodynamic soundings, and satellite imagery. Other interests included air sampling for the purpose of determining pollution levels.

  5. Meteorological and air quality data quarterly report WIPP site: Eddy County, New Mexico. Winter quarter, December 1976-February 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pocalujka, L.P.; Babij, E.; Church, H.W.

    1979-08-01

    The Wipp meteorological, air quality, and radiological measurements program was implemented to support the environmental effort for the evaluations of the site selection suitability. This data report is the third of a series of seasonal quarterly data summaries to be issued for the southeastern New Mexico site

  6. [Study on air quality and pollution meteorology conditions of Guangzhou during the 2010 Asian games].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting-Yuan; Deng, Xue-Jiao; Fan, Shao-Jia; Wu, Dui; Li, Fei; Deng, Tao; Tan, Hao-Bo; Jiang, De-Hai

    2012-09-01

    Based on the monitoring data of NO2, O3, SO2, PM, visibility, regional air quality index (RAQI) and the atmospheric transport and diffusion data from Nov. 4, 2010 to Dec. 10, 2010 in Guangzhou area, the variations of air quality and meteorological conditions during the Guangzhou Asian Games were analyzed. It was found that, during the Asian Games, the air quality was better than the air quality before or after the Asian Games. The visibility was greater than the visibility before or after the Asian Games, while the concentrations of PM1 and PM2.5 were lower. The correlation coefficient between visibility and the concentrations of PM1, PM2.5 indicated anti-correlation relationships. Daily and hourly concentrations of NO2 and SO2 met the primary ambient air quality standards, whereas the daily concentration of PM10 and hourly concentration of O3 met the secondary ambient air quality standards. Pollutants had been well controlled during the Asian Games. The concentration of SO2 in Guangzhou was influenced by local sources and long distance transmission, while the concentration of NO2 was significantly influenced by local sources. The emissions of NO2, SO2 and PM10 surrounding Guangzhou had a trend to affect the concentrations in Guangzhou, but the situation of O3 was opposite, the relatively high concentration of O3 in Guangzhou had tendency to be transported to the surrounding areas. The pollution meteorology conditions in the period of Asian Games were better than the conditions before or after the Asian Games. The decrease in the concentrations during the Asian Games did not only benefit from the emission control by the government, but also from the good meteorological conditions.

  7. Site Study Plan for meteorology/air quality, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The Meteorological/Air Quality Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of continuous measurements of surface (10-meter) wind speed and direction, temperature, humidity, dew point, pressure, and sensible heat flux (vertical). Air quality measurements will be limited to suspended particulate matter. After the first year of measurements, a 60-meter tower will be added to incorporate measurements needed for later modeling and dose calculations; these will include upper level winds, vertical temperature structure, and vertical wind speed. All of these measurements will be made at a site located within the 9-mi 2 site area but remote from the ESF. A second site, located near and downwind from the ESF, will monitor only particulate matter. The SSP describes the need for each study; its design and design rationale; analysis, management, and use of data, schedule of field activities, organization of field personnel and sample management, and quality assurance requirements. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from the Salt Repository Project Requirements Document. 38 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Overall Analysis of Meteorological Information in the KAERI Site (2006 Annual Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, E. H.; Choi, G. S.; Choi, S. D

    2007-07-15

    Inspection and repair of tower structure and lift, instrument calibration have been done in the scope of 'Environmental Radiation Monitoring Around the Nuclear Facilities' project. Wind direction, wind speed, temperature, humidity at 67m, 27m, and 10m height and temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, solar radiation, precipitation, and visibility at surface have been measured and analyzed with statistical methods. At the site, the prevailing wind directions were N in winter, SW in 2nd, E in 3rd quaters. The calm distributed 14.7% at 67m, 33.2% at 27m, 57.3% at 10m height. Wireless data transmission to MIPS(Meteorological Information Processing System) has been done after collection in the DAS where environmental assessment can be done by the developed simulation programs in both cases of normal operation and emergency.

  9. On-site meteorological instrumentation requirements to characterize diffusion from point sources: workshop report. Final report Sep 79-Sep 80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strimaitis, D.; Hoffnagle, G.; Bass, A.

    1981-04-01

    Results of a workshop entitled 'On-Site Meteorological Instrumentation Requirements to Characterize Diffusion from Point Sources' are summarized and reported. The workshop was sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in Raleigh, North Carolina, on January 15-17, 1980. Its purpose was to provide EPA with a thorough examination of the meteorological instrumentation and data collection requirements needed to characterize airborne dispersion of air contaminants from point sources and to recommend, based on an expert consensus, specific measurement technique and accuracies. Secondary purposes of the workshop were to (1) make recommendations to the National Weather Service (NWS) about collecting and archiving meteorological data that would best support air quality dispersion modeling objectives and (2) make recommendations on standardization of meteorological data reporting and quality assurance programs

  10. Analysis of grain filling process to the varied meteorological conditions in winter wheat [Triticum aestivum] cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, K.; Nakazono, K.; Wakiyama, Y.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes effects of varied meteorological conditions on the grain filling periods, stabilities of yield and quality of winter wheat cultivars with different maturity characteristics (cv. Ayahikari, Norin61, Bandowase, and Tsurupikari). In the field experiments, the meteorological treatments were made during the first heading time on 17 April 2001 and the middle heading time on 24 April 2000. Air temperature, global solar radiation and soil moisture were controlled using a rain shelter, cheesecloth and irrigation system. The growth speed and growth period of wheat grains varied among four winter wheat cultivars, depending on meteorological conditions. The growth speed increased within 1 8.4 deg C of mean air temperature over the 30 days after the anthesis. On the other hand, it was found that the growth speed of wheat grains and the maximum number of wheat grains (Ymax) decreased greatly with the 44.4% interception of global solar radiation. Logistic functions were fitted to the relationship between the relative thousand-kernel-weight (Y/Ymax) and the total integrated temperature (sigmaTa) after heading for all treatment conditions. The maximum weight of grains (Ymax) achieved at the harvest time varied somewhat clearly among four winter wheat cultivars and meteorological conditions. Multiple regression analysis showed that the grain yield (Ymax) of four wheat cultivars correlated positively with daily mean solar radiation. It was also found that the cultivar Ayahikari had a highly significant negative correlation between its grain weight and soil moisture. Namely, the grain weight of high soil moisture plot with pF=1.5 was lower by about 9% than that of a control plot with pF=3.5. On the other hand, the grain yield of cultivar Norin61 responded inversely to a wet environment, indicating that its grain weight was higher for high soil moisture and high wet-bulb temperature than for a dry environment. The grain yield of early varieties of Bandowase and

  11. Meteorology Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an activity to learn about meteorology and weather using the internet. Discusses the National Weather Service (NWS) internet site www.weather.gov. Students examine maximum and minimum daily temperatures, wind speed, and direction. (SAH)

  12. Radiation-use efficiency in maize: response to fertilization and meteorological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikova, A.; Dimitrov, I.; Stoyanov, P.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of fertilization rates on radiation use efficiency (RUE) of maize was examined. The investigations were carried out in Sadovo Experimental station on the leached vertisol. Two years with different growing periods in terms of meteorological conditions were chosen. The RUE by organs and for the whole plant for each phenological phase of maize development was estimated. It was found that the highest RUE in conditions of low air temperature and high air humidity during the first stages of growing period (vegetative growth) are observed in maize grown at 125% of fertilization rate. In conditions of high air temperature and low air humidity during the same stages, the plants, grown at 50% of fertilization rate, utilization of mineral fertilization are more successfully

  13. Understanding and simulating vibrations of plain bridge cables under varying meteorological conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteoni, Giulia

    amplitude peak to peak amplitudes, occurred. This latter behaviour was likely to be associated to dry inclined galloping. Passive dynamic wind tunnel tests were finally undertaken in presence of rain, using the same cable model as adopted in the dry state. The tests served to improve the current......The dissertation investigates the phenomenon of wind induced vibration of bridge cables under varying meteorological conditions. A twin research approach is adopted, where wind tunnel investigation of full-scale bridge cable section models is paralleled with theoretical modelling. A literature......-scale monitoring, wind tunnel testing and theoretical modelling. An extensive wind tunnel test campaign was then undertaken in order to further understand the onset conditions and characteristics of instability in the different climatic conditions described in the literature. Tests were separated into two...

  14. Meteorological tower data for the Yucca Alluvial (YA) site and Yucca Ridge (YR) site: Final data report, July 1983-October 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, H.W.; Freeman, D.L.; Boro, K.; Egami, R.T.

    1987-11-01

    The purpose of the NNWSI meteorological data collection program was to support environmental evaluations of site suitability for a nuclear waste repository. This is the last of a series of data summaries for the NNWSI Alluvial and Ridge Sites in southern Nevada. 3 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  15. Assessment of a surface-layer parameterization scheme in an atmospheric model for varying meteorological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Anurose

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a surface-layer parameterization scheme in a high-resolution regional model (HRM is carried out by comparing the model-simulated sensible heat flux (H with the concurrent in situ measurements recorded at Thiruvananthapuram (8.5° N, 76.9° E, a coastal station in India. With a view to examining the role of atmospheric stability in conjunction with the roughness lengths in the determination of heat exchange coefficient (CH and H for varying meteorological conditions, the model simulations are repeated by assigning different values to the ratio of momentum and thermal roughness lengths (i.e. z0m/z0h in three distinct configurations of the surface-layer scheme designed for the present study. These three configurations resulted in differential behaviour for the varying meteorological conditions, which is attributed to the sensitivity of CH to the bulk Richardson number (RiB under extremely unstable, near-neutral and stable stratification of the atmosphere.

  16. Association between the incidence of varicella and meteorological conditions in Jinan, Eastern China, 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunqing; Geng, Xingyi; Liu, Xiaoxue; Wang, Weiru; Zhang, Ji

    2016-04-22

    Varicella remains an important public health issue in China. In this study we explored the effect of weather conditions on the incidence of varicella in the temperate city of Jinan, Eastern China during 2012-2014 to inform public health prevention and control measures. Data on reported cases of varicella were obtained from National Notifiable Disease Report System. Meteorological data for the same time period were obtained from the Jinan Meteorological Bureau. A negative binomial regression model was used to assess the relationships between meteorological variables and the incidence of varicella. Given collinearity between average temperature and atmospheric pressure, separate models were constructed: one including average temperature without atmospheric pressure, the other including atmospheric pressure but without average temperature. Both models included relative humidity, wind velocity, rainfall, sunshine, and year as independent variables. Annual incidence rates of varicella were 44.47, 53.69, and 46.81 per 100,000 for 2012, 2013, and 2014, respectively. Each increase of 100 Pa (hPa) in atmospheric pressure was estimated to be associated with an increase in weekly incidence of 3.35 % (95 % CI = 2.94-3.67 %), while a 1 °C rise in temperature was associated with a decrease of 3.44 % (95 % CI = -3.73-3.15 %) in the weekly incidence of varicella. Similarly, a 1 % rise in relative humidity corresponded to a decrease of 0.50 % or 1.00 %, a 1 h rise in sunshine corresponded to an increase of 1.10 % or 0.50 %, and a 1 mm rise in rainfall corresponded to an increase of 0.20 % or 0.30 %, in the weekly incidence of varicella cases, depending on the variable considered in the model. Our findings show that weather factors have a significant influence on the incidence of varicella. Meteorological conditions should be considered as important predictors of varicella incidence in Jinan, Eastern China.

  17. The role of imported cases and favorable meteorological conditions in the onset of dengue epidemics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuin-Shee Shang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Travelers who acquire dengue infection are often routes for virus transmission to other regions. Nevertheless, the interplay between infected travelers, climate, vectors, and indigenous dengue incidence remains unclear. The role of foreign-origin cases on local dengue epidemics thus has been largely neglected by research. This study investigated the effect of both imported dengue and local meteorological factors on the occurrence of indigenous dengue in Taiwan.Using logistic and Poisson regression models, we analyzed bi-weekly, laboratory-confirmed dengue cases at their onset dates of illness from 1998 to 2007 to identify correlations between indigenous dengue and imported dengue cases (in the context of local meteorological factors across different time lags. Our results revealed that the occurrence of indigenous dengue was significantly correlated with temporally-lagged cases of imported dengue (2-14 weeks, higher temperatures (6-14 weeks, and lower relative humidity (6-20 weeks. In addition, imported and indigenous dengue cases had a significant quantitative relationship in the onset of local epidemics. However, this relationship became less significant once indigenous epidemics progressed past the initial stage.These findings imply that imported dengue cases are able to initiate indigenous epidemics when appropriate weather conditions are present. Early detection and case management of imported cases through rapid diagnosis may avert large-scale epidemics of dengue/dengue hemorrhagic fever. The deployment of an early-warning surveillance system, with the capacity to integrate meteorological data, will be an invaluable tool for successful prevention and control of dengue, particularly in non-endemic countries.

  18. Simulating air temperature in an urban street canyon in all weather conditions using measured data at a reference meteorological station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erell, E.; Williamson, T.

    2006-10-01

    A model is proposed that adapts data from a standard meteorological station to provide realistic site-specific air temperature in a city street exposed to the same meso-scale environment. In addition to a rudimentary description of the two sites, the canyon air temperature (CAT) model requires only inputs measured at standard weather stations; yet it is capable of accurately predicting the evolution of air temperature in all weather conditions for extended periods. It simulates the effect of urban geometry on radiant exchange; the effect of moisture availability on latent heat flux; energy stored in the ground and in building surfaces; air flow in the street based on wind above roof height; and the sensible heat flux from individual surfaces and from the street canyon as a whole. The CAT model has been tested on field data measured in a monitoring program carried out in Adelaide, Australia, in 2000-2001. After calibrating the model, predicted air temperature correlated well with measured data in all weather conditions over extended periods. The experimental validation provides additional evidence in support of a number of parameterisation schemes incorporated in the model to account for sensible heat and storage flux.

  19. Meteorological conditions associated to high sublimation amounts in semiarid high-elevation Andes decrease the performance of empirical melt models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Alvaro; Pellicciotti, Francesca; MacDonell, Shelley; McPhee, James; Burlando, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    observed that Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) coefficients obtained by the ETI significantly change from 0.96 to 0.72 on sites were sublimation percentages vary from 1.1 to 8.7%, respectively. We think that the performance of the ETI model decrease because a large share of short and longwave radiation is required to balance the snowpack temperature decrease generated by the loss of energy from latent heat fluxes in areas with significant sublimation. We identify meteorological and environmental conditions under which the ETI model can be used to calculate melt at high elevation sites in arid environments, and when its use would result in errors that would affect their parameters and simulation of the water balance of such catchments.

  20. Extreme meteorological events in nuclear power plant siting, excluding tropical cyclones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This Safety Guide deals with the extremes of meteorological variables and the extreme meteorological phenomena in accordance with the general criteria of the Code. The Guide outlines a procedure based on the following steps: (1) The meteorological phenomena and variables are described and classified, according to their effects on safety. (2) Data sources are identified, and data are collected. (3) Meteorological variables such as air temperature are analysed to determine their design bases; and the design basis event in case of phenomena such as the design basis tornado is identified. (4) As appropriate, the design basis value for the variable, or the design basis for the phenomena (such as pressure drop and maximum wind speed of the design basis tornado), is defined. In the following sections, the general procedure for evaluating the design bases of extreme meteorological variables and phenomena is outlined. The procedure is then presented in detail for each variable or phenomenon considered. The variables characterizing the meteorological environment dealt with in this Guide are wind speed, atmospheric precipitation, and temperature. The extreme meteorological phenomena discussed here are the tornado and, briefly, the tropical cyclone, which is discussed more extensively in the Safety Guide on Design Basis Tropical Cyclone for Nuclear Power Plants (IAEA Safety Series No. 50-SG-S11B)

  1. Report of meteorological observations in site of Tokai Research Establishment in 1971

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-05-01

    Covered are the meteorological observations from January to December 1971 in Tokai Research Establishment as monthly summaries, including daily and hourly mean wind speeds, frequencies of wind directions and atmospheric stability. (auth.)

  2. Classifying urban meteorological stations sites by 'local climate zones': Preliminary results for the city of Novi Sad (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Stevan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional approach in the investigation of urban climate of Novi Sad has been done through simple urban-rural air temperature differences. These inter-urban air temperature differences showed how much is city warmer than its surroundings, so-called urban heat island (UHI effect. Temperature differences exist inside the city as well. To get to know the intensity of these intra-urban temperature differences, installation of meteorological stations in different parts of the city or mobile measurements are needed. In 2012 started IPA HUSRB project made by Department of Climatology and Landscape Ecology (University of Szeged and Faculty of Sciences (University of Novi Sad. The main goal of this project is the development and installation of wireless urban meteorological network (temperature and relative humidity sensors in Szeged and Novi Sad. Before the deployment of sensors, necessary metadata about each potential urban meteorological station site needs to be collected. Field work, collected metadata and Stewart and Oke climate-based classification system from 2012 were used for defining the potential urban meteorological stations sites on the territory of the city of Novi Sad (Serbia and its surroundings.

  3. Meteorological observations of the coastal boundary layer structure by remote measurement methods for determining the impact of meteorological conditions on the breeze circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barantiev, D.

    2010-09-01

    Continuous measurements of the characteristics of atmospheric boundary layer and the characteristics of breeze circulation were initiated at the meteorological observatory of Ahtopol on the Black Sea coast (south-east Bulgaria) under a Bulgarian-Russian collaborative programme. Research observations started in July 2008 and go on. These observations are the start of high resolution atmospheric boundary layer vertical structure climatology at a Bulgarian Black Sea coastal site. Automatic weather station «MK-15» with an acoustic anemometer (mounted at 4,5m height) and Flat Array Sodar without RASS extension «Scintec» were installed on polygon of Ahtopol. A preliminary analysis was made of the experimental data on the thermodynamic structure of the atmospheric boundary layer in the coastal zone. Vertical profiles of wind speed, direction and spatio-temporal sectional were constructed according to the sodar data. Graphs of temporal variations of the direction and modulus of wind velocity, vertical velocity, the standard deviation of the acoustic temperature and time variation of air temperature (at a height of 2m - standard synoptic measurements) were constructed according MK-15. The momentum u* = " - w-'u' and sensible heat H = w'T' surface turbulent fluxes were calculated from MK-15 raw data. Prevailing weather conditions contributing to breeze circulation in the area were investigated. Blurred pressure field of high pressure with warm air mass, clear and (or) the overcast weather was characterized for treatment cases. The average wind speed near the ground was did not exceed 3 m/s, with a ripple rate of up to 4 m/s according to MK-15. The nature of the wind changed direction during the day has been practically the same (i.e., diurnal repeats) in all cases. The breeze front location was also detected based on standard measurements in the surface layer (mean values of temperature at 2 m and wind speed and direction from MK-15). In the zone of the front the wind

  4. Long term measurements of submicrometer urban aerosols: statistical analysis for correlations with meteorological conditions and trace gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wehner

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term measurements (over 4 years of particle number size distributions (submicrometer particles, 3-800 nm in diameter, trace gases (NO, NO2, and O3, and meteorological parameters (global radiation, wind speed and direction, atmospheric pressure, etc. were taken in a moderately polluted site in the city of Leipzig (Germany. The resulting complex data set was analyzed with respect to seasonal, weekly, and diurnal variation of the submicrometer aerosol. Car traffic produced a peak in the number size distribution at around 20 nm particle diameter during morning rush hour on weekdays. A second peak at 10-15 nm particle diameter occurred around noon during summer, confirmed by high correlation between concentration of particles less than 20 nm and the global radiation. This new-particle formation at noon was correlated with the amount of global radiation. A high concentration of accumulation mode particles (between 100 and 800 nm, which are associated with large particle-surface area, might prevent this formation. Such high particle concentration in the ultrafine region (particles smaller than 20 nm in diameter was not detected in the particle mass, and thus, particle mass concentration is not suitable for determining the diurnal patterns of particles. In summer, statistical time series analysis showed a cyclic pattern of ultrafine particles with a period of one day and confirmed the correlation with global radiation. Principal component analysis (PCA revealed a strong correlation between the particle concentration for 20-800 nm particles and the NO- and NO2-concentrations, indicating the influence of combustion processes on this broad size range, in particular during winter. In addition, PCA also revealed that particle concentration depended on meteorological conditions such as wind speed and wind direction, although the dependence differed with particle size class.

  5. Wind potential data analysis based on on-site measurements with tall meteorological masts installed in northern Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terziev, A.; Genovski, I.; Petrov, P.; Valchev, V.

    2010-01-01

    The current work has studied the possibility of correlation between wind data collected with tall meteorological masts in Northern Bulgaria. The processed data were collected for the same time period. The analysis is based on daily wind data. The correlation was made taking into consideration the following factors: the height of carried wind measurements, the prevailing wind direction, and the surface roughness of the relief. The analysis of the distance effect between meteorological masts is also considered. The possibility of modeling the wind velocity field for the area limited by the meteorological mast locations is examined. For this purpose for wind speed velocity field description is used triangulation with linear interpolation between the data. Data interpolation was made based on compulsory condition for relative flatness of the terrain. (authors)

  6. Meteorologically-adjusted trend analysis of surface observed ozone at three monitoring sites in Delhi, India: 2007-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, J.; Farooqui, Z.; Guttikunda, S. K.

    2012-12-01

    It is well known that meteorological parameters have significant impact on surface ozone concentrations. Therefore it is important to remove the effects of meteorology on ozone concentrations to correctly estimate long-term trends in ozone levels due to the alterations in precursor emissions. This is important for the development of effectual control strategies. In this study surface observed ozone trends in New Delhi are analyzed using Komogorov-Zurbenko (KZ) filter, US EPA ozone adjustment due to weather approach and the classification and regression tree method. The statistical models are applied to the ozone data at three observational sites in New Delhi metropolitan areas, 1) Income Tax Office (ITO) 2) Sirifort and 3) Delhi College of Engineering (DCE). The ITO site is located adjacent to a traffic crossing, Sirifort is an urban site and the DCE site is located in a residential area. The ITO site is also influenced by local industrial emissions. DCE has higher ozone levels than the other two sites. It was found that ITO has lowest ozone concentrations amongst the three sites due to ozone titrating due to industrial and on-road mobile NOx emissions. The statistical methods employed can assess ozone trends at these sites with a high degree of confidence and the results can be used to gauge the effectiveness of control strategies on surface ozone levels in New Delhi.

  7. Meteorological data for four sites at surface-disruption features in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, 1985--1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carman, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    Surface-disruption features, or craters, resulting from underground nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site may increase the potential for ground-water recharge in an area that would normally produce little, if any, recharge. This report presents selected meteorological data resulting from a study of two surface-disruption features during May 1985 through June 1986. The data were collected at four adjacent sites in Yucca Flat, about 56 kilometers north of Mercury, Nevada. Three sites (one in each of two craters and one at an undisturbed site at the original land surface) were instrumented to collect meteorological data for calculating bare-soil evaporation. These data include (1) long-wave radiation, (2) short-wave radiation, (3) net radiation, (4) air temperature, and (5) soil surface temperature. Meteorological data also were collected at a weather station at an undisturbed site near the study craters. Data collected at this site include (1) air temperature, (2) relative humidity, (3) wind velocity, and (4) wind direction

  8. Grass pollen seasons in Poland against a background of the meteorological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Myszkowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to the estimation of Poaceae pollen seasons in Poland in selected areas. The aim of the study was to present the long-term variability of the start, end and duration of grass pollen seasons and the seasonal pollen index (SPI in Poland against a background of the meteorological conditions over pollen seasons. The study was performed in eight Polish cities in 1992–2014 (the common seasons were 2003–2012. Pollen season start was relatively stable in the studied period, the seasons began about the 10th of May, a bit earlier in the south part of Poland. Pollen season ends were more changeable in comparison to the season start and fluctuated from the middle of July to the middle of September. SPI clearly depended on temperature and precipitation in April–August. Daily maximum pollen concentrations were achieved between the end of May and the first decade of July and no evident relationship between this day and weather conditions was found, apart from 2004.

  9. Potential of wind turbines to elicit seizures under various meteorological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedley, Andrew R D; Webb, Ann R; Wilkins, Arnold J

    2010-07-01

    To determine the potential risk of epileptic seizures from wind turbine shadow flicker under various meteorologic conditions. We extend a previous model to include attenuation of sunlight by the atmosphere using the libradtran radiative transfer code. Under conditions in which observers look toward the horizon with their eyes open we find that there is risk when the observer is closer than 1.2 times the total turbine height when on land, and 2.8 times the total turbine height in marine environments, the risk limited by the size of the image of the sun's disc on the retina. When looking at the ground, where the shadow of the blade is cast, observers are at risk only when at a distance turbines rotate at a rate below that at which the flicker is likely to present a risk, although there is a risk from smaller turbines that interrupt sunlight more than three times per second. For the scenarios considered, we find the risk is negligible at a distance more than about nine times the maximum height reached by the turbine blade, a distance similar to that in guidance from the United Kingdom planning authorities.

  10. Annual and latitudinal variations of surface fluxes and meteorological variables at Arctic terrestrial sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grachev, Andrey; Uttal, Taneil; Persson, Ola; Konopleva-Akish, Elena; Crepinsek, Sara; Cox, Christopher; Fairall, Christopher; Makshtas, Alexander; Repina, Irina

    2016-04-01

    This study analyzes and discusses seasonal and latitudinal variations of surface fluxes (turbulent, radiative, and soil ground heat) and other ancillary surface/snow/permafrost data based on in-situ measurements made at two long-term research observatories near the coast of the Arctic Ocean located in Canada and Russia. The hourly averaged data collected at Eureka (Canadian territory of Nunavut) and Tiksi (East Siberia) located at two quite different latitudes (80.0 N and 71.6 N respectively) are analyzed in details to describe the seasons in the Arctic. Although Eureka and Tiksi are located at the different continents and at the different latitudes, the annual course of the surface meteorology and the surface fluxes are qualitatively very similar. The air and soil temperatures display the familiar strong seasonal trend with maximum of measured temperatures in mid-summer and minimum during winter. According to our data, variation in incoming short-wave solar radiation led the seasonal pattern of the air and soil temperatures, and the turbulent fluxes. During the dark Polar nights, air and ground temperatures are strongly controlled by long-wave radiation associated generally with cloud cover. Due to the fact that in average the higher latitudes receive less solar radiation than lower latitudes, a length of the convective atmospheric boundary layer (warm season) is shorter and middle-summer amplitude of the turbulent fluxes is generally less in Eureka than in Tiksi. However, since solar elevation angle at local midnight in the middle of Arctic summer is higher for Eureka as compared to Tiksi, stable stratification and upward turbulent flux for carbon dioxide is generally did not observed at Eureka site during summer seasons. It was found a high correlation between the turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat, carbon dioxide and the net solar radiation. A comprehensive evaluation of energy balance closure problem is performed based on the multi-year data sets

  11. Interspecific comparison of the performance of soaring migrants in relation to morphology, meteorological conditions and migration strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Mellone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Performance of migrating birds can be affected by a number of intrinsic and extrinsic factors like morphology, meteorological conditions and migration strategies. We compared travel speeds of four raptor species during their crossing of the Sahara desert. Focusing the analyses on this region allows us to compare different species under equivalent conditions in order to disentangle which factors affect migratory performance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We tracked raptors using GPS satellite transmitters from Sweden, Spain and Italy, and evaluated their migratory performance at both an hourly and a daily scale. Hourly data (flight speed and altitude for intervals of two hours were analyzed in relation to time of day, species and season, and daily data (distance between roosting sites in relation to species, season, day length and tailwind support. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite a clear variation in morphology, interspecific differences were generally very small, and did only arise in spring, with long-distance migrants (>5000 km: osprey and Western marsh-harrier being faster than species that migrate shorter distances (Egyptian vulture and short-toed eagle. Our results suggest that the most important factor explaining hourly variation in flight speed is time of day, while at a daily scale, tailwind support is the most important factor explaining variation in daily distance, raising new questions about the consequences of possible future changes in worldwide wind patterns.

  12. Automobile pollution in Paris, France, influences traffic and meteorological conditions; La pollution automobile a Paris influence du trafic et des conditions meteorologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alary, Rene; Donati, Jacques; Viellard, Henri [Laboratoire Central de la Prefecture de Police, Paris (France)

    1995-06-22

    The improvement of urban air quality is a major challenge namely for NO{sub 2} (nitrogen dioxide), a toxic pollutant controlled by the European Regulation EEC n85-203. We now know that catalytic converters reduce car emissions and we believe that a reduction in traffic (already enforced in some cities) and the restriction of vehicle road traffic, applied to some European towns, is an area for further research. In Paris, the existence of periods of serious pollution (essentially due to NO{sub 2} levels reaching >200 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in periods of several hours) has made the public and public administration aware of the importance of this problem. Thus, a commitment has been made to reduce these periods of severe pollution. The study being presented deals with the search for a correlation between vehicle traffic (vehicle flow/hour) and measured concentrations of NO, NO{sub 2} and CO at two sites in Paris, in 1992. This relation has been established by plotting the traffic levels against concentrations of each gaseous effluent. When the pollutants are well dispersed it is possible to plot the concentrations of NO and NO{sub 2}. The slope is much steeper for NO than for NO{sub 2}. On the other hand, when meteorological conditions are unfavourable (high pressure zone, stability of the atmosphere, temperature inversion or strong solar radiance) no significant correlation could be observed. This proves the predominance of meteorological conditions on NO{sub 2} levels during high pollution periods. The study also confirmed that NO is a very good indicator of car pollution, taking into account the increasing number of diesel powered vehicles in France

  13. Ground-based observations of cloud properties, precipitation and meteorological conditions at Princess Elisabeth station in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broeke, M.R.; Gorodetskaya, I.V.; van Lipzig, N.P.M.; Boot, W.; Reijmer, C.H.; Mangold, A.; Kneifel, S.; Crewell, S.; Schween, J.

    2010-01-01

    To understand the current and future evolution of the Antarctic ice sheet, a good knowledge of the surface mass balance is essential. Regional climate models have proven to be suitable tools for this purpose, but only if they realistically represent the meteorological conditions in the region of

  14. The Role of Meteorology and Surface Condition to Multi-Decadal Variations of Dust Emission in Sahara and Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T. L.; Bian, H.; Brown, M. E.; Remer, L. A.; Stockwell, W. R.

    2014-12-01

    North Africa is the world's largest dust source region influencing regional and global climate, human health, and even the local economy. However North Africa as a dust source is not uniform but it consists of the arid region (Sahara) and the semi-arid region (Sahel) with emission rates depending on meteorological and surface conditions. Several recent studies have shown that dust from North Africa seems to have a decreasing trend in the past three decades. The goal of this study is to better understand the controlling factors that determine the change of dust in North Africa using observational data and model simulations. First we analyze surface bareness conditions determined from a long-term satellite observed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index for 1980-2008. Then we examine the key meteorological variables of precipitation and surface winds. Modeling experiments were conducted using the NASA Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model, which has been recently updated with a dynamic dust source function. Using the method we separate the dust originating from the Sahel from that of the Sahara desert. We find that the surface wind speed is the most dominant factor affecting Sahelian dust emission while vegetation has a modulating effect. We will show regional differences in meteorological variables, surface conditions, dust emission, and dust distribution and address the relationships among meteorology, surface conditions, and dust emission/loading in the past three decades (1980-2008).

  15. Effects of glaciological and hydro-meteorological conditions on the glacial danger in Zailiyskiy Alatau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Medeu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A need to estimate a hazard of a mudflow stream appearance in the glacial-nival zone of the Northern slope of Zailiyskiy Alatau (Kasakhstan is now one of the really urgent problems. The objective of this study was to inves‑ tigate influence of glacial and hydrometeorological factors on the condition of snow-glacial zone of Zailiyskiy Alatau and find out a mudflow-forming role of the mudflow centers arising due to climate warming and degra‑ dation of glaciation: periglacial lakes, intramoraine channels and reservoirs, and also talik massifs of morainic deposits. We analyzed glacial processes in the Zailiysky Alatau over a long period using meteorological data of the Almaty weather station and its close correlations with data from weather stations in the mountains. The area of glaciations was found out to be reduced after the maximum of the Little Ice Age. A combined diagram of occurrence of the mudflow manifestations and factors causing them had been constructed on the basis of sta‑ tistical data on the landslide phenomena. Glacial mudflows were the most frequent in 1960–1990, and later on activity of them became weaker. We believe, that in the next 10–20 years, the glacial mudflow hazard in Zailiys‑ kiy Alatau can sharply decrease, but at the same time, a probability of occurrence of the rainfall mudflows can increase in the mountainous zone of the ridge due the increase of areas with melted moraine and slope deposits.

  16. Photochemical and Meteorological Conditions during the MCMA-2003 Field Measurement Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, L. T.; de Foy, B.; Molina, M. J.; Caetano, E.; Magana, V.; Zitacuaro, A.; Ramos, R.; Retama, A.; Cardenas, B.; Martinez, A.; Reyes, R.; Sosa, G.

    2004-12-01

    MCMA-2003 was a major field campaign of the atmospheric chemistry taking place in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) in April of 2003. April is in the transition from the dry to the wet season with predominant westerly synoptic winds and intense radiation heating leading to strong thermal mountain flows. Three basic types of meteorological conditions were identified: "Cold Surge", "O3-North" and "O3-South", corresponding to cloudy days associated with "Norte" events, peak ozone in the north of the city, and peak ozone in the south. The circulation associated with these is described both at the regional and local level, as high concentrations of both ozone and primary pollutants for each category make them equally relevant to chemical analyses of the basin. Modified wind roses (time roses) based on time of day categories instead of wind speed categories are used to identify shifts in wind directions associated with slope flows inside the basin and sea breeze flows outside of it. The photochemical episodes are compared with historical data from the RAMA monitoring network to assess the representativeness of MCMA-2003. The analysis of the episodes during the campaign shows the existence of one-day episodes where no build-up of pollutants is needed in order to attain very highly localized concentrations but where multi-day events lead to peaks covering a much larger geographic area.

  17. Meteorological conditions and sports deaths at school in Japan, 1993 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Akio; Inaba, Yutaka

    2005-03-01

    We evaluated the association between meteorological conditions and sports deaths at elementary, junior high and senior high schools. Data were collected from attached documents such as accident reports and death certificate records in the National Agency for the Advancement of Sports and Health in Japan. Evaluation of seasonal variation showed a significant concentration of deaths from heat disorders and drowning in July and August. When heart disease was evaluated according to the sports situation, significant seasonal variation with a high number of deaths in September December was observed in sports events. Concerning circadian variation, deaths from heart disease showed a high peak at 10:00 11:00 a.m. in physical education classes and sports events, and at 2:00 5:00 p.m. in sports club activities. Analysis using a multiple logistic model showed a significantly lower odds ratio from heart disease and a significantly higher odds ratio from heat disorders at a wet bulb globe temperature of ≥21.0°C than at activities was significantly lower on days with rainfall than on days without rainfall. According to the school categories in heart diseases, the odds ratio in girls in elementary school was significantly higher than that in boys, but the odds ratio in girls in senior high school was significantly lower than that in boys.

  18. Measurement of thermal transmittance of opaque facade wall relationship with meteorological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunović Biljana S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of measurements of thermal transmittance or as otherwise called U-value [W/m2⋅K] of opaque facade wall of preschool institution built in 1977. The building has an incomplete technical documentation according to which considered wall was built of brick and masonry mortar. Thermal characteristics of the incorporated materials have not been specified. Considering that in the period of building construction JUS standards was used, a possible range of calculated U-vales was obtained (1,241-1,404 W/m2·K. Measurements were performed in accordance with ISO 9869 during three time periods with the resulting U-values (1,269±0,276 W/m2·K; 1,025±0,175 W/m2·K; 1,200±0,212 W/m2·K that do not differ from each other within experimental uncertainty. Furthermore, the correlation of the measured U-values and meteorological conditions that prevailed during the measurements was analyzed. In the second measurement period, the average values of the total cloud cover and low cloud cover were less, and the average duration of sunshine was longer than in the other two measurement periods.

  19. Climate related trends and meteorological conditions in European Arctic region - Porsanger fjord, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieszyńska, Agata; Stramska, Małgorzata

    2017-04-01

    Climate change has significant effect on the Arctic environment, where global trends are amplified. In this study, we have focused on the Porsanger fjord, located in European Arctic in the coastal region of the Barents Sea. We have analyzed climate related trends and meteorological condititions in the area of interest. Meteorological data included wind speed and direction, air temperature (AT) and precipitation from Era-Interim reanalysis (1986-2015) and local observations (1996-2015) from Lakselv (L, fjord's head area) and Honningsvaag (H - fjord's exit area). Our results confirm that this region is undergoing climate change related warming, which is indicated by rising air temperatures. Based on long-term reanalysis data, estimated trends for air temperature (AT) in Porsanger fjord are: 0.0536 °C year-1 at fjord's exit and 0.0428 °C year-1 at fjord's head. The results show that climate change does not seem to have a significant effect on long-term changes of wind speed and precipitation in the Porsanger fjord. Statistical analysis underlined significant spatial variability of meteorological conditions inside the fjord. For example, there are large differences in the annual cycle of AT with monthly mean January and July values of -8.4 and 12.6 °C in L and -2.5 and 10.1 °C in H. Dominant wind directions in Lakselv are S and SSE, while in Honningsvaag S and SSW directions prevail. Strong wind events (above 12 m s-1) are more frequent in H than in L. Annual cycle is characterized by stronger winds in winter and seasonality of wind direction. Precipitation for a given location can change by about 50% between years and varies spatially. Synoptic scale and within day variability are extremely intense in the area of interest. Air temperature and wind speed and direction can change dramatically in hours. In addition, regular patterns of the daily cycle of AT have different intensity in L and H. It is interesting to note that in spring/summer season, the daily cycle of

  20. Comparison of meteorological conditions during May and August 2010 floods in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kašpar, Marek; Müller, Miloslav; Pecho, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 2 (2013), s. 27-34 ISSN 0300-5402 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/1990 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : flood * heavy precipitation * meteorological anomaly * return period * orographic precipitation enhancement Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology http:// web .natur.cuni.cz/gis/aucg/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=94:markova&catid=63:forthcoming-articles&Itemid=91

  1. Impact of atmospheric release in stable night meteorological conditions; can emergency models predict dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connan, O.; Hebert, D.; Solier, L.; Voiseux, C.; Lamotte, M.; Laguionie, P.; Maro, D.; Thomas, L. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS/LRC (France)

    2014-07-01

    Atmospheric dispersion of pollutant or radionuclides in stratified meteorological condition, i.e. especially when weather conditions are very stable, mainly at night, is still poorly understood and not well apprehended by the operational atmospheric dispersion models. However, correctly predicting the dispersion of a radioactive plume, and estimating the radiological consequences for the population, following an unplanned atmospheric release of radionuclides are crucial steps in an emergency response. To better understand dispersion in these special weather conditions, IRSN performed a series of 22 air sampling campaigns between 2010 and 2013 in the vicinity of the La Hague nuclear reprocessing plant (AREVA - NC, France), at distances between 200 m and 3000 m from the facility. Krypton-85 ({sup 85}Kr), a b-and g-emitting radionuclide, released during the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel was used as a non-reactive tracer of radioactive plumes. Experimental campaigns were realized in stability class stable or very stable (E or F according to Pasquill classification) 18 times, and in neutral conditions (D according to Pasquill classification) 4 times. During each campaign, Krypton-85 real time measurement were made to find the plume around the plant, and then integrated samples (30 min) were collected in bag perpendicularly to the assumed wind direction axis. After measurement by gamma spectrometry, we have, when it was possible, estimate the point of impact and the width of the plume. The objective was to estimate the horizontal dispersion (width) of the plume at ground level in function of the distance and be able to calculate atmospheric transfer coefficients. In a second step, objective was to conclude on the use of common model and on their uncertainties. The results will be presented in terms of impact on the near-field. They will be compared with data obtained in previous years in neutral atmospheric conditions, and finally the results will be confronted with

  2. Influences of meteorological conditions on interannual variations of particulate matter pollution during winter in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jianjun; Gong, Sunling; Liu, Hongli; An, Xingqin; Yu, Ye; Zhao, Suping; Wu, Lin; Song, Congbo; Zhou, Chunhong; Wang, Jie; Yin, Chengmei; Yu, Lijuan

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the interannual variations of particulate matter (PM) pollution in winter, this paper examines the pollution characteristics of PM with aerodynamic diameters of less than 2.5 and 10 μm (i.e., PM2.5 and PM10), and their relationship to meteorological conditions over the Beijing municipality, Tianjin municipality, and Hebei Province—an area called Jing-Jin-Ji (JJJ, hereinafter)—in December 2013-16. The meteorological conditions during this period are also analyzed. The regional average concentrations of PM2.5 (PM10) over the JJJ area during this period were 148.6 (236.4), 100.1 (166.4), 140.5 (204.5), and 141.7 (203.1) μg m-3, respectively. The high occurrence frequencies of cold air outbreaks, a strong Siberian high, high wind speeds and boundary layer height, and low temperature and relative humidity, were direct meteorological causes of the low PM concentration in December 2014. A combined analysis of PM pollution and meteorological conditions implied that control measures have resulted in an effective improvement in air quality. Using the same emissions inventory in December 2013-16, a modeling analysis showed emissions of PM2.5 to decrease by 12.7%, 8.6%, and 8.3% in December 2014, 2015, and 2016, respectively, each compared with the previous year, over the JJJ area.

  3. The experimental study of pollution meteorology and diffusion feature in the site of Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Erbang; Yao Rentai; Xin Cuntian; Chen Jiayi

    2003-01-01

    The experimental observation and study of pollution meteorology and diffusion feature in site of Tianwan nuclear power plant is described. Four sets of (10, 30, 70, 100 m) sensors set on a 100-m-height tower to measure wind speed, wind direction and temperature were used to obtain hourly meteorological information during 1997-08 to 1999-08. The feature of middle scale wind field and the example and frequency of sea and land breezes are analyzed. The observation and formula of the internal boundary layer are completed. A simulation tests were done in a wind tunnel. In order to obtain the diffusion parameter the turbulence observation on two height of 100 m-height tower and 10 sets of SF 6 tracer experiments were done in summer, 1997. Based on above measured data the annual atmospheric dispersion factor and the accident probability dispersion factor at the boundary of an area of no residences were estimated. (authors)

  4. Long-term meteorologically independent trend analysis of ozone air quality at an urban site in the greater Houston area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botlaguduru, Venkata S V; Kommalapati, Raghava R; Huque, Ziaul

    2018-04-19

    The Houston-Galveston-Brazoria (HGB) area of Texas has a history of ozone exceedances and is currently classified under moderate nonattainment status for the 2008 8-hr ozone standard of 75 ppb. The HGB area is characterized by intense solar radiation, high temperature, and humidity, which influence day-to-day variations in ozone concentrations. Long-term air quality trends independent of meteorological influence need to be constructed for ascertaining the effectiveness of air quality management in this area. The Kolmogorov-Zurbenko (KZ) filter technique used to separate different scales of motion in a time series, is applied in the current study for maximum daily 8-hr (MDA8) ozone concentrations at an urban site (EPA AQS Site ID: 48-201-0024, Aldine) in the HGB area. This site located within 10 miles of downtown Houston and the George Bush Intercontinental Airport, was selected for developing long-term meteorologically independent MDA8 ozone trends for the years 1990-2016. Results from this study indicate a consistent decrease in meteorologically independent MDA8 ozone between 2000-2016. This pattern could be partially attributed to a reduction in underlying NO X emissions, particularly that of lowering nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) levels, and a decrease in the release of highly reactive volatile organic compounds (HRVOC). Results also suggest solar radiation to be most strongly correlated to ozone, with temperature being the secondary meteorological control variable. Relative humidity and wind speed have tertiary influence at this site. This study observed that meteorological variability accounts for a high of 61% variability in baseline ozone (low-frequency component, sum of long-term and seasonal components), while 64% of the change in long-term MDA8 ozone post-2000 could be attributed to NO X emissions reduction. Long-term MDA8 ozone trend component was estimated to be decreasing at a linear rate of 0.412 ± 0.007 ppb/yr for the years 2000-2016, and 0.155

  5. Entrance C - Meyrin site: new access conditions

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Entrance C on the Meyrin site, which drivers of motorised vehicles can use Mondays to Fridays from 7 a.m. to 9 a.m. and from 5 p.m. to 7 p.m., has been altered to include a turnstile to allow cyclists and pedestrians to use their access card to get in and out of the site from 6 a.m. until 10 p.m.   The following video illustrates how to use the new turnstile: A new type of entrance gate fitted with a number plate reader similar to that installed at the entrance to the Prévessin site should, once fully tested, allow drivers of motorised vehicles to access the site. For the time being, the conditions of use of Entrance C remain unchanged. Further information on the entry into force of new arrangements will be issued in due course. For further information about CERN entrances: CERN opening hours CERN control access GS Department

  6. Future climate impact on unfavorable meteorological conditions for the dispersion of air pollution in Brussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Troch, Rozemien; Berckmans, Julie; Giot, Olivier; Hamdi, Rafiq; Termonia, Piet

    2015-04-01

    Belgium is one of the several countries in Europe where air quality levels of different pollutants such as ozone, NOx, and Particulate Matter (PM) still exceed the prescribed European norms multiple times a year (EEA, 2014). These pollution peaks have a great impact on health and environment, in particular in large cities and urban environments. It is well known that observed concentrations of air pollutants are strongly influenced by emissions and meteorological conditions and therefore is sensitive to climate change. As the effects of global climate change are increasingly felt in Belgium, policy makers express growing interest in quantifying its effect on air pollution and the effort required to meet the air quality targets in the next years and decennia (Lauwaet et al., 2014). In this study, two different stability indices are calculated for a 9-year period using present (1991-1999) and future (2047-2055) climate data that has been obtained from a dynamically downscaling of Global Climate Model data from the Arpège model using the ALARO model at 4 km spatial resolution. The ALARO model is described in detail in previous validation studies from De Troch et al. (2013) and Hamdi et al. (2013). The first index gives a measure of the horizontal and vertical transport of nonreactive pollutants in stable atmospheric conditions and has been proposed and tested by Termonia and Quinet (2004). It gives a characteristic length scale l which is the ratio of the mean horizontal wind speed and the Brunt-Väisälä frequency. In this way low values for l in the lower part of the boundary layer during an extended time span of 12 hours, correspond to calm situations and a stable atmosphere and thus indicate unfavorable conditions for the dispersion of air pollution. This transport index is similar to an index used in an old Pasquill-type scheme but is more convenient to use to detect the strongest pollution peaks. The well known Pasquill classes are also calculated in order to

  7. The introduction of horizontal inhomogeneity of meteorological conditions in the EOSTAR propagation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, A.M.J. van; Kunz, G.J.

    2006-01-01

    The effective field-of-view of an electro-optical sensor in a given meteorological scenario can be evaluated using a ray-tracer. The resulting ray trace diagram also provides information pertinent to the quality (distortion, mirages) of the image being viewed by the sensor. The EOSTAR (Electro

  8. The phenological phases of flowering and pollen seasons of spring flowering tree taxa against a background of meteorological conditions in Kraków, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Stępalska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare phenological observations of pollen seasons of selected early spring trees. Special attention was paid to meteorological conditions which favored or did not favor tree flowering and pollen release. For this reason, we used phenological observation, pollen counts, and meteorological data in five sites in the center of Kraków in the period 2009–2011. Phenological phases (5 of four tree species: Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Corylus avellana, and Betula pendula, were analyzed. It was found that in case of A. glutinosa the pollen season often preceded the flowering period, while for A. incana those two phenomena were more correlated. As regards Corylus avellana, the beginning of the pollen season and phenological phases was simultaneous. However, pollen grains occurred in the air longer, even by a dozen or so days. The phenological phases and pollen seasons of Alnus and Corylus were dependent on meteorological conditions. To give the definition of the relationship between pollen concentration and weather conditions, Spearman rank correlation analysis was applied. High Alnus and Corylus pollen concentrations were found on sunny days with a maximum temperature over 10°C and no precipitation, and when the snow cover was gone. In case of Betula, the phenological phases of the full pollination period usually coincided with the periods of high pollen concentrations. However, Betula pollen sometimes appears earlier and stays in the air longer than the flowering period of local trees in the nearest vicinity. This situation indicates long-distance transport or secondary deposition.

  9. Hydrogeochemical conditions at the Haestholmen site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luukkonen, A.; Pitkaenen, P.; Ruotsalainen, P.; Leino-Forsman, H.; Snellman, M.

    1999-06-01

    The characterisation and interpretation of groundwater geochemistry has been ongoing at several study sites for spent fuel disposal in Finland since the late 1980s. The former evaluation of the Haestholmen groundwater from depths to 240 m was performed between 1980 and 1992 during the investigations for the construction of the reactor waste repository. Haestholmen was included in the site characterisation programme for spent fuel disposal in 1997. The sampling of groundwater down to 1000 m was started in 1997 from deep boreholes and this study presents the evaluation of the hydro-geochemistry at Haestholmen extending below 200m. The dilute HCO 3 -rich groundwater seems to be limited to the upper 60 m and it is probably controlled by subhorizontal zone R1. According to the tritium data, the dilute groundwater is recently infiltrated, less than 45 years ago. Brackish SO 4 -rich groundwater has been obtained from a depth of about 60 m to a depth of about 600 m. The data show a strong input of the Litorina sea water mixed in the groundwater system as well as input of glacial melt water in the brackish ground-water layer. The infiltration of Litorina sea water is based on marine Br/Cl ratios, δO-18/δH-2, and δS-34 data. The C-14 datings, together with a higher salinity than the present Baltic indicate a Litorina Sea water origin. Melt water is interpreted according to decreasing δH-2 and δO-18 with salinity and depth in the brackish water layer. The saline groundwater is obtained from below 600 m. Stable isotope (δO-18 and δH-2) results, high Ca/Cl, Ca/Mg and Br/Cl ratios suggest a hydrothermal saline end-member. However, the marine signature is also observable in saline water, which is interpreted to originate from the Pre-Weichselian Sea, possibly from the Eem Sea. In accordance with another study site, Olkiluoto, the hydrochemistry of Haestholmen seems to contain a layered sequence of climatic and shoreline changes from modern times through former Baltic

  10. Hydrogeochemical conditions at the Haestholmen site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luukkonen, A.; Pitkaenen, P. [VTT Communities and Infrastructure, Espoo (Finland); Ruotsalainen, P. [Fintact Oy (Finland); Leino-Forsman, H. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland); Snellman, M. [Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-06-01

    The characterisation and interpretation of groundwater geochemistry has been ongoing at several study sites for spent fuel disposal in Finland since the late 1980s. The former evaluation of the Haestholmen groundwater from depths to 240 m was performed between 1980 and 1992 during the investigations for the construction of the reactor waste repository. Haestholmen was included in the site characterisation programme for spent fuel disposal in 1997. The sampling of groundwater down to 1000 m was started in 1997 from deep boreholes and this study presents the evaluation of the hydro-geochemistry at Haestholmen extending below 200m. The dilute HCO{sub 3}-rich groundwater seems to be limited to the upper 60 m and it is probably controlled by subhorizontal zone R1. According to the tritium data, the dilute groundwater is recently infiltrated, less than 45 years ago. Brackish SO{sub 4}-rich groundwater has been obtained from a depth of about 60 m to a depth of about 600 m. The data show a strong input of the Litorina sea water mixed in the groundwater system as well as input of glacial melt water in the brackish ground-water layer. The infiltration of Litorina sea water is based on marine Br/Cl ratios, {delta}O-18/{delta}H-2, and {delta}S-34 data. The C-14 datings, together with a higher salinity than the present Baltic indicate a Litorina Sea water origin. Melt water is interpreted according to decreasing {delta}H-2 and {delta}O-18 with salinity and depth in the brackish water layer. The saline groundwater is obtained from below 600 m. Stable isotope ({delta}O-18 and {delta}H-2) results, high Ca/Cl, Ca/Mg and Br/Cl ratios suggest a hydrothermal saline end-member. However, the marine signature is also observable in saline water, which is interpreted to originate from the Pre-Weichselian Sea, possibly from the Eem Sea. In accordance with another study site, Olkiluoto, the hydrochemistry of Haestholmen seems to contain a layered sequence of climatic and shoreline changes

  11. Urban airborne matter in central and southern Chile: Effects of meteorological conditions on fine and coarse particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez, Marco A.; Baettig, Ricardo; Cornejo, Jorge; Zamudio, Francisco; Guajardo, Jorge; Fica, Rodrigo

    2017-07-01

    Air pollution is one of the major global environmental problems affecting human health and life quality. Many cities of Chile are heavily polluted with PM2.5 and PM10, mainly in the cold season, and there is little understanding of how the variation in particle matter differs between cities and how this is affected by the meteorological conditions. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of meteorological variables on respirable particulate matter (PM) of the main cities in the central-south valley of Chile during the cold season (May to August) between 2014 and 2016. We used hourly PM2.5 and PMcoarse (PM10- PM2.5) information along with wind speed, temperature and relative humidity, and other variables derived from meteorological parameters. Generalized additive models (GAMs) were fitted for each of the eight cities selected, covering a latitudinal range of 929 km, from Santiago to Osorno. Great variation in PM was found between cities during the cold months, and that variation exhibited a marked latitudinal pattern. Overall, the more northerly cities tended to be less polluted in PM2.5 and more polluted in PMcoarse than the more southerly cities, and vice versa. The results show that other derived variables from meteorology were better related with PM than the use of traditional daily means. The main variables selected with regard to PM2.5 content were mean wind speed and minimum temperature (negative relationship). Otherwise, the main variables selected with regard to PMcoarse content were mean wind speed (negative), and the daily range in temperature (positive). Variables derived from relative humidity contributed differently to the models, having a higher effect on PMcoarse than PM2.5, and exhibiting both negative and positive effects. For the different cities the deviance explained by the GAMs ranged from 37.6 to 79.1% for PM2.5 and from 18.5 to 63.7% for PMcoarse. The percentage of deviance explained by the models for PM2.5 exhibited a

  12. Influence of Meteorological Conditions in the Annual Variation of Environmental Radon Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Márquez, J.L.; Sáez, J.C.; Álvarez, A.; Quiñones, J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the correlations that exist between Rn gas, the Rn progeny and the meteorological variables. Also it takes part from the study to observe which variables are responsible of ambient dose equivalent rate variations. The study of correlations between different variables was performed using two methodologies; the first of them is a graphical representation of all variables to observe the temporal evolution of each variable and the second is the application of a Principal Component Analysis. The study of variables behavior has been divided into three periods (day, month and year), considering the presence and absence of rainfall for daily and monthly period. Several correlations have been identified between the Rn gas, Rn progeny and meteorological variables. It has also identified the influence of rainfall on the ambient dose equivalent rate due to the radon progeny. To complete the study, a theoretical model based on an adjustment by the least-squares has been performed to estimate the levels of exhaled radon in atmosphere for any day of the year.

  13. Climate and meteorology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoitink, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the significant activities conducted in 1994 to monitor the meteorology and climatology of the site. Meteorological measurements are taken to support Hanford Site emergency preparedness and response, Hanford Site operations, and atmospheric dispersion calculations. Climatological data are collected to help plan weather-dependent activities and are used as a resource to assess the environmental effects of Hanford Site operations

  14. Climate and meteorology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoitink, D.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the significant activities conducted in 1994 to monitor the meteorology and climatology of the site. Meteorological measurements are taken to support Hanford Site emergency preparedness and response, Hanford Site operations, and atmospheric dispersion calculations. Climatological data are collected to help plan weather-dependent activities and are used as a resource to assess the environmental effects of Hanford Site operations.

  15. Understanding how roadside concentrations of NOx are influenced by the background levels, traffic density, and meteorological conditions using Boosted Regression Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayegh, Arwa; Tate, James E.; Ropkins, Karl

    2016-02-01

    Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) is a major component of photochemical smog and its constituents are considered principal traffic-related pollutants affecting human health. This study investigates the influence of background concentrations of NOx, traffic density, and prevailing meteorological conditions on roadside concentrations of NOx at UK urban, open motorway, and motorway tunnel sites using the statistical approach Boosted Regression Trees (BRT). BRT models have been fitted using hourly concentration, traffic, and meteorological data for each site. The models predict, rank, and visualise the relationship between model variables and roadside NOx concentrations. A strong relationship between roadside NOx and monitored local background concentrations is demonstrated. Relationships between roadside NOx and other model variables have been shown to be strongly influenced by the quality and resolution of background concentrations of NOx, i.e. if it were based on monitored data or modelled prediction. The paper proposes a direct method of using site-specific fundamental diagrams for splitting traffic data into four traffic states: free-flow, busy-flow, congested, and severely congested. Using BRT models, the density of traffic (vehicles per kilometre) was observed to have a proportional influence on the concentrations of roadside NOx, with different fitted regression line slopes for the different traffic states. When other influences are conditioned out, the relationship between roadside concentrations and ambient air temperature suggests NOx concentrations reach a minimum at around 22 °C with high concentrations at low ambient air temperatures which could be associated to restricted atmospheric dispersion and/or to changes in road traffic exhaust emission characteristics at low ambient air temperatures. This paper uses BRT models to study how different critical factors, and their relative importance, influence the variation of roadside NOx concentrations. The paper

  16. Local environmental and meteorological conditions influencing the invasive mosquito Ae. albopictus and arbovirus transmission risk in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Eliza; Bajwa, Waheed; Shaman, Jeffrey

    2017-08-01

    Ae. albopictus, an invasive mosquito vector now endemic to much of the northeastern US, is a significant public health threat both as a nuisance biter and vector of disease (e.g. chikungunya virus). Here, we aim to quantify the relationships between local environmental and meteorological conditions and the abundance of Ae. albopictus mosquitoes in New York City. Using statistical modeling, we create a fine-scale spatially explicit risk map of Ae. albopictus abundance and validate the accuracy of spatiotemporal model predictions using observational data from 2016. We find that the spatial variability of annual Ae. albopictus abundance is greater than its temporal variability in New York City but that both local environmental and meteorological conditions are associated with Ae. albopictus numbers. Specifically, key land use characteristics, including open spaces, residential areas, and vacant lots, and spring and early summer meteorological conditions are associated with annual Ae. albopictus abundance. In addition, we investigate the distribution of imported chikungunya cases during 2014 and use these data to delineate areas with the highest rates of arboviral importation. We show that the spatial distribution of imported arboviral cases has been mostly discordant with mosquito production and thus, to date, has provided a check on local arboviral transmission in New York City. We do, however, find concordant areas where high Ae. albopictus abundance and chikungunya importation co-occur. Public health and vector control officials should prioritize control efforts to these areas and thus more cost effectively reduce the risk of local arboviral transmission. The methods applied here can be used to monitor and identify areas of risk for other imported vector-borne diseases.

  17. Meteorological conditions in the central Arctic summer during the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tjernström

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the rapidly changing climate in the Arctic is limited by a lack of understanding of underlying strong feedback mechanisms that are specific to the Arctic. Progress in this field can only be obtained by process-level observations; this is the motivation for intensive ice-breaker-based campaigns such as the Arctic Summer Cloud-Ocean Study (ASCOS, described here. However, detailed field observations also have to be put in the context of the larger-scale meteorology, and short field campaigns have to be analysed within the context of the underlying climate state and temporal anomalies from this.

    To aid in the analysis of other parameters or processes observed during this campaign, this paper provides an overview of the synoptic-scale meteorology and its climatic anomaly during the ASCOS field deployment. It also provides a statistical analysis of key features during the campaign, such as key meteorological variables, the vertical structure of the lower troposphere and clouds, and energy fluxes at the surface. In order to assess the representativity of the ASCOS results, we also compare these features to similar observations obtained during three earlier summer experiments in the Arctic Ocean: the AOE-96, SHEBA and AOE-2001 expeditions.

    We find that these expeditions share many key features of the summertime lower troposphere. Taking ASCOS and the previous expeditions together, a common picture emerges with a large amount of low-level cloud in a well-mixed shallow boundary layer, capped by a weak to moderately strong inversion where moisture, and sometimes also cloud top, penetrate into the lower parts of the inversion. Much of the boundary-layer mixing is due to cloud-top cooling and subsequent buoyant overturning of the cloud. The cloud layer may, or may not, be connected with surface processes depending on the depths of the cloud and surface-based boundary layers and on the relative strengths of surface-shear and

  18. The covariance of air quality conditions in six cities in Southern Germany - The role of meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Konstantinos; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzed air quality in six cities in Southern Germany (Ulm, Augsburg, Konstanz, Freiburg, Stuttgart and Munich), in conjunction with the prevailing synoptic conditions. Air quality was estimated through the calculation of a daily Air Stress Index (ASI) constituted by five independent components, each one expressing the contribution of one of the five main pollutants (PM 10 , O 3 , SO 2 , NO 2 and CO) to the total air stress. As it was deduced from ASI components, PM 10 from combustion sources and photochemically produced tropospheric O 3 are the most hazardous pollutants at the studied sites, throughout cold and warm periods respectively, yet PM 10 contribute substantially to the overall air stress during both seasons. The influence of anticyclonic high pressure systems, leading to atmospheric stagnation, was associated with increased ASI values, mainly due to the entrapment of PM 10 . Moderate air stress was generally estimated in all cities however a cleaner atmosphere was detected principally in Freiburg when North Europe was dominated by low pressure systems. Daily events of notably escalated ASI values were further analyzed with backward air mass trajectories. Throughout cold period, ASI episodes were commonly related to eastern airflows carrying exogenous PM 10 originated from eastern continental Europe. During warm period, ASI episodes were connected to the arrival of regionally circulated air parcels reflecting lack of dispersion and accumulation of pollutants in accordance with the synoptic analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Test reference years - meteorological bases for the technical simulation of heating systems and air-conditioning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perl, J.

    1991-01-01

    For the FRG (western part) for 12 regions with different climate test reference years (TRY) have been established. The TRYs are used for the simulation of the thermal behaviour of buildings, of the operation of heating and space avc systems, lighting control, solar plants as well as of comparable technical systems. A TRY is a collection of hourly data of important meterological parameters over a whole year. The TRYs include 14 meteorological parameters for temperature, humidity, wind, short- and long-wave radiation, atmospheric pressure, precipitation and description of the weather at that time. A TRY is to correspond to the characteristic weather conditions of the TRY region. (orig.) [de

  20. Integrated modeling of the dynamic meteorological and sea surface conditions during the passage of Typhoon Morakot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han Soo; Yamashita, Takao; Hsu, John R.-C.; Ding, Fei

    2013-01-01

    In August 2009, Typhoon Morakot caused massive flooding and devastating mudslides in the southern Taiwan triggered by extremely heavy rainfall (2777 mm in 4 days) which occurred during its passage. It was one of the deadliest typhoons that have ever attacked Taiwan in recent years. In this study, numerical simulations are performed for the storm surge and ocean surface waves, together with dynamic meteorological fields such as wind, pressure and precipitation induced by Typhoon Morakot, using an atmosphere-waves-ocean integrated modelling system. The wave-induced dissipation stress from breaking waves, whitecapping and depth-induced wave breaking, is parameterized and included in the wave-current interaction process, in addition to its influence on the storm surge level in shallow water along the coast of Taiwan. The simulated wind and pressure field captures the characteristics of the observed meteorological field. The spatial distribution of the accumulated rainfall within 4 days, from 00:00 UTC 6 August to 00:00 UTC 10 August 2009, shows similar patterns as the observed values. The 4-day accumulated rainfall of 2777 mm at the A-Li Shan mountain weather station for the same period depicted a high correlation with the observed value of 2780 mm/4 days. The effects of wave-induced dissipation stress in the wave-current interaction resulted in increased surge heights on the relatively shallow western coast of Taiwan, where the bottom slope of the bathymetry ranges from mild to moderate. The results also show that wave-breaking has to be considered for accurate storm surge prediction along the east coast of Taiwan over the narrow bank of surf zone with a high horizontal resolution of the model domain.

  1. The radiological consequences of notional accidental releases of radioactivity from fast breeder reactors: the influence of the meteorological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemming, C.R.; Hallam, J.; Kelly, G.N.

    1980-04-01

    The radiological consequences of a wide range of notional accidental releases from a 1300 MW(e) LMFBR (liquid Metal-cooled Fast Breeder Reactor) were assessed in a previous study by the National Radiological Protection Board. In the present study the sensitivity of the predicted consequences to the meteorological conditions was investigated. The influence of the wind direction, and hence the distribution of the exposed population, and of atmospheric stability at the time of the release are considered separately. Conclusions are reached on the precision required in specifying atmospheric stability conditions to estimate reliably the distribution of possible consequences following a given release of activity. The probability distributions of consequences for selected releases from two locations are evaluated taking account of the frequency distribution of wind direction and atmospheric stability at each location. The variation is large and demonstrates the importance of taking account of the whole range of meteorological conditions when assessing the risk presented by an accidental release of activity. (author)

  2. Modelling and analysis of radionuclide dispersion from PWR on abnormal condition in Bojanegara Serang site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Kuntjoro

    2010-01-01

    Additional of electrical power especially Nuclear Power Plant will give radiological consequence sto population and environment due to radioactive release in normal and abnormal condition. In consequence the management of nuclear power plant must supply data and strong argumentation to clarify the safety of nuclear power plant to environment. For that purpose it needs to be carried out an analysis of abnormal condition in nuclear power plant and its radiological consequences to the environment. That analysis is done using abnormal condition simulation model postulated on 1000 MWe nuclear power plant.That simulation model is used also to evaluate environmental potential as site capability in supporting the radiological consequences. Radionuclide transport modeling from reactor core to containment uses EMERALD computer code. Other computer codes are Wind rose, PC-COSYMA and Arc View are used to simulate meteorology condition, radionuclide release to population distribution of food production and consumption and distribution of radiation dose received to population around nuclear power plant. Application of that simulation is carried out to NPP candidate site in Bojanegara-Kramatwatu, Serang Banten peninsula. Using source term data, meteorology data, dispersion data and pathways modeling are resulting radionuclide dispersion model and radiation pathway acceptance at the surrounding nuclear power plant site (Bojanegara-Serang peninsula). The result shows that maximum radiation dose received is lower than dose permitted in accordance with regulatory body (BAPETEN). (author)

  3. General aspects of meteorology and wind flow patterns at the National Medical Cyclotron site, Camperdown, NSW, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.H.; Bartsch, F.J.K.

    1994-06-01

    As part of an assessment into the consequences of a potential accident at the National Medical Cyclotron, Camperdown, NSW., Australia, two meteorological stations were installed to monitor the winds, temperatures and atmospheric dispersion conditions. The data will be used to assess environmental impacts of the Cyclotron's operation. In spite of the relatively poor performance of the stations, the wind data indicated significant effects of local buildings and the general urban surface roughness features. The prevailing winds during the study were from the north-north-west at night and south-south-west or north-east sea breezes during the day. Atmospheric stability/dispersion categories were typical of an urban heat island location. 11 refs., 10 tabs, 6 figs

  4. The data collection component of the Hanford Meteorology Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, C.S.; Islam, M.M.

    1988-09-01

    An intensive program of meteorological monitoring is in place at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The Hanford Meteorology Monitoring Program involves the measurement, observation, and storage of various meteorological data; continuous monitoring of regional weather conditions by a staff of professional meteorologists; and around-the-clock forecasting of weather conditions for the Hanford Site. The objective of this report is to document the data collection component of the program. In this report, each meteorological monitoring site is discussed in detail. Each site's location and instrumentation are described and photographs are presented. The methods for processing and communicating data to the Hanford Meteorology Station are also discussed. Finally, the procedures followed to maintain and calibrate these instruments are presented. 2 refs., 83 figs., 15 tabs.

  5. Meteorological, hydrological and hydrogeological monitoring data and near-surface hydrogeological properties data from Laxemar-Simpevarp. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, Kent; Oehman, Johan; Holgersson, Bjoern; Roennback, Kristoffer; Marelius, Fredrick

    2008-12-01

    This report presents and analyses meteorological, hydrological and hydrogeological time-series data and near-surface hydrogeological properties data from the Laxemar-Simpevarp area, available in SKB's Sicada database at time of the Laxemar 2.3 data freeze (Aug. 31, 2007). The meteorological data set includes data from two local stations, located on the island of Aespoe and at Plittorp, located further inland. In addition, the data evaluation uses a longer-term data set from 7 surrounding stations, operated by SMHI. As part of this study, a time series is constructed of the water content of snow. According to the data evaluation, the site-average annual precipitation and potential evapotranspiration can be estimated to be on the order of 600 and 535 mm, respectively. In particular, precipitation demonstrates a near-coastal gradient, with less precipitation at the coast compared to areas further inland. The surface-water level data set includes data from 4 lake-level gauging stations and 3 sea-level gauging stations. All lakes are located above sea level, including the near-coastal Lake Soeraa. Hence, no intrusion of sea water to lakes takes place. There is a strong co-variation among the monitored lake-water levels, typically with maxima during spring and minima during late summer and early autumn. Concerning the sea as a hydraulic boundary, the maximum and minimum sea levels (daily averages) during the site-investigation period were -0.52 and 0.71 metres above sea level, respectively, whereas the average sea level was 0.03 metres above sea level (RHB 70). The data set on stream discharge, surface-water temperature and electrical conductivity includes data from 9 discharge-gauging stations in 7 streams. Based on the discharge data, the site-average specific discharge for the years 2005-2007 can be estimated to 165 mm/y, which is within the interval of the estimated long-term average. Overall, discharge-data errors are likely to be small. The hydrogeological time

  6. Meteorological, hydrological and hydrogeological monitoring data and near-surface hydrogeological properties data from Laxemar-Simpevarp. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Kent (EmpTec, Taeby (Sweden)); Oehman, Johan (Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden)); Holgersson, Bjoern (SWECO VIAK, Stockholm (Sweden)); Roennback, Kristoffer (Aqualog AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Marelius, Fredrick (WSP Sverige, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    This report presents and analyses meteorological, hydrological and hydrogeological time-series data and near-surface hydrogeological properties data from the Laxemar-Simpevarp area, available in SKB's Sicada database at time of the Laxemar 2.3 data freeze (Aug. 31, 2007). The meteorological data set includes data from two local stations, located on the island of Aespoe and at Plittorp, located further inland. In addition, the data evaluation uses a longer-term data set from 7 surrounding stations, operated by SMHI. As part of this study, a time series is constructed of the water content of snow. According to the data evaluation, the site-average annual precipitation and potential evapotranspiration can be estimated to be on the order of 600 and 535 mm, respectively. In particular, precipitation demonstrates a near-coastal gradient, with less precipitation at the coast compared to areas further inland. The surface-water level data set includes data from 4 lake-level gauging stations and 3 sea-level gauging stations. All lakes are located above sea level, including the near-coastal Lake Soeraa. Hence, no intrusion of sea water to lakes takes place. There is a strong co-variation among the monitored lake-water levels, typically with maxima during spring and minima during late summer and early autumn. Concerning the sea as a hydraulic boundary, the maximum and minimum sea levels (daily averages) during the site-investigation period were -0.52 and 0.71 metres above sea level, respectively, whereas the average sea level was 0.03 metres above sea level (RHB 70). The data set on stream discharge, surface-water temperature and electrical conductivity includes data from 9 discharge-gauging stations in 7 streams. Based on the discharge data, the site-average specific discharge for the years 2005-2007 can be estimated to 165 mm/y, which is within the interval of the estimated long-term average. Overall, discharge-data errors are likely to be small. The hydrogeological

  7. Investigation of the relationships between DCS cloud properties, lifecycle, and precipitation with meteorological regimes and aerosol sources at the ARM SGP Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Xiquan [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences; Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Hydrology and Atmospheric Sciences

    2016-10-26

    In this proposed research, we will investigate how different meteorological regimes and aerosol sources affect DCS properties, diurnal and life cycles, and precipitation using multiple observational platforms (surface, satellite, and aircraft) and NARR reanalysis at the ARM SGP site. The Feng et al. (2011, 2012) DCS results will serve as a starting point for this proposed research, and help us to address some fundamental issues of DCSs, such as convective initiation, rain rate, areal extent (including stratiform and convective regions), and longevity. Convective properties will be stratified by meteorological regime (synoptic/mesoscale patterns) identified by reanalysis. Aerosol information obtained from the ARM SGP site will also be stratified by meteorological regimes to understand their effects on convection. Finally, the aircraft in-situ measurements and various radar observations and retrievals during the MC3E campaign will provide a “cloud-truth” dataset and are an invaluable data source for verifying the findings and investigating the proposed hypotheses in Objective 1.

  8. Forest meteorology research within the Oak Ridge site, eastern deciduous forest biome, USIBP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchison, B.A.; Matt, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    The data presented here indicate that the diurnal trends in forest microclimate are dominated by the diurnal trend in incident solar radiation amounts and the diurnal changes in solar elevations. Absolute values of these microclimatic variables, on the other hand, reflect strongly, the synoptic climatic conditions present and, to a lesser degree, the interactions among synoptic climatic parameters, forest structure, forest physiology, and soil moisture conditions. The seasonal changes in forest microclimate are the result of changes in incident radiation amounts, earth-sun geometry, and phenological change in forest structure along with seasonal changes in synoptic climatic parameters. The temporal and spatial variations of solar radiation within and above a deciduous forest composed predominately of tulip poplar (biriodendron tulipifera) were documented and on attempt was made to relate the variations to forest structure

  9. Meteorological Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, H.A. Jr.; Parker, M.J.; Addis, R.P.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this technical report is to provide a comprehensive, detailed overview of the meteorological monitoring program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The principle function of the program is to provide current, accurate meteorological data as input for calculating the transport and diffusion of any unplanned release of an atmospheric pollutant. The report is recommended for meteorologists, technicians, or any personnel who require an in-depth understanding of the meteorological monitoring program

  10. Meteorological Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, H.A. Jr. [ed.; Parker, M.J.; Addis, R.P.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this technical report is to provide a comprehensive, detailed overview of the meteorological monitoring program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The principle function of the program is to provide current, accurate meteorological data as input for calculating the transport and diffusion of any unplanned release of an atmospheric pollutant. The report is recommended for meteorologists, technicians, or any personnel who require an in-depth understanding of the meteorological monitoring program.

  11. Increasing Juniperus virginiana L. pollen in the Tulsa atmosphere: long-term trends, variability, and influence of meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flonard, Michaela; Lo, Esther; Levetin, Estelle

    2018-02-01

    In the Tulsa area, the Cupressaceae is largely represented by eastern red cedar ( Juniperus virginiana L.). The encroachment of this species into the grasslands of Oklahoma has been well documented, and it is believed this trend will continue. The pollen is known to be allergenic and is a major component of the Tulsa atmosphere in February and March. This study examined airborne Cupressaceae pollen data from 1987 to 2016 to determine long-term trends, pollen seasonal variability, and influence of meteorological variables on airborne pollen concentrations. Pollen was collected through means of a Burkard sampler and analyzed with microscopy. Daily pollen concentrations and yearly pollen metrics showed a high degree of variability. In addition, there were significant increases over time in the seasonal pollen index and in peak concentrations. These increases parallel the increasing population of J. virginiana in the region. Pollen data were split into pre- and post-peak categories for statistical analyses, which revealed significant differences in correlations of the two datasets when analyzed with meteorological conditions. While temperature and dew point, among others were significant in both datasets, other factors, like relative humidity, were significant only in one dataset. Analyses using wind direction showed that southerly and southwestern winds contributed to increased pollen concentrations. This study confirms that J. virginiana pollen has become an increasing risk for individuals sensitive to this pollen and emphasizes the need for long-term aerobiological monitoring in other areas.

  12. Particle-in-cell vs straight-line airflow Gaussian calculations of concentration and deposition of airborne emissions out to 70 km for two sites of differing meteorological and topographical character

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, R.; Dickerson, M.A.; Peterson, K.R.; Sherman, C.A.; Sullivan, T.J.

    1976-01-01

    Two numerical models for the calculation of air concentration and ground deposition of airborne effluent releases are compared. The Particle-in-Cell (PIC) model and the Straight-Line Airflow Gaussian model were used for the simulation. Two sites were selected for comparison: the Hudson River Valley, New York, and the area around the Savannah River Plant, South Carolina. Input for the models was synthesized from meteorological data gathered in previous studies by various investigators. It was found that the PIC model more closely simulated the three-dimensional effects of the meteorology and topography. Overall, the Gaussian model calculated higher concentrations under stable conditions with better agreement between the two methods during neutral to unstable conditions. In addition, because of its consideration of exposure from the returning plume after flow reversal, the PIC model calculated air concentrations over larger areas than did the Gaussian model

  13. Technical procedures for implementation of meteorology/air quality site studies, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    This report describes The Technical Procedures that will be used to monitor air quality and meteorology. Topics include: high-volume filter handling; operation, maintenance, and calibration of the 10-M meteorological and air quality system; processing data from the 10-M meteorological tower; processing data from the 60-M meteorological tower; processing total suspended particulate filters and data from the high-volume air samplers; operation maintenance, and calibration of the 60-M meteorological and air quality system; and auditing the air quality system. 4 refs., 6 figs

  14. Meteorological conditions during a severe, prolonged regional heavy air pollution episode in eastern China from December 2016 to January 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xueliang; Cao, Weihua; Huo, Yanfeng; Yang, Guanying; Yu, Caixia; He, Dongyan; Deng, Weitao; Fu, Wei; Ding, Heming; Zhai, Jing; Cheng, Long; Zhao, Xuhui

    2018-03-01

    A severe, prolonged and harmful regional heavy air pollution episode occurred in eastern China from December 2016 to January 2017. In this paper, the pollutant characteristics and the meteorological formation mechanism of this pollution event, including climate anomalies, surface weather conditions, planetary boundary layer structure and large-scale circulation features, were analysed based on observational pollution data, surface meteorological data, sounding data and ERA-Interim reanalysis data. The results are as follows. (1) Five pollution stages were identified in eastern China. The two most severe episodes occurred from December 27, 2016 to January 4, 2017 and from January 8 to 12 2017. During these two pollution episodes, fine mode particles were major contributors, and hourly PM2.5 concentrations often exceeded 150 μg/m3, reaching a maximum of 333 μg/m3 at Fuyang station. Gaseous pollutants were transformed into secondary aerosols through heterogeneous reactions on the surface of PM2.5. (2) Compared with the same period over the years 2000-2016, 2017 presented meteorological field climate anomalies in conjunction with unfavourable surface conditions (weak winds, high relative humidity, fewer hours of sunshine, high cloud cover) and adverse atmospheric circulation (weak East Asian winter monsoon and an abnormal geopotential height of 500 hPa), which caused poorer visibility in 2017 than in the other analysed years. (3) During the development of heavy pollution event, unfavourable surface weather conditions, including poorer visibility, weaker pressure, higher relative humidity, lower wind speed with unfavourable wind direction and less precipitation suppressed the horizontal diffusion ability of air pollutants. Furthermore, the unfavourable structure of the atmospheric boundary layer was the key cause of the rapid PM2.5 increase. The deep, strong temperature inversion layer and weak vertical wind velocity could have suppressed vertical motion and enhanced

  15. Bacteriostatics of volatile organic compounds of Crimean pine and environmental meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalaya, Elena; Slepykh, Victor; Efimenko, Natalia; Povolotckaia, Nina

    2015-04-01

    Sanitary and hygienic properties of air saturated with volatile organic compounds of plants (VOC) have a fundamental importance for the biosphere. In particular, they make such a feature as the freshness of the air. The energy contained in VOC and made by Earth vegetation can be compared with the energy of lightning discharges in the atmosphere during the year [1]. The influence of natural environment on the dynamics of VOC developed by plants is also of current interest and is, in particular, important for resort study because VOC produced by the vegetation of the resort regions can be seen as a self-contained resort resource [2]. Dynamics of VOC evolution by Crimean pine (Pinus Pallasiana D.Don.) that is the forest forming breed of the resort region Caucasus Mineral Waters (Russia) has been studied by a microbiological method [1]. Dynamics of bacteriostatics was qualified by the extent of oppression of the VOC test- culture (Staphylococcus aureus 209p) of the pine in % in comparison with control. The needles for the experience were selected at noon in the middle of the summer. At the time of the needle selection meteorological indicators were fixed. As the result of the researches we got an empirical equation of dynamics of VOC bacteriostatics of the Crimean pine under the influence of total solar radiation (kW/m2) and relative air humidity (%). The coefficient of the multiple correlation of the VOC bacteriostatics of the Crimean pine, total solar radiation and relative air humidity makes: R=0,83 at the importance of F=7,53>F0 05=3,49. The coefficient of the multiple determination is R2=0,69. The equation is: y = - 35,1020 + 1,7193x + 175,6638p- 0,0181x2 + 0,6054 (xp) - 191,1319p2, where Y - is bacteriostatics (%); x - is relative humidity (%); p - is total solar radiation (kW/m2). The fixed parameters of the equation are: air humidity - 90-30%; total solar radiation - 0.20-1.0 kW/m2; bacteriostatics - 0-61%. The obtained results can be used in the resort study

  16. The early warning system of landslides and sediment runoffs using meteorological condition including rainfall-soil moisture index (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, T.; Silva, I. C.; Hasnawir, H.

    2009-12-01

    The research including observation of rain, soil moisture content and sediment discharge is conducted on a torrent in northern Kyushu whose geology consists of Paleozoic metamorphic rocks (mainly schist) and whose vegetation consists of mainly Japanese cypress and cedar. Soil depth is approximately 50cm in average and permeability k is 0.1~0.01 order. With data obtained by the observation for more than 4 years, standard rainfalls of warning and evacuation against the sudden sediment runoffs are analyzed. Then, the result was compared with the ones in Nuevo Leon Mexico (geology of schist, slate, k=0.01~0.001 order) and in southern Sulawesi Island Indonesia (volcanic geology, k=0.001~0.0001 order). Hitherto, various methods were proposed to analyze the warning critical standard for landslide disaster or large sediment discharge. In this study, we employed Hirano's element slope runoff theory, the Self Organized Criticality Assumption (SOC), and the Elementary Catastrophe Theory (ETC) to analyze the data, although the soil moisture fluctuation, meteorological condition such as upper air wind and dew point depression, the rainfall-soil moisture index provided by Japan Meteorological Agency was considered. The last one is a cutting edge technology based on the tank model calculation of soil moisture content combined with short term rainfall prediction which is a product of numerical simulation using radar image advection analysis compensated with surface rain data and with orographic rain effect. In Hirano's theory, we can describe the critical rain Rc and rain intensity Ric as following equation. Q/A/M/ cosθ = Ri ∫(r*cosθ)dt = Ri*R (1) ∴ Ric*Rc = C (2) Here, Q: sediment runoff or debris flow discharge, A: watershed area, M: function concerning with sediment deposit features on the upstream torrents or slopes (porosity, torrent bed slope gradient, sediment accumulation length and depth, cohesion), t: time, θ: torrent bed or hillside slope gradient, r: instant

  17. Influence of Meteorology and interrelationship with greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) at a suburban site of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivas, Gaddamidi; Mahesh, Pathakoti; Subin, Jose; Lakshmi Kanchana, Asuri; Venkata Narasimha Rao, Pamaraju; Dadhwal, Vinay Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), are important climate forcing agents due to their significant impacts on the climate system. The present study brings out first continuous measurements of atmospheric GHGs using high-precision LGR-GGA over Shadnagar, a suburban site of Central India during the year 2014. The annual mean CO2 and CH4 over the study region are found to be 394 ± 2.92 and 1.92 ± 0.07 ppm (μ ± 1σ) respectively. CO2 and CH4 show a significant seasonal variation during the study period with maximum (minimum) CO2 observed during pre-monsoon (monsoon), while CH4 recorded the maximum during post-monsoon and minimum during monsoon. Irrespective of the seasons, consistent diurnal variations of these gases are observed. Influences of prevailing meteorology (air temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and relative humidity) on GHGs have also been investigated. CO2 and CH4 show a strong positive correlation during winter, pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon with correlation coefficients (Rs) equal to 0.80, 0.80, 0.61, and 0.72 respectively, indicating a common anthropogenic source for these gases. Analysis of this study reveals the major sources for CO2 are soil respiration and anthropogenic emissions while vegetation acts as a main sink, whereas the major source and sink for CH4 are vegetation and presence of hydroxyl (OH) radicals.

  18. Normalization of informatisation parameter on airfield light-signal bar at flights in complex meteorological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    П.В. Попов

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available  The technique of maintenance of the set level of flights safetivness is developed by normalization of informatisation parameters functional groups of light-signal lightings at technological stages of interaction of crew of the airplane with the airfield light-signals bar at flights in a complex weathercast conditions.

  19. Influence of meteorological conditions on electricity consumption in France. Influence des conditions meteorologiques sur la consommation electrique francaise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvin, F; Javelle, J P; Calvayrac, A M

    1992-04-01

    Electric consumption is modeled by Electricite de France, in taking into account temperature and cloud cover in 6 selected sites. The aim of the study is to improve this model by a better climate representation and introduction of new parameters. The model is improved by taking into account climatic characteristics of each region and a simplification of the cloudiness factor facilitates the forecast. Furthermore no new parameter is required.

  20. Air pollution meteorology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirvaikar, V V; Daoo, V J [Environmental Assessment Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2002-06-01

    This report is intended as a training cum reference document for scientists posted at the Environmental Laboratories at the Nuclear Power Station Sites and other sites of the Department of Atomic Energy with installations emitting air pollutants, radioactive or otherwise. Since a manual already exists for the computation of doses from radioactive air pollutants, a general approach is take here i.e. air pollutants in general are considered. The first chapter presents a brief introduction to the need and scope of air pollution dispersion modelling. The second chapter is a very important chapter discussing the aspects of meteorology relevant to air pollution and dispersion modelling. This chapter is important because without this information one really does not understand the phenomena affecting dispersion, the scope and applicability of various models or their limitations under various weather and site conditions. The third chapter discusses the air pollution models in detail. These models are applicable to distances of a few tens of kilometres. The fourth chapter discusses the various aspects of meteorological measurements relevant to air pollution. The chapters are followed by two appendices. Apendix A discusses the reliability of air pollution estimates. Apendix B gives some practical examples relevant to general air pollution. It is hoped that the document will prove very useful to the users. (author)

  1. Motivational Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Lee

    1993-01-01

    Describes an introductory meteorology course for nonacademic high school students. The course is made hands-on by the use of an educational software program offered by Accu-Weather. The program contains a meteorology database and instructional modules. (PR)

  2. Photochemical smog pollution in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region of Thailand in relation to O 3 precursor concentrations and meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.-N.; Kim Oanh, N. T.

    Analysis of photochemical pollution was done using the available 5-yr monitoring data (1996-2000) from 11 monitoring stations in Bangkok and 5 stations in other surrounding provinces, i.e. the Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR). Status and trend of O 3 as well as the monthly and diurnal variations were analyzed in relation to the local meteorological conditions as well as the regional transport of pollutants associated with the monsoon. The O 3 in Bangkok was found to be typical for the polluted urban areas with a lower concentration in the city center, especially at curbside stations, and higher concentration at the downwind locations. O 3 pollution was highest in 1997 with the maximum hourly average of 370 ppbv and the total hours exceeding the national hourly O 3 standard (100 ppbv) of 314 h, which is most likely related to the strong El Niño and the forest fire in Southeast Asia in this year. Meteorology-unadjusted trend shows a slight increase in O 3 from 1998 to 2000. Local emission and photochemistry are mainly responsible for O 3 episodes in the BMR. Seasonal fluctuations of O 3, however, were found to relate to the regional transport associated with the Asian monsoon. Highest O 3 pollution was found in the period from January to April (winter and local summer) and lowest during mid-rainy season, August. The O 3 increase isopleth diagram was constructed which shows that O 3 production in BMR is effective when the NO x/NMHC ratio is in the range of 0.04-0.15 with optimum ratio of around 0.07. Seasonal variations in NO x/NMHC ratios are consistent with the O 3 variations, i.e., optimum in summer (0.07), followed by winter (0.05), and the lowest in rainy season (0.03).

  3. The effect of meteorological conditions and air pollution on the occurrence of type A and B acute aortic dissections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Nan; Zou, Liqun; Ye, Lei

    2018-05-01

    To explore the association of weather conditions and air pollutants with incidence risk of acute aortic dissection (AAD), we included patients who consecutively admitted to the emergency units of our hospital for AAD between Dec. 1, 2013, and Apr. 30, 2017. Their medical records were reviewed. The meteorological data (daily precipitation, minimal and maximal temperatures, mean atmospheric pressure, relative humidity) and air pollutants values [air daily index (AQI), aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 mm or less (PM2.5), aerodynamic diameter of 10 mm or less (PM10), ozone, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ozone (O3_8h)] over the same period were provided by the Chengdu Meteorological Bureau. Finally, a total of 345 patients were admitted with AAD. The results showed that the incidence of AAD was higher in winter than in summer (p < 0.001). Statistical analysis highlighted lower the atmospheric temperature, higher the incidence of AAD (p < 0.001). A significant correlation was found between air pollutants and AAD onset. AQI, PM2.5, SO2, and NO2 were independent predictors of incidence of AAD (OR = 1.006, p = 0.007; OR = 1.020, p < 0.001; OR = 1.037, p < 0.001; and OR = 0.925, p < 0.001; respectively). While, PM10, CO, and O3_8H had a neutral effect on risk of AAD onset. In conclusions, cold atmospheric temperature and larger daily temperature change were correlated with a higher incidence of AAD. AQI, PM2.5, and SO2 played important roles in triggering acute aortic events.

  4. Wind Power Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Landberg, Lars

    Wind power meteorology has evolved as an applied science, firmly founded on boundary-layer meteorology, but with strong links to climatology and geography. It concerns itself with three main areas: siting of wind turbines, regional wind resource assessment, and short-term prediction of the wind...... resource. The history, status and perspectives of wind power meteorology are presented, with emphasis on physical considerations and on its practical application. Following a global view of the wind resource, the elements of boundary layer meteorology which are most important for wind energy are reviewed......: wind profiles and shear, turbulence and gust, and extreme winds. The data used in wind power meteorology stem mainly from three sources: onsite wind measurements, the synoptic networks, and the re-analysis projects. Wind climate analysis, wind resource estimation and siting further require a detailed...

  5. Effectiveness of short-term numerical weather prediction in predicting growing degree days and meteorological conditions for apple scab appearance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lalic, B.; Francia, M.; Eitzinger, Josef; Podrascanin, Z.; Arsenic, I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2016), s. 50-56 ISSN 1350-4827 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : venturia-inaequalis * temperature * equation * schemes * model * numerical weather prediction * disease prediction * verification * apple scab * growing degree days Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences Impact factor: 1.411, year: 2016

  6. Seasonal and diurnal variation of outdoor radon (222Rn) concentrations in urban and rural area with reference to meteorological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podstawczynska, A.; Pawlak, W.; Kozak, K.; Mazur, J.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate temporal variability of outdoor radon ( 222 Rn) concentration registered in the center of Lodz (urban station), at Ciosny (rural station) and Krakow (suburban station) in relation to meteorological parameters (i.e. air temperature, temperature vertical gradient, wind speed, soil heat flux, volumetric water content in soil) with special consideration of urban-rural differences. Continuous measurements of 222 Rn concentration (at 60 min intervals) were performed at a height of 2 m above the ground using AlphaGUARD PQ2000PRO (ionization chamber) from January 2008 to May 2009. 222 Rn levels were characterized by a diurnal cycle with an early morning maximum and a minimum in the afternoon. The well-marked 24 h pattern of radon concentration occurred in summer at anticyclonic weather with cloudless sky, light wind and large diurnal temperature ranges. The urban measurement site was characterized by the lowest atmospheric 222 Rn concentration and an urban-rural differences of radon levels increased from winter to summer and during the nighttime periods. The maximum contrasts of 222 Rn levels between Lodz and Ciosny, reaching - 30 Bq m -3 , were registered in June and July during the urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon (a positive thermal anomaly of a city if compared to rural area) and strong thermal inversion near the ground in the rural area. (authors)

  7. Assessing population movement impacts on urban heat island of Beijing during the Chinese New Year holiday: effects of meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingyun; Zhang, Jingyong

    2018-02-01

    Chinese New Year (CNY), or Spring Festival, is the most important of all festivals in China. We use daily observations to show that Beijing's urban heat island (UHI) effects largely depend on precipitation, cloud cover, and water vapor but are insensitive to wind speed, during the CNY holiday season. Non-precipitating, clear, and low humidity conditions favor strong UHI effects. The CNY holiday, with some 3 billion journeys made, provides a living laboratory to explore the role of population movements in the UHI phenomenon. Averaged over the period 2004-2013, with the Olympic year of 2008 excluded, Beijing's UHI effects during the CNY week decline by 0.48 °C relative to the background period (4 weeks including 2 to 3 weeks before, and 2 to 3 weeks after, the CNY week). With combined effects of precipitation, large cloud cover, and high water vapor excluded, the UHI effects during the CNY week averaged over the study period decline by 0.76 °C relative to the background period, significant at the 99% confidence level by Student's t test. These results indicate that the impacts of population movements can be more easily detected when excluding unfavorable meteorological conditions to the UHI. Population movements occur not only during the CNY holiday, but also during all the time across the globe. We suggest that better understanding the role of population movements will offer new insight into anthropogenic climate modifications.

  8. EXTREME METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS AND METABOLIC PROFILE IN HIGH YIELDING HOLSTEINFRIESIAN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. GERGÁCZ

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of two years (2002 and 2003 with different summer temperature extremes on variation in metabolic profile was analyzed in blood and urine samples taken from healthy, primiparous (n = 371 and multiparous (n = 795 high yielding Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. In this study main focus was lead on three most critical physiological phases, thus cows were assigned into three groups as follows: (1 dry cows for 10 days prior to calving; (2 cows 1-30 days after delivery, and (3 cows with more than 31 days post partum. Findings reveal clear response of the cows to heat in selected blood (hemoglobin, plasma aceto-acetic-acid, FFA, AST, glucose, urea and urine (pH, NABE and urea parameters. In the majority of cows, glucose and hemoglobin level, one of the most significant blood parameters, indicated symptoms of insufficient energy supply. Further metabolic indicators differed more or less from reference values depending on actual condition. Due to heat load dry matter intake has been decreased even by 10-15 per cent in primiparous cows. They were expected to increase body weight and size and simultaneously produce attain at large milk yields. In doing so that cows would have require large amount of nutrients. Out of parameters such as hemoglobin, glucose, FFA, AST and blood-urea differed from the reference values in most cases; however, this phenomenon seemed to be present in almost every case for hemoglobin and glucose. The lack of energy caused by heat stress can be contributed to the decrease of dry matter intake which has been indicated by the urea levels and pH both in blood and urine prevailing unfavorable and insufficient feeding practice. The results reconfirm the need to reconsider both the actual feeding practice (e.g. to increase of nutrient content in rations, reduce the intake of soluble proteins in rumen, pay attention of crude fiber in Total Mixed Rations (TMR, NDF and ADF, avoid overfeeding of inorganic buffers, to control moisture

  9. Surface meteorological conditions at benthic disturbance experiment site - INDEX area during austral winter 1997

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suryanarayana, A.; Murty, V.S.N.; RameshBabu, V.; Beena, B.S.

    latent heat flux of 220 W/m sup(2), leading to net surface heat loss (100 W/m sup(2)) in June and near heat balance in August. Temporal variation of weather elements and the heat budget parameters showed fluctuations of period 10-13 days in June and 7...

  10. The Use of a Poisson Regression to Evaluate Antihistamines and Fatal Aircraft Mishaps in Instrument Meteorological Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildea, Kevin M; Hileman, Christy R; Rogers, Paul; Salazar, Guillermo J; Paskoff, Lawrence N

    2018-04-01

    Research indicates that first-generation antihistamine usage may impair pilot performance by increasing the likelihood of vestibular illusions, spatial disorientation, and/or cognitive impairment. Second- and third-generation antihistamines generally have fewer impairing side effects and are approved for pilot use. We hypothesized that toxicological findings positive for second- and third-generation antihistamines are less likely to be associated with pilots involved in fatal mishaps than first-generation antihistamines. The evaluated population consisted of 1475 U.S. civil pilots fatally injured between September 30, 2008, and October 1, 2014. Mishap factors evaluated included year, weather conditions, airman rating, recent airman flight time, quarter of year, and time of day. Due to the low prevalence of positive antihistamine findings, a count-based model was selected, which can account for rare outcomes. The means and variances were close for both regression models supporting the assumption that the data follow a Poisson distribution; first-generation antihistamine mishap airmen (N = 582, M = 0.17, S2 = 0.17) with second- and third-generation antihistamine mishap airmen (N = 116, M = 0.20, S2 = 0.18). The data indicate fewer airmen with second- and third-generation antihistamines than first-generation antihistamines in their system are fatally injured while flying in IMC conditions. Whether the lower incidence is a factor of greater usage of first-generation antihistamines versus second- and third-generation antihistamines by the pilot population or fewer deleterious side effects with second- and third-generation antihistamines is unclear. These results engender cautious optimism, but additional research is necessary to determine why these differences exist.Gildea KM, Hileman CR, Rogers P, Salazar GJ, Paskoff LN. The use of a Poisson regression to evaluate antihistamines and fatal aircraft mishaps in instrument meteorological conditions. Aerosp Med Hum Perform

  11. Analysis of vegetation condition and its relationship with meteorological variables in the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Han

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The Yarlung Zangbo River Basin is located in the southwest border of China, which is of great significance to the socioeconomic development and ecological environment of Southwest China. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI is an important index for investigating the change of vegetation cover, which is widely used as the representation value of vegetation cover. In this study, the NDVI is adopted to explore the vegetation condition in the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin during the recent 17 years, and the relationship between NDVI and meteorological variables has also been discussed. The results show that the annual maximum value of NDVI usually appears from July to September, in which August occupies a large proportion. The minimum value of NDVI appears from January to March, in which February takes up most of the percentage. The higher values of NDVI are generally located in the lower elevation area. When the altitude is higher than 3250 m, NDVI began to decline gradually, and the NDVI became gradual stabilization as the elevation is up to 6000 m. The correlation coefficient between NDVI and precipitation in the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin is greater than that with temperature. The Hurst index of the whole basin is 0.51, indicating that the NDVI of the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin shows a weak sustainability.

  12. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE BAIA MARE AREA METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS IN THE LAST 5 YEARS WITH HELP OF ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Cioruţa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ever since “the environment” gained its place in the public international agenda (environmental legislation, sustainable development or disaster and hazard management it has been bundled with data, information, knowledge and information systems. Environmental Monitoring Systems (EMSs, Environmental Monitoring and Analyzing Systems (EMASs and especially Environmental Information Systems (EISs are integrated part of what we call Environmental Informatics (EI platform.In this context, as we speak, the are of EI is becoming more complex due to the current context and trend of making the EISs available to the public and end-users access; this phenomena is based on the assumption that public and environmental information end-users awareness, participation and acting is improved by the rate of access to the environmental information to solve the complex problematic covered by the research, engineering and environmental protection fields. The aim of the present paper is to introduce and describe an innovative possibilities of forecasting and monitoring the environment meteorological specific conditions in Baia Mare urban area using a specialized EISs software.

  13. Environmental gamma radiation measurements in Finland and the influence of the meteorological conditions after the Chernobyl accident in 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.; Blomqvist, L.; Lemmelae, H.; Savolainen, A.L.; Sarkkula, S.

    1987-06-01

    Results from a survey of environmental gamma radiation levels in Finland after the Chernobyl accident 1986 were presented. The measurements were made by means of sensitive Geiger-counters and a gamma-spectrometer placed in cars. The results presented the level of external radiation caused by the cesium fallout on the first of October 1986. In the center of Southern Finland there are wide areas with exposure levels exceeding 0.04 μSv h -1 , areas exceeding 0.2 μSv h -1 being very rare. The surface area weighted mean dose rate for the 461 municipalities in Finland was 0.037 $mu$Sv h -1 (range 0-0.23 μSv h -1 ). The corresponding estimated surface activity of 137 Cs was 10.7 kBq m -2 . The population weighted mean dose rate was 0.051 μSv h -1 . Results from measurements at eight dose rate monitoring stations were presented as daily dose rate recordings in 1985-1986, the rate of decrease of the excess dose rate demonstrating quite large variations in the period from May to August. This indicated that the composition of the short-lived nuclides in the fallout varied from place to place. The influence of the meteorological conditions were reported with precipitation data from six days after the accident. There was a clear correlation between the results from precipitation and radiation measurements in different parts of Finland

  14. Numerical experiments with assimilation of the mean and unresolved meteorological conditions into large-eddy simulation model

    OpenAIRE

    Esau, Igor

    2010-01-01

    Micrometeorology, city comfort, land use management and air quality monitoring increasingly become important environmental issues. To serve the needs, meteorology needs to achieve a serious advance in representation and forecast on micro-scales (meters to 100 km) called meteorological terra incognita. There is a suitable numerical tool, namely, the large-eddy simulation modelling (LES) to support the development. However, at present, the LES is of limited utility for applications. The study a...

  15. A contemporary method for monitoring indoor radon and environmental conditions at a remote test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renken, K.J.; Coursin, S.

    1996-01-01

    A state-of-the-art method for automatically monitoring indoor radon and environmental conditions at a remote test site is described. A Wisconsin home that exhibited elevated radon levels has been installed with automated PC-data acquisition system (PC-DAS) that includes: a laptop PC, a data acquisition cardcage, a commercial data acquisition software program plus sensors to measure radon gas concentrations, differential pressures, indoor air quality and meteorological conditions. The isolated PC-DAS is connected to a PC in a university laboratory via a modem and a communications software package. Experimental data is monitored and saved by the remote PC in real time and then automatically downloaded to the lab computer at selected intervals. An example of the formatted field results is presented and analysed. This documentation of the set-up, the off-the-shelf computer hardware and software, and the procedures should assist investigations requiring flexible remote long-term radon and environmental monitoring. (Author)

  16. Impacts of emission reduction and meteorological conditions on air quality improvement during the 2014 Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Huang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As the holding city of the 2nd Youth Olympic Games (YOG, Nanjing is highly industrialized and urbanized, and faces several air pollution issues. In order to ensure better air quality during the event, the local government took great efforts to control the emissions from pollutant sources. However, air quality can still be affected by synoptic weather, not only emission. In this paper, the influences of meteorological factors and emission reductions were investigated using observational data and numerical simulations with WRF–CMAQ (Weather Research and Forecasting – Community Multiscale Air Quality. During the month in which the YOG were held (August 2014, the observed hourly mean concentrations of SO2, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, CO and O3 were 11.6 µg m−3, 34.0 µg m−3, 57.8 µg m−3, 39.4 µg m−3, 0.9 mg m−3 and 38.8 µg m−3, respectively, which were below China National Ambient Air Quality Standard (level 2. However, model simulation showed that the weather conditions, such as weaker winds during the YOG, were adverse for better air quality and could increase SO2, NO2, PM10, PM2.5 and CO by 17.5, 16.9, 18.5, 18.8, 7.8 and 0.8 %. Taking account of local emission abatement only, the simulated SO2, NO2, PM10, PM2.5 and CO decreased by 24.6, 12.1, 15.1, 8.1 and 7.2 %. Consequently, stringent emission control measures can reduce the concentrations of air pollutants in the short term, and emission reduction is very important for air quality improvement during the YOG. A good example has been set for air quality protection for important social events.

  17. Impacts of emission reduction and meteorological conditions on air quality improvement during the 2014 Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qian; Wang, Tijian; Chen, Pulong; Huang, Xiaoxian; Zhu, Jialei; Zhuang, Bingliang

    2017-11-01

    As the holding city of the 2nd Youth Olympic Games (YOG), Nanjing is highly industrialized and urbanized, and faces several air pollution issues. In order to ensure better air quality during the event, the local government took great efforts to control the emissions from pollutant sources. However, air quality can still be affected by synoptic weather, not only emission. In this paper, the influences of meteorological factors and emission reductions were investigated using observational data and numerical simulations with WRF-CMAQ (Weather Research and Forecasting - Community Multiscale Air Quality). During the month in which the YOG were held (August 2014), the observed hourly mean concentrations of SO2, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, CO and O3 were 11.6 µg m-3, 34.0 µg m-3, 57.8 µg m-3, 39.4 µg m-3, 0.9 mg m-3 and 38.8 µg m-3, respectively, which were below China National Ambient Air Quality Standard (level 2). However, model simulation showed that the weather conditions, such as weaker winds during the YOG, were adverse for better air quality and could increase SO2, NO2, PM10, PM2.5 and CO by 17.5, 16.9, 18.5, 18.8, 7.8 and 0.8 %. Taking account of local emission abatement only, the simulated SO2, NO2, PM10, PM2.5 and CO decreased by 24.6, 12.1, 15.1, 8.1 and 7.2 %. Consequently, stringent emission control measures can reduce the concentrations of air pollutants in the short term, and emission reduction is very important for air quality improvement during the YOG. A good example has been set for air quality protection for important social events.

  18. Meteorological instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    RFS or ''Regles Fondamentales de Surete'' (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety , while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the ''Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires'' or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. The purpose of this RFS is to specify the meteorological instrumentation required at the site of each nuclear power plant equipped with at least one pressurized water reactor

  19. Near-field krypton-85 measurements in stable meteorological conditions around the AREVA NC La Hague reprocessing plant: estimation of atmospheric transfer coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connan, O; Solier, L; Hébert, D; Maro, D; Lamotte, M; Voiseux, C; Laguionie, P; Cazimajou, O; Le Cavelier, S; Godinot, C; Morillon, M; Thomas, L; Percot, S

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the near-field dispersion of (85)Kr around the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at La Hague (AREVA NC La Hague - France) under stable meteorological conditions. Twenty-two (85)Kr night-time experimental campaigns were carried out at distances of up to 4 km from the release source. Although the operational Gaussian models predict for these meteorological conditions a distance to plume touchdown of several kilometers, we almost systematically observed a marked ground signal at distances of 0.5-4 km. The calculated atmospheric transfer coefficients (ATC) show values (1) higher than those observed under neutral conditions, (2) much higher than those proposed by the operational models, and (3) higher than those used in the impact assessments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of meteorological conditions on airborne fine particle composition and secondary pollutant characteristics in urban area during winter-time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Schäfer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of airborne fine particle composition and secondary pollutant characteristics in the case of Augsburg, Germany, during winter (31 January–12 March 2010 is studied on the basis of aerosol mass spectrometry (3 non-refractory components and organic matter, 3 positive matrix factorizations (PMF factors, particle size distributions (PSD, 5 size modes, 5 PMF factors, further air pollutant mass concentrations (7 gases and VOC, black carbon, PM10, PM2.5 and meteorological measurements, including mixing layer height (MLH, with one-hourly temporal resolution. Data were subjectively assigned to 10 temporal phases which are characterised by different meteorological influences and air pollutant concentrations. In each phase hierarchical clustering analysis with the Ward method was applied to the correlations of air pollutants, PM components, PM source contributions and PSD modes and correlations of these data with all meteorological parameters. This analysis resulted in different degrees of sensitivities of these air pollutant data to single meteorological parameters. It is generally found that wind speed (negatively, MLH (negatively, relative humidity (positively and wind direction influence primary pollutant and accumulation mode particle (size range 100–500 nm concentrations. Temperature (negatively, absolute humidity (negatively and also relative humidity (positively are relevant for secondary compounds of PM and particle (PM2.5, PM10 mass concentrations. NO, nucleation and Aitken mode particle and the fresh traffic aerosol concentrations are only weakly dependent on meteorological parameters and thus are driven by emissions. These daily variation data analyses provide new, detailed meteorological influences on air pollutant data with the focus on fine particle composition and secondary pollutant characteristics and can explain major parts of certain PM component and gaseous pollutant exposure.

  1. Hourly pattern of allergenic alder and birch pollen concentrations in the air: Spatial differentiation and the effect of meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borycka, K.; Kasprzyk, I.

    2018-06-01

    In temperate climate widespread alder and birch are an important source of strong aeroallergens. The diurnal pattern of airborne pollen concentrations depends on the rhythm of pollen release from anthers as well as weather conditions, convection air currents, long-distance transport, pollen trap location and local vegetation. The aim of the study was to present a diurnal pattern of Alnus (alder) and Betula (birch) pollen concentrations in the air in a horizontal and vertical gradient and examine the weather parameters that had the greatest impact on the pattern. The study was conducted in Rzeszów City, southeast Poland over three years. Pollen grains were collected using a Hirst volumetric spore trap at three sampling points: two at 12 m the agl, and one at 1.5 m agl. Data were analysed using circular statistics and a nonlinear function. For alder, three models of hourly patterns were elaborated and the most common presented early morning minimum and early afternoon maximum. For birch, the most common model has one peak at night and a marked decrease in concentrations in early morning, although a second model has peak during early afternoon. A model with 3 peaks is much less common. These models are characteristic for warm temperate climate regions, where alders and birches are common. The diurnal patterns did not depend on the localization of traps or proximity of the pollen source, although these factors influenced the hourly concentrations, with higher values observed at roof level. Significant relationships between the hourly pollen counts and meteorological parameters were observed only for alder. Three incidents of increasing birch pollen concentrations were observed during the first two hours of precipitation and linked to a convection effect. Unstable weather conditions caused by air convection might strongly modify the circadian pattern and cause the nightly peaks concentrations. The general results are that people suffering from allergies may be exposed

  2. Associations between seasonal meteorological conditions and the daily step count of adults in Yokohama, Japan: Results of year-round pedometer measurements in a large population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimihiro Hino

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available People's year-round interpersonal step count variations according to meteorological conditions are not fully understood, because complete year-round data from a sufficient sample of the general population are difficult to acquire. This study examined the associations between meteorological conditions and objectively measured step counts using year-round data collected from a large cohort (N=24,625 in Yokohama, Japan from April 2015 to March 2016.Two-piece linear regression analysis was used to examine the associations between the monthly median daily step count and three meteorological indices (mean values of temperature, temperature-humidity index (THI, and net effective temperature (NET.The number of steps per day peaked at temperatures between 19.4 and 20.7°C. At lower temperatures, the increase in steps per day was between 46.4 and 52.5 steps per 1°C increase. At temperatures higher than those at which step counts peaked, the decrease in steps per day was between 98.0 and 187.9 per 1°C increase. Furthermore, these effects were more obvious in elderly than non-elderly persons in both sexes. A similar tendency was seen when using THI and NET instead of temperature. Among the three meteorological indices, the highest R2 value with step counts was observed with THI in all four groups.Both high and low meteorological indices discourage people from walking and higher values of the indices adversely affect step count more than lower values, particularly among the elderly. Among the three indices assessed, THI best explains the seasonal fluctuations in step counts. Keywords: Elderly, Developed countries, Health policy, Humidity, Linear regression, Physical activity, Temperature

  3. Meteorological Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multi-year summaries of one or more meteorological elements at a station or in a state. Primarily includes Form 1078, a United States Weather Bureau form designed...

  4. Experimental Study of a natural ventilation strategy in a Full-Scale Enclosure Under Meteorological Conditions: A Buoyancy-Driven Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Austin, Miguel Chen; Bruneau, Denis; Sempey, Alain; Mora, Laurent; Sommier, Alain

    2018-01-01

    The performance of a natural ventilation strategy, in a full-scale enclosure under meteorological conditions is studied through an experimental study, a buoyancy-driven approach, by means of the estimation of the air exchange rate per hour and ventilation power. A theoretical and an empirical model are proposed based on the airflow theory in buildings and blower-door tests. A preliminary validation, by comparing our results with standards in air leakage rate determination, is made. The experi...

  5. Interdecadal changes of summer aerosol pollution in the Yangtze River Basin of China, the relative influence of meteorological conditions and the relation to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jizhi; Zhang, Xiaoye; Li, Duo; Yang, Yuanqin; Zhong, Junting; Wang, Yaqiang; Che, Haochi; Che, Huizheng; Zhang, Yangmei

    2018-07-15

    Winter is a season of much concern for aerosol pollution in China, but less concern for pollution in the summertime. There are even less concern and larger uncertainty about interdecadal changes in summer aerosol pollution, relative influence of meteorological conditions, and their links to climate change. Here we try to reveal the relation among interdecadal changes in summer's most important circulation system affecting China (East Asian Summer Monsoon-EASM), an index of meteorological conditions (called PLAM, Parameter Linking Air Quality and Meteorological Elements, which is almost linearly related with aerosol pollution), and aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River (M-LYR) in central eastern China during summertime since the 1960's. During the weak monsoon years, the aerosol pollution load was heavier in the M-LYR and opposite in the strong monsoon years mainly influenced by EASM and associated maintenance position of the anti-Hadley cell around 115°E. The interdecadal changes in meteorological conditions and their associated aerosol pollution in the context of such climate change have experienced four periods since the 1960's, which were a relatively large decreased period from 1961 to 1980, a large rise between 1980 and 1999, a period of slow rise or maintenance from 1999 to 2006, and a relatively rapid rise between 2006 and 2014. Among later three pollution increased periods, about 51%, 25% and 60% of the aerosol pollution change respectively come from the contribution of worsening weather conditions, which are found to be greatly affected by changes in EASM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Determining the parameters of Weibull function to estimate the wind power potential in conditions of limited source meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetisova, Yu. A.; Ermolenko, B. V.; Ermolenko, G. V.; Kiseleva, S. V.

    2017-04-01

    We studied the information basis for the assessment of wind power potential on the territory of Russia. We described the methodology to determine the parameters of the Weibull function, which reflects the density of distribution of probabilities of wind flow speeds at a defined basic height above the surface of the earth using the available data on the average speed at this height and its repetition by gradations. The application of the least square method for determining these parameters, unlike the use of graphical methods, allows performing a statistical assessment of the results of approximation of empirical histograms by the Weibull formula. On the basis of the computer-aided analysis of the statistical data, it was shown that, at a fixed point where the wind speed changes at different heights, the range of parameter variation of the Weibull distribution curve is relatively small, the sensitivity of the function to parameter changes is quite low, and the influence of changes on the shape of speed distribution curves is negligible. Taking this into consideration, we proposed and mathematically verified the methodology of determining the speed parameters of the Weibull function at other heights using the parameter computations for this function at a basic height, which is known or defined by the average speed of wind flow, or the roughness coefficient of the geological substrate. We gave examples of practical application of the suggested methodology in the development of the Atlas of Renewable Energy Resources in Russia in conditions of deficiency of source meteorological data. The proposed methodology, to some extent, may solve the problem related to the lack of information on the vertical profile of repeatability of the wind flow speeds in the presence of a wide assortment of wind turbines with different ranges of wind-wheel axis heights and various performance characteristics in the global market; as a result, this methodology can become a powerful tool for

  7. Study on Site Conditions Based on Topographic Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X.; Wang, X.; Yuan, X.; Chen, M.; Dou, A.

    2018-04-01

    The travel-time averaged shear-wave velocity to a depth of 30m (Vs30) below the Earth's surface is widely used to classify sites in many building codes. Vs30 is also used to estimate site classification in recent ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs), and the distribution of Vs30 has been mapped in a region or country. An alternative method has recently been proposed for evaluating global seismic site conditions or Vs30, from the SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) DEMs (digital elevation models). The basic premise of the method is that the topographic slope can be used as a reliable proxy for Vs30 in the absence of geologically and geotechnically based site-condition maps through correlations between Vs30 measurements and topographic gradient. Here, we use different resolutions (3 arcsec, 30 arcsec) DEM data to get Vs30 data separately, analyze and compare the difference of Vs30 data and site conditions obtained from different resolution DEM data. Shandong Province in eastern China and Sichuan Province in Western China are studied respectively. It is found that the higher resolution data is better at defining spatial topographic features than the 30c data, but less improvement in its correlation with Vs30.

  8. STUDY ON SITE CONDITIONS BASED ON TOPOGRAPHIC SLOPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Wu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The travel-time averaged shear-wave velocity to a depth of 30m (Vs30 below the Earth’s surface is widely used to classify sites in many building codes. Vs30 is also used to estimate site classification in recent ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs, and the distribution of Vs30 has been mapped in a region or country. An alternative method has recently been proposed for evaluating global seismic site conditions or Vs30, from the SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission DEMs (digital elevation models. The basic premise of the method is that the topographic slope can be used as a reliable proxy for Vs30 in the absence of geologically and geotechnically based site-condition maps through correlations between Vs30 measurements and topographic gradient. Here, we use different resolutions (3 arcsec, 30 arcsec DEM data to get Vs30 data separately, analyze and compare the difference of Vs30 data and site conditions obtained from different resolution DEM data. Shandong Province in eastern China and Sichuan Province in Western China are studied respectively. It is found that the higher resolution data is better at defining spatial topographic features than the 30c data, but less improvement in its correlation with Vs30.

  9. Establishment of a Site-Specific Tropospheric Model Based on Ground Meteorological Parameters over the China Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chongchong; Peng, Bibo; Li, Wei; Zhong, Shiming; Ou, Jikun; Chen, Runjing; Zhao, Xinglong

    2017-07-27

    China is a country of vast territory with complicated geographical environment and climate conditions. With the rapid progress of the Chinese BeiDou satellite navigation system (BDS); more accurate tropospheric models must be applied to improve the accuracy of navigation and positioning. Based on the formula of the Saastamoinen and Callahan models; this study develops two single-site tropospheric models (named SAAS_S and CH_S models) for the Chinese region using radiosonde data from 2005 to 2012. We assess the two single-site tropospheric models with radiosonde data for 2013 and zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) data from four International GNSS Service (IGS) stations and compare them to the results of the Saastamoinen and Callahan models. The experimental results show that: the mean accuracy of the SAAS_S model (bias: 0.19 cm; RMS: 3.19 cm) at all radiosonde stations is superior to those of the Saastamoinen (bias: 0.62 cm; RMS: 3.62 cm) and CH_S (bias: -0.05 cm; RMS: 3.38 cm) models. In most Chinese regions; the RMS values of the SAAS_S and CH_S models are about 0.51~2.12 cm smaller than those of their corresponding source models. The SAAS_S model exhibits a clear improvement in the accuracy over the Saastamoinen model in low latitude regions. When the SAAS_S model is replaced by the SAAS model in the positioning of GNSS; the mean accuracy of vertical direction in the China region can be improved by 1.12~1.55 cm and the accuracy of vertical direction in low latitude areas can be improved by 1.33~7.63 cm. The residuals of the SAAS_S model are closer to a normal distribution compared to those of the Saastamoinen model. Single-site tropospheric models based on the short period of the most recent data (for example 2 years) can also achieve a satisfactory accuracy. The average performance of the SAAS_S model (bias: 0.83 cm; RMS: 3.24 cm) at four IGS stations is superior to that of the Saastamoinen (bias: -0.86 cm; RMS: 3.59 cm) and CH_S (bias: 0.45 cm; RMS: 3.38 cm

  10. Meteorological, hydrological and oceanographical information and data for the site investigation program in the community of Oskarshamn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson-McCann, Sonja; Karlsson, Anna; Nord, Margitta; Sjoegren, Jonas; Johansson, Lasse; Ivarsson, Mats; Kindell, Sven [Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Inst., Norrkoeping (Sweden)

    2002-06-01

    The most frequent wind directions in Southern Sweden are west and south-west, with some local and regional deviations. This makes the East Coast climate somewhat less maritime than that on the West Coast, which also means that the differences are less pronounced between the actual coastal sites and their inland neighbourhood than is the case on the West Coast. Near-coast locations are far more exposed to strong winds than inland sites. An important feature of the actual coastal areas is that they are largely composed of forest; the large wind exposure at the coastline has very markedly decreased a few km inland. True annual precipitation (adjusted for measuring losses) is estimated to between 600 and 700 mm, with a slight tendency of increasing inland. A yearly mean temperature of 6-7 deg C makes the Simpevarp site about 1 deg C warmer than the region Oesthammar/Tierp. The South-eastern parts of Sweden have the lowest values of specific runoff, with a mean 1961-1990 of <10 l/s/km{sup 2}. Specific runoff for the Oskarshamn region is <6 l/s/km{sup 2}. For Oesthammar-Tierp it is 6-9 l/s/km{sup 2}. For lakes in both Southern and Northern Sweden the ice freeze-up is strongly related to lake depth; it appears earlier on a lake with small depth than on a lake with great depth. When it comes to ice break-up, there are no significant relationships between the characteristics of different lakes like for ice freeze-up. This is because ice break-up is mostly effected by weather, especially solar radiation. The water around Simpevarp is an area with good water exchange. The area is strongly effected by coastal processes induced by the local wind conditions and the stratification in the sea. The same situation is valid for the most of the water around Forsmark. Existing observing stations in the area around Oskarshamn have been located. In figure 0-1 all stations and their locations are shown. The stations that are not run by SMHI have not been evaluated due to difficulties in

  11. The Influence Analysis of the Rainfall Meteorological Conditions on the Operation of the Balloon Borne Radar in Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiong; Geng, Fangzhi

    2018-03-01

    Based on the characteristics of complex terrain and different seasons’ weather in Qinghai Tibet Plateau, through statistic the daily rainfall that from 2002 to 2012, nearly 11 years, by Bomi meteorological station, Bomi area rainfall forecast model is established, and which can provide the basis forecasting for dangerous weather warning system on the balloon borne radar in the next step, to protect the balloon borne radar equipment’s safety work and combat effectiveness.

  12. Data Report: Meteorological and Evapotranspiration Data from Sagebrush and Pinyon Pine/Juniper Communities at Pahute Mesa, Nevada National Security Site, 2011-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasoni, Richard L [DRI; Larsen, Jessica D [DRI; Lyles, Brad F. [DRI; Healey, John M [DRI; Cooper, Clay A [DRI; Hershey, Ronald L [DRI; Lefebre, Karen J [DRI

    2013-04-01

    Pahute Mesa is a groundwater recharge area at the Nevada National Security Site. Because underground nuclear testing was conducted at Pahute Mesa, groundwater recharge may transport radionuclides from underground test sites downward to the water table; the amount of groundwater recharge is also an important component of contaminant transport models. To estimate the amount of groundwater recharge at Pahute Mesa, an INFIL3.0 recharge-runoff model is being developed. Two eddy covariance (EC) stations were installed on Pahute Mesa to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) to support the groundwater recharge modeling project. This data report describes the methods that were used to estimate ET and collect meteorological data. Evapotranspiration was estimated for two predominant plant communities on Pahute Mesa; one site was located in a sagebrush plant community, the other site in a pinyon pine/juniper community. Annual ET was estimated to be 310±13.9 mm for the sagebrush site and 347±15.9 mm for the pinyon pine/juniper site (March 26, 2011 to March 26, 2012). Annual precipitation measured with unheated tipping bucket rain gauges was 179 mm at the sagebrush site and 159 mm at the pinyon pine/juniper site. Annual precipitation measured with bulk precipitation gauges was 222 mm at the sagebrush site and 227 mm at the pinyon pine/juniper site (March 21, 2011 to March 28, 2012). A comparison of tipping bucket versus bulk precipitation data showed that total precipitation measured by the tipping bucket rain gauges was 17 to 20 percent lower than the bulk precipitation gauges. These differences were most likely the result of the unheated tipping bucket precipitation gauges not measuring frozen precipitation as accurately as the bulk precipitation gauges. In this one-year study, ET exceeded precipitation at both study sites because estimates of ET included precipitation that fell during the winter of 2010-2011 prior to EC instrumentation and the precipitation gauges started

  13. Application of the Data Mining Methods to Assess the Impact of Meteorological Conditions on the Episodes of High Concentrations of PM10 along the Polish - Czech Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ośródka, Leszek; Krajny, Ewa; Wojtylak, Marek

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents an attempt to use selected data mining methods to determine the influence of a complex of meteorological conditions on the concentrations of PM10 (PM2.5) proffering the example of the regions of Silesia and Northern Moravia. The collection of standard meteorological data has been supplemented by increments and derivatives of measurable weather elements such as vertical pseudo-gradient of air temperature. The main objective was to develop a universal methodology for the assessment of these impacts, i.e. one that would be independent of the analysed pollution. The probability of occurrence (at a given location) of the assumed concentration level as exceeding the value of the specified distributional quintile was adopted as the discriminant of the incidence. As a result of the analyses conducted, incidences of elevated concentrations of air pollution particulate matter PM10 have been identified and the types of weather responsible for the emergence of such situations have also been determined.

  14. Estimation of tritiated water concentration in vegetables and milk around argentine nuclear power plants obtained from discharge sites and meteorological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amado, Valeria A.; Lopez, Fabio O.; Sartori, Francisco M.

    2009-01-01

    The present work shows a methodology to assess the concentration of tritiated water in vegetation and milk. Calculations are depending on the release rate and the meteorological data of the nuclear installations. Methodology is based on existing models that had been modified taking in account available data and specific conditions in the vicinity of the nuclear power plants in Argentina. The predictions of the models are compared with the measurements of tritium concentrations in sampling of vegetables and milk occurred monthly during 2007, near of the plants. (author) [es

  15. Automatization of the measurement to the environmental gamma dose rate and of meteorological variables that condition it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, O.; Alonso, D.; Capote, E.; Ramos, E.O.; Carrazana, J. A.; Prendes, M.; Manzano, J. F.; Tomas, J.; Kalbert, O.; Ledo, L.M.; Guibert, R.; Leyva, J.C.; Montalvan, A.; Fabelo, O.; Cartas, H.

    2004-01-01

    The National Network of Environmental Radiological Surveillance of the Republic of Cuba has strengthened its detection and answer capacity regarding its constant monitoring of the National atmospheric means. 4 type A posts of that network measure the gamma dose rate and the data are being received in real time. The CPHR as head Center receives the information of the remaining posts at a relatively short time, for a series of computer tools, has been developed for that purpose. On the other hand, in the radiological post of our center the wind speed and its direction monitoring have been automated, the information on these meteorological variables is collected in real time

  16. The site conditions of the Guo Shou Jing Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Song; Liu Chao; Zhang Haotong; Deng Licai; Zhang Yueyang; Li Jing; Liu Nian; Zhou Xu; Gao Shuang; Xu Yan; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Chen Li; Hou Jinliang; Christlieb Norbert; Han Zhanwen; Lee, Hsu-Tai; Liu Xiaowei; Pan Kaike; Wang Hongchi

    2012-01-01

    The weather at the Xinglong Observing Station, where the Guo Shou Jing Telescope (GSJT) is located, is strongly affected by the monsoon climate in northeast China. The LAMOST survey strategy is constrained by these weather patterns. We present statistics on observing hours from 2004 to 2007, and the sky brightness, seeing, and sky transparency from 1995 to 2011 at the site. We investigate effects of the site conditions on the survey plan. Operable hours each month show a strong correlation with season: on average there are eight operable hours per night available in December, but only one—two hours in July and August. The seeing and the sky transparency also vary with season. Although the seeing is worse in windy winters, and the atmospheric extinction is worse in the spring and summer, the site is adequate for the proposed scientific program of the LAMOST survey. With a Monte Carlo simulation using historical data on the site condition, we find that the available observation hours constrain the survey footprint from 22 h to 16 h in right ascension; the sky brightness allows LAMOST to obtain a limiting magnitude of V = 19.5 mag with S/N=10.

  17. Site-specific variability in BTEX biodegradation under denitrifying conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, C.M.; Borden, R.C.

    1997-01-01

    Laboratory microcosm experiments were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, and o-xylene (BTEX) biodegradation under denitrifying conditions. Nine different sources of inocula, including contaminated and uncontaminated soil cores from four different sites and activated sludge, were used to establish microcosms. BTEX was not degraded under denitrifying conditions in microcosms inoculated with aquifer material from Rocky Point and Traverse City. However, rapid depletion of glucose under denitrifying conditions was observed in microcosms containing Rocky Point aquifer material. TEX degradation was observed in microcosms containing Rocky Point aquifer material. TEX degradation was observed in microcosms containing aquifer material from Fort Bragg and Sleeping Bear Dunes and sewage sludge. Benzene was recalcitrant in all microcosms tested. The degradation of o-xylene ceased after toluene, ethylbenzene, and m-xylene were depleted in the Fort Bragg and sludge microcosms, but o-xylene continued to degrade in microcosms with contaminated Sleeping Bear Dunes soil. The most probable number (MPN) of denitrifiers in these nine different inocula were measured using a microtiter technique. There was no correlation between the MPN of denitrifiers and the TEX degradation rate under denitrifying conditions. Experimental results indicate that the degradation sequence and TEX degradation rate under denitrifying conditions may differ among sites. Results also indicate that denitrification alone may not be a suitable bioremediation technology for gasoline-contaminated aquifers because of the inability of denitrifiers to degrade benzene

  18. Instruments for meteorological measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-08-01

    The Fundamental Safety Rules applicable to certain types of nuclear installation are intended to clarify the conditions of which observance, for the type of installation concerned and for the subject that they deal with, is considered as equivalent to compliance with regulatory French technical practice. These Rules should facilitate safety analysises and the clear understanding between persons interested in matters related to nuclear safety. They in no way reduce the operator's liability and pose no obstacle to statutory provisions in force. For any installation to which a Fundamental Safety Rule applies according to the foregoing paragraph, the operator may be relieved from application of the Rule if he shows proof that the safety objectives set by the Rule are attained by other means that he proposes within the framework of statutory procedures. Furthermore, the Central Service for the Safety of Nuclear Installations reserves the right at all times to alter any Fundamental Safety Rule, as required, should it deem this necessary, while specifying the applicability conditions. This present rule has for objective to determine the means for meteorological measurement near a site of nuclear facility in which there is not a PWR power plant [fr

  19. Diurnal variations of the Martian surface layer meteorological parameters during the first 45 sols at two Viking Lander sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, J.L.; Leovy, C.B.; Tillman, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    Wind speed, ambient and surface temperatures from both Viking Landers have been used to compute bulk Richardson numbers and Monin-Obukhov lengths during the earliest phase of the Mars missions. These parameters are used to estimate drag and heat transfer coefficients, friction velocities and surface heat fluxes at the two sites. The principal uncertainty is in the specification of the roughness length. Maximum heat fluxes occur near local noon at both sites, and are estimated to be in the range 15--20 W m -2 at the Viking 1 site and 10--15 W m -2 at the Viking 2 site. Maximum values of friction velocity occur in late morning at Viking 1 and are estimated to be 0.4--0.6 m s -1 . They occur shortly after drawn at the Viking 2 site where peak values are estimated to be in the range 0.25--0.35 m s -1 . Extension of these calculations to later times during the mission will require allowance for dust opacity effects in the estimation of surface temperature and in the correction of radiation errors of the Viking 2 temperature sensor

  20. EPA True NO2 ground site measurements – multiple sites, TCEQ ground site measurements of meteorological and air pollution parameters – multiple sites ,GeoTASO NO2 Vertical Column

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA True NO2 ground site measurements – multiple sites - http://www-air.larc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/ArcView/discover-aq.tx-2013; TCEQ ground site measurements of...

  1. Effect of site conditions on ground motion and damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, R.; Glassmoyer, G.; Andrews, M.; Cranswick, E.

    1989-01-01

    Results of seismologic studies conducted by the U.S. reconnaissance team in conjunction with Soviet colleagues following the tragic earthquakes of December 7, 1988, suggest that site conditions may have been a major factor in contributing to increased damage levels in Leninakan. As the potential severity of these effects in Leninakan had not been previously identified, this chapter presents results intended to provide a preliminary quantification of these effects on both damage and levels of ground motion observed in Leninakan. The article describes the damage distribution geologic setting, ground motion amplification in Leninakan, including analog amplifications and spectral amplifications. Preliminary model estimates for site response are presented. It is concluded that ground motion amplification in the 0.5-2.5-second period range was a major contributing factor to increased damage in Leninakan as compared with Kirovakan. Leninakan is located on thick water saturated alluvial deposits.

  2. Waste migration in shallow burial sites under unsaturated flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eicholz, G.G.; Whang, J.

    1987-01-01

    Unsaturated conditions prevail in many shallow-land burial sites, both in arid and humid regions. Unless a burial site is allowed to flood and possibly overflow, a realistic assessment of any migration scenario must take into account the conditions of unsaturated flow. These are more difficult to observe and to model, but introduce significant changes into projected rates of waste leaching and waste migration. Column tests have been performed using soils from the Southeastern coastal plain to observe the effects of varying degrees of ''unsaturation'' on the movement of radioactive tracers. The moisture content in the columns was controlled by maintaining various levels of hydrostatic suction on soil columns whose hydrodynamic characteristics had been determined carefully. Tracer tests, employing Cs-137, I-131 and Ba-133 were used to determine migration profiles and to follow their movement down the column for different suction values. A calculational model has been developed for unsaturated flow and seems to match the observations fairly well. It is evident that a full description of migration processes must take into account the reduced migration rates under unsaturated conditions and the hysteresis effects associated with wetting-drying cycles

  3. Aerosol particle measurements at three stationary sites in the megacity of Paris during summer 2009: meteorology and air mass origin dominate aerosol particle composition and size distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Freutel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During July 2009, a one-month measurement campaign was performed in the megacity of Paris. Amongst other measurement platforms, three stationary sites distributed over an area of 40 km in diameter in the greater Paris region enabled a detailed characterization of the aerosol particle and gas phase. Simulation results from the FLEXPART dispersion model were used to distinguish between different types of air masses sampled. It was found that the origin of air masses had a large influence on measured mass concentrations of the secondary species particulate sulphate, nitrate, ammonium, and oxygenated organic aerosol measured with the Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer in the submicron particle size range: particularly high concentrations of these species (about 4 μg m−3, 2 μg m−3, 2 μg m−3, and 7 μg m−3, respectively were measured when aged material was advected from continental Europe, while for air masses originating from the Atlantic, much lower mass concentrations of these species were observed (about 1 μg m−3, 0.2 μg m−3, 0.4 μg m−3, and 1–3 μg m−3, respectively. For the primary emission tracers hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol, black carbon, and NOx it was found that apart from diurnal source strength variations and proximity to emission sources, local meteorology had the largest influence on measured concentrations, with higher wind speeds leading to larger dilution and therefore smaller measured concentrations. Also the shape of particle size distributions was affected by wind speed and air mass origin. Quasi-Lagrangian measurements performed under connected flow conditions between the three stationary sites were used to estimate the influence of the Paris emission plume onto its surroundings, which was found to be rather small. Rough estimates for the impact of the Paris emission plume on the suburban areas can be

  4. Multi-component ensembles of future meteorological and natural snow conditions for 1500 m altitude in the Chartreuse mountain range, Northern French Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verfaillie, Deborah; Lafaysse, Matthieu; Déqué, Michel; Eckert, Nicolas; Lejeune, Yves; Morin, Samuel

    2018-04-01

    This article investigates the climatic response of a series of indicators for characterizing annual snow conditions and corresponding meteorological drivers at 1500 m altitude in the Chartreuse mountain range in the Northern French Alps. Past and future changes were computed based on reanalysis and observations from 1958 to 2016, and using CMIP5-EURO-CORDEX GCM-RCM pairs spanning historical (1950-2005) and RCP2.6 (4), RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 (13 each) future scenarios (2006-2100). The adjusted climate model runs were used to drive the multiphysics ensemble configuration of the detailed snowpack model Crocus. Uncertainty arising from physical modeling of snow accounts for 20 % typically, although the multiphysics is likely to have a much smaller impact on trends. Ensembles of climate projections are rather similar until the middle of the 21st century, and all show a continuation of the ongoing reduction in average snow conditions, and sustained interannual variability. The impact of the RCPs becomes significant for the second half of the 21st century, with overall stable conditions with RCP2.6, and continued degradation of snow conditions for RCP4.5 and 8.5, the latter leading to more frequent ephemeral snow conditions. Changes in local meteorological and snow conditions show significant correlation with global temperature changes. Global temperature levels 1.5 and 2 °C above preindustrial levels correspond to a 25 and 32 % reduction, respectively, of winter mean snow depth with respect to the reference period 1986-2005. Larger reduction rates are expected for global temperature levels exceeding 2 °C. The method can address other geographical areas and sectorial indicators, in the field of water resources, mountain tourism or natural hazards.

  5. Continuous measurements of stable isotopes of carbon dioxide and water vapour in an urban atmosphere: isotopic variations associated with meteorological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Ryuichi; Matsumi, Yutaka; Nakayama, Tomoki; Hiyama, Tetsuya; Fujiyoshi, Yasushi; Kurita, Naoyuki; Muramoto, Kenichiro; Takanashi, Satoru; Kodama, Naomi; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    2017-12-01

    Isotope ratios of carbon dioxide and water vapour in the near-surface air were continuously measured for one month in an urban area of the city of Nagoya in central Japan in September 2010 using laser spectroscopic techniques. During the passages of a typhoon and a stationary front in the observation period, remarkable changes in the isotope ratios of CO 2 and water vapour were observed. The isotope ratios of both CO 2 and water vapour decreased during the typhoon passage. The decreases can be attributed to the air coming from an industrial area and the rainout effects of the typhoon, respectively. During the passage of the stationary front, δ 13 C-CO 2 and δ 18 O-CO 2 increased, while δ 2 H-H 2 Ov and δ 18 O-H 2 Ov decreased. These changes can be attributed to the air coming from rural areas and the air surrounding the observational site changing from a subtropical air mass to a subpolar air mass during the passage of the stationary front. A clear relationship was observed between the isotopic CO 2 and water vapour and the meteorological phenomena. Therefore, isotopic information of CO 2 and H 2 Ov could be used as a tracer of meteorological information.

  6. Evaluating meteorological data from weather stations, and from satellites and global models for a multi-site epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colston, Josh M; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Mahopo, Cloupas; Kang, Gagandeep; Kosek, Margaret; de Sousa Junior, Francisco; Shrestha, Prakash Sunder; Svensen, Erling; Turab, Ali; Zaitchik, Benjamin

    2018-04-21

    Longitudinal and time series analyses are needed to characterize the associations between hydrometeorological parameters and health outcomes. Earth Observation (EO) climate data products derived from satellites and global model-based reanalysis have the potential to be used as surrogates in situations and locations where weather-station based observations are inadequate or incomplete. However, these products often lack direct evaluation at specific sites of epidemiological interest. Standard evaluation metrics of correlation, agreement, bias and error were applied to a set of ten hydrometeorological variables extracted from two quasi-global, commonly used climate data products - the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) and Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) - to evaluate their performance relative to weather-station derived estimates at the specific geographic locations of the eight sites in a multi-site cohort study. These metrics were calculated for both daily estimates and 7-day averages and for a rotavirus-peak-season subset. Then the variables from the two sources were each used as predictors in longitudinal regression models to test their association with rotavirus infection in the cohort after adjusting for covariates. The availability and completeness of station-based validation data varied depending on the variable and study site. The performance of the two gridded climate models varied considerably within the same location and for the same variable across locations, according to different evaluation criteria and for the peak-season compared to the full dataset in ways that showed no obvious pattern. They also differed in the statistical significance of their association with the rotavirus outcome. For some variables, the station-based records showed a strong association while the EO-derived estimates showed none, while for others, the opposite was true. Researchers wishing to utilize publicly available climate data

  7. Are meteorological conditions favoring hail precipitation change in Southern Europe? Analysis of the period 1948-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, J. L.; Merino, A.; Melcón, P.; García-Ortega, E.; Fernández-González, S.; Berthet, C.; Dessens, J.

    2017-12-01

    In the context of a warming climate, one of the variables currently under investigation is related to the detection of possible changes in hail precipitation. In this work, we analyze hail frequencies in one of the most affected areas by this phenomenon in Europe, southern France. Here, an extensive hail detection network has been in operation since 1988. In general, the detection of hailfall is very uncertain. To overcome the constraints of scarcity and poor standardization of hail detection and monitoring systems, some relationships between hailstorm occurrence and synoptic, mesoscale or thermodynamic atmospheric characteristics have been proposed in different areas. Therefore, we analyzed meteorological fields at synoptic scale that are related to the formation of hailstorms in the study area, i.e., geopotential height at 500 hPa, sea level pressure, and lapse-rate between 850 and 500 hPa. These fields describe the state of the atmosphere at low and mid levels, and facilitate the evaluation of thermal and dynamic instability. Using the Mann-Kendall test and Sen estimator, we examined trends in the three fields during the period 1948-2015 and their spatial patterns, revealing an evolution toward synoptic environments that favor hail precipitation in the Mediterranean region.

  8. Influence of Difficult Meteorological Conditions on the Landing (on the example of Landing on Cape Pikshuev in April–May 1942

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Pryamitsyn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Article is dedicated to landing to Pikshuiy cape in April – May 1942. The article is described the preparation for it, stated problems, forces and facilities, and also motion of debarkation, the influence of severe weather conditions on the results of landing operation especially in detail is examined. The authors note that the tragedy played at Cape Piksaev was made possible due to the lack of attention of the command of the fleet to the weather, as an important element of the theatre, and the rear of miscalculations in the preparation of units, advancing from the occupied bridgehead on the land direction, to act in complex meteorological conditions. In the preparation of the landing was a violation of the requirements of a number of guidance documents.

  9. Socioeconomic conditions and number of pain sites in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rannestad Toril

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women in deprived socioeconomic situations run a high pain risk. Although number of pain sites (NPS is considered highly relevant in pain assessment, little is known regarding the relationship between socioeconomic conditions and NPS. Methods The study population comprised 653 women; 160 recurrence-free long-term gynecological cancer survivors, and 493 women selected at random from the general population. Demographic characteristics and co-morbidity over the past 12 months were assessed. Socioeconomic conditions were measured by Socioeconomic Condition Index (SCI, comprising education, employment status, income, ability to pay bills, self-perceived health, and satisfaction with number of close friends. Main outcome measure NPS was recorded using a body outline diagram indicating where the respondents had experienced pain during the past week. Chi-square test and forward stepwise logistic regression were applied. Results and Conclusion There were only minor differences in SCI scores between women with 0, 1-2 or 3 NPS. Four or more NPS was associated with younger age, higher BMI and low SCI. After adjustment for age, BMI and co-morbidity, we found a strong association between low SCI scores and four or more NPS, indicating that there is a threshold in the NPS count for when socioeconomic determinants are associated to NPS in women.

  10. A multi-site analysis of the association between black carbon concentrations and vehicular idling, traffic, background pollution, and meteorology during school dismissals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond-Bryant, J; Bukiewicz, L; Kalin, R; Galarraga, C; Mirer, F

    2011-05-01

    A study was performed to assess the relationship between black carbon (BC), passing traffic, and vehicular idling outside New York City (NYC) schools during student dismissal. Monitoring was performed at three school sites in East Harlem, the Bronx, and Brooklyn for 1month per year over a two-year period from November 2006-October 2008. Monitoring at each site was conducted before and after the Asthma Free School Zone (AFSZ) asthma reduction education program was administered. Real-time equipment with a one-minute averaging interval was used to obtain the BC data, while volume counts of idling and passing school busses, trucks, and automobiles were collected each minute by study staff. These data were matched to ambient PM(2.5) and meteorology data obtained from the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. A generalized additive model (GAM) model was run to examine the relationship between BC concentration and each variable while accounting for site-to-site differences. F-tests were employed to assess the significance of each of the predictor variables. The model results suggested that variability in ambient PM(2.5) concentration contributed 24% of the variability in transformed BC concentration, while variability in the number of idling busses and trucks on the street during dismissal contributed 20% of the variability in transformed BC concentration. The results of this study suggest that a combination of urban scale and local traffic control approaches in combination with cessation of school bus idling will produce improved local BC concentration outside schools. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Links between meteorological conditions and spatial/temporal variations in long-term isotope records from the Austrian precipitation network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, A.; Scheifinger, H.; Kralik, M.; Papesch, W.; Rank, D.; Stichler, W.

    2002-01-01

    The isotope records from the Austrian Network for Isotopes in Precipitation (ANIP) show significant but not uniform long-term trends. While the 10-year running means of some mountain stations exhibit a pronounced increase in δ 18 O of about 1 per mille since 1975, the change of δ 18 O at the valley stations is much lower. There are also differences in the time behaviour. The differences in the δ 18 O-values of sampling stations at similar altitudes can be explained by different origins of the air moisture (Atlantic or Mediterranean influence). Furthermore, a significant difference in the behaviour of the deuterium excess at neighbouring mountain and valley stations has been observed. There is a slight increase of the yearly mean of the deuterium excess with increasing altitude of the sampling station. But moreover, the seasonal pattern of the deuterium excess is quite different. While the valley stations exhibit the expected minimum in summer, the mountain stations show a distinct maximum between June and October. As a first step into a comprehensive analysis of the meteorological effects on the isotope patterns, the role of advection of different air masses is studied by trajectory statistics. Back trajectories, based on the three dimensional wind fields of the ECMWF model, are calculated for each hour within each precipitation event. Thus, the frequency of the origin of air masses and their contribution to the isotope patterns of the monthly precipitation samples are studied for two selected mountain stations north and south of the main ridge of the Alps. (author)

  12. Model analysis of urbanization impacts on boundary layer meteorology under hot weather conditions: a case study of Nanjing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Zhang, Meigen; Wang, Yongwei

    2016-08-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, configured with a single-layer urban canopy model, was employed to investigate the influence of urbanization on boundary layer meteorological parameters during a long-lasting heat wave. This study was conducted over Nanjing city, East China, from 26 July to 4 August 2010. The impacts of urban expansion and anthropogenic heat (AH) release were simulated to quantify their effects on 2-m temperature, 2-m water vapor mixing ratio, and 10-m wind speed and heat stress index. Urban sprawl increased the daily 2-m temperature in urbanized areas by around 1.6 °C and decreased the urban diurnal temperature range (DTR) by 1.24 °C. The contribution of AH release to the atmospheric warming was nearly 22 %, but AH had little influence on the DTR. The urban regional mean surface wind speed decreased by about 0.4 m s-1, and this decrease was successfully simulated from the surface to 300 m. The influence of urbanization on 2-m water vapor mixing ratio was significant over highly urbanized areas with a decrease of 1.1-1.8 g kg-1. With increased urbanization ratio, the duration of the inversion layer was about 4 h shorter, and the lower atmospheric layer was less stable. Urban heat island (UHI) intensity was significantly enhanced when synthesizing both urban sprawl and AH release and the daily mean UHI intensity increased by 0.74 °C. Urbanization increased the time under extreme heat stress (about 40 %) and worsened the living environment in urban areas.

  13. Territorial characterisation considering geo morphological properties of subsoil as well as climatic and meteorological conditions for the evaluation of the effects of radiological nature on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malvicini, A.; Esposito, P.

    2002-01-01

    The composition and origin of the rocky substratum, the permeability of the ground, its degree of humidity and the particle size are the main factors that influence radon concentration in the subsoil and in the water stratums as well as its upward migration. The climatic and meteorological conditions, particularly the moisture, the barometric pressure and the temperature, can influence more or less directly the underground emanation and diffusion properties of radon and thoron giving rise to short-term modifications of radiological nature in the subsoil, closely related to the presence of these elements. The great concentration of some radioisotopes, in some particular areas, can also induce high dose rates caused by the radiation coming from emergent rocks, due for instance to activities related to building works, with consequent possible exposure of the personnel involved in underground excavations. In such situations it is possible to carry out systematical radiometric measurements, which provide instantaneous and time integrated data, using fixed or movable instrumentation. The stratigraphical structure of the subsoil and the related variations of lithological nature as well as the lack of homogeneity in the land, due also to the unevenness of the ground outline and to the presence of fault planes, increase considerably the complexity of analytical evaluations based upon the chemical and physical characteristics of the subsoil and upon the meteorological and climatic properties

  14. Lightning Location System Data from Wind Power Plants Compared to Meteorological Conditions of Warm- and Cold Thunderstorm Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Stephan; Lopez, Javier; Garolera, Anna Candela

    2016-01-01

    of topography, height above mean sea level (AMSL), and average ground flash density. For three sites, the most severe lightning events have been identified during the warm and cold months whereas the other two locations exhibit severe lightning detections mainly during the warm months. In this work severity......Five years of Lightning Location System (LLS) data from five different wind turbine sites in Europe are analysed. The sites are located in Croatia, Italy, Spain, France and one offshore wind power plant in the North sea. Each location exhibits individual characteristic properties in terms...... of such an episode can vary from tens of minutes to several hours in the case of new storms being continuously developed in the same area. The distance of the charge separating -10◦ C and the ground is usually larger than 3000 meters. This analyse provides information about the different thunderstorm types which...

  15. Effect modification of the association between meteorological variables and mortality by urban climatic conditions in the tropical city of Kaohsiung, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B. Goggins

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A deeper understanding of extreme hot weather are needed in cities sensitive to heat effects, an investigation was done in the tropical town of Kaohsiung in Taiwan. Its 11 districts were divided into three climatic classes varying from high urban heat, low levels of green space and lack of proximity to water bodies to low urban heat, adequate green space and proximity to water bodies. Daily data on natural mortality, meteorological variables, and pollutants from May-October 1999-2008 were analysed using generalised additive models for the time-series data. Subgroup analyses were conducted, stratifying decedents according to the level of planning activity required in order to mitigate adverse heat effects in their residential areas, classifying districts as “level 1” for those requiring a high level of mitigation action; “level 2” for those requiring some action; and “level 3” for those that need only preserve existing conditions. Stratified analyses showed that mortality increases per 1 °C rise on average, either on the same day or in the previous 4 days (lags 0-4, were associated with 2.8%, 2.3% and -1.3% for level 1, 2 and 3 districts, respectively. The slope describing the association between temperature and mortality was higher above 29.0 °C resulting in corresponding increases of 4.2%, 5.0% and 0.3% per per 1 °C rise in temperature, respectively. Other meteorological variables were not significantly associated with mortality. It is concluded that hot season mortality in Kaohsiung is only sensitive to heat effects in districts classified as having unfavourably climatic conditions and requiring mitigation efforts in city planning. Urban planning measures designed to improve climatic conditions could reduce excess mortality resulting from extreme hot weather.

  16. Meteorological modeling of arrival and deposition of fallout at intermediate distances downwind of the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cederwall, R.T.; Peterson, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    A three-dimensional atmospheric transport and diffusion model is used to calculate the arrival and deposition of fallout from 13 selected nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in the 1950s. Results are used to extend NTS fallout patterns to intermediate downwind distances (300 to 1200 km). The radioactive cloud is represented in the model by a population of Lagrangian marker particles, with concentrations calculated on an Eulerian grid. Use of marker particles, with fall velocities dependent on particle size, provides a realistic simulation of fallout as the debris cloud travels downwind. The three-dimensional wind field is derived from observed data, adjusted for mass consistency. Terrain is represented in the grid, which extends up to 1200 km downwind of NTS and has 32-km horizontal resolution and 1-km vertical resolution. Ground deposition is calculated by a deposition-velocity approach. Source terms and relationships between deposition and exposure rate are based on work by Hicks. Uncertainty in particle size and vertical distributions within the debris cloud (and stem) allow for some model tuning to better match measured ground-deposition values. Particle trajectories representing different sizes and starting heights above ground zero are used to guide source specification. An hourly time history of the modeled fallout pattern as the debris cloud moves downwind provides estimates of fallout arrival times. Results for event HARRY illustrate the methodology. The composite deposition pattern for all 13 tests is characterized by two lobes extending out to the north-northeast and east-northeast, respectively, at intermediate distances from NTS. Arrival estimates, along with modeled deposition values, augment measured deposition data in the development of data bases at the county level

  17. Introducing seasonal hydro-meteorological forecasts in local water management. First reflections from the Messara site, Crete, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutroulis, Aristeidis; Grillakis, Manolis; Tsanis, Ioannis

    2017-04-01

    Seasonal prediction is recently at the center of the forecasting research efforts, especially for regions that are projected to be severely affected by global warming. The value of skillful seasonal forecasts can be considerable for many sectors and especially for the agricultural in which water users and managers can benefit to better anticipate against drought conditions. Here we present the first reflections from the user/stakeholder interactions and the design of a tailored drought decision support system in an attempt to bring seasonal predictions into local practice for the Messara valley located in the central-south area of Crete, Greece. Findings from interactions with the users and stakeholders reveal that although long range and seasonal predictions are not used, there is a strong interest for this type of information. The increase in the skill of short range weather predictions is also of great interest. The drought monitoring and prediction tool under development that support local water and agricultural management will include (a) sources of skillful short to medium term forecast information, (b) tailored drought monitoring and forecasting indices for the local groundwater aquifer and rain-fed agriculture, and (c) seasonal inflow forecasts for the local dam through hydrologic simulation to support management of freshwater resources and drought impacts on irrigated agriculture.

  18. Suspended Sediment Dynamics in the Macrotidal Seine Estuary (France): 2. Numerical Modeling of Sediment Fluxes and Budgets Under Typical Hydrological and Meteorological Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, E.; Grasso, F.; Le Hir, P.; Verney, R.; Thouvenin, B.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the sediment dynamics in an estuary is important for its morphodynamic and ecological assessment as well as, in case of an anthropogenically controlled system, for its maintenance. However, the quantification of sediment fluxes and budgets is extremely difficult from in-situ data and requires thoroughly validated numerical models. In the study presented here, sediment fluxes and budgets in the lower Seine Estuary were quantified and investigated from seasonal to annual time scales with respect to realistic hydro- and meteorological conditions. A realistic three-dimensional process-based hydro- and sediment-dynamic model was used to quantify mud and sand fluxes through characteristic estuarine cross-sections. In addition to a reference experiment with typical forcing, three experiments were carried out and analyzed, each differing from the reference experiment in either river discharge or wind and waves so that the effects of these forcings could be separated. Hydro- and meteorological conditions affect the sediment fluxes and budgets in different ways and at different locations. Single storm events induce strong erosion in the lower estuary and can have a significant effect on the sediment fluxes offshore of the Seine Estuary mouth, with the flux direction depending on the wind direction. Spring tides cause significant up-estuary fluxes at the mouth. A high river discharge drives barotropic down-estuary fluxes at the upper cross-sections, but baroclinic up-estuary fluxes at the mouth and offshore so that the lower estuary gains sediment during wet years. This behavior is likely to be observed worldwide in estuaries affected by density gradients and turbidity maximum dynamics.

  19. Influence of meteorology and interrelationship with greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) at a sub-urban site of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivas, G.; Mahesh, P.; Subin, J.; Kanchana, A. L.; Rao, P. V. N.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are important climate forcing agents due to their significant impact on the climate system. The present study brings out first continuous measurements of atmospheric GHG's using high precision Los Gatos Research's-greenhouse gas analyser (LGR-GGA) over Shadnagar, a suburban site of Central India during the period 2014. The annual mean of CO2 and CH4 over the study region is found to be 394 ± 2.92 and 1.92 ± 0.07 ppm (mean, μ ± 1 SD, σ) respectively. CO2 and CH4 showed a significant seasonal variation during the study period with maximum (minimum) CO2 observed during Pre-monsoon (Monsoon), while CH4 recorded maximum during post-monsoon and minimum in monsoon. A consistent diurnal mixing ratio of these gases is observed with high (low) during night (afternoon) hours throughout the study period. Influences of prevailing meteorology (air temperature, wind speed, wind direction and relative humidity) on GHG's have also been investigated. CO2 and CH4 showed a strong positive correlation during winter, pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon with R equal to 0.80, 0.80, 0.61 and 0.72 respectively. It implies the seasonal variations in source-sink mechanisms of CO2 and CH4. Present study also confirms implicitly the presence OH radicals as a major sink of CH4 over the study region.

  20. Technology and Meteorology. An Action Research Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Raymond F.

    Meteorology, the science of weather and weather conditions, has traditionally been taught via textbook and rote demonstration. This study was intended to determine to what degree utilizing technology in the study of meteorology improves students' attitudes towards science and to measure to what extent technology in meteorology increases…

  1. Meteorological, hydrological and oceanographical information and data for the site investigation program in the communities of Oesthammar and Tierp in the northern part of Uppland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson-McCann, Sonja; Karlsson, Anna; Nord, Margitta; Sjoegren, Jonas; Johansson, Lasse; Ivarsson, Mats; Kindell, Sven [Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Inst., Norrkoeping (Sweden)

    2002-06-01

    been included in any easily accessed database. However, data was stored on magnetic tapes, of which some years have been located, but not evaluated. Together with this report one reference year with data was selected. At first, the years possible from a hydrological point of view were selected since hydrological data are scarcer than meteorological. The selected year should be as normal as possible, monthly averages and sums should approximately be according to corresponding values for the standard normal period 1961 - 1990. All meteorological parameters should refer to the same station if possible. The parameters, temperature and precipitation, are considered most important when the year is selected. On these conditions meteorological data for 1988 from Oerskaer was selected, except for air pressure and snow depth which was not measured at Oerskaer Data on air pressure are taken from Uppsala Airport which is regarded representative for Oerskaer. Data on snow cover are from Films kyrkby further inland. For discharge and water level the station Vattholma has been chosen. As oceanographic data over the year is incoherent we can not provide time series for an actual year for these parameters.

  2. GIS-based approach for optimal siting and sizing of renewables considering techno-environmental constraints and the stochastic nature of meteorological inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalou, Olympia; Karanastasi, Maria; Markonis, Yannis; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Koukouvinos, Antonis; Efstratiadis, Andreas; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2016-04-01

    Following the legislative EU targets and taking advantage of its high renewable energy potential, Greece can obtain significant benefits from developing its water, solar and wind energy resources. In this context we present a GIS-based methodology for the optimal sizing and siting of solar and wind energy systems at the regional scale, which is tested in the Prefecture of Thessaly. First, we assess the wind and solar potential, taking into account the stochastic nature of the associated meteorological processes (i.e. wind speed and solar radiation, respectively), which is essential component for both planning (i.e., type selection and sizing of photovoltaic panels and wind turbines) and management purposes (i.e., real-time operation of the system). For the optimal siting, we assess the efficiency and economic performance of the energy system, also accounting for a number of constraints, associated with topographic limitations (e.g., terrain slope, proximity to road and electricity grid network, etc.), the environmental legislation and other land use constraints. Based on this analysis, we investigate favorable alternatives using technical, environmental as well as financial criteria. The final outcome is GIS maps that depict the available energy potential and the optimal layout for photovoltaic panels and wind turbines over the study area. We also consider a hypothetical scenario of future development of the study area, in which we assume the combined operation of the above renewables with major hydroelectric dams and pumped-storage facilities, thus providing a unique hybrid renewable system, extended at the regional scale.

  3. Equatorially/globally conditioned meteorological analysis of heaviest monsoon rains over India during 23-28 July 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranade, Ashwini; Singh, Nityanand

    2018-06-01

    The heaviest monsoon rainstorm of the period 1951-2007 over India occurred during 23-28 July 2005, mostly the peninsula received rainfall, and each day the rainwater over the country was 40.0 bcm (billion cubic meter) or more, highest 98.4 bcm fell on 25 July 2005. Present premise of monsoon genesis is that it evolves in association with spreading and intensification of equatorial atmospheric condition over Afro-Eurasian landmass and adjoining Indian and Pacific Oceans during boreal summer. Robust natural criteria have been applied to demarcate monsoon and other global weather regimes (GWRs) at standard levels (1000‒100 hPa). Global atmospheric (1000‒100 hPa) thermal condition and monsoon and general circulations during 23-28 July 2005 have been compared with normal features of respective parameters. Over tropics-subtropics (45°S-45°N), troposphere (1000‒250 hPa) was warmer-thicker and pressure lower than normal and mixed conditions of positive/negative departures in temperature, height/thickness and pressure over northern and southern mid-high latitudes. Noticeable changes in 3D monsoon structure were: horizontally spread and eastward-southward shifted over western North Pacific and stretched further southeastward across equatorial Pacific; intense warm-low lower tropospheric confluence-convergence across Asia-Pacific with vertical depth extending beyond 400 hPa; and intense warm-high upper tropospheric anticyclonic circulation zonally stretched and divided into three interconnected cells. Outflows from anticyclonic cells over Tibetan plateau and western North Pacific were mostly directed westward/southwestward/southward. Troposphere was warmer-thicker and pressure higher over eastern part of both subpolars-polars and cooler-thinner and pressure lower over western part. During the period, a deep cyclonic circulation moved from Bay of Bengal through central India while near-stationary atmospheric condition prevailed across the globe.

  4. Airline meteorological requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, C. L.; Pappas, J.

    1985-01-01

    A brief review of airline meteorological/flight planning is presented. The effects of variations in meteorological parameters upon flight and operational costs are reviewed. Flight path planning through the use of meteorological information is briefly discussed.

  5. Meteorology, physical oceanography, transport of water, biogeochemistry, and other parameters collected at fixed locations in the open ocean from the OceanSITES network

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection comprises data covering meteorology, physical oceanography, transport of water, biogeochemistry, and parameters relevant to the carbon cycle, ocean...

  6. Extreme wind conditions for a Danish offshore site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of extreme wind speed gust values measured at a shallow water offshore site and at a coastal onshore site in Denmark. An estimate of 50-year extreme values has been evaluated using a new statistical method. In addition a mean gust shape is determined, based on a la...

  7. Virtual Meteorological Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Brinzila

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A virtual meteorological center, computer based with Internet possibility transmission of the information is presented. Circumstance data is collected with logging field meteorological station. The station collects and automatically save data about the temperature in the air, relative humidity, pressure, wind speed and wind direction, rain gauge, solar radiation and air quality. Also can perform sensors test, analyze historical data and evaluate statistical information. The novelty of the system is that it can publish data over the Internet using LabVIEW Web Server capabilities and deliver a video signal to the School TV network. Also the system performs redundant measurement of temperature and humidity and was improved using new sensors and an original signal conditioning module.

  8. Meteorological experiments for emergency preparedness. part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leao, I.L.B.; Nicolli, D.

    1993-12-01

    Since the preliminary studies for the Angra dos Reis Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) siting, by an American consultant company, it was verified that the micro scale and mesoscale meteorological conditions in the region show a unique complex pattern, so that no similar nuclear installation site could be found for reference. Therefore, it was recommended to install onsite a correspondingly complex meteorological data acquisition system which comprises a 100-meter tower with instruments at three different levels and three 15-meter satellite towers on the hills around. In this report, are described the equipment and instruments sent by the IAEA to CNEN as well as the procedures and particular computer programming developed by the staff. It is also reported on the bureaucratic problems and meager budget allocation for the Project which delayed the installation of the two meteorological stations and hindered the implementation of the Project. The equipment for the atmospheric boundary layer sounding were used for the first time in September 1993, when CNEN provided some resource for the purchase of gas and batteries. The first atmospheric sounding campaign showed the occurrence of strong night winds and intense thermal inversion at the higher level of the boundary layer, until now unknown by the Brazilian meteorologists. By way of this report, the staff of meteorologists tries to show the status of Project BRA/09/031 and the know-how gained with it. (author)

  9. Development of estimation method for tephra transport and dispersal characteristics with numerical simulation technique. Part 2. A method of selecting meteorological conditions and the effects on ash deposition and concentration in air for Kanto-area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Yasuo; Suto, Hitoshi; Toshida, Kiyoshi; Hirakuchi, Hiromaru

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we examine the estimation of ground deposition for a real test case, a volcanic ash hazard in Kanto-area with various meteorological conditions by using an ash transport- and deposition-model, fall3d; we consider three eruptions, which correspond to the stage 1 and 3 of Hoei eruption at Mt. Fuji and Tenmei Eruption at Mt. Asama. The meteorological conditions are generated with the 53 years reanalysis meteorological dataset, CRIEPI-RCM-Era2, which has a temporal- and spatial-resolutions of 1 hr and 5 km. The typical and extreme conditions were sampled by using Gumbel plot and an artificial neural network technique. The ash deposition is invariably limited to the west area of the vent, even with the typical wind conditions on summer, while the isopach of ground deposition depicted various distributions, which strongly depends on meteorological conditions. This implies that the concentric circular distribution must not be realistic. Also, a long-term eruption, such as the Hoei eruption during stage 3, yields large deposition area due to the daily variations of wind direction, suggesting that the attention to the differences between daily variation and fluctuations of wind direction on evaluating of volcanic ash risk is vital. (author)

  10. Notes on the geology and meteorology of sites infected with white-nose syndrome before July 2010 in Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, Christopher S.; Garrity, Christopher P.

    2011-01-01

    Since 2006, numerous bat colonies in North America have experienced unusually high incidences of mortality. In these colonies, bats are infected by a white fungus named Geomyces destructans, which has been observed on bat muzzles, noses, ears, and (or) wings. Although it is not exactly certain how and why these bats are dying, this condition has been named white-nose syndrome (WNS). WNS appears to have spread from an initial infection site at a cave in New York, and was first identified south of Pennsylvania during January 2009. By the end of June 2010, 41 infected sites had identified in the states of West Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Virginia, and Tennessee. Most of these sites are natural caves in limestone of either Cambrian-Ordovician age or Silurian-Devonian age. Published air temperature values in these WNS-infected caves range from -3.3 to 15.6 °C, and humidity measurements range from 68 to 100 %.

  11. An evaluation of meteorologic data differences between the Pantex Plant and Amarillo, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, S.F.

    1993-06-01

    Meteorologic data from the Pantex Plant and from the nearby National Weather Service (NWS) station at the Amarillo, Texas, International Airport were evaluated to determine if the NWS data adequately represented meteorologic conditions at the Pantex Plant. Annual site environmental dose calculations for the Pantex Plant have previously used the NWS data; information from this data comparison helped determine if future environmental dose calculations should use site-specific Pantex meteorologic data. The meteorologic data evaluated were wind speed, wind direction, and atmospheric stability class. Atmospheric stability class data were compared for years 1990 and 1991 and found to be very similar. Stability class designations were identical and one class different in 63% and 30%, respectively, of the paired hourly data. An unexpected finding was the preponderance of Class D stability, which occurred approximately 62% of the time in both data sets. The overall effect of meteorological differences between the two locations was evaluated by performing environmental dose assessments using the GENII dose assessment computer code. Acute and chronic releases of {sup 3}H and {sup 239}Pu were evaluated. Results using the NWS Amarillo meteorologic data were approximately one-half of those generated using Pantex meteorologic data. The two-fold difference in dose results is within the uncertainty expected from current dose assessment codes; therefore, the two meteorologic databases can be used interchangeably and prior dose calculation results using the NWS Amarillo data are acceptable.

  12. Health and safety conditions of building maintenance sites in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To identify the microorganisms, bulk samples were collected on timber buildings classified as maintenance sites over the country and then identify the microorganisms available using the cultivation technique. Eight hundred and fifty nutrient and Sabouraud dextrose agar dishes were prepared. The nutrient agar dishes were ...

  13. Celestial polarization patterns sufficient for Viking navigation with the naked eye: detectability of Haidinger's brushes on the sky versus meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Gábor; Takács, Péter; Kretzer, Balázs; Szilasi, Szilvia; Száz, Dénes; Farkas, Alexandra; Barta, András

    2017-02-01

    If a human looks at the clear blue sky from which light with high enough degree of polarization d originates, an 8-shaped bowtie-like figure, the yellow Haidinger's brush can be perceived, the long axis of which points towards the sun. A band of high d arcs across the sky at 90° from the sun. A person can pick two points on that band, observe the yellow brushes and triangulate the position of the sun based on the orientation of the two observed brushes. This method has been suggested to have been used on the open sea by Viking navigators to determine the position of the invisible sun occluded by cloud or fog. Furthermore, Haidinger's brushes can also be used to locate the sun when it is below the horizon or occluded by objects on the horizon. To determine the position of the sun using the celestial polarization pattern, the d of the portion of the sky used must be greater than the viewer's degree of polarization threshold d* for perception of Haidinger's brushes. We studied under which sky conditions the prerequisite d > d* is satisfied. Using full-sky imaging polarimetry, we measured the d-pattern of skylight in the blue (450 nm) spectral range for 1296 different meteorological conditions with different solar elevation angles θ and per cent cloud cover ρ. From the measured d-patterns of a given sky we determined the proportion P of the sky for which d > d*. We obtained that P is the largest at low solar elevations θ ≈ 0° and under totally or nearly clear skies with cloud coverage ρ = 0%, when the sun's position is already easily determined. If the sun is below the horizon (-5° ≤ θ Viking navigation based on Haidinger's brushes is most useful after sunset and prior to sunrise, when the sun is not visible and large sky regions are bright, clear and polarized enough for perception of Haidinger's brushes.

  14. Reactor safety under design basis flood condition for inland sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajela, S.; Bajaj, S.S.; Samota, A.; Verma, U.S.P.; Warudkar, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In June 1994, there was an incident of flooding at Kakrapar Atomic Power Station (KAPS) due to combination of heavy rains and mechanical failure in the operation of gates at the adjoining weir. An indepth review of the incident was carried out and a number of flood protection measures were recommended and were implemented at site. As part of this review, a safety analysis was also done to demonstrate reactor safety with a series of failures considered in the flood protection features. For each inland NPP site, as part of design, different flood scenarios are analysed to arrive at design basis flood (DBF) level. This level is estimated based on worst combination of heavy local precipitation, flooding in river, failure of upstream/downstream water control structures

  15. From Site Data to Safety Assessment: Analysis of Present and Future Hydrological Conditions at a Coastal Site in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, Sten; Bosson, Emma; Sassner, Mona

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of present and future hydrological conditions at the Forsmark site in Sweden, which has been proposed as the site for a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. Forsmark is a coastal site that changes in response to shoreline displacement. In the considered time frame (until year 10 000 ad), the hydrological system will be affected by landscape succession associated with shoreline displacement and changes in vegetation, regolith stratigraphy, and climate. Based on extensive site investigations and modeling of present hydrological conditions, the effects of different processes on future site hydrology are quantified. As expected, shoreline displacement has a strong effect on local hydrology (e.g., groundwater flow) in areas that change from sea to land. The comparison between present and future land areas emphasizes the importance of climate variables relative to other factors for main hydrological features such as water balances

  16. Statistics of meteorological data at Tokai Research Establishment in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekita, Tsutomu; Tachibana, Haruo; Matsuura, Kenichi; Yamaguchi, Takenori

    2003-12-01

    The meteorological observation data at Tokai site were analyzed statistically based on a 'Guideline of meteorological statistics for the safety analysis of nuclear power reactor' (Nuclear Safety Commission on January 28, 1982; revised on March 29, 2001). This report shows the meteorological analysis of wind direction, wind velocity and atmospheric stability etc. to assess the public dose around the Tokai site caused by the released gaseous radioactivity. The statistical period of meteorological data is every 5 years from 1981 to 1995. (author)

  17. Meteorological conditions in a thinner Arctic sea ice regime from winter to summer during the Norwegian Young Sea Ice expedition (N-ICE2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lana; Hudson, Stephen R.; Walden, Von P.; Graham, Robert M.; Granskog, Mats A.

    2017-07-01

    Atmospheric measurements were made over Arctic sea ice north of Svalbard from winter to early summer (January-June) 2015 during the Norwegian Young Sea Ice (N-ICE2015) expedition. These measurements, which are available publicly, represent a comprehensive meteorological data set covering the seasonal transition in the Arctic Basin over the new, thinner sea ice regime. Winter was characterized by a succession of storms that produced short-lived (less than 48 h) temperature increases of 20 to 30 K at the surface. These storms were driven by the hemispheric scale circulation pattern with a large meridional component of the polar jet stream steering North Atlantic storms into the high Arctic. Nonstorm periods during winter were characterized by strong surface temperature inversions due to strong radiative cooling ("radiatively clear state"). The strength and depth of these inversions were similar to those during the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) campaign. In contrast, atmospheric profiles during the "opaquely cloudy state" were different to those from SHEBA due to differences in the synoptic conditions and location within the ice pack. Storm events observed during spring/summer were the result of synoptic systems located in the Barents Sea and the Arctic Basin rather than passing directly over N-ICE2015. These synoptic systems were driven by a large-scale circulation pattern typical of recent years, with an Arctic Dipole pattern developing during June. Surface temperatures became near-constant 0°C on 1 June marking the beginning of summer. Atmospheric profiles during the spring and early summer show persistent lifted temperature and moisture inversions that are indicative of clouds and cloud processes.

  18. Immunological condition in population living near Semipalatinsk tests site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satow, Yukio; Ueda, Masafumi.

    1992-01-01

    This is the brief introduction of the immunological survey at Pavlodar, Kazakhstan SSR, a 300 km away from the Semipalatinsk test site, originally reported by Beysembaev E.A.,Valivach M.N. (Course of Clinical Immunology in Pavlodar Dzerzhynsky str., 166), Molochanov N.E. (Pavlodar Regional Hospital), Kazakav, V.M. (Radiologist Lab. of Regional Sanitary and Epidemiology Station), Ounusov B.A. and Osorodnikova O.P. (Clinical Immunology Centre in Pavlodar). The comparative investigations on (1) 150 preschool age children in Pavlodar before and 6 months after the cessation of nuclear tests, (2) 25 children suffering from frequent respiratory infections before the cessation and 25 analogous children after the cessation, and (3) 69 children (age 1 - 7) and 70 adults (age 28 - 58) inhabitants of Maysky district, where radioactivity is especially high, and 50 children and 50 adults of Pavlodar inhabitants, are reported. Erythrocyte rosette-forming cells, immunoglobulins G, A, and M, etc. are tested. (A.Y.)

  19. Modeled and measured glacier change and related glaciological, hydrological, and meteorological conditions at South Cascade Glacier, Washington, balance and water years 2006 and 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidlake, William R.; Josberger, Edward G.; Savoca, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Winter snow accumulation and summer snow and ice ablation were measured at South Cascade Glacier, Washington, to estimate glacier mass balance quantities for balance years 2006 and 2007. Mass balances were computed with assistance from a new model that was based on the works of other glacier researchers. The model, which was developed for mass balance practitioners, coupled selected meteorological and glaciological data to systematically estimate daily mass balance at selected glacier sites. The North Cascade Range in the vicinity of South Cascade Glacier accumulated approximately average to above average winter snow packs during 2006 and 2007. Correspondingly, the balance years 2006 and 2007 maximum winter snow mass balances of South Cascade Glacier, 2.61 and 3.41 meters water equivalent, respectively, were approximately equal to or more positive (larger) than the average of such balances since 1959. The 2006 glacier summer balance, -4.20 meters water equivalent, was among the four most negative since 1959. The 2007 glacier summer balance, -3.63 meters water equivalent, was among the 14 most negative since 1959. The glacier continued to lose mass during 2006 and 2007, as it commonly has since 1953, but the loss was much smaller during 2007 than during 2006. The 2006 glacier net balance, -1.59 meters water equivalent, was 1.02 meters water equivalent more negative (smaller) than the average during 1953-2005. The 2007 glacier net balance, -0.22 meters water equivalent, was 0.37 meters water equivalent less negative (larger) than the average during 1953-2006. The 2006 accumulation area ratio was less than 0.10, owing to isolated patches of accumulated snow that endured the 2006 summer season. The 2006 equilibrium line altitude was higher than the glacier. The 2007 accumulation area ratio and equilibrium line altitude were 0.60 and 1,880 meters, respectively. Accompanying the glacier mass losses were retreat of the terminus and reduction of total glacier area. The

  20. Meteorological considerations in emergency response capability at nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairobent, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Meteorological considerations in emergency response at nuclear power plants are discussed through examination of current regulations and guidance documents, including discussion of the rationale for current regulatory requirements related to meteorological information for emergency response. Areas discussed include: major meteorological features important to emergency response; onsite meteorological measurements programs, including redundant and backup measurements; access to offsite sources of meteorological information; consideration of real-time and forecast conditions and atmospheric dispersion modeling

  1. Assessment of the dispersion of fission products in the atmosphere following a reactor accident under meteorological conditions of low wind speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabol, B.

    1984-11-01

    The aim of the study is the assessment of the dispersion in a low speed situation and the validation of the computer code ICAIR3 by means of SF6 tracing experiments carried out on the CADARACHE site under different stability conditions. The results show clearly some characteristic features of the dispersion. In particular, high concentrations are found in the experimental field several hours after the end of the release. Large differences of the plume width are observed depending on the atmospheric stability. The flow seems well organized under stable conditions, probably in relation with a topographic effect (CADARACHE is situated in a valley), while there is a much larger spread out of the plume in neutral or unstable conditions. A reasonable agreement with the values predicted by the calculation code is found for the maximum concentration

  2. A marine meteorological data acquisition system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Desa, E.; Vithayathil, G.

    A marine meteorological data acquisition system has been developed for long term unattended measurements at remote coastal sites, ocean surface platforms and for use on board research vessels. The system has an open and modular configuration...

  3. A Meteorological Supersite for Aviation and Cold Weather Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultepe, Ismail; Agelin-Chaab, M.; Komar, J.; Elfstrom, G.; Boudala, F.; Zhou, B.

    2018-05-01

    The goal of this study is to better understand atmospheric boundary layer processes and parameters, and to evaluate physical processes for aviation applications using data from a supersite observing site. Various meteorological sensors, including a weather and environmental unmanned aerial vehicle (WE-UAV), and a fog and snow tower (FSOS) observations are part of the project. The PanAm University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT) Meteorological Supersite (PUMS) observations are being collected from April 2015 to date. The FSOS tower gathers observations related to rain, snow, fog, and visibility, aerosols, solar radiation, and wind and turbulence, as well as surface and sky temperature. The FSOSs are located at three locations at about 450-800 m away from the PUMS supersite. The WE-UAV measurements representing aerosol, wind speed and direction, as well as temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) are provided during clear weather conditions. Other measurements at the PUMS site include cloud backscattering profiles from CL51 ceilometer, MWR observations of liquid water content (LWC), T, and RH, and Microwave Rain Radar (MRR) reflectivity profile, as well as the present weather type, snow water depth, icing rate, 3D-ultrasonic wind and turbulence, and conventional meteorological observations from compact weather stations, e.g., WXTs. The results based on important weather event studies, representing fog, snow, rain, blowing snow, wind gust, planetary boundary layer (PBL) wind research for UAV, and icing conditions are given. The microphysical parameterizations and analysis processes for each event are provided, but the results should not be generalized for all weather events and be used cautiously. Results suggested that integrated observing systems based on data from a supersite as well as satellite sites can provide better information applicable to aviation meteorology, including PBL weather research, validation of numerical weather model predictions, and

  4. Meteorological measurements at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    On-site meteorological measurements are necessary for evaluating atmospheric dispersion of gaseous effluents. Radiation doses in a plant's vicinity due to these effluents are calculated from the results of dispersion evaluations. The guide addresses the requirements for on-site meteorological measurement systems. Guide YVL 7.3 addresses atmospheric dispersion evaluations and calculation methods, Guide YVL 7.2 radiation dose calculations and Guide YVL 7.8 environmental data reporting. (5 refs.)

  5. Simulation of the outdoor energy efficiency of an autonomous solar kit based on meteorological data for a site in Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouzaki, Mohammed Moustafa, E-mail: bouzaki-physique1@yahoo.fr; Chadel, Meriem [University of Tlemcen URMER, 13000 (Algeria); Université de Lorraine, LMOPS, EA 4423, 57070 Metz (France); CentraleSupélec, LMOPS, 57070 Metz (France); Benyoucef, Boumediene [University of Tlemcen URMER, 13000 (Algeria); Petit, Pierre; Aillerie, Michel, E-mail: aillerie@metz.supelec.fr [Université de Lorraine, LMOPS, EA 4423, 57070 Metz (France); CentraleSupélec, LMOPS, 57070 Metz (France)

    2016-07-25

    This contribution analyzes the energy provided by a solar kit dedicated to autonomous usage and installed in Central Europe (Longitude 6.10°; Latitude 49.21° and Altitude 160 m) by using the simulation software PVSYST. We focused the analysis on the effect of temperature and solar irradiation on the I-V characteristic of a commercial PV panel. We also consider in this study the influence of charging and discharging the battery on the generator efficiency. Meteorological data are integrated into the simulation software. As expected, the solar kit provides an energy varying all along the year with a minimum in December. In the proposed approach, we consider this minimum as the lowest acceptable energy level to satisfy the use. Thus for the other months, a lost in the available renewable energy exists if no storage system is associated.

  6. Environmental conditions of two abandoned uranium mill tailings sites in northern Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalin, M.

    Two abandoned uranium mill tailings sites near Uranium City, Saskatchewan, have been studied in an attempt to follow the natural rehabilitation processes. The Gunnar site is a largely terrestrial environment while the Lorado mill tailings were discharged mainly into Nero Lake. This report describes the ecological conditions of both sites, potential long-term environmental degradation, and possible measures to assist the recovery of both areas

  7. Surface meteorology and Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

    The Release 5.1 Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) data contains parameters formulated for assessing and designing renewable energy systems. Parameters fall under 11 categories including: Solar cooking, solar thermal applications, solar geometry, tilted solar panels, energy storage systems, surplus product storage systems, cloud information, temperature, wind, other meteorological factors, and supporting information. This latest release contains new parameters based on recommendations by the renewable energy industry and it is more accurate than previous releases. On-line plotting capabilities allow quick evaluation of potential renewable energy projects for any region of the world. The SSE data set is formulated from NASA satellite- and reanalysis-derived insolation and meteorological data for the 10-year period July 1983 through June 1993. Results are provided for 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude grid cells over the globe. Average daily and monthly measurements for 1195 World Radiation Data Centre ground sites are also available. [Mission Objectives] The SSE project contains insolation and meteorology data intended to aid in the development of renewable energy systems. Collaboration between SSE and technology industries such as the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables ( HOMER ) may aid in designing electric power systems that employ some combination of wind turbines, photovoltaic panels, or diesel generators to produce electricity. [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=1993-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180].

  8. Methodology applied in Cuba for siting, designing, and building a radioactive waste repository under safety conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orbera, L.; Peralta, J.L.; Franklin, R.; Gil, R.; Chales, G.; Rodriguez, A.

    1993-01-01

    The work presents the methodology used in Cuba for siting, designing, and building a radioactive waste repository safely. This methodology covers both the technical and socio-economic factors, as well as those of design and construction so as to have a safe siting for this kind of repository under Cuba especial condition. Applying this methodology will results in a safe repository

  9. Lectures in Micro Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren Ejling

    This report contains the notes from my lectures on Micro scale meteorology at the Geophysics Department of the Niels Bohr Institute of Copenhagen University. In the period 1993-2012, I was responsible for this course at the University. At the start of the course, I decided that the text books...... available in meteorology at that time did not include enough of the special flavor of micro meteorology that characterized the work of the meteorology group at Risø (presently of the Institute of wind energy of the Danish Technical University). This work was focused on Boundary layer flows and turbulence...

  10. Adaptive Weather Forecasting using Local Meteorological Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeswijk, T.G.; Keesman, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    In general, meteorological parameters such as temperature, rain and global radiation are important for agricultural systems. Anticipating on future conditions is most often needed in these systems. Weather forecasts then become of substantial importance. As weather forecasts are subject to

  11. Controlling the site density of multiwall carbon nanotubes via growth conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, M. P.; Overmyer, D. L.; Kaatz, F. H.

    2004-06-01

    We present two complementary methods for controlling the site density of multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) directly as a function of growth conditions from 1011to107CNTs/cm2. Several potential applications require significant spacing between individual CNTs. The first method shows that the site density varies with the heat of formation of the hydrocarbon gas used during CNT growth by thermal chemical vapor deposition. The second method demonstrates that the site density decreases with increasing residual stress of the metal catalyst/diffusion barrier layers. These methods are combined for wide-range control of CNT site density.

  12. Method to characterize local meteorology at nuclear facilities for application to emergency response needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsey, C.G.; Glantz, C.S.

    1986-04-01

    Effluent dispersion is evaluated using computer codes that require various meteorological parameters such as wind and stability data. These data will be based on current conditions at the site in question, and on forecasts of the expected local meteorology for the time period to be simulated. To assist NRC personnel in preparing these forecasts, a weather-typing model was implemented to analyze the characteristic behavior of local meteorology as it responds to various synoptic-scale weather features (e.g., warm fronts, cold fronts, high pressure systems). Historical observations acquired by instrumented towers at several nuclear power plants were analyzed as a function of the prevailing synoptic weather feature, synoptic-scale pressure gradient, and time of year. This study focused on sites located in shoreline and complex terrain environments because of the occurrence of mesoscale circulations, which are the sea/lake-land breeze and valley wind systems. Such circulations produce diurnally changing wind and stability conditions that cannot be readily identified by synoptic-scale weather forecasts. The advantage in analyzing the climatological behavior of local meteorology as it responds to various synoptic weather systems is that certain weather systems will control the local meteorology and produce persistent conditions

  13. Fire and forest meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    SA Ferguson; T.J. Brown; M. Flannigan

    2005-01-01

    The American Meteorological Society symposia series on Fire and Forest Meteorology provides biennial forums for atmospheric and fire scientists to introduce and discuss the latest and most relevant research on weather, climate and fire. This special issue highlights significant work that was presented at the Fifth Symposium in Orlando, Florida during 16-20 November...

  14. METRODOS: Meteorological preprocessor chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, P.; Mikkelsen, T.; Deme, S.

    2001-01-01

    The METRODOS meteorological preprocessor chain combines measured tower data and coarse grid numerical weather prediction (NWP) data with local scale flow models and similarity scaling to give high resolution approximations of the meteorological situation. Based on available wind velocity and dire...

  15. 180 meteorological stations data analysis to find out a meteodiffusivity index of sites; Analisi dei dati relativi a 180 stazioni meteorologiche al fine di individuare un indice per la caratterizzazione meteodiffusiva dei siti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cagnetti, P.; Grandoni, G.; Mammarella, M.C.; Pellegrini, A.; Racalbuto, S.; Boccadoro, M.; Fedele, P. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    The present work has been done during the preparatory events of the National Conference on Energy and Environment (CNEA), studying the diffusive properties of the lower layers of the atmosphere, in order to find out a set of air quality indicators for urban areas. The data of 180 meteorological stations of the Italian Air Force Meteorological Service cover the whole Italian territory and are easily available; for this reason, this study, is based on those data. By analysing the available data, the variability range of the considered parameters was investigated and then an attempt was done to combine those parameters in order to describe, with a general index related to each site, the higher or lower attitude to diffuse pollutants released in the atmosphere. After that, the sites have been classified by their capacity of dispersion in atmosphere, making use of the meteo-diffusivity index described above, and pointing out the importance of meteorology in the study of the air quality of urban sites. [Italian] Questo lavoro e' stato svolto durante gli eventi preparatori della Conferenza Nazionale Energia Ambiente (CNEA), con lo scopo di individuare un set di indicatori della qualita' dell'aria in aree urbane, sulla base di studi e ricerche sui parametri meteodiffusivi dei bassi strati dell'atmosfera. Sono stati presi in considerazione, perche' subito fruibili e a diffusione nazionale, i dati provenienti dalle 180 stazioni meteorologiche dell'Areonautica Militare. Dopo un'analisi di tali dati al fine di individuare l'intervallo di variabilita' dei parametri meteorologici presi in considerazione, e' stata proposta una combinazione di tali parametri in grado di descrivere, sotto forma di un indice generale ed in relazione a tutti i siti considerati, la maggiore o minore tendenza alla diffusione degli inquinanti immessi in atmosfera. Sulla base di tale definizione di un indice di meteodiffusivita', sono stati

  16. Meteorological satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Su-Yin

    2014-01-01

    Meteorological Satellite Systems” is a primer on weather satellites and their Earth applications. This book reviews historic developments and recent technological advancements in GEO and polar orbiting meteorological satellites. It explores the evolution of these remote sensing technologies and their capabilities to monitor short- and long-term changes in weather patterns in response to climate change. Satellites developed by various countries, such as U.S. meteorological satellites, EUMETSAT, and Russian, Chinese, Japanese and Indian satellite platforms are reviewed. This book also discusses international efforts to coordinate meteorological remote sensing data collection and sharing. This title provides a ready and quick reference for information about meteorological satellites. It serves as a useful tool for a broad audience that includes students, academics, private consultants, engineers, scientists, and teachers.

  17. A quantitative determination of air-water heat fluxes in Hermit Lake, New Hampshire under varying meteorological conditions, time of day, and time of year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyper, Nicholas D.

    An extensive heat flux study is performed at Hermit Lake, New Hampshire from May 26, 2010 till November 7, 2010 to determine the effects of the five individual heat fluxes on Hermit Lake and the surrounding amphibian community. Hermit Lake was chosen due to the relatively long meteorological observations record within the White Mountains of New Hampshire, a new lakeside meteorological station, and ongoing phenology studies of the surrounding eco-system. Utilizing meteorological data from the lakeside weather station and moored water temperature sensors, the incident (Qi), blackbody ( Qbnet ), latent (Qe), sensible (Q s), and net (Qn) heat fluxes are calculated. The incident heat flux is the dominate term in the net flux, accounting for 93% of the variance found in Qn and producing a heat gain of ˜ 19x108 J m-2 throughout the period of study. This large gain produces a net gain of heat in the lake until October 1, 2010, where gains by Qi are offset by the large combined losses of Qbnet , Qs, and Qe thereby producing a gradual decline of heat within the lake. The latent and blackbody heat fluxes produce the largest losses of heat in the net heat flux with a total losses of ˜ -8x108 J m-2 and ˜ -7x108 J m-2, respectively. The sensible heat flux is negligible, producing a total minimal loss of ˜ -1x108 J m-2. Overall the net heat produces a net gain of heat of 2x108 J m-2 throughout the study period. Frog calls indicative of breeding are recorded from May 26, 2010 until August 16, 2010. The spring peeper, American toad, and green frog each produced enough actively calling days to be compared to air temperature, surface water temperature, and wind speed data, as well as data from the five heat fluxes. Linear regression analysis reveals that certain water temperature thresholds affect the calling activities of the spring peeper and green frog, while higher wind speeds have a dramatic effect on the calling activities of both the green frog and American toad. All three

  18. Evaporation in hydrology and meteorology

    OpenAIRE

    Brandsma, T.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the role of evaporation in hydrology and meteorology is discussed, with the emphasis on hydrology. The basic theory of evaporation is given and methods to determine evaporation are presented. Some applications of evaporation studies in literature are given in order to illustrate the theory. Further, special conditions in evaporation are considered, followed by a fotmulation of the difficulties in determining evaporation, The last part of the paper gives a short discussion about ...

  19. Assessment of Wind Turbine for Site-Specific Conditions using Probabilistic Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heras, Enrique Gómez de las; Gutiérrez, Roberto; Azagra, Elena

    2013-01-01

    turbines, helping to the decision making during the site assessment phase of wind farm designs. First, the design equation for the failure mode of interest is defined, where the loads associated to the site-specific wind conditions are compared with the design limits of the structural component. A limit...... be very dependent on the site. The uncertainties on the wind properties depend on issues like the available wind data, the quality of the measurement sensors, the type of terrain or the accuracy of the engineering models for horizontal and vertical spatial extrapolation. An example is included showing two...

  20. Estimation of Wave Conditions at Svåheia SSG Pilot Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Margheritini, Lucia; Stratigaki, V.

    The purpose of the project described in the present report is to estimate the local wave conditions at the proposed location for a SSG pilot at the Svåheia site in the south western part of Norway. Focus is put on estimating the everyday conditions to enable an evaluation of the power production...... potential for the SSG pilot at the proposed location. The work in the project has been performed in three parts: 1. Establishing the offshore wave conditions and bathymetry of the area. 2. Transformation of offshore waves to near shore, through numerical wave modeling. 3. Evaluation of the transformed...... (local) wave conditions and its implications....

  1. US Marine Meteorological Journals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This series consists of volumes entitled 'Meteorological Journal' (a regulation Navy-issue publication) which were to be completed by masters of merchant vessels...

  2. Meteorology and atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The science of meteorology is useful in providing information that will be of assistance in the choice of favorable plant locations and in the evaluation of significant relations between meteorology and the design, construction, and operation of plant and facilities, especially those from which radioactive or toxic products could be released to the atmosphere. Under a continuing contract with the Atomic Energy Commission, the Weather Bureau has carried out this study. Some of the meteorological techniques that are available are summarized, and their applications to the possible atmospheric pollution deriving from the use of atomic energy are described. Methods and suggestions for the collection, analysis, and use of meteorological data are presented. Separate abstracts are included of 12 chapters in this publication for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  3. Wave Meteorology and Soaring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews some mountain wave turbulence and operational hazards while soaring. Maps, photographs, and satellite images of the meteorological phenomena are included. Additionally, photographs of aircraft that sustained mountain wave damage are provided.

  4. Influence of local meteorology and NO2 conditions on ground-level ozone concentrations in the eastern part of Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorai, A K; Tuluri, F; Tchounwou, P B; Ambinakudige, S

    2015-02-01

    The influence of local climatic factors on ground-level ozone concentrations is an area of increasing interest to air quality management in regards to future climate change. This study presents an analysis on the role of temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and NO 2 level on ground-level ozone concentrations over the region of Eastern Texas, USA. Ozone concentrations at the ground level depend on the formation and dispersion processes. Formation process mainly depends on the precursor sources, whereas, the dispersion of ozone depends on meteorological factors. Study results showed that the spatial mean of ground-level ozone concentrations was highly dependent on the spatial mean of NO 2 concentrations. However, spatial distributions of NO 2 and ozone concentrations were not uniformed throughout the study period due to uneven wind speeds and wind directions. Wind speed and wind direction also played a significant role in the dispersion of ozone. Temperature profile in the area rarely had any effects on the ozone concentrations due to low spatial variations.

  5. Temporal and seasonal variations of black carbon in a highly polluted European city: Apportionment of potential sources and the effect of meteorological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucbel, Marek; Corsaro, Agnieszka; Švédová, Barbora; Raclavská, Helena; Raclavský, Konstantin; Juchelková, Dagmar

    2017-12-01

    Black carbon - a primary component of particulate matter emitted from an incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, biomass, and biofuels - has been found to have a detrimental effect on human health and the environment. Since black carbon emissions data are not readily available, no measures are implemented to reduce black carbon emissions. The temporal and seasonal variations of black carbon concentrations were evaluated during 2012-2014. The data were collected in the highly polluted European city - Ostrava, Czech Republic, surrounded by major highways and large industries. Significantly higher black carbon concentrations were obtained in Ostrava, relative to other European cities and the magnitude was equivalent to the magnitude of black carbon concentrations measured in Poland and China. The data were categorized to heating and non-heating seasons based on the periodic pattern of daily and monthly average concentrations of black carbon. A higher black carbon concentration was obtained during heating season than non-heating season and was primarily associated with an increase in residential coal burning and meteorological parameters. The concentration of black carbon was found to be negatively correlated with temperature and wind speed, and positively correlated with the relative humidity. Other black carbon sources potentially included emissions from vehicle exhaust and the local steel-producing industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comments on ''Use of conditional simulation in nuclear waste site performance assessment'' by Carol Gotway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downing, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses Carol Gotway's paper, ''The Use of Conditional Simulation in Nuclear Waste Site Performance Assessment.'' The paper centers on the use of conditional simulation and the use of geostatistical methods to simulate an entire field of values for subsequent use in a complex computer model. The issues of sampling designs for geostatistics, semivariogram estimation and anisotropy, turning bands method for random field generation, and estimation of the comulative distribution function are brought out

  7. Reconstructing the prevailing meteorological and optical environment during the time of the Titanic disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sukanta; Nunalee, Christopher G.; He, Ping; Fiorino, Steven T.; Vorontsov, Mikhail A.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we reconstruct the meteorological and optical environment during the time of Titanic's disaster utilizing a state-of-the-art meteorological model, a ray-tracing code, and a unique public-domain dataset called the Twentieth Century Global Reanalysis. With high fidelity, our simulation captured the occurrence of an unusually high Arctic pressure system over the disaster site with calm wind. It also reproduced the movement of a polar cold front through the region bringing a rapid drop in air temperature. The simulated results also suggest that unusual meteorological conditions persisted several hours prior to the Titanic disaster which contributed to super-refraction and intermittent optical turbulence. However, according to the simulations, such anomalous conditions were not present at the time of the collision of Titanic with an iceberg.

  8. Increased concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Alpine streams during annual snowmelt: investigating effects of sampling method, site characteristics, and meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahpoury, Pourya; Hageman, Kimberly J; Matthaei, Christoph D; Alumbaugh, Robert E; Cook, Michelle E

    2014-10-07

    Silicone passive samplers and macroinvertebrates were used to measure time-integrated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in alpine streams during annual snowmelt. The three sampling sites were located near a main highway in Arthur's Pass National Park in the Southern Alps of New Zealand. A similar set of PAH congeners, composed of 2-4 rings, were found in silicone passive samplers and macroinvertebrates. The background PAH concentrations were similar at all sites, implying that proximity to the highway did not affect concentrations. In passive samplers, an increase of PAH concentrations by up to seven times was observed during snowmelt. In macroinvertebrates, the concentration changes were moderate; however, macroinvertebrate sampling did not occur during the main pulse observed in the passive samplers. The extent of vegetation in the catchment appeared to affect the concentration patterns seen at the different stream sites. A strong correlation was found between PAH concentrations in passive samplers and the amount of rainfall in the study area, indicating that the washout of contaminants from snowpack by rainfall was an important process.

  9. A Preliminary Assessment of Daily Weather Conditions in Nuclear Site for Development of Effective Emergency Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Seok Jung; Ahn, Kwang Il

    2012-01-01

    A radiological emergency preparedness for nuclear sites is recognized as an important measure against anticipated severe accidents with environmental releases of radioactive materials. While there are many individual means in the emergency preparedness for nuclear accidents, one of most important means is to make a decision of evacuation or shelter of the public residents with the emergency plan zone (EPZ) of a nuclear site. In order to prepare an effective strategy for the evacuation as a basis of the emergency preparedness, it may need the understanding of atmospheric dispersion characteristics of radiation releases to the environment, mainly depending upon the weather conditions of a radiation releases location, i.e., a nuclear site. As a preliminary study for the development of an effective emergency plan, the basic features of the weather conditions of a specific site were investigated. A main interest of this study is to identify whether or not the site weather conditions have specific features helpful for a decision making of evacuation of the public residents

  10. REMINDER - Compliance with Operational Circular No. 2 on conditions of access to the fenced CERN sites

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of Operational Circular No. 2 is to contribute to the protection of people and property by defining the conditions of access to the Organization's fenced sites. However, recently, the services concerned have noted a significant increase in the instances of non-compliance with those conditions that cannot be tolerated, for example: use of CERN access cards by people, other than the cardholders themselves, in order to gain access to facilities without having attended the required safety course; speeding, particularly on Route Gregory and Route Weisskopf; driving in and out of the site on the wrong side of the road; parking on spaces set aside for the disabled; nuisance parking, especially in the proximity of the Restaurants; the dumping of wrecked vehicles. As the aforementioned instances of non-compliance can lead to dangerous situations, the Organization reserves the right to apply the penalties provided for under paragraph 26 of Operational Circular No. 2, namely to refuse access to the site ...

  11. Compliance with Operational Circular No. 2 on conditions of access to the fenced CERN sites

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of Operational Circular No. 2 is to contribute to the protection of people and property by defining the conditions of access to the Organization's fenced sites. However, recently, the services concerned have noted a significant increase in the instances of non-compliance with those conditions that cannot be tolerated, for example: use of CERN access cards by people, other than the cardholders themselves, in order to gain access to facilities without having attended the required safety course; speeding, particularly on Route Gregory and Route Weisskopf; driving in and out of the site on the wrong side of the road; parking on spaces set aside for the disabled; nuisance parking, especially in the proximity of the Restaurants; the dumping of wrecked vehicles. As the aforementioned instances of non-compliance can lead to dangerous situations, the Organization reserves the right to apply the penalties provided for under paragraph 26 of Operational Circular No. 2, namely to refuse access to the site...

  12. Assessment of ichthyo-fauna condition within zone of Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamilov, N.Sh.; Mitrofanov, I.V.; Matmuratov, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents studies of biological factors and calculating morphological features for fish from the Uzunbulak and Shagan Rivers situated in the Semipalatinsk test site area. The conditions of fish habitat are characterized as favorable; however alteration of phenotypic features shows radiation water contamination. (author)

  13. Geotechnical conditions of Bulgaria and site selection for radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliev, I.; Tacheva, E.

    1993-01-01

    A comparative study of the complex structure of the Bulgarian lands and the engineering geological criteria for site selection of national repositories for high level radwastes is made. A detailed description of the following geotechnical conditions of Bulgaria's territory is given: genetic, lithological and engineering-geological types of rocks; physico-mechanical parameters of the most widespread rocky and semi-rocky engineering geological types; fissuring of the rocks; rock massifs; geodynamic processes. The number of promising variants for repositories have been classified according to the structure of the rock massif and the engineering-geological properties of the layers which are promising for the purpose. The following sites are investigated: 1) sites in one-type homogeneous rock massifs of high strength and elasticity; 2) sites of various type massifs with a promising layer of rocks with medium strength and elasticity; 3) sites in various type massifs with a promising layer of plastic rocks of low strength. It is concluded that the complexity of the geotechnical and other conditions in the territory of Bulgaria would predetermine the deficiency of the list of the properties required for the selected sites. The building up of engineering defence will be needed to offset that deficiency and their problems will be resolved after the specific site have been chosen. Geotechnical elements should be likewise envisaged within the general pattern of the monitoring needed. The designing, installing and putting into operation of the monitoring systems should be accomplished as early as the stage of the detailed investigation of the site selected. 19 refs., 2 suppls. (author)

  14. Meteorology Products - Naval Oceanography Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    section Advanced Search... Sections Home Time Earth Orientation Astronomy Meteorology Oceanography Ice You are here: Home › FNMOC › Meteorology Products FNMOC Logo FNMOC Navigation Meteorology Products Oceanography Products Tropical Applications Climatology and Archived Data Info Meteorology Products Global

  15. Overview of geologic and geohydrologic conditions at the Finnsjoen site and its surroundings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlbom, K.; Tiren, S.

    1991-01-01

    The geologic and tectonic conditions of the Finnsjoen site and its surroundings have been studied on several scales ranging from regional to site scale. The Finnsjoen study is situated within a 50 square km shear lens. This lens is a part of a regional, c.20-30 km wide, WNW trending shear belt that was developed 1600-1800 million years ago. The final repository for reactor waste at Forsmark is also situated within this shear belt. The Finnsjoen Rock Block, bounded by regional and semi-regional fracture zones, constitute the main part of the Finnsjoen site. The size of the block is about 6 square km. A northeasterly trending fracture zone, Zone 1, divides this block into two lower order blocks, the northern and the southern block. In general, interpreted fracture zones, as well as the rock mass in general, are far better known in the northern Finnsjoen block compared to the southern block. This is due to extensive and detailed investigations of a gently dipping fracture zone, Zone 2, in the northern block. A tectonic model including 14 fracture zones is suggested for the Finnsjoen site and its surroundings. These zones have mainly been interpreted from lineament maps and to some extent from borehole measurements. The lack of borehole data implies that many of interpreted fracture zones, especially in the southern block outside the Finnsjoen site, should be regarded as tentative. The good general knowledge of the geologic and geohydrologic conditions in the northern Finnsjoen block, and possible stagnant groundwater conditions below Zone 2, makes the northern block the most suitable location for the generic repository at the Finnsjoen site. (authors)

  16. Comparing CO2 Storage and Advection Conditions at Night at Different Carboeuroflux Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubinet, M.; Berbigier, P.; Bernhofer, Ch.; et al.

    Anemometer and CO2 concentration data from temporary campaigns performed at six CARBOEUROFLUX forest sites were used to estimate the importance of non-turbulent fluxes in nighttime conditions. While storage was observed to be significant only during periods of both low turbulence and low advection, the advective fluxes strongly influence the nocturnal CO2 balance, with the exception of almost flat and highly homogeneous sites. On the basis of the main factors determining the onset of advective fluxes, the ‘advection velocity’, which takes net radiation and local topography into account, was introduced as a criterion to characterise the conditions of storage enrichment/depletion. Comparative analyses of the six sites showed several common features of the advective fluxes but also some substantial differences. In particular, all sites where advection occurs show the onset of a boundary layer characterised by a downslope flow, negative vertical velocities and negative vertical CO2 concentration gradients during nighttime. As a consequence, vertical advection was observed to be positive at all sites, which corresponds to a removal of CO2 from the ecosystem. The main differences between sites are the distance from the ridge, which influences the boundary-layer depth, and the sign of the mean horizontal CO2 concentration gradients, which is probably determined by the source/sink distribution. As a consequence, both positive and negative horizontal advective fluxes (corresponding respectively to CO2 removal from the ecosystem and to CO2 supply to the ecosystem) were observed. Conclusive results on the importance of non-turbulent components in the mass balance require, however, further experimental investigations at sites with different topographies, slopes, different land covers, which would allow a more comprehensive analysis of the processes underlying the occurrence of advective fluxes. The quantification of these processes would help to better quantify nocturnal

  17. Meteorological Drivers of Extreme Air Pollution Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, D. E.; Schnell, J.; Callahan, C. W.; Suo, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The accumulation of pollutants in the near-surface atmosphere has been shown to have deleterious consequences for public health, agricultural productivity, and economic vitality. Natural and anthropogenic emissions of ozone and particulate matter can accumulate to hazardous concentrations when atmospheric conditions are favorable, and can reach extreme levels when such conditions persist. Favorable atmospheric conditions for pollutant accumulation include optimal temperatures for photochemical reaction rates, circulation patterns conducive to pollutant advection, and a lack of ventilation, dispersion, and scavenging in the local environment. Given our changing climate system and the dual ingredients of poor air quality - pollutants and the atmospheric conditions favorable to their accumulation - it is important to characterize recent changes in favorable meteorological conditions, and quantify their potential contribution to recent extreme air pollution events. To facilitate our characterization, this study employs the recently updated Schnell et al (2015) 1°×1° gridded observed surface ozone and particulate matter datasets for the period of 1998 to 2015, in conjunction with reanalysis and climate model simulation data. We identify extreme air pollution episodes in the observational record and assess the meteorological factors of primary support at local and synoptic scales. We then assess (i) the contribution of observed meteorological trends (if extant) to the magnitude of the event, (ii) the return interval of the meteorological event in the observational record, simulated historical climate, and simulated pre-industrial climate, as well as (iii) the probability of the observed meteorological trend in historical and pre-industrial climates.

  18. Ongoing change of site conditions important for sustainable forest management planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidló, András; Horváth, Adrienn; Gulyás, Krisztina; Gálos, Borbála

    2016-04-01

    Observed tree mortality of the last decades has shown that the vulnerable forest ecosystems are especially affected by the recurrent, long lasting droughts, heat waves and their consequences. From all site conditions climate is changing the fastest, in this way it can be the largest threatening factor in the 21st century. Beyond climate, soil characteristics are playing an important influencing role. Until now, silvicultural technologies and species preferences of many countries are prescribed by binding regulation based on climate conditions that are assumed to be constant over time. Therefore the aim of our research was to investigate the ongoing and projected change of site conditions that are considered to be of primary importance in terms of tree species selection. For a case study region in Hungary (Keszthely Mountains, near to Lake Balaton) long-term climate tendencies have been determined for the period 1961-2100, as well as a detailed soil sample analysis has been carried out including ~100 sites. Results show a 0.5 degree increase of temperature and a 6-7 % decrease of the precipitation amount for the summer months in the last decades. For the future, significant warming and drying of summers is expected. Decrease of the summer precipitation sum can exceed 25 % until the end of the century, probability of extreme hot days may increase. These tendencies together with the unfavourable soil conditions and biotic damages can be the reason of the ongoing forest dieback. One of the characteristic soil type of the region is rendzina with a thin topsoil layer and an unfavourable water holding capacity. These properties are limiting the amount of available water for plants, especially in case of intense precipitation events. Black pine stands planted on rendzinas after many years of grazing; therefore erosion may have played a significant role. Not only microclimate conditions but also soil types show a large diversity within a relatively small distance. However

  19. Jesuits' Contribution to Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udías, Agustín

    1996-10-01

    Starting in the middle of the nineteenth century, as part of their scientific tradition, Jesuits founded a considerable number of meteorological observatories throughout the world. In many countries, Jesuits established and maintained the first meteorological stations during the period from 1860 to 1950. The Jesuits' most important contribution to atmospheric science was their pioneer work related to the study and forecast of tropical hurricanes. That research was carried out at observatories of Belén (Cuba), Manila (Philippines), and Zikawei (China). B. Viñes, M. Decheyrens, J. Aigué, and C.E. Deppermann stood out in this movement.

  20. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2010 (October - December 2009). A detailed project schedule is included in the Appendix. Included tasks are: (1) Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), (2) Objective Lightning Probability Tool, Phase III, (3) Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting, Phase II, (4) Upgrade Summer Severe Weather Tool in Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS), (5) Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS) Update and Maintainability, (5) Verify 12-km resolution North American Model (MesoNAM) Performance, and (5) Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) Graphical User Interface.

  1. BOREAS TF-02 SSA-OA Tethersonde Meteorological and Ozone Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The BOREAS TF-02 team collected various trace gas and energy flux data along with meteorological parameters at the SSA-OA site. This data set contains meteorological...

  2. Study of seismic design bases and site conditions for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation of four topics pertinent to the seismic design of nuclear power plants: Design accelerations by regions of the continental United States; review and compilation of design-basis seismic levels and soil conditions for existing nuclear power plants; regional distribution of shear wave velocity of foundation materials at nuclear power plant sites; and technical review of surface-founded seismic analysis versus embedded approaches

  3. Study of seismic design bases and site conditions for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation of four topics pertinent to the seismic design of nuclear power plants: Design accelerations by regions of the continental United States; review and compilation of design-basis seismic levels and soil conditions for existing nuclear power plants; regional distribution of shear wave velocity of foundation materials at nuclear power plant sites; and technical review of surface-founded seismic analysis versus embedded approaches.

  4. Soil microbial diversity, site conditions, shelter forest land, saline water drip-irrigation, drift desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhengzhong; Lei, Jiaqiang; Li, Shengyu; Xu, Xinwen

    2013-10-01

    Soil microbes in forest land are crucial to soil development in extreme areas. In this study, methods of conventional culture, PLFA and PCR-DGGE were utilized to analyze soil microbial quantity, fatty acids and microbial DNA segments of soils subjected to different site conditions in the Tarim Desert Highway forest land. The main results were as follows: the soil microbial amount, diversity indexes of fatty acid and DNA segment differed significantly among sites with different conditions (F 84%), followed by actinomycetes and then fungi (<0.05%). Vertical differences in the soil microbial diversity were insignificant at 0-35 cm. Correlation analysis indicated that the forest trees grew better as the soil microbial diversity index increased. Therefore, construction of the Tarim Desert Highway shelter-forest promoted soil biological development; however, for enhancing sand control efficiency and promoting sand development, we should consider the effects of site condition in the construction and regeneration of shelter-forest ecological projects. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Instrumentation for comparing night sky quality and atmospheric conditions of CTA site candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruck, C.; Schweizer, T.; Häfner, D.; Lorentz, E.; Teshima, M.; Gaug, M.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Costantini, H.; Mandát, D.; Pech, M.; Bulik, T.; Cieslar, M.; Dominik, M.; Ebr, J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Pareschi, G.; Puerto-Giménez, I.

    2015-01-01

    Many atmospheric and climatic criteria have to be taken into account for the selection of a suitable site for the next generation of imaging air-shower Cherenkov telescopes, the ''Cherenkov Telescope Array'' CTA. Such data are not available with sufficient precision, thus a comparison of the proposed sites and final decision based on a comprehensive characterization is impossible. Identical cross-calibrated instruments have been developed which allow for precise comparison between sites, the cross-validation of existing data, and the ground-validation of satellite data. The site characterization work package of the CTA consortium opted to construct and deploy 9 copies of an autonomous multi-purpose weather sensor, incorporating an infrared cloud sensor, a newly developed sensor for measuring the light of the night sky, and an All-Sky-Camera, the whole referred to as Autonomous Tool for Measuring Observatory Site COnditions PrEcisely (ATMOSCOPE). We present here the hardware that was combined into the ATMOSCOPE and characterize its performance

  6. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a) Qualifying...

  7. Strontium and caesium transport in unsaturated soil from Chernobyl Pilot Site under steady flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szenknect, St.

    2003-10-01

    This work is devoted to the quantification and the identification of the predominant processes involved in strontium and caesium transport in unsaturated soil from Chernobyl Pilot Site under steady flow conditions. The transport and fate of radionuclides in the subsurface is affected by various physical and chemical processes including advective and diffusive transport as well as chemical and biological transformations. Laboratory experiments and the use of a multiple tracer approach allow to isolate the contributions of each elementary process and to control the physico-chemical conditions in the system. To be more representative of the field conditions, we decided to perform column miscible displacement experiments. We perform batch and flow-through reactor experiments to characterize the radionuclides sorption mechanisms. Miscible displacement experiments within homogeneous columns and modeling allow to characterize the hydrodynamic properties of the soil and to describe the radionuclides behaviour under dynamic conditions at different water contents. We show that the water content of porous media affect the transport behaviour of inert and strongly sorbing radionuclides. Our results demonstrate that a parametrized transport model that was calibrated under completely saturated conditions was not able to describe the advective-dispersive transport of reactive solutes under unsaturated steady state conditions. Under our experimental conditions, there is no effect of a decrease of the mean water content on the sorption model parameters, but the transport parameters are modified. We established for the studied soil the relation between hydrodynamic dispersion and water content and the relation between pore water velocity and water content. (author)

  8. Computer Exercises in Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapasso, L. Michael; Conner, Glen; Stallins, Keith

    Beginning with Western Kentucky University's (Bowling Green) fall 1999 semester, exercises required for the geography and meteorology course used computers for learning. This course enrolls about 250 students per year, most of whom choose it to fulfill a general education requirement. Of the 185 geography majors, it is required for those who…

  9. Monitoring Forsmark. Meteorological monitoring at Forsmark, January-December 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Cari; Jones, Joergen (Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), Norrkoeping (Sweden))

    2011-01-15

    In the Forsmark area, SKB's meteorological monitoring started in 2003 at the sites Storskaeret and Hoegmasten. However, since July 1, 2007 measurements are only performed at Hoegmasten. Measured and calculated parameters at Hoegmasten are precipitation and corrected precipitation, air temperature, barometric pressure, wind speed and direction, air humidity, global radiation and potential evapotranspiration. The Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, SMHI, has been responsible for planning and design, as well as for the operation of the stations used for meteorological monitoring. In general, the quality of the meteorological measurements during the period concerned, starting January 1, 2010, and ending December 31, 2010, has shown to be good

  10. Weeks Island brine diffuser site study: baseline conditions and environmental assessment technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-12

    This technical report presents the results of a study conducted at two alternative brine diffuser sites (A and B) proposed for the Weeks Island salt dome, together with an analysis of the potential physical, chemical, and biological effects of brine disposal for this area of the Gulf of Mexico. Brine would result from either the leaching of salt domes to form or enlarge oil storage caverns, or the subsequent use of these caverns for crude oil storage in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program. Brine leached from the Weeks Island salt dome would be transported through a pipeline which would extend from the salt dome either 27 nautical miles (32 statute miles) for Site A, or 41 nautical miles (47 statute miles) for Site B, into Gulf waters. The brine would be discharged at these sites through an offshore diffuser at a sustained peak rate of 39 ft/sup 3//sec. The disposal of large quantities of brine in the Gulf could have a significant impact on the biology and water quality of the area. Physical and chemical measurements of the marine environment at Sites A and B were taken between September 1977 and July 1978 to correlate the existing environmental conditions with the estimated physical extent of tthe brine discharge as predicted by the MIT model (US Dept. of Commerce, 1977a). Measurements of wind, tide, waves, currents, and stratification (water column structure) were also obtained since the diffusion and dispersion of the brine plume are a function of the local circulation regime. These data were used to calculate both near- and far-field concentrations of brine, and may also be used in the design criteria for diffuser port configuration and verification of the plume model. Biological samples were taken to characterize the sites and to predict potential areas of impact with regard to the discharge. This sampling focused on benthic organisms and demersal fish. (DMC)

  11. Application of biomarkers to assess the condition of European Marine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagger, Josephine A., E-mail: j.hagger@exeter.ac.u [School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter, Devon EX4 4PS (United Kingdom); Galloway, Tamara S. [School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter, Devon EX4 4PS (United Kingdom); Langston, William J. [Marine Biological Association, Citadel Hill, Plymouth PL1 2PB, Devon (United Kingdom); Jones, Malcolm B. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA, Devon (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    A series of European Marine Sites has been designated as Special Areas of Conservation (SAC) in England. The aim of this study was to develop a practical methodology to assess the condition of SACs by applying a suite of biomarkers. Biomarkers were applied to the blue mussel Mytilus edulis and the shore crab Carcinus maenas from the Fal and Helford SAC (Cornwall). Individual biomarkers provided useful diagnostic information on the activity of certain classes of contaminants and an integrated Biomarker Response Index (BRI) was used to achieve a more holistic understanding of the condition of the SAC. The BRI indicated that the general health of both organisms was impacted in the upper part of the SAC (Fal Estuary) which correlated well with known chemical hotspots and sources of contamination. The BRI allows a pragmatic way to prioritise SAC sites that may require further investigative studies. - A suite of biomarkers was successfully used to create a Biomarker Response Index to assess the health of aquatic organisms from European Marine Sites.

  12. Absolute gravity measurements at three sites characterized by different environmental conditions using two portable ballistic gravimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Filippo; Biolcati, Emanuele; Pistorio, Antonio; D'Agostino, Giancarlo; Germak, Alessandro; Origlia, Claudio; Del Negro, Ciro

    2015-03-01

    The performances of two absolute gravimeters at three different sites in Italy between 2009 and 2011 is presented. The measurements of the gravity acceleration g were performed using the absolute gravimeters Micro-g LaCoste FG5#238 and the INRiM prototype IMGC-02, which represent the state of the art in ballistic gravimeter technology (relative uncertainty of a few parts in 109). For the comparison, the measured g values were reported at the same height by means of the vertical gravity gradient estimated at each site with relative gravimeters. The consistency and reliability of the gravity observations, as well as the performance and efficiency of the instruments, were assessed by measurements made in sites characterized by different logistics and environmental conditions. Furthermore, the various factors affecting the measurements and their uncertainty were thoroughly investigated. The measurements showed good agreement, with the minimum and maximum differences being 4.0 and 8.3 μGal. The normalized errors are very much lower than 1, ranging between 0.06 and 0.45, confirming the compatibility between the results. This excellent agreement can be attributed to several factors, including the good working order of gravimeters and the correct setup and use of the instruments in different conditions. These results can contribute to the standardization of absolute gravity surveys largely for applications in geophysics, volcanology and other branches of geosciences, allowing achieving a good trade-off between uncertainty and efficiency of gravity measurements.

  13. Application of biomarkers to assess the condition of European Marine Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagger, Josephine A.; Galloway, Tamara S.; Langston, William J.; Jones, Malcolm B.

    2009-01-01

    A series of European Marine Sites has been designated as Special Areas of Conservation (SAC) in England. The aim of this study was to develop a practical methodology to assess the condition of SACs by applying a suite of biomarkers. Biomarkers were applied to the blue mussel Mytilus edulis and the shore crab Carcinus maenas from the Fal and Helford SAC (Cornwall). Individual biomarkers provided useful diagnostic information on the activity of certain classes of contaminants and an integrated Biomarker Response Index (BRI) was used to achieve a more holistic understanding of the condition of the SAC. The BRI indicated that the general health of both organisms was impacted in the upper part of the SAC (Fal Estuary) which correlated well with known chemical hotspots and sources of contamination. The BRI allows a pragmatic way to prioritise SAC sites that may require further investigative studies. - A suite of biomarkers was successfully used to create a Biomarker Response Index to assess the health of aquatic organisms from European Marine Sites.

  14. Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy data - over 200 satellite-derived meteorology and solar energy parameters, monthly averaged from 22 years of data, global solar...

  15. Site-conditions map for Portugal based on VS measurements: methodology and final model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilanova, Susana; Narciso, João; Carvalho, João; Lopes, Isabel; Quinta Ferreira, Mario; Moura, Rui; Borges, José; Nemser, Eliza; Pinto, carlos

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we present a statistically significant site-condition model for Portugal based on shear-wave velocity (VS) data and surface geology. We also evaluate the performance of commonly used Vs30 proxies based on exogenous data and analyze the implications of using those proxies for calculating site amplification in seismic hazard assessment. The dataset contains 161 Vs profiles acquired in Portugal in the context of research projects, technical reports, academic thesis and academic papers. The methodologies involved in characterizing the Vs structure at the sites in the database include seismic refraction, multichannel analysis of seismic waves and refraction microtremor. Invasive measurements were performed in selected locations in order to compare the Vs profiles obtained from both invasive and non-invasive techniques. In general there was good agreement in the subsurface structure of Vs30 obtained from the different methodologies. The database flat-file includes information on Vs30, surface geology at 1:50.000 and 1:500.000 scales, elevation and topographic slope and based on SRTM30 topographic dataset. The procedure used to develop the site-conditions map is based on a three-step process that includes defining a preliminary set of geological units based on the literature, performing statistical tests to assess whether or not the differences in the distributions of Vs30 are statistically significant, and merging of the geological units accordingly. The dataset was, to some extent, affected by clustering and/or preferential sampling and therefore a declustering algorithm was applied. The final model includes three geological units: 1) Igneous, metamorphic and old (Paleogene and Mesozoic) sedimentary rocks; 2) Neogene and Pleistocene formations, and 3) Holocene formations. The evaluation of proxies indicates that although geological analogues and topographic slope are in general unbiased, the latter shows significant bias for particular geological units and

  16. Meteorological characteristics of nuclear installations sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doumenc, A.

    1988-01-01

    The atmosphere is the most propitious medium to a rapid transport and diffusion of a pollutant. So, it is important to know its local characteristics which is decisive for every evaluation of radioactive release consequences using transfer models. It is also the siege of intense sudden hazardous phenomena, as tornados and typhoons, that should be taken into account in the installation conception. 1 tab., 6 refs. (F.M.)

  17. Meteorological instrumentation for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.C.L. da.

    1983-01-01

    The main requirements of regulatory agencies, concerning the meteorological instrumentation needed for the licensing of nuclear facilities are discussed. A description is made of the operational principles of sensors for the various meteorological parameters and associated electronic systems. An analysis of the problems associated with grounding of a typical meteorological station is presented. (Author) [pt

  18. Meteorological instrumentation for nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.C.L. da.

    1983-01-01

    The main requirements of regulatory agencies, concerning the meteorological instrumentation needed for the licensing of nuclear facilities are discussed. A description is made of the operational principles of sensors for the various meteorological parameters and associated electronic systems. Finally, it is presented an analysis of the problems associated with grounding of a typical meteorological station. (Author) [pt

  19. Pantex Plant meteorological monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, S.F.

    1993-07-01

    The current meteorological monitoring program of the US Department of Energy's Pantex Plant, Amarillo, Texas, is described in detail. Instrumentation, meteorological data collection and management, and program management are reviewed. In addition, primary contacts are noted for instrumentation, calibration, data processing, and alternative databases. The quality assurance steps implemented during each portion of the meteorological monitoring program are also indicated

  20. Multiscale analyses on a massive immigration process of Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) in south-central China: influences of synoptic-scale meteorological conditions and topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiu-Lin; Westbrook, John K; Hu, Gao; Lu, Ming-Hong; Liu, Wan-Cai; Sword, Gregory A; Zhai, Bao-Ping

    2018-04-30

    Mass landings of migrating white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth), can lead to severe outbreaks that cause heavy losses for rice production in East Asia. South-central China is the main infestation area on the annual migration loop of S. furcifera between the northern Indo-China Peninsula and mainland China; however, rice planthopper species are not able to survive in this region over winter. In this study, a trajectory analysis of movements from population source areas and a spatiotemporal dynamic analysis of mesoscale and synoptic weather conditions from 7 to 10 May 2012 were conducted using the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to identify source areas of immigrants and determine how weather and topographic terrain influence insect landing. A sensitivity experiment was conducted with reduced topography using the WRF model to explain the associations among rainfall, topography, and light-trap catches of S. furcifera. The trajectory modeling results suggest that the source areas of S. furcifera immigrants into south-central China from 8 to 10 May were mainly southern Guangxi, northern Vietnam, and north-central Vietnam. The appearance of enormous catches of immigrant S. furcifera coincided with a period of rainstorms. The formation of transporting southerly winds was strongly associated with the topographic terrain. Additionally, the rainfall distribution and intensity over south-central China significantly decreased when topography was reduced in the model and were directly affected by wind circulation, which was associated with mountainous terrain that caused strong convection. This study indicates that migrating populations of S. furcifera were carried by the southwesterly low-level jets and that topographically induced convergent winds, precipitation, low temperatures, and wind shear acted as key factors that led to massive landings.

  1. Meteorological and dust aerosol conditions over the western Saharan region observed at Fennec Supersite-2 during the intensive observation period in June 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, M. C.; Allen, C. J. T.; Bart, M.; Bechir, M.; Bentefouet, J.; Brooks, B. J.; Cavazos-Guerra, C.; Clovis, T.; Deyane, S.; Dieh, M.; Engelstaedter, S.; Flamant, C.; Garcia-Carreras, L.; Gandega, A.; Gascoyne, M.; Hobby, M.; Kocha, C.; Lavaysse, C.; Marsham, J. H.; Martins, J. V.; McQuaid, J. B.; Ngamini, J. B.; Parker, D. J.; Podvin, T.; Rocha-Lima, A.; Traore, S.; Wang, Y.; Washington, R.

    2013-08-01

    The climate of the Sahara is relatively poorly observed and understood, leading to errors in forecast model simulations. We describe observations from the Fennec Supersite-2 (SS2) at Zouerate, Mauritania during the June 2011 Fennec Intensive Observation Period. These provide an improved basis for understanding and evaluating processes, models, and remote sensing. Conditions during June 2011 show a marked distinction between: (i) a "Maritime phase" during the early part of the month when the western sector of the Sahara experienced cool northwesterly maritime flow throughout the lower troposphere with shallow daytime boundary layers, very little dust uplift/transport or cloud cover. (ii) A subsequent "heat low" phase which coincided with a marked and rapid westward shift in the Saharan heat low towards its mid-summer climatological position and advection of a deep hot, dusty air layer from the central Sahara (the "Saharan residual layer"). This transition affected the entire western-central Sahara. Dust advected over SS2 was primarily from episodic low-level jet (LLJ)-generated emission in the northeasterly flow around surface troughs. Unlike Fennec SS1, SS2 does not often experience cold pools from moist convection and associated dust emissions. The diurnal evolution at SS2 is strongly influenced by the Atlantic inflow (AI), a northwesterly flow of shallow, cool and moist air propagating overnight from coastal West Africa to reach SS2 in the early hours. The AI cools and moistens the western Saharan and weakens the nocturnal LLJ, limiting its dust-raising potential. We quantify the ventilation and moistening of the western flank of the Sahara by (i) the large-scale flow and (ii) the regular nocturnal AI and LLJ mesoscale processes.

  2. Multiscale analyses on a massive immigration process of Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) in south-central China: influences of synoptic-scale meteorological conditions and topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiu-Lin; Westbrook, John K.; Hu, Gao; Lu, Ming-Hong; Liu, Wan-Cai; Sword, Gregory A.; Zhai, Bao-Ping

    2018-04-01

    Mass landings of migrating white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth), can lead to severe outbreaks that cause heavy losses for rice production in East Asia. South-central China is the main infestation area on the annual migration loop of S. furcifera between the northern Indo-China Peninsula and mainland China; however, rice planthopper species are not able to survive in this region over winter. In this study, a trajectory analysis of movements from population source areas and a spatiotemporal dynamic analysis of mesoscale and synoptic weather conditions from 7 to 10 May 2012 were conducted using the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to identify source areas of immigrants and determine how weather and topographic terrain influence insect landing. A sensitivity experiment was conducted with reduced topography using the WRF model to explain the associations among rainfall, topography, and light-trap catches of S. furcifera. The trajectory modeling results suggest that the source areas of S. furcifera immigrants into south-central China from 8 to 10 May were mainly southern Guangxi, northern Vietnam, and north-central Vietnam. The appearance of enormous catches of immigrant S. furcifera coincided with a period of rainstorms. The formation of transporting southerly winds was strongly associated with the topographic terrain. Additionally, the rainfall distribution and intensity over south-central China significantly decreased when topography was reduced in the model and were directly affected by wind circulation, which was associated with mountainous terrain that caused strong convection. This study indicates that migrating populations of S. furcifera were carried by the southwesterly low-level jets and that topographically induced convergent winds, precipitation, low temperatures, and wind shear acted as key factors that led to massive landings.

  3. Carbon and water dynamics of a bioenergy crop (Cynara cardunculus L. under different meteorological conditions in a semi-arid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Rana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the environmental adaptability of cultivated cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L. its water use efficiency [(WUE – ratio between net ecosystem exchange (NEE and evapotranspiration (ET] was analysed. The crop was cultivated in South Italy and WUE was evaluated at different time scales during two seasons: wet and dry. Even if the crop development is similar in the two seasons, plants delay their development in the presence of drought, showing, in this way, an improvement in their adaptability. Seasonal WUE in the dry season is greater than in the wet one by +11.2%, and this is also confirmed at monthly and daily scale. Hourly analysis around the full development phase shows that WUE is greater during the wet season than during the dry one, this being explainable when considering the impact of the drivers [(photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, vapour pressure deficit (VPD, and air temperature (Tair] on CO2 and H2O exchanges by stomatal regulation. The saturation values of NEE in function of PAR (threshold 2.5 MJ m–2h–1 and VPD (threshold 10 hPa are greater during the wet season than the dry one. Furthermore, also the linear relationships between ET and PAR and VPD showed higher slopes in the wet season than in the dry one. Drought causes reduction in both photosynthesis and evapotranspiration by stomatal regulation, however, the photosynthesis process is surely more sensitive to water stress than the crop transpiration, thus demonstrating the good adaptability of this crop to scarce water availability of semi-arid conditions.

  4. Categorization of flow conditions using Integral quantities for characterizing stagnation and recirculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, M.H.; Hwang, W.T.; Jeong, H.J.; Kim, E.H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a method for categorizing an atmospheric flow condition of a site by using integral quantities for characterizing stagnation and recirculation. Authors have devised a method for categorizing flow conditions using distribution curves which represent the flow condition of the whole of Korea. It was found that the flow conditions for four nuclear power plant sites were good enough from a meteorological aspect. Among the four sites, Kori nuclear power plant site which is located at the south-eastern part of the Korean peninsular shows the best condition. Meteorological condition is the key factor for estimating the environmental effects of a nuclear facility. The devised method can be used for assessing the relative environmental risk of a nuclear facility with only meteorological data. And the devised categorization method can be used for choosing a suitable site for an industrial facility such as a nuclear power plant and a chemical complex. (author)

  5. Random forest meteorological normalisation models for Swiss PM10 trend analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, Stuart K.; Carslaw, David C.; Lewis, Alastair C.; Boleti, Eirini; Hueglin, Christoph

    2018-05-01

    Meteorological normalisation is a technique which accounts for changes in meteorology over time in an air quality time series. Controlling for such changes helps support robust trend analysis because there is more certainty that the observed trends are due to changes in emissions or chemistry, not changes in meteorology. Predictive random forest models (RF; a decision tree machine learning technique) were grown for 31 air quality monitoring sites in Switzerland using surface meteorological, synoptic scale, boundary layer height, and time variables to explain daily PM10 concentrations. The RF models were used to calculate meteorologically normalised trends which were formally tested and evaluated using the Theil-Sen estimator. Between 1997 and 2016, significantly decreasing normalised PM10 trends ranged between -0.09 and -1.16 µg m-3 yr-1 with urban traffic sites experiencing the greatest mean decrease in PM10 concentrations at -0.77 µg m-3 yr-1. Similar magnitudes have been reported for normalised PM10 trends for earlier time periods in Switzerland which indicates PM10 concentrations are continuing to decrease at similar rates as in the past. The ability for RF models to be interpreted was leveraged using partial dependence plots to explain the observed trends and relevant physical and chemical processes influencing PM10 concentrations. Notably, two regimes were suggested by the models which cause elevated PM10 concentrations in Switzerland: one related to poor dispersion conditions and a second resulting from high rates of secondary PM generation in deep, photochemically active boundary layers. The RF meteorological normalisation process was found to be robust, user friendly and simple to implement, and readily interpretable which suggests the technique could be useful in many air quality exploratory data analysis situations.

  6. Characterization of site conditions for selected seismic stations in eastern part of Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecu, B.; Zaharia, B.; Diaconescu, M.; Bala, A.; Nastase, E.; Constantinescu, E.; Tataru, D.

    2018-02-01

    Strong motion data are essential for seismic hazard assessment. To correctly understand and use this kind of data is necessary to have a good knowledge of local site conditions. Romania has one of the largest strong motion networks in Europe with 134 real-time stations. In this work, we aim to do a comprehensive site characterization for eight of these stations located in the eastern part of Romania. We make use of a various seismological dataset and we perform ambient noise and earthquake-based investigations to estimate the background noise level, the resonance frequencies and amplification of each site. We also derive the Vs30 parameter from the surface shear-wave velocity profiles obtained through the inversion of the Rayleigh waves recorded in active seismic measurements. Our analyses indicate similar results for seven stations: high noise levels for frequencies larger than 1 Hz, well defined fundamental resonance at low frequencies (0.15-0.29 Hz), moderate amplification levels (up to 4 units) for frequencies between 0.15 and 5-7 Hz and same soil class (type C) according to the estimated Vs30 and Eurocode 8. In contrast, the eighth station for which the soil class is evaluated of type B exhibits a very good noise level for a wide range of frequencies (0.01-20 Hz), a broader fundamental resonance at high frequencies ( 8 Hz) and a flat amplification curve between 0.1 and 3-4 Hz.

  7. On-site customization of silicone stents: towards optimal palliation of complex airway conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, David P; Dutau, Hervé

    2009-01-01

    Stents may be indicated as treatment of benign and malignant conditions of the central airways. Occasionally, aberrant and/or distorted airways secondary to therapy or surgery may preclude the use of commercially manufactured stents. The customization of stents is well described for nonpulmonary diseases, but to date there are only limited data in the literature on prosthesis customization for airway disease. To review all the different techniques and indications of on-site silicone stent customizations and their related complications. A retrospective study was undertaken to identify all patients who underwent treatment with a silicone stent which was customized on site by the physician. The study included subjects treated during an 8-year period. Forty-nine on-site customizations were performed in 43 patients (34 males, mean age 63 +/- 5.2 years). Stent customization was performed in 5.4% of the cases. Stent customization was performed for malignant and benign disease in 35 (81.3%) and 8 (18.7%) cases, respectively. In all cases, the stent deployed successfully and performed well while in situ. Stent manipulation did not increase complications. Customization of airway stents by the physician can lead to successful stenting of difficult airway lesions with a good short-term safety profile. Standard commercially available stents may have resulted in suboptimal management of complex airway pathologies. A prospective study is warranted to further investigate the safety profile and complications associated with stent customization. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Women in Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemone, Margaret A.; Waukau, Patricia L.

    1982-11-01

    The names of 927 women who are or have been active in meteorology or closely related fields have been obtained from various sources. Of these women, at least 500 are presently active. An estimated 4-5% of the total number of Ph.D.s in meteorology are awarded to women. About 10% of those receiving B.S. and M.S. degrees are women.The work patterns, accomplishments, and salaries of employed women meteorologists have been summarized from 330 responses to questionnaires, as functions of age, family status, part- or full-time working status, and employing institutions. It was found that women meteorologists holding Ph.D.s are more likely than their male counterparts to be employed by universities. As increasing number of women were employed in operational meteorology, although few of them were married and fewer still responsible for children. Several women were employed by private industry and some had advanced into managerial positions, although at the present time, such positions remain out of the reach of most women.The subjective and objective effects of several gender-related factors have been summarized from the comments and responses to the questionnaires. The primary obstacles to advancement were found to be part-time work and the responsibility for children. Part-time work was found to have a clearly negative effect on salary increase as a function of age. prejudicated discrimination and rules negatively affecting women remain important, especially to the older women, and affirmative action programs are generally seen as beneficial.Surprisingly, in contrast to the experience of women in other fields of science, women Ph.D.s in meteorology earn salaries comparable of their employment in government or large corporations and universities where there are strong affirmative action programs and above-average salaries. Based on the responses to the questionnaire, the small size of the meteorological community is also a factor, enabling women to become recognized

  9. Meteorology and lidar data from the URAHFREP field trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Søren; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    2002-01-01

    to the HF release. The instrumentation included various types of HF sensors, thermocouple arrays, a fully instrumented release rig, a passive smokemachine, a meteorological mast and a lidar backscatter system. This report deals exclusively with the meteorological data and the lidar data. The trials cover...... a range meteorological conditions. These include neutral conditions with relatively highwindspeed and low humidity as well as unstable conditions with low windspeed and high humidity, the most favorable conditions for lift-off to occur. The lidar was used to scan vertical cross-plume slices 100 meter...

  10. An evaluation of the chemical, radiological, and ecological conditions of West Lake on the Hanford site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.; Price, K.L.; Newcomer, D.R.

    1991-03-01

    West Lake and its immediate surrounding basin represent a unique habitat that is dominated by highly saline water and soil. The basin offers a valuable research site for studies of a rare and complex wetland area in the desert. This report is an evaluation of the chemical, radiological, and ecological conditions at West Lake and describes how ground water influences site properties. The scope of this evaluation consisted of a sampling program in 1989 and a review of data from the perspective of assessing the impact of Hanford Site operations on the physical, chemical, and ecological conditions of West Lake and its surrounding basin. The water level in West Lake fluctuates in relation to changes in the water table. The connection between West Lake and ground water is also supported by the presence of {sup 3}H and {sup 99}Tc in the ground water and in the lake. There are relatively high concentrations of uranium in West Lake; the highest concentrations are found in the northernmost isolated pool. Analyses of water, sediment, vegetation, and soil indicate possible shifts of isotropic ratios that indicate a reduction of {sup 235}U. Uranium-236 was not detected in West Lake water; its presence would indicate neutron-activated {sup 235}U from fuel reprocessing at Hanford. Trace metals are found at elevated concentrations in West Lake. Arsenic, chromium, copper, and zinc were found at levels in excess of US Environmental Protection Agency water quality criteria. Levels of radiological and chemical contamination in the West Lake basin are relatively low. Concentrations of fission isotopes exceed those that could be explained by atmospheric fallout, but fall short of action levels for active waste management areas. 31 refs., 8 figs., 18 tabs.

  11. An evaluation of the chemical, radiological, and ecological conditions of West Lake on the Hanford site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, T.M.; Price, K.L.; Newcomer, D.R.

    1991-03-01

    West Lake and its immediate surrounding basin represent a unique habitat that is dominated by highly saline water and soil. The basin offers a valuable research site for studies of a rare and complex wetland area in the desert. This report is an evaluation of the chemical, radiological, and ecological conditions at West Lake and describes how ground water influences site properties. The scope of this evaluation consisted of a sampling program in 1989 and a review of data from the perspective of assessing the impact of Hanford Site operations on the physical, chemical, and ecological conditions of West Lake and its surrounding basin. The water level in West Lake fluctuates in relation to changes in the water table. The connection between West Lake and ground water is also supported by the presence of 3 H and 99 Tc in the ground water and in the lake. There are relatively high concentrations of uranium in West Lake; the highest concentrations are found in the northernmost isolated pool. Analyses of water, sediment, vegetation, and soil indicate possible shifts of isotropic ratios that indicate a reduction of 235 U. Uranium-236 was not detected in West Lake water; its presence would indicate neutron-activated 235 U from fuel reprocessing at Hanford. Trace metals are found at elevated concentrations in West Lake. Arsenic, chromium, copper, and zinc were found at levels in excess of US Environmental Protection Agency water quality criteria. Levels of radiological and chemical contamination in the West Lake basin are relatively low. Concentrations of fission isotopes exceed those that could be explained by atmospheric fallout, but fall short of action levels for active waste management areas. 31 refs., 8 figs., 18 tabs

  12. Meteorological pre-processing of incoming solar radiation and heat flux over a sparse boreal forest at a northern site during winter conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Batchvarova, E.

    2001-01-01

    ) was found to be a strong function of the solar elevation. At low solar elevation angles, commonly used expressions for turbidity did not fit the measurements well. A simple energy balance type met-processor performed well during daytime, but it was not satisfactory during night time. Simplifications...

  13. Evolution of ITER tritium confinement strategy and adaptation to Cadrache site conditions and French regulatory requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdoch, D.

    2007-01-01

    The ITER Nuclear Buildings include the Tokamak, Tritium and Diagnostic Buildings (Tokamak Complex) and the Hot Cell and Low Level Radioactive Waste Buildings. The Tritium Confinement Strategy of the Nuclear Buildings comprises key features of the Atmosphere and Vent Detritiation Systems (ADS/VDS) and the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Systems. The designs developed during the ITER EDA (Engineering Design Activities) for these systems need to be adapted to the specific conditions of the Cadarache site and modified to conform with the regulatory requirements applicable to Installations Nucleaires de Base (INB) - Basic Nuclear Installations - in France. The highest priority for such adaptation has been identified as the Tritium Confinement of the Tokamak Complex and the progress in development of a robust, coherent design concept compliant with French practice is described in the paper. The Tokamak Complex HVAC concept for generic conditions was developed for operational cost minimisation under more extreme climatic conditions (primarily temperature) than those valid for Cadarache, and incorporated recirculation of a large fraction of the air flow through the HVAC systems to achieve this objective. Due to the impracticality of precluding the spread of contamination from areas of higher activity to less contaminated areas, this concept has been abandoned in favour of a once-through configuration, which requires a complete redesign, with revised air change rates, module sizes, layout, redundancy provisions and other features. The ADS/VDS concept developed for the generic design of the ITER Tokamak Complex is undergoing a radical revision in which the system architecture, module sizing and basic process are being optimised for the Cadarache conditions. Investigation is being launched into the implementation of a wet stripper concept to replace the molecular sieve (MS) beds incorporated in the generic design, where concerns have been raised over low

  14. Background of the Military Aviation Meteorological Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Zshumatiy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the birth of aviation and its meteorological service in the early twentieth century. The article details the military aviation meteorological services in Italy, France, Germany, Austria, the USA and Russia. Are described the problems, which arose with the takeoff and landings of flight vehicles with complex weather conditions. It is shown that the information about the actual and forthcoming weather is capable of reducing a quantity of failures of flight vehicles, of increasing safety of pilots and accuracy of the defeat of enemy, of planning the application of aviation.

  15. Comparing CO2 Storage and Advection Conditions at Night at Different Carboeuroflux Sites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aubinet, M.; Berbigier, P.; Bernhofer, C.; Cescatti, A.; Feigenwinter, C.; Granier, A.; Grünwald, T.; Havránková, Kateřina; Heinesch, B.; Longdoz, B.; Marcolla, B.; Montagnani, L.; Sedlák, Pavel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 116, - (2005), s. 63-94 ISSN 0006-8314 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB3087301 Grant - others:Carboeuroflux(XE) EVK-2-CT-1999-00032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517; CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : Advection * CO2 storage * Forest ecosystems Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.414, year: 2005

  16. Topographically-controlled site conditions drive vegetation pattern on inland dunes in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewerniak, Piotr; Jankowski, Michał

    2017-07-01

    The inland dunes of Central Europe are commonly overplanted by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) monocultures in which the primary occurrence of the natural vegetation pattern is obliterated. We hypothesize that on naturally revegetated inland dunes the pattern is clear and driven by topographically-controlled site conditions. To test this hypothesis, we addressed the following research questions: (1) Does topography drive vegetation patterns on inland dunes and if so, what are main differences between vegetation in varying relief positions? (2) To what extent does topography involve the variability of microclimates and of soil properties, and how does the topographically-induced differentiation of these site conditions control vegetation patterns? We conducted interdisciplinary studies (applying floristic, pedological and microclimatic research techniques) on a naturally revegetated inland dune area situated on a military artillery training ground near Toruń, northern Poland. We investigated vegetation patterns with reference to three topographical position variants (north-facing slopes, south-facing slopes, and intra-dune depressions). We found distinct differences in vegetation characteristics covering the aforementioned topographical positions. This primarily concerned species composition of ground vegetation: Calluna vulgaris was dominant species on north-facing slopes, Corynephorus canescens on south-facing slopes, while Calamagrostis epigejos in intra-dune depressions. In comparison to dune slopes, the depressions were characterized by much higher biodiversity of vascular plant species. This followed the most favorable soil conditions for the existence of plants (higher moisture and nutrient pools) occurring in low topographical positions. However, tree succession was most advanced not in depressions, where the competitive impact of tall grasses on seedlings was recognized, but on north-facing slopes. Based on our results, we formulated some suggestions, which

  17. Mapping the Martian Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, M.; Ross, J. D.; Solomon, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars-adapted version of the NASA/GISS general circulation model (GCM) has been applied to the hourly/daily simulation of the planet's meteorology over several seasonal orbits. The current running version of the model includes a diurnal solar cycle, CO2 sublimation, and a mature parameterization of upper level wave drag with a vertical domain extending from the surface up to the 6microb level. The benchmark simulations provide a four-dimensional archive for the comparative evaluation of various schemes for the retrieval of winds from anticipated polar orbiter measurements of temperatures by the Pressure Modulator Infrared Radiometer. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  18. Exemplifying whole-plant ozone uptake in adult forest trees of contrasting species and site conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunn, Angela J.; Wieser, Gerhard; Metzger, Ursula; Loew, Markus; Wipfler, Philip; Haeberle, Karl-Heinz; Matyssek, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Whole-tree O 3 uptake was exemplified for Picea abies, Fagus sylvatica and Larix decidua in stands at high and low altitude and contrasting water availability through sap flow measurement in tree trunks, intrinsically accounting for drought and boundary layer effects on O 3 flux. O 3 uptake of evergreen spruce per unit foliage area was enhanced by 100% at high relative to low elevation, whereas deciduous beech and larch showed similar uptake regardless of altitude. The responsiveness of the canopy conductance to water vapor and, as a consequence, O 3 uptake to soil moisture and air humidity did not differ between species. Unifying findings at the whole-tree level will promote cause-effect based O 3 risk assessment and modeling. - Sap flow-based assessment of whole-tree O 3 uptake reflects similar responsiveness of canopy conductance and O 3 uptake across contrasting tree species and site conditions

  19. Design principle of TVO's final repository and preliminary adaptation to site specific conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salo, J-P.; Reikkola, R.

    1995-01-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) is responsible for the management of spent fuel produced by the Olkiluoto power plant. TVO's current programme of spent fuel management is based on the guidelines and time schedule set by the Finnish Government. TVO has studied a final disposal concept in which the spent fuel bundles are encapsulated in copper canisters and emplaced in Finnish bedrock. According to the plan the final repository for spent fuel will be in operation by 2020. TVO's updated technical plans for the disposal of spent fuel together with a performance analysis (TVO-92) were submitted to the authorities in 1992. The paper describes the design principle of TVO's final repository and preliminary adaptation of the repository to site specific conditions. (author). 10 refs., 5 figs

  20. Nuclear power plant site evaluation using site population-meterology factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, B.H.; Kang, C.H.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper, as a site evaluation technique, SPNF(Site Population Neteorology Factor) which is modified from SPF(Site Population Factor) of the USNRC model, is defined from site population and meteorology data in order to consider the radiological impacts to the population at large from the atmospheric dispersion of the radioactive effluents released during routine plant operation as well as accidental conditions. The SPMF model proved its propriety from the comparison of SPMF and SPF for Kori site. The relative suitability of Korean sites to the U.S. sites have been also examined using SPF. (Author)

  1. Redox Conditions and Related Color Change in Eastern Equatorial Pacific Sediments: IODP Site U1334

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordesch, W. E.; Gussone, N. C.; Hathorne, E. C.; Kimoto, K.; Delaney, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    This study was prompted by a 65 m thick brown-green color change in deep-sea sediments of IODP Site U1334 (0-38 Ma, 4799 m water depth) that corresponds to its equatorial crossing (caused by the Northward movement of the pacific plate). Green sediment is a visual indicator of reducing conditions in sediment due to enhanced organic matter deposition and burial. Here we use geochemical redox indicators to characterize the effect of equatorial upwelling on bottom water. The modern redox signal is captured in porewater profiles (nitrate, manganese, iron, sulfate) while trace metal Enrichment Factors (EF) in bulk sediment (manganese, uranium, molybdenum, rhenium) normalized to the detrital component (titanium) record redox state at burial. To measure export productivity we also measure biogenic barium. Porewater profiles reveal suboxic diagenesis; profiles follow the expected sequence of nitrate, manganese oxide, and iron oxide reduction with increasing depth. Constant sulfate (~28 μM) implies anoxia has not occurred. Bulk sediment Mn EF are enriched (EF > 1) throughout the record (Mn EF = 15-200) while U and Mo enrichment corresponds to green color and equatorial proximity (U EF = 4-19; Mo EF = 0-7). Constant Mn enrichment implies continuous oxygenation. Uranium and Mo enrichment near the equator represents suboxic conditions also seen in the porewater. Low Re concentrations (below detection) provide additional evidence against anoxia. A comparison of Mn EF from total digestions to samples treated with an additional reductive cleaning step distinguishes between Mn-oxides and Mn-carbonates, indicating oxygenated and reducing conditions respectively. Mn-carbonate occurrence agrees with U and Mo EF; conditions were more reducing near the equator. Bio-Ba shows significant variability over this interval (22-99 mmol g-1). Our geochemical results indicate that bottom waters became suboxic at the equator as a result of equatorial upwelling-influenced increases in organic

  2. Spawning chronology, nest site selection and nest success of smallmouth bass during benign streamflow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauwalter, D.C.; Fisher, W.L.

    2007-01-01

    We documented the nesting chronology, nest site selection and nest success of smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in an upstream (4th order) and downstream (5th order) reach of Baron Fork Creek, Oklahoma. Males started nesting in mid-Apr. when water temperatures increased to 16.9 C upstream, and in late-Apr. when temperatures increased to 16.2 C downstream. Streamflows were low (77% upstream to 82% downstream of mean Apr. streamflow, and 12 and 18% of meanjun. streamflow; 47 and 55 y of record), and decreased throughout the spawning period. Larger males nested first upstream, as has been observed in other populations, but not downstream. Upstream, progeny in 62 of 153 nests developed to swim-up stage. Downstream, progeny in 31 of 73 nests developed to swim-up. Nesting densities upstream (147/km) and downstream (100/km) were both higher than any densities previously reported. Males selected nest sites with intermediate water depths, low water velocity and near cover, behavior that is typical of smallmouth bass. Documented nest failures resulted from human disturbance, angling, and longear sunfish predation. Logistic exposure models showed that water velocity at the nest was negatively related and length of the guarding male was positively related to nest success upstream. Male length and number of degree days were both positively related to nest success downstream. Our results, and those of other studies, suggest that biological factors account for most nest failures during benign (stable, low flow) streamflow conditions, whereas nest failures attributed to substrate mobility or nest abandonment dominate when harsh streamflow conditions (spring floods) coincide with the spawning season.

  3. The value of using seasonality and meteorological variables to model intra-urban PM2.5 variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera Alvarez, Hector A.; Myers, Orrin B.; Weigel, Margaret; Armijos, Rodrigo X.

    2018-06-01

    A yearlong air monitoring campaign was conducted to assess the impact of local temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed on the temporal and spatial variability of PM2.5 in El Paso, Texas. Monitoring was conducted at four sites purposely selected to capture the local traffic variability. Effects of meteorological events on seasonal PM2.5 variability were identified. For instance, in winter low-wind and low-temperature conditions were associated with high PM2.5 events that contributed to elevated seasonal PM2.5 levels. Similarly, in spring, high PM2.5 events were associated with high-wind and low-relative humidity conditions. Correlation coefficients between meteorological variables and PM2.5 fluctuated drastically across seasons. Specifically, it was observed that for most sites correlations between PM2.5 and meteorological variables either changed from positive to negative or dissolved depending on the season. Overall, the results suggest that mixed effects analysis with season and site as fixed factors and meteorological variables as covariates could increase the explanatory value of LUR models for PM2.5.

  4. About condition of soil ground at locations of the former Azgir nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmetov, E.Z.; Adymov, Zh.I.; Ermatov, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Soil condition after underground nuclear explosions at locations of the test sites is considered. The region is situated in the zone of northern deserts and characterized by prevalence of greyish-brown soils in conditions of sharply continental climate and presence of salt in soil-formative complex including tertiary clays, loess-like loam, loam sands and sands. There are small quantity of humus in such soil. During investigation of soil characteristics and ability of soil particles to form conglomerates, possessing of different properties, it is necessary to know both element and phase composition, determining, in the most extent, such physical and mechanical macro-characteristics as: density, stickiness, air and water penetrability, solubility, chemical resistance, granulometric set and others. Phase composition of soil samples can be, to a sufficient extent, determined by the X-ray diffractometry methods using ordinary X-ray experimental facilities. Phase composition of soil includes gypsum, quartz, calcium, potash feldspar hematite, kaolin, peach and mica in different quantities. Data on element composition of soil samples were obtained from the territory of technological locations of test site using the method of X-ray-fluorescent analysis. Granulometric composition of soil ground has been investigated using the methods of dry sieving and wet sieving for determination of radionuclide distribution in different fractions of soil particles. By the method of the dry sieving of soil ground samples there are taken place a sticking the small together of fine fractions and an adhesion of stuck-together particles to more large ones. Therefore, fine fractions cannot be separate completely at dry sieving. As distinct from the dry sieving an use of water jet in the sieving allows to overcome defects of the dry method and, by a sufficiently effective separation of granulometric fractions, to obtain more precise results of investigations of granulometric

  5. Travelers' use of the WSDOT traffic conditions web site : customer satisfaction evaluation -- Metropolitan Model Deployment Initiative : Seattle, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-28

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of public use of the Washington State Department of Transportation's (WSDOT) traffic conditions web site. This research was sponsored by the US Department of Transportation to assess customer satisfac...

  6. Evaluation of Final Radiological Conditions at Areas of the Niagara Falls Storage Site Remediated under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program -12184

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Christopher [U.S Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC; Kothari, Vijendra [U.S Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Morgantown, West Virginia; Starr, Ken [U.S Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Westminster, Colorado; Widdop, Michael; Gillespie, Joey [SM Stoller Corporation, Grand Junction, Colorado

    2012-02-26

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) methods and protocols allow evaluation of remediation and final site conditions to determine if remediated sites remain protective. Two case studies are presented that involve the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) and associated vicinity properties (VPs), which are being remediated under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). These properties are a part of the former Lake Ontario Ordnance Works (LOOW). In response to stakeholders concerns about whether certain remediated NFSS VPs were putting them at risk, DOE met with stakeholders and agreed to evaluate protectiveness. Documentation in the DOE records collection adequately described assessed and final radiological conditions at the completed VPs. All FUSRAP wastes at the completed sites were cleaned up to meet DOE guidelines for unrestricted use. DOE compiled the results of the investigation in a report that was released for public comment. In conducting the review of site conditions, DOE found that stakeholders were also concerned about waste from the Separations Process Research Unit (SPRU) at the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) that was handled at LOOW. DOE agreed to determine if SPRU waste remained at that needed to be remediated. DOE reviewed records of waste characterization, historical handling locations and methods, and assessment and remediation data. DOE concluded that the SPRU waste was remediated on the LOOW to levels that pose no unacceptable risk and allow unrestricted use and unlimited exposure. This work confirms the following points as tenets of an effective long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTS&M) program: Stakeholder interaction must be open and transparent, and DOE must respond promptly to stakeholder concerns. DOE, as the long-term custodian, must collect and preserve site records in order to demonstrate that remediated sites pose no unacceptable risk. DOE must continue to maintain constructive relationships with the U

  7. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Rifle, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    This appendix assesses the present conditions and data gathered about the two inactive uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado, and the designated disposal site six miles north of Rifle in the area of Estes Gulch. It consolidates available engineering, radiological, geotechnical, hydrological, meteorological, and other information pertinent to the design of the Remedial Action Plan (RAP). The data characterize conditions at the mill, tailings, and disposal site so that the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) may complete final designs for the remedial actions.

  8. Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory conducts research to understand the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics and processes of the...

  9. A system to test the ground surface conditions of construction sites--for safe and efficient work without physical strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koningsveld, Ernst; van der Grinten, Maarten; van der Molen, Henk; Krause, Frank

    2005-07-01

    Ground surface conditions on construction sites have an important influence on the health and safety of workers and their productivity. The development of an expert-based "working conditions evaluation" system is described, intended to assist site managers in recognising unsatisfactory ground conditions and remedying these. The system was evaluated in the period 2002-2003. The evaluation shows that companies recognize poor soil/ground conditions as problematic, but are not aware of the specific physical workload hazards. The developed methods allow assessment of the ground surface quality and selection of appropriate measures for improvement. However, barriers exist at present to wide implementation of the system across the industry. Most significant of these is that responsibility for a site's condition is not clearly located within contracting arrangements, nor is it a topic of serious negotiation.

  10. Meteorology ans solar physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Oliver

    When in the second half of the 19th century both solar physics and astrophysics came into existence, various solar phenomena were described by analogies encountered in the terrestrial atmosphere. For a certain time, meteorology played a central role in research on solar processes. At first glance, this may appear as a curious and old-fashioned specialty. However, solar physics owes its first insights into solar structure to various analogies in terrestrial atmospheric studies. The present investigation intends to elucidate this fact, to present details of the historical development, and to demonstrate how our present knowledge in certain fields is based on considerations which were originally taken from the description of the terrestrial atmosphere.

  11. Meteorology as an infratechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G. A.; Smith, L. A.

    2003-04-01

    From an economists perspective, meteorology is an underpinning or infratechnology in the sense that in general it does not of its own accord lead to actual products. Its value added comes from the application of its results to the activities of other forms of economic and technological activity. This contribution discusses both the potential applications of meteorology as an ininfratechnology, and quantifying its socio-economic impact. Large economic and social benefits are both likely in theory and can be identified in practice. Case studies of particular weather dependent industries or particular episodes are suggested, based on the methodology developed by NIST to analyze the social impact of technological innovation in US industries (see www.nist.gov/director/planning/strategicplanning.htm ). Infratechnologies can provide economic benefits in the support of markets. Incomplete information is a major cause of market failure because it inhibits the proper design of contracts. The performance of markets in general can be influenced by strategies adopted by different firms within a market to regulate the performance of others especially suppliers or purchasers. This contribution will focus on benefits to society from mechanisms which enhance and enforce mitigating actions. When the market mechanism fails, who might social benefits be gained, for example, by widening the scope of authorities to ensure that those who could have taken mitigating action, given prior warning, cover the costs. This goes beyond the design and implementation of civil responses to severe weather warnings to include the design of legislative recourse in the event of negligence given prior knowledge, or the modification of insurance contracts. The aim here, for example, would be to avoid the loss of an oil tanker in heavy seas at a location where a high probability of heavy seas had been forecast for some time.

  12. Macroinvertebrate-based assessment of biological condition at selected sites in the Eagle River watershed, Colorado, 2000-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuellig, Robert E.; Bruce, James F.; Healy, Brian D.; Williams, Cory A.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Colorado River Water Conservation District, Eagle County, Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority, Colorado Department of Transportation, City of Aurora, Town of Eagle, Town of Gypsum, Town of Minturn, Town of Vail, Vail Resorts, Colorado Springs Utilities, Denver Water, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (FS), compiled macroinvertebrate (73 sites, 124 samples) data previously collected in the Eagle River watershed from selected USGS and FS studies, 2000-07. These data were analyzed to assess the biological condition (that is, biologically ?degraded? or ?good?) at selected sites in the Eagle River watershed and determine if site class (for example, urban or undeveloped) described biological condition. An independently developed predictive model was applied to calculate a site-specific measure of taxonomic completeness for macroinvertebrate communities, where taxonomic completeness was expressed as the ratio of observed (O) taxa to those expected (E) to occur at each site. Macroinvertebrate communities were considered degraded at sites were O/E values were less than 0.80, indicating that at least 20 percent of expected taxa were not observed. Sites were classified into one of four classes (undeveloped, adjacent road or highway or both, mixed, urban) using a combination of riparian land-cover characteristics, examination of topographic maps and aerial imagery, screening for exceedances in water-quality standards, and best professional judgment. Analysis of variance was used to determine if site class accounted for variability in mean macroinvertebrate O/E values. Finally, macroinvertebrate taxa observed more or less frequently than expected at urban sites were indentified. This study represents the first standardized assessment of biological condition of selected sites distributed across the Eagle River watershed. Of the 73 sites evaluated, just over

  13. Trends and variability of meteorological drought over the districts of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    4

    Keywords: Meteorological drought, standardized precipitation index, monsoon, sea ... Drought is one of the most serious problem for human societies and ecosystems. ... They found that SPI satisfactorily explains the development of conditions.

  14. Surgical site infections in women and their association with clinical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Zélia de Araújo Madeira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Surgical site infections (SSIs can affect body tissues, cavities, or organs manipulated in surgery and constitute 14% to 16% of all infections. This study aimed to determine the incidence of SSIs in women following their discharge from a gynecology outpatient clinic, to survey different types of SSIs among women, and to verify the association of SSIs with comorbidities and clinical conditions. Methods Data were collected via analytical observation with a cross-sectional design, and the study was conducted in 1,026 women who underwent gynecological surgery in a teaching hospital in the municipality of Teresina, in the northeast Brazilian State of Piauí, from June 2011 to March 2013. Results The incidence of SSIs after discharge was 5.8% among the women in the outpatient clinic. The most prevalent surgery among the patients was hysterectomy, while the most prevalent type of SSI was superficial incisional. Comorbidities in women with SSIs included cancer, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Conclusions Surveillance of SSIs during the post-discharge period is critical for infection prevention and control. It is worth reflecting on the planning of surgical procedures for patients who have risk factors for the development of SSIs.

  15. Integrating meteorology into research on migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Bouten, Willem; van Loon, E Emiel

    2010-09-01

    Atmospheric dynamics strongly influence the migration of flying organisms. They affect, among others, the onset, duration and cost of migration, migratory routes, stop-over decisions, and flight speeds en-route. Animals move through a heterogeneous environment and have to react to atmospheric dynamics at different spatial and temporal scales. Integrating meteorology into research on migration is not only challenging but it is also important, especially when trying to understand the variability of the various aspects of migratory behavior observed in nature. In this article, we give an overview of some different modeling approaches and we show how these have been incorporated into migration research. We provide a more detailed description of the development and application of two dynamic, individual-based models, one for waders and one for soaring migrants, as examples of how and why to integrate meteorology into research on migration. We use these models to help understand underlying mechanisms of individual response to atmospheric conditions en-route and to explain emergent patterns. This type of models can be used to study the impact of variability in atmospheric dynamics on migration along a migratory trajectory, between seasons and between years. We conclude by providing some basic guidelines to help researchers towards finding the right modeling approach and the meteorological data needed to integrate meteorology into their own research. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved.

  16. Meteorology [Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. G. Fox; H. C. Humphries; K. F. Zeller; B. H. Connell; G. L. Wooldridge

    1994-01-01

    GLEES is contained within the Snowy Range Observatory. This Observatory consists of many weather stations, precipitation monitors, and stream gages scattered throughout the Snowy Range. These sites have been operated by the Wyoming Water Research Center (WWRC) since 1968. Data from the sites are available from the WWRC and were last summarized by Wesche (1982).

  17. Uncertainty in dispersion forecasts using meteorological ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, H N; Leach, M J

    1999-01-01

    The usefulness of dispersion forecasts depends on proper interpretation of results. Understanding the uncertainty in model predictions and the range of possible outcomes is critical for determining the optimal course of action in response to terrorist attacks. One of the objectives for the Modeling and Prediction initiative is creating tools for emergency planning for special events such as the upcoming the Olympics. Meteorological forecasts hours to days in advance are used to estimate the dispersion at the time of the event. However, there is uncertainty in any meteorological forecast, arising from both errors in the data (both initial conditions and boundary conditions) and from errors in the model. We use ensemble forecasts to estimate the uncertainty in the forecasts and the range of possible outcomes

  18. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2015 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; Chapman, Jenny; McCurdy, Greg; Etyemezian, Vicken; Miller, Julianne J.; Mizell, Steve

    2016-01-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). The operation resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at the Clean Slate I, II, and III sites. This report documents observations made during ongoing monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III, and at the TTR Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Range Operations Control (ROC) center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soil beyond the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Radionuclide assessment of airborne particulates in 2015 found the gross alpha and gross beta values of dust collected from the filters at the monitoring stations are consistent with background conditions. The meteorological and particle monitoring indicate that conditions for wind-borne contaminant movement exist at the Clean Slate sites and that, although the transport of radionuclide-contaminated soil by suspension has not been detected, movement by saltation is occurring.

  19. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2015 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolich, George [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; Shadel, Craig [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; Chapman, Jenny [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; McCurdy, Greg [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; Etyemezian, Vicken [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; Miller, Julianne J. [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; Mizell, Steve [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.

    2016-09-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). The operation resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at the Clean Slate I, II, and III sites. This report documents observations made during ongoing monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III, and at the TTR Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Range Operations Control (ROC) center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soil beyond the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Radionuclide assessment of airborne particulates in 2015 found the gross alpha and gross beta values of dust collected from the filters at the monitoring stations are consistent with background conditions. The meteorological and particle monitoring indicate that conditions for wind-borne contaminant movement exist at the Clean Slate sites and that, although the transport of radionuclide-contaminated soil by suspension has not been detected, movement by saltation is occurring.

  20. Overall analysis of meteorological information in the daeduk nuclear complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung Woo; Lee, Young Bok; Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Eun Han; Suh, Kyung Suk; Hwang, Won Tae; Hong, Suk Boong [Korea Atomic Energy Res. Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-12-01

    Problem shooting in tower structure, sensor installation, earth, and cabling have been done with integrated field-test, establishment of data acquisition system, and instrument calibration since the completion of the main tower construction in this year. Procedure guide was also made for the effective management covering instrument operation, calibration and repair. Real measurement has been done during two months from this October after whole integration of equipments. Occurrence of nocturnal inversion layer, fogging, and frequent stable condition of atmospheric stability were shown as the analysis results of measured data which well represented seasonal and regional characteristics in the site. Wireless data transmission to MIPS(Meteorological Information Processing System) has been done after collection in the DAS(data acquision system) where environmental assessment can be done by the developed simulation programs in both cases of normal operation and emergency. (Author).

  1. Streambed scour evaluations and conditions at selected bridge sites in Alaska, 2013–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebee, Robin A.; Dworsky, Karenth L.; Knopp, Schyler J.

    2017-12-27

    Streambed scour potential was evaluated at 52 river- and stream-spanning bridges in Alaska that lack a quantitative scour analysis or have unknown foundation details. All sites were evaluated for stream stability and long-term scour potential. Contraction scour and abutment scour were calculated for 52 bridges, and pier scour was calculated for 11 bridges that had piers. Vertical contraction (pressure flow) scour was calculated for sites where the modeled water surface was higher than the superstructure of the bridge. In most cases, hydraulic models of the 1- and 0.2-percent annual exceedance probability floods (also known as the 100- and 500-year floods, respectively) were used to derive hydraulic variables for the scour calculations. Alternate flood values were used in scour calculations for sites where smaller floods overtopped a bridge or where standard flood-frequency estimation techniques did not apply. Scour also was calculated for large recorded floods at 13 sites.Channel instability at 11 sites was related to human activities (in-channel mining, dredging, and channel relocation). Eight of the dredged sites are located on active unstable alluvial fans and were graded to protect infrastructure. The trend toward aggradation during major floods at these sites reduces confidence in scour estimates.Vertical contraction and pressure flow occurred during the 0.2-percent or smaller annual exceedance probability floods at eight sites. Contraction scour exceeded 5 feet (ft) at four sites, and total scour at piers (pier scour plus contraction scour) exceeded 5 ft at four sites. Debris accumulation increased calculated pier scour at six sites by an average of 2.4 ft. Total scour at abutments exceeded 5 ft at 10 sites. Scour estimates seemed excessive at two piers where equations did not account for channel armoring, and at four abutments where failure of the embankment and attendant channel widening would reduce scour.

  2. An 18-yr long (1993–2011 snow and meteorological dataset from a mid-altitude mountain site (Col de Porte, France, 1325 m alt. for driving and evaluating snowpack models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Morin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A quality-controlled snow and meteorological dataset spanning the period 1 August 1993–31 July 2011 is presented, originating from the experimental station Col de Porte (1325 m altitude, Chartreuse range, France. Emphasis is placed on meteorological data relevant to the observation and modelling of the seasonal snowpack. In-situ driving data, at the hourly resolution, consist of measurements of air temperature, relative humidity, windspeed, incoming short-wave and long-wave radiation, precipitation rate partitioned between snow- and rainfall, with a focus on the snow-dominated season. Meteorological data for the three summer months (generally from 10 June to 20 September, when the continuity of the field record is not warranted, are taken from a local meteorological reanalysis (SAFRAN, in order to provide a continuous and consistent gap-free record. Data relevant to snowpack properties are provided at the daily (snow depth, snow water equivalent, runoff and albedo and hourly (snow depth, albedo, runoff, surface temperature, soil temperature time resolution. Internal snowpack information is provided from weekly manual snowpit observations (mostly consisting in penetration resistance, snow type, snow temperature and density profiles and from a hourly record of temperature and height of vertically free ''settling'' disks. This dataset has been partially used in the past to assist in developing snowpack models and is presented here comprehensively for the purpose of multi-year model performance assessment. The data is placed on the PANGAEA repository (http://dx.doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.774249 as well as on the public ftp server ftp://ftp-cnrm.meteo.fr/pub-cencdp/.

  3. Operational Circular No. 2 (Rev. 3) - Conditions of access to the fenced parts of the CERN site

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2015-01-01

    Operational Circular No. 2 (Rev. 3) entitled "Conditions of access to the fenced parts of the CERN site", approved by the Director-General following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting on 24 September 2015, is now available via this link.   This revised circular cancels and replaces Operational Circular No. 2 (Rev. 2) also entitled "Conditions of access to the fenced parts of the CERN site", of September 2014. The circular was revised predominantly in order to specify that access to the CERN site is granted to CERN Pension Fund beneficiaries only provided that they are actually in receipt of payments from the Fund; and to allow the Director-General to permit special types of vehicles on site, such as trailers. It also includes a certain number of text improvements and an updated version of the implementation measures, in particular with regard to vehicle identification, road traffic and parking.  

  4. Pressure and Humidity Measurements at the MSL Landing Site Supported by Modeling of the Atmospheric Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.; Savijarvi, H. I.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Paton, M.; Kauhanen, J.; Atlaskin, E.; Polkko, J.; Kahanpaa, H.; Kemppinen, O.; Haukka, H.

    2012-12-01

    of 0 - 100%RH in temperature range of -70°C - +25°C. Its survival temperature is as low as -135°C. The pressure device has overall dimensions of 62 x 55 x 17 mm. It weighs 35 g, and consumes 15 mW of power. The sensor makes use of two transducers placed on a single multi-layer PCB and protected by box-like FR4 Faraday cages. The transducers of the pressure device can be used in turn, thus providing redundancy and improved reliability. The pressure device measurement range is 0 - 1025 hPa in temperature range of -45°C - +55°C, but its calibration is optimized for the Martian pressure range of 4 - 12 hPa. In support of the in situ measurements we have analyzed the atmospheric conditions at the MSL landing site at the Gale crater by utilizing mesoscale and limited area models. The compatibility of the results of these modeling tools with the actual environmental conditions will be discussed.

  5. Quantifying the local influence at a tall tower site in nocturnal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werth, David; Buckley, Robert; Zhang, Gengsheng; Kurzeja, Robert; Leclerc, Monique; Duarte, Henrique; Parker, Matthew; Watson, Thomas

    2015-10-17

    The influence of the local terrestrial environment on nocturnal atmospheric CO2 measurements at a 329-m television transmitter tower (and a component of a CO2 monitoring network) was estimated with a tracer release experiment and a subsequent simulation of the releases. This was done to characterize the vertical transport of emissions from the surface to the uppermost tower level and how it is affected by atmospheric stability. The tracer release experiment was conducted over two nights in May of 2009 near the Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. Tracer was released on two contrasting nights—slightly stable and moderately stable—from several upwind surface locations. Measurements at the 329-m level on both nights indicate that tracer was able to mix vertically within a relatively short (~24 km) distance, implying that nocturnal stable conditions do not necessarily prevent vertical dispersion in the boundary layer and that CO2 measurements at the tower are at least partly influenced by nearby emissions. A simulation of the tracer release is used to calculate the tower footprint on the two nights to estimate the degree to which the local domain affects the tower readings. The effect of the nocturnal boundary layer on the area sampled by the tower can be seen clearly, as the footprints were affected by changes in stability. The contribution of local sources to the measurements at the tower was minimal, however, suggesting that nocturnal concentrations at upper levels are contributed mostly by regional sources.

  6. The meteorological data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouharrour, S.; Thomas, P.

    1975-07-01

    The 200 m meteorological tower of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center has been equipped with 45 instruments measuring the meteorological parameters near the ground level. Frequent inquiry of the instruments implies data acquisition with on-line data reduction. This task is fulfilled by some peripheral units controlled by a PDP-8/I. This report presents details of the hardware configuration and a short description of the software configuration of the meteorological data acquisition system. The report also serves as an instruction for maintenance and repair work to be carried out at the system. (orig.) [de

  7. A METEOROLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT METHOD FOR POWER LINES BASED ON GIS AND MULTI-SENSOR INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Power lines, exposed in the natural environment, are vulnerable to various kinds of meteorological factors. Traditional research mainly deals with the influence of a single meteorological condition on the power line, which lacks of comprehensive effects evaluation and analysis of the multiple meteorological factors. In this paper, we use multiple meteorological monitoring data obtained by multi-sensors to implement the meteorological risk assessment and early warning of power lines. Firstly, we generate meteorological raster map from discrete meteorological monitoring data using spatial interpolation. Secondly, the expert scoring based analytic hierarchy process is used to compute the power line risk index of all kinds of meteorological conditions and establish the mathematical model of meteorological risk. By adopting this model in raster calculator of ArcGIS, we will have a raster map showing overall meteorological risks for power line. Finally, by overlaying the power line buffer layer to that raster map, we will get to know the exact risk index around a certain part of power line, which will provide significant guidance for power line risk management. In the experiment, based on five kinds of observation data gathered from meteorological stations in Guizhou Province of China, including wind, lightning, rain, ice, temperature, we carry on the meteorological risk analysis for the real power lines, and experimental results have proved the feasibility and validity of our proposed method.

  8. Effect of temporal averaging of meteorological data on predictions of groundwater recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batalha Marcia S.

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimates of infiltration and groundwater recharge are critical for many hydrologic, agricultural and environmental applications. Anticipated climate change in many regions of the world, especially in tropical areas, is expected to increase the frequency of high-intensity, short-duration precipitation events, which in turn will affect the groundwater recharge rate. Estimates of recharge are often obtained using monthly or even annually averaged meteorological time series data. In this study we employed the HYDRUS-1D software package to assess the sensitivity of groundwater recharge calculations to using meteorological time series of different temporal resolutions (i.e., hourly, daily, weekly, monthly and yearly averaged precipitation and potential evaporation rates. Calculations were applied to three sites in Brazil having different climatological conditions: a tropical savanna (the Cerrado, a humid subtropical area (the temperate southern part of Brazil, and a very wet tropical area (Amazonia. To simplify our current analysis, we did not consider any land use effects by ignoring root water uptake. Temporal averaging of meteorological data was found to lead to significant bias in predictions of groundwater recharge, with much greater estimated recharge rates in case of very uneven temporal rainfall distributions during the year involving distinct wet and dry seasons. For example, at the Cerrado site, using daily averaged data produced recharge rates of up to 9 times greater than using yearly averaged data. In all cases, an increase in the time of averaging of meteorological data led to lower estimates of groundwater recharge, especially at sites having coarse-textured soils. Our results show that temporal averaging limits the ability of simulations to predict deep penetration of moisture in response to precipitation, so that water remains in the upper part of the vadose zone subject to upward flow and evaporation.

  9. Assessing meteorological key factors influencing crop invasion by pollen beetle (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Junk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The pollen beetle, Meligethes aeneus F. (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae, is a severe pest of winter oilseed rape. A phenological model to forecast the first spring invasion of crops in Luxembourg by M. aeneus was developed in order to provide a tool for improving pest management and for assessing the potential effects of climate change on this pest. The model was derived using long-term, multi-site observational datasets of pollen beetle migration and meteorological data, as the timing of crop invasion is determined mainly by meteorological variables. Daily values of mean air and soil temperature, accumulated sunshine duration and precipitation were used to create a threshold-based model to forecast crop invasion. Minimising of the root mean squared error (RMSE of predicted versus observed migration dates was used as the quality criterion for selecting the optimum combination of threshold values for meteorological variables. We identified mean air temperature 8.0 °C, mean soil temperature 4.6 °C, and sunshine duration of 3.4 h as the best threshold values, with a cut-off of 1 mm precipitation and with no need for persistence of those conditions for more than one day (RMSE=9.3days$RMSE=9.3\\,\\text{days}$. Only in six out of 30 cases, differences between observed and predicted immigration dates were >5$>5$ days. In the future, crop invasion by pollen beetles will probably be strongly affected by changes in air temperature and precipitation related to climate change. We used a multi-model ensemble of 15 regional climate models driven by the A1B emission scenario to assess meteorological changes in two 30‑year future periods, near future (2021–2050 and far future (2069–2098 in comparison with the reference period (1971–2000. Air temperature and precipitation were predicted to increase in the first three months of each year, both in the near future and the far future. The pollen beetle migration model indicated that this change would

  10. Mathematical problems in meteorological modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Csomós, Petra; Faragó, István; Horányi, András; Szépszó, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with mathematical problems arising in the context of meteorological modelling. It gathers and presents some of the most interesting and important issues from the interaction of mathematics and meteorology. It is unique in that it features contributions on topics like data assimilation, ensemble prediction, numerical methods, and transport modelling, from both mathematical and meteorological perspectives. The derivation and solution of all kinds of numerical prediction models require the application of results from various mathematical fields. The present volume is divided into three parts, moving from mathematical and numerical problems through air quality modelling, to advanced applications in data assimilation and probabilistic forecasting. The book arose from the workshop “Mathematical Problems in Meteorological Modelling” held in Budapest in May 2014 and organized by the ECMI Special Interest Group on Numerical Weather Prediction. Its main objective is to highlight the beauty of the de...

  11. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites collect visible and infrared cloud imagery as well as monitoring the atmospheric, oceanographic,...

  12. Recharge and Lateral Groundwater Flow Boundary Conditions for the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Arnold; T. Corbet

    2001-12-18

    The purpose of the flow boundary conditions analysis is to provide specified-flux boundary conditions for the saturated zone (SZ) site-scale flow and transport model. This analysis is designed to use existing modeling and analysis results as the basis for estimated groundwater flow rates into the SZ site-scale model domain, both as recharge at the upper (water table) boundary and as underflow at the lateral boundaries. The objective is to provide consistency at the boundaries between the SZ site-scale flow model and other groundwater flow models. The scope of this analysis includes extraction of the volumetric groundwater flow rates simulated by the SZ regional-scale flow model to occur at the lateral boundaries of the SZ site-scale flow model and the internal qualification of the regional-scale model for use in this analysis model report (AMR). In addition, the scope includes compilation of information on the recharge boundary condition taken from three sources: (1) distributed recharge as taken from the SZ regional-scale flow model, (2) recharge below the area of the unsaturated zone (UZ) site-scale flow model, and (3) focused recharge along the Fortymile Wash channel.

  13. Assessment of the living and workplace health and safety conditions of site-resident construction workers in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, Peyman Hossein; Farshad, Ali Asghar; Mirkazemi, Roksana; Orak, Rouhangiz Jamshidi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess living and workplace safety conditions of construction workers in Tehran, Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 410 construction sites in a municipal area of Tehran whose municipal building permits were issued in 2011. Data on ventilation, workplace safety and hygiene were collected by direct observation and interviews with site foremen. Noise levels were estimated from 10 sound-level-meter stations in the municipality area. Lack of ventilation in the workers' rooms was abundant. Bathrooms were unhygienic and minimum requirements such as lighting and ventilation did not exist in 80% of the cases. In nearly 50% of large construction sites, sewage and garbage disposal were inappropriate. Elevator safety was poor at all sites and no measures for fall prevention were present in over 88% of active construction sites. This study showed that the mean 24-h equivalent continuous sound level Leq was over 70 dB in 80% of the sites during weekdays. The results of this study revealed poor health and safety living and working conditions of construction workers in Tehran.

  14. Comparison of surface meteorological data representativeness for the Weldon Spring transport and dispersion modeling analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaro, M.

    1989-06-01

    The US Department of Energy is conducting the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project under the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). The major goals of the SFMP are to eliminate potential hazards to the public and the environment that associated with contamination at SFMP sites and to make surplus property available for other uses to the extent possible. This report presents the results of analysis of available meteorological data from stations near the Weldon Spring site. Data that are most representative of site conditions are needed to accurately model the transport and dispersion of air pollutants associated with remedial activities. Such modeling will assist the development of mitigative measures. 17 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs

  15. Operative meteorological data base in Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelgren, A.; Hallberg, B.; Nordlinder, S.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes how data collected during a field measurement campaign were analysed and compiled to create a data base for operative use. The data base gives information about the wind and the atmospheric stability at five locations around the Forsmark nuclear power plant. In the measurement campaign, sodar systems and a 100 m high tower at Forsmark were used. Temperature, wind speed and wind direction were measured by sensors on the tower, while wind speed and direction, and the standard deviation of the vertical wind, were monitored by the sodar systems. This gave meteorological data from several heights. At Forsmark, the temperature difference and the wind speed from the tower were used to determine the atmospheric stability. At the sodar locations, the stability was deduced by employing a scheme which considered the season, the time of day, the wind direction and the wind speed. To create the operative data base, the wind speeds and wind directions, respectively, from two locations at the time were correlated. A code for graphical and numerical presentation of the data from the data base was developed. A special system of warnings was included, featuring notification about phenomena such as sea breeze, warnings about large variation in the wind conditions within the area, and warnings for situations in which the meteorological conditions make the results from the atmospheric dispersion calculations uncertain. This feature was implemented to alert the user to the fact that ordinary dispersion and dose calculations, using meteorological data from a single point, might give erroneous results. The operative data base and the presentation code were integrated with the dispersion and dose calculation code AIRPAC/EMMA, which is to be used in case of increased releases from nuclear power plants. The possibility to use the data from the operative data base in the dispersion calculations was investigated. It was found that a modification of AIRPAC/EMMA, in such a

  16. PREVIMER : Meteorological inputs and outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenel, H.; Lecornu, F.; Kerléguer, L.

    2009-09-01

    PREVIMER is a pre-operational system aiming to provide a wide range of users, from private individuals to professionals, with short-term forecasts about the coastal environment along the French coastlines bordering the English Channel, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Mediterranean Sea. Observation data and digital modelling tools first provide 48-hour (probably 96-hour by summer 2009) forecasts of sea states, currents, sea water levels and temperatures. The follow-up of an increasing number of biological parameters will, in time, complete this overview of coastal environment. Working in partnership with the French Naval Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service (Service Hydrographique et Océanographique de la Marine, SHOM), the French National Weather Service (Météo-France), the French public science and technology research institute (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, IRD), the European Institute of Marine Studies (Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer, IUEM) and many others, IFREMER (the French public institute fo marine research) is supplying the technologies needed to ensure this pertinent information, available daily on Internet at http://www.previmer.org, and stored at the Operational Coastal Oceanographic Data Centre. Since 2006, PREVIMER publishes the results of demonstrators assigned to limited geographic areas and to specific applications. This system remains experimental. The following topics are covered : Hydrodynamic circulation, sea states, follow-up of passive tracers, conservative or non-conservative (specifically of microbiological origin), biogeochemical state, primary production. Lastly, PREVIMER provides researchers and R&D departments with modelling tools and access to the database, in which the observation data and the modelling results are stored, to undertake environmental studies on new sites. The communication will focus on meteorological inputs to and outputs from PREVIMER. It will draw the lessons from almost 3 years during

  17. Inversion of GPS meteorology data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hocke

    Full Text Available The GPS meteorology (GPS/MET experiment, led by the Universities Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR, consists of a GPS receiver aboard a low earth orbit (LEO satellite which was launched on 3 April 1995. During a radio occultation the LEO satellite rises or sets relative to one of the 24 GPS satellites at the Earth's horizon. Thereby the atmospheric layers are successively sounded by radio waves which propagate from the GPS satellite to the LEO satellite. From the observed phase path increases, which are due to refraction of the radio waves by the ionosphere and the neutral atmosphere, the atmospheric parameter refractivity, density, pressure and temperature are calculated with high accuracy and resolution (0.5–1.5 km. In the present study, practical aspects of the GPS/MET data analysis are discussed. The retrieval is based on the Abelian integral inversion of the atmospheric bending angle profile into the refractivity index profile. The problem of the upper boundary condition of the Abelian integral is described by examples. The statistical optimization approach which is applied to the data above 40 km and the use of topside bending angle profiles from model atmospheres stabilize the inversion. The retrieved temperature profiles are compared with corresponding profiles which have already been calculated by scientists of UCAR and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL, using Abelian integral inversion too. The comparison shows that in some cases large differences occur (5 K and more. This is probably due to different treatment of the upper boundary condition, data runaways and noise. Several temperature profiles with wavelike structures at tropospheric and stratospheric heights are shown. While the periodic structures at upper stratospheric heights could be caused by residual errors of the ionospheric correction method, the periodic temperature fluctuations at heights below 30 km are most likely caused by atmospheric waves (vertically

  18. Assessment of site conditions for disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes: A case study in southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Shuping; Ma, Haiyi; Zheng, Chunmiao; Zhu, Xiaobin; Wang, Hua'an; Li, Xueshan; Hu, Xueling; Qin, Jianbo

    2012-01-01

    Near surface disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes (LILW) requires evaluating the field conditions of the candidate site. However, assessment of the site conditions may be challenging due to the limited prior knowledge of some remote sites, and various multi-disciplinary data requirements at any given site. These situations arise in China as in the rest of the industrialized world, particularly since a regional strategy for LILW disposal has been implemented to protect humans and the environment. This paper presents a demonstration of the site assessment process through a case study focusing mainly on the geologic, hydrogeologic and geochemical characteristics of the candidate site. A joint on-site and laboratory investigation, supplemented by numerical modeling, was implemented in this assessment. Results indicate that no fault is present in the site area, although there are some minor joints and fractures, primarily showing a north–south trend. Most of the joints are filled with quartz deposits and would thus function hydraulically as impervious barriers. Investigation of local hydrologic boundaries has shown that the candidate site represents an essentially isolated hydrogeologic unit, and that little or no groundwater flow occurs across its boundaries on the north or east, or across the hilly areas to the south. Groundwater in the site area is recharged by precipitation and discharges primarily by evapo-transpiration and surface flow through a narrow outlet to the west. Groundwater flows slowly from the hilly area to the foot of the hills and discharges mainly into the inner brooks and marshes. Some groundwater circulates in deeper granite in a slower manner. The vadose zone in the site was investigated specially for their significant capability for restraining the transport of radionuclides. Results indicate that the vadose zone is up to 38 m in thickness and is made up of alluvial clay soils and very highly weathered granite. The vadose

  19. Streambed scour evaluations and conditions at selected bridge sites in Alaska, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebee, Robin A.; Schauer, Paul V.

    2015-11-19

    Streambed scour potential was evaluated at 18 river- and stream-spanning bridges in Alaska that have unknown foundation details or a lack of existing scour analysis. All sites were evaluated for stream stability and long-term scour potential. Contraction scour and abutment scour were calculated for 17 bridges, and pier scour was calculated for 7 bridges that had piers. Vertical contraction (pressure flow) scour was calculated for sites with overtopping floods (where the modeled water surface was higher than the superstructure of the bridge). In most cases, hydraulic models of the 1- and 0.2-percent annual exceedance probability floods (also known as the 100- and 500-year floods, respectively) were used to derive hydraulic variables for the scour calculations. Alternate flood values were used in scour calculations for sites where smaller floods overtopped a bridge or where standard flood-frequency estimation techniques did not apply. Scour was also calculated for large recorded floods at several sites. Equations for scour in cohesive soils were used for sites where streambed sediment was silt-sized or smaller.

  20. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Rifle, Colorado. Volume 2, Appendices D and E: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    This appendix assesses the present conditions and data gathered about the two inactive uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado, and the designated disposal site six miles north of Rifle in the area of Estes Gulch. It consolidates available engineering, radiological, geotechnical, hydrological, meteorological, and other information pertinent to the design of the Remedial Action Plan (RAP). The data characterize conditions at the mill, tailings, and disposal site so that the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) may complete final designs for the remedial actions.

  1. Minimal conditions of use for the practical manipulations and for the school site

    CERN Document Server

    Int. At. Energy Agency, Wien

    2002-01-01

    This document aims to specify the demands concerning the school site used for the practical works of the formation on risks prevention of personnel of A or B category working in nuclear facilities. It is devoted to every formation organizations, teaching in that domain. (A.L.B.)

  2. Assessing Riparian Vegetation Condition and Function in Disturbed Sites of the Arid Northwestern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Cornejo-Denman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Transformation or modification of vegetation distribution and structure in arid riparian ecosystems can lead to the loss of ecological function. Mexico has 101,500,000 ha of arid lands, however there is a general lack of information regarding how arid riparian ecosystems are being modified. To assess these modifications, we use eight sites in the San Miguel River (central Sonora to analyze (1 riparian vegetation composition, structure and distribution using field sampling and remote sensing data from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV; (2 productivity (proxies, using vegetation indices derived from satellite data; and (3 variability posed by riparian vegetation and vegetation adjacent to riparian habitats. The development of a simple yet informative Anthropogenic-disturbance Index (ADI allowed us to classify and describe each study site. We found sharp differences in vegetation composition and structure between sites due to the absence/presence of obligate-riparian species. We also report significant difference between EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index values for the dry season among vegetation types that develop near the edges of the river but differ in composition, suggesting that land cover changes form obligate-riparian to facultative-riparian species can lead to a loss in potential productivity. Finally, our tests suggest that sites with higher disturbance present lower photosynthetic activity.

  3. Site condition, structure, and growth of baldcypress along tidal/non-tidal salinity gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, K.W.; Duberstein, J.A.; Doyle, T.W.; Conner, W.H.; Day, Richard H.; Inabinette, L.W.; Whitbeck, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    This report documents changes in forest structure and growth potential of dominant trees in salt-impacted tidal and non-tidal baldcypress wetlands of the southeastern United States. We inventoried basal area and tree height, and monitored incremental growth (in basal area) of codominant baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) trees monthly, for over four years, to examine the inter-relationships among growth, site fertility, and soil physico-chemical characteristics. We found that salinity, soil total nitrogen (TN), flood duration, and flood frequency affected forest structure and growth the greatest. While mean annual site salinity ranged from 0.1 to 3.4 ppt, sites with salinity concentrations of 1.3 ppt or greater supported a basal area of less than 40 m2/ha. Where salinity was < 0.7 ppt, basal area was as high as 87 m2/ha. Stand height was also negatively affected by higher salinity. However, salinity related only to soil TN concentrations or to the relative balance between soil TN and total phosphorus (TP), which reached a maximum concentration between 1.2 and 2.0 ppt salinity. As estuarine influence shifts inland with sea-level rise, forest growth may become more strongly linked to salinity, not only due to salt effects but also as a consequence of site nitrogen imbalance.

  4. Assessment of loblolly pine decline and site conditions on Fort Benning Military Reservation, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger D. Menard; Lori G. Eckhardt; Nolan J. Hess

    2010-01-01

    A decline of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), characterized by expanding areas of declining and dead trees, has become prevalent at Fort Benning, GA. A 3-year study was conducted to determine the kinds of fungi, insects, and site disturbances associated with this problem. The insects Dendroctonus terebrans, Hylastes salebrosus, H. tenuis, Pachylobius picivorus...

  5. Operant Conditioning Concepts in Introductory Psychology Textbooks and Their Companion Web Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Jane P.

    2002-01-01

    Psychology instructors and textbook authors rate operant conditioning as one of the most essential concepts for students to learn, yet textbook writers, as well as students, can fall prey to misconceptions. This study is a content analysis of the presentation of operant conditioning in introductory psychology textbooks and their companion Web…

  6. Groundwater flow analysis on local scale. Setting boundary conditions for groundwater flow analysis on site scale model in step 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, Takuya; Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Onoe, Hironori

    2005-05-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute has been conducting a wide range of geoscientific research in order to build a foundation for multidisciplinary studies of the deep geological environment as a basis of research and development for geological disposal of nuclear wastes. Ongoing geoscientific research programs include the Regional Hydrogeological Study (RHS) project and Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) project in the Tono region, Gifu Prefecture. The main goal of these projects is to establish comprehensive techniques for investigation, analysis, and assessment of the deep geological environment at several spatial scales. The RHS project is a local scale study for understanding the groundwater flow system from the recharge area to the discharge area. The surface-based Investigation Phase of the MIU project is a site scale study for understanding the groundwater flow system immediately surrounding the MIU construction site. The MIU project is being conducted using a multiphase, iterative approach. In this study, the hydrogeological modeling and groundwater flow analysis of the local scale were carried out in order to set boundary conditions of the site scale model based on the data obtained from surface-based investigations in Step 1 in site scale of the MIU project. As a result of the study, head distribution to set boundary conditions for groundwater flow analysis on the site scale model could be obtained. (author)

  7. Meteorology/Oceanography Help - Naval Oceanography Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    section Advanced Search... Sections Home Time Earth Orientation Astronomy Meteorology Oceanography Ice You are here: Home › Help › Meteorology/Oceanography Help USNO Logo USNO Info Meteorology/Oceanography Help Send an e-mail regarding meteorology or oceanography products. Privacy Advisory Your E-Mail

  8. V S30, slope, H 800 and f 0: performance of various site-condition proxies in reducing ground-motion aleatory variability and predicting nonlinear site response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derras, Boumédiène; Bard, Pierre-Yves; Cotton, Fabrice

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the ability of various site-condition proxies (SCPs) to reduce ground-motion aleatory variability and evaluate how SCPs capture nonlinearity site effects. The SCPs used here are time-averaged shear-wave velocity in the top 30 m ( V S30), the topographical slope (slope), the fundamental resonance frequency ( f 0) and the depth beyond which V s exceeds 800 m/s ( H 800). We considered first the performance of each SCP taken alone and then the combined performance of the 6 SCP pairs [ V S30- f 0], [ V S30- H 800], [ f 0-slope], [ H 800-slope], [ V S30-slope] and [ f 0- H 800]. This analysis is performed using a neural network approach including a random effect applied on a KiK-net subset for derivation of ground-motion prediction equations setting the relationship between various ground-motion parameters such as peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity and pseudo-spectral acceleration PSA ( T), and M w, R JB, focal depth and SCPs. While the choice of SCP is found to have almost no impact on the median ground-motion prediction, it does impact the level of aleatory uncertainty. V S30 is found to perform the best of single proxies at short periods ( T < 0.6 s), while f 0 and H 800 perform better at longer periods; considering SCP pairs leads to significant improvements, with particular emphasis on [ V S30- H 800] and [ f 0-slope] pairs. The results also indicate significant nonlinearity on the site terms for soft sites and that the most relevant loading parameter for characterising nonlinear site response is the "stiff" spectral ordinate at the considered period.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. Development of a green roof environmental monitoring and meteorological network in new york city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffin, Stuart R; Khanbilvardi, Reza; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    Green roofs (with plant cover) are gaining attention in the United States as a versatile new environmental mitigation technology. Interest in data on the environmental performance of these systems is growing, particularly with respect to urban heat island mitigation and stormwater runoff control. We are deploying research stations on a diverse array of green roofs within the New York City area, affording a new opportunity to monitor urban environmental conditions at small scales. We show some green roof systems being monitored, describe the sensor selection employed to study energy balance, and show samples of selected data. These roofs should be superior to other urban rooftops as sites for meteorological stations.

  10. Development of a Green Roof Environmental Monitoring and Meteorological Network in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Rosenzweig

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Green roofs (with plant cover are gaining attention in the United States as a versatile new environmental mitigation technology. Interest in data on the environmental performance of these systems is growing, particularly with respect to urban heat island mitigation and stormwater runoff control. We are deploying research stations on a diverse array of green roofs within the New York City area, affording a new opportunity to monitor urban environmental conditions at small scales. We show some green roof systems being monitored, describe the sensor selection employed to study energy balance, and show samples of selected data. These roofs should be superior to other urban rooftops as sites for meteorological stations.

  11. Charcoal kiln sites, associated landscape attributes and historic forest conditions: DTM-based investigations in Hesse (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Schmidt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background An examination of the distribution of ancient charcoal kiln sites in the forest landscape seems to be worthwhile, since general trends in the selection of suitable kiln site locations in the past might become obvious. In this way forest landscape elements with a more intense usage by charcoal burning can be identified. By doing this, we can expect to gain information on the former condition and tree species composition of woodland. Investigations on the spatial distribution of charcoal kiln sites in relation to landscape attributes are sparse, however, probably due to the high on-site mapping effort. The outstanding suitability of LiDAR-derived digital terrain models (DTMs for the detection of charcoal kiln sites has been recently proved. Hence, DTM-based surveys of charcoal kiln sites represent a promising attempt to fill this research gap. Methods Based on DTM-based surveys, we analyzed the spatial distribution of charcoal kiln sites in two forest landscapes in the German federal state of Hesse: Reinhardswald and Kellerwald-Edersee National Park. In doing so, we considered the landscape attibutes "tree species composition", “water supply status”, “nutrient supply status”, “soil complex classes”, “altitude”, “exposition”, and “inclination”. Results We found that charcoal kiln sites were established preferably on hillside locations that provided optimal growing and regeneration conditions for European beech (Fagus sylvatica due to their acidic brown soils and sufficient water supply. These results are in line with instructions for the selection of appropriate kiln site locations, found in literature from the 18th to the 19th century. Conclusions We conclude that there were well-stocked, beech-dominated deciduous forest stands in northern Hesse before 1800, particularly at poorly accessible hillside locations. These large stocks of beech wood were utilized by the governments of the different Hessian territories

  12. Surface Wind Gust Statistics at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, A.H.

    2001-01-01

    The Atmospheric Technologies Group (ATG) of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) collects meteorological data for many purposes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) including weather forecasting. This study focuses on wind gusts and also, to a lesser degree, turbulence intensities that occur in fair weather conditions near the surface over time periods from 1 hour to one week (168 hours)

  13. Mitigative techniques and analysis of generic site conditions for ground-water contamination associated with severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafer, J.M.; Oberlander, P.L.; Skaggs, R.L.

    1984-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using ground-water contaminant mitigation techniques to control radionuclide migration following a severe commercial nuclear power reactor accident. The two types of severe commercial reactor accidents investigated are: (1) containment basemat penetration of core melt debris which slowly cools and leaches radionuclides to the subsurface environment, and (2) containment basemat penetration of sump water without full penetration of the core mass. Six generic hydrogeologic site classifications are developed from an evaluation of reported data pertaining to the hydrogeologic properties of all existing and proposed commercial reactor sites. One-dimensional radionuclide transport analyses are conducted on each of the individual reactor sites to determine the generic characteristics of a radionuclide discharge to an accessible environment. Ground-water contaminant mitigation techniques that may be suitable, depending on specific site and accident conditions, for severe power plant accidents are identified and evaluated. Feasible mitigative techniques and associated constraints on feasibility are determined for each of the six hydrogeologic site classifications. The first of three case studies is conducted on a site located on the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain. Mitigative strategies are evaluated for their impact on contaminant transport and results show that the techniques evaluated significantly increased ground-water travel times. 31 references, 118 figures, 62 tables.

  14. Mitigative techniques and analysis of generic site conditions for ground-water contamination associated with severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafer, J.M.; Oberlander, P.L.; Skaggs, R.L.

    1984-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using ground-water contaminant mitigation techniques to control radionuclide migration following a severe commercial nuclear power reactor accident. The two types of severe commercial reactor accidents investigated are: (1) containment basemat penetration of core melt debris which slowly cools and leaches radionuclides to the subsurface environment, and (2) containment basemat penetration of sump water without full penetration of the core mass. Six generic hydrogeologic site classifications are developed from an evaluation of reported data pertaining to the hydrogeologic properties of all existing and proposed commercial reactor sites. One-dimensional radionuclide transport analyses are conducted on each of the individual reactor sites to determine the generic characteristics of a radionuclide discharge to an accessible environment. Ground-water contaminant mitigation techniques that may be suitable, depending on specific site and accident conditions, for severe power plant accidents are identified and evaluated. Feasible mitigative techniques and associated constraints on feasibility are determined for each of the six hydrogeologic site classifications. The first of three case studies is conducted on a site located on the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain. Mitigative strategies are evaluated for their impact on contaminant transport and results show that the techniques evaluated significantly increased ground-water travel times. 31 references, 118 figures, 62 tables

  15. Marine meteorology and fisheries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshBabu, V.

    . At higher latitudes, icing of fishing boats under adverse weather conditions is a very serious one causing the loss of both vessels and fishermen. Foul weather also affects the fishing gear due to large waves and strong currents. Fish of economical...

  16. Meteorology observations in the Athabasca oil sands region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Meteorological data was collected in the Athabasca oil sands area of Alberta in support of Syncrude' application for approval to develop and operate the Aurora Mine. Meteorology controls the transport and dispersion of gaseous and particulate emissions which are vented into the atmosphere. Several meteorological monitoring stations have been set up in the Fort McMurray and Fort McKay area. The study was part of Suncor's commitment to Alberta Environmental Protection to substantially reduce SO 2 emissions by July 1996. Also, as a condition of approval of the proposed Aurora Mine, the company was required to develop additional ambient air quality, sulphur deposition and biomonitoring programs. Background reports were prepared for: (1) source characterization, (2) ambient air quality observations, (3) meteorology observations, and (4) air quality monitoring. The following factors were incorporated into dispersion modelling: terrain, wind, turbulence, temperature, net radiation and mixing height, relative humidity and precipitation. 15 refs., 9 tabs., 40 figs

  17. Meteorological safeguarding of nuclear power plant operation in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rak, J.; Skulec, S.

    1976-01-01

    A meteorological tower 200 m high has to be built for meteorological control of the operation of the A-1 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice. This meteorological station will measure the physical properties of the lower layers of the atmosphere, carry out experimental verifications of the models of air pollution, investigate the effects of waste heat and waste water from the nuclear power plant on the microclimate, provide the theoretical processing of measured data with the aim of selecting the most favourable model for conditions prevailing in the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, perform basic research of the physical properties of the ground and boundary layers of the atmosphere and the coordination of state-wide plans in the field of securing the operation of nuclear power plants with regard to meteorology. (Z.M.)

  18. Developing International Standards for Meteorological Balloon to Facilitate Industrial Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Yizhi

    2011-01-01

    Meteorological balloon is made of natural rubber latex with a special process.On natural conditions,it carries the air sounding instrument into the high air to detect the meteorological elements in the air.As a means of delivery used in the aerological sounding,it is widely used in the meteorological,sailing,aeronautical,aerospace and other fields,and plays an extremely important role in the weather report,disaster prevention,disaster relief,guaranteeing ships and aircrafts to leave ports safely,and scientific research in relevant spaces,etc.Especially,the role of meteorological balloons is not ignorable in the forecast of extremely adverse weather frequently occurring around the world in recent years.

  19. Development of regional meteorological and atmospheric diffusion simulation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Ryuji; Iwashige, Kengo; Kasano, Toshio

    2002-01-01

    Regional atmospheric diffusion online network (RADON) with atmospheric diffusion analysis code (ADAC) : a simulation program of diffusion of radioactive materials, volcanic ash, pollen, NOx and SOx was developed. This system can be executed in personal computer (PC) and note PC on Windows. Emission data consists of online, offline and default data. It uses the meteorology data sources such as meteorological forecasting mesh data, automated meteorological data acquisition system (AMeDAS) data, meteorological observation data in site and municipality observation data. The meteorological forecasting mesh data shows forecasting value of temperature, wind speed, wind direction and humidity in about two days. The nuclear environmental monitoring center retains the online data (meteorological data, emission source data, monitoring station data) in its PC server and can run forecasting or repeating calculation using these data and store and print out the calculation results. About 30 emission materials can be calculated simultaneously. This system can simulate a series of weather from the past and real time to the future. (S.Y.)

  20. Seed Bank Variation under Contrasting Site Quality Conditions in Mixed Oak Forests of Southeastern Ohio, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, Ch.J.; McCarthy, B.C.

    2010-01-01

    Seed bank composition was sampled in 192-2.5 m 2 quadrats, established in six regenerating clearcut (∼7 years) and six second-growth ((∼125 years) mixed-oak forest stands in southeastern Ohio. Seed bank and aboveground composition diverged markedly (Sorensen's coefficient <10%), emphasizing the importance of fast-growing, early-successional germinants to early ecosystem recovery. Seed richness was significantly (ρ<.01) higher in clearcut stands, suggesting declining richness with stand age. Richness estimations 28%-60% higher than observed values demonstrated high seed bank heterogeneity, emphasizing the need for intensive sampling to assess temperate forest seed bank variation. Site quality (topographic aspect) strongly influenced seed bank composition, with greater importance of early-successional trees, thicket-forming shrubs, and nonnative species on mesic sites. Thus, forest seed banks are likely to play an important, site-dependent role in shaping competitive environments for commercially important timber species after harvesting and soil disturbance and have the potential for marked influence on post harvest forest development.

  1. Seed Bank Variation under Contrasting Site Quality Conditions in Mixed Oak Forests of Southeastern Ohio, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine J. Small

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed bank composition was sampled in 192–2.5 m2 quadrats, established in six regenerating clearcut (∼7 years and six second-growth (∼125 years mixed-oak forest stands in southeastern Ohio. Seed bank and aboveground composition diverged markedly (Sørensen's coefficient <10%, emphasizing the importance of fast-growing, early-successional germinants to early ecosystem recovery. Seed richness was significantly (P<.01 higher in clearcut stands, suggesting declining richness with stand age. Richness estimations 28%–60% higher than observed values demonstrated high seed bank heterogeneity, emphasizing the need for intensive sampling to assess temperate forest seed bank variation. Site quality (topographic aspect strongly influenced seed bank composition, with greater importance of early-successional trees, thicket-forming shrubs, and nonnative species on mesic sites. Thus, forest seed banks are likely to play an important, site-dependent role in shaping competitive environments for commercially important timber species after harvesting and soil disturbance and have the potential for marked influence on postharvest forest development.

  2. A system for real-time environmental assessment using an operational meteorological data base for dispersion calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelgren, A.; Hallberg, B.; Nordlinder, S.; Salomonsson, S.

    1990-01-01

    A method for assessing the meteorological conditions on a local scale, about 20 km, around a specific site was developed, and applied to the area around the Forsmark nuclear power plant, situated on the coast about 100 km north of Stockholm. Meteorological data were collected, for an one-year period, from sensors in a tower and from a Sodar system at Forsmark. In addition, two Sodar systems were placed at several locations around the power plant, out to a distance of approximately 20 km. By statistical compiling, an operational data base was established, consisting of classes of wind speed, wind direction and atmospheric stability. The data from the remote sites were related to those from Forsmark. This gave the possibility to determine the variation of the meteorological conditions in time and space, using data from a single location only. The main objective of the Forsmark project was to identify and indicate situations in which the conditions for dispersion were difficult to model accurately when using measurements taken from a conventional tower, without knowledge of the influence of local mesoscale disturbances. Such could be e.g. sea breeze, large horizontal or vertical wind shear, terrain-induced flow patterns etc. The use of an operational data base, as described above, in connection with real-time dispersion models, such as AIRPAC/EMMA, will improve the performance of such models, as well as consequence analyses, in case of accidental releases from nuclear power plants or other industrial plants

  3. Assessment of site conditions for disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes: a case study in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shuping; Ma, Haiyi; Zheng, Chunmiao; Zhu, Xiaobin; Wang, Hua'an; Li, Xueshan; Hu, Xueling; Qin, Jianbo

    2012-01-01

    Near surface disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes (LILW) requires evaluating the field conditions of the candidate site. However, assessment of the site conditions may be challenging due to the limited prior knowledge of some remote sites, and various multi-disciplinary data requirements at any given site. These situations arise in China as in the rest of the industrialized world, particularly since a regional strategy for LILW disposal has been implemented to protect humans and the environment. This paper presents a demonstration of the site assessment process through a case study focusing mainly on the geologic, hydrogeologic and geochemical characteristics of the candidate site. A joint on-site and laboratory investigation, supplemented by numerical modeling, was implemented in this assessment. Results indicate that no fault is present in the site area, although there are some minor joints and fractures, primarily showing a north-south trend. Most of the joints are filled with quartz deposits and would thus function hydraulically as impervious barriers. Investigation of local hydrologic boundaries has shown that the candidate site represents an essentially isolated hydrogeologic unit, and that little or no groundwater flow occurs across its boundaries on the north or east, or across the hilly areas to the south. Groundwater in the site area is recharged by precipitation and discharges primarily by evapo-transpiration and surface flow through a narrow outlet to the west. Groundwater flows slowly from the hilly area to the foot of the hills and discharges mainly into the inner brooks and marshes. Some groundwater circulates in deeper granite in a slower manner. The vadose zone in the site was investigated specially for their significant capability for restraining the transport of radionuclides. Results indicate that the vadose zone is up to 38m in thickness and is made up of alluvial clay soils and very highly weathered granite. The vadose

  4. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 481: Area 12 T-Tunnel Conditional Release Storage Yard, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 481 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Area 12 T-Tunnel Conditional Release Storage Yard. CAU 481 is located in Area 12 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS), CAS 12-42-05, Housekeeping Waste. CAU 481 closure activities were conducted by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency from August 2007 through July 2008 according to the FFACO and Revision 3 of the Sectored Clean-up Work Plan for Housekeeping Category Waste Sites. Closure activities included removal and disposal of construction debris and low-level waste. Drained fluids, steel, and lead was recycled as appropriate. Waste generated during closure activities was appropriately managed and disposed.

  5. Environmental and ecological conditions at Arctic breeding sites have limited effects on true survival rates of adult shorebirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Emily L.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Brown, Stephen C.; Gates, H. River; Bentzen, Rebecca L.; Bêty, Joël; Boldenow, Megan L.; English, Willow B.; Franks, Samantha E.; Koloski, Laura; Kwon, Eunbi; Lamarre, Jean-Francois; Lank, David B.; Liebezeit, Joseph R.; McKinnon, Laura; Nol, Erica; Rausch, Jennie; Saalfeld, Sarah T.; Senner, Nathan R.; Ward, David H.; Woodard, Paul F.; Sandercock, Brett K.

    2018-01-01

    Many Arctic shorebird populations are declining, and quantifying adult survival and the effects of anthropogenic factors is a crucial step toward a better understanding of population dynamics. We used a recently developed, spatially explicit Cormack–Jolly–Seber model in a Bayesian framework to obtain broad-scale estimates of true annual survival rates for 6 species of shorebirds at 9 breeding sites across the North American Arctic in 2010–2014. We tested for effects of environmental and ecological variables, study site, nest fate, and sex on annual survival rates of each species in the spatially explicit framework, which allowed us to distinguish between effects of variables on site fidelity versus true survival. Our spatially explicit analysis produced estimates of true survival rates that were substantially higher than previously published estimates of apparent survival for most species, ranging from S = 0.72 to 0.98 across 5 species. However, survival was lower for the arcticolasubspecies of Dunlin (Calidris alpina arcticola; S = 0.54), our only study taxon that migrates through the East Asian–Australasian Flyway. Like other species that use that flyway, arcticola Dunlin could be experiencing unsustainably low survival rates as a result of loss of migratory stopover habitat. Survival rates of our study species were not affected by timing of snowmelt or summer temperature, and only 2 species showed minor variation among study sites. Furthermore, although previous reproductive success, predator abundance, and the availability of alternative prey each affected survival of one species, no factors broadly affected survival across species. Overall, our findings of few effects of environmental or ecological variables suggest that annual survival rates of adult shorebirds are generally robust to conditions at Arctic breeding sites. Instead, conditions at migratory stopovers or overwintering sites might be driving adult survival rates and should be the

  6. Operational Circular No.2 (Rev. 2) - Conditions of access to the fenced parts of the CERN site

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Operational Circular No. 2 (Rev. 2) entitled “Conditions of access to the fenced parts of the CERN site” and its “implementation measures”, approved by the Director-General following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee meeting on 20 May 2014 and entering into force on 1 September 2014, are available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department (see here).   This circular is applicable to members of the personnel and other persons concerned. It cancels and replaces Operational Circular No. 2 (Rev. 1) entitled “Conditions of access to the fenced parts of the CERN site”, of April 1998. In particular, the revised circular provides for the possibility of mandating a person responsible for the proper implementation of the circular, specifies the rules relating to vehicles allowed on the site and the respective responsibilities of their owners, and relaxes certain administrative formalities in case of loss, theft or di...

  7. Atmospheric transport of radioisotopes and the assessment of population doses on a European scale. Application of the MESOS code to the meteorological dispersion of radioactive discharges from notional nuclear sites in the European Community with particular reference to the mesoscale. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ApSimon, H.M.; Goddard, A.J.H.

    1983-01-01

    A first requirement of this work was the development of a model to predict the medium to long range transport and dispersal of atmospheric releases of radionuclides. One of the difficulties in such predictions is that meteorological conditions at the source become less and less relevant as the travel time increases and it is not obvious how models suitable for use close to the source may be extrapolated. Furthermore, a model capable of predicting a range of possible consequences of an accidental release in a wide variety of evolving meteorological situation necessarily has to be more detailed than a mode giving average or representative values. A suitable model, called MESOS, was therefore developed. This model uses data derived from standard meteorological observations from synoptic stations and ships to follow the trajectories and dispersion of material released. Evolving meteorological conditions in the boundary layer of the atmosphere, such as the mixing layer depth, are included in the model; and the important contribution of synoptic scale wind shear to horizontal spreading and dilution of material over longer travel distances allowed for. MESOS also takes account of the time of occurrence, the location, and the intensity and duration of rain leading to wet deposition. Time-integrated atmospheric concentrations, and dry and wet deposition may be calculated at a grid of receptor points for releases of several different nuclides. A critical review of the model is presented in which various sources of error in predictions for short term releases are discussed and in which a more detailed explanation is given of the meteorological aspects of the model. Although the MESOS model was not intended for accurate forecasting in a particular accident situation, results are presented, and compared with measurement, for the release of iodine 131 during the Windscale release of 1957. In order to apply the model to Western Europe using realistic data it was necessary to

  8. Hydrochemistry and hydrogeologic conditions within the Hanford Site upper basalt confined aquifer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spane, F.A. Jr.; Webber, W.D.

    1995-09-01

    As part of the Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance Project, Flow System Characterization Task. Pacific Northwest Laboratory examines the potential for offsite migration of contamination within the upper basalt confined aquifer system for the US Department of Energy (DOE). As part of this activity, groundwater samples were collected over the past 2 years from selected wells completed in the upper Saddle Mountains Basalt. The hydrochemical and isotopic information obtained from these groundwater samples provides hydrologic information concerning the aquifer-flow system. Ideally, when combined with other hydrologic property information, hydrochemical and isotopic data can be used to evaluate the origin and source of groundwater, areal groundwater-flow patterns, residence and groundwater travel time, rock/groundwater reactions, and aquifer intercommunication for the upper basalt confined aquifer system. This report presents the first comprehensive Hanford Site-wide summary of hydrochemical properties for the upper basalt confined aquifer system. This report provides the hydrogeologic characteristics (Section 2.0) and hydrochemical properties (Section 3.0) for groundwater within this system. A detailed description of the range of the identified hydrochemical parameter subgroups for groundwater in the upper basalt confined aquifer system is also presented in Section 3.0. Evidence that is indicative of aquifer contamination/aquifer intercommunication and an assessment of the potential for offsite migration of contaminants in groundwater within the upper basalt aquifer is provided in Section 4.0. The references cited throughout the report are given in Section 5.0. Tables that summarize groundwater sample analysis results for individual test interval/well sites are included in the Appendix

  9. Meteorological tracers in regional planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, K.H.

    1974-11-01

    Atmospheric tracers can be used as indicators to study both the ventilation of an urban region and its dispersion meteorology for air pollutants. A correlation analysis applied to the space-time dependent tracer concentrations is able to give transfer functions, the structure and characteristic parameters of which describe the meteorological and topographical situation of the urban region and its surroundings in an integral manner. To reduce the number of persons usually involved in a tracer experiment an automatic air sampling system had to be developed

  10. Creation of integrated information model of 'Ukryttya' object premises and industrial site conditions to support works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postil, S.D.; Ermolenko, A.I.; Ivanov, V.V.; Kotlyarov, V.T.

    2004-01-01

    Data integration is made using standard AutoCAD utility and special software developed in Visual Basic for Application language. Mutual transfer is realized between the applications prepared in Access and AutoCAD with displaying the submitted information. The work demonstrates a possibility to apply integrated information model for investigating radiation field's change and analysis regularities in premises and on industrial site area, development and visualization, with the use of computer animation means, of movement routes, displaying of emergency situations being forecast with the help of computer graphics means, integration of raster display of structures and vector computer model of objects

  11. Autonomous Operation of Mars Meteorological Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, W.; Harri, A.-M.; Vázquez, L.; Linkin, V.; Alexashkin, S.

    2012-09-01

    In the next years a series of small landing vehicles concentrating on Martian meteorology should be deployed to the surface of Mars. As commanding from Earth will not be possible most of the time, the station software has to be capable of adapting to any foreseeable conditions and optimize the science return as much as feasible. In this paper we outline the constraints and strategies implemented into the control system of the MetNet Landers. For details to the mission and its instruments see the mission home page [1].

  12. Implementation of an Integrated, Portable Transformer Condition Monitoring Instrument in the Classroom and On-Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, B.; Dey, D.; Chakravorti, S.

    2010-01-01

    The development of integrated, portable, transformer condition monitoring (TCM) equipment for classroom demonstrations as well as for student exercises conducted in the field is discussed. Demonstrations include experimentation with real-world transformers to illustrate concepts such as polarization and depolarization current through oil-paper…

  13. 10 CFR 50.55 - Conditions of construction permits, early site permits, combined licenses, and manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... construction or manufacture, or any defect found in the final design of a facility as approved and released for..., combined licenses, and manufacturing licenses. 50.55 Section 50.55 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Issuance, Limitations, and Conditions of...

  14. About some indicators of environment condition at the Semipalatinsk tests site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhtin, M.M.; Sejsebaev, A.T.

    2002-01-01

    The paper discusses the opportunity to select methods and indicators of the environment contamination. Using a water object - Chironomini - as an example, methods for assessment of ionizing radiation cytogenetic effects are considered. Indices of chromosomal aberrations generated in living organism cells serve as criteria of the environment ecological condition. (author)

  15. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2016 Meteorological, Radiological, and Wind Transported Particulate Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Jenny [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Nikolich, George [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Shadel, Craig [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Etyemezian, Vicken [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Mizell, Steve [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-10-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). This operation resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at the Clean Slate I, II, and III sites. This report documents observations made during ongoing monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III, and at the TTR Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Range Operations Control (ROC) center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if wind blowing across the Clean Slate sites is transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soil beyond the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites.

  16. Forecasting rain events - Meteorological models or collective intelligence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazy, Ofer; Halfon, Noam; Malkinson, Dan

    2015-04-01

    Collective intelligence is shared (or group) intelligence that emerges from the collective efforts of many individuals. Collective intelligence is the aggregate of individual contributions: from simple collective decision making to more sophisticated aggregations such as in crowdsourcing and peer-production systems. In particular, collective intelligence could be used in making predictions about future events, for example by using prediction markets to forecast election results, stock prices, or the outcomes of sport events. To date, there is little research regarding the use of collective intelligence for prediction of weather forecasting. The objective of this study is to investigate the extent to which collective intelligence could be utilized to accurately predict weather events, and in particular rainfall. Our analyses employ metrics of group intelligence, as well as compare the accuracy of groups' predictions against the predictions of the standard model used by the National Meteorological Services. We report on preliminary results from a study conducted over the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 winters. We have built a web site that allows people to make predictions on precipitation levels on certain locations. During each competition participants were allowed to enter their precipitation forecasts (i.e. 'bets') at three locations and these locations changed between competitions. A precipitation competition was defined as a 48-96 hour period (depending on the expected weather conditions), bets were open 24-48 hours prior to the competition, and during betting period participants were allowed to change their bets with no limitation. In order to explore the effect of transparency, betting mechanisms varied across study's sites: full transparency (participants able to see each other's bets); partial transparency (participants see the group's average bet); and no transparency (no information of others' bets is made available). Several interesting findings emerged from

  17. Meteorology Assessment of Historic Rainfall for Los Alamos During September 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruggeman, David Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dewart, Jean Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-12

    DOE Order 420.1, Facility Safety, requires that site natural phenomena hazards be evaluated every 10 years to support the design of nuclear facilities. The evaluation requires calculating return period rainfall to determine roof loading requirements and flooding potential based on our on-site rainfall measurements. The return period rainfall calculations are done based on statistical techniques and not site-specific meteorology. This and future studies analyze the meteorological factors that produce the significant rainfall events. These studies provide the meteorology context of the return period rainfall events.

  18. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioning: General Guidance and Site Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.

    2014-09-01

    Dehumidification or latent cooling in buildings is an area of growing interest that has been identified as needing more research and improved technologies for higher performance. Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems typically expend excessive energy by using overcool-and-reheat strategies to dehumidify buildings. These systems first overcool ventilation air to remove moisture and then reheat the air to meet comfort requirements. Another common strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove moisture from the air more efficiently; however, these systems increase fan energy consumption because of the high airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors and can add heat of absorption to the ventilation air. Alternatively, liquid desiccant air-conditioning (LDAC) technology provides an innovative dehumidification solution that: (1) eliminates the need for overcooling and reheating from traditional cooling systems; and (2) avoids the increased fan energy and air heating from solid desiccant rotor systems.

  19. Chemostratigraphy at DSDP Sites 386 (Bermuda Rise) and 144 (Demerara Rise), Implications for Euxinic Conditions During OAE-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, P. A.; Maurrasse, F. J.; Sinninghe-Damsté, J. S.; Sandler, A.

    2008-05-01

    Chemostratigraphic studies of DSDP Site 386 on the Bermuda Rise and Site 144 on the Demerara Rise indicate that euxinic conditions developed at these deep-water sites during the time interval that corresponds to Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE 2). The data show a large increase in Fe/Al ratios, and dispersed pyrite aggregates (Site 386 Core 43, Section 3). Such findings at these deep oceanic sites are compatible with earlier studies showing that sediments in euxinic settings display increases in Fe/Al ratios due to the scavenging of dissolved Fe, and is also in agreement with previous Pr/Ph ratio of cyanobacteria showing low thermal stress, supporting in situ derivation. Elemental analyses at Site 386 also show that relatively high Sr/CaO ratios are present before and after OAE 2, indicating an increased contribution of biogenic carbonates, but not during the C/T boundary event. When Cr is plotted against Al2O3 in conjunction with a solid line representing the Cr/Al2O3 ratio in average shale, half of the samples fall above and half fall below this line. The values that plot above this line are all from Cores 47, 44, 43, and 42, which contain higher TOC. Their strong Cr enrichment with respect to the average shale can be indicative of an algal source of the OM, as this biota preferentially concentrates Cr. Competitive exclusion due to dominance of opportunistic prokaryotic blooms in combination with oxygen depletion can be invoked to explain the conditions that developed and were unfavorable to most other organisms throughout the water column during OAE 2. Sediments from DSDP Site 144 also reveal increased molecular fossils indicative of green sulfur bacteria, which are further characteristic of euxinic conditions (Kuypers et al., 2002; Forster et al., 2004). These results are in agreement with earlier works that showed lipids at DSDP Site 144 are predominantly of an autochthonous origin with primary production as the dominant source (Simoneit and Stuermer, 1982

  20. Microhabitat Conditions in Wyoming's Sage-Grouse Core Areas: Effects on Nest Site Selection and Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkins, Jonathan B; Smith, Kurt T; Beck, Jeffrey L; Kirol, Christopher P; Pratt, Aaron C; Conover, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to identify microhabitat characteristics of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) nest site selection and survival to determine the quality of sage-grouse habitat in 5 regions of central and southwest Wyoming associated with Wyoming's Core Area Policy. Wyoming's Core Area Policy was enacted in 2008 to reduce human disturbance near the greatest densities of sage-grouse. Our analyses aimed to assess sage-grouse nest selection and success at multiple micro-spatial scales. We obtained microhabitat data from 928 sage-grouse nest locations and 819 random microhabitat locations from 2008-2014. Nest success was estimated from 924 nests with survival data. Sage-grouse selected nests with greater sagebrush cover and height, visual obstruction, and number of small gaps between shrubs (gap size ≥0.5 m and sage-grouse were selecting different nest sites in Core Areas relative to areas outside of Core. The Kaplan-Meier nest success estimate for a 27-day incubation period was 42.0% (95% CI: 38.4-45.9%). Risk of nest failure was negatively associated with greater rock and more medium-sized gaps between shrubs (gap size ≥2.0 m and <3.0 m). Within our study areas, Wyoming's Core Areas did not have differing microhabitat quality compared to outside of Core Areas. The close proximity of our locations within and outside of Core Areas likely explained our lack of finding differences in microhabitat quality among locations within these landscapes. However, the Core Area Policy is most likely to conserve high quality habitat at larger spatial scales, which over decades may have cascading effects on microhabitat quality available between areas within and outside of Core Areas.

  1. Evaporation in hydrology and meteorology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, T.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the role of evaporation in hydrology and meteorology is discussed, with the emphasis on hydrology. The basic theory of evaporation is given and methods to determine evaporation are presented. Some applications of evaporation studies in literature are given in order to illustrate the

  2. SUMO: A small unmanned meteorological observer for atmospheric boundary layer research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuder, J; Jonassen, M; Mayer, S; Brisset, P; Mueller, M

    2008-01-01

    A new system for atmospheric measurements in the lower troposphere has been developed and successfully tested. The presented Small Unmanned Meteorological Observer (SUMO) is based on a light-weighted commercially available model airplane, equipped with an autopilot and meteorological sensors for temperature, humidity and pressure. During the 5 week field campaign FLOHOF (Flow over and around HofsjoUkull) in Central Iceland the system has been successfully tested in July/August 2007. Atmospheric profiles of temperature, humidity, wind speed and wind direction have been determined up to 3500 m above ground. In addition the applicability of SUMO for horizontal surveys up to 4 km away from the launch site has been approved. During a 3 week campaign on and around Spitsbergen in February/March 2008 the SUMO system also proved its functionality under harsh polar conditions, reaching altitudes above 1500 m at ground temperatures of -20 deg. C and wind speeds up to 15 m s -1 . With its wingspan of 80 cm, its length of 75 cm and its weight of below 600 g, SUMO is easy to transport and operate even in remote areas. The direct material costs for one SUMO unit, including airplane, autopilot and sensors are below 1200 Euro. Assuming at least several tenths of flights for each airframe, SUMO provides a cost-efficient measurement system with a large potential to close the existing observational gap of reasonable atmospheric measurement systems in between meteorological masts/towers and radiosondes

  3. SUMO: A small unmanned meteorological observer for atmospheric boundary layer research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuder, J; Jonassen, M; Mayer, S [Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Allegaten 70, 5009 Bergen (Norway); Brisset, P [Ecole Nationale de l' Aviation Civile (ENAC), 7 avenue Edouard Belin, 31055 Toulouse (France); Mueller, M [Orleansstrasse 26a, 31135 Hildesheim (Germany)], E-mail: joachim.reuder@gfi.uib.no, E-mail: pascal.brisset@enac.fr, E-mail: marius.jonassen@gfi.uib.no, E-mail: martin@pfump.org, E-mail: stephanie.mayer@gfi.uib.no

    2008-05-01

    A new system for atmospheric measurements in the lower troposphere has been developed and successfully tested. The presented Small Unmanned Meteorological Observer (SUMO) is based on a light-weighted commercially available model airplane, equipped with an autopilot and meteorological sensors for temperature, humidity and pressure. During the 5 week field campaign FLOHOF (Flow over and around HofsjoUkull) in Central Iceland the system has been successfully tested in July/August 2007. Atmospheric profiles of temperature, humidity, wind speed and wind direction have been determined up to 3500 m above ground. In addition the applicability of SUMO for horizontal surveys up to 4 km away from the launch site has been approved. During a 3 week campaign on and around Spitsbergen in February/March 2008 the SUMO system also proved its functionality under harsh polar conditions, reaching altitudes above 1500 m at ground temperatures of -20 deg. C and wind speeds up to 15 m s{sup -1}. With its wingspan of 80 cm, its length of 75 cm and its weight of below 600 g, SUMO is easy to transport and operate even in remote areas. The direct material costs for one SUMO unit, including airplane, autopilot and sensors are below 1200 Euro. Assuming at least several tenths of flights for each airframe, SUMO provides a cost-efficient measurement system with a large potential to close the existing observational gap of reasonable atmospheric measurement systems in between meteorological masts/towers and radiosondes.

  4. Evaluation of water quality conditions near proposed fish production sites associated with the Yakima Fisheries Project. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauble, D.d.; Mueller, R.P.; Martinson, G.A.

    1994-05-01

    In 1991, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) began studying water quality at several sites in the Yakima River Basin for the Bonneville Power Administration. These sites were being proposed as locations for fish culture facilities as part of the Yakima Fisheries Project (YFP). Surface water quality parameters near the proposed fish culture facilities are currently suitable for fish production. Water quality conditions in the mainstream Yakima River and its tributaries are generally excellent in the upper part of the watershed (i.e., near Cle Elum), but they are only fair to poor for the river downstream of Union Gap (river mile 107). Water quality of the Naches River near Oak Flats is also suitable for fish production. Groundwater supplies near the proposed fish production facilities typically have elevated concentrations of metals and dissolved gases. These conditions can be mitigated using best engineering practices such as precipitation and degasification. Additionally, mixing with surface water may improve these conditions. Depending on the location and depth of the well, groundwater temperatures may be warmer than optimum for acclimating and holding juvenile and adult fish. Water quality parameters measured in the Yakima River and tributaries sometimes exceed the range of values described as acceptable for culture of salmonids and for the protection of other aquatic life. However, constituent concentrations are within ranges that exist in many northwest fish hatcheries. Additionally, site-specific tests conducted by PNL (i.e., live box exposures and egg incubation studies) indicate that fish can be successfully reared in surface and well water near the proposed facility sites. Thus, there appear to be no constraints to artificial production for the YFP

  5. Microhabitat Conditions in Wyoming's Sage-Grouse Core Areas: Effects on Nest Site Selection and Success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan B Dinkins

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to identify microhabitat characteristics of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus nest site selection and survival to determine the quality of sage-grouse habitat in 5 regions of central and southwest Wyoming associated with Wyoming's Core Area Policy. Wyoming's Core Area Policy was enacted in 2008 to reduce human disturbance near the greatest densities of sage-grouse. Our analyses aimed to assess sage-grouse nest selection and success at multiple micro-spatial scales. We obtained microhabitat data from 928 sage-grouse nest locations and 819 random microhabitat locations from 2008-2014. Nest success was estimated from 924 nests with survival data. Sage-grouse selected nests with greater sagebrush cover and height, visual obstruction, and number of small gaps between shrubs (gap size ≥0.5 m and <1.0 m, while selecting for less bare ground and rock. With the exception of more small gaps between shrubs, we did not find any differences in availability of these microhabitat characteristics between locations within and outside of Core Areas. In addition, we found little supporting evidence that sage-grouse were selecting different nest sites in Core Areas relative to areas outside of Core. The Kaplan-Meier nest success estimate for a 27-day incubation period was 42.0% (95% CI: 38.4-45.9%. Risk of nest failure was negatively associated with greater rock and more medium-sized gaps between shrubs (gap size ≥2.0 m and <3.0 m. Within our study areas, Wyoming's Core Areas did not have differing microhabitat quality compared to outside of Core Areas. The close proximity of our locations within and outside of Core Areas likely explained our lack of finding differences in microhabitat quality among locations within these landscapes. However, the Core Area Policy is most likely to conserve high quality habitat at larger spatial scales, which over decades may have cascading effects on microhabitat quality available

  6. Application of meteorology to safety at nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    This report was prepared on behalf of the International Atomic Energy Agency by an international panel of experts who met at the Agency's headquarters from 10 to 14 April 1967. The application of meteorology to safety at nuclear plants is discussed in connection with site selection, design and construction, operation, and emergency planning and action. The final chapter considers the training to be given to operators and health and safety personnel on meteorology problems. The appendix gives a simple method for computing air concentration values at ground level. An extensive bibliography is also included.

  7. Estimating Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Using Standard Meteorological Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, C.H.

    1999-01-01

    The heat stress management program at the Department of Energy''s Savannah River Site (SRS) requires implementation of protective controls on outdoor work based on observed values of wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT). To ensure continued compliance with heat stress program requirements, a computer algorithm was developed which calculates an estimate of WBGT using standard meteorological measurements. In addition, scripts were developed to generate a calculation every 15 minutes and post the results to an Intranet web site

  8. An Evaluation of Subsurface Microbial Activity Conditional to Subsurface Temperature, Porosity, and Permeability at North American Carbon Sequestration Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, B. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Mordensky, S. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Verba, Circe [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Rabjohns, K. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Colwell, F. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences

    2016-06-21

    Several nations, including the United States, recognize global climate change as a force transforming the global ecosphere. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a greenhouse gas that contributes to the evolving climate. Reduction of atmospheric CO2 levels is a goal for many nations and carbon sequestration which traps CO2 in the Earth’s subsurface is one method to reduce atmospheric CO2 levels. Among the variables that must be considered in developing this technology to a national scale is microbial activity. Microbial activity or biomass can change rock permeability, alter artificial seals around boreholes, and play a key role in biogeochemistry and accordingly may determine how CO2 is sequestered underground. Certain physical parameters of a reservoir found in literature (e.g., temperature, porosity, and permeability) may indicate whether a reservoir can host microbial communities. In order to estimate which subsurface formations may host microbes, this report examines the subsurface temperature, porosity, and permeability of underground rock formations that have high potential to be targeted for CO2 sequestration. Of the 268 North American wellbore locations from the National Carbon Sequestration Database (NATCARB; National Energy and Technology Laboratory, 2015) and 35 sites from Nelson and Kibler (2003), 96 sequestration sites contain temperature data. Of these 96 sites, 36 sites have temperatures that would be favorable for microbial survival, 48 sites have mixed conditions for supporting microbial populations, and 11 sites would appear to be unfavorable to support microbial populations. Future studies of microbe viability would benefit from a larger database with more formation parameters (e.g. mineralogy, structure, and groundwater chemistry), which would help to increase understanding of where CO2 sequestration could be most efficiently implemented.

  9. Meteorological and radiation measurements at Nabarlek, Northern Territory, June to July 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.H.; Davy, D.R.; Bendun, E.O.K.; O'Brien, B.

    1981-09-01

    A meteorological and radiation measurement program was conducted near the then developing uranium mine at Nabarlek in the Northern Territory. The two-filter tube radiation measuring technique was checked and compared with the continuous radon monitor and instant working level meter techniques. In general, the Nabarlek meteorology was characterised by weak stable layers and good ventilation conditions with winds rarely less than 1ms -1 . A comparison of wind measurements made near the open pit with those taken some 800 m away gave evidence of horizontal changes in the wind field over the site. Strong daytime winds gusting higher than 10 ms -1 caused a visible suspension of dust from the site. Dust deposition samples indicated that thorium-230 in air on site was a factor of twelve below the maximum permissible concentration for employees in Australia, but uranium was lower by several orders of magnitude. The concentrations of radioactivity in the aquatic food pathway, external radiation levels and radon daughter concentrations from deposited dust were likewise at least two orders of magnitude below the maximum concentrations permissible in Australia

  10. Report of the actual conditions of the radiation exposed residents near the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Noriyuki; Taooka, Yasuyuki; Hiraoka, Takashi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Shaimardanovich, Z.Z.

    2004-01-01

    Hiroshima Peace Science Consortium, established in 2002 as part of the local cooperation project of Hiroshima University for peace science, conducted a field research in Semipalatinsk and related areas in 2002 to collect and analyze data on health effects of radiation experiences of people exposed to nuclear test radiation. This book is a report of the research and contains Introductory remarks; 6 chapters of Overview of the study, Medical information analysis on the radiation exposed residents near the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site using questionnaire, Content analysis of testimonies written by hibakusha near the nuclear test site of Semipalatinsk, Comments on the interview, Significance of collecting testimonies of those exposed to radiation in Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan/in comparison with those of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and Future tasks and prospective; Conclusion; and 2 Appendices of Research on the conditions of radiation exposure survey response sheet and Testimonies. (N.I.)

  11. Topographic Slope as a Proxy for Seismic Site-Conditions (VS30) and Amplification Around the Globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Trevor I.; Wald, David J.

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary It is well-known that large global earthquakes can have a dramatic effect on local communities and the built environment. Moreover, ground motions amplified by surficial materials can exacerbate the situation, often making the difference between minor and major damage. For a real-time earthquake impact alert system, such as Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) (Wald and others, 2006), we seek to rapidly evaluate potential ground shaking in the source region and subsequently provide an estimate of the population exposure to potentially fatal levels of ground shaking in any region of the world. The contribution of surficial geology (particularly soft sediments) to the amplification of ground shaking is an important component in predicting the levels of ground motion observed at any site. Unfortunately, the availability of information regarding seismic siteconditions is only available at a few sites around the globe. Herein, we describe a methodology for deriving maps of seismic site-conditions anywhere in the world using topographic slope as a proxy. Average shear-velocity down to 30 m (or VS30) measurements are correlated against topographic slope to develop two sets of coefficients for predicting VS30: one for active tectonic regions that possess dynamic topographic relief, and one for stable continental regions where changes in topography are more subdued. These coefficients have been applied to the continental United States, in addition to other regions around the world. They are subsequently compared to existing site-condition maps based on geology and observed VS30 measurements, where available. The application of the topographic slope method in regions with abundant VS30 measurements (for example California, Memphis, and Taiwan) indicates that this method provides site condition-maps of similar quality, or in some cases, maps superior to those developed from more traditional techniques. Having a first-order assessment

  12. Overall analysis of meteorological information in the Daeduk nuclear complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung Woo; Lee, Young Bok; Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Eun Han; Suh, Kyung Suk; Hwang, Won Tae [Korea Atomic Energy Res. Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-01-01

    Inspection and repair of tower structure and lift, instrument calibration have been done with DAS (data aquisition system) updating. Wind direction, wind speed, temperature, humidity at 67m, 27m, and 10m height and temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, solar radiation, precipitation, and visibility at surface have been measured and analyzed with statistical methods. Wireless data transmission to MIPS (Meteorological Information Processing System) has been done after collection in the DAS where enviromental assessment can be done by the developed simulation programs in both cases of normal operation and emergency. The meteorological data as the result of this project had been used to report `Environmental Impact Assessment of the Korean Multi-purpose Research Reactor` and {sup S}ite Selection of Meteorological Tower and Environment Impact Assessment of the Cooling Tower of the Korean Multi-purpose Research Reactor{sup .} (Author).

  13. Microclimate design methods for energy-saving houses on various site conditions in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Kyeong

    2008-07-09

    A small area can have several different microclimates depending on how much sunlight, shade or wind are exposed on the area. Microclimate can be influenced by inclined terrain, surfaces, and 3-dimensionally geometry such as combinations of architectural elements and annex buildings. This study investigates microclimate modification for energy-saving using design elements of Korean traditional and passive house. Microclimate analysis method in this study enables to predict temporal and spatial variances in the building geometry. A combination of passive solar heating, cold wind blocking, indoor air circulation, natural ventilation cooling and shading etc, seasonally help to form a comfort condition with less energy consumption. The passive heating and cooling controls with microclimate modification are efficient to accomplish the energy efficiency in the building. This work includes the microclimate modifications of the high-performance designs, microclimate energy-saving methods, Passive House design methods, and common physical bases in energy simulation methods. For hot and humid summer in Korea, ventilation is beneficial for convective or evaporative cooling. The air flow through a building geometry is generated by differences in air temperature and pressure. The layout of surrounding buildings acts as barriers and diverts the flow into narrower. The resulted patterns of airflow are affected more by building geometry and orientation than by air speed. A novel simulation method combining multi-zone and CFD energy simulations is used to analyze energy-saving aspects in passive and microclimate design elements. EnergyPlus is a multi-zone energy simulation tool that uses a parameterization to simplify the energy-saving problem for each zone. However, the model is not appropriate to handle variations in the building geometry since it estimates only the average value for each volume. On the contrary, CFD method with subdivided grid units is more suitable to estimate

  14. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Film

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The United States Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) is a polar orbiting meteorological sensor with two...

  15. Development of adequate meteorological monitoring standards for safety analysis of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alp, E.; Lewis, P.J.

    1985-09-01

    The aim of this report is to identify what constitutes adequate meteorological information for airborne dispersion calculations in case of releases from nuclear facilities during 'normal operation', 'design postulated accidents', and 'emergency situations'. The models used for estimating downwind dispersion are reviewed, including short-range simple terrain, short-range complex terrain and medium to long range models with emphasis on Lagrangian models. The meteorogolical input parameters required for running these models are identified. The methods by which these parameters may be obtained from raw meteorological data are then considered. Emphasis is placed on well-tried and recommended methods rather than those which are currently being developed and lack long-term field tests. The meteorological data required to calculate the parameters that are in turn input to dispersion calculation methods can be obtained mainly from tower measurements. Recommended tower height is 50 m, with two levels of instruments (10 and 50 m) for wind speed, wind direction and temperature. Data for precipitation and solar radiation, that may be required under certain conditions and for special calculations, may be estimated from nearby representative weather stations (if available). For simple terrain, a single tower is sufficient. For complex terrain, such as coastal regions, two towers are desirable for accurate characterization of the turbulence regime in the vicinity of a release site. The report provides the necessary accuracy specifications for instruments required for the meteorological measurements. Data monitoring and recording, maintenance, quality control and assurance are also discussed. Error propagation analyses are recommended to determine the full implications of instrument accuracies on the accuracy of dispersion model predictions. 82 refs

  16. Meteorological data fields 'in perspective'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, A. F.; Pierce, H.; Morris, K. R.; Dodge, J.

    1985-01-01

    Perspective display techniques can be applied to meteorological data sets to aid in their interpretation. Examples of a perspective display procedure applied to satellite and aircraft visible and infrared image pairs and to stereo cloud-top height analyses are presented. The procedure uses a sophisticated shading algorithm that produces perspective images with greatly improved comprehensibility when compared with the wire-frame perspective displays that have been used in the past. By changing the 'eye-point' and 'view-point' inputs to the program in a systematic way, movie loops that give the impression of flying over or through the data field have been made. This paper gives examples that show how several kinds of meteorological data fields are more effectively illustrated using the perspective technique.

  17. BOREAS TF-06 SSA-YA Surface Energy Flux and Meteorological Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Contains meteorology data collected at the SSA-YA tower flux site by the TF6 group. These data were reported at 10 minute intervals. The flux and ancillary...

  18. BOREAS TF-02 SSA-OA Tethersonde Meteorological and Ozone Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The BOREAS TF-02 team collected various trace gas and energy flux data along with meteorological parameters at the SSA-OA site. This data set contains...

  19. Syllabi for Instruction in Agricultural Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Villiers, G. D. B.; And Others

    A working group of the Commission for Agricultural Meteorology has prepared this report to fill a need for detailed syllabi for instruction in agricultural meteorology required by different levels of personnel. Agrometeorological personnel are classified in three categories: (1) professional meteorological personnel (graduates with basic training…

  20. Epicurean Meteorology: Sources, method, scope and organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, F.A.

    2016-01-01

    In Epicurean Meteorology Frederik Bakker discusses the meteorology as laid out by Epicurus (341-270 BCE) and Lucretius (1st century BCE). Although in scope and organization their ideas are clearly rooted in the Peripatetic tradition, their meteorology sets itself apart from this tradition by its

  1. Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science publishes rigorous theoretical reasoning and advanced empirical research in all areas of Meteorology and Climate Sciences. We welcome articles or proposals from all perspectives and on all subjects pertaining to Meteorology, Agriculture, Humanity, Physics, Geography, ...

  2. Meteorological research studies at Jervis Bay, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.H.; Bendun, E.O.K.

    1974-07-01

    A climatological study of the winds and temperature from the Jervis Bay region which commenced in October 1970 has shown the presence of a coastal sea breeze and secondary bay breeze circulation system. In an attempt to define the influence of the Murray's Beach site on the local atmospheric dispersion, special smoke plume photography studies were conducted in the lower atmosphere. In June 1972 a meteorological acoustic sounding research programme was initiated at the Jervis Bay settlement. The aims of the research are to calibrate the sounder in terms of surface wind, turbulence and temperature measurements pertinent to a description of the lower atmospheric dispersion potential. Preliminary results on six months' data have shown encouraging correlations between the acoustic sounder patterns and particularly the wind direction turbulence traces. (author)

  3. In Vitro Analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence Using Conditions That Mimic the Environment at Specific Infection Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmer-Hamood, J A; Dzvova, N; Kruczek, C; Hamood, A N

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen that causes chronic lung infection in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and acute systemic infections in severely burned patients and immunocompromised patients including cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and HIV infected individuals. In response to the environmental conditions at specific infection sites, P. aeruginosa expresses certain sets of cell-associated and extracellular virulence factors that produce tissue damage. Analyzing the mechanisms that govern the production of these virulence factors in vitro requires media that closely mimic the environmental conditions within the infection sites. In this chapter, we review studies based on media that closely resemble three in vivo conditions, the thick mucus accumulated within the lung alveoli of CF patients, the serum-rich wound bed and the bloodstream. Media resembling the CF alveolar mucus include standard laboratory media supplemented with sputum obtained from CF patients as well as prepared synthetic mucus media formulated to contain the individual components of CF sputum. Media supplemented with serum or individual serum components have served as surrogates for the soluble host components of wound infections, while whole blood has been used to investigate the adaptation of pathogens to the bloodstream. Studies using these media have provided valuable information regarding P. aeruginosa gene expression in different host environments as varying sets of genes were differentially regulated during growth in each medium. The unique effects observed indicate the essential role of these in vitro media that closely mimic the in vivo conditions in providing accurate information regarding the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantifying the Effects of Biomass Market Conditions and Policy Incentives on Economically Feasible Sites to Establish Dedicated Energy Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Nepal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study used a spatially-explicit model to identify the amount and spatial distribution of economically feasible sites for establishing dedicated energy crops under various market and policy scenarios. A sensitivity analysis was performed for a biomass market with different discount rates and biomass prices as well as policy scenarios including propriety tax exemption, carbon offset payments, and the inclusion of farmland for biomass production. The model was applied to a four-county study area in Kentucky representing conditions commonly found in the Ohio River Valley. Results showed that both biomass price and discount rate have a can strongly influence the amount of economically efficient sites. Rising the biomass price by 5 $·t−1 and lowering discount rate by 1% from the baseline scenario (40 $·t−1 and 5% resulted in an over fourteen fold increment. Property tax exemption resulted in a fourfold increase, a carbon payment on only 1 $·t−1 caused a twelve fold increase and extending the landbase from marginal land to farmland only slightly increase the economically efficient sites. These results provide an objective evaluation of market and policy scenarios in terms of their potential to increase land availability for establishing dedicated energy crops and to promote the bioenergy industry.

  5. Large Scale Meteorological Pattern of Extreme Rainfall in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuswanto, Heri; Grotjahn, Richard; Rachmi, Arinda; Suhermi, Novri; Oktania, Erma; Wijaya, Yosep

    2014-05-01

    dates involving observations from multiple sites (rain gauges). The approach combines the POT (Peaks Over Threshold) with 'declustering' of the data to approximate independence based on the autocorrelation structure of each rainfall series. The cross correlation among sites is considered also to develop the event's criteria yielding a rational choice of the extreme dates given the 'spotty' nature of the intense convection. Based on the identified dates, we are developing a supporting tool for forecasting extreme rainfall based on the corresponding large-scale meteorological patterns (LSMPs). The LSMPs methodology focuses on the larger-scale patterns that the model are better able to forecast, as those larger-scale patterns create the conditions fostering the local EWE. Bootstrap resampling method is applied to highlight the key features that statistically significant with the extreme events. Grotjahn, R., and G. Faure. 2008: Composite Predictor Maps of Extraordinary Weather Events in the Sacramento California Region. Weather and Forecasting. 23: 313-335.

  6. Methods for definition of reference conditions for a repository site taking long-term environmental change into account

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikonen, A.T.K. [Environmental Research and Assessment EnviroCase, Ltd. (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    In a few countries, programmes for disposal of spent nuclear fuel have proceeded into a site-specific phase, and the number of low- and intermediate-level nuclear waste repositories requiring updated state-of-the-art long-term safety assessments is considerable. In this contribution, the approach employed in the Finnish spent fuel disposal programme is analysed and used as an example for a more general methodology for defining reference surface conditions for a site, e.g. to guide selection of representative input data to safety assessments, using spatio-temporal analogues so that long-term environmental changes are taken into account. The contribution incorporates also elements from discussions in the IAEA EMRAS II and MODARIA working groups on addressing the environmental change in the assessments. The legacy of the earlier BIOMASS project is also recognised. Broadly, the methods to be presented include identification of similarity factors (e.g. geological, biological and climate regimes) upon which a reference area can be delineated. Within the reference area, characteristic lines of development and biotopes are identified and described, and these are then used to guide further research and application of literature data to iteratively accumulate adequate understanding of the site conditions and relevant processes at the present and in the future (by projecting further the past and present development lines and biotopes). In this iterative approach, also the intensity of research efforts can be adjusted with the stage of the repository programme, as will be discussed in the complete contribution. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  7. Boundary conditions for pathways, safety analysis and basic criteria for low-level radiation waste site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saverot, P.

    1994-01-01

    There are three successive periods in the life of a disposal facility: the operating period, the institutional control period and the unrestricted site access period. The purpose of safety analysis of the disposal facility is to ensure that the radiological impacts for each period in the life of the facility are acceptable under all circumstances. Founded on a deterministic approach, this analysis leads to a determination of the maximum quantity of each radionuclide present in the facility at the beginning of the institutional control period in order for the impacts to be considered acceptable. Safety analysis involves the calculation of the radiological impacts of a given radiological inventory under a selected scenario, from all plausible scenarios of radionuclide migration to the environment in both normal and accident conditions, and taking into account other specified variables. The calculation itself involves an assessment of the quantities of radionuclides that could be released to the environment under the specific scenario selected and following identified pathways, and a determination of the resultant exposure, both internal and external, to the public. An iterative approach is used in the performance of pathways analyses. If the pathways analyses result in unacceptable radiological impacts, either the radiological inventory of the site is reduced or barrier characteristics not previously factored into the analysis are taken into account. New pathways analyses are then performed until the results are within the acceptable range. Once accepted by the safety authorities, the radiological inventory becomes the radiological capacity, which is the approved quantities of specific radionuclides that may be disposed of at the site. The following elaborates on the boundary conditions used in safety analyses and describes the types of pathways analyses performed for a LLW disposal facility

  8. Weather or Not To Teach Junior High Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Thomas P.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a technique for teaching meteorology allowing students to observe and analyze consecutive weather maps and relate local conditions; a model illustrating the three-dimensional nature of the atmosphere is employed. Instructional methods based on studies of daily weather maps to trace systems sweeping across the United States are discussed.…

  9. Comparison of APR1400 safety between brake site and shin-Kori site Due to the difference in the climate conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Ho Joon; Lee, Jeong Ik; Lee, Jeong Ik

    2012-01-01

    Brake Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) is now under the construction based on APR1400 designed by Korean Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO). APR1400 is a two loop pressurized water reactor, the nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) US designed for about put of 4,000 MWt, with a corresponding electrical output of approximately 1,390 MWe. The first APR1400 (SKN 3 and 4) constructed in Shin-Kori, Korea has been modified according to the surrounding environment of the United Arab Emirates. In this paper, authors would like to compare safety issues between B NPP and Skin due to the changes of surroundings, since the site characteristics are very different. For instance, the mean annual air temperature in the UAE is 28 .deg. C and the peak air temperature was recorded as 48.8 .deg. C. Sea temperatures are varying from 17. deg. C in January to 35. deg. C in August, while that of Korea is in 9-16. deg. C range. Hot climate of UAE and the malfunction of HVAC system can lead the increasing of the water temperature in safety injection system (SIS). The heated water in SIS may affect the safety margin of the peak cladding temperature (PCT). The change of PCT and response time according to design basis accident scenarios such as large break LOCA are analyzed in detail. To evaluate such effect, Mars code was utilized to evaluate assumed condition by KAIST and the analyses of the results were carried out by Khalifa Univ.

  10. Natural radioactive environmental pollution and meteorological characteristics of Faisalabad environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.A.K.; Sharif, R.; Hussain, K.

    1999-01-01

    This study is about Faisalabad, the third largest and industrial city of Pakistan, where the maximum temperature in summer reaches up to 50 deg. C and in winter it may fall below the freezing point. In this study on attempt has been made to find co-relation between local weather conditions and natural radioactive concentrations. The natural radioactivity was found to have no co-relation with meteorological parameters. Thus the natural activity is independent of meteorological characteristics, which confirms the random nature of radioactivity. (author)

  11. Multivariate analysis between air pollutants and meteorological variables in Seoul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.; Lim, J.

    2005-01-01

    Multivariate analysis was conducted to analyze the relationship between air pollutants and meteorological variables measured in Seoul from January 1 to December 31, 1999. The first principal component showed the contrast effect between O 3 and the other pollutants. The second principal component showed the contrast effect between CO, SO 2 , NO 2 , and O 3 , PM 10 , TSP. Based on the cluster analysis, three clusters represented different air pollution levels, seasonal characteristics of air pollutants, and meteorological conditions. Discriminant analysis with air environment index (AEI) was carried out to develop an air pollution index function. (orig.)

  12. Kaiseraugst nuclear power station: meteorological effects of the cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Considerations of water conservation persuaded the German Government in 1971 not to allow the use of the Aar and Rhine for direct cooling of nuclear power stations. The criticism is often made that the Kaiseraugst cooling towers were built without full consideration of the resulting meteorological effects. The criticism is considered unjustified because the Federal Cooling Tower Commission considered all the relevant aspects before making its recommendations in 1972. Test results and other considerations show that the effect of the kaiseraugst cooling towers on meteorological and climatic conditions is indeed minimal and details are given. (P.G.R.)

  13. Inherent uncertainties in meteorological parameters for wind turbine design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Major difficulties associated with meteorological measurments such as the inability to duplicate the experimental conditions from one day to the next are discussed. This lack of consistency is compounded by the stochastic nature of many of the meteorological variables of interest. Moreover, simple relationships derived in one location may be significantly altered by topographical or synoptic differences encountered at another. The effect of such factors is a degree of inherent uncertainty if an attempt is made to describe the atmosphere in terms of universal laws. Some of these uncertainties and their causes are examined, examples are presented and some implications for wind turbine design are suggested.

  14. Simultaneous multicopter-based air sampling and sensing of meteorological variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosy, Caroline; Krampf, Karina; Zeeman, Matthias; Wolf, Benjamin; Junkermann, Wolfgang; Schäfer, Klaus; Emeis, Stefan; Kunstmann, Harald

    2017-08-01

    The state and composition of the lowest part of the planetary boundary layer (PBL), i.e., the atmospheric surface layer (SL), reflects the interactions of external forcing, land surface, vegetation, human influence and the atmosphere. Vertical profiles of atmospheric variables in the SL at high spatial (meters) and temporal (1 Hz and better) resolution increase our understanding of these interactions but are still challenging to measure appropriately. Traditional ground-based observations include towers that often cover only a few measurement heights at a fixed location. At the same time, most remote sensing techniques and aircraft measurements have limitations to achieve sufficient detail close to the ground (up to 50 m). Vertical and horizontal transects of the PBL can be complemented by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). Our aim in this case study is to assess the use of a multicopter-type UAV for the spatial sampling of air and simultaneously the sensing of meteorological variables for the study of the surface exchange processes. To this end, a UAV was equipped with onboard air temperature and humidity sensors, while wind conditions were determined from the UAV's flight control sensors. Further, the UAV was used to systematically change the location of a sample inlet connected to a sample tube, allowing the observation of methane abundance using a ground-based analyzer. Vertical methane gradients of about 0.3 ppm were found during stable atmospheric conditions. Our results showed that both methane and meteorological conditions were in agreement with other observations at the site during the ScaleX-2015 campaign. The multicopter-type UAV was capable of simultaneous in situ sensing of meteorological state variables and sampling of air up to 50 m above the surface, which extended the vertical profile height of existing tower-based infrastructure by a factor of 5.

  15. Potential Analysis of Thunderstorm Occurrence Using SWEAT Method at Meteorology Station Sultan Iskandar Muda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulfah Kurnia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu hal penting dalam mengutamakan keselamatan penerbangan ialah informasi meteorologi yang tepat dan akurat terutama mengenai kondisi cuaca buruk seperti thunderstorm. Oleh karena itu, perlu dilakukan prakiraan potensi terjadinya thunderstorm, sehingga pihak maskapai penerbangan dapat menyesuaikan prosedur keselamatan baik pada saat take off, on the route, maupun landing. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan analisis data radiosonde pada 2 (dua musim, yaitu musim kemarau dan musim hujan untuk memprakirakan potensi terjadinya thunderstorm selama periode April-Desember 2016 dan Januari-Maret 2017. Data radiosonde tersebut diperoleh dari Stasiun Meteorologi Sultan Iskandar Muda yang telah diukur setiap dua kali dalam satu hari. Waktu pengukurannya ialah pada pukul 00Z dan pukul 12Z. Dengan menggunakan Software Rawinsonde Observation (RAOB versi 5.7, dilakukan pengolahan data radiosonde sehingga diperoleh informasi parameter atmosfer seperti temperatur, titik embun, dan kecepatan angin. Parameter atmosfer tersebut dapat digunakan untuk memprakirakan potensi terjadinya thunderstorm selama dua belas jam kedepan, yaitu dengan menggunakan metode SWEAT (Severe Weather Threat sehingga diperoleh SWEAT Indeks untuk setiap pengukuran radiosonde. Berdasarkan penelitian yang telah dilakukan, diketahui SWEAT Indeks untuk wilayah Stasiun Meteorologi Sultan Iskandar Muda berkisar antara 39,8 - 355,4. Hasil analisis metode SWEAT diverifikasi dengan data aktual (data synop yang diamati di Stasiun Meteorologi Sultan Iskandar Muda dan diketahui persentase kesesuaian antara data prakiraan dengan kondisi aktual yaitu 58,62-66,67%.   One of the most important things in aviation safety is the accurate information of meteorology especially on bad weather conditions as thunderstorm. Therefore, need to forecast about potential occurrence of thunderstorm, so the airlines can adjust safety aviation when take of, an the route, and landing. In this research was analysis of

  16. Modeling of meteorology, chemistry and aerosol for the 2017 Utah Winter Fine Particle Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeen, S. A.; Angevine, W. M.; McDonald, B.; Ahmadov, R.; Franchin, A.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Fibiger, D. L.; McDuffie, E. E.; Womack, C.; Brown, S. S.; Moravek, A.; Murphy, J. G.; Trainer, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Utah Winter Fine Particle Study (UWFPS-17) field project took place during January and February of 2017 within the populated region of the Great Salt Lake, Utah. The study focused on understanding the meteorology and chemistry associated with high particulate matter (PM) levels often observed near Salt Lake City during stable wintertime conditions. Detailed composition and meteorological observations were taken from the NOAA Twin-Otter aircraft and several surface sites during the study period, and extremely high aerosol conditions were encountered for two cold-pool episodes occurring in the last 2 weeks of January. A clear understanding of the photochemical and aerosol processes leading to these high PM events is still lacking. Here we present high spatiotemporal resolution simulations of meteorology, PM and chemistry over Utah from January 13 to February 1, 2017 using the WRF/Chem photochemical model. Correctly characterizing the meteorology is difficult due to the complex terrain and shallow inversion layers. We discuss the approach and limitations of the simulated meteorology, and evaluate low-level pollutant mixing using vertical profiles from missed airport approaches by the NOAA Twin-Otter performed routinely during each flight. Full photochemical simulations are calculated using NOx, ammonia and VOC emissions from the U.S. EPA NEI-2011 emissions inventory. Comparisons of the observed vertical column amounts of NOx, ammonia, aerosol nitrate and ammonium with model results shows the inventory estimates for ammonia emissions are low by a factor of four and NOx emissions are low by nearly a factor of two. The partitioning of both nitrate and NH3 between gas and particle phase depends strongly on the NH3 and NOx emissions to the model and calculated NOx to nitrate conversion rates. These rates are underestimated by gas-phase chemistry alone, even though surface snow albedo increases photolysis rates by nearly a factor of two. Several additional conversion

  17. Meteorology during the DOMINO campaign and its connection with trace gases and aerols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adame, J.A.; Martinez, M.; Sorribas, M.; Hidalgo, P.J.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.

    2014-01-01

    The DOMINO (Diel Oxidant Mechanisms in relation to Nitrogen Oxides) campaign was carried out from 21 November to 8 December 2008 at the El Arenosillo station (SW of Spain) in a coastal-rural environment. The main weather conditions are analysed using local meteorological variables, meteorological

  18. Using high resolution GPS tracking data of bird flight for meteorological observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treep, J.; Bohrer, G.; Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Duriez, O.; Prata de Moraes Frasson, R.; Bouten, W.

    2016-01-01

    Bird flight is strongly influenced by local meteorological conditions. With increasing amounts of high-frequency GPS data of bird movement becoming available, as tags become cheaper and lighter, opportunities are created to obtain large datasets of quantitative meteorological information from

  19. Siting of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to develop criteria for siting and the site-related design basis for research reactors. The concepts presented in this document are intended as recommendations for new reactors and are not suggested for backfitting purposes for facilities already in existence. In siting research reactors serious consideration is given to minimizing the effects of the site on the reactor and the reactor on the site and the potential impact of the reactor on the environment. In this document guidance is first provided on the evaluation of the radiological impact of the installation under normal reactor operation and accident conditions. A classification of research reactors in groups is then proposed, together with a different approach for each group, to take into account the relevant safety problems associated with facilities of different characteristics. Guidance is also provided for both extreme natural events and for man-induced external events which could affect the safe operation of the reactor. Extreme natural events include earthquakes, flooding for river or coastal sites and extreme meteorological phenomena. The feasibility of emergency planning is finally considered for each group of reactors

  20. Future directions of meteorology related to air-quality research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Nelson L

    2003-06-01

    Meteorology is one of the major factors contributing to air-pollution episodes. More accurate representation of meteorological fields has been possible in recent years through the use of remote sensing systems, high-speed computers and fine-mesh meteorological models. Over the next 5-20 years, better meteorological inputs for air quality studies will depend on making better use of a wealth of new remotely sensed observations in more advanced data assimilation systems. However, for fine mesh models to be successful, parameterizations used to represent physical processes must be redesigned to be more precise and better adapted for the scales at which they will be applied. Candidates for significant overhaul include schemes to represent turbulence, deep convection, shallow clouds, and land-surface processes. Improvements in the meteorological observing systems, data assimilation and modeling, coupled with advancements in air-chemistry modeling, will soon lead to operational forecasting of air quality in the US. Predictive capabilities can be expected to grow rapidly over the next decade. This will open the way for a number of valuable new services and strategies, including better warnings of unhealthy atmospheric conditions, event-dependent emissions restrictions, and now casting support for homeland security in the event of toxic releases into the atmosphere.

  1. Ambient air monitoring to support HLW repository site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fransioli, P.M.; Dixon, W.R.

    1993-01-01

    Site characterization at the Yucca Mountain site includes an ambient air quality and meteorological monitoring program to provide information for environmental and site characterization issues. The program is designed to provide data for four basic purposes: Atmospheric dispersion calculations to estimate impacts of possible airborne releases of radiological material; Engineering design and extreme weather event characterization; Local climate studies for environmental impact analyses and climate characterization; and, Air quality permits required for site characterization work. The program is compiling a database that will provide the basis for analyses and reporting related to the purposes of the program. Except for reporting particulate matter and limited meteorological data to the State of Nevada for an air quality permit condition, the data have yet to be formally analyzed and reported

  2. Modeling Occurrence of Urban Mosquitos Based on Land Use Types and Meteorological Factors in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Su Kwon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are a public health concern because they are vectors of pathogen, which cause human-related diseases. It is well known that the occurrence of mosquitoes is highly influenced by meteorological conditions (e.g., temperature and precipitation and land use, but there are insufficient studies quantifying their impacts. Therefore, three analytical methods were applied to determine the relationships between urban mosquito occurrence, land use type, and meteorological factors: cluster analysis based on land use types; principal component analysis (PCA based on mosquito occurrence; and three prediction models, support vector machine (SVM, classification and regression tree (CART, and random forest (RF. We used mosquito data collected at 12 sites from 2011 to 2012. Mosquito abundance was highest from August to September in both years. The monitoring sites were differentiated into three clusters based on differences in land use type such as culture and sport areas, inland water, artificial grasslands, and traffic areas. These clusters were well reflected in PCA ordinations, indicating that mosquito occurrence was highly influenced by land use types. Lastly, the RF represented the highest predictive power for mosquito occurrence and temperature-related factors were the most influential. Our study will contribute to effective control and management of mosquito occurrences.

  3. Meteorological Modeling Using the WRF-ARW Model for Grand Bay Intensive Studies of Atmospheric Mercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fong Ngan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Measurements at the Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve support a range of research activities aimed at improving the understanding of the atmospheric fate and transport of mercury. Routine monitoring was enhanced by two intensive measurement periods conducted at the site in summer 2010 and spring 2011. Detailed meteorological data are required to properly represent the weather conditions, to determine the transport and dispersion of plumes and to understand the wet and dry deposition of mercury. To describe the mesoscale features that might influence future plume calculations for mercury episodes during the Grand Bay Intensive campaigns, fine-resolution meteorological simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model were conducted with various initialization and nudging configurations. The WRF simulations with nudging generated reasonable results in comparison with conventional observations in the region and measurements obtained at the Grand Bay site, including surface and sounding data. The grid nudging, together with observational nudging, had a positive effect on wind prediction. However, the nudging of mass fields (temperature and moisture led to overestimates of precipitation, which may introduce significant inaccuracies if the data were to be used for subsequent atmospheric mercury modeling. The regional flow prediction was also influenced by the reanalysis data used to initialize the WRF simulations. Even with observational nudging, the summer case simulation results in the fine resolution domain inherited features of the reanalysis data, resulting in different regional wind patterns. By contrast, the spring intensive period showed less influence from the reanalysis data.

  4. Automated emergency meteorological response system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepper, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    A sophisticated emergency response system was developed to aid in the evaluation of accidental releases of hazardous materials from the Savannah River Plant to the environment. A minicomputer system collects and archives data from both onsite meteorological towers and the National Weather Service. In the event of an accidental release, the computer rapidly calculates the trajectory and dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere. Computer codes have been developed which provide a graphic display of predicted concentration profiles downwind from the source, as functions of time and distance

  5. Radioecological condition assessment and remediation criteria for sites of spent fuel and radioactive waste storage in the russian northwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shandala, Nataliya; Titov, Alex; Novikova, Natalia; Kiselev, Mikhail; Romanov, Vladimir; Sneve, Malgorzata; Smith, Graham

    2008-01-01

    The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and the Federal Medical-Biological Agency of the Russian Federation have a regulatory cooperation programme which is concerned with management of the nuclear legacy in northwest Russia, and, in particular, the remediation of facilities for spent fuel and radioactive waste management at the former Shore Technical Bases at Andreeva Bay and Gremikha Village. New regulatory guidance documents have been developed, necessary because of the special abnormal situation at these sites, now designated as Sites of Temporary Storage, but also because of the transition from military to civilian regulatory supervision and the evolving regulatory system in the Russian Federation. This paper presents the progress made and on-going projects in 2008 which involve development of the radio-ecological basis for identifying radiation supervision area boundaries and a system of recommended dose constraints and derived control levels for protection of workers and the public. Unconditional guarantee of long-term radioecological protection serves as the basis for criteria development. Non-exceedance of these dose constraints and control levels implies compliance with radiological protection objectives related to the residual contamination. Dose reduction below proposed dose constraint values must also be carried out according to the optimization principle. A number of remediation strategies are considered, corresponding to different future land use assumptions, including interim continued use in a nuclear context. The developed criteria relate to conditions of facilities and surrounding areas at the sites of temporary storage after completion of their remediation, and during the interim stages of remediation, depending upon the remediation strategy adopted. (author)

  6. Site investigation methods used in Canada's nuclear fuel waste management program to determine the hydrogeological conditions of plutonic rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is investigating the concept of disposing of Canada's nuclear fuel wastes in a mined vault at a depth of 500 m to 1000 m within a plutonic rock body. Much effort has been directed at developing site investigation methods that can be used to determine the hydrogeological conditions of plutonic rock bodies. The primary objective of this research is to define the physical and chemical characteristics of groundwater flow systems at the various scales that are relevant to the prediction of potential radionuclide migration from a disposal vault. Groundwater movement through plutonic rock is largely controlled by fractures within the rock, and the hydrogeological parameters of fractured geological media are extremely scale dependent

  7. Chemical conditions in present and future ecosystems in Forsmark - implications for selected radionuclides in the safety assessment SR-Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troejbom, Mats; Grolander, Sara

    2010-12-01

    This report is a background report for the biosphere analysis of the SR-Site Safety Assessment. This work aims to describe the future development of the chemical conditions at Forsmark, based on the present chemical conditions at landscape level taking landscape development and climate cases into consideration. The results presented contribute to the overall understanding of the present and future chemistry in the Forsmark area, and specifically, to the understanding of the behaviour of some selected radionuclides in the surface system. The future development of the chemistry at the site is qualitatively discussed with focus on the interglacial within the next 10,000 years. The effects on the chemical environment of future climate cases as Global Warming and cold permafrost climates are also briefly discussed. The work is presented in two independent parts describing background radionuclide activities in the Forsmark area and the distribution and behaviour of a large number of stable elements in the landscape. In a concluding section, implications of the future chemical environment of a selection of radionuclides important in the Safety Assessment are discussed based on the knowledge of stable elements. The broad range of elements studied show that there are general and expected patterns for the distribution and behaviour in the landscape of different groups of elements. Mass balances reveal major sources and sinks, pool estimations show where elements are accumulated in the landscape and estimations of time-scales give indications of the potential future development. This general knowledge is transferred to radionuclides not measured in order to estimate their behaviour and distribution in the landscape. It could be concluded that the future development of the chemical environment in the Forsmark area might affect element specific parameters used in de radionuclide model in different directions depending on element. The alternative climate cases, Global Warming

  8. Chemical conditions in present and future ecosystems in Forsmark - implications for selected radionuclides in the safety assessment SR-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troejbom, Mats (Mats Troejbom Konsult AB (Sweden)); Grolander, Sara (Facilia AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This report is a background report for the biosphere analysis of the SR-Site Safety Assessment. This work aims to describe the future development of the chemical conditions at Forsmark, based on the present chemical conditions at landscape level taking landscape development and climate cases into consideration. The results presented contribute to the overall understanding of the present and future chemistry in the Forsmark area, and specifically, to the understanding of the behaviour of some selected radionuclides in the surface system. The future development of the chemistry at the site is qualitatively discussed with focus on the interglacial within the next 10,000 years. The effects on the chemical environment of future climate cases as Global Warming and cold permafrost climates are also briefly discussed. The work is presented in two independent parts describing background radionuclide activities in the Forsmark area and the distribution and behaviour of a large number of stable elements in the landscape. In a concluding section, implications of the future chemical environment of a selection of radionuclides important in the Safety Assessment are discussed based on the knowledge of stable elements. The broad range of elements studied show that there are general and expected patterns for the distribution and behaviour in the landscape of different groups of elements. Mass balances reveal major sources and sinks, pool estimations show where elements are accumulated in the landscape and estimations of time-scales give indications of the potential future development. This general knowledge is transferred to radionuclides not measured in order to estimate their behaviour and distribution in the landscape. It could be concluded that the future development of the chemical environment in the Forsmark area might affect element specific parameters used in de radionuclide model in different directions depending on element. The alternative climate cases, Global Warming

  9. Meteorological perspective on intermediate range atmospheric dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Hoven, I.

    1981-01-01

    The intermediate range of atmospheric transport and diffusion is defined as those dispersion processes which take place at downwind distances of 10 to 100 kilometers from pollutant sources. Meteorologists often define this range as the mesoscale. It is the range of distances where certain environmental assessments are of concern such as the determination of significant deterioration of visibility, the effect of effluent releases from tall stacks, and the effect of pollutant sources in rural settings upon the more distant urban centers. Atmospheric diffusion theory is based on steady state conditions and spatial homogeniety. Techniques must be developed to measure the inhomogenieties, models must be devised to account for the complexities, and a data base consisting of appropriate measured meteorological parameters concurrent with tracer gas concentrations should be collected

  10. Meteorological monitoring system of TÜBİTAK National Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçak, M.; Selam, S. O.; Keskn, V.

    2004-10-01

    A custom meteorological monitoring system was constructed to reliably monitor the meteorological parameters of the site of TÜBİTAK National Observatory (TÜBİTAK: The Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey). The site is located on a mountain top known as Bakırlıtepe about 50 km west of the Antalya City at a height of 2547m. The system has software (C-based data acquisition/archiving structure and PHP based WEB monitoring support) and micro-controller based control electronics, fiber based custom designed encoder sensors (for wind speed and direction) and transmission lines using fiberoptic to RS232 transcievers. The constructed system can be used in any robotic telescope project for data monitoring and alert system creation.

  11. WJBF TV tower meteorological database for the ERAD Code-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, A.H.

    1996-07-01

    The Explosive Release Atmospheric Dispersion (ERAD) model (Boughton and DeLaurentis 1992) is a three-dimensional numerical model for simulating atmospheric transport and dispersion. The ERAD code is particularly adept at handling explosive releases into the atmosphere and is being used by the Materials and Accountability Department at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to provide risk estimates. The Environmental Technology Section (ETS) was asked to provide meteorological data to be used for applying ERAD to some site facilities. The ERAD model requires a vertical profile of meteorological measurements. The 1993 data from the WJBF-TV tower has been processed and provided for this purpose. This document describes the steps taken to prepare and format the database

  12. 60 years of UK visibility measurements: impact of meteorology and atmospheric pollutants on visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajit; Bloss, William J.; Pope, Francis D.

    2017-02-01

    Reduced visibility is an indicator of poor air quality. Moreover, degradation in visibility can be hazardous to human safety; for example, low visibility can lead to road, rail, sea and air accidents. In this paper, we explore the combined influence of atmospheric aerosol particle and gas characteristics, and meteorology, on long-term visibility. We use visibility data from eight meteorological stations, situated in the UK, which have been running since the 1950s. The site locations include urban, rural and marine environments. Most stations show a long-term trend of increasing visibility, which is indicative of reductions in air pollution, especially in urban areas. Additionally, the visibility at all sites shows a very clear dependence on relative humidity, indicating the importance of aerosol hygroscopicity on the ability of aerosol particles to scatter radiation. The dependence of visibility on other meteorological parameters, such as wind speed and wind direction, is also investigated. Most stations show long-term increases in temperature which can be ascribed to climate change, land-use changes (e.g. urban heat island effects) or a combination of both; the observed effect is greatest in urban areas. The impact of this temperature change upon local relative humidity is discussed. To explain the long-term visibility trends and their dependence on meteorological conditions, the measured data were fitted to a newly developed light-extinction model to generate predictions of historic aerosol and gas scattering and absorbing properties. In general, an excellent fit was achieved between measured and modelled visibility for all eight sites. The model incorporates parameterizations of aerosol hygroscopicity, particle concentration, particle scattering, and particle and gas absorption. This new model should be applicable and is easily transferrable to other data sets worldwide. Hence, historical visibility data can be used to assess trends in aerosol particle

  13. Nuclear installations sites safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, P.; Candes, P.; Duclos, P.; Doumenc, A.; Faure, J.; Hugon, J.; Mohammadioun, B.

    1988-11-01

    This report is divided into ten parts bearing: 1 Safety analysis procedures for Basis Nuclear Installations sites (BNI) in France 2 Site safety for BNI in France 3 Industrial and transport activities risks for BNI in France 4 Demographic characteristics near BNI sites in France 5 Meteorologic characteristics of BNI sites in France 6 Geological aspects near the BNI sites in France 7 Seismic studies for BNI sites in France 8 Hydrogeological aspects near BNI sites in France 9 Hydrological aspects near BNI sites in France 10 Ecological and radioecological studies of BNI sites in France [fr

  14. Preliminary analysis of the results and description of the meteorological experiments I and II performed at Aramar Experimental Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnary, L. de

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental program in Applied Meteorology that has been developed at Aramar Experimental Center (CEA) located in Ipero, S.P - Brazil. The program intends to study the meteorological systems and the regional circulation around Aramar to use the information in atmospheric transport and diffusion of radionuclides studies, as soon, analysis of impacts on the environment at Aramar site. The results collected during the first and second Meteorological Experiment are examined. (author)

  15. Experimental and numerical study of atmospheric turbulence and dispersion in stable conditions and in near field at a complex site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    An experimental program has been designed in order to study pollutants dispersion at a complex site with a focus on stable conditions, which are still challenging for numerical modelling. This experimental program is being conducted at the SIRTA site in a southern suburb of Paris and consists in measuring, in near field, the turbulence and the pollutants dispersion. The aim of this program is to characterize the fine structure of turbulence and associated dispersion through high temporal and spatial resolution measurements. Then, these measurements allow to validate and improve the performance of CFD simulation for turbulence and dispersion in a heterogeneous field. The instrumental set up includes 12 ultrasonic anemometers measuring continuously wind velocity and temperature at 10 Hz, and 6 photo-ionization detectors (PIDs) measuring gas concentration at 50 Hz during tracer tests. Intensive observations periods (IOPs) with gas releases have been performed since March 2012. First of all, a detailed study of flow on the site is made, because it must be characterised and properly simulated before attempting to simulate the pollutants dispersion. This study is based on two years of continuous measurements and on measurements performed during IOPs. Turbulence strong anisotropy in the surface layer is characterized by calculating variances, integral length scales and power spectra of the three wind velocity components. Propagation of turbulent structures between sensors has been characterized with velocity correlations. Energy spectra show several slopes in different frequency regions. Also, data analyses show impact of terrain heterogeneity on the measurements. The forest to the north of the experimental field modifies wind velocity and direction for a large northerly sector. It induces a strong directional wind shear and a wind deceleration below the forest height. Numerical simulations are carried out using the CFD code, Code-Saturne, in RANS mode with a standard k

  16. Geomorphological condition and sea bottom sediment characteristics of Sebagin coast for NPP site evaluation in South Bangka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuliastuti; Heni Susiati; Yarianto Sugeng Budi Susilo

    2015-01-01

    Study on geomorphological condition and sea bottom sediment in the coastal area of Sebagin, South Bangka Regency, Bangka Belitung Province has been performed. Geomorphological of the seabed was valuable to identify geological structures that exist on the seabed layers. Whereas, sediments seabed characteristics was useful to provide portrait of seabed layer due to the stability of NPP site concerning the seismic aspect and the determination of water intake position. The objective of the study was to evaluate geomorphological condition and sea bed sediment characteristics in the South Bangka sea. Methodology used for evaluating geomorphological of the sea bed were Multi Beam Echo Sounder (MBES) and Single Beam Echo Sounder (SBES), while for sea bottom sediment characteristics, high resolution seismic reflection using SBP together with sediment sample analysis were used. The result of the study showed that the study area was a shallow water sea with a depth range of 1-59 m. Geomorphological profile of the sea bed tend to be irregular and based on the seismic interpretation, there were no fault exists. Result analysis on the sea bottom sediment showed that clay distribution dominated the study area. (author)

  17. Meteorological, stream-discharge, and water-quality data for water year 1992 from two basins in Central Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, P.W.; Oliver, T.A.

    1995-01-01

    The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, is studying Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential repository for high level nuclear waste. As part of the Yucca Mountain Site Project, the analog recharge study is providing data for the evaluation of recharge to the Yucca Mountain ground-water system given a cooler and wetter climate than currently exists. The current and climatic conditions are favorable to the isolation of radioactive waste. Because waste isolation from the accessible environment for 10,000 years is necessary, climatic change and the potential for increased ground-water recharge need to be considered as part of the characterization of the potential repository. Therefore, two small basins, measuring less than 2 square miles, were studied to determine the volume of precipitation available for recharge to ground water. The semiarid 3-Springs Basin is located to the east of Kawich Peak in the Kawich Range east of Tonopah, Nevada. Stewart Basin is a subalpine drainage basin north of Arc Dome in the Toiyabe Range north of Tonopah, Nevada. The purpose of this publication is to make available the meteorological, stream-discharge, and water-quality data collected during the study. Meteorological data collected include air temperature, soil temperature, solar radiation, and relative humidity. Stream-discharge data were collected from the surface-water outlet of each basin. Water-quality data are chemical analyses of water samples collected from surface- and ground-water sources. Each basin has a meteorological station located in the lower and upper reaches of the basin. Hydrologic records include stream-discharge and water-quality data from the lower meteorological site and water-quality data from springs within the basins

  18. Experimental and numerical study of atmospheric turbulence and dispersion in stable conditions and in near field at a complex site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    An experimental program has been designed in order to study pollutants dispersion at a complex site with a focus on stable conditions, which are still challenging for numerical modelling. This experimental program is being conducted at the SIRTA site in a southern suburb of Paris and consists in measuring, in near field, the turbulence and the pollutants dispersion. The aim of this program is to characterize the fine structure of turbulence and associated dispersion through high temporal and spatial resolution measurements. Then, these measurements allow to validate and improve the performance of CFD simulation for turbulence and dispersion in a heterogeneous field. The instrumental set up includes 12 ultrasonic anemometers measuring continuously wind velocity and temperature at 10 Hz, and 6 photo-ionization detectors (PIDs) measuring gas concentration at 50 Hz during tracer tests. Intensive observations periods (IOPs) with gas releases have been performed since March 2012.First of all, a detailed study of flow on the site is made, because it must be characterised and properly simulated before attempting to simulate the pollutants dispersion. This study is based on two years of continuous measurements and on measurements performed during IOPs. Turbulence strong anisotropy in the surface layer is characterized by calculating variances, integral length scales and power spectra of the three wind velocity components. Propagation of turbulent structures between sensors has been characterized with velocity correlations. Energy spectra show several slopes in different frequency regions. Also, data analyses show impact of terrain heterogeneity on the measurements. The forest to the north of experimental field modifies wind velocity and direction for a large northerly sector. It induces a strong directional wind shear and a wind deceleration below the forest height. Numerical simulations are carried out using the CFD code Code-Saturne in RANS mode with a standard κ

  19. Some Examples of the Relationship Between Containment and Other Engineered Safeguard Requirements, Accident Analyses and Site Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinck, W. F.; Maurer, H. [EURATOM, Brussels (Belgium)

    1967-09-15

    The paper refers primarily to nuclear power reactors for which EURATOM has performed safety reviews in co-operation with national technical advisory organizations concerned in the licensing procedures. Comparative data are tabulated on a number of containment concepts and other engineered safeguards to protect against or to limit the consequences of major hypothetical accidents for a number of power reactors. Main environmental data, such as magnitudes of exclusion areas and population densities, are also presented. A number of topics of particular interest which were encountered during the safety analysis and which find widespread application in the assessment of the siting conditions and emergency planning are discussed. In this discussion, emphasis is placed on containment, engineered safeguards and emergency equipment. These items are considered in general with emphasis on: (a ) the importance of meeting operability and high efficiency requirements (reliability ) when needed through design and layout; (b) periodic testing and/or inspection possibilities and requirements in order to maintain high availability standards. Attention is drawn to some difficulties which have arisen in connection with design, material choice and construction of steel containment structures and which in the interests of safety as well as of economic optimization justify in the future more care in the use of possibly uniform or single-code requirements. Examples of uncertainties encountered in some accident analyses and their influence on siting considerations are discussed, with emphasis on safeguards intended to retain radioactive material in the plant, such as extent of core damage, iodine plate-out, filtering efficiency, wash-out effects. The means by which some of the main uncertainties have been or can in the future be eliminated through appropriate experimental programmes performed throughout the world are discussed. Some examples are also given of the influence of factors which

  20. Air conditioning technology. Vol. 1. Calculation, design, meteorological data. Standards, guidelines. As of October 31, 1986. Raumlufttechnik. Bd. 1. Berechnung, Konstruktion, meteorologische Daten. Normen, Richtlinien. Stand der abgedruckten Normen: 31. Oktober 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Since 1970 the energy consumption of air-conditioning systems has almost been reduced by half. This has been achieved by means of improved technologies and on the basis of a change in technological awareness. Revised DIN Standards have contributed to this as well. The application of the standards compiled in the DIN pocket book No. 217 'Raumlufttechnik 1' (Air-conditioning Technology 1) will secure the associated systems to actually generate the desired air-conditioning effects. With its major DIN Standards for the calculation and design of air-conditioning systems, this DIN pocket book turns out to be a valuable guide and tool for planners, manufacturers and operators. In addition, its annex supplies substantiated information on the control of HVAC systems (VDI/VDE 3525 BI) and contains the guideline for the acceptance testing of HVAC systems (VDI/2079), the draft for the building inspection guideline on fire protection requirements on ventilation systems, and annotations for air-conditioning installations in public buildings.

  1. Some directions in laser meteorology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derr, V.E.

    1977-01-01

    Applications of lidar systems in studies of pollution meteorology are discussed. It is pointed out that lidar can contribute to the determination of characteristics of particulate pollutants and also the study of the dynamics of dispersion. Agricultural and energy related problems require both short and longer term forecasting. It is as yet not completely clear whether lidar will be significant in longer term forecasts, of benefit to agriculture and conservation, or whether its usefulness will be primarily in the study of basic atmospheric processes involving the effect of clouds and aerosols on radiation balance. However, recent studies indicate that lidar will be important, in the future, in global wind sensing from satellites. Lidar and radar systems for cloud observations are compared

  2. Optimizing Time Intervals of Meteorological Data Used with Atmospheric Dose Modeling at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpkins, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    Measured tritium oxide concentrations in air have been compared with calculated values using routine release Gaussian plume models for different time intervals of meteorological data. These comparisons determined an optimum time interval of meteorological data used with atmospheric dose models at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Meteorological data of varying time intervals (1-yr to 10-yr) were used for the comparison. Insignificant differences are seen in using a one-year database as opposed to a five-year database. Use of a ten-year database results in slightly more conservative results. For meteorological databases of length one to five years the mean ratio of predicted to measured tritium oxide concentrations is approximately 1.25 whereas for the ten-year meteorological database the ration is closer to 1.35. Currently at the Savannah River Site a meteorological database of five years duration is used for all dose models. This study suggests no substantially improved accuracy using meteorological files of shorter or longer time intervals

  3. Reconstructing palaeo-environmental conditions in the Baltic: A multi-proxy comparison from IODP Site M0059 (Little Belt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotthoff, Ulrich; Andrén, Thomas; Bauersachs, Thorsten; Fanget, Anne-Sophie; Granoszewski, Wojciech; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Krupinski, Nadine; Peyron, Odile; Stepanova, Anna; Cotterill, Carol

    2015-04-01

    Some of the largest marine environmental impacts from ongoing global climate change are occurring in continental shelf seas and enclosed basins, including severe oxygen depletion, intensifying stratification, and increasing temperatures. In order to predict future changes in water mass conditions, it is essential to reconstruct how these conditions have changed in the past. The brackish Baltic Sea is one of the largest semi-enclosed basins worldwide, and hence provides a unique opportunity to analyse past changes. IODP Expedition 347 recovered a unique set of long sediment cores from the Baltic Sea Basin which allow new high-resolution reconstructions. The application of existing and development of new proxies in such a setting is complicated, as environmental changes often occur on much faster time scales with much larger variations. Therefore, we present a comparison of commonly used proxies to reconstruct palaeoecosystems, -temperatures, and -salinity from IODP Site M0059 in the Little Belt. The age model for Site M0059 is based on 14C dating and biostratigraphic correlation with neighbouring terrestrial pollen records. The aim of our study is to reconstruct the development of the terrestrial and marine ecosystems in the research area and the related environmental conditions, and to identify potential limitations for specific proxies. Pollen is used as proxy for vegetation development in the hinterland of the southern Baltic Sea and as land/air-temperature proxies. By comparison with dinoflagellate cysts and green algae remains from the same samples, a direct land-sea comparison is provided. The application of the modern analogues technique to pollen assemblages has previously yielded precise results for late Pleistocene and Holocene datasets including specific information on seasonality, but pollen-based reconstructions for Northern Europe may be hampered by plant migration effects. Chironomid remains are used where possible as indicators for surface water

  4. Comparison between AOT40 and ozone uptake in forest trees of different species, age and site conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyssek, R.; Wieser, G.; Nunn, A. J.; Kozovits, A. R.; Reiter, I. M.; Heerdt, C.; Winkler, J. B.; Baumgarten, M.; Häberle, K.-H.; Grams, T. E. E.; Werner, H.; Fabian, P.; Havranek, W. M.

    The current AOT40 concept for inferring risks in forest trees by ozone (O 3) injury is based on an accumulated external O 3 exposure rather than an internal O 3 dose or uptake rate. AOT40 assumes O 3 concentrations below 40 nl l -1 and night-time exposure to be negligible. Hence, this concept is rather inconsistent with observed forest conditions. In contrast, the flux concept of cumulative O 3 uptake (CU) into the leaves has the potential of reflecting a physiologically meaningful internal O 3 dose experienced by trees. In this paper, we relate AOT40 to cumulative O 3 uptake into European beech ( Fagus sylvatica), Norway spruce ( Picea abies), European larch ( Larix decidua) and cembran pine ( Pinus cembra) trees differing in size, age and site conditions. We demonstrate that the flux concept can be extended to the tree and the stand level, making use of sap flow measurements through tree trunks. Although in both seedlings and adult trees AOT40 may show some linearity in correlations with average CU, the latter varies, at given AOT40, by 25±11% within and between species. This is because O 3 flux is primarily influenced by stomatal aperture, the latter being affected by climate, canopy position, leaf and tree age while varying between species. In particular, if weighed by detoxification capacity, we suggest, therefore, O 3 uptake related air quality indices to be promoted towards ecologically meaningful standards in forest protection, overcoming the shortcomings of exposure concepts. As O 3 injury results from the balance between O 3 uptake and detoxification in the leaf mesophyll, we conclude the flux concept in combination with measures of biochemical defence to have the capacity for predicting tree response to O 3 stress.

  5. Skipping swans : Fuelling rates and wind conditions determine differential use of migratory stopover sites of Bewick's Swans Cygnus bewickii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, JH; Nolet, BA; Klaassen, M

    2002-01-01

    Some migratory birds refuel at stopover sites that they by-pass on the return trip. In theory, this skipping behaviour is only expected in time-selected migrants when the overflown site is of a lower quality than the departure site. We provide empirical evidence that quality differences in stopover

  6. Skipping swans: Fuelling rates and wind conditions determine differential use of migratory stopover sites of Bewick's Swans Cygnus bewickii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, J.H.; Nolet, B.A.; Klaassen, M.R.J.

    2002-01-01

    Some migratory birds refuel at stopover sites that they by-pass on the return trip. In theory, this skipping behaviour is only expected in time-selected migrants when the overflown site is of a lower quality than the departure site. We provide empirical evidence that quality differences in stopover

  7. Dusky Cotton Bug Oxycarenus spp. (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae: Hibernating Sites and Management by using Plant Extracts under Laboratory Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Muneer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The dusky cotton bug, Oxycarenus spp., has now attained the status of a major pest of cotton crops that affects lint as well as the seed quality of cotton. Surveys were conducted to explore the hibernating sites in the districts Faisalabad, Multan and Bahawalpur. The efficacies of six different plant extracts, i.e. Neem (Azadirachta indica, Milkweed (Calotropis procera, Moringa (Moringa oleifera, Citrus (Citrus sinensis, Tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum and Castor (Ricinus communis were tested by using three different concentrations of each plant extract, i.e. 5, 2.5 and 1.5% under laboratory conditions at 25±2°C and 70±5% RH. The data were recorded 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after treatment application. However, Psidium guajava, Azadirachta indica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Mangifera indica were graded as host plants heavily infested by Oxycarenus spp. Results (α≤0.05 indicated that increasing the concentration of extracts also increased the mortality. Nicotiana tobacum and Calotropis procera respectively displayed maximum 72 and 71, 84 and 80, 97 and 89% mortality at all concentrations, i.e. 1.25, 2.50 and 5.00%, after 96 hours of application. Two concentrations (2.5 and 5% are the most suitable for obtaining significant control of the dusky cotton bug.

  8. Initial data of seismic input and soil conditions of Kozloduy NPP site. Extension to Part 2 soil conditions, issued October '93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyadjiev, Z.

    1995-01-01

    On the basis of the results of the carried out experimental (laboratory and in situ) investigations of the dynamic characteristics, the following conclusions for the Kozloduy NPP site are presented. (1) The established through experimental studies relationships for the shear module and the damping factor as strain dependent of representative samples of soils of the site profile, can be used for all similar soils in the profile in the different parts of the site, taking into account the possible differences by means of the initial shear module in the normalized relationship for the respective generalized soil type. (2) When solving the problems of the site response and the 'soil - structure analysis', the geotechnical seismic model of the 'free field' profile can be assumed for all parts of the NPP site. (3) The changes of the lithological profile in different parts of the site, in respect to type and thickness, as well as in view of the different way and depth of the NPP structures foundation, make it necessary the elaboration of a geotechnical seismic model of the profile below the foundation plates of the reactor buildings of the NPP units in each particular case. These models can be made out on the basis of the summarized data about the shear velocities of the soil types, the lithological data of the studied boreholes in these places and the data having natural bulk density from 30 - 40 m depth determined by the laboratory studies of samples of these soils, assuming with approximation that the geotechnical seismic model below this depth is the same as the one of the 'free field'. (4) Studies have been carried out through in situ and laboratory studies of all the fundamental structures on the NPP site and the results of them are sufficient as an addition to the present initial data for solving the problems of the site response and the 'soil-structure inter-action' analyses of each structure

  9. Assessing the impact of local meteorological variables on surface ozone in Hong Kong during 2000-2015 using quantile and multiple line regression models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Fan, Shaojia; Guo, Hai; Gao, Bo; Sun, Jiaren; Chen, Laiguo

    2016-11-01

    The quantile regression (QR) method has been increasingly introduced to atmospheric environmental studies to explore the non-linear relationship between local meteorological conditions and ozone mixing ratios. In this study, we applied QR for the first time, together with multiple linear regression (MLR), to analyze the dominant meteorological parameters influencing the mean, 10th percentile, 90th percentile and 99th percentile of maximum daily 8-h average (MDA8) ozone concentrations in 2000-2015 in Hong Kong. The dominance analysis (DA) was used to assess the relative importance of meteorological variables in the regression models. Results showed that the MLR models worked better at suburban and rural sites than at urban sites, and worked better in winter than in summer. QR models performed better in summer for 99th and 90th percentiles and performed better in autumn and winter for 10th percentile. And QR models also performed better in suburban and rural areas for 10th percentile. The top 3 dominant variables associated with MDA8 ozone concentrations, changing with seasons and regions, were frequently associated with the six meteorological parameters: boundary layer height, humidity, wind direction, surface solar radiation, total cloud cover and sea level pressure. Temperature rarely became a significant variable in any season, which could partly explain the peak of monthly average ozone concentrations in October in Hong Kong. And we found the effect of solar radiation would be enhanced during extremely ozone pollution episodes (i.e., the 99th percentile). Finally, meteorological effects on MDA8 ozone had no significant changes before and after the 2010 Asian Games.

  10. Lloyd Berkner: Catalyst for Meteorology's Fabulous Fifties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J. M.

    2002-05-01

    In the long sweep of meteorological history - from Aristotle's Meteorologica to the threshold of the third millennium - the 1950s will surely be recognized as a defining decade. The contributions of many individuals were responsible for the combination of vision and institution building that marked this decade and set the stage for explosive development during the subsequent forty years. In the minds of many individuals who were active during those early years, however, one name stands out as a prime mover par excellence: Lloyd Viel Berkner. On May 1, 1957, Berkner addressed the National Press Club. The address was entitled, "Horizons of Meteorology". It reveals Berkner's insights into meteorology from his position as Chairman of the Committee on Meteorology of the National Academy of Sciences, soon to release the path-breaking report, Research and Education in Meteorology (1958). The address also reflects the viewpoint of an individual deeply involved in the International Geophysical Year (IGY). It is an important footnote to meteorological history. We welcome this opportunity to profile Berkner and to discuss "Horizons of Meteorology" in light of meteorology's state-of-affairs in the 1950s and the possible relevance to Berkner's ideas to contemporary issues.

  11. DESCARTES AND THE METEOROLOGY OF THE WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick BRISSEY

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Descartes claimed that he thought he could deduce the assumptions of his Meteorology by the contents of the Discourse. He actually began the Meteorology with assumptions. The content of the Discourse, moreover, does not indicate how he deduced the assumptions of the Meteorology. We seem to be left in a precarious position. We can examine the text as it was published, independent of Descartes’ claims, which suggests that he incorporated a presumptive or hypothetical method. On the other hand, we can take Descartes’ claims as our guide and search for the epistemic foundations of the Meteorology independent of the Discourse. In this paper, I will pursue the latter route. My aim is to explain why, and how, Descartes thought that he had deduced the assumptions of the Meteorology. My interest, in this case, is solely Descartes’ physical foundation for the Meteorology, in the physics and physiology that resulted in Descartes’ explanation. With this aim, I provide an interpretation of Descartes’ World where many of its conclusions serve as evidence for the assumptions of the Meteorology. I provisionally conclude that Descartes thought that his World was the epistemic foundation for his Meteorology.

  12. Meteorological Factors Affecting Evaporation Duct Height Climatologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    Italy Maritime Meteorology Division Japan Meteorological Agency Ote-Machi 1-3-4 Chiyoda-Ku Tokyo, Japan Instituto De Geofisica U.N.A.M. Biblioteca ...Torre De Ciencias, 3ER Piso Ciudad Universitaria Mexico 20, D.F. Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituu. Postbus 201 3730 AE Debilt Netherlands

  13. Analysis of the effect of meteorological factors on dewfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Huijie; Meissner, Ralph; Seeger, Juliane; Rupp, Holger; Borg, Heinz; Zhang, Yuqing

    2013-01-01

    To get an insight into when dewfall will occur and how much to expect we carried out extensive calculations with the energy balance equation for a crop surface to 1) identify the meteorological factors which determine dewfall, 2) establish the relationship between dewfall and each of them, and 3) analyse how these relationships are influenced by changes in these factors. The meteorological factors which determine dewfall were found to be air temperature (T a ), cloud cover (N), wind speed (u), soil heat flux (G), and relative humidity (h r ). Net radiation is also a relevant factor. We did not consider it explicitly, but indirectly through the effect of temperature on the night-time radiation balance. The temperature of the surface (T s ) where dew forms on is also important. However, it is not a meteorological factor, but determined by the aforementioned parameters. All other conditions being equal our study revealed that dewfall increases linearly with decreasing N or G, and with increasing h r . The effect of T a and u on dewfall is non-linear: dewfall initially increases with increasing T a or u, and then decreases. All five meteorological factors can lead to variations in dewfall between 0 and 25 W m −2 over the range of their values we studied. The magnitude of the variation due to one factor depends on the value of the others. Dewfall is highest at N = 0, G = 0, and h r = 1. T a at which dewfall is highest depends on u and vice versa. The change in dewfall for a unit change in N, G or h r is not affected by the value of N, G or h r , but increases as T a or u increase. The change in dewfall for a unit change in T a or u depends on the value of the other four meteorological factors. - Highlights: • Process of dewfall is examined for a wide range of meteorological conditions. • Effect of meteorological factors on dewfall is individually elucidated. • Interaction between factors and their combined effect on dewfall is assessed. • Extensive

  14. Impact of inherent meteorology uncertainty on air quality ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is well established that there are a number of different classifications and sources of uncertainties in environmental modeling systems. Air quality models rely on two key inputs, namely, meteorology and emissions. When using air quality models for decision making, it is important to understand how uncertainties in these inputs affect the simulated concentrations. Ensembles are one method to explore how uncertainty in meteorology affects air pollution concentrations. Most studies explore this uncertainty by running different meteorological models or the same model with different physics options and in some cases combinations of different meteorological and air quality models. While these have been shown to be useful techniques in some cases, we present a technique that leverages the initial condition perturbations of a weather forecast ensemble, namely, the Short-Range Ensemble Forecast system to drive the four-dimensional data assimilation in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model with a key focus being the response of ozone chemistry and transport. Results confirm that a sizable spread in WRF solutions, including common weather variables of temperature, wind, boundary layer depth, clouds, and radiation, can cause a relatively large range of ozone-mixing ratios. Pollutant transport can be altered by hundreds of kilometers over several days. Ozone-mixing ratios of the ensemble can vary as much as 10–20 ppb

  15. Climatic Forecasting of Net Infiltration at Yucca Mountain Using Analogue Meteorological Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faybishenko, Boris

    2005-01-01

    At Yucca Mountain, NV, future changes in climatic conditions will probably alter net infiltration, drainage below the bottom of the evapotranspiration zone within the soil profile, or flow across the interface between soil and the densely welded part of the Tiva Canyon Tuff. The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a semiempirical model and forecast average net infiltration rates, using the limited meteorological data from analog meteorological stations, for interglacial(present day), and future monsoon, glacial transition, and glacial climates over the Yucca Mountain region; and (2) corroborate the computed net infiltration rates by comparing them with the empirically and numerically determined groundwater recharge and percolation rates through the unsaturated zone from published data. This study approached calculations of net infiltration, aridity, and precipitation effectiveness indices using a modified Budyko's water-balance model, with reference-surface potential evapotranspiration determined from the radiation-based Penman formula. Results of calculations show that net infiltration rates are expected to generally increase from the present-day climate to monsoon climate, to glacial transition climate, and then to the glacial climate, following a power law relationship between net infiltration and precipitation. The forecasting results indicate the overlap between the ranges of net infiltration for different climates. Forecasting of net infiltration for different climate states is subject to numerous uncertainties associated with selecting climate analog sites, using relatively short analog meteorological records, neglecting the effects of vegetation and surface runoff and run-on on a local scale, as well as possible anthropogenically induced climate changes

  16. Climatic Forecasting of Net Infiltration at Yucca Mountain Using Analogue Meteorological Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B. Faybishenko

    2006-01-01

    At Yucca Mountain, Nevada, future changes in climatic conditions will most likely alter net infiltration, or the drainage below the bottom of the evapotranspiration zone within the soil profile or flow across the interface between soil and the densely welded part of the Tiva Canyon Tuff. The objectives of this paper are to: (a) develop a semi-empirical model and forecast average net infiltration rates, using the limited meteorological data from analogue meteorological stations, for interglacial (present day), and future monsoon, glacial transition, and glacial climates over the Yucca Mountain region, and (b) corroborate the computed net-infiltration rates by comparing them with the empirically and numerically determined groundwater recharge and percolation rates through the unsaturated zone from published data. In this paper, the author presents an approach for calculations of net infiltration, aridity, and precipitation-effectiveness indices, using a modified Budyko's water-balance model, with reference-surface potential evapotranspiration determined from the radiation-based Penman (1948) formula. Results of calculations show that net infiltration rates are expected to generally increase from the present-day climate to monsoon climate, to glacial transition climate, and then to the glacial climate. The forecasting results indicate the overlap between the ranges of net infiltration for different climates. For example, the mean glacial net-infiltration rate corresponds to the upper-bound glacial transition net infiltration, and the lower-bound glacial net infiltration corresponds to the glacial transition mean net infiltration. Forecasting of net infiltration for different climate states is subject to numerous uncertainties-associated with selecting climate analogue sites, using relatively short analogue meteorological records, neglecting the effects of vegetation and surface runoff and runon on a local scale, as well as possible anthropogenic climate changes

  17. Urban air quality, meteorology and traffic linkages: Evidence from a sixteen-day particulate matter pollution event in December 2015, Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dongmei; Wu, Jianping; Tian, Kun; Liao, Lyuchao; Xu, Ming; Du, Yiman

    2017-09-01

    A heavy 16-day pollution episode occurred in Beijing from December 19, 2015 to January 3, 2016. The mean daily AQI and PM 2.5 were 240.44 and 203.6μg/m 3 . We analyzed the spatiotemporal characteristics of air pollutants, meteorology and road space speed during this period, then extended to reveal the combined effects of traffic restrictions and meteorology on urban air quality with observational data and a multivariate mutual information model. Results of spatiotemporal analysis showed that five pollution stages were identified with remarkable variation patterns based on evolution of PM 2.5 concentration and weather conditions. Southern sites (DX, YDM and DS) experienced heavier pollution than northern ones (DL, CP and WL). Stage P2 exhibited combined functions of meteorology and traffic restrictions which were delayed peak-clipping effects on PM 2.5 . Mutual information values of Air quality-Traffic-Meteorology (ATM-MI) revealed that additive functions of traffic restrictions, suitable relative humidity and temperature were more effective on the removal of fine particles and CO than NO 2 . Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Effect of the Duration of Meteorological Data Collection on the Atmospheric Dispersion Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yoo-mi; Kim, Eun-hee

    2017-01-01

    This study regards the duration of meteorological data record for a prospective assessment of the environmental impact of gas release from Kori nuclear power plant under normal operation. We compared the atmospheric dispersion factors obtained by employing the meteorological data from 2- and 5-year durations with the corresponding values obtained by employing yearly meteorological data in the period of 2001 to 2008. Influence of the duration of meteorological data collection on short-term atmospheric dispersion factors was previously studied. In this study, long-term dispersion factors were assessed to investigate the influence of the duration of meteorological data collection on the assessment of environmental impact by gas release from Kori nuclear power plant under normal operation. We counted how many yearly meteorological conditions would be represented by 2 or 5 years of long-term data collection. The distribution of shaded cells in Tables I and II indicated that some of the yearly meteorological condition could be properly represented by the conditions averaged over 2- or 5-year durations.

  19. Tornado frequency in the USA - meteorological and non-meteorological factors of a downward trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Jovan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Citing numerical simulations, climate alarmists believe that global warming will lead to more frequent and more intensive tornadoes. Considering temperature increase data in the contiguous USA, this study has investigated the trend of strong tornadoes in F3+ category in the 1954-2012 period. Statistically significant decrease of tornadoes per year at an average rate of 0.44 has been recorded, that is, 4.4 tornadoes per decade. Tornado increase has been recorded with F0 and F1 categories and the cause of this increase lies in meteorological and non-meteorological factors. By using upper and lower standard deviation values, the stages of tornado activity have been singled out. The 1957-1974 period may be considered as an active stage and the 1978-2009 period as an inactive stage. Upward trend of air temperature increase does not correspond with the downward trend of the number of F3+ tornado category, while the correlation coefficient between these two variables is R = −0.14. This fact does not correspond with the simulation results and output data of various numerical models anticipating an increase in the number and intensity of tornado events in the conditions of surface air temperature growth.

  20. Generation of a typical meteorological year for north–east, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohunakin, Olayinka S.; Adaramola, Muyiwa S.; Oyewola, Olanrewaju M.; Fagbenle, Richard O.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • TMY for sites in north–east Nigeria was produced using Finkelstein–Schafer method. • It was found the TMY can be used to represents the long-term weather parameters. • The generated TMY can be used the design and evaluation of solar energy systems. • A handy database in the estimation of building heating loads in north–east Nigeria. - Abstract: The Finkelstein–Schafer statistical method was applied to analyze a 34-year period (1975–2008) hourly measured weather data which includes global solar radiation, dry bulb temperatures, precipitation, relative humidity and wind speed in order to generate typical meteorological year (TMY) for five locations spreading across north–east zone, Nigeria. The selection criteria are based on solar radiation together with the dry bulb temperature values and representative typical meteorological months (TMMs) were selected by choosing the one with the smallest deviation from the long-term cumulative distribution function. A close-fit agreement is observed between the generated TMY and long-term averages. The TMY generated will be very useful for optimal design and performance evaluation of solar energy conversion systems, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) and other solar energy dependent systems to be located in this part of Nigeria

  1. Detecting, categorizing and forecasting large romps in wind farm power output using meteorological observations and WPPT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutler, N.; Kay, M.; Jacka, K.

    2007-01-01

    The Wind Power Prediction Tool (WPPT) has been installed in Australia for the first time, to forecast the power output from the 65MW Roaring 40s Renewable Energy P/L Woolnorth Bluff Point wind form. This article analyses the general performance of WPPT as well as its performance during large romps...... (swings) in power output. In addition to this, detected large ramps are studied in detail and categorized. WPPT combines wind speed and direction forecasts from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology regional numerical weather prediction model, MesoLAPS, with real-time wind power observations to make hourly...... forecasts of the wind farm power output. The general performances of MesoLAPS and WPPTore evaluated over I year using the root mean square error (RMSE). The errors are significantly lower than for basic benchmark forecasts but higher than for many other WPPT installations, where the site conditions...

  2. Modeling for pollution dispersion and air quality. 3.: meteorological data and emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertagna, Silvia

    2005-01-01

    To better and correctly choose the suitable modeling system to use, it is necessary previously to define with objective criteria the characteristic of the problem to be studied and to gather together a great amount of input data and information, needed by the model, regarding, namely, the meteorological diffusive conditions of the atmosphere, the characteristic of the emission source (type, number, site etc.) and the characteristic of the area of interest (as land use and orography). In this work, the main different typologies of input data, which occur to simulate the air pollutant dispersion, are described, together with the instruments to obtain them: they include the consultation and the elaboration of information coming from databases and inventories appositely built and often also the use of other models or dedicated SW programs [it

  3. Extreme values of meteorological parameters observed at Kalpakkam during the period 1968-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balagurunathan, M.R.; Chandresekharan, E.; Rajan, M.P.; Gurg, R.P.

    2001-05-01

    In the design phase of engineering structures, an understanding of extreme weather conditions that may occur at the site of interest is very essential, so that the structures can be designed to withstand climatological stresses during its life time. In this report an analysis of extreme values of meteorological parameters at Kalpakkam for the period 1968-99, which provide an insight into such situations is described. The extreme value analysis reveals that all the variables obey Fisher-Tippet Type-I extreme value distribution function. Parameter values of extreme value analysis functions are presented for the variables studied and the 50- and 100- year return period extreme values are arrived at. Frequency distribution of rainfall parameters is investigated. Time series of annual rainfall data suggests a cycle of 2-3 years period. (author)

  4. Micro-meteorological data from the Guardo dispersion experiment in complex terrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, M.; Mikkelsen, T.

    1992-11-01

    The present report contains micrometeorological data from an atmospheric dispersion experiment in complex terrain. The experiment took place near the Guardo power plant, Palencia, Spain under various atmospheric conditions during the month of November 1990. It consisted of 14 tracer releases either from the power plant chimney or from the valley floor north of the town. Two kinds of observations are presented: (1) The 25 m meteorological mast at the Vivero site in the central part of the experimental area measured surface-layer profiles of wind velocity, wind direction, temperature and thermal stability together with turbulent wind and temperature fluctuations at the top level. (2) A radiosonde on a tethered balloon was launched at Camporredondo de Alba in the northern part of the area and measured boundary-layer profiles of pressure, temperature, humidity, wind speed and wind direction. (au) (4 tabs., 227 ills., 7 refs.).

  5. Temporal variation of sandy beach macrofauna at two sites with distinct environmental conditions on Cassino Beach, extreme southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro de Sá Rodrigues da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Temporal variations of the macrofauna of sandy beaches have been related to variations in the beach morphodynamics and also to the population dynamics of dominant species. The aim of this article is to describe the temporal variation of the intertidal macrofauna at two sites with distinct environmental condition on Cassino Beach, extreme southern Brazil. At each site three transect lines 50 m apart were defined perpendicular to the shore line, from which samples were collected monthly in triplicate at 4 intertidal levels (10 m apart from June 2004 to May 2005. During winter a generally low density was observed, due to the absence of recruitments and to the mud deposition, which occurred just before sampling (in April 2004, and to low intensity stranding events. Spring witnessed a population explosion of Scolelepis gaucha, a migration of Mesodesma mactroides adults from the subtidal zone, and a strong stranding event. In the summer, recruitment of M. mactroides, Donax hanleyanus and Emerita brasiliensis was observed. Fall was characterized by low densities, except for D. hanleyanus recruitment. The macrofauna at both sites showed a striking seasonal variation in density and diversity, perhaps attributable to the recruitment of numerically dominant species and physical disturbances (stranding and mud deposition.Variações sazonais da macrofauna bentônica de praias arenosas têm sido relacionadas com variações da morfodinâmica da praia e também aos recrutamentos das espécies dominantes. Este trabalho objetiva avaliar a variabilidade temporal da macrofauna da zona entremarés de dois locais com distintas características ambientais na praia do Cassino, extremo sul do Brasil. Em cada local foram demarcadas três transversais (separadas por 50m perpendiculares à linha de água, nas quais amostras foram coletadas em triplicata em 4 níveis entremarés (separados por 10 m, entre junho/2004 e maio/2005. Durante o inverno ocorreram baixas

  6. Modulation of surface meteorological parameters by extratropical planetary-scale Rossby waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Niranjan Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the link between upper-tropospheric planetary-scale Rossby waves and surface meteorological parameters based on the observations made in association with the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX campaign at an extratropical site at Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences, Nainital (29.45° N, 79.5° E during November–December 2011. The spectral analysis of the tropospheric wind field from radiosonde measurements indicates a predominance power of around 8 days in the upper troposphere during the observational period. An analysis of the 200 hPa meridional wind (v200 hPa anomalies from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA reanalysis shows distinct Rossby-wave-like structures over a high-altitude site in the central Himalayan region. Furthermore, the spectral analysis of global v200 hPa anomalies indicates the Rossby waves are characterized by zonal wave number 6. The amplification of the Rossby wave packets over the site leads to persistent subtropical jet stream (STJ patterns, which further affects the surface weather conditions. The propagating Rossby waves in the upper troposphere along with the undulations in the STJ create convergence and divergence regions in the mid-troposphere. Therefore, the surface meteorological parameters such as the relative humidity, wind speeds, and temperature are synchronized with the phase of the propagating Rossby waves. Moreover, the present study finds important implications for medium-range forecasting through the upper-level Rossby waves over the study region.

  7. A STUDY ON LEGIONELLA PNEUMOPHILA, WATER CHEMISTRY, AND ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS IN COOLING TOWERS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.; Brigmon, R.

    2009-10-20

    Legionnaires disease is a pneumonia caused by the inhalation of the bacterium Legionella pneumophila. The majority of illnesses have been associated with cooling towers since these devices can harbor and disseminate the bacterium in the aerosolized mist generated by these systems. Historically, Savannah River Site (SRS) cooling towers have had occurrences of elevated levels of Legionella in all seasons of the year and in patterns that are difficult to predict. Since elevated Legionella in cooling tower water are a potential health concern a question has been raised as to the best control methodology. In this work we analyze available chemical, biological, and atmospheric data to determine the best method or key parameter for control. The SRS 4Q Industrial Hygiene Manual, 4Q-1203, 1 - G Cooling Tower Operation and the SRNL Legionella Sampling Program, states that 'Participation in the SRNL Legionella Sampling Program is MANDATORY for all operating cooling towers'. The resulting reports include L. pneumophila concentration information in cells/L. L. pneumophila concentrations >10{sup 7} cells/L are considered elevated and unsafe so action must be taken to reduce these densities. These remedial actions typically include increase biocide addition or 'shocking'. Sometimes additional actions are required if the problem persists including increase tower maintenance (e.g. cleaning). Evaluation of 14 SRS cooling towers, seven water quality parameters, and five Legionella serogroups over a three-plus year time frame demonstrated that cooling tower water Legionella densities varied widely though out this time period. In fact there was no one common consistent significant variable across all towers. The significant factors that did show up most frequently were related to suspended particulates, conductivity, pH, and dissolved oxygen, not chlorine or bromine as might be expected. Analyses of atmospheric data showed that there were more frequent significant

  8. Meteorology and dispersion forecast in nuclear emergency in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunst, Juan J.; Boutet, Luis I.; Jordan, Osvaldo D.; Hernandez, Daniel G.; Guichandut, M.E.; Chiappesoni, H.

    2008-01-01

    The 'Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) (ARN in Spanish)' and the 'National Meteorological Office (NMO) (SMN in Spanish)' of Argentine has been working together on the improvement of both meteorological forecasting and dispersion prediction. In the pre-release phase of a nuclear emergency, it is very important to know the wind direction and the forecast of it, to establish the area, around the installation, where the emergency state is declared and to foresee the modification of this area. Information is also needed about deterministic effects, to begin the evacuation. At this time, meteorological forecast of wind direction and speed, and the real time meteorological information is available in the nuclear power plant (NPP) and in the Nuclear Emergency Control Centre at the ARN headquarters, together with the short-range dose calculation provided by our dispersion code, SEDA. By means of the SEDA code, we can estimate the optimum place to measure the radioactive material concentration in air, needed do to reduce evaluation uncertainties due, among others, to poor knowledge of the source term. The SEDA code allows considering atmospheric condition, and the need to reduced doses of the measuring team in charge of the measurements. For the evaluation in the medium range, we participate in the project IXP, which provides four hours and about 50 kilometres forecast. In the long-range movement of air borne radioactivity, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), whose contact point in Argentina is the SMN, can assist us. We have developed together, with the SMN, a detailed procedure to request assistance from the WMO. In this work, we describe the combined tasks that were carried out with the SMN to define the procedures and the concepts for their application during a real emergency. The results of an application exercise carried out in 2006 are also described. (author)

  9. Groundwater flow analysis on local scale. Setting boundary conditions of groundwater flow analysis on site scale model in the former part of the step 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoe, Hironori; Saegusa, Hiromitsu

    2005-07-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute has been conducting a wide range of geoscientific research in order to build a foundation for multidisciplinary studies of the deep geological environment as a basis of research and development for geological disposal of nuclear wastes. Ongoing geoscientific research programs include the Regional Hydrogeological Study (RHS) project and Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) project in the Tono region, Gifu Prefecture. The main goal of these projects is to establish comprehensive techniques for investigation, analysis, and assessment of the deep geological environment at several spatial scales. The RHS project is a local scale study for understanding the groundwater flow system from the recharge area to the discharge area. The Surface-based Investigation Phase of the MIU project is a mainly site scale study for understanding the deep geological environment immediately surrounding the MIU construction site using a multiphase, iterative approach. In this study, the hydrogeological modeling and groundwater flow analysis on the Local scale were carried out in order to set boundary conditions of the site scale model based on the data obtained from surface-based investigations in the former part of the Step 3 in site scale of the MIU project. As a result of the study, the uncertainty of hydrogeological model of the local scale and boundary conditions for the site scale model is decreased as stepwise investigation, and boundary conditions for groundwater flow analysis on the site scale model for the former part of the Step 3 could be obtained. (author)

  10. Advanced software tool for the creation of a typical meteorological year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeiker, Kamal; Ghani, Bashar Abdul

    2008-01-01

    The generation of a typical meteorological year is of great importance for calculations concerning many applications in the field of thermal engineering. In this context, method that has been proposed by Hall et al. is selected for generating typical data, and an improved criterion for final selection of typical meteorological month (TMM) was demonstrated. The final selection of the most representative year was done by examining a composite score S. The composite score was calculated as the weighed sum of the scores of the four meteorological parameters used. These parameters are air dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, wind velocity and global solar radiation intensity. Moreover, a new modern software tool using Delphi 6.0 has been developed, utilizing the Filkenstein-Schafer statistical method for the creation of a typical meteorological year for any site of concern. Whereas, an improved criterion for final selection of typical meteorological month was employed. Such tool allows the user to perform this task without an intimate knowledge of all of the computational details. The final alphanumerical and graphical results are presented on screen, and can be saved to a file or printed as a hard copy. Using this software tool, a typical meteorological year was generated for Damascus, capital of Syria, as a test run example. The data processed used were obtained from the Department of Meteorology and cover a period of 10 years (1991-2000)

  11. Temporal variations of reference evapotranspiration and its sensitivity to meteorological factors in Heihe River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of daily meteorological data from 15 meteorological stations in the Heihe River Basin (HRB during the period from 1959 to 2012, long-term trends of reference evapotranspiration (ET0 and key meteorological factors that affect ET0 were analyzed using the Mann-Kendall test. The evaporation paradox was also investigated at 15 meteorological stations. In order to explore the contribution of key meteorological factors to the temporal variation of ET0, a sensitivity coefficient method was employed in this study. The results show that: (1 mean annual air temperature significantly increased at all 15 meteorological stations, while the mean annual ET0 decreased at most of sites; (2 the evaporation paradox did exist in the HRB, while the evaporation paradox was not continuous in space and time; and (3 relative humidity was the most sensitive meteorological factor with regard to the temporal variation of ET0 in the HRB, followed by wind speed, air temperature, and solar radiation. Air temperature and solar radiation contributed most to the temporal variation of ET0 in the upper reaches; solar radiation and wind speed were the determining factors for the temporal variation of ET0 in the middle-lower reaches.

  12. The utilization of mesh meteorological data maps for agricultural activity in hilly and mountainous area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueyama, H.

    2008-01-01

    Hilly and mountainous areas occupy approximately 70% of Japan, and the area of farmland in these regions is decreasing; these areas are defined as those from the outer plains to the mountains. The development of strategies for the revitalization of local agriculture in hilly and mountainous areas is therefore a significant problem in Japan. Systematic agriculture is efficient in hilly and mountainous areas, and distribution maps are effective planning tools for evaluating the meteorological conditions for individual farms in those areas where farms are small and interspersed. Public agricultural research centers in each prefecture of Japan have developed mesh meteorological data maps with some kilometers grid cell resolutions for local agriculture, and have been made many studies using mesh meteorological data maps. However, critical variations exist between estimated mesh data and actual meteorological condition within the area of each grid cell. To address this problem, methods of estimating air temperature and solar radiation on a 50 m mesh (latitude 1.5 sec x longitude 2.25 sec) were developed. While many studies with mesh meteorological data maps have been made, numbers of concrete examples of utility for agricultural activity in hilly and mountainous areas have been few. This paper presents therefore some studies for utilization facilitated of mesh meteorological data maps in hilly and mountainous areas. And furthermore, it is proposed some guides to utilize mesh meteorological data maps for the purpose of revitalizing an agricultural activity in hilly and mountainous area with concrete examples

  13. The meteorological monitoring audit, preventative maintenance and quality assurance programs at a former nuclear weapons facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    The purposes of the meteorological monitoring audit, preventative maintenance, and quality assurance programs at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site), are to (1) support Emergency Preparedness (EP) programs at the Site in assessing the transport, dispersion, and deposition of effluents actually or potentially released into the atmosphere by Site operations; and (2) provide information for onsite and offsite projects concerned with the design of environmental monitoring networks for impact assessments, environmental surveillance activities, and remediation activities. The risk from the Site includes chemical and radioactive emissions historically related to nuclear weapons component production activities that are currently associated with storage of large quantities of radionuclides (plutonium) and radioactive waste forms. The meteorological monitoring program provides information for site-specific weather forecasting, which supports Site operations, employee safety, and Emergency Preparedness operations

  14. Alterations in Location, Magnitude, and Community Composition of Discrete Layers of Phytoplankton in Cold, Deep Waters Near the 1% Isolume of the Laurentian Great Lake Michigan Among Years With Dramatically Different Meteorological Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuhel, R. L.; Aguilar, C.

    2016-02-01

    Phytoplankton deep populations have dominated both biomass and productivity in deep basins of Lake Michigan for much of the anthropocene. In recent decades, chronically phosphorus-deficient waters have progressed from lower thermocline diatom assemblages in the 2000s to much deeper picocyanobacterial dominance in the late 2000s. Overwhelming establishment of benthic filter-feeding quagga mussels was instrumental in selection for picoplankton in the 2003-2007 time frame, but in 2008 a return to diatom dominance occurred in conjunction with monumental runoff from the Storm of the Century. Picoplankton gradually returned to significance in ensuing years, but suffered after lakewide ice cover and extremely slow spring warming of winters 2013-2015. Extremely calm summer conditions favored the picoplankton, and a decade of 1% light penetration of 50-60m has consistently enabled very deep productivity by several different divisions of algae. An unusual persistent south wind with basin-scale upwelling stimulated a return of fall diatom bloom for the first time in 2015. Repeated expeditions to offshore deep stations (100-150m) with detailed water sampling based on hydrographic observations often include thin peaks of biogenic silica (diatoms, chrysophytes) offset from one or more distinct layers of picocyanobacteria and mixed eucaryotic phytoplankton. In 2014 large, stable populations of the diatom Tabellaria sp. flourished at 50-60m with highly shade-adapted photosynthetic characteristics but assimilation numbers >1. In 2014-2015, picocyanobacterial maxima moved up in the water column and were dissociated from signals in either in vivo fluorescence or transmission. Physical structure, within-year basin physics sequence timing, and now seemingly ammonium availability may each contribute to phytoplankton ecology in this ocean-scale freshwater ecosystem.

  15. Meteorological Data Analysis Using MapReduce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the atmospheric science, the scale of meteorological data is massive and growing rapidly. K-means is a fast and available cluster algorithm which has been used in many fields. However, for the large-scale meteorological data, the traditional K-means algorithm is not capable enough to satisfy the actual application needs efficiently. This paper proposes an improved MK-means algorithm (MK-means based on MapReduce according to characteristics of large meteorological datasets. The experimental results show that MK-means has more computing ability and scalability.

  16. Communicating meteorology through popular music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sally; Aplin, Karen; Jenkins, Katie; Mander, Sarah; Walsh, Claire; Williams, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies of weather-inspired classical music showed that all forms of music (as well as visual arts and literature) reflect the significance of the environment in society. Here we quantify the extent to which weather has inspired popular musicians, and how weather is represented in English-language pop music. Our work is in press at Weather. Over 750 songs have been identified which were found to refer to meteorological phenomena, mainly in their lyrics, but also in the title of the song, name of the band or songwriter and occasionally in the song's music or sound effects. Over one third of the songs analysed referred to either sun or rain, out of a possible 20 weather categories. It was found that artists use weather to describe emotion, for example, to mirror the changes in a relationship. In this context, rain was broadly seen negatively, and might be used to signify the end of a relationship. Rain could also be perceived in a positive way, such as in songs from more agricultural communities. Wind was the next most common weather phenomenon, but did not represent emotions as much as sun or rain. However, it was the most frequently represented weather type in the music itself, such as in instrumental effects, or non-verbally in choruses. From the limited evidence available, we found that artists were often inspired by a single weather event in writing lyrics, whereas the outcomes were less clearly identifiable from longer periods of good or bad weather. Some artists were influenced more by their environment than others, but they were often inspired to write many songs about their surroundings as part of every-day life, rather than weather in particular. Popular singers and songwriters can therefore emotionally connect their listeners to the environment; this could be exploited to communicate environmental science to a broad audience.

  17. Remedial action plan and site conceptual design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Rifle, Colorado. Appendix D, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-02-01

    This appendix assesses the present conditions and data gathered about the two designated inactive uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado, and the proposed disposal site six miles north of Rifle in the area of Estes Gulch. It consolidates available engineering, radiological, geotechnical, hydrological, meteorological, and other information pertinent to the design of the Remedial Action Plan (RAP). The data characterize conditions at the mill, tailings, and disposal site so that the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) may complete final designs for the remedial actions.

  18. Remedial action plan and site conceptual design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Rifle, Colorado. Appendix D, Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This appendix assesses the present conditions and data gathered about the two designated inactive uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado, and the proposed disposal site six miles north of Rifle in the area of Estes Gulch. It consolidates available engineering, radiological, geotechnical, hydrological, meteorological, and other information pertinent to the design of the Remedial Action Plan (RAP). The data characterize conditions at the mill, tailings, and disposal site so that the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) may complete final designs for the remedial actions

  19. Sea-air boundary meteorological sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Jose G.

    2015-05-01

    The atmospheric environment can significantly affect radio frequency and optical propagation. In the RF spectrum refraction and ducting can degrade or enhance communications and radar coverage. Platforms in or beneath refractive boundaries can exploit the benefits or suffer the effects of the atmospheric boundary layers. Evaporative ducts and surface-base ducts are of most concern for ocean surface platforms and evaporative ducts are almost always present along the sea-air interface. The atmospheric environment also degrades electro-optical systems resolution and visibility. The atmospheric environment has been proven not to be uniform and under heterogeneous conditions substantial propagation errors may be present for large distances from homogeneous models. An accurate and portable atmospheric sensor to profile the vertical index of refraction is needed for mission planning, post analysis, and in-situ performance assessment. The meteorological instrument used in conjunction with a radio frequency and electro-optical propagation prediction tactical decision aid tool would give military platforms, in real time, the ability to make assessments on communication systems propagation ranges, radar detection and vulnerability ranges, satellite communications vulnerability, laser range finder performance, and imaging system performance predictions. Raman lidar has been shown to be capable of measuring the required atmospheric parameters needed to profile the atmospheric environment. The atmospheric profile could then be used as input to a tactical decision aid tool to make propagation predictions.

  20. Modern history of meteorological services with pictures for a century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    This book deals with modern history of meteorological services with pictures for a century. It is divided into twelve chapters, which mention meteorological services before the Joseon Dynasty period, meteorological observation about surface weather observation, aero logical observation, meteorological satellite, seismometry, observation on yellow dust, and observation on the falling of thunderbolt, weather forecast, meteorological telecommunication, education for weather, research for weather, promotion on weather, international cooperation, main events, special aid on meteorological services, meteorological disaster and the list of the offices for meteorological services.

  1. Preliminary results of consequence assessment of a hypothetical severe accident using Thai meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, K.; Lawawirojwong, S.; Promping, J.

    2017-06-01

    Consequence assessment of a hypothetical severe accident is one of the important elements of the risk assessment of a nuclear power plant. It is widely known that the meteorological conditions can significantly influence the outcomes of such assessment, since it determines the results of the calculation of the radionuclide environmental transport. This study aims to assess the impacts of the meteorological conditions to the results of the consequence assessment. The consequence assessment code, OSCAAR, of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is used for the assessment. The results of the consequence assessment using Thai meteorological data are compared with those using Japanese meteorological data. The Thai case has following characteristics. Low wind speed made the radionuclides concentrate at the center comparing to the Japanese case. The squalls induced the peaks in the ground concentration distribution. The evacuated land is larger than the Japanese case though the relocated land is smaller, which is attributed to the concentration of the radionuclides near the release point.

  2. Meta-analysis of the effects of soil properties, site factors and experimental conditions on solute transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Koestel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Preferential flow is a widespread phenomenon that is known to strongly affect solute transport in soil, but our understanding and knowledge is still poor of the site factors and soil properties that promote it. To investigate these relationships, we assembled a database from the peer-reviewed literature containing information on 733 breakthrough curve experiments under steady-state flow conditions. Most of the collected experiments (585 of the 733 datasets had been conducted on undisturbed soil columns, although some experiments on repacked soil, clean sands, and glass beads were also included. In addition to the apparent dispersivity, we focused our attention on three indicators of preferential solute transport: namely the 5%-arrival time, the holdback factor, and the ratio of piston-flow and average transport velocities. Our results suggest that, in contrast to the 5%-arrival time and the holdback factor, the piston-flow to transport velocity ratio is not related to preferential macropore transport but rather to the exclusion or retardation of the applied tracer. Confirming that the apparent longitudinal dispersivity is positively correlated with the travel distance of the tracer, our results also illustrate that this relationship is refined if the normalized 5%-tracer arrival time is also taken into account. In particular, we found that the degree of preferential solute transport increases with apparent dispersivity and decreases with travel distance. A similar but weaker relationship was observed between apparent dispersivity, 5%-tracer arrival time, and lateral observation scale, such that the degree of preferential transport increases with lateral observation scale. However, we also found that the travel distance and the lateral observation scale in the investigated dataset are correlated, which makes it difficult to distinguish their influence on these transport characteristics. We also found that the strength of preferential transport

  3. Synoptic and meteorological drivers of extreme ozone concentrations over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Noelia Felipe; Sillmann, Jana; Schnell, Jordan L.; Rust, Henning W.; Butler, Tim

    2016-04-01

    The present work assesses the relationship between local and synoptic meteorological conditions and surface ozone concentration over Europe in spring and summer months, during the period 1998-2012 using a new interpolated data set of observed surface ozone concentrations over the European domain. Along with local meteorological conditions, the influence of large-scale atmospheric circulation on surface ozone is addressed through a set of airflow indices computed with a novel implementation of a grid-by-grid weather type classification across Europe. Drivers of surface ozone over the full distribution of maximum daily 8-hour average values are investigated, along with drivers of the extreme high percentiles and exceedances or air quality guideline thresholds. Three different regression techniques are applied: multiple linear regression to assess the drivers of maximum daily ozone, logistic regression to assess the probability of threshold exceedances and quantile regression to estimate the meteorological influence on extreme values, as represented by the 95th percentile. The relative importance of the input parameters (predictors) is assessed by a backward stepwise regression procedure that allows the identification of the most important predictors in each model. Spatial patterns of model performance exhibit distinct variations between regions. The inclusion of the ozone persistence is particularly relevant over Southern Europe. In general, the best model performance is found over Central Europe, where the maximum temperature plays an important role as a driver of maximum daily ozone as well as its extreme values, especially during warmer months.

  4. Meteorological Necessities for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtas, Franzeska

    2011-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is joint program with NASA and DLR (German Aerospace Center) of a highly modified Boeing 747-SP. The purpose of this modification is to include a 2.5 m infrared telescope in a rear bulkhead of the airplane, with a retractable door open to the atmosphere. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) is responsible for verifying that the aerodynamics, acoustics, and flying qualities of the modified aircraft stay within safe limits. Flight testing includes determining meteorological limitations of the aircraft, which is done by setting strict temporary operating limits and verifying through data analysis, what conditions are acceptable. Line operations are calibration tests of various telescope instruments that are done on the ground prior to flights. The method in determining limitations for this type of operation is similar to that of flight testing, but the meteorological limitations are different. Of great concern are the particulates near the surface that could cause damage to the telescope, as well as condensation forming on the mirror. Another meteorological involvement for this program is the process of obtaining Reduced Vertical Separation Minimums (RVSM) Certification from the FAA. This heavily involves obtaining atmospheric data pertinent to the flight, analyzing data to actual conditions for validity, and computing necessary results for comparison to aircraft instrumentation.

  5. Interim report on the meteorological database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stage, S.A.; Ramsdell, J.V.; Simonen, C.A.; Burk, K.W.

    1993-01-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is estimating radiation doses that individuals may have received from operations at Hanford from 1944 to the present. An independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP) directs the project, which is being conducted by the Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories in Richland, Washington. The goals of HEDR, as approved by the TSP, include dose estimates and determination of confidence ranges for these estimates. This letter report describes the current status of the meteorological database. The report defines the meteorological data available for use in climate model calculations, describes the data collection procedures and the preparation and control of the meteorological database. This report also provides an initial assessment of the data quality. The available meteorological data are adequate for atmospheric calculations. Initial checks of the data indicate the data entry accuracy meets the data quality objectives

  6. Index of Meteorological Observations Publication (Before 1890)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Index of meteorological observations in the United States made prior to January 1, 1890, organized by state. Includes station name, coordinates, elevation, period of...

  7. NDBC Standard Meteorological Buoy Data, 1970-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) distributes meteorological data from moored buoys maintained by NDBC and others. Moored buoys are the weather sentinels of the...

  8. Ionospheric irregularities in periods of meteorological disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchevkina, O. P.; Karpov, I. V.

    2017-09-01

    The results of observations of the total electron content (TEC) in periods of storm disturbances of meteorological situation are presented in the paper. The observational results have shown that a passage of a meteorological storm is accompanied by a substantial decrease in values of TEC and critical frequencies of the ionospheric F2 region. The decreases in values of these ionospheric parameters reach 50% and up to 30% in TEC and critical frequency of the F2 layer, respectively, as compared to meteorologically quiet days. Based on qualitative analysis, it is found that the processes related to formation of local regions of thermospheric heating due to a dissipation of AGW coming into the upper atmosphere from the region of the meteorological disturbance in the lower atmosphere are a possible cause of these ionospheric disturbances.

  9. Meteorological interpretation of transient LOD changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Y.

    2008-04-01

    The Earth’s spin rate is mainly changed by zonal winds. For example, seasonal changes in global atmospheric circulation and episodic changes accompanied with El Nĩ os are clearly detected n in the Length-of-day (LOD). Sub-global to regional meteorological phenomena can also change the wind field, however, their effects on the LOD are uncertain because such LOD signals are expected to be subtle and transient. In our previous study (Masaki, 2006), we introduced atmospheric pressure gradients in the upper atmosphere in order to obtain a rough picture of the meteorological features that can change the LOD. In this presentation, we compare one-year LOD data with meteorological elements (winds, temperature, pressure, etc.) and make an attempt to link transient LOD changes with sub-global meteorological phenomena.

  10. Relationship between particle matter and meteorological data in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Azad; Memarian Fard, Mahsa; Bahrami, Ala

    2017-04-01

    The fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has a strong influence on the hydrological cycle, cloud formation, visibility, global climate, and human health. The meteorological conditions have important effects on PM2.5 mass concentration. Canada's National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) network measures air pollutants at urban, suburban and rural locations in Canada. In this study, the point monthly relationships between meteorological data provided by Environment of Canada and PM2.5 mass concentration from January 1st, 2010 to December 31st, 2015 of fifteen speciation stations in Canada were analyzed. The correlation analysis results between PM2.5 concentrations and precipitation as well as surface pressure demonstrated a negative correlation. It should be noted that the correlation between temperature and special humidity with PM2.5 in cold seasons and warm seasons were negative and positive respectively. Moreover, the weak correlation between wind speed and PM2.5 were obtained.

  11. GENERATION OF A TYPICAL METEOROLOGICAL YEAR FOR PORT HARCOURT ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OGOLOMA O.B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data for the typical meteorological year (TMY for the Port Harcourt climatic zone based on the hourly meteorological data recorded during the period 1983–2002, using the Finkelstein-Schafer statistical method. The data are the global solar radiation, wind velocity, dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, and others. The HVAC outside design conditions for the Port Harcourt climatic zone (latitude 4.44oN, longitude 7.1oE, elevation 20 m were found to be 26.7oC, 78.6% and 3.5 m/s for the dry bulb temperature, relative humidity and wind speed, respectively, and 13.5 MJ/m2/day for the global solar radiation. The TMY data for the zone are shown to be sufficiently reliable for engineering practice.

  12. The 1989 progress report: dynamic meteorology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadourny, R.

    1989-01-01

    The 1989 progress report of the laboratory of Dynamic Meteorology of the Polytechnic School (France) is presented. The aim of the research programs is the dynamic study of climate and environment in relationship with the global athmospheric behavior. The investigations reported were performed in the fields of: climate modelling, dynamic study of Turbulence, analysis of atmospheric radiation and nebulosity, tropical meteorology and climate, Earth radioactive balance, lidar measurements, middle atmosphere studies. The published papers, the conferences and Laboratory staff are listed [fr

  13. Meteorological circumstances during the 'Chernobyl-period'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivens, R.; Lablans, W.N.; Wessels, H.R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The progress of the meteorological circumstances and air flows in Europe from 26th April up to 8th May 1986, which caused the spread of contaminated air originating from Chernobyl is outlined and mapped out. Furthermore a global survey is presented of the precipitation in the Netherlands during the period 2nd May to 10th May based on observations of various observation stations of the Royal Dutch Meteorologic Institute (KNMI). 11 figs.; 1 table (H.W.)

  14. Surface-Water Quality Conditions and Long-Term Trends at Selected Sites within the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network in Missouri, Water Years 1993-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Miya N.; Davis, Jerri V.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, collects data pertaining to the surface-water resources of Missouri. These data are collected as part of the Missouri Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network and constitute a valuable source of reliable, impartial, and timely information for developing an improved understanding of water resources in the State. Six sites from the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network, with data available from the 1993 through 2008 water years, were chosen to compare water-quality conditions and long-term trends of dissolved oxygen, selected physical properties, total suspended solids, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen, total phosphorous, fecal indicator bacteria, and selected trace elements. The six sites used in the study were classified in groups corresponding to the physiography, main land use, and drainage basin size, and represent most stream types in Missouri. Long-term trends in this study were analyzed using flow-adjusted and non-flow adjusted models. Highly censored datasets (greater than 5 percent but less than 50 percent censored values) were not flow-adjusted. Trends that were detected can possibly be related to changes in agriculture or urban development within the drainage basins. Trends in nutrients were the most prevalent. Upward flow-adjusted trends in dissolved nitrate plus nitrite (as nitrogen) concentrations were identified at the Elk River site, and in total phosphorus concentrations at the South Fabius and Grand River sites. A downward flow-adjusted trend was identified in total phosphorus concentrations from Wilson Creek, the only urban site in the study. The downward trend in phosphorus possibly was related to a phosphorus reduction system that began operation in 2001 at a wastewater treatment plant upstream from the sampling site. Total suspended solids concentrations indicated an upward non-flow adjusted trend at the two northern sites (South Fabius

  15. On-site ocean horizontal aerosol extinction coefficient inversion under different weather conditions on the Bo-hai and Huang-hai Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xianjiang; Xia, Min; Ge, Yinghui; Guo, Wenping; Yang, Kecheng

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we explore the horizontal extinction charact