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  1. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Site Map

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Site Map. Journal Home > About the Journal > Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Site Map. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  2. 77 FR 63312 - Notice of Intent: Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) in Eastern Long...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) in Eastern Long Island Sound; Connecticut, New York, and Rhode Island AGENCY... (ODMDS) to serve the eastern Long Island Sound region (Connecticut, New York, and Rhode Island). SUMMARY... Environmental Impact Statement that supported the designation of the Central and Western Long Island Sound...

  3. Savannah River Site Eastern Transportation Hub: A Concept For a DOE Eastern Packaging, Staging and Maintenance Center - 13143

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, Jeffery L.; Adams, Karen; Maxted, Maxcine; Ruff Jr, Clarence; Albenesius, Andrew; Bowers, Mark D.; Fountain, Geoffrey; Hughes, Michael; Gordon, Sydney; O'Connor, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is working to de-inventory sites and consolidate hazardous materials for processing and disposal. The DOE administers a wide range of certified shipping packages for the transport of hazardous materials to include Special Nuclear Material (SNM), radioactive materials, sealed sources and radioactive wastes. A critical element to successful and safe transportation of these materials is the availability of certified shipping packages. There are over seven thousand certified packagings (i.e., Type B/Type AF) utilized within the DOE for current missions. The synergistic effects of consolidated maintenance, refurbishment, testing, certification, and costing of these services would allow for efficient management of the packagings inventory and to support anticipated future in-commerce shipping needs. The Savannah River Site (SRS) receives and ships radioactive materials (including SNM) and waste on a regular basis for critical missions such as consolidated storage, stabilization, purification, or disposition using H-Canyon and HB-Line. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has the technical capability and equipment for all aspects of packaging management. SRS has the only active material processing facility in the DOE complex and is one of the sites of choice for nuclear material consolidation. SRS is a logical location to perform maintenance and periodic testing of the DOE fleet of certified packagings. This initiative envisions a DOE Eastern Packaging Staging and Maintenance Center (PSMC) at the SRS and a western hub at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), an active DOE Regional Disposal Site. The PSMC's would be the first place DOE would go to meet their radioactive packaging needs and the primary locations projects would go to disposition excess packaging for beneficial reuse. These two hubs would provide the centralized management of a packaging fleet rather than the current approach to design, procure, maintain and dispose

  4. Savannah River Site Eastern Transportation Hub: A Concept For a DOE Eastern Packaging, Staging and Maintenance Center - 13143

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    England, Jeffery L. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, South Carolina (United States); Adams, Karen; Maxted, Maxcine; Ruff Jr, Clarence [U.S. Department of Energy, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC (United States); Albenesius, Andrew; Bowers, Mark D.; Fountain, Geoffrey; Hughes, Michael [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Aiken, SC (United States); Gordon, Sydney [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States); O' Connor, Stephen [U.S. Department of Energy, HQ DOE, EM-33, Germantown MD (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is working to de-inventory sites and consolidate hazardous materials for processing and disposal. The DOE administers a wide range of certified shipping packages for the transport of hazardous materials to include Special Nuclear Material (SNM), radioactive materials, sealed sources and radioactive wastes. A critical element to successful and safe transportation of these materials is the availability of certified shipping packages. There are over seven thousand certified packagings (i.e., Type B/Type AF) utilized within the DOE for current missions. The synergistic effects of consolidated maintenance, refurbishment, testing, certification, and costing of these services would allow for efficient management of the packagings inventory and to support anticipated future in-commerce shipping needs. The Savannah River Site (SRS) receives and ships radioactive materials (including SNM) and waste on a regular basis for critical missions such as consolidated storage, stabilization, purification, or disposition using H-Canyon and HB-Line. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has the technical capability and equipment for all aspects of packaging management. SRS has the only active material processing facility in the DOE complex and is one of the sites of choice for nuclear material consolidation. SRS is a logical location to perform maintenance and periodic testing of the DOE fleet of certified packagings. This initiative envisions a DOE Eastern Packaging Staging and Maintenance Center (PSMC) at the SRS and a western hub at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), an active DOE Regional Disposal Site. The PSMC's would be the first place DOE would go to meet their radioactive packaging needs and the primary locations projects would go to disposition excess packaging for beneficial reuse. These two hubs would provide the centralized management of a packaging fleet rather than the current approach to design, procure, maintain and

  5. Analysis of source spectra, attenuation, and site effects from central and eastern United States earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindley, G.

    1998-02-01

    This report describes the results from three studies of source spectra, attenuation, and site effects of central and eastern United States earthquakes. In the first study source parameter estimates taken from 27 previous studies were combined to test the assumption that the earthquake stress drop is roughly a constant, independent of earthquake size. 200 estimates of stress drop and seismic moment from eastern North American earthquakes were combined. It was found that the estimated stress drop from the 27 studies increases approximately as the square-root of the seismic moment, from about 3 bars at 10 20 dyne-cm to 690 bars at 10 25 dyne-cm. These results do not support the assumption of a constant stress drop when estimating ground motion parameters from eastern North American earthquakes. In the second study, broadband seismograms recorded by the United States National Seismograph Network and cooperating stations have been analysed to determine Q Lg as a function of frequency in five regions: the northeastern US, southeastern US, central US, northern Basin and Range, and California and western Nevada. In the third study, using spectral analysis, estimates have been made for the anelastic attenuation of four regional phases, and estimates have been made for the source parameters of 27 earthquakes, including the M b 5.6, 14 April, 1995, West Texas earthquake

  6. Heritage sites in the Eastern region of Cuba, new approaches for preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Enrique Bello-Caballero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Eastern Region of Cuba holds five properties inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage List, which evidence the cultural heritage richness. Therefore, several studies in the national context contribute to analyze the different process related to heritage sites management. However, the studies that embrace current deficiencies on heritage analysis and monitoring are yet insufficient. New studies should contribute to the control and the adoption of conservation actions, by means of the study, visualization and updating of information related to negative factors that influences the loss of cultural values, considering the preventive conservation approach. This paper aims at presenting the joint ongoing research between the Universidad de Oriente and the KU Leuven, within the frame of the VLIR IUC Project, which final goal is to design a method for the spatial analysis and monitoring of heritage sites through a GIS based tool implementation, with a preventive conservation approach.

  7. Biodegradation of cyanide in groundwater and soils from gasworks sites in south-eastern Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehan, S.M.E.; Weaver, T.R.; Lawrence, C.R. [University of Melbourne, Parkvills, Vic. (Australia). School of Earth Sciences

    1999-07-01

    Groundwater from a gasworks site in south-eastern Australia has been found to contain high concentrations of cyanide (total), sulphate, and ammonia (1400 mg L{sup -1}, 6500 mg L{sup -1}, and 580 mg L{sup -1} respectively). Soil from another gasworks site has been found to contain 587 mg kg{sup -1} of cyanide (total), with concentrations of cyanide in the groundwater at this site being relatively low ({lt} 21 mgL{sup -1} CN(Total)). Experiments were conducted to determine the biodegradation rates of cyanide in groundwater and soils using samples from both sites. Column experiments and bioreactors were constructed to produce both aerobic and anaerobic conditions for the groundwater containing high concentrations of cyanide. Samples of water were taken periodically to analyse the pH, redox potential, temperature, and concentrations of cyanide (free and total), sulphate, ammonia, nitrate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Initial results indicate that concentrations of cyanide are declining in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, with biodegradation one process producing degradation. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Petrographic analysis of prehistoric ceramics from the Huagangshan site of Hualien City, eastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Y. S.; Yi-Chang, L.

    2017-12-01

    Numerous stone artifacts, ceramics, bone tools, metal objects, and etc., had been unearthed from the Huagangshan site of Hualien City, eastern Taiwan, during the excavations of 2008-2010 and 2012. Of particular importance is more than ten thousands of potsherds were discovered. A stratigraphic sequence spanning the late Early Neolithic (ca. 5000 BP) through to the prehistoric of Taiwan (300 BP) was excavated. This study focuses on potteries from the Late Neolithic (ca. 3500-2800 BP), owing to some ceramics exhibiting distinct stylistic motifs and morphological attributes were recognized to be not produced locally. Have these wares been brought to the area by exchange trade and/or by immigrants? Or had they been made by local potters through the imitation of exotic styles? It is still unclear and is one of the most important archaeological issues in eastern Taiwan. To clarify this subject, understanding the raw material compositions and sources, manufacturing techniques, and etc. are considered to be the best ways. Thus, 21 potsherds from excavations and 6 river sand samples near the site were studied by petrographic analysis. The results of petrographic study show that temper components in the potsherds are quartz, pyroxene, amphibole, plagioclase, sedimentary rock fragments (sandstone), igneous rock fragments (andesite), and metamorphic rock fragments (metasandstone, slate, schist), and the contents and proportions are different in these samples. Petrography shows that the ceramic have multiple origins. A ternary plot of rock fragments shows three compositional groups. This result discriminates two types of ceramics from the others and confirms those ceramics producing non-locally. However, one type of potsherds have local origins through they were recognized to be exotic ones.

  9. Characterization of site conditions for selected seismic stations in eastern part of Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecu, B.; Zaharia, B.; Diaconescu, M.; Bala, A.; Nastase, E.; Constantinescu, E.; Tataru, D.

    2018-02-01

    Strong motion data are essential for seismic hazard assessment. To correctly understand and use this kind of data is necessary to have a good knowledge of local site conditions. Romania has one of the largest strong motion networks in Europe with 134 real-time stations. In this work, we aim to do a comprehensive site characterization for eight of these stations located in the eastern part of Romania. We make use of a various seismological dataset and we perform ambient noise and earthquake-based investigations to estimate the background noise level, the resonance frequencies and amplification of each site. We also derive the Vs30 parameter from the surface shear-wave velocity profiles obtained through the inversion of the Rayleigh waves recorded in active seismic measurements. Our analyses indicate similar results for seven stations: high noise levels for frequencies larger than 1 Hz, well defined fundamental resonance at low frequencies (0.15-0.29 Hz), moderate amplification levels (up to 4 units) for frequencies between 0.15 and 5-7 Hz and same soil class (type C) according to the estimated Vs30 and Eurocode 8. In contrast, the eighth station for which the soil class is evaluated of type B exhibits a very good noise level for a wide range of frequencies (0.01-20 Hz), a broader fundamental resonance at high frequencies ( 8 Hz) and a flat amplification curve between 0.1 and 3-4 Hz.

  10. A closure study of aerosol optical properties at a regional background mountainous site in Eastern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Liang [Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Key Laboratory for Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Yin, Yan, E-mail: yinyan@nuist.edu.cn [Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Key Laboratory for Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Xiao, Hui [Key Laboratory for Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Yu, Xingna [Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Key Laboratory for Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Hao, Jian; Chen, Kui [Key Laboratory for Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); and others

    2016-04-15

    There is a large uncertainty in evaluating the radiative forcing from aerosol–radiation and aerosol–cloud interactions due to the limited knowledge on aerosol properties. In-situ measurements of aerosol physical and chemical properties were carried out in 2012 at Mt. Huang (the Yellow Mountain), a continental background mountainous site in eastern China. An aerosol optical closure study was performed to verify the model outputs by using the measured aerosol optical properties, in which a spherical Mie model with assumptions of external and core–shell mixtures on the basis of a two-component optical aerosol model and high size-segregated element carbon (EC) ratio was applied. Although the spherical Mie model would underestimate the real scattering with increasing particle diameters, excellent agreement between the calculated and measured values was achieved with correlation coefficients above 0.98. Sensitivity experiments showed that the EC ratio had a negligible effect on the calculated scattering coefficient, but largely influenced the calculated absorption coefficient. The high size-segregated EC ratio averaged over the study period in the closure was enough to reconstruct the aerosol absorption coefficient in the Mie model, indicating EC size resolution was more important than time resolution in retrieving the absorption coefficient in the model. The uncertainties of calculated scattering and absorption coefficients due to the uncertainties of measurements and model assumptions yielded by a Monte Carlo simulation were ± 6% and ± 14% for external mixture and ± 9% and ± 31% for core–shell mixture, respectively. This study provided an insight into the inherent relationship between aerosol optical properties and physicochemical characteristics in eastern China, which could supplement the database of aerosol optical properties for background sites in eastern China and provide a method for regions with similar climate. - Highlights: • A spherical Mie

  11. A closure study of aerosol optical properties at a regional background mountainous site in Eastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Liang; Yin, Yan; Xiao, Hui; Yu, Xingna; Hao, Jian; Chen, Kui

    2016-01-01

    There is a large uncertainty in evaluating the radiative forcing from aerosol–radiation and aerosol–cloud interactions due to the limited knowledge on aerosol properties. In-situ measurements of aerosol physical and chemical properties were carried out in 2012 at Mt. Huang (the Yellow Mountain), a continental background mountainous site in eastern China. An aerosol optical closure study was performed to verify the model outputs by using the measured aerosol optical properties, in which a spherical Mie model with assumptions of external and core–shell mixtures on the basis of a two-component optical aerosol model and high size-segregated element carbon (EC) ratio was applied. Although the spherical Mie model would underestimate the real scattering with increasing particle diameters, excellent agreement between the calculated and measured values was achieved with correlation coefficients above 0.98. Sensitivity experiments showed that the EC ratio had a negligible effect on the calculated scattering coefficient, but largely influenced the calculated absorption coefficient. The high size-segregated EC ratio averaged over the study period in the closure was enough to reconstruct the aerosol absorption coefficient in the Mie model, indicating EC size resolution was more important than time resolution in retrieving the absorption coefficient in the model. The uncertainties of calculated scattering and absorption coefficients due to the uncertainties of measurements and model assumptions yielded by a Monte Carlo simulation were ± 6% and ± 14% for external mixture and ± 9% and ± 31% for core–shell mixture, respectively. This study provided an insight into the inherent relationship between aerosol optical properties and physicochemical characteristics in eastern China, which could supplement the database of aerosol optical properties for background sites in eastern China and provide a method for regions with similar climate. - Highlights: • A spherical Mie

  12. Soot particles at an elevated site in eastern China during the passage of a strong cyclone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Hongya [State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, School of Geoscience and Surveying Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Faculty of Environmental and Symbiotic Sciences, Prefectural University of Kumamoto, Kumamoto 862-8502 (Japan); Shao, Longyi [State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, School of Geoscience and Surveying Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Daizhou, E-mail: dzzhang@pu-kumamoto.ac.jp [Faculty of Environmental and Symbiotic Sciences, Prefectural University of Kumamoto, Kumamoto 862-8502 (Japan)

    2012-07-15

    Atmospheric particles larger than 0.2 {mu}m were collected at the top of Mt. Tai (36.25 Degree-Sign N, 117.10 Degree-Sign E, 1534 m a.s.l.) in eastern China in May 2008 during the passage of a strong cyclone. The particles were analyzed with electron microscopes and characterized by morphology, equivalent diameter and elemental composition. Soot particles with coating (coated soot particles) and those without apparent coating (naked soot particles) were predominant in the diameter range smaller than 0.6 {mu}m in all samples. The number-size distribution of the relative abundance of naked soot particles in the prefrontal air was similar to that in the postfrontal air and their size modes were around 0.2-0.3 {mu}m. However, the distribution of inclusions of coated soot particles showed a mode in the range of 0.1-0.3 {mu}m. The coating degree of coated soot particles, which was defined by the ratio of the diameter of inclusion to the diameter of particle body, showed a mode around 0.5 with the range of 0.3-0.6. These results indicate that the status of soot particles in the prefrontal and postfrontal air was similar although air pollution levels were dramatically different. In addition, the relative abundance of accumulation mode particles increased with the decrease of soot particles after the front passage. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Particles at an elevated site in eastern China in a strong cyclone were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aged status of soot particles in the prefrontal and postfrontal air was similar. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soot particles in elevated layers could be considered as aged ones.

  13. Site-specific climate analysis elucidates revegetation challenges for post-mining landscapes in eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Audet

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In eastern Australia, the availability of water is critical for the successful rehabilitation of post-mining landscapes and climatic characteristics of this diverse geographical region are closely defined by factors such as erratic rainfall and periods of drought and flooding. Despite this, specific metrics of climate patterning are seldom incorporated into the initial design of current post-mining land rehabilitation strategies. Our study proposes that a few common rainfall parameters can be combined and rated using arbitrary rainfall thresholds to characterise bioregional climate sensitivity relevant to the rehabilitation these landscapes. This approach included assessments of annual rainfall depth, average recurrence interval of prolonged low intensity rainfall, average recurrence intervals of short or prolonged high intensity events, median period without rain (or water-deficit and standard deviation for this period in order to address climatic factors such as total water availability, seasonality and intensity – which were selected as potential proxies of both short- and long-term biological sensitivity to climate within the context of post-disturbance ecological development and recovery. Following our survey of available climate data, we derived site "climate sensitivity" indexes and compared the performance of 9 ongoing mine sites: Weipa, Mt. Isa and Cloncurry, Eromanga, Kidston, the Bowen Basin (Curragh, Tarong, North Stradbroke Island, and the Newnes Plateau. The sites were then ranked from most-to-least sensitive and compared with natural bioregional patterns of vegetation density using mean NDVI. It was determined that regular rainfall and relatively short periods of water-deficit were key characteristics of sites having less sensitivity to climate – as found among the relatively more temperate inland mining locations. Whereas, high rainfall variability, frequently occurring high intensity events, and (or prolonged seasonal

  14. Site-specific climate analysis elucidates revegetation challenges for post-mining landscapes in eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, P.; Arnold, S.; Lechner, A. M.; Baumgartl, T.

    2013-10-01

    In eastern Australia, the availability of water is critical for the successful rehabilitation of post-mining landscapes and climatic characteristics of this diverse geographical region are closely defined by factors such as erratic rainfall and periods of drought and flooding. Despite this, specific metrics of climate patterning are seldom incorporated into the initial design of current post-mining land rehabilitation strategies. Our study proposes that a few common rainfall parameters can be combined and rated using arbitrary rainfall thresholds to characterise bioregional climate sensitivity relevant to the rehabilitation these landscapes. This approach included assessments of annual rainfall depth, average recurrence interval of prolonged low intensity rainfall, average recurrence intervals of short or prolonged high intensity events, median period without rain (or water-deficit) and standard deviation for this period in order to address climatic factors such as total water availability, seasonality and intensity - which were selected as potential proxies of both short- and long-term biological sensitivity to climate within the context of post-disturbance ecological development and recovery. Following our survey of available climate data, we derived site "climate sensitivity" indexes and compared the performance of 9 ongoing mine sites: Weipa, Mt. Isa and Cloncurry, Eromanga, Kidston, the Bowen Basin (Curragh), Tarong, North Stradbroke Island, and the Newnes Plateau. The sites were then ranked from most-to-least sensitive and compared with natural bioregional patterns of vegetation density using mean NDVI. It was determined that regular rainfall and relatively short periods of water-deficit were key characteristics of sites having less sensitivity to climate - as found among the relatively more temperate inland mining locations. Whereas, high rainfall variability, frequently occurring high intensity events, and (or) prolonged seasonal drought were primary

  15. Ongoing research experiments at the former Soviet nuclear test site in eastern Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leith, William S.; Kluchko, Luke J.; Konovalov, Vladimir; Vouille, Gerard

    2002-01-01

    Degelen mountain, located in EasternKazakhstan near the city of Semipalatinsk, was once the Soviets most active underground nuclear test site. Two hundred fifteen nuclear tests were conducted in 181 tunnels driven horizontally into its many ridges--almost twice the number of tests as at any other Soviet underground nuclear test site. It was also the site of the first Soviet underground nuclear test--a 1-kiloton device detonated on October 11, 1961. Until recently, the details of testing at Degelen were kept secret and have been the subject of considerable speculation. However, in 1991, the Semipalatinsk test site became part of the newly independent Republic of Kazakhstan; and in 1995, the Kazakhstani government concluded an agreement with the U.S. Department of Defense to eliminate the nuclear testing infrastructure in Kazakhstan. This agreement, which calls for the "demilitarization of the infrastructure directly associated with the nuclear weapons test tunnels," has been implemented as the "Degelen Mountain Tunnel Closure Program." The U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency, in partnership with the Department of Energy, has permitted the use of the tunnel closure project at the former nuclear test site as a foundation on which to support cost-effective, research-and-development-funded experiments. These experiments are principally designed to improve U.S. capabilities to monitor and verify the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), but have provided a new source of information on the effects of nuclear and chemical explosions on hard, fractured rock environments. These new data extends and confirms the results of recent Russian publications on the rock environment at the site and the mechanical effects of large-scale chemical and nuclear testing. In 1998, a large-scale tunnel closure experiment, Omega-1, was conducted in Tunnel 214 at Degelen mountain. In this experiment, a 100-ton chemical explosive blast was used to test technologies for monitoring the

  16. A Qualitative Evidence of the Breeding Sites of Patton (Diptera: Culicidae in and Around Kassala Town, Eastern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Mahmoud Hamza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae is considered the most efficient malaria vector in eastern Sudan. This study aims to characterize the breeding sites of An. arabiensis throughout the year in and around Kassala town, eastern Sudan. Diverse larval habitat types were visited and characterized based on the habitat type and chemical composition. Mosquito larvae were found in many diverse habitats. During the rainy season, rain pools and water bodies created by the seasonal Gash River serve as the main breeding sites. In the dry season, irrigation canals, seepage from water pipes, neglected wells, artificial containers, and man-made ditches serve as the main breeding sites. Breeding water showed a pH of 7.9 and a low concentration of the total dissolved salts. The results of this study may be considered in planning and implementing larval control programs in the area.

  17. The attenuation of Fourier amplitudes for rock sites in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Gail M.; Boore, David M.

    2014-01-01

    We develop an empirical model of the decay of Fourier amplitudes for earthquakes of M 3–6 recorded on rock sites in eastern North America and discuss its implications for source parameters. Attenuation at distances from 10 to 500 km may be adequately described using a bilinear model with a geometric spreading of 1/R1.3 to a transition distance of 50 km, with a geometric spreading of 1/R0.5 at greater distances. For low frequencies and distances less than 50 km, the effective geometric spreading given by the model is perturbed using a frequency‐ and hypocentral depth‐dependent factor defined in such a way as to increase amplitudes at lower frequencies near the epicenter but leave the 1 km source amplitudes unchanged. The associated anelastic attenuation is determined for each event, with an average value being given by a regional quality factor of Q=525f 0.45. This model provides a match, on average, between the known seismic moment of events and the inferred low‐frequency spectral amplitudes at R=1  km (obtained by correcting for the attenuation model). The inferred Brune stress parameters from the high‐frequency source terms are about 600 bars (60 MPa), on average, for events of M>4.5.

  18. Geochemistry of aerosols from an urban site, Varanasi, in the Eastern Indo-Gangetic Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Kirpa; Norra, Stefan; Zirzov, Felix; Singh, Sunita; Mehra, Manisha; Nanad Tripathi, Sachichida

    2016-04-01

    PM2.5 aerosol samples were collected from an urban site, Varanasi, in the eastern Indo-Gangetic Plain on weekly basis during 19 March to 29 May 2015 (n=12), along with daily samples (n=8) during 11 to 18 March 2015 to study the geochemical and morphological features of aerosols. Samples were collected with a low volume sampler (Leckel GmbH, Germany) on the terrace of the Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development building, located in the Banaras Hindu University campus in the southern part of the city. Samples were analyzed for element concentration by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and particle morphology by Scanning Electron Microscope. PM2.5 concentration ranged between 22.3 and 70.5 μgm-3 in daily samples, whereas those varied between 52.0 and 106 μgm-3 in weekly samples. Lead, potassium, aluminum, zinc and iron have conspicuously higher concentrations with Pb concentration exceeding above the annual limit of 50 ngm-3 in four samples. First results show a trend of corresponding concentrations of chemical elements originated from anthropogenic and geogenic sources. The biogenic particles are a minor fraction of the total particulate aerosols. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) back trajectory analysis of air parcels indicate that the air mass for the low loaded days originate from eastern directions including the region of the gulf of Bengal, where as high aerosols concentrations in cases of air masses arriving from north-western direction transporting the air pollutants from the Gangetic Plain towards Varanasi. Black carbon (BC) concentration, measured using an microaethalometer (AE-51), exhibit a strong variability (4.4 to 8.4 μg m-3) in the University campus which are ˜20-40% lower than those measured in the Varanasi city. The carbon content was found to be high with soot particles constituting the largest part in these samples and exist as single particle as well as attachment to other particles

  19. Origin and variability in volatile organic compounds observed at an Eastern Mediterranean background site (Cyprus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debevec, Cécile; Sauvage, Stéphane; Gros, Valérie; Sciare, Jean; Pikridas, Michael; Stavroulas, Iasonas; Salameh, Thérèse; Leonardis, Thierry; Gaudion, Vincent; Depelchin, Laurence; Fronval, Isabelle; Sarda-Esteve, Roland; Baisnée, Dominique; Bonsang, Bernard; Savvides, Chrysanthos; Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Locoge, Nadine

    2017-09-01

    or from more distant emission zones (i.e., the south coast of Turkey); and a last factor (36 %) associated with regional background pollution (air masses transported both from the Western and Eastern Mediterranean regions). One of the two biogenic and the regional background factors were found to be the largest contributors to the VOC concentrations observed at our sampling site. Finally, a combined analysis of VOC PMF factors with source-apportioned organic aerosols (OAs) helped to better distinguish between anthropogenic and biogenic influences on the aerosol and gas phase compositions. The highest OA concentrations were observed when the site was influenced by air masses rich in semi-volatile OA (less oxidized aerosols) originating from the southwest of Asia, in contrast with OA factor contributions associated with the remaining source regions. A reinforcement of secondary OA formation also occurred due to the intense oxidation of biogenic precursors.

  20. Hominin teeth from the Middle Pleistocene site of Yiyuan, Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Song; Sun, Chengkai; Martinón-Torres, María; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Han, Fei; Zhang, Yingqi; Liu, Wu

    2016-06-01

    In 1981-1982, some hominin fossils, including a relatively complete skull and seven isolated teeth, were recovered from the Middle Pleistocene site of Yiyuan in Eastern China. In the present study we provide a detailed metric and morphological comparison of the Yiyuan dental sample in order to characterize better the variability of the human populations that inhabited China during the Middle Pleistocene. Aside from taxonomic and phylogenetic questions, the lack of understanding and/or knowledge about the morphological variability of these populations have caused concern about the human versus non-human nature of some of the hominin dental remains found in East Asia during the Early and the Middle Pleistocene. Thus, our study aims to present a detailed description and comparison of the Yiyuan isolated teeth to 1) discuss and support their human nature and 2) to explore their taxonomic affinities with regard to other penecontemporaneous populations from Asia. Our results clearly differentiate the Yiyuan sample from Pongo specimens and support a human attribution for the Yiyuan material. Our analyses also suggest that the Yiyuan teeth form a morphologically coherent group together with samples from Zhoukoudian, Chaoxian and Hexian. They are different from the more derived specimens from Panxian Dadong, suggesting a pattern of biogeographic isolation and different evolutionary trends between northern and southern China during the Middle Pleistocene. In addition, and despite sharing a common morphological bauplan with Homo erectus sensu stricto (s.s.), the Yiyuan, Zhoukoudian and Hexian teeth are also different from the Indonesian Early Pleistocene samples. In particular, the expression of a highly crenulated or dendritic enamel-dentine surface could be unique to these groups. Our study supports the notion that the taxonomy of the Pleistocene hominins from Asia may have been oversimplified. Future studies should explore the variability of the Asian specimens and

  1. Identification of vulnerable sites in salts affected agricultural soils from South-Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Jose A.; Faz, Angel; Kalbitz, Karsten; Jansen, Boris; Silvia, Martinez-Martinez

    2010-05-01

    Soil salinization is one of the main problems in many soils under intensive agricultural practices, especially in arid and semiarid zones. Two important reasons for the occurrence of salinization are i) the use of low quality irrigation water and ii) climatic conditions reducing soil quality. The results of salinization can be quite serious. It limits the growing of crops, constrains agricultural productivity, and in severe cases, leads to the abandonment of agricultural soils. There are mainly two kinds of soil salinity: naturally occurring dry-land salinity and human-induced salinity caused by the low quality of irrigation water, excessive water and fertilizer applications. In both cases the development of plants and soil organisms is limited. Natural occurrence of salts in soils is very difficult to handle and requires higher investments than the reduction of human-induced salinity. For these reasons, identification of vulnerable sites is essential for sustainable agricultural management, especially in these semiarid and arid environments. The main aim of this study was to examine spatial and vertical distribution pattern of salts in a semi-arid study site in South-Eastern Spain in order to identify vulnerable sites. In order to achieve this objective, surface soil samples were collected in January and July 2009 at 48 sites located in a representative lemon production area close to City of Murcia, covering a surface area of 44 km2. The area was divided using a square grid of 1000 m and the samples were taken from these squares. The ionic concentrations were used as the input data for distribution maps. The software used for the spatial analysis was Arcview 3.1. An interpolation method called the Inverse Distanced Weighted (IDW) method was adopted for the interpolation of the data. The results indicated that the concentrations of most anions are higher in summer. The difference was particularly large for chloride, most likely because of its high mobility and

  2. Origin and variability in volatile organic compounds observed at an Eastern Mediterranean background site (Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Debevec

    2017-09-01

    as being either of local origin or from more distant emission zones (i.e., the south coast of Turkey; and a last factor (36 % associated with regional background pollution (air masses transported both from the Western and Eastern Mediterranean regions. One of the two biogenic and the regional background factors were found to be the largest contributors to the VOC concentrations observed at our sampling site. Finally, a combined analysis of VOC PMF factors with source-apportioned organic aerosols (OAs helped to better distinguish between anthropogenic and biogenic influences on the aerosol and gas phase compositions. The highest OA concentrations were observed when the site was influenced by air masses rich in semi-volatile OA (less oxidized aerosols originating from the southwest of Asia, in contrast with OA factor contributions associated with the remaining source regions. A reinforcement of secondary OA formation also occurred due to the intense oxidation of biogenic precursors.

  3. Pesticides analysed in rainwater in Alsace region (Eastern France): Comparison between urban and rural sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheyer, Anne; Morville, Stéphane; Mirabel, Philippe; Millet, Maurice

    Current-used pesticides commonly applied in Alsace region (Eastern France) on diverse crops (maize, vineyard, vegetables, etc.) were analysed, together with Lindane, in rainwater between January 2002 and June 2003 simultaneously on two sites situated in a typical rural (Erstein, France) and urban area (Strasbourg, France). Rainwater samples were collected on a weekly basis by using two automatic wet only collectors associated with an open collector for the measurement of rainwater height. Pesticides were analysed by GC-MSMS and extracted from rainwater by SPME. Two runs were performed. The first one was performed by using a PDMS (100 μm) fibre for pesticides where direct injection into GC is possible (alachlor, atrazine, azinphos-ethyl, azinphos-methyl, captan, chlorfenvinphos, dichlorvos, diflufenican, α- and β-endosulfan, iprodione, lindane, metolachlor, mevinphos, parathion-methyl, phosalone, phosmet, tebuconazole, triadimefon and trifluralin). The second run was performed by using PDMS/DVB fibre and this run concerns pesticides where a preliminary derivatisation step with pentafluorobenzylbromide (PFBBr) is required for very low volatiles (bromoxynil,2,4-MCPA, MCPP and 2,4-D) or thermo labiles (chlorotoluron, diuron and isoproturon) pesticides. Results showed that the more concentrated pesticides detected were those used as herbicides in large quantities in Alsace region for maize crops (alachlor, metolachlor and atrazine). Maximum concentrations for these herbicides have been measured during intensive applications periods on maize crops following by rapid decrease immediately after use. For Alachlor, most important peaks have been observed between 21 and 28 April 2003 (3327 ng L -1 at Erstein and 5590 ng L -1 at Strasbourg). This is also the case for Metolachlor where most important peak was observed during the same week. Concentrations of pesticides measured out of application periods were very low for many pesticides and some others where never detected

  4. Nižný Hrabovec. A site with evolved levallois technology in Eastern Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaminská, Ľ.; Škrdla, Petr; Kozlowski, J. K.; Tomášková, S.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 6, 1-2 (2009), s. 57-64 ISSN 1730-8518 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA800010801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80010507 Keywords : Eastern Slovakia * Levallois * Bohunician Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  5. Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies detection by RLB hybridization in Ixodes ricinus ticks from different sites of North-Eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunaj, Justyna; Zajkowska, Joanna Maria; Kondrusik, Maciej; Gern, Lise; Rais, Oliver; Moniuszko, Anna; Pancewicz, Sławomir; Świerzbińska, Renata

    2014-01-01

    RLB (Reverse Line Blot Hybridization) is a molecular biology technique that might be used for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) DNA detection with genospecies specification. Among B. burgdorferi sl genospecies at least 7 are regarded as pathogenic in Europe. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of different Borrelia genospecies DNA detection in Ixodes ricinus ticks in the endemic area of North-Eastern Poland by using RLB. Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected in May - June, from 6 different sites in North-Eastern Poland (Jakubin, Kolno, Grajewo, Suwałki, Siemiatycze, Białowieża) by flagging. Extracted DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the intergenic spacer 5S 23S of B. burgdorferi sl. PCR products were hybridised to 15 different oligonucleotide probes for 9 different Borrelia genospecies (B. burgdorferi sl, B. burgdorferi ss, B. garinii, B. afzelii, B. valaisiana, B. lusitaniae, B. spielmanii, B. bissettii and B. relapsing fever-like spirochetes (B. myamotoi)) by RLB. Borrelia genospecies DNA was detected in 205 Ixodes ricinus ticks. Among 14 infected with Borrelia ticks, 4 were identified as B. garinii and 10 as B. afzelii. Higher numbers of infected ticks were noticed in the eastern part of the research area, where large forest complexes dominate. Nymphs appeared to be the most frequently infected tick stage, which has an epidemiological meaning in the incidence of Lyme borreliosis. The study demonstrated that RLB might be easily used in Borrelia DNA detection with genospecies-identification, and indicated the domination of B. afzelii and B. garinii in ticks from North-Eastern Poland.

  6. Rock-block characterization on regional to local scales for two SKB sites in Forsmark - Uppland and Laxemar - eastern Smaaland, south-eastern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckholmen, Monica; Tiren, Sven A.

    2010-11-01

    Digital elevation data in 500m, 50m and 10m grids were used for rock-block interpretations at regional, semi-regional and local scales of areas around the two SKB sites, Forsmark and Laxemar, objects for the site-investigation programme. Both areas are interpreted to be close to the surface of the sub- Cambrian peneplain and varying altitude and attitude may testify to blockfaulting in the distorted peneplain. Topographic breaks and changes in the gradient also reveal possible zones of weakness that may conduct water. Rock blocks were constructed for Uppland at 1:750 000, northern Uppland at 1:450 000 and the local Forsmark area at 1:150 000, three sets were constructed for eastern Smaaland at 1:500 000, and one for the semi-regional area at 1:250 000 and one for the local Laxemar area at 1:75 000. The orientation of rock-block boundaries and the size of the rock blocks were treated statistically. The rock blocks/polygons were analysed for their mean, minimum and maximum elevation and the range. The values were displayed by maps. The topography in especially eastern Smaaland is dominated by a clear gradient, the land rising from the sea in the east. Efforts were therefore made to remove an estimated gradient to assess the residual features and the same analyses were then made for mean, maximum, minimum and range values. In many cases the results were enhanced and the two types of presentations are complementary to each other. The rock-block interpretations were compared to bedrock and general correlation between major structures where identified. However, the distribution of rocks on a regional map often demonstrates the plastic deformation in a wider zone. Earthquake epicentres were combined with the rock-block maps and assuming that interpreted rock-block boundaries are fairly steep, there is good agreement between the location of epicentres and rock-block boundaries. In some cases it can be seen how seismic disturbance migrated along a structure. Many

  7. Rock-block characterization on regional to local scales for two SKB sites in Forsmark - Uppland and Laxemar - eastern Smaaland, south-eastern Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckholmen, Monica; Tiren, Sven A. (GEOSIGMA AB (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    Digital elevation data in 500m, 50m and 10m grids were used for rock-block interpretations at regional, semi-regional and local scales of areas around the two SKB sites, Forsmark and Laxemar, objects for the site-investigation programme. Both areas are interpreted to be close to the surface of the sub- Cambrian peneplain and varying altitude and attitude may testify to blockfaulting in the distorted peneplain. Topographic breaks and changes in the gradient also reveal possible zones of weakness that may conduct water. Rock blocks were constructed for Uppland at 1:750 000, northern Uppland at 1:450 000 and the local Forsmark area at 1:150 000, three sets were constructed for eastern Smaaland at 1:500 000, and one for the semi-regional area at 1:250 000 and one for the local Laxemar area at 1:75 000. The orientation of rock-block boundaries and the size of the rock blocks were treated statistically. The rock blocks/polygons were analysed for their mean, minimum and maximum elevation and the range. The values were displayed by maps. The topography in especially eastern Smaaland is dominated by a clear gradient, the land rising from the sea in the east. Efforts were therefore made to remove an estimated gradient to assess the residual features and the same analyses were then made for mean, maximum, minimum and range values. In many cases the results were enhanced and the two types of presentations are complementary to each other. The rock-block interpretations were compared to bedrock and general correlation between major structures where identified. However, the distribution of rocks on a regional map often demonstrates the plastic deformation in a wider zone. Earthquake epicentres were combined with the rock-block maps and assuming that interpreted rock-block boundaries are fairly steep, there is good agreement between the location of epicentres and rock-block boundaries. In some cases it can be seen how seismic disturbance migrated along a structure. Many

  8. Phytophthora cinnamomi Colonized Reclaimed Surface Mined Sites in Eastern Kentucky: Implications for the Restoration of Susceptible Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenton L. Sena

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Appalachian forests are threatened by a number of factors, especially introduced pests and pathogens. Among these is Phytophthora cinnamomi, a soil-borne oomycete pathogen known to cause root rot in American chestnut, shortleaf pine, and other native tree species. This study was initiated to characterize the incidence of P. cinnamomi on surface mined lands in eastern Kentucky, USA, representing a range of time since reclamation (10, 12, 15, and 20 years since reclamation. Incidence of P. cinnamomi was correlated to soil properties including overall soil development, as indicated by a variety of measured soil physical and chemical parameters, especially the accumulation of soil organic carbon. P. cinnamomi was detected in only two of the four sites studied, aged 15 and 20 years since reclamation. These sites were generally characterized by higher organic matter accumulation than the younger sites in which P. cinnamomi was not detected. These results demonstrate that P. cinnamomi is capable of colonizing reclaimed mine sites in Appalachia; additional research is necessary to determine the impact of P. cinnamomi on susceptible tree species at these sites.

  9. Significant increase of surface ozone at a rural site, north of eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ozone pollution in eastern China has become one of the top environmental issues. Quantifying the temporal trend of surface ozone helps to assess the impacts of the anthropogenic precursor reductions and the likely effects of emission control strategies implemented. In this paper, ozone data collected at the Shangdianzi (SDZ regional atmospheric background station from 2003 to 2015 are presented and analyzed to obtain the variation in the trend of surface ozone in the most polluted region of China, north of eastern China or the North China Plain. A modified Kolmogorov–Zurbenko (KZ filter method was performed on the maximum daily average 8 h (MDA8 concentrations of ozone to separate the contributions of different factors from the variation of surface ozone and remove the influence of meteorological fluctuations on surface ozone. Results reveal that the short-term, seasonal and long-term components of ozone account for 36.4, 57.6 and 2.2 % of the total variance, respectively. The long-term trend indicates that the MDA8 has undergone a significant increase in the period of 2003–2015, with an average rate of 1.13 ± 0.01 ppb year−1 (R2 = 0.92. It is found that meteorological factors did not significantly influence the long-term variation of ozone and the increase may be completely attributed to changes in emissions. Furthermore, there is no significant correlation between the long-term O3 and NO2 trends. This study suggests that emission changes in VOCs might have played a more important role in the observed increase of surface ozone at SDZ.

  10. [Assessment of Cyto- and Genotoxicity of Underground Waters from the Far Eastern Center on Radioactive Waste Treatment Site].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudalova, A A; Pyatkova, S V; Geras'kin, S A; Kiselev, S M; Akhromeev, S V

    2016-01-01

    This study has been completed in the frames of activities on the environment assessment in the vicinity of the Far Eastern center (FEC) on radioactive waste treatment (a branch of Fokino, Sysoev Bay). Underground waters collected at the FEC technical site were surveyed both with instrumental techniques and bioassays. Concentrations of some chemicals (ranged to the third hazard category) in the samples collected are over the permitted limits. Activities of 137Cs and 90Sr in waters amount up to 3.8 and 16.2 Bq/l, correspondingly. The integral pollution index is over 1 in all the samples and could amount up to 165. The Allium-test application allows the detection of the sample points where underground waters have an enhanced mutagenic potential. Dependencies between biological effects and pollution levels are analyzed. The findings obtained could be used for the monitoring optimized and decision making on rehabilitation measures to decrease negative influence of the enterprise on the environment.

  11. Remediation options and the significance of water treatment at former uranium production sites in Eastern Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatzweiler, R.; Jakubick, A.T.; Kiessig, G.

    2000-01-01

    The WISMUT remediation project in the States of Saxony and Thuringia, Germany, comprises several mine and mill sites including large volumes of production residues. Due to the climate, the intensive land use and the regulatory conditions, the water path is most important in evaluating remediation options. Water treatment is an integral part of mine flooding, mine dump and tailings remediation, and treatment costs represent a major portion of the overall costs of the project. Uncertainties in the estimations of quantities of mine and seepage waters, variations in quality from site to site, and changing conditions in time demand a strategic approach to the selection and optimization of water treatment methods. The paper describes options considered and experience gained including efforts to limit long-term treatment costs by developing and applying passive treatment systems and negotiating acceptable discharge limits. (author)

  12. Site response assessment at the city of Alkhobar, Eastern Saudi Arabia from microtremor and boring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fnais, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    The AlKhobar City affected by distant earthquakes from Zagros fold-fault belt of subduction zone. These earthquakes produced great site effects on the sedimentary layers that in turn significantly influenced earthquake ground motions in the area. Mapping of site response using microtremor measurements compared with geological and borehole data of Alkhobar city is the main target of this work. The resonance frequency and their H/V values have been calculated using Nakamura technique through deployed of seismograph instruments at 113 sites in AlKhobar city for different time periods. The recording length was about one hour with sampling frequency of 100 Hz. Most of the measured sites present three peaks for the resonance frequency; the first peak ranges from 0.33 to 1.03 Hz, the second peak ranges from 1.03 to 1.23 Hz, while the third peak ranges from 1.23-1.73. Tests have been conducted to ensure that these peaks are natural in origin. The northern zones of AlKhobar City have lower values of resonance frequency indicating great thickness of sediments. In contrast, the southern parts of the city have higher values of resonance frequency illustrating shallow depths of the bedrock. Furthermore, twenty of boreholes have been conducted through AlKhobar City to different depth. Standard penetration test (SPT) data has been corrected and used to calculate the resonance frequency at their locations. Borehole results clarified that the resonance frequency values range from 0.27 to 1.95 Hz. These results are correlated well with that of the microtremor measurements. Accordingly, the first peak have been interpreted due to the impedance contrast between the limestone and the overlying sediments, while the third peak is originated from a boundary between the upper most surface layer and the underlying sediments. These results must be applied for earthquake risk mitigation in AlKhobar City.

  13. The hydrogeology and hydrogeochemistry of the Star Fire site, eastern Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wunsch, D.R.; Dinger, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    The Kentucky Geological Survey is directing an applied research program to determine the potential water supply for future property development at the Star Fire site. It is anticipated that an aquifer constructed in mine spoil could provide base flow to streams that could feed water-supply reservoirs. Dye tracing, water-level measurements, and chemical analyses of water samples indicate that ground water moves slowly in the spoil's interior, where it must flow into surrounding hollow fills before discharging out of the spoil. Two water tables have been established: one in the spoil's interior, and the second in the hollow fills below the main spoil body. Based on an average saturated thickness of 6.4 m, the saturated spoil stores an estimated 5.2 x 10 6 m 3 (1.37 billion gal.) of water. Hydraulic conductivity (K) values derived from slug tests range from 7.0 x E - 5 to > 9.0 x E - 4 cm/sec. All of the waters are a calcium-magnesium-sulfate type, differing mainly in the total concentration of these constituents. Saturation indices calculated using the geochemical model PHREEQE indicate that most of the ground water at the site is near equilibrium with gypsum. Nearly all of the samples had pH measurements in a favorable range between 6.0 and 7.0, indicating that the spoil at the site does not produce highly acidic water

  14. Heat-flow and subsurface temperature history at the site of Saraya (eastern Senegal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucazeau, F.; Rolandone, F.

    2012-08-01

    New temperature measurements from eight boreholes in the West African Craton (WAC) reveal superficial perturbations down to 100 m below the alteration zone. These perturbations are both related to a recent increase in the surface air temperature (SAT) and to the site effects caused by fluid circulations and/or the lower conduction in the alterites. The ground surface temperature (GST), inverted from the boreholes temperatures, increased slowly in the past (~0.4 °C from 1700 to 1940) and then, more importantly, in recent years (~1.5 °C from 1940 to 2010). This recent trend is consistent with the increase of the SAT recorded at two nearby meteorological stations (Tambacounda and Kedougou), and more generally in the Sahel with a coeval rainfall decrease. Site effects are superimposed to the climatic effect and interpreted by advective (circulation of fluids) or conductive (lower conductivity of laterite and of high-porosity sand) perturbations. We used a 1-D finite differences thermal model and a Monte-Carlo procedure to find the best estimates of these site perturbations: all the eight borehole temperature logs can be interpreted with the same basal heat-flow and the same surface temperature history, but with some realistic changes of thermal conductivity and/or fluid velocity. The GST trend observed in Senegal can be confirmed by two previous borehole measurements made in 1983 in other locations of West Africa, the first one in an arid zone of northern Mali and the second one in a sub-humid zone in southern Mali. Finally, the background heat-flow is low (31±2 mW m-2), which makes this part of the WAC more similar with the observations in the southern part (33±8 mW m-2) rather than with those in the northern part and in the Pan-African domains where the surface heat-flow is 15-20 mW m-2 higher.

  15. Insights from Siting New Nuclear Power Plants in the Central and Eastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, Clifford G.; Kugler, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    The staff of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has completed its review for four early site permits and for four standard reactor designs. It is currently reviewing applications for fourteen combined license applications and three additional reactor designs. The staff is applying lessons it has learned from the reviews to date to the review work going forward. The licensing process being used by current applicants differs significantly from that used by the current operating fleet. The previous process required two steps. First an applicant had to obtain a construction permit to build the plant. Then, near the end of construction, the applicant had to obtain an operating license. Under the process in Part 52, an applicant can apply for a combined license (COL) that allows construction and (once certain conditions are met) operation of a new plant - a one-step process. An applicant for a COL may reference an early site permit (ESP13), a standard design certification, both, or neither. In addition to developing Part 52, the NRC also revised CFR Part 100 by adding Subpart B, which includes sections 100.21, 'Non-seismic siting criteria', and 100.23, 'Geologic and seismic siting criteria'. The NRC staff also revised the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800) and developed Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.206, 'Combined License Applications for Nuclear Power Plants (LWR Edition).' The NRC staff incorporated into the revision of NUREG-0800 and development of RG 1.206 some early lessons learned from its review of the first three ESPs. Staff work begins before the application is received, as the staff interacts with the applicant to identify issues that will require special treatment or specific staff resources. After the application is submitted, if the NRC finds the application acceptable, the safety and environmental reviews begin, proceeding in parallel. The safety review culminates in the issuance of a safety evaluation report (SER) after it

  16. Plant macroremains from an early Neolithic site in eastern Kuyavia, central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueller-Bieniek Aldona

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study examined plant remains from the Smólsk 2/10 site, situated on the border of two different landscapes and preserving traces of Neolithic occupation from several cultures: Early Linear Pottery culture (LBK, ca 5300-5200 cal. BC to ca 5000 cal. BC. Stroke Band Pottery culture (SBP, ca 4700-4400 cal. BC, the Brześć Kujawski group of Lengyel culture (BKG, ca 4500-4000/3900 cal. BC, Funnel Beaker culture (TRB, ca 3950-3380 BC, and also some features of the Lusatian culture (Hallstatt C, ca 970-790 cal. BC.

  17. Comparative assessment of coal tars obtained from 10 former manufactured gas plant sites in the eastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.G.; Gupta, L.; Kim, T.H.; Moo-Young, H.K.; Coleman, A.J. [Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

    2006-11-15

    A comparative analysis was performed on eleven coal tars obtained from former manufactured gas plant sites in the eastern United States. Bulk properties analyzed included percent ash, Karl Fisher water content, viscosity and average molecular weight. Chemical properties included monocyclic- and polycyclic-aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations, alkylated aromatic concentrations, and concentrations of aliphatic and aromatic fractions. It was found that there was at least an order-of-magnitude variation in all properties measured between the eleven coal tars. Additionally, two coal tars obtained from the same manufactured gas plant site had very different properties, highlighting that there can be wide variations in coal tar properties from different samples obtained from the same site. Similarities were also observed between the coal tars. The relative chemical distributions were similar for all coal tars, and the coal tars predominantly consisted of PAHs, with naphthalene being the single-most prevalent compound. The C{sub 9-22} aromatic fraction, an indicator of all PAHs up to a molecular weight of approximately 276 g mole{sup -1}, showed a strong power-law relationship with the coal tar average molecular weight (MWct). And the concentrations of individual PAHs decreased linearly as MWct increased up to ca. 1000 g mole{sup -1}, above which they remained low and variable. Implications of these properties and their variation with MWct on groundwater quality are discussed. Ultimately, while these similarities do allow generalities to be made about coal tars, the wide range of coal tar bulk and chemical properties reported here highlights the complex nature of coal tars.

  18. Indian Monsoon and denitrification change in the Laxmi Basin (IODP Exp. 355 Site U1456) of the Eastern Arabian Sea during the last 800 kyrs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. E.; Khim, B. K.; Ikehara, M.; Lee, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Arabian Sea is a famous site for the basin-wide denitrification in the globe. The Western Arabian Sea has been acknowledged by its upwelling-induced denitrification related to the Indian Monsoon system (Altabet et al., 1999). It was recently reported that the denitrification in the Eastern Arabian Sea (IODP Exp. 355 Site U1456) has been persistent and consistent during the mid-Pleistocene as reflected in the bulk sediment δ15N values (Tripathi et al., 2017). Based on the age model reconstructed by δ18O stratigraphy of planktonic foraminifera (Globigerinoides ruber) together with shipboard biostratigraphic and paleomagnetic data at Site U1456 drilled in the Laxmi Basin of the Eastern Arabian Sea, the glacial-interglacial fluctuations of denitrification in association with the development of oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) were resolved in the context of Indian Monsoon activity. One of striking features in the Eastern Arabian Sea is that the δ15N values of bulk sediment show clear and consistent denitrification with minimum δ15N values exceeding 6‰ even during glacial periods, when its western counterpart experienced a temporal collapse of OMZ and denitrification. The Eastern Arabian Sea is fed not only by the upwelling-induced productivity in the western margin during the summer monsoon but also by the high productivity during the winter monsoon, both of which maintain the increased productivity affecting the OMZ through the consumption of dissolved oxygen by the degradation of sinking organic particles. The Eastern Arabian Sea is further influenced by the clockwise surface currents, intermediate water ventilation change by the blockage of Antarctic Intermediate Water, limited inflow from the Red Sea/Persian Gulf, and the freshwater salinity stratification due to nearby riverine discharges, all of which make the denitrification process more complicated than the Western Arabian Sea. Nonetheless, the glacial-interglacial denitrification change in the Eastern

  19. A method for deterministic statistical downscaling of daily precipitation at a monsoonal site in Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yonghe; Feng, Jinming; Liu, Xiu; Zhao, Yadi

    2017-12-01

    Statistical downscaling (SD) is a method that acquires the local information required for hydrological impact assessment from large-scale atmospheric variables. Very few statistical and deterministic downscaling models for daily precipitation have been conducted for local sites influenced by the East Asian monsoon. In this study, SD models were constructed by selecting the best predictors and using generalized linear models (GLMs) for Feixian, a site in the Yishu River Basin and Shandong Province. By calculating and mapping Spearman rank correlation coefficients between the gridded standardized values of five large-scale variables and daily observed precipitation, different cyclonic circulation patterns were found for monsoonal precipitation in summer (June-September) and winter (November-December and January-March); the values of the gridded boxes with the highest absolute correlations for observed precipitation were selected as predictors. Data for predictors and predictands covered the period 1979-2015, and different calibration and validation periods were divided when fitting and validating the models. Meanwhile, the bootstrap method was also used to fit the GLM. All the above thorough validations indicated that the models were robust and not sensitive to different samples or different periods. Pearson's correlations between downscaled and observed precipitation (logarithmically transformed) on a daily scale reached 0.54-0.57 in summer and 0.56-0.61 in winter, and the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency between downscaled and observed precipitation reached 0.1 in summer and 0.41 in winter. The downscaled precipitation partially reflected exact variations in winter and main trends in summer for total interannual precipitation. For the number of wet days, both winter and summer models were able to reflect interannual variations. Other comparisons were also made in this study. These results demonstrated that when downscaling, it is appropriate to combine a correlation

  20. LiDAR, geophysical and field surveys at Ancient Epomanduodurum site and its surrounding country (Doubs, Eastern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laplaige, Clement; Bossuet, Gilles; Thivet, Matthieu

    2010-05-01

    Integrated geophysical studies were carried out over several years, at Mandeure-Mathay (Franche-Comté Region, Eastern France) for the archaeological evaluation of ancient Epomanduodurum. The site is of major scientific interest to understand the territorial structure of earlier agglomerations in Eastern Gaul at the end of the Iron Age and during the Roman period. As regards its size, urban equipment, monuments and function, the ancient town is considered rating second behind the civitas capital of Sequani, Besançon-Vesontio. It is located in the Doubs valley, where the plain of Alsace opens into the marches of Burgundy, in a traffic zone between the Vosges and the Jura. This location allows transit between the Rhône valley and the Rhein plain, through the Saône and Doubs valleys. This geographical situation was a significant factor in the creation of the late Iron Age settlement, later to turn into a major Gallo-roman town. The whole site of the Ancient town includes urban centre and two artisan suburbs. The buried ruins stretch on more than 500 hectares outside and inside a meander of the Doubs River. From the beginning of the survey, in 2001, high resolution and non invasive geophysical methods (magnetic mapping and Automatic Restivity Profiling (ARP) were performed on large scale, both on the terrace and in the floodplain). Excavations associated to geophysical prospection allow to produce a general plan of the Gallo roman structures and to reconstruct the settlement evolution. While human occupation on open land is certified by a lot of indications, on the contrary, the forest-covered zones on table-land appear as less documented areas. The explanation is that some of the classic methods (such as aerial reconnaissance and field walking) are less efficient in the archaeological prospection of table-lands and hills, naturally marked by omnipresent forest. In our new research program (LIEPPEC and PCR Mandeure, 2008-2010), it appears necessary to better

  1. Redox Conditions and Related Color Change in Eastern Equatorial Pacific Sediments: IODP Site U1334

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordesch, W. E.; Gussone, N. C.; Hathorne, E. C.; Kimoto, K.; Delaney, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    This study was prompted by a 65 m thick brown-green color change in deep-sea sediments of IODP Site U1334 (0-38 Ma, 4799 m water depth) that corresponds to its equatorial crossing (caused by the Northward movement of the pacific plate). Green sediment is a visual indicator of reducing conditions in sediment due to enhanced organic matter deposition and burial. Here we use geochemical redox indicators to characterize the effect of equatorial upwelling on bottom water. The modern redox signal is captured in porewater profiles (nitrate, manganese, iron, sulfate) while trace metal Enrichment Factors (EF) in bulk sediment (manganese, uranium, molybdenum, rhenium) normalized to the detrital component (titanium) record redox state at burial. To measure export productivity we also measure biogenic barium. Porewater profiles reveal suboxic diagenesis; profiles follow the expected sequence of nitrate, manganese oxide, and iron oxide reduction with increasing depth. Constant sulfate (~28 μM) implies anoxia has not occurred. Bulk sediment Mn EF are enriched (EF > 1) throughout the record (Mn EF = 15-200) while U and Mo enrichment corresponds to green color and equatorial proximity (U EF = 4-19; Mo EF = 0-7). Constant Mn enrichment implies continuous oxygenation. Uranium and Mo enrichment near the equator represents suboxic conditions also seen in the porewater. Low Re concentrations (below detection) provide additional evidence against anoxia. A comparison of Mn EF from total digestions to samples treated with an additional reductive cleaning step distinguishes between Mn-oxides and Mn-carbonates, indicating oxygenated and reducing conditions respectively. Mn-carbonate occurrence agrees with U and Mo EF; conditions were more reducing near the equator. Bio-Ba shows significant variability over this interval (22-99 mmol g-1). Our geochemical results indicate that bottom waters became suboxic at the equator as a result of equatorial upwelling-influenced increases in organic

  2. A model of Fe speciation and biogeochemistry at the Tropical Eastern North Atlantic Time-Series Observatory site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Y.; Völker, C.; Wolf-Gladrow, D. A.

    2009-10-01

    A one-dimensional model of Fe speciation and biogeochemistry, coupled with the General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM) and a NPZD-type ecosystem model, is applied for the Tropical Eastern North Atlantic Time-Series Observatory (TENATSO) site. Among diverse processes affecting Fe speciation, this study is focusing on investigating the role of dust particles in removing dissolved iron (DFe) by a more complex description of particle aggregation and sinking, and explaining the abundance of organic Fe-binding ligands by modelling their origin and fate. The vertical distribution of different particle classes in the model shows high sensitivity to changing aggregation rates. Using the aggregation rates from the sensitivity study in this work, modelled particle fluxes are close to observations, with dust particles dominating near the surface and aggregates deeper in the water column. POC export at 1000 m is a little higher than regional sediment trap measurements, suggesting further improvement of modelling particle aggregation, sinking or remineralisation. Modelled strong ligands have a high abundance near the surface and decline rapidly below the deep chlorophyll maximum, showing qualitative similarity to observations. Without production of strong ligands, phytoplankton concentration falls to 0 within the first 2 years in the model integration, caused by strong Fe-limitation. A nudging of total weak ligands towards a constant value is required for reproducing the observed nutrient-like profiles, assuming a decay time of 7 years for weak ligands. This indicates that weak ligands have a longer decay time and therefore cannot be modelled adequately in a one-dimensional model. The modelled DFe profile is strongly influenced by particle concentration and vertical distribution, because the most important removal of DFe in deeper waters is colloid formation and aggregation. Redissolution of particulate iron is required to reproduce an observed DFe profile at TENATSO site

  3. Flood potential of Topopah Wash and tributaries, eastern part of Jackass Flats, Nevada Test Site, southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, R.C.; Spahr, N.E.

    1980-01-01

    Guidelines for evaluating potential surface facilities to be used for the storage of high-level radioactive wastes on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada include the consideration of the potential for flooding. Those floods that are considered to constitute the principal flood hazards for these facilities are the 100- and 500-year floods, and the maximum potential flood. Flood-prone areas for the three floods with present natural-channel conditions were defined for the eastern part of Jackass Flats in the southwestern part of the Nevada Test Site. The 100-year flood-prone areas would closely parallel most stream channels with very few occurrences of out-of-bank flooding between adjacent channels. Out-of-bank flooding would occur at depths of less than 2 feet with mean velocities as much as 7 feet per second. Channel flood depths would range from 1 to 9 feet and mean velocities would range from 3 to 9 feet per second. The 500-year flood would exceed the discharge capacities of all channels except for Topopah Wash and some channels in the upstream reaches of a few tributaries. Out-of-bank flows between adjacent channels would occur at depths as much as 3 feet with mean velocities of more than 7 feet per second. Channel flood depths would range from 1 to 12 feet and mean velocities would range from 3 to 13 feet per second. The maximum potential flood would inundate most of the study area. Excluded areas would be those located immediately east of the upstream reach of Topopah Wash and between upstream channel reaches of some tributaries. Out-of-bank flows between adjacent channels would occur at depths as much as 5 feet with mean velocities as much s 13 feet per second. Channel flood depth would range from 2 to 23 feet and mean velocities would range from 4 to 26 feet per second

  4. Insights on organic aerosol aging and the influence of coal combustion at a regional receptor site of central eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. W. Hu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the aging and processing of organic aerosols (OA, an intensive field campaign (Campaign of Air Pollution at Typical Coastal Areas IN Eastern China, CAPTAIN was conducted March–April at a receptor site (a Changdao island in central eastern China. Multiple fast aerosol and gas measurement instruments were used during the campaign, including a high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS that was applied to measure mass concentrations and non-refractory chemical components of submicron particles (PM1nr. The average mass concentration of PM1(PM1nr+black carbon was 47 ± 36 μg m−3 during the campaign and showed distinct variation, depending on back trajectories and their overlap with source regions. Organic aerosol (OA is the largest component of PM1 (30%, followed by nitrate (28%, sulfate (19%, ammonium (15%, black carbon (6%, and chloride (3%. Four OA components were resolved by positive matrix factorization (PMF of the high-resolution spectra, including low-volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA, semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA, hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA and a coal combustion OA (CCOA. The mass spectrum of CCOA had high abundance of fragments from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs (m/z 128, 152, 178, etc.. The average atomic ratio of oxygen to carbon in OA (O / C at Changdao was 0.59, which is comparable to other field studies reported at locations downwind of large pollution sources, indicating the oxidized nature of most OA during the campaign. The evolution of OA elemental composition in the van Krevelen diagram (H / C vs. O / C showed a slope of −0.63; however, the OA influenced by coal combustion exhibits a completely different evolution that appears dominated by physical mixing. The aging of organic aerosols vs. photochemical age was investigated. It was shown that OA / ΔCO, as well as LV-OOA / ΔCO and SV-OOA / ΔCO, positively correlated with photochemical age. LV

  5. Relation of watershed setting and stream nutrient yields at selected sites in central and eastern North Carolina, 1997-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Stephen L.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Terziotti, Silvia; Kolb, Katharine R.

    2013-01-01

    Data collected between 1997 and 2008 at 48 stream sites were used to characterize relations between watershed settings and stream nutrient yields throughout central and eastern North Carolina. The focus of the investigation was to identify environmental variables in watersheds that influence nutrient export for supporting the development and prioritization of management strategies for restoring nutrient-impaired streams. Nutrient concentration data and streamflow data compiled for the 1997 to 2008 study period were used to compute stream yields of nitrate, total nitrogen (N), and total phosphorus (P) for each study site. Compiled environmental data (including variables for land cover, hydrologic soil groups, base-flow index, streams, wastewater treatment facilities, and concentrated animal feeding operations) were used to characterize the watershed settings for the study sites. Data for the environmental variables were analyzed in combination with the stream nutrient yields to explore relations based on watershed characteristics and to evaluate whether particular variables were useful indicators of watersheds having relatively higher or lower potential for exporting nutrients. Data evaluations included an examination of median annual nutrient yields based on a watershed land-use classification scheme developed as part of the study. An initial examination of the data indicated that the highest median annual nutrient yields occurred at both agricultural and urban sites, especially for urban sites having large percentages of point-source flow contributions to the streams. The results of statistical testing identified significant differences in annual nutrient yields when sites were analyzed on the basis of watershed land-use category. When statistical differences in median annual yields were noted, the results for nitrate, total N, and total P were similar in that highly urbanized watersheds (greater than 30 percent developed land use) and (or) watersheds with greater

  6. Land Use and Land Cover Change in Sagarmatha National Park, a World Heritage Site in the Himalayas of Eastern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Garrard

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Land use and land cover (LULC changes that occurred during 1992–2011 in Sagarmatha National Park, a United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization World Heritage Site in the Himalayas of eastern Nepal, were evaluated using multitemporal satellite imagery in combination with land use data and sociological information gathered from semistructured interviews and workshops. We asked study participants about LULC changes, the causes of each change, and the likely duration of its effects, and used this information to produce high-resolution maps of local perceptions of LULC change. Satellite image analysis revealed that above 6000 m there has been a decrease in the area covered by snow and ice and a consequent expansion of glacial lakes and areas covered by rock and soil. Between 3000 and 6000 m, forest and farmland are decreasing, and areas under grazing, settlement, and shrubland are increasing. Such LULC changes within the protected area clearly indicate the prevailing danger of land degradation. Results from the interviews and workshops suggest that people tended to detect LULC change that was acute and direct, but were less aware of slower changes that could be identified by satellite imagery analysis. Most study participants said that land use changes were a result of rapid economic development and the consequent pressure on natural resources, especially in the tourism industry and especially below 6000 m elevation, as well as limitations to protected area management and a period of civil war. Human influence coupled with climate change may explain the changes at higher elevations, whereas anthropogenic activities are solely responsible in lower areas. Although global factors cannot be mitigated locally, many of the local drivers of LULC change could be addressed with improved management practices that aid local conservation and development in this high mountain ecosystem. A broader interdisciplinary approach to LULC change

  7. A model of Fe speciation and biogeochemistry at the Tropical Eastern North Atlantic Time-Series Observatory site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ye

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A one-dimensional model of Fe speciation and biogeochemistry, coupled with the General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM and a NPZD-type ecosystem model, is applied for the Tropical Eastern North Atlantic Time-Series Observatory (TENATSO site. Among diverse processes affecting Fe speciation, this study is focusing on investigating the role of dust particles in removing dissolved iron (DFe by a more complex description of particle aggregation and sinking, and explaining the abundance of organic Fe-binding ligands by modelling their origin and fate.

    The vertical distribution of different particle classes in the model shows high sensitivity to changing aggregation rates. Using the aggregation rates from the sensitivity study in this work, modelled particle fluxes are close to observations, with dust particles dominating near the surface and aggregates deeper in the water column. POC export at 1000 m is a little higher than regional sediment trap measurements, suggesting further improvement of modelling particle aggregation, sinking or remineralisation.

    Modelled strong ligands have a high abundance near the surface and decline rapidly below the deep chlorophyll maximum, showing qualitative similarity to observations. Without production of strong ligands, phytoplankton concentration falls to 0 within the first 2 years in the model integration, caused by strong Fe-limitation. A nudging of total weak ligands towards a constant value is required for reproducing the observed nutrient-like profiles, assuming a decay time of 7 years for weak ligands. This indicates that weak ligands have a longer decay time and therefore cannot be modelled adequately in a one-dimensional model.

    The modelled DFe profile is strongly influenced by particle concentration and vertical distribution, because the most important removal of DFe in deeper waters is colloid formation and aggregation. Redissolution of particulate iron is required to reproduce an

  8. The understanding of the formation of valleys and its implication on site characterization: Moredalen and Pukedalen, south-eastern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiren, Sven A.; Waenstedt, Stefan; Straeng, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    In south-eastern Sweden, there are a number of over-deepened narrow valleys, more than 20 m deep, formed in Precambrian bedrock located above the highest post-glacial shoreline. Canyon-like valleys, called 'kursu' or kursu valleys, are generally interpreted to be formed by glaciofluvial erosion. An example of such a valley is Moredalen, a canyon in the Fennoscandian Shield, which has an implication on site selection for radioactive waste disposal. There are also more open over-deepened valleys along which sub-glacial flow has occurred, e.g. Pukedalen. The main part of this paper discusses a combined geological and geophysical investigation of Moredalen, with the aim to investigate possible reasons for the formation of such an unusual feature formed in acid vulcanite and foliated tonalitic to granodioritic rocks. Moredalen is a marked, approximately 7 km long, E-W striking valley that cuts through a plateau (c. 140 m a.s.l.), and an elevated block of the sub-Cambrian peneplain. Glaciofluvial sediments can be found up-streams where the canyon widens to the west. Just east of the valley is a larger delta deposited at the highest post-glacial shoreline (c. 105 m a.s.l). Further east of, and in line with the Moredalen valley there is an esker. Rock debris in the valley is angular. Pukedalen is a northwest-southeast trending valley incised in massive granite. The valley is in its northern parts relatively open and becomes narrow in its south-eastern part having partly a vertical south-western wall. Rock surfaces are smooth along the valley and rock debris in the valley consists generally of rounded blocks. In line with Pukedalen, on both sides at great distances though, there are eskers. Geomorphological features of this kind indicate certain characteristics of the bedrock that need to be considered during safety analysis of repositories for nuclear waste. The distinct weakness zones along which the kursu-valleys are formed create prominent transport paths for

  9. The understanding of the formation of valleys and its implication on site characterization: Moredalen and Pukedalen, south-eastern Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiren, Sven A.; Waenstedt, Stefan; Straeng, Thomas (GEOSIGMA AB (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    In south-eastern Sweden, there are a number of over-deepened narrow valleys, more than 20 m deep, formed in Precambrian bedrock located above the highest post-glacial shoreline. Canyon-like valleys, called 'kursu' or kursu valleys, are generally interpreted to be formed by glaciofluvial erosion. An example of such a valley is Moredalen, a canyon in the Fennoscandian Shield, which has an implication on site selection for radioactive waste disposal. There are also more open over-deepened valleys along which sub-glacial flow has occurred, e.g. Pukedalen. The main part of this paper discusses a combined geological and geophysical investigation of Moredalen, with the aim to investigate possible reasons for the formation of such an unusual feature formed in acid vulcanite and foliated tonalitic to granodioritic rocks. Moredalen is a marked, approximately 7 km long, E-W striking valley that cuts through a plateau (c. 140 m a.s.l.), and an elevated block of the sub-Cambrian peneplain. Glaciofluvial sediments can be found up-streams where the canyon widens to the west. Just east of the valley is a larger delta deposited at the highest post-glacial shoreline (c. 105 m a.s.l). Further east of, and in line with the Moredalen valley there is an esker. Rock debris in the valley is angular. Pukedalen is a northwest-southeast trending valley incised in massive granite. The valley is in its northern parts relatively open and becomes narrow in its south-eastern part having partly a vertical south-western wall. Rock surfaces are smooth along the valley and rock debris in the valley consists generally of rounded blocks. In line with Pukedalen, on both sides at great distances though, there are eskers. Geomorphological features of this kind indicate certain characteristics of the bedrock that need to be considered during safety analysis of repositories for nuclear waste. The distinct weakness zones along which the kursu-valleys are formed create prominent transport paths for

  10. Planning for environmental restoration of radioactively contaminated sites in central and eastern Europe. V.1: Identification and characterization of contaminated sites. Proceedings of a workshop held within the technical co-operation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    The radioactive contaminant materials resulting from diverse activities in relation to the nuclear fuel cycle, defense related operations, and various industries in addition to medical and research facilities represent perhaps the most severe and immense pollution left from a past era. The political changes in central and eastern Europe (CEE) not only brought some disclosure of the radioactively contaminated sites, but also resulted in a political condition in which this region became receptive to co-operation from a range of outside countries. The subject of the first workshop held in Budapest, 4-8 October 1993, was the identification and characterization of radioactively contaminated sites in the region. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Planning for environmental restoration of radioactively contaminated sites in central and eastern Europe. V.1: Identification and characterization of contaminated sites. Proceedings of a workshop held within the technical co-operation project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The radioactive contaminant materials resulting from diverse activities in relation to the nuclear fuel cycle, defense related operations, and various industries in addition to medical and research facilities represent perhaps the most severe and immense pollution left from a past era. The political changes in central and eastern Europe (CEE) not only brought some disclosure of the radioactively contaminated sites, but also resulted in a political condition in which this region became receptive to co-operation from a range of outside countries. The subject of the first workshop held in Budapest, 4-8 October 1993, was the identification and characterization of radioactively contaminated sites in the region. Refs, figs and tabs.

  12. Radionuclides in a deciduous forest surrounding a shallow-land-burial site in the eastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, W.H.; Kirby, L.J.; McShane, M.C.

    1981-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if radioactive materials buried in trenches at the Maxey Flats burial ground in eastern Kentucky have migrated into the surrounding oak-hickory forest. Forest floor litter, minearl soil, and tree leaves were sampled and the radionuclide content measured

  13. Introduction to the Special Section--Bat Habitat Use in Eastern North American Temperate Forests: Site, Stand, an Landscape Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert T. Brooks; W. Mark Ford

    2006-01-01

    Forest bats of eastern North America select habitats for roosting, foraging, and winter hibernation/migration over a myriad of scales. An understanding of forest-bat habitat use over scales of time and space is important for their conservation and management. The papers in this Special Section report studies of bat habitat use across multiple scales from locations...

  14. Analyzing tree cores to detect petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater at a former landfill site in the community of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, eastern Canadian subarctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonkwe, Merline L D; Trapp, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    -gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. BTEX compounds were detected in tree cores, corroborating known groundwater contamination. A zone of anomalously high concentrations of total BTEX constituents was identified and recommended for monitoring by groundwater wells. Tree cores collected outside the landfill site......This research examines the feasibility of analyzing tree cores to detect benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m, p, o-xylene (BTEX) compounds and methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in groundwater in eastern Canada subarctic environments, using a former landfill site in the remote community of Happy...... Valley-Goose Bay, Labrador. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at the landfill site is the result of environmentally unsound pre-1990s disposal of households and industrial solid wastes. Tree cores were taken from trembling aspen, black spruce, and white birch and analyzed by headspace...

  15. Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies detection by RLB hybridization in Ixodes cinus ticks from different sites of North-Eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Dunaj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. RLB (Reverse Line Blot Hybridization is a molecular biology technique that might be used for [i]Borrelia burgdorferi [/i]sensu lato (sl DNA detection with genospecies specification. Among[i] B. burgdorferi[/i] sl genospecies at least 7 are regarded as pathogenic in Europe. objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of different [i]Borrelia[/i] genospecies DNA detection in Ixodes ricinus ticks in the endemic area of North-Eastern Poland by using RLB. materials and method. Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected in May – June, from 6 different sites in North-Eastern Poland (Jakubin, Kolno, Grajewo, Suwałki, Siemiatycze, Białowieża by flagging. Extracted DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting the intergenic spacer 5S 23S of [i]B. burgdorferi sl.[/i] PCR products were hybridised to 15 different oligonucleotide probes for 9 different [i]Borrelia [/i]genospecies ([i]B. burgdorferi sl, B. burgdorferi ss, B. garinii, B. afzelii, B. valaisiana, B. lusitaniae, B. spielmanii, B. bissettii and B. relapsing[/i] fever-like spirochetes (B. myamotoi by RLB. results. [i]Borrelia [/i]genospecies DNA was detected in 205 Ixodes ricinus ticks. Among 14 infected with [i]Borrelia[/i] ticks, 4 were identified as B. garinii and 10 as B. afzelii. Higher numbers of infected ticks were noticed in the eastern part of the research area, where large forest complexes dominate. Nymphs appeared to be the most frequently infected tick stage, which has an epidemiological meaning in the incidence of Lyme borreliosis. conclusions. The study demonstrated that RLB might be easily used in [i]Borrelia[/i] DNA detection with genospecies-identification, and indicated the domination of [i]B. afzelii and B. garinii [/i]in ticks from North-Eastern Poland.

  16. Ten-Year Performance of Eastern White Pine - under a Crop Tree Release Regime on an Outwash Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth M. Desmarais; William B. Leak; William B. Leak

    2005-01-01

    A young stand of eastern white pine aged 38-40 years received a crop tree release cutting reducing stocking to 100 tree/ac. This stocking level reflects the number of sterms per acre that would be contained in a well stocked mature stand at final harvest (20-in. quadratic mean stand diameter). The stand then was monitored for growth and value change. Stems that grew...

  17. Relevance of biotic pathways to the long-term regulation of nuclear waste disposal. Topical report on reference eastern humid low-level sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, D.H.; Cadwell, L.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A.; Simmons, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the work reported here was to develop an order-of-magnitude estimate for the potential dose to man resulting from biotic transport mechanisms at a humid reference low-level waste site in the eastern US. A description of the reference site is presented that includes the waste inventories, site characteristics and biological communites. Parameter values for biotic transport processes are based on data reported in current literature. Transport and exposure scenarios are developed for assessing biotic transport during 500 years following site closure. Calculations of radionuclide decay and waste container decomposition are made to estimate the quantities available for biotic transport. Doses to man are calculated for the biological transport of radionucludes at the reference site after loss of institutional control. These dose estimates are compared to dose estimates we calculated for the intruder-agricultural scenarios reported in the DEIS for 10 CFR 61 (NRC). Dose to man estimates as a result of cumulative biotic transport are calculated to be of the same order-of-magnitude as the dose resulting from the more commonly evaluated human intrusion scenario. The reported lack of potential importance of biotic transport at low-level waste sites in earlier assessment studies is not confirmed by findings presented in this report. Through biotic transport, radionuclides can be moved to locations where they can enter exposure pathways to man

  18. Analyzing tree cores to detect petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater at a former landfill site in the community of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, eastern Canadian subarctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonkwe, Merline L D; Trapp, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    This research examines the feasibility of analyzing tree cores to detect benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m, p, o-xylene (BTEX) compounds and methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in groundwater in eastern Canada subarctic environments, using a former landfill site in the remote community of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, Labrador. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at the landfill site is the result of environmentally unsound pre-1990s disposal of households and industrial solid wastes. Tree cores were taken from trembling aspen, black spruce, and white birch and analyzed by headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. BTEX compounds were detected in tree cores, corroborating known groundwater contamination. A zone of anomalously high concentrations of total BTEX constituents was identified and recommended for monitoring by groundwater wells. Tree cores collected outside the landfill site at a local control area suggest the migration of contaminants off-site. Tree species exhibit different concentrations of BTEX constituents, indicating selective uptake and accumulation. Toluene in wood exhibited the highest concentrations, which may also be due to endogenous production. Meanwhile, MTBE was not found in the tree cores and is considered to be absent in the groundwater. The results demonstrate that tree-core analysis can be useful for detecting anomalous concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons, such as BTEX compounds, in subarctic sites with shallow unconfined aquifers and permeable soils. This method can therefore aid in the proper management of contamination during landfill operations and after site closures.

  19. Isotopic Investigation of the Origin of Nitrate of Waters Outflowing from a Waste Deposit Site Near Scuol (Lower Engadine, South Eastern Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gschwend, M.; Leuenberger, F.; Eichinger, L. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich, Geological Institute, Engineering Geology, Zuerich (Switzerland); Balderer, W. [Hydroisotop GmbH, Schweitenkirchen, Germany (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Near the village of Scuol in the Lower Engadine Valley (South Eastern Switzerland) Sot Ruinas, a waste disposal site for domestic and construction refuse, has been in use since the 1960s. It is situated in the vicinity of the Inn River. Over the last years enhanced concentrations of ammonia were found in the outflow of this waste site. But the observed elevated ammonia concentrations could also be a result of natural origin, by inflows of mineral water as observed in the mineral springs of the area. These springs could have acquired their high ammonia content by water-rock interaction with adjacent ultramafic rocks. The isotope analyses were oriented towards the hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen isotopes on the ammonia, nitrate and nitrogen molecules. The effect of the waste on the outflowing water downstream could be proved by isotope ratios based on chemical processes of the nitrogen cycle and an influence of natural spring water was excluded. (author)

  20. Planning for environmental restoration of uranium mining and milling sites in Central and Eastern Europe. Proceedings of a workshop held under the technical co-operation project RER/9/022 on environmental restoration in Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    An IAEA Regional Technical Co-operation (TC) project RER/9/022 on ''Environmental Restoration'' for central and eastern Europe and the former USSR was launched in 1992 and concluded at the end of 1996. The first phase of this project had the primary purpose of identifying and characterizing radioactively contaminated sites in the region, including evaluation of doses to the general public and other environmental impacts. The main result of this phase of the project were published in IAEA-TECDOC-865. A new 1995-1996 phase of the project focused on the radioactive contamination of uranium mining and milling sites and the development of plans for environmental restoration of these sites. While the 1993-1994 phase aimed at attracting the attention of Member States in the region to a long neglected problem, the second phase served as a stimulus to initiate concrete planning activities that would lead to corrective actions in highly contaminated areas in those countries. As a consequence, the project emphasis shifted from scientific discussions to the identification of responsibilities, planning activities, and the assessment of existing and required resources for the eventual implementation of restoration plans. The 1995-1996 phase of the project consisted of a planning meeting and three workshops that addressed different topical themes. The papers compiled in this publication were presented at the last workshop, held in Felix, Romania, 4-8 November 1996. They summarize national situations in environmental contamination as of the end of 1996 and ongoing or planned actions for remediation

  1. Effects of Reforestation and Site Preparation Methods on Early Growth and Survival of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L. in South-Eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Aleksandrowicz-Trzcińska

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Successful tree regeneration is a key process in ensuring forest sustainability and one of the most crucial investments made in silviculture. This study compared the effects of three reforestation methods (planting, direct seeding, and natural regeneration and three mechanical site preparation methods (double mould-board forest plough (FP; active plough (AP; and forest mill (FM on biometric parameters, survival, and density of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings in the first 4 years of growth in a clear-cut area in south-eastern Poland. Planted seedlings were higher, thicker in root collar, and had higher survival rates after the fourth growing season than trees from natural regeneration and direct seeding. Site preparation methods did not affect the density of planted seedlings. After natural regeneration and direct seeding, seedling density was lower and less homogeneous (plots with no seedlings in FM soil preparation in comparison to other methods. The survival of pines in all reforestation methods was not affected significantly by site preparation methods. Our results indicate that the best mechanical site preparation method for planting is FM, as this is the one that least disturbs the soil environment. For direct seeding the best results were achieved after AP preparation. Natural regeneration of Scots pine was most effective after FP use, and in relatively wet years also after AP use.

  2. Middle Pleistocene Transition (MPT) in the Eastern Indian Ocean: a 2000 kyr planktic faunal and isotope record from DSDP site 214

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Anil K.; Dhingra, Hitesh

    2004-01-01

    Planktic foraminiferal faunal and isotope data from Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Site 214 reveal a major change in surface water properties in the eastern Indian Ocean, coinciding with the mid-Pleistocene climate transition (MPT). A comparative study of Globigerinoides sacculifer (a surface dwelling, warm water, mixed layer tropical planktic foraminifera), Globorotalia menardii Complex (a deep dwelling, tropical species group), and Orbulina universa (an intermediate depth warm-water subtropical foraminifera) with the stable isotope record of Globigerinoides ruber suggests a warm, thick mixed layer in the eastern Indian Ocean during,∼ 2000 Kyr to ∼ 900 Kyr. Since,∼ 900 Kyr the surface water mass stratification weakened, and the mixed layer as well as thermocline were shallow. A decrease in the population abundance of Gs. sacculifer, together with a decrease in δ 13 C and increase in δ 18 O values suggest a continuous cool climate and increased surface productivity over the last ∼ 900 Kyr. This coincides with an increased variance in the 400 ∼Kyr component of Earth's eccentricity cycle. (author)

  3. Planning for environmental restoration of uranium mining and milling sites in Central and Eastern Europe. Proceedings of a workshop held under the technical co-operation project RER/9/022 on environmental restoration in Central and Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    An IAEA Regional Technical Co-operation (TC) project RER/9/022 on ``Environmental Restoration`` for central and eastern Europe and the former USSR was launched in 1992 and concluded at the end of 1996. The first phase of this project had the primary purpose of identifying and characterizing radioactively contaminated sites in the region, including evaluation of doses to the general public and other environmental impacts. The main result of this phase of the project were published in IAEA-TECDOC-865. A new 1995-1996 phase of the project focused on the radioactive contamination of uranium mining and milling sites and the development of plans for environmental restoration of these sites. While the 1993-1994 phase aimed at attracting the attention of Member States in the region to a long neglected problem, the second phase served as a stimulus to initiate concrete planning activities that would lead to corrective actions in highly contaminated areas in those countries. As a consequence, the project emphasis shifted from scientific discussions to the identification of responsibilities, planning activities, and the assessment of existing and required resources for the eventual implementation of restoration plans. The 1995-1996 phase of the project consisted of a planning meeting and three workshops that addressed different topical themes. The papers compiled in this publication were presented at the last workshop, held in Felix, Romania, 4-8 November 1996. They summarize national situations in environmental contamination as of the end of 1996 and ongoing or planned actions for remediation. Refs, figs, tabs.

  4. A New Methodology for Decreasing Uncertainties in the Seismic Hazard Assessment Results by Using Sensitivity Analysis. An Application to Sites in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner, J. J.; Molina, S.; Jáuregui, P.; Delgado, J.

    - In this study a sensitivity analysis has been carried out by means of the seismic hazard results obtained using the non-zoning methodology (Epstein and Lomnitz, 1966) and the extreme value distribution functions proposed by Gumbel (1958), via a logic tree procedure. The aim of the sensitivity analysis is to identify the input parameters that have the largest impact on assessed hazard and its uncertainty. The research findings from the study of these parameters can serve as a useful guide to facilitate further research studies on seismic hazard evaluations because it allows us to identify parameters that have little or no effect on the seismic hazard results as well as parameters that have great effects on them. In this way, using the obtained results, we have proposed objective criteria in assigning probabilities to the different logic tree branches in a more objective way. It should be noted that, although the sensitivity of the logic tree branches depends on the site, it does not always do so in the same way. Finally, re-evaluation of seismic hazard using the proposed methodology applied to eastern Spain leads to a reduction of uncertainty from 52% to 27% of the expected acceleration with 10% probability of exceedence, at the site with the highest value of seismic hazard (Site 1: Torrevieja).

  5. On the periphery of the Magdalenian World. An open-air site in Klementowice (Lublin Upland, Eastern Poland)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wisniewski, T.; Mroczek, P.; Rodzik, J.; Zagórski, P.; Wilczyński, J.; Nývltová Fišáková, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 272, č. 2012 (2012), s. 308-321 ISSN 1040-6182 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80010507 Keywords : Magdalénien * Seasonality * open - air site Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 1.962, year: 2012

  6. Water quality parameters and total aerobic bacterial and vibrionaceae loads in eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from oyster gardening sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyster gardening is a practice designed to restore habitat for marine life and to improve water quality. This study determined physical and chemical water quality parameters at two oyster gardening sites in the Delaware Inland Bays and compared them with total aerobic bacteria and Vibrionaceae conc...

  7. Planning for environmental restoration of radioactively contaminated sites in central and eastern Europe. V.2: Planning for environmental restoration of contaminated sites. Proceedings of a workshop held within the technical co-operation project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The radioactive contaminant materials resulting from diverse activities in relation to the nuclear fuel cycle, defence related operations, and various industries in addition to medical and research facilities represent perhaps the most severe and immense pollution left from a past era. The political changes in central and eastern Europe (CEE) not only brought some disclosure of the radioactively contaminated sites, but also resulted in a political condition in which this region became receptive to co-operation from a range of outside countries. It is under these circumstances that the IAEA decided to launch a Technical Co-operation (TC) Project on Environmental Restoration in Central and Eastern Europe. The project was initiated in the latter part of 1992 and ended in 1994. The countries that were involved and represented in this forum are: Belarus, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia and the Ukraine. Several experts from countries outside the region participated and offered their co-operation throughout the project. Refs, figs, tabs.

  8. Planning for environmental restoration of radioactively contaminated sites in central and eastern Europe. V.2: Planning for environmental restoration of contaminated sites. Proceedings of a workshop held within the technical co-operation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    The radioactive contaminant materials resulting from diverse activities in relation to the nuclear fuel cycle, defence related operations, and various industries in addition to medical and research facilities represent perhaps the most severe and immense pollution left from a past era. The political changes in central and eastern Europe (CEE) not only brought some disclosure of the radioactively contaminated sites, but also resulted in a political condition in which this region became receptive to co-operation from a range of outside countries. It is under these circumstances that the IAEA decided to launch a Technical Co-operation (TC) Project on Environmental Restoration in Central and Eastern Europe. The project was initiated in the latter part of 1992 and ended in 1994. The countries that were involved and represented in this forum are: Belarus, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia and the Ukraine. Several experts from countries outside the region participated and offered their co-operation throughout the project. Refs, figs, tabs

  9. Drought-induced legacy effects in wood growth across the Eastern and Midwestern U.S. are mediated by site climate, tree age, and drought sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannenberg, S.; Maxwell, J. T.; Pederson, N.; D'Orangeville, L.; Phillips, R.

    2017-12-01

    While it is widely known that drought reduces carbon (C) uptake in temperate forests, tree growth can also remain stagnant post-drought despite favorable climatic conditions. While such "legacy effects" are well established, the degree to which these effects depend on species identity or variability in site conditions is poorly quantified. We sought to uncover how site, species, climate, and tree age interact to affect the presence and magnitude of legacy effects in temperate trees following drought. To do this, we assembled dendrochronological records of 18 common species across 94 sites in Eastern and Midwestern U.S. forests and quantified drought-induced changes in wood growth in the year of the drought (hereafter "drought sensitivity") and the years after the drought (i.e., legacy effects). We predicted that species particularly prone to hydraulic damage (e.g., oaks) would have the least drought sensitivity yet experience larger legacy effects, and that this effect would be exacerbated at arid sites. Across all species and sites, wood growth was reduced by 14% in the year of the drought and by 7% post-drought. Surprisingly, legacy effects were smaller for oak species and larger across species known to be more drought sensitive (e.g. tulip poplar, maple, birch). As a result, we observed a positive relationship between a species' drought sensitivity and that species' legacy effect. These legacy effects were similar in size across a range of drought severities. Surprisingly, legacy effects were smaller in more arid sites - contrary to previous investigations in dryland ecosystems - perhaps indicating the role of adaptation in mediating a tree's recovery from drought. In addition, many species actually decreased the size of their legacy effects as they aged, despite no change in drought responses. Our results run contrary to our predictions, as species with the greatest drought sensitivity had the least ability to recover, and that younger mesic forests- not arid

  10. Herbaceous Plants for Climate Adaptation and Intensely Developed Urban Sites In Northern Europe: A Case Study From the Eastern Romanian Steppe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjöman Henrik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the increasingly compact city, services currently provided for in parks will in future be compressed into smaller green unit-structures, often associated with paved surfaces. Left-over spaces in urban environments, such as traffic roundabouts and strips along paths, roads and other corridors, will be important in the future city in order to deliver different eco-system services, especially stormwater management. It is therefore essential to start now to develop the knowledge and experience needed to create sustainable plantings for these sites. This paper presents the findings of a field survey in eastern Romania that sought to identify potential species for urban paved plantings in the Scandinavian region (northern Europe. The research approach is rooted in the hypothesis that studies of natural vegetation systems and habitats where plants are exposed to environmental conditions similar to those in inner-city environments can: 1 identify new or non-traditional species and genotypes adapted to urban environments; and 2 supply information and knowledge about their use potential concerning growth, flowering, life form, etc. In total, 117 different herbaceous species, all of which experience water stress regimes comparable to those in urban paved sites in Scandinavia. The initial information obtained from this field survey present a base of knowledge of which species that have a future potential for use in urban environment, which is of great importance in the following work within this project instead of testing species randomly without this knowledge of the species tolerance and performance in similar habitats.

  11. Planning for environmental restoration of radioactively contaminated sites in central and eastern Europe. V. 3: Technologies for, and the implementation of, environmental restoration of contaminated sites. Proceedings of a workshop held within the technical co-operation project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The radioactive contaminant materials resulting from diverse activities in relation to the nuclear fuel cycle, defence related operations, and various industries in addition to medical and research facilities represent perhaps the most severe and immense pollution left from a past era. The political changes in central and eastern Europe (CEE) not only brought some disclosure of the radioactively contaminated sites, but also resulted in a political condition in which this region became receptive to co-operation from a range of outside countries. The subjects of the first workshop held in Budapest, 4-8 October 1993, was the identification and characterization of radioactively contaminated sites in the region. The second part of the project and the second workshop (Piestany, Slovak Republic, 12-16 April 1994) involved planning and preparing the identified sites for restoration. This included items such as the restoration objectives, dose and environmental assessment, cost analysis, strategy and prioritization. Eventually, the third part of the project covered technologies for, and the implementation of, environmental restoration. The third and final workshop was held in Rez, Czech Republic, 12-16 December 1994. Refs, figs, tabs.

  12. Planning for environmental restoration of radioactively contaminated sites in central and eastern Europe. V. 3: Technologies for, and the implementation of, environmental restoration of contaminated sites. Proceedings of a workshop held within the technical co-operation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    The radioactive contaminant materials resulting from diverse activities in relation to the nuclear fuel cycle, defence related operations, and various industries in addition to medical and research facilities represent perhaps the most severe and immense pollution left from a past era. The political changes in central and eastern Europe (CEE) not only brought some disclosure of the radioactively contaminated sites, but also resulted in a political condition in which this region became receptive to co-operation from a range of outside countries. The subjects of the first workshop held in Budapest, 4-8 October 1993, was the identification and characterization of radioactively contaminated sites in the region. The second part of the project and the second workshop (Piestany, Slovak Republic, 12-16 April 1994) involved planning and preparing the identified sites for restoration. This included items such as the restoration objectives, dose and environmental assessment, cost analysis, strategy and prioritization. Eventually, the third part of the project covered technologies for, and the implementation of, environmental restoration. The third and final workshop was held in Rez, Czech Republic, 12-16 December 1994. Refs, figs, tabs

  13. New palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic reconstructions for the Middle Palaeolithic site of Cuesta de la Bajada (Teruel, eastern Spain) inferred from the amphibian and squamate reptile assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Ruiz Zapata, Maria Blanca; Gil García, Maria José; Sesé, Carmen; Santonja, Manuel; Pérez-González, Alfredo

    2017-10-01

    In the eastern Iberian Peninsula, the archaeological site of Cuesta de la Bajada (Teruel, Spain) has produced some of the earliest evidence of Middle Paleolithic stone tool traditions together with evidence of equid and cervid carcasses defleshed by hominins. Based on the numerical age of 317-240 ka derived from OSL, ESR and AAR dating methods for the lower part of the Cuesta de la Bajada sedimentological sequence (level CB3), as well as the biochronological inferences for the small and large mammal associations, the site can be attributed to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 8 or the end of MIS 9. As amphibians and reptiles have precise environmental and climatic requirements and do not differ at species level from the extant herpetofauna of the Iberian Peninsula, they can contribute to the reconstruction of the landscape and climate. In this paper, the fossil amphibians and squamate reptiles from Cuesta de la Bajada are studied for the first time. The mutual ecogeographic range and habitat weighting methods were applied to the herpetofaunal assemblages to estimate quantitative data for the landscape and climate reconstructions. The climate is shown to have been colder and wetter than today in the interior of eastern Spain, with mean annual temperature up to 2.5 °C lower and mean annual precipitation slightly higher than at present. The monthly climatic reconstruction shows differences in the distribution of precipitation over the course of the year, with more abundant precipitation from late autumn to spring (i.e. from October to May), and more or less similar precipitation to today during the summer months (July and August). This suggests there was stronger rainfall seasonality between winter and summer than currently occurs. The paleoenvironmental reconstruction based on the herpetofaunal assemblage depicts a poorly forested (15-20%) patchy landscape with a large representation of dry meadows and scrubland habitats together with well-evidenced aquatic habitats. These

  14. Characterization and Prediction of the Gas Hydrate Reservoir at the Second Offshore Gas Production Test Site in the Eastern Nankai Trough, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machiko Tamaki

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Following the world’s first offshore production test that was conducted from a gas hydrate reservoir by a depressurization technique in 2013, the second offshore production test has been planned in the eastern Nankai Trough. In 2016, the drilling survey was performed ahead of the production test, and logging data that covers the reservoir interval were newly obtained from three wells around the test site: one well for geological survey, and two wells for monitoring surveys, during the production test. The formation evaluation using the well log data suggested that our target reservoir has a more significant heterogeneity in the gas hydrate saturation distribution than we expected, although lateral continuity of sand layers is relatively good. To evaluate the spatial distribution of gas hydrate, the integration analysis using well and seismic data was performed. The seismic amplitude analysis supports the lateral reservoir heterogeneity that has a significant positive correlation with the resistivity log data at the well locations. The spatial distribution of the apparent low-resistivity interval within the reservoir observed from log data was investigated by the P-velocity volume derived from seismic inversion. The integrated results were utilized for the pre-drill prediction of the reservoir quality at the producing wells. These approaches will reduce the risk of future commercial production from the gas hydrate reservoir.

  15. Final Report, 2011-2014. Forecasting Carbon Storage as Eastern Forests Age. Joining Experimental and Modeling Approaches at the UMBS AmeriFlux Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Peter [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Bohrer, Gil [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Gough, Christopher [Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond, VA (United States); Nadelhoffer, Knute [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-03-12

    At the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS) AmeriFlux sites (US-UMB and US-UMd), long-term C cycling measurements and a novel ecosystem-scale experiment are revealing physical, biological, and ecological mechanisms driving long-term trajectories of C cycling, providing new data for improving modeling forecasts of C storage in eastern forests. Our findings provide support for previously untested hypotheses that stand-level structural and biological properties constrain long-term trajectories of C storage, and that remotely sensed canopy structural parameters can substantially improve model forecasts of forest C storage. Through the Forest Accelerated Succession ExperimenT (FASET), we are directly testing the hypothesis that forest C storage will increase due to increasing structural and biological complexity of the emerging tree communities. Support from this project, 2011-2014, enabled us to incorporate novel physical and ecological mechanisms into ecological, meteorological, and hydrological models to improve forecasts of future forest C storage in response to disturbance, succession, and current and long-term climate variation

  16. Rock-block configuration in Uppland and the Aalands-hav basin, the regional surroundings of the SKB site in Forsmark, Sea and land areas, eastern Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckholmen, Monica; Tiren, Sven A. (GEOSIGMA AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    The Forsmark SKB site lies at the west-northwest trending shoreline in northern Uppland, sheltered from the sea by one of the larger islands in the Uppland archipelago, Graesoe. To assess the structures around Forsmark also in the sea area, the bottom structures of the Aalands-hav basin were investigated by means of depth readings from sea charts. Two rock-block maps with rock blocks at different scales were constructed and analysed for their top surface elevation. The topography in Uppland is more broken in the sea area east and northeast of Forsmark than it is on land. The major structure in the Aalands-hav basin is a westnorth- westerly line that passes southwest of Aaland, with a very steep gradient from the Aaland archipelago down to an exceptionally low sea-floor valley. On its southern side it rises in steps to a low flat basin divided into a deeper western half and a somewhat shallower eastern half. The deep west-north-westerly zone can be traced on-land past Oeregrund and Forsmark. West of Oeregrund however, the main trough swings into a north-northwesterly direction, just west of Graesoe. The southern border south of Oeregrund and Forsmark, shows a major drop in elevation northern side down. Forsmark thus lies on a ribbon with lower ground on both its southern and northern boundaries. This west-north-westerly belt is cut in two by a major north-south lineament that cuts through the archipelago between Aaland and Graesoe with a very deep canyon. This structure was seismically active in June 2006. The southern part of this line constitutes the western border of the low basin and has a steep gradient on its western side up to the Uppland mainland. The deep basin is filled with Jotnian metasediments. South of this basin, the Uppland mainland continues under water towards the east. South of Aaland an east-north-easterly ridge separates the low basin to the north from an east-west trending trough which is the eastern continuation of a major onland structure

  17. Rock-block configuration in Uppland and the Aalands-hav basin, the regional surroundings of the SKB site in Forsmark, Sea and land areas, eastern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckholmen, Monica; Tiren, Sven A.

    2010-12-01

    The Forsmark SKB site lies at the west-northwest trending shoreline in northern Uppland, sheltered from the sea by one of the larger islands in the Uppland archipelago, Graesoe. To assess the structures around Forsmark also in the sea area, the bottom structures of the Aalands-hav basin were investigated by means of depth readings from sea charts. Two rock-block maps with rock blocks at different scales were constructed and analysed for their top surface elevation. The topography in Uppland is more broken in the sea area east and northeast of Forsmark than it is on land. The major structure in the Aalands-hav basin is a westnorth- westerly line that passes southwest of Aaland, with a very steep gradient from the Aaland archipelago down to an exceptionally low sea-floor valley. On its southern side it rises in steps to a low flat basin divided into a deeper western half and a somewhat shallower eastern half. The deep west-north-westerly zone can be traced on-land past Oeregrund and Forsmark. West of Oeregrund however, the main trough swings into a north-northwesterly direction, just west of Graesoe. The southern border south of Oeregrund and Forsmark, shows a major drop in elevation northern side down. Forsmark thus lies on a ribbon with lower ground on both its southern and northern boundaries. This west-north-westerly belt is cut in two by a major north-south lineament that cuts through the archipelago between Aaland and Graesoe with a very deep canyon. This structure was seismically active in June 2006. The southern part of this line constitutes the western border of the low basin and has a steep gradient on its western side up to the Uppland mainland. The deep basin is filled with Jotnian metasediments. South of this basin, the Uppland mainland continues under water towards the east. South of Aaland an east-north-easterly ridge separates the low basin to the north from an east-west trending trough which is the eastern continuation of a major onland structure

  18. UNESCO World Heritage Site Hallstatt: Rockfall hazard and risk assessment as basis for a sustainable land-use planning- a case study from the Eastern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzner, Sandra; Mölk, Michael; Schiffer, Michael; Gasperl, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    In times of decreasing financial resources, the demand for the investment in protection measures with a positive return on investment is of high importance. Hazard and risk assessments are essential tools in order to ensure an economically justifiable application of money in the implementation of preventive measures. Many areas in the Eastern Alps are recurrently affected by rockfall processes which pose a significant hazard to settlements and infrastructures. Complex tectonic, lithological and geomorphologic settings require a sufficient amount of effort to map and collect high quality data to perform a reliable hazard and risk analysis. The present work summarizes the results of a detailed hazard and risk assessment performed in a community in the Northern Calcareous Alps (Upper Austroalpine Unit). The community Hallstatt is exposed to very steep limestone cliffs, which are highly susceptible towards future, in many parts high magnitude rock failures. The analysis of the record of former events shows that since 1652 several rockfall events damaged or destroyed houses and killed or injured some people. Hallstatt as a Unesco World Heritage Site represents a very vulnerable settlement, the risk being elevated by a high frequency tourism with greater one million visitors per year. Discussion will focus on the applied methods to identify and map the rockfall hazard and risk, including a magnitude-frequency analysis of events in the past and an extrapolation in the future as well as a vulnerability analysis for the existing infrastructure under the assumed events for the determined magnitude-frequency scenarios. Furthermore challenges for a decision making in terms of a sustainable land use planning and implementation of preventive measures will be discussed.

  19. Instrumented Pressure Testing Chamber (IPTC) Characterization of Methane Gas Hydrate-Bearing Pressure Cores Collected from the Methane Production Test Site in the Eastern Nankai Trough, Offshore Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, W. F.; Santamarina, J. C.; Dai, S.; Winters, W. J.; Yoneda, J.; Konno, Y.; Nagao, J.; Suzuki, K.; Fujii, T.; Mason, D. H.; Bergeron, E.

    2014-12-01

    Pressure cores obtained at the Daini-Atsumi Knoll in the eastern Nankai Trough, the site of the methane hydrate production test completed by the Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan (MH21) project in March 2013, were recovered from ~300 meters beneath the sea floor at close to in situ pressure. Cores were subsequently stored at ~20 MPa and ~5°C, which maintained hydrate in the cores within stability conditions. Pressure core physical properties were measured at 10 MPa and ~6°C, also within the methane hydrate stability field, using the IPTC and other Pressure Core Characterization Tools (PCCTs). Discrete IPTC measurements were carried out in strata ranging from silty sands to clayey silts within the turbidite sequences recovered in the cores. As expected, hydrate saturations were greatest in more permeable coarser-grained layers. Key results include: 1) Where hydrate saturation exceeded 40% in sandy sediments, the gas hydrate binds sediment grains within the matrix. The pressure core analyses yielded nearly in situ mechanical properties despite the absence of effective stress in the IPTC. 2) In adjacent fine-grained sediment (hydrate saturation < 15%), hydrate did not significantly bind the sediment. IPTC results in these locations were consistent with the zero effective-stress limit of comparable measurements made in PCCT devices that are designed to restore the specimen's in situ effective stress. In sand-rich intervals with high gas hydrate saturations, the measured compressional and shear wave velocities suggest that hydrate acts as a homogeneously-distributed, load-bearing member of the bulk sediment. The sands with high gas hydrate saturations were prone to fracturing (brittle failure) during insertion of the cone penetrometer and electrical conductivity probes. Authors would like to express their sincere appreciation to MH21 and the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry for permitting this work to be disclosed at the 2014 Fall AGU meeting.

  20. Sedimentology and ichnology of the Mafube dinosaur track site (Lower Jurassic, eastern Free State, South Africa: a report on footprint preservation and palaeoenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Sciscio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Footprint morphology (e.g., outline shape, depth of impression is one of the key diagnostic features used in the interpretation of ancient vertebrate tracks. Over 80 tridactyl tracks, confined to the same bedding surface in the Lower Jurassic Elliot Formation at Mafube (eastern Free State, South Africa, show large shape variability over the length of the study site. These morphological differences are considered here to be mainly due to variations in the substrate rheology as opposed to differences in the trackmaker’s foot anatomy, foot kinematics or recent weathering of the bedding surface. The sedimentary structures (e.g., desiccation cracks, ripple marks preserved in association with and within some of the Mafube tracks suggest that the imprints were produced essentially contemporaneous and are true dinosaur tracks rather than undertracks or erosional remnants. They are therefore valuable not only for the interpretation of the ancient environment (i.e., seasonally dry river channels but also for taxonomic assessments as some of them closely resemble the original anatomy of the trackmaker’s foot. The tracks are grouped, based on size, into two morphotypes that can be identified as Eubrontes-like and Grallator-like ichnogenera. The Mafube morphotypes are tentatively attributable to large and small tridactyl theropod trackmakers, possibly to Dracovenator and Coelophysis based on the following criteria: (a lack of manus impressions indicative of obligate bipeds; (b long, slender-digits that are asymmetrical and taper; (c often end in a claw impression or point; and (d the tracks that are longer than broad. To enable high-resolution preservation, curation and subsequent remote studying of the morphological variations of and the secondary features in the tracks, low viscosity silicone rubber was used to generate casts of the Mafube tracks.

  1. Relationships between Hg Air-surface exchange, Soil Moisture and Precipitation at a Background Vegetated Site in South-Eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macsween, K.; Edwards, G. C.

    2017-12-01

    Despite many decades of research, the controlling mechanisms of mercury (Hg) air-surface exhange are still poorly understood. Particularly in Australian ecosystems where there are few anthropogenic inputs. A clear understanding of these mechanisms is vital for accurate representation in the global Hg models, particularly regarding re-emission. Water is known to have a considerable influence on Hg exchange within a terrestrial ecosystem. Precipitation has been found to cause spikes is Hg emissions during the initial stages of rain event. While, Soil moisture content is known to enhance fluxes between 15 and 30% Volumetric soil water (VSW), above which fluxes become suppressed. Few field experiments exist to verify these dominantly laboratory or controlled experiments. Here we present work looking at Hg fluxes over an 8-month period at a vegetated background site. The aim of this study is to identify how changes to precipitation intensity and duration, coupled with variable soil moisture content may influence Hg flux across seasons. As well as the influence of other meteorological variables. Experimentation was undertaken using aerodynamic gradient micrometeorological flux method, avoiding disruption to the surface, soil moisture probes and rain gauge measurements to monitor alterations to substrate conditions. Meteorological and air chemistry variables were also measured concurrently throughout the duration of the study. During the study period, South-Eastern Australia experienced several intense east coast low storm systems during the Autumn and Spring months and an unusually dry winter. VSW rarely reached above 30% even following the intense rainfall experienced during the east coast lows. The generally dry conditions throughout winter resulted in an initial spike in Hg emissions when rainfall occurred. Fluxes decreased shortly after the rain began but remained slightly elevated. Given the reduced net radiation and cooler temperatures experienced during the winter

  2. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in e-waste: Level and transfer in a typical e-waste recycling site in Shanghai, Eastern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yue; Duan, Yan-Ping, E-mail: duanyanping@tongji.edu.cn; Huang, Fan; Yang, Jing; Xiang, Nan; Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Chen, Ling

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • PBDEs were detected in the majority of e-waste. • PBDEs were found in TVs made in China after 1990. • The levels of ΣPBDEs in e-waste made in Japan far exceed the threshold limit of RoHS. • The inappropriate recycling and disposal of e-waste is an important source of PBDEs. - Abstract: Very few data for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were available in the electronic waste (e-waste) as one of the most PBDEs emission source. This study reported concentrations of PBDEs in e-waste including printer, rice cooker, computer monitor, TV, electric iron and water dispenser, as well as dust from e-waste, e-waste dismantling workshop and surface soil from inside and outside of an e-waste recycling plant in Shanghai, Eastern China. The results showed that PBDEs were detected in the majority of e-waste, and the concentrations of ΣPBDEs ranged from not detected to 175 g/kg, with a mean value of 10.8 g/kg. PBDEs were found in TVs made in China after 1990. The mean concentrations of ΣPBDEs in e-waste made in Korea, Japan, Singapore and China were 1.84 g/kg, 20.5 g/kg, 0.91 g/kg, 4.48 g/kg, respectively. The levels of ΣPBDEs in e-waste made in Japan far exceed the threshold limit of RoHS (1.00 g/kg). BDE-209 dominated in e-waste, accounting for over 93%. The compositional patterns of PBDEs congeners resembled the profile of Saytex 102E, indicating the source of deca-BDE. Among the samples of dust and surface soil from a typical e-waste recycling site, the highest concentrations of Σ{sub 18}PBDEs and BDE-209 were found in dust in e-waste, ranging from 1960 to 340,710 ng/g and from 910 to 320,400 ng/g, which were 1–2 orders of magnitude higher than other samples. It suggested that PBDEs released from e-waste via dust, and then transferred to surrounding environment.

  3. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by indigenous people in and around Dirre Sheikh Hussein heritage site of South-eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demie, Gadisa; Negash, Mesele; Awas, Tesfaye

    2018-06-28

    The uses of medicinal plants have a long history and become important sources of the health cares in Ethiopia. These medicinal plants and their associated indigenous knowledge are being seriously depleted due to rapid change in environment and socioeconomic conditions of the country. However, as to the knowledge of the present researchers, limited studies have been done to identify these medicinal plants and to preserve the communities' indigenous knowledge on these plants. This study aimed at assessing and documenting traditional medicinal plant species, mode of preparation and delivery, and parts used in and around Dirre Sheikh Hussein heritage site of South-eastern Ethiopia. The study was also meant to explore related indigenous knowledge of the communities on the utilization of medicinal plants. The data were collected using household survey, in-depth interviews of key informants, focus group discussion and field observation. The number of informants involved in the survey was 194 (one hundred ninety-four). A total of 87 medicinal plants belonging to 77 genera and 51 families were identified. These medicinal plants were comprised of shrubs (33%), trees (31%), herbs (29%) and climbers (7%). Of the total number of medicinal plants found out in the study, 43 were used to treat human diseases, 8 were used to cure animal diseases and 36 were used to treat both human and live stock ailments. Of the identified plant species, about 83% species were proved that they are commonly known and used elsewhere whereas, the uses of remainder ones are limited to the study area. Most of the medicinal plants (60%) were sourced from the forest and the rest were found from both the forest garden. The study also revealed that leaves were the most frequently mentioned (36%) plant part used in preparing remedies. Crushing (20%) and oral route of administration (59%) were commonly mentioned mode of preparation and administration, respectively The study also indicated that peoples

  4. Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baret, J.P.; Corcuff, A.; Jousten, M.; Cherie, J.B.; Gorge, X.; Augustin, X.; Belime, F.

    1999-01-01

    By its economical and political impact, nuclear energy has an important contribution the countries of Eastern Europe that goes beyond simple energy source. The most important challenge is to gain a safety culture. Improvements have been noted but the reactors safety must stay a priority of the international cooperation in Eastern Europe. The plan for the completion and improvement of Mochovce nuclear plant is described, the situation of Chernobyl and how to make the sarcophagus in safe is discussed, the experience of a french P.M.E. ( small and medium size firm) called Corys Tess that has chosen to position itself on the Eastern Europe nuclear market is related. (N.C.)

  5. Water-quality data from ground- and surface-water sites near concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) and non-CAFOs in the Shenandoah Valley and eastern shore of Virginia, January-February, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Karen C.; Monti, Michele M.; Ettinger, Matthew R.

    2005-01-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) result from the consolidation of small farms with animals into larger operations, leading to a higher density of animals per unit of land on CAFOs than on small farms. The density of animals and subsequent concentration of animal wastes potentially can cause contamination of nearby ground and surface waters. This report summarizes water-quality data collected from agricultural sites in the Shenandoah Valley and Eastern Shore of Virginia. Five sites, three non-CAFO and two dairy-operation CAFO sites, were sampled in the Shenandoah Valley. Four sites, one non-CAFO and three poultry-operation CAFO sites were sampled on the Eastern Shore. All samples were collected during January and February 2004. Water samples were analyzed for the following parameters and constituents: temperature, specific conductance, pH, and dissolved oxygen; concentrations of the indicator organisms Escherichia coli (E. coli) and enterococci; bacterial isolates of E. coli, enterococci, Salmonella spp., and Campylobacter spp.; sensitivity to antibiotics of E. coli, enterococci, and Salmonella spp.; arsenic, cadmium, chromium3+, copper, nickel, and mercury; hardness, biological oxygen demand, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, ortho-phosphate, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, and dissolved organic carbon; and 45 dissolved organic compounds, which included a suite of antibiotic compounds.Data are presented in tables 5-21 and results of analyses of replicate samples are presented in tables 22-28. A summary of the data in tables 5-8 and 18-21 is included in the report.

  6. Calcareous nannoplankton dating of the Late Quaternary deposits in Greece and the eastern Mediterranean: Case studies from terrestrial and marine sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria V. Triantaphyllou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and abundance of Emiliania huxleyi (E. huxleyi assemblages in the marine sediments of the Aravonitsa Plateau, Greece, and from the eastern Mediterranean are used (1 to evaluate the calcareous nannoplankton NN21a and NN21b biozones and the NN21a/NN21b boundary, and (2 to analyze the palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic conditions prevailing in this interval. The sediment succession displays varied E. huxleyi assemblages and these are interpreted as reflecting climatic variability during marine isotope stages MIS 1–8.

  7. Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies detection by RLB hybridization in Ixodes cinus ticks from different sites of North-Eastern Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Justyna Dunaj; Joanna Maria Zajkowska; Maciej Kondrusik; Lise Gern; Oliver Rais; Anna Moniuszko; Sławomir Pancewicz; Renata Świerzbińska

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. RLB (Reverse Line Blot Hybridization) is a molecular biology technique that might be used for [i]Borrelia burgdorferi [/i]sensu lato (sl) DNA detection with genospecies specification. Among[i] B. burgdorferi[/i] sl genospecies at least 7 are regarded as pathogenic in Europe. objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of different [i]Borrelia[/i] genospecies DNA detection in Ixodes ricinus ticks in the endemic area of North-Eastern Poland by using RLB. ...

  8. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Pathobiology: 2015 Bitter crab disease prevalence in immature Chionoecetes spp. at 6 index sites in eastern Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains crab data from a field survey of Chionoecetes bairdi and C. opilio collected at six designated index sites in the Bering Sea during the 2015...

  9. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Pathobiology: 2016 Bitter crab disease prevalence in immature Chionoecetes spp. at 6 index sites in eastern Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains crab data from a field survey of Chionoecetes bairdi and C. opilio collected at six designated index sites in the Bering Sea during the 2016...

  10. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Pathobiology: 2014 Bitter crab disease prevalence in immature Chionoecetes spp. at 6 index sites in eastern Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains crab data from a field survey of Chionoecetes bairdi and C. opilio collected at six designated index sites in the Bering Sea during the 2014...

  11. Rapid assessment of ecosystem services provided by two mineral extraction sites restored for nature conservation in an agricultural landscape in eastern England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaen, Phillip J; Jia, Li; Peh, Kelvin S-H; Field, Rob H; Balmford, Andrew; MacDonald, Michael A; Bradbury, Richard B

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing recognition that mineral sites restored for nature conservation can enhance local biodiversity, the wider societal benefits provided by this type of restoration relative to alternative options are not well understood. This study addresses this research gap by quantifying differences in ecosystem services provision under two common mineral site after-uses: nature conservation and agriculture. Using a combination of site-specific primary field data, benefits transfer and modelling, we show that for our sites restoration for nature conservation provides a more diverse array of ecosystem services than would be delivered under an agricultural restoration scenario. We also explore the effects of addressing different conservation targets, which we find alter the provision of ecosystem services on a service-specific basis. Highly species-focused intervention areas are associated with increased carbon storage and livestock grazing provision, whereas non-intervention areas are important for carbon sequestration, fishing, recreation and flood risk mitigation. The results of this study highlight the wider societal importance of restored mineral sites and may help conservation managers and planners to develop future restoration strategies that provide benefits for both biodiversity and human well-being.

  12. Uranium concentrations in stream waters and sediments from selected sites in the eastern Seward Peninsula, Koyukuk, and Charley River areas, and across South-Central Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, R.R. Jr.; Hill, D.E.

    1978-04-01

    During the summer of 1975, a 6-week reconnaissance was conducted in widespread areas of Alaska as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program; Water, stream sediment, and bedrock samples were taken from the eastern Seward Peninsula, from north of Koyukuk River, from the Charley River area, and from across south central Alaska. This report contains the LASL uranium determinations resulting from fluorometric analysis of the water samples and delayed-neutron counting of the stream sediment samples. Results of total uranium for 611 water and 641 sediment samples, from 691 stream locations, are presented. Overlays showing the numbered sample locations and graphically portraying the concentrations of uranium in water and stream sediment samples, at 1:250,000 scale for use with existing National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) sheets and published geologic maps, are provided as plates. The main purposes of this work are to make the uranium data available to the public in the standard computer format used in the NURE Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (i.e., with a DOE sample number giving the latitude and longitude of each sample location) and to provide uranium concentration overlays at the standard scale of 1:250,000 adopted by the DOE for the NURE program. It also allows a plausible explanation of differences between the uranium values for sediment as determined by acid dissolution/extraction/fluorometry and by delayed-neutron counting that were noted in the earlier report

  13. Selection Criteria of Sites Suitable for Low- Level Radioactive U-mining and Milling wastes Disposal at Al-Missikat-Al-Aradiya District, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Monem, A.A.; Rabei, S.I.; El-Kiki, M.F.; Guirguis, G.P.; Rabei, S.I.

    1999-01-01

    Uranium mining and milling tailings are U-depleted but contain 230 TH and 226 Ra. These low-level radioactive wastes are disposed of in the near surface environment. Hydro geologically, suitable sites for disposal of these wastes should be characterized by:1) deep water-level,2) minimal precipitation,3) minimal exposure to flooding and 4) circular- shaped basins. Al-Missikat-Al-Aradiya District with future potential of U-mining and milling operations, a geomorphologic analysis led to the selection of four sites (sub basins) having the geomorphologic characteristics:1)elongation and circularity ratio≡1, 2) high track drainage density (limited infiltration),3) high stream frequency (deep water-table) and 4) moderate to low bifurcation ratio. These sites are further characterized geologically and structurally

  14. Applying Satellite Data Sources in the Documentation and Landscape Modelling for Graeco-Roman Fortified Sites in the TŪR Abdin Area, Eastern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, K.; Silver, M.; Törmä, M.; Okkonen, J.; Okkonen, T.

    2017-08-01

    In 2015-2016 the Finnish-Swedish Archaeological Project in Mesopotamia (FSAPM) initiated a pilot study of an unexplored area in the Tūr Abdin region in Northern Mesopotamia (present-day Mardin Province in southeastern Turkey). FSAPM is reliant on satellite image data sources for prospecting, identifying, recording, and mapping largely unknown archaeological sites as well as studying their landscapes in the region. The purpose is to record and document sites in this endangered area for saving its cultural heritage. The sites in question consist of fortified architectural remains in an ancient border zone between the Graeco-Roman/Byzantine world and Parthia/Persia. The location of the archaeological sites in the terrain and the visible archaeological remains, as well as their dimensions and sizes were determined from the ortorectified satellite images, which also provided coordinates. In addition, field documentation was carried out in situ with photographs and notes. The applicability of various satellite data sources for the archaeological documentation of the project was evaluated. Satellite photographs from three 1968 CORONA missions, i.e. the declassified US government satellite photograph archives were acquired. Furthermore, satellite images included a recent GeoEye-1 Satellite Sensor Image from 2010 with a resolution of 0.5 m. Its applicability for prospecting archaeological sites, studying the terrain and producing landscape models in 3D was confirmed. The GeoEye-1 revealed the ruins of a fortified town and a fortress for their documentation and study. Landscape models for the area of these sites were constructed fusing GeoEye-1 with EU-DEM (European Digital Elevation Model data using SRTM and ASTER GDEM data) in order to understand their locations in the terrain.

  15. APPLYING SATELLITE DATA SOURCES IN THE DOCUMENTATION AND LANDSCAPE MODELLING FOR GRAECO-ROMAN/BYZANTINE FORTIFIED SITES IN THE TŪR ABDIN AREA, EASTERN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Silver

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2015-2016 the Finnish-Swedish Archaeological Project in Mesopotamia (FSAPM initiated a pilot study of an unexplored area in the Tūr Abdin region in Northern Mesopotamia (present-day Mardin Province in southeastern Turkey. FSAPM is reliant on satellite image data sources for prospecting, identifying, recording, and mapping largely unknown archaeological sites as well as studying their landscapes in the region. The purpose is to record and document sites in this endangered area for saving its cultural heritage. The sites in question consist of fortified architectural remains in an ancient border zone between the Graeco-Roman/Byzantine world and Parthia/Persia. The location of the archaeological sites in the terrain and the visible archaeological remains, as well as their dimensions and sizes were determined from the ortorectified satellite images, which also provided coordinates. In addition, field documentation was carried out in situ with photographs and notes. The applicability of various satellite data sources for the archaeological documentation of the project was evaluated. Satellite photographs from three 1968 CORONA missions, i.e. the declassified US government satellite photograph archives were acquired. Furthermore, satellite images included a recent GeoEye-1 Satellite Sensor Image from 2010 with a resolution of 0.5 m. Its applicability for prospecting archaeological sites, studying the terrain and producing landscape models in 3D was confirmed. The GeoEye-1 revealed the ruins of a fortified town and a fortress for their documentation and study. Landscape models for the area of these sites were constructed fusing GeoEye-1 with EU-DEM (European Digital Elevation Model data using SRTM and ASTER GDEM data in order to understand their locations in the terrain.

  16. Evaluating Site-Specific and Generic Spatial Models of Aboveground Forest Biomass Based on Landsat Time-Series and LiDAR Strip Samples in the Eastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram Deo; Matthew Russell; Grant Domke; Hans-Erik Andersen; Warren Cohen; Christopher Woodall

    2017-01-01

    Large-area assessment of aboveground tree biomass (AGB) to inform regional or national forest monitoring programs can be efficiently carried out by combining remotely sensed data and field sample measurements through a generic statistical model, in contrast to site-specific models. We integrated forest inventory plot data with spatial predictors from Landsat time-...

  17. A functional polymorphism at microRNA-629-binding site in the 3'-untranslated region of NBS1 gene confers an increased risk of lung cancer in Southern and Eastern Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Li, Yinyan; Cheng, Mei; Huang, Dongsheng; Zheng, Jian; Liu, Bin; Ling, Xiaoxuan; Li, Qingchu; Zhang, Xin; Ji, Weidong; Zhou, Yifeng; Lu, Jiachun

    2012-02-01

    The genetic variations in NBS1 gene have been reported to be associated with cancer risk. The polymorphisms in 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of NBS1 might affect gene's function and thus contribute to cancer susceptibility. We hypothesized that these polymorphisms of NBS1 are associated with the lung cancer risk. In two independent case-control studies conducted in Southern and Eastern Chinese, we genotyped three tagSNPs (rs14448, rs13312986 and rs2735383) in Southern Chinese and then validated the discovered association in Eastern Chinese. No significant association was observed for rs13312986 and rs14448; we only found that the rs2735383CC genotype had a significantly increased risk of lung cancer under a recessive genetic model in the total 1559 cases versus 1679 controls (odds ratio = 1.40, 95% confidence interval = 1.18-1.66, P = 0.0001) when compared with GG or GC genotypes; the rs2735383CC genotype carriers had lower messenger RNA and protein expression levels in tumor tissues than those of other genotypes as quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot shown. Luciferase assay revealed that the rs2735383C allele had a lower transcription activity than G allele, and the hsa-miR-629 but not hsa-miR-499-5P had effect on modulation of NBS1 gene in vitro. We further observed that the X-ray radiation induced more chromatid breaks in lymphocyte cells from the carriers of rs2735383CC homozygote than those from the subjects with other genotypes (P = 0.0008). Our data suggested that the rs2735383G>C variation contributes to an increased risk of lung cancer by diminishing gene's expression through binding of microRNA-629 to the polymorphic site in the 3'-UTR of NBS1 gene.

  18. Autosomal recessive deafness 1A (DFNB1A) in Yakut population isolate in Eastern Siberia: extensive accumulation of the splice site mutation IVS1+1G>A in GJB2 gene as a result of founder effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barashkov, Nikolay A; Dzhemileva, Lilya U; Fedorova, Sardana A; Teryutin, Fedor M; Posukh, Olga L; Fedotova, Elvira E; Lobov, Simeon L; Khusnutdinova, Elza K

    2011-09-01

    Hereditary forms of hearing impairment (HI) caused by GJB2 (Cx26) mutations are the frequent sensory disorders registered among newborns in various human populations. In this study, we present data on the molecular, audiological and population features of autosomal recessive deafness 1A (DFNB1A) associated with the donor splicing site IVS1+1G>A mutation of GJB2 gene in Yakut population isolate of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) located in Eastern Siberia (Russian Federation). The Yakut population exhibits high frequency of some Mendelian disorders, which are rare in other populations worldwide. Mutational analysis of GJB2 gene in 86 unrelated Yakut patients with congenital HI without other clinical features has been performed. In this study, we registered a large cohort of Yakut patients homozygous for the IVS1+1G>A mutation (70 unrelated deaf subjects in total). Detailed audiological analysis of 40 deaf subjects with genotype IVS1+1G>A/IVS1+1G>A revealed significant association of this genotype with mostly symmetrical bilateral severe to profound HI (85% severe-to-profound HI versus 15% mild-to-moderate HI, PA mutation (11.7%) has been found in Yakut population. Reconstruction of 140 haplotypes with IVS1+1G>A mutation demonstrates the common origin of all mutant chromosomes found in Yakuts. The age of mutation was estimated to be approximately 800 years. These findings characterize Eastern Siberia as the region with the most extensive accumulation of the IVS1+1G>A mutation in the world as a result of founder effect.

  19. Skin lesions and inoculation eschars at the tick bite site in spotted fever group rickettsioses: experience from a patient series in eastern crete, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanakis, Antonis; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The main clinical signs and symptoms caused by a rickettsial infection typically begin 6-10 days after the bite and are accompanied by nonspecific findings such as fever, headache and muscle pain. The diagnosis is mainly based on serological tests, however antibody presentation may be delayed, at least at the early stages of the disease, while seroconversion is usually detected 10-15 days after disease onset. Culture is difficult, requires optimized facilities and often proves negative. Under this scope, the presence of a characteristic inoculation eschar at the bite site may prove a useful clinical tool towards the early suspicion and diagnosis/differential diagnosis of tick-borne rickettsioses, even before the onset of rash and fever or serological confirmation. We describe herein the presence of skin lesions and/or an inoculation eschar at the tick bite site in 17 patients diagnosed, by molecular means, as suffering from spotted fever group rickettsioses. The detection of the pathogen's DNA in biopsy samples proved to be a useful means for early rickettsiae detection and identification. Moreover, the presence of an infiltrated erythema always seemed to precede the appearance of an eschar by 2-5 days and the initiation of fever by 1-10 days; these two signs might also prove useful in the context of the final diagnosis. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Scaling up of Carbon Exchange Dynamics from AmeriFlux Sites to a Super-Region in the Eastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans Peter Schmid; Craig Wayson

    2009-05-05

    The primary objective of this project was to evaluate carbon exchange dynamics across a region of North America between the Great Plains and the East Coast. This region contains about 40 active carbon cycle research (AmeriFlux) sites in a variety of climatic and landuse settings, from upland forest to urban development. The core research involved a scaling strategy that uses measured fluxes of CO{sub 2}, energy, water, and other biophysical and biometric parameters to train and calibrate surface-vegetation-atmosphere models, in conjunction with satellite (MODIS) derived drivers. To achieve matching of measured and modeled fluxes, the ecosystem parameters of the models will be adjusted to the dynamically variable flux-tower footprints following Schmid (1997). High-resolution vegetation index variations around the flux sites have been derived from Landsat data for this purpose. The calibrated models are being used in conjunction with MODIS data, atmospheric re-analysis data, and digital land-cover databases to derive ecosystem exchange fluxes over the study domain.

  1. Development of a model for geomorphological assessment at U.S. DOE chemical/radioactive waste disposal facilities in the central and eastern United States; Weldon spring site remedial action project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockaway, J.D.; Smith, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    Landform development and long-term geomorphic stability is the result of a complex interaction of a number of geomorphic processes. These processes may be highly variable in intensity and duration under different physiographic settings. This limitation has influenced the applicability of previous geomorphological stability assessments conducted in the arid or semi-arid western United States to site evaluations in more temperate and humid climates. The purpose of this study was to develop a model suitable for evaluating both long-term and short-term geomorphic processes which may impact landform stability and hence the stability of disposal facilities located in the central and eastern United States. The model developed for the geomorphological stability assessment at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) near St. Louis, Missouri, included an evaluation of existing landforms and consideration of the impact of both long-term and short-term geomorphic processes. These parameters were evaluated with respect to their impact and contribution to three assessment criteria considered most important with respect to the stability analysis; evaluation of landform age, evaluation of present geomorphic process activity and; determination of the impact of the completed facility on existing geomorphic processes. The geomorphological assessment at the Weldon Spring site indicated that the facility is located in an area of excellent geomorphic stability. The only geomorphic process determined to have a potential detrimental effect on long-term facility performance is an extension of the drainage network. A program of mitigating measures has been proposed to minimize the impact that future gully extension could have on the integrity of the facility

  2. Long-range atmospheric transport of persistent organochlorinated compounds from south and mainland south-eastern Asia to a remote mountain site in south-western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yue; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun; Chakraborty, Paromita; Li, Hua; Liu, Xiang

    2011-11-01

    A range of organochlorinated compounds have been consumed in China, India and the countries of mainland southeast Asia (MSA). Considering their persistence in the environment and ability in long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT), the potential outflow of these compounds from this region is therefore of great concern in the context of the global distribution of toxic chemicals. As part of a monitoring campaign aimed at investigating the LRAT of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from southern China, MSA and northern India, atmospheric levels of OCPs and PCBs were measured once a week from October 2005 through December 2006 at Tengchong Mountain (TM), a remote site located in south-western China. The average concentrations of OCPs were found to be higher than those in other remote stations in the Arctic and the Tibetan plateau, except for α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH). A high level of β-HCH and low α-HCH/β-HCH ratio was attributed to an accidental release of β-HCH from unknown sources, besides obvious evidence of lindane (γ-HCH) and technical HCH usage. Temporal variations of chlordanes and endosulfan were related to the usage pattern of these compounds, as well as LRAT. In contrast, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) exhibited a relatively minor seasonal variation. The OCP levels at the monitoring site were found to be related to the air parcel back trajectories on the basis of four distinct clusters. Elevated levels of HCHs and DDTs were observed when air parcels originated from northern India where considerable OCP usage was reported recently, while high levels of γ-HCH and TC (trans-chlordane) were mainly associated with air masses from southern China and northern MSA. The study highlighted the high background level of OCPs as well as their temporal patterns of trans-boundary LRAT in the MSA region.

  3. Environmental protection in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabala, S.

    1990-01-01

    There is a need for the development of institutional structures to make the transfer of technology work to improve the ability of Eastern Europe to find solutions to its environmental problems. Envisioned is technical assistance: U.S. experts who will work on-site with Eastern European experts. The idea is to technically train individuals in pollution-prevention methods. Trained experts could then upgrade processes to save input, energy, and materials. In the exchange of environmental information, discussions have led to four issues: it is expensive to transfer equipment and make qualified personnel available for a long period; information is comparatively inexpensive to convey; in Eastern Europe there are trained and competent personnel; the theoretical knowledge, academic knowledge, and education are at a very high level but little of this knowledge has been put into practice. The technology transfer goal is to develop a response to needs identified by partner institutions and counterpart professionals that will enable Eastern Europe to tap resources that do exist- scientific, managerial, and economic resources and tap information resources in the US in order to address the environmental problems that exist in Eastern Europe

  4. Various Bee Pheromones Binding Affinity, Exclusive Chemosensillar Localization, and Key Amino Acid Sites Reveal the Distinctive Characteristics of Odorant-Binding Protein 11 in the Eastern Honey Bee, Apis cerana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xin-Mi; Zhang, Lin-Ya; Fu, Xiao-Bin; Wu, Fan; Tan, Jing; Li, Hong-Liang

    2018-01-01

    Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are the critical elements responsible for binding and transporting odors and pheromones in the sensitive olfactory system in insects. Honey bees are representative social insects that have complex odorants and pheromone communication systems relative to solitary insects. Here, we first cloned and characterized OBP11 ( AcerOBP11 ), from the worker bees antennae of Eastern honey bee, Apis cerana . Based on sequence and phylogenetic analysis, most sequences homologous to AcerOBP11 belong to the typical OBPs family. The transcriptional expression profiles showed that AcerOBP11 was expressed throughout the developmental stages and highly specifically expressed in adult antennae. Using immunofluorescence localization, AcerOBP11 in worker bee's antennae was only localized in the sensilla basiconica (SB) near the fringe of each segment. Fluorescence ligand-binding assay showed that AcerOBP11 protein had strong binding affinity with the tested various bee pheromones components, including the main queen mandibular pheromones (QMPs), methyl p-hydroxybenzoate (HOB), and ( E )-9-oxo-2-decanoic acid (9-ODA), alarm pheromone (n-hexanol), and worker pheromone components. AcerOBP11 also had strong binding affinity to plant volatiles, such as 4-Allylveratrole. Based on the docking and site-directed mutagenesis, two key amino acid residues (Ile97 and Ile140) were involved in the binding of AcerOBP11 to various bee pheromones. Taken together, we identified that AcerOBP11 was localized in a single type of antennal chemosensilla and had complex ligand-binding properties, which confer the dual-role with the primary characteristics of sensing various bee pheromones and secondary characteristics of sensing general odorants. This study not only prompts the theoretical basis of OBPs-mediated bee pheromones recognition of honey bee, but also extends the understanding of differences in pheromone communication between social and solitary insects.

  5. Various Bee Pheromones Binding Affinity, Exclusive Chemosensillar Localization, and Key Amino Acid Sites Reveal the Distinctive Characteristics of Odorant-Binding Protein 11 in the Eastern Honey Bee, Apis cerana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Mi Song

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs are the critical elements responsible for binding and transporting odors and pheromones in the sensitive olfactory system in insects. Honey bees are representative social insects that have complex odorants and pheromone communication systems relative to solitary insects. Here, we first cloned and characterized OBP11 (AcerOBP11, from the worker bees antennae of Eastern honey bee, Apis cerana. Based on sequence and phylogenetic analysis, most sequences homologous to AcerOBP11 belong to the typical OBPs family. The transcriptional expression profiles showed that AcerOBP11 was expressed throughout the developmental stages and highly specifically expressed in adult antennae. Using immunofluorescence localization, AcerOBP11 in worker bee's antennae was only localized in the sensilla basiconica (SB near the fringe of each segment. Fluorescence ligand-binding assay showed that AcerOBP11 protein had strong binding affinity with the tested various bee pheromones components, including the main queen mandibular pheromones (QMPs, methyl p-hydroxybenzoate (HOB, and (E-9-oxo-2-decanoic acid (9-ODA, alarm pheromone (n-hexanol, and worker pheromone components. AcerOBP11 also had strong binding affinity to plant volatiles, such as 4-Allylveratrole. Based on the docking and site-directed mutagenesis, two key amino acid residues (Ile97 and Ile140 were involved in the binding of AcerOBP11 to various bee pheromones. Taken together, we identified that AcerOBP11 was localized in a single type of antennal chemosensilla and had complex ligand-binding properties, which confer the dual-role with the primary characteristics of sensing various bee pheromones and secondary characteristics of sensing general odorants. This study not only prompts the theoretical basis of OBPs-mediated bee pheromones recognition of honey bee, but also extends the understanding of differences in pheromone communication between social and solitary insects.

  6. Paleoclimate of Quaternary Costa Rica: Analysis of Sediment from ODP Site 1242 in the Eastern Tropical Pacific to Explore the Behavior of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and Oceanic Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczek, C. R.; Joseph, L. H.

    2017-12-01

    Studies of grain size, magnetic fabric, and terrigenous mass accumulation rates (MAR) on oceanic sediment can provide insights into climatic conditions present at or near the time of deposition by helping to delineate changes in rainfall and oceanic circulation intensities. The fairly homogenous hemipelagic nannofossil clays and clayey nannofossil oozes collected in the upper portion of Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1242 provide a 1.4 million year sediment record from the Cocos Ridge, in relatively shallow waters of the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean, off the coast of present day Central and South America. Information about shifts in rainfall and oceanic circulation provided by this study may be helpful in understanding changes in the location and behavior of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), and/or other climatic factors, in this area during the Pleistocene and Holocene Epochs. Approximately 130 paired side-by-side samples were selected at approximately evenly spaced intervals throughout the uppermost 190 mcd of the core. To obtain terrigenous grain size and MARs, one set of sediment samples was subject to a five-step chemical extraction process to dissolve any oxy-hydroxy coatings, remove the biogenic carbonate and silicate components, and sieve out grains larger than 63 µm. The pre- and post-extraction weights were compared to calculate a terrigenous weight percent (%) from which the terrigenous MAR values were then calculated, with the use of linear sediment rates and dry bulk density measurements determined from shipboard ODP 1242 analyses. Magnetic fabric, or anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), was analyzed on a KLY4S-Kappabridge using the second set of samples taken in pmag cubes. Terrigenous MAR values range between 3.1 and 10.9 g/cm2/kyr, while P' (AMS) values range between 1.004 and 1.04 SI. A distinctive trend is noted in both factors, with both exhibiting relatively high initial values that then decrease from the beginning of the

  7. Migration patterns of the Osprey Pandion haliaetus on the Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We analysed migration strategies of the Osprey Pandion haliaetus on the poorly studied Eastern European– East African flyway. Four adult birds were equipped with GPS-based satellite-transmitters or data-loggers in their breeding sites in Estonia (north-eastern Europe) and tracked to their wintering grounds in Africa and ...

  8. Eastern Redcedar Seedling Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Eastern redcedar tree seedling growth in response to various soil, nitrogen, and photosynthetic radiation characteristics. This dataset is associated with the...

  9. Gluing of Eastern Hardwoods: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry Sellers; James R. McSween; William T. Nearn

    1988-01-01

    Over a period of years, inrreasing demand for softwoods in the Eastern United States has led to an increase in the growth of hardwoods on cut-over softwood sites. Unfortunately these hardwood trees are often of a size and shape unsuitable for the production of high-grade lumber and veneer. They do, however, represent a viable, economic soures of raw material for...

  10. Gas in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    West European gas companies have long recognised the potential for lucrative business within eastern Europe. But they recognise that the region's integration into the west European system will be far from straightforward, with deals between east European gas companies and their western counterparts invariably containing financial mechanisms, such as barter trade, that are designed to cope with the easterners' shortage of hard currency. (author)

  11. Middle Eastern rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizzadeh, Babak; Mashkevich, Grigoriy

    2010-02-01

    The ethnic appearance of the Middle Eastern nose is defined by several unique visual features, particularly a high radix, wide overprojecting dorsum, and an amorphous hanging nasal tip. These external characteristics reflect distinct structural properties of the osseo-cartilaginous nasal framework and skin-soft tissue envelope in patients of Middle Eastern extraction. The goal, and the ultimate challenge, of rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients is to achieve balanced aesthetic refinement, while avoiding surgical westernization. Detailed understanding of the ethnic visual harmony in a Middle Eastern nose greatly assists in preserving native nasal-facial relationships during rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients. Esthetic alteration of a Middle Eastern nose follows a different set of goals and principles compared with rhinoplasties on white or other ethnic patients. This article highlights the inherent nasal features of the Middle Eastern nose and reviews pertinent concepts of rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients. Essential considerations in the process spanning the consultation and surgery are reviewed. Reliable operative techniques that achieve a successful aesthetic outcome are discussed in detail. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 75 FR 22618 - Eastern Neck National Wildlife Refuge, Kent County, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R5-R-2009-N202; BAC-4311-K9-S3] Eastern... the environmental assessment (EA) for Eastern Neck National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). In this final CCP.... Agency Web Site: Download a copy of the document(s) at http://www.fws.gov/northeast/planning/Eastern...

  13. Faulting in eastern New Mexico: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, P.J.

    1987-08-01

    This area in eastern New Mexico is being studied because of its proximity to a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Regional and local tectonics must be thoroughly understood in order to be able to predict future tectonic activities in the site region. Hydrogeologic studies indicate that ground-water recharge, for regional deep and shallow aquifer systems, occurs primarily within the study area. Regional, easterly ground-water flow may be significantly affected by the spacing, orientation, and character of faults identified in this report. The tectonic history of eastern New Mexico is developed from information from 660 exploratory wells. A history of recurrent tectonic movements is evident, beginning possibly in the late Precambrian and extending into the late Cenozoic. The nature of the evidence includes the lateral and vertical distribution and the lithology of these deposits. The results are presented mainly as isopach and structure contour maps and as structural cross sections. The Paleozoic tectonic history of eastern New Mexico is similar and related to the history of the Texas Panhandle. Differences occur primarily in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic histories; tectonic uplift persisted for longer periods and faults show evidence of repeated movements in eastern New Mexico. This is probably a result of the proximity of the area to the Laramide and Basin and Range deformational events. 442 refs., 35 figs

  14. The Luangwa Valley, Zambia: flyway and stopover site for White ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analyses of satellite telemetry data of White Storks Ciconia ciconia from the eastern populations at their stopover sites and staging areas document the importance of the Luangwa Valley, eastern Zambia, as a migration corridor bridging eastern and southern Africa. Twice each year from November to April, up to 100 000 ...

  15. The Eastern Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian L.; Vilson, Maili

    2014-01-01

    When the EU launched the Eastern Partnership (EaP) in 2009, it did so with much rhetoric about projecting its soft power into Eastern Europe. Yet today, the EU's soft power project seems to have stalled, with developments in the region being less than favourable. This article argues that the EaP...... essentially replicated the main weaknesses of the European Neighbourhood Policy, by offering too little incentive and support to the partners, rendering both conditionality and soft power ineffective as tools for milieu shaping. In promoting the EaP as a policy of soft power, the EU has once again forgotten...

  16. Eastern Frequency Response Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D' Aquila, R.

    2013-05-01

    This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.

  17. Vacant Nests and Other Factors Influencing Nest Site Selection of Birds of Prey Based on Case Studies in Forest Habitats in the Forest-Steppe and Steppe Zones of Eastern Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav G. Viter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our study was conducted in 2003–2012 in Eastern Ukraine, in the basin of the Seversky Donets river. The total surveyed area was ca. 900 km2 of nesting habitats suitable for raptors. A total of 69 vacant nests were found, i.e. 33.2 % of the total number of nests (208. Nests occupied by recipient species, i.e. the so-called ‘effective nest pool’, were 23–24, i.e. 33.3–34.7 % of the pool of available nests. Up to 25 % of all pairs of raptors depend on the availability of vacant nests of heterospecifics. Ravens (Corvus corax are the most significant donors of nests: 42.5 % of the pool of available nests is built by this species, and more than 60 % of them are occupied by recipient species. Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo comes second with 26.09 and 58.3 %, respectively. The most common recipients of nests are Hobbies (Falco subbuteo, Common Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus and Booted Eagles (Hieraaetus pennatus. The most significant factors that govern occupation of vacant nests by recipient species are: availability of nests in the marginal zone of forest plots, i.e. within 500 m from the forest edge, large distance from human settlements (>1500 m, presence of nests located on trees in the canopy storey, and mature and submature age of forest stands. For seven species considered in our research (n=227, the most important factors were position of nests, in the forest canopy layer, no logging activity within300 m of the nest, no regular human disturbance, and presence of “windows” in the canopy made by fallen trees.

  18. Eastern Europe's market role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, K.F.

    1991-01-01

    Until the late 1980s, trade in nuclear fuel between market economy countries and those with planned economies was limited. The exception to this was in the enrichment market across Western Europe during the 1970s. Most of the nuclear generating plants in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe are light water reactors needing enriched uranium. Under the fuel supply agreements with Eastern Europe, the Soviet Union has provided all of the regions' enrichment services, and therefore it has developed the only enrichment facilities. Techsnabexport (TENEX), the USSR foreign trade organization for the nuclear fuel cycle, first appeared in the early 1970s. It was as an alternative supplier to the US government, which had a monopoly in the West regarding enrichment. In 1986 the USSR entered and soon dominated the spot market for enrichment. Political changes in Eastern Europe at the end of 1989 and throughout 1990 opened the nuclear fuel market even wider. In 1990 the USSR began allowing exports of concentrates, as well as enriched product, and a free flow of trade to the Western market is now developing for both enrichment and uranium. (author)

  19. Paleotsunamis in Eastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Jiun-Yee; Yu, Neng-Ti; Hirakawa, Kazuomi; Chyi, Shyh-Jeng; Huang, Shao-Yi

    2017-04-01

    Although Taiwan is located in the active collision zone between Eurasian and the Philippine Sea plate with very high seismicity in and surrounding the island, and supposedly highly susceptible to tsunami hazard. However, there is no record of tsunami hazard in the past one hundred years, and only very few historical records show some possible extreme event occurred. Therefore study of tsunami was scarce in Taiwan. Although historical records do show possible tsunami events, the records were too sparse and incomplete to confidently reconstruct the paleotsunami events. In the past few years, numerical simulations based on possible tsunami-genic zones near Taiwan show that the island could be affected by the correctly directed tsunami. Nevertheless, there is no detail, scientific research of paleotsunami records yet in Taiwan. Our field survey in eastern Taiwan (facing the western Pacific Ocean) along the coast uncovered several outcrops contain gravels embedded in well-developed soil layers. The rounded meta-sandstone gravels are clearly beach-origin and were brought to their current location upon extreme wave events, which is composed of either volcanic-clastic deposits from nearby hills or organic soil layers formed locally. Our investigation indicates that there are at least 3 events in the northern half of eastern Taiwan and at least 2 events in southern part of eastern Taiwan. Although these outcrops are next to the shoreline and Taiwan is susceptible from typhoons, these gravels could be farther away from the beach at the time of their deposition due to current high retreat rate of the sea cliff. Further investigations are needed to delineate possible sources of tsunamis that caused the deposits.

  20. Transposing an active fault database into a fault-based seismic hazard assessment for nuclear facilities - Part 2: Impact of fault parameter uncertainties on a site-specific PSHA exercise in the Upper Rhine Graben, eastern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Thomas; Scotti, Oona; Clément, Christophe; Jomard, Hervé; Baize, Stéphane

    2017-09-01

    We perform a fault-based probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) exercise in the Upper Rhine Graben to quantify the relative influence of fault parameters on the hazard at the Fessenheim nuclear power plant site. Specifically, we show that the potentially active faults described in the companion paper (Jomard et al., 2017, hereafter Part 1) are the dominant factor in hazard estimates at the low annual probability of exceedance relevant for the safety assessment of nuclear installations. Geological information documenting the activity of the faults in this region, however, remains sparse, controversial and affected by a high degree of uncertainty. A logic tree approach is thus implemented to explore the epistemic uncertainty and quantify its impact on the seismic hazard estimates. Disaggregation of the peak ground acceleration (PGA) hazard at a 10 000-year return period shows that the Rhine River fault is the main seismic source controlling the hazard level at the site. Sensitivity tests show that the uncertainty on the slip rate of the Rhine River fault is the dominant factor controlling the variability of the seismic hazard level, greater than the epistemic uncertainty due to ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs). Uncertainty on slip rate estimates from 0.04 to 0.1 mm yr-1 results in a 40 to 50 % increase in hazard levels at the 10 000-year target return period. Reducing epistemic uncertainty in future fault-based PSHA studies at this site will thus require (1) performing in-depth field studies to better characterize the seismic potential of the Rhine River fault; (2) complementing GMPEs with more physics-based modelling approaches to better account for the near-field effects of ground motion and (3) improving the modelling of the background seismicity. Indeed, in this exercise, we assume that background earthquakes can only host M 6. 0 earthquakes have been recently identified at depth within the Upper Rhine Graben (see Part 1) but are not accounted

  1. Energy in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouma, J.W.J.

    1993-01-01

    The present energy market in Central and Eastern Europe differs strongly from the energy situation in open market economies. Compared to the European Communities, the energy market in Central and eastern Europe is characterized by its high energy intensity, high quantity of imported oil and gas from a one country (the ex-Soviet Union), the dominant role of solid fossil fuels in some countries, and environmental pollution. Expected future developments are the reduction of the energy intensity and the total energy consumption, the reduction of the industrial energy consumption, the reduction of the solid fossil fuels as well as the geographic distribution of energy import. The restructuring of the energy industry has been started by introducing a market orientated policy including privatisation and the promotion of the free play of price-making forces, accompanied by relatively small-scale investments. Recent data indicate a decrease of energy consumption due to the economic decline and the shut-down of companies in the heavy industries. (A.S.) 4 figs. 5 tabs

  2. Pipelines to eastern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsason, J.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation focused on four main topics: (1) the existing path of pipelines to eastern Canada, (2) the Chicago hub, (3) transport alternatives, and (4) the Vector Pipeline' expansion plans. In the eastern Canadian market, TransCanada Pipelines dominates 96 per cent of the market share and is effectively immune to expansion costs. Issues regarding the attractiveness of the Chicago hub were addressed. One attractive feature is that the Chicago hub has access to multiple supply basins including western Canada, the Gulf Coast, the mid-continent, and the Rockies. Regarding Vector Pipelines' future plans, the company proposes to construct 343 miles of pipeline from Joliet, Illinois to Dawn, Ontario. Project description included discussion of some of the perceived advantages of this route, namely, extensive storage in Michigan and south-western Ontario, the fact that the proposed pipeline traverses major markets which would mitigate excess capacity concerns, arbitrage opportunities, cost effective expansion capability reducing tolls, and likely lower landed costs in Ontario. Project schedule, costs, rates and tariffs are also discussed. tabs., figs

  3. Physical profile data from moored CTDs collected in central and eastern Long Island in support of a ferry-based observing system for Long Island Sound: application to physical influences on hypoxia project from 18 April 2002 to 6 September 2003 (NCEI Accession 0117356)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Moored CTD profilers were deployed at two sites, Central and Eastern Long Island Sound. There were a total of 5 deployments. Three were at the Eastern site, in Fall...

  4. Litterfall mercury dry deposition in the eastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin R. Risch; John F. DeWild; David P. Krabbenhoft; Randall K. Kolka; Leiming. Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) in autumn litterfall frompredominately deciduous forestswas measured in 3 years of samples from 23 Mercury Deposition Network sites in 15 states across the eastern USA. Annual litterfall Hg dry depositionwas significantly higher (median 12.3 micrograms per square meter (µg/m2), range 3.5-23.4 µg/m2...

  5. Trends in Streamflow Characteristics of Selected Sites in the Elkhorn River, Salt Creek, and Lower Platte River Basins, Eastern Nebraska, 1928-2004, and Evaluation of Streamflows in Relation to Instream-Flow Criteria, 1953-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Godberson, Julie A.; Steele, Gregory V.

    2009-01-01

    (06800000), Elkhorn River at Waterloo (06800500), Salt Creek at Greenwood (06803555), and Platte River at Louisville (06805500). In general, sites in the Elkhorn River Basin upstream from Norfolk showed fewer significant trends than did sites downstream from Norfolk and sites in the Platte River and Salt Creek basins, where trends in low flows also were positive. Historical Platte River streamflow records for the streamflow-gaging station at Louisville, Nebraska, were used to determine the number of days per water year (Sept. 30 to Oct. 1) when flows failed to satisfy the minimum criteria of the instream-flow appropriation prior to its filing in 1993. Before 1993, the median number of days the criteria were not satisfied was about 120 days per water year. During 1993 through 2004, daily mean flows at Louisville, Nebraska, have failed to satisfy the criteria for 638 days total (median value equals 21.5 days per year). Most of these low-flow intervals occurred in summer through early fall. For water years 1953 through 2004, of the discrete intervals when flow was less that the criteria levels, 61 percent were 3 days or greater in duration, and 38 percent were 7 days or greater in duration. The median duration of intervals of flow less than the criteria levels was 4 consecutive days during 1953 through 2004.

  6. Eastern Sources of Invitational Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryback, David

    1993-01-01

    Presents historical perspective suggesting that invitational theory shares many beliefs with ancient Eastern philosophies. Submits that teachers and other educators who embrace the invitational perspective may benefit from an understanding of Eastern principles. Briefly describes Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Zen Buddhism, and their relevance to…

  7. Rhinoplasty in Middle Eastern Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjadian, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Rhinoplasty in patients of Middle Eastern origin requires complete understanding of nasal morphology and an individualized approach to create a racially congruent and aesthetically pleasing outcome. In this article, common anatomic features and characteristics and detailed steps, surgical techniques, and operative maneuvers that can lead to predictable outcome in rhinoplasty of Middle Eastern patients are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borucki, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-05

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne virus capable of causing large outbreaks of encephalitis in humans and horses. In North America, EEEV infection has a very high mortality rate in humans, and survivors often suffer severe neurological sequelae. Interestingly, EEEV infections from South American isolates are generally subclinical. Although EEEV is divided into two antigenic varieties and four lineages, only eleven isolates have been sequenced and eight of these are from the North American variety (Lineage I). Most sequenced strains were collected from mosquitoes and only one human isolate has been sequenced. EEEV isolates exist from a variety of hosts, vectors, years, and geographical locations and efforts should focus on sequencing strains that represent this diversity.

  9. Middle Eastern power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Middle Eastern Power systems have evolved independently of each other over many decades. The region covers a wide geographical area of over 4 million square kilometers with an estimated population in 1990 of over 120 million people. This paper discusses the present status and future power system developments in the Middle East with emphasis on the Mashrequ Arab Countries (MAC). MAC consists of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Yemen, and the six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, namely, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Interconnections within MAC and possible extensions to Turkey, Europe, and Central Africa are discussed. A common characteristic of the MAC power systems is that they are all operated by government or semi-government bodies. The energy resources in the region are varied. Countries such as Iraq, Egypt, and Syria have significant hydro power resources. On the other hand, the GCC countries and Iraq have abundant fossil fuel reserves

  10. Soil structure interactions of eastern U.S. type earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Chen; Serhan, S.

    1991-01-01

    Two types of earthquakes have occurred in the eastern US in the past. One of them was the infrequent major events such as the 1811-1812 New Madrid Earthquakes, or the 1886 Charleston Earthquake. The other type was the frequent shallow earthquakes with high frequency, short duration and high accelerations. Two eastern US nuclear power plants, V.C Summer and Perry, went through extensive licensing effort to obtain fuel load licenses after this type of earthquake was recorded on sites and exceeded the design bases beyond 10 hertz region. This paper discusses the soil-structure interactions of the latter type of earthquakes

  11. Survey report: Eastern Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinger, N

    1991-01-01

    Over 1 million people live on 8 small islands in the Eastern Caribbean: St. Kitts-Nevis, Montserrat, Grenada, St. Vincent, Antigua, Barbados, St. Lucia, and Dominica. Starting in 1985 the International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region has carried out a series of contraceptive prevalence surveys in these countries. Current information is provided by these surveys in the areas of fertility levels and preferences, contraceptive knowledge and use. Also, socioeconomic, historical and demographic background and analysis such as fertility patterns, desire for additional children, and breastfeeding data; contraceptive awareness including family planning methods and sources; contraceptive use by method, source, and timing, satisfaction, and male attitudes are provided in the surveys, but not in the report abstracted here. The total fertility rate (TFR) and the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) for the 8 islands are as follows: St. Kitts-Nevis (1984) 2.9 TFR, 40.6 CPR; St. Vincent (1988) 2.9 TFR, 58.3 CPR; Antigua (1988) 1.8 TFR, 52.6 CPR; Barbados (1988) not given, 55.0 CPR; St. Lucia (1988) 3.2 TFR, 47.3 CPR; Dominica (1987) 3.2 TFR, 49.8 CPR. The islands have unusual demographic patterns related to extensive out-migration.

  12. Streambed adjustment and channel widening in eastern Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, David L.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Simon, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    In eastern Nebraska, stream straightening and dredging efforts since the 1890s have disturbed the natural equilibrium of stream channels and have led to streambed adjustment by degradation and subsequent channel widening. This report describes a study to evaluate the effect these disturbances have had on stream channels in eastern Nebraska. Two sets of survey data were collected approximately 2 years apart during 1996-99 at 151 primary sites. Additionally, historical streambed-elevation data (dating back to the 1890s) were compiled from several sources for the primary sites and 45 supplemental sites, and relevant disturbances were identified for each of eight basin groupings. Streambed-elevation data sets were used to estimate the amount of change to the streambed at the sites over the time period of the data. Recent channel widening was documented for 73 of the primary sites by comparing the two survey sets. The majority of observed streambed-gradation responses appear to be related to the various straightening efforts and to the effects of grade-control structures in the study area. Channel responses were complicated by the presence of multiple disturbances. However, in many cases, the streambed-elevation data sets provide a reliable representation of the past streambed gradation, with some sites showing 6 to 7 meters of degradation since they were straightened. Many sites that had been straightened showed considerable degradation following the disturbance. This indicates that eastern Nebraska stream channels can regain equilibrium mainly through the slope adjustment process of head-ward-progressing degradation. Bank failures were documented at sites in all eight of the basin groupings analyzed, and widening rates were computed at 64 of 73 sites. Observed bank widening in the Big Blue River Basin, a relatively unstraightened basin, indicates that other disturbances besides stream-channel straightening may be causing channel responses in the basin and possibly in

  13. Middle Eastern Christians in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Sara Cathrine Lei; Hunter, Alistair; Jørgensen, Anne Rosenlund

    This booklet, published in English, Danish, Swedish and Arabic, has the aim to present overall findings of the research project Defining and Identifying Middle Eastern Christians in Europe (DIMECCE) to a broader audience.......This booklet, published in English, Danish, Swedish and Arabic, has the aim to present overall findings of the research project Defining and Identifying Middle Eastern Christians in Europe (DIMECCE) to a broader audience....

  14. Area Studies and Eastern Europe: How Eastern Europe Collapsed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Kasapović

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first part, the author outlines the development of area studies in contemporary comparative politics, and points to their importance for the development of political science. In the second part, she examines the methodology – research design and methods – of regional comparatistics, paying particular attention to the problem of defining the region as a central category in this field of comparative politics. The third and central part is focused on the emergence of Eastern Europe as a historical-political and socio-cultural region in the course of history, especially after World War II, and on its dissolution in the processes of democratic transformation of communist regimes in the last two decades. The dissolution of Eastern Europe has resulted in restoration of a tripartite political geography in the area which it used to take up, made up of Central Europe, Southeast Europe and the proper Eastern Europe.

  15. Climate Risk in Southern and Eastern Africa's Hydropower Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, C.; Conway, D.; Landman, W.; Osborn, T.

    2016-12-01

    Hydropower comprises a major proportion of electricity production in southern and eastern Africa and is undergoing rapid expansion. Hydropower production in both regions is exposed to high levels of climate variability and regional linkages are strong, yet an understanding of aggregate climate risk is lacking. Here we map regions of coherent precipitation variability with current and planned (2030) hydropower sites, river basin configuration and regional energy grids to assess aggregate exposure to hydropower supply disruption. If fully implemented hydropower will be increasingly concentrated in the Nile basin in eastern Africa and the Zambezi basin in southern Africa. Regions of similar rainfall variability show close alignment with the main sites of hydropower. Future concentration of hydropower will greatly increase the concurrent risk of climate related electricity supply disruption. Nascent electricity sharing mechanisms could mitigate risk but face considerable political and infrastructural challenges.

  16. Archaeological Sites Inventory in the Black Hills of the Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site, Las Animas County, Colorado

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Owens, Mark

    2000-01-01

    .... These tree-covered areas located adjacent to open plains, appear black on the horizon. This setting of open steppes and juxtaposed hills is found along the eastern portion of the Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site (PCMS), a U.S...

  17. Nuclear power in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, S. (Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK). Science Policy Research Unit)

    1991-01-01

    The main aim of this article is that of illustrating the experience of the use of nuclear power in Eastern Europe in order to estimate the degree of adequacy or inadequacy of COMECON's nuclear technology. The author examines four areas of interest concerning: the feasibility of new orders for nuclear plants in Eastern Europe; the pros and cons of completing half-built nuclear power plants; current policy towards existing nuclear power plants; and a review of the available evidence on the operating performance of plants in Eastern Europe. The common belief that the nuclear power experience had by old COMECON countries is uniformly bad does not seem to be fully supported by the limited evidence available. In the author's opinion, the prospects for a successful nuclear power industry in these countries depends on a series on interdependent factors among which, human skills hold a prominent position.

  18. Strategy Formation in Eastern Jutland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian

    2008-01-01

      In Eastern Jutland a strategy formation process has been initiated with the aim of developing a strategic spatial plan for the city region.  An organisation has been set up to deal with the first phase of the process, which is to carry out three functional analyses and prepare a common vision...... in the area.   The municipalities acknowledge the articulation of the city region and the initiated planning process.  However, the municipalities might see the arena as means to lobby for infrastructure investments in Eastern Jutland, as it is doubtful whether the municipalities will feel encouraged to enter...... a process, which is aiming at increasing the national regulation within their territory.    The result might very well be that the discussion about future infrastructure investments is not linked to discussions about future urban development in Eastern Jutland.  These aspects raises serious questions about...

  19. Eastern Orthodox perspectives on violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilton Saggau, Emil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: In the post-communist era, the contemporary national Eastern Orthodox churches have often been accused of taking either direct or ideological part in violence across Eastern Europe. In several scholarly analyses, the churches have been linked with ethnic and national violence. They have...... thus been identified as an ideological root for a distinctive ethno-religious nationalism either blocking the way for a pluralistic society or simply defying it. These cases of violence and conflicts, as well as their subsequent analysis, only point to a practical and visible manifestation of conflicts......, and they therefore don’t answer a broader theological question, namely the question of the general position of the Eastern Orthodox churches regarding violence. This article will address this broader question of what the Orthodox churches’ position is on violence and discuss the co-relation and intersection between...

  20. Coarse woody debris in undisturbed and logged forests in the eastern Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Keller; Michael Palace; Gregory P. Asner; Rodrigo Jr. Pereira; Jose Natalino M. Silva

    2004-01-01

    Coarse woody debris (CWD) is an important component of the carbon cycle in tropical forests. We measured the volume and density of fallen CWD at two sites, Cauaxi and Tapajós in the Eastern Amazon. At both sites we studied undisturbed forests (UFs) and logged forests 1 year after harvest. Conventional logging (CL) and reduced impact logging (RIL) were...

  1. Regional Development of Eastern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Hergezelová

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The aim of the work is to provide an overview of regional development in Eastern Slovakia, where are Košice and Prešov Region. The originality of the work lies in the work of enriching the SWOT analysis from the author Eve Rajčáková, which is given in the book deals with the issue of Regional development and regional policy of the European Union and Slovakia. Research question: The conditions of life of people in eastern Slovakia. Method: For writing this contribution will be used method of analysis and statistics. Knowledge on this subject have been looking on the internet and in books and sources of information publicly available. Using the data collected, we dealt with the issue of regional development in the Košice and Prešov regions. Results: The topic was the beginning focused on the overall characteristics of eastern Slovakia. Furthermore, we are at work we dealt with social and economic phenomena in both regions of eastern Slovakia. We focused on GDP, unemployment and tourism, which is in the region is widespread. Society: It is well known that there are obviously different living conditions in eastern Slovakia as in other parts of Slovakia. People are forced to, mainly because of employment, leave their region to move or commute to work to the west. The paper point out the right of this negative phenomenon that is quite visible - high unemployment. Limitations: The limits of work are limited by problems of regional development in eastern Slovakia, mainly focusing on economic and social phenomena in the society.

  2. A study of melanoma in Eastern European migrants in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrua, Chiara; Fava, Paolo; Brizio, Matteo; Savoia, Paola

    2017-04-01

    Cancer survival rates are lower in Eastern Europe. To describe, based on a single-centre database in northern Italy, clinical, histopathological, and prognostic features of melanoma in a migrant population from Eastern Europe. We retrospectively analysed data from 18,190 consecutive foreign patients who visited our institution, with 49 cases of melanoma from Eastern Europe. The control group was represented by 1,003 Italian melanoma patients diagnosed and followed at our centre during the same time period. Patients from Eastern Europe were mainly females with lower median age, without significant differences regarding primary melanoma site, relative to the control group. Diagnosis was made at the place of birth in 30.6% and in our centre for the remainder. Median Breslow thickness was greater (p = 0.0178), and aggressive histotypes (p = 0.0017) and ulcerated melanomas (p = 0.002) were significantly over-represented, particularly when diagnosed in the patients' native country. Disease was more advanced at diagnosis (p = 0.0001), regardless of the place of initial diagnosis (51% had a progressive disease within one year which rose to 80% if diagnosed before admission to our centre), and the percentage of patients who died within one year was significantly higher (p = 0.022), relative to the control group. Our study shows a poor prognosis for melanoma patients diagnosed in Eastern Europe. Moreover, for migrant populations moving from Eastern to Western European countries, financial difficulties, poor social integration, and language barriers, with consequent late access to healthcare facilities, may account for a worse prognosis.

  3. Exploring Geographic Variability in Cancer Prevalence in Eastern Morocco: A Retrospective Study over Eight Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elidrissi Errahhali, Manal; Elidrissi Errahhali, Mounia; Abda, Naima; Bellaoui, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Malignant diseases have been believed to be more common in some areas of Eastern Morocco, but until now, cancer patterns have not been reported for this region. In this paper we present for the first time the cancer prevalence analysis in Eastern Morocco. Cross-sectional study carried out among all patients diagnosed and/or treated with cancer at the Hassan II Regional Oncology Center (ROC) since it was established in October 2005 until December 2012. The ROC is the only hospital specialized in cancer care in Eastern Morocco. A total of 8,508 cases of cancer were registered among residents in Eastern Morocco, with a female to male ratio of 2.1. The mean age at diagnosis was 53.9 ± 15.2 years (median age = 53 years). Thus, unlike in Western countries, cancer in Eastern Morocco afflicts younger population. The areas of Eastern Morocco did not differ significantly by mean age at diagnosis (p = 0.061). However, these regions differed significantly by sex ratio (p Morocco was observed, both in males and females (p Morocco differed significantly by cancer prevalence (p Morocco. Our study illustrates substantial differences in cancer patterns between areas of Eastern Morocco. These findings are important for cancer control and highlight the need to develop program aiming at controlling and preventing the spread of major cancer sites in Eastern Morocco, particularly in areas with increased cancer prevalence rates.

  4. 4. International Symposium and Exhibition on Environmental Contamination in Central and Eastern Europe. Symposium Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Fourth International Symposium and Exhibition on Environmental Contamination in Central and Eastern Europe was part of an on-going series of symposia which focus on the environmental problems of Central and Eastern Europe. The presentations concerned radiological contamination, hazardous waste management, environmental monitoring, modeling and computer applications for environmental studies, site remediation. Many works presented human health effects of environmental pollution by heavy metals, radionuclides and other xenobiotics

  5. Eastern European retailers and wholesalers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Stacey, Julia

    1999-01-01

    During the last ten years, retailing in Eastern Europe has undergone considerable changes. The entry of Western European retail chains into Eastern Europe has helped accelerate the distributive trade of Eastern Europe. But what does it take to sell fish and cheese to retailers and wholesalers...... in Eastern Europe compared to Western Europe? Eastern European buyers attach great importance to other aspects when they list new suppliers and products than does Western European retailing. These are the results of a MAPP study of Eastern European retail and wholesale buying behaviour for fish and cheese....... Low prices and favourable terms of payment are most important when retailers in Eastern Europe buy fish and cheese. Then follows the supplier's range of products, trustworthiness of the supplier and product quality. Eastern European wholesalers also rank price and financial conditions as most...

  6. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact. Journal Home > About the Journal > Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. Currency substitution in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aarle, B.; Budina, N.

    1995-01-01

    Monetary instability during the transition process from a command economy to a market economy has induced a considerable increase in currency substitution in Eastern Europe. Currency substitution itself affects monetary stability since it reduces the stability of velocity. This paper investigates

  8. Anthracnose Diseases of Eastern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick H. Berry

    1985-01-01

    Anthracnose diseases of hardwood trees are widespread throughout the Eastern United States. The most common symptom of these diseases is dead areas or blotches on the leaves. Because of the brown and black, scorched appearance of the leaves, the diseases are sometimes called leaf blight.

  9. Citizenship norms in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffé, H.R.; Lippe, T. van der

    2010-01-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens’ definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech

  10. Uranium mining in Eastern Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, H.D.

    1990-01-01

    A problem which simply does not exist in Western Germany is the uranium mining in the South of Eastern Germany (SDAG Wismuth). The cleaning up and control measure which are urgently needed will be a task for more than one generation. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Modelling travel and residence times in the eastern Irish Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabrowski, T.; Hartnett, M.

    2008-01-01

    The Irish Sea, which lies between 51 deg. N-56 deg. N and 2 deg. 50'W-7 deg. W, provides a sheltered environment to exploit valuable fisheries resource. Anthropogenic activity is a real threat to its water quality. The majority of freshwater input down rivers flows into the eastern Irish Sea. The structure of the water circulation was not well understood during the planning of Sellafield nuclear plant outfall site in the eastern Irish Sea. A three-dimensional primitive equation numerical model was applied to the Irish Sea to simulate both barotropic and baroclinic circulation within the region. High accuracy was achieved with regard to the prediction of both tidal circulation and surface and nearbed water temperatures across the region. The model properly represented the Western Irish Sea Gyre, induced by thermal stratification and not known during planning Sellafield. Passive tracer simulations based on the developed hydrodynamic model were used to deliver residence times of the eastern Irish Sea region for various times of the year as well as travel times from the Sellafield outfall site to various locations within the Irish Sea. The results indicate a strong seasonal variability of travel times from Sellafield to the examined locations. Travel time to the Clyde Sea is the shortest for the autumnal tracer release (90 days); it takes almost a year for the tracer to arrive at the same location if it is released in January. Travel times from Sellafield to Dublin Bay fall within the range of 180-360 days. The average residence time of the entire eastern Irish Sea is around 7 months. The areas surrounding the Isle of Man are initially flushed due to a predominant northward flow; a backwater is formed in Liverpool Bay. Thus, elevated tracer concentrations are predicted in Liverpool Bay in the case of accidental spills at the Sellafield outfall site

  12. Increased river alkalinization in the Eastern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Sujay S; Likens, Gene E; Utz, Ryan M; Pace, Michael L; Grese, Melissa; Yepsen, Metthea

    2013-09-17

    The interaction between human activities and watershed geology is accelerating long-term changes in the carbon cycle of rivers. We evaluated changes in bicarbonate alkalinity, a product of chemical weathering, and tested for long-term trends at 97 sites in the eastern United States draining over 260,000 km(2). We observed statistically significant increasing trends in alkalinity at 62 of the 97 sites, while remaining sites exhibited no significant decreasing trends. Over 50% of study sites also had statistically significant increasing trends in concentrations of calcium (another product of chemical weathering) where data were available. River alkalinization rates were significantly related to watershed carbonate lithology, acid deposition, and topography. These three variables explained ~40% of variation in river alkalinization rates. The strongest predictor of river alkalinization rates was carbonate lithology. The most rapid rates of river alkalinization occurred at sites with highest inputs of acid deposition and highest elevation. The rise of alkalinity in many rivers throughout the Eastern U.S. suggests human-accelerated chemical weathering, in addition to previously documented impacts of mining and land use. Increased river alkalinization has major environmental implications including impacts on water hardness and salinization of drinking water, alterations of air-water exchange of CO2, coastal ocean acidification, and the influence of bicarbonate availability on primary production.

  13. Site Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of various site features from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times...

  14. Neutron activation analysis of Urartian pottery from eastern Anatolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speakman, R.J.; Glascock, M.D.; Stone, E.C.; Cilingiroglu, A.; Zimansky, P.; Neff, H.

    2004-01-01

    A total of 275 pottery and clay samples from Urartian period sites in eastern Anatolia were analyzed by INAA. The pottery sample originates primarily from the fortress and Outer Town at Ayanis and also includes samples from nearby sites in the Lake Van basin. A small sample of pottery from Bastam, a contemporary Urartian fortress in northwest Iran, and Kef Kalesi, a site on the north shore of Lake Van were also analyzed. Ten distinct compositional groups were identified during the course of the analysis suggesting that pottery was produced at multiple locations throughout the Urartian kingdom. In addition to identifying multiple production locales, the long-distance movement of pottery from the sites of Kef Kalesi and Bastam into the Van Basin and the movement of pottery from Ayanis to Bastam were documented. (author)

  15. Field Guide for Evaluating Cottonwood Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.M. Broadfoot

    1960-01-01

    Two field methods have been developed at the Stoneville Research Center for estimating the capability of Midsouth soils to grow eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.). Data for establishing the procedures were collected from 155 plots* at the locations indicated in Figure 1.The methods give site index-that is, tree-growing...

  16. Authigenic Uranium in Eastern Equatorial Pacific Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcantonio, F.; Lyle, M. W.; Loveley, M. R.; Ibrahim, R.

    2014-12-01

    Authigenic U concentrations have been used as an indicator of redox state in marine sediments. Soluble U(VI) in porewaters is reduced to insoluble U(IV) under suboxic conditions setting up a diffusion gradient through which U in bottom waters is supplied to reducing sediments. Researchers have used sedimentary redox enrichment of U as a tool to identify past redox changes, which may be caused by changes in organic carbon rain rates and/or bottom water oxygen levels. Differentiating between these two explanations is important, as the former is tied to the use of authigenic U as a paleoproductivity proxy. We examined sediments from 4 sediment cores retrieved from two different localities in the Panama Basin in the eastern equatorial Pacific. Two cores were retrieved from the northern Panama basin at the Cocos Ridge, (4JC at 5° 44.7'N 85° 45.5' W, 1730 m depth; 8JC at 6° 14.0'N 86° 2.6' W, 1993 m depth), and two were retrieved from the south at the Carnegie Ridge, (11JC at 0° 41.6'S 85° 20.0' W, 2452 m depth; 17JC at 0° 10.8'S 85° 52.0' W, 2846 m depth). Using 230Th systematics and seismic profiling at each of the sites, we've identified significant sediment winnowing (4JC and 11JC) and focusing (8JC and 17JC). At all sites, we believe that changes in age-model-derived sand (i.e., >63µm) mass accumulation rates (MAR) best represent changes in rain rates. Glacial rain rates are higher than those in the Holocene by a factor of 2-3 at both sites. Peak Mn levels (>1%), the brown-to-green color transition (which likely represents the oxic/post-oxic boundary), and peak U concentrations all appear in the same order with increasing depth down core. At the Carnegie sites, where MARs are greater than those at the Cocos sites, increases in authigenic U (up to 4 ppm) occur during the mid- to late Holocene at depths of 10-15 cm. At the Cocos sites, increases in authigenic U (up to 12 ppm) occur lower in the sediment column (25-30 cm) during the late glacial. The decrease

  17. Site decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicker, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    Among the several DOE sites that have been radiologically decontaminated under the auspices of the Nevada Operations Office are three whose physical characteristics are unique. These are the Tatum Dome Test Site (TDTS) near Hattiesburg, Mississippi; a location of mountainous terrain (Pahute Mesa) on the Nevada Test Site; and the GNOME site near Carlsbad, New Mexico. In each case the contamination, the terrain, and the climate conditions were different. This presentation includes a brief description of each site, the methods used to perform radiological surveys, the logistics required to support the decontamination (including health physics and sample analysis), and the specific techniques used to reduce or remove the contamination

  18. Skate Bathyraja spp. egg predation in the eastern Bering Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, G R

    2009-01-01

    Predation on skate eggs by snails was examined for three skate species at seven nursery sites in three regions (north, middle and south) of the eastern Bering Sea. Mean predation levels were 6.46% for the Alaska skate Bathyraja parmifera, 2.65% for the Aleutian skate Bathyraja aleutica and 22.25% for the Bering skate Bathyraja interrupta. Predation levels were significantly higher at the middle and north sites than the south sites for all species combined. Predation levels decreased with increasing egg-case densities at all nursery sites, and the highest predation levels occurred where egg-case densities were very low. Predated egg-case density increased with increasing snail densities across all nursery sites examined. The Oregon triton Fusitriton oregonensis was the most abundant snail species at all nursery sites and displayed ability to drill holes in the egg case of B. parmifera. Holes left by predatory snails in egg cases of B. parmifera were significantly larger, and of different shape at the middle site compared to the south site. Holes in B. parmifera were also significantly larger than those in egg cases of B. interrupta across all sites examined. Egg cases of B. aleutica possess surface spines that cover the egg case and may inhibit predation by snails at a greater rate than that of the B. parmifera and B. interrupta, which have a smoother egg-case surface.

  19. Central and eastern European activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rea, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Florida State University/Technical University of Budapest environmental research center, Center for Hungarian/American Environmental Research, Studies and Exchanges (CHAERSE), provides a resource base for information and technologies that is used to address near- and long-term environmental problems within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex and in Central and Eastern Europe. The CHAERSE is used as a technology transfer conduit for environmental restoration and waste management (ER/WM) problems and solutions. The International Technology Exchange Division (ITED) used the CHAERSE as one source of information for the identification of international ER/WM technologies being developed in Central and Eastern Europe. This was accomplished by matching high-priority problems in that region to high-priority problems in the DOE Complex; conducting symposia, meetings and workshops with international environmental experts; and identifying innovative technologies

  20. Nuclear power in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyses the operating experience of nuclear power plants in Eastern and Western Europe, the former Soviet Union and the United States to investigate differences in the effects of learning, technical change and the effect of recent political developments. The performance of Soviet-designed reactors compares favourably with Western reactors on the standard performance measures. However, learning curve estimates reveal a disturbing trend: the former Soviet Union and all countries in Eastern Europe experience increasing unplanned losses as plants age, whereas all Western countries reduce their unplanned losses. A similar ''forgetting'' phenomenon is observable for plant availability and there is some evidence that the recent political and economic reorganization have exacerbated this trend. (Author)

  1. Museology History of Eastern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia D. Firer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the aspects of the establishment of the first museums and libraries in Eastern Siberia. The author considers the role of the museum in development of culture and public education in Minusinsk, Yeniseysk, notes the valuable contribution of the activities of merchants and intelligentsia to the museum business, as well as the reflection of the present and past of museums in Siberia.

  2. Eastern Africa Coastal Forest Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Younge, A.

    2002-01-01

    The eastern African coastal forest ecoregion is recognised as one of Africa’s centres of species endemism, and is distributed over six countries (Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Malawi). Most is found in Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique, which form our focal region. The coastal forests are fragmented, small and surrounded by poor communities that have a high demand for land and forest resources. Although coastal forests have significant cultural and traditional...

  3. Site organization and site arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boissonnet, B.; Macqueron, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    The present paper deals with criteria for the choice of a production unit or power plant site, the organization and development of a site in terms of its particular characteristics and takes into account personnel considerations in site organizations as well as the problem of integrating the architecture into the environment. (RW) [de

  4. Atmospheric mercury deposition to forests in the eastern USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risch, Martin R.; DeWild, John F.; Gay, David A.; Zhang, Leiming; Boyer, Elizabeth W.; Krabbenhoft, David P.

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric mercury (Hg) deposition to forests is important because half of the land cover in the eastern USA is forest. Mercury was measured in autumn litterfall and weekly precipitation samples at a total of 27 National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) monitoring sites in deciduous and mixed deciduous-coniferous forests in 16 states in the eastern USA during 2007–2014. These simultaneous, uniform, repeated, annual measurements of forest Hg include the broadest area and longest time frame to date. The autumn litterfall-Hg concentrations and litterfall mass at the study sites each year were combined with annual precipitation-Hg data. Rates of litterfall-Hg deposition were higher than or equal to precipitation-Hg deposition rates in 70% of the annual data, which indicates a substantial contribution from litterfall to total atmospheric-Hg deposition. Annual litterfall-Hg deposition in this study had a median of 11.7 μg per square meter per year (μg/m 2 /yr) and ranged from 2.2 to 23.4 μg/m 2 /yr. It closely matched modeled dry-Hg deposition, based on land cover at selected NADP Hg-monitoring sites. Mean annual atmospheric-Hg deposition at forest study sites exhibited a spatial pattern partly explained by statistical differences among five forest-cover types and related to the mapped density of Hg emissions. Forest canopies apparently recorded changes in atmospheric-Hg concentrations over time because litterfall-Hg concentrations decreased year to year and litterfall-Hg concentrations were significantly higher in 2007–2009 than in 2012–2014. These findings reinforce reported decreases in Hg emissions and atmospheric elemental-Hg concentrations during this same time period. Methylmercury (MeHg) was detected in all litterfall samples at all sites, compared with MeHg detections in less than half the precipitation samples at selected sites during the study. These results indicate MeHg in litterfall is a pathway into the terrestrial food web where it can

  5. Site operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    House, W.B.; Ebenhack, D.G.

    1989-01-01

    This chapter is a discussion of the management and operations practices used at the Barnwell Waste Management Facility in Barnwell, SC. The following topics are discussed: (1) Waste receiving and inspection, including manifest and certificates of compliance, radiological surveys, disposition of nonconforming items, and decontamination and disposition of secondary waste streams; (2) Waste disposal, including Title 10 CFR 61 requirements, disposal area evaluations, shipment offloading, container emplacement, and radiation protection; (3) Trench closure, including trench backfilling, trench capping, and permanent markers; (4) Site maintenance and stabilization, including trench maintenance, surface water management, and site closure activities; (5) Site monitoring programs, including operational monitoring, and environmental monitoring program; (6) Personnel training and qualifications, including basic training program, safety training program, special skills training, and physical qualifications; (7) Records management, including waste records, personnel training records, personnel dosimetry records, site monitoring records, trench qualification and construction records, and site drawings and stabilization records; (8) Site security; (9) Emergency response plans; and (10) Quality assurance

  6. Determination of regional Euler pole parameters for Eastern Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umnig, Elke; Weber, Robert; Schartner, Matthias; Brueckl, Ewald

    2017-04-01

    The horizontal motion of lithospheric plates can be described as rotations around a rotation axes through the Earth's center. The two possible points where this axes intersects the surface of the Earth are called Euler poles. The rotation is expressed by the Euler parameters in terms of angular velocities together with the latitude and longitude of the Euler pole. Euler parameters were calculated from GPS data for a study area in Eastern Austria. The observation network is located along the Mur-Mürz Valley and the Vienna Basin. This zone is part of the Vienna Transfer Fault, which is the major fault system between the Eastern Alps and the Carpathians. The project ALPAACT (seismological and geodetic monitoring of ALpine-PAnnonian ACtive Tectonics) investigated intra plate tectonic movements within the Austrian part in order to estimate the seismic hazard. Precise site coordinate time series established from processing 5 years of GPS observations are available for the regional network spanning the years from 2010.0 to 2015.0. Station velocities with respect to the global reference frame ITRF2008 have been computed for 23 sites. The common Euler vector was estimated on base of a subset of reliable site velocities, for stations directly located within the area of interest. In a further step a geokinematic interpretation shall be carried out. Therefore site motions with respect to the Eurasian Plate are requested. To obtain this motion field different variants are conceivable. In a simple approach the mean ITRF2008 velocity of IGS site GRAZ can be adopted as Eurasian rotational velocity. An improved alternative is to calculate site-specific velocity differences between the Euler rotation and the individual site velocities. In this poster presentation the Euler parameters, the residual motion field as well as first geokinematic interpretation results are presented.

  7. CIS/Eastern countries. A curtain raising on eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Slowly and laboriously a new russian petroleum industry is setting in. To illustrate this new scenery, statistical data and maps, giving the production and consumption rates are presented. Two big companies (Shell and B.P.) stand for the privatization of Rosneft, the russian petroleum group. The legal and financial petroleum aspects of Russian are changing but very slowly, attracting the western companies around the petroleum industry. But this interest remains careful. The european bank of investment (BEI) decided to take a financial share in the eastern energy. (A.L.B.)

  8. Respiratory and reproductive characteristics of eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) inhabiting a coal ash settling basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staub, B.P.; Hopkins, W.A.; Novak, J.; Congdon, J.D. [University of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab.

    2004-01-01

    Coal fly ash and effluent from coal ash settling basins negatively affects metabolism and reproduction in a variety of organisms, including a number of fish species. Some species, most notably the eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), are known to maintain viable populations in areas contaminated by coal ash. While eastern mosquitofish are present in these systems, their degree of tolerance to coal ash has not been investigated using sublethal metrics of exposure. It is possible that eastern mosquitofish persist in habitats affected by coal ash, but experience significant costs such as changes in metabolism and fecundity. Thus, we investigated the effects of coal ash on standard metabolic rate and reproduction of eastern mosquitofish inhabiting a coal-ash contaminated settling basin. Standard metabolic rates of mosquitofish from the ash contaminated site and a reference site were not significantly different. Despite elevated contaminant concentrations in ash basin females (selenium, arsenic, copper, and cadmium) and their offspring (selenium), brood sizes and offspring viability did not differ between clutches collected from ash basin and reference site females. Our data provide further evidence of the high degree of tolerance of eastern mosquitofish to exposure to aquatic coal ash disposal generated by power plants. However, the basis for such tolerance to ash remains unclear. Further investigations are required to determine whether such tolerance is a result of species-specific characteristics or population characteristics due to local adaptation.

  9. Cultural Clues to the Middle Eastern Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Orin D.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Cultural patterns and characteristics of Middle Eastern students indicate their adaptability ease or difficulty in American society. Manners, paternalistic patterns, religion, and social relationships are discussed. (LBH)

  10. Re-membering Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilken, Lisanne

    2016-01-01

    -Soviet states into the “Eurovision” has been represented and discussed in Britain and Denmark, two countries with their own complex and complicated relationship to "Europe". Taking the cue from a growing scholarly production that argues for the importance of pop culture in the construction of social...... for analysing (political) memory. It then discusses the ways that the “Eastern enlargement” of the Contest in the 1990s triggered discussions of borders and belonging in both a historical and contemporary perspective. Finally the paper zooms in on British and Danish debates of three post-Soviet states; Estonia...

  11. HOMED-Homicides Eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colville-Ebeling, Bonnie; Frisch, Morten; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Background:An introduction to a forensic medical homicide database established at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Copenhagen. Content: The database contains substantial clinical and demographic data obtained in conjunction with medico-legal autopsies of victims and forensic clinical...... examinations of perpetrators in homicide cases in eastern Denmark. Validity and coverage: The database contains information on all homicide cases investigated at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Copenhagen since 1971. Coverage for the catchment area of the department is assumed to be very good because...

  12. Session: Avian migration and implications for wind power development in the Eastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabey, Sarah; Cooper, Brian

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of two presentations followed by a discussion/question and answer period. The session was arranged to convey what is known about avian migration, particularly in the eastern US. The first presentation ''Migration Ecology: Issues of Scale and Behavior'' by Sarah Mabey frames the issue of migratory bird interactions with wind energy facilities from an ecological perspective: when, where, and why are migrant bird species vulnerable to wind turbine collision. The second presentation ''Radar Studies of Nocturnal Migration at Wind Sites in the Eastern US'' by Brian Cooper reported on radar studies conducted at wind sites in the eastern US, including Mount Storm, Clipper Wind, and others.

  13. Wind energy market study Eastern Europe. Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjerk Christensen, P.

    1994-04-01

    The main objective of the THERMIE Associated Measure WE05 is to study market conditions and estimate the market for wind power in Eastern Europe. This report describes the results of a study of the conditions in Poland, which has been concentrated on the following areas: wind energy potential in Poland; data concerning the present structure of the power production system including costs; payback prices, subsidies, etc. with relation to renewable energy sources, especially wind power; information on existing wine turbines and their production in Poland; possibilities for co-production of wind turbines by Polish and EC factories, and rules and legislation pertaining to the establishment of wind turbines and to power production by wind, eg regulations related to grid connection, safety and environment. According to existing data there are possibilities for using the wind potential in certain parts of poland. The wind data have to be improved if particular sites are considered for wind parks. The current official plans concerning the energy system have taken renewable sources into consideration, including wind power that is estimated to contribute ∼ 1 GWh by 2005-2010. Wind turbines may be connected to the public grid with due regard to the strength of the line. Presently, the owner has to pay all the costs, however, new rules are under consideration. The conditions for the connection and operation of wind turbines have to be discussed with the particular utility on an an-hoc basis. (EG)

  14. Project finance in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    A dysfunctional system of commercial, legal, and financial institutions is the primary problem facing the energy sectors in Eastern Europe. Generally, a major systemic transformation is well underway in the area and is already showing signs of success. The empty promise of export credit financing exerts a significant negative influence on this reform process. The discipline of project finance provides the best, if not the only, basis for financing the modernization of the Eastern European energy sector. An example is given of the Cracow Environmental Project, a modernization project. The power plant is a combined heat and power facility with 460 MW of electric capacity and 1450 MW of thermal energy capacity. Located near the center of Cracow, the plant burns hard coal and provides more than seventy percent of the central district heat consumed in the city. The scope of proposed improvements has changed from the addition of capacity to a combination of modernization and environmental retrofit of the existing plant. The total estimated cost of the improvements program is 150 million dollars. The project consists of three major elements. First, it has proposed and is in the process of restructuring the ownership of the power plant. Second, it is engaged in a major restructuring of the commercial arrangements that govern the operation of the plant. Finally, it is in the late stages of selecting an engineering, procurement, and construction consortium with which it will contract to design and make major improvements to the existing plant

  15. Natural gas in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabarczyk, Ewa; McCallum, Robert; Wergeland, Tor H

    1994-12-31

    The paper is based on Ewa Grabarczyk`s thesis ``The European Gas Market and the Former East Block Countries`` in the Master of International Business Programme at the Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration. The material of Grabarczyk`s work has been split into two parts; SNF Working Papers Nos. 97/93 and 98/93. Working Paper 97/93 ``The European Gas Markets`` contains an equilibrium model of the European Gas Market employed to investigate some scenarios to the consequences of an integration of the former Soviet Union. Working Paper 98/93 ``Natural Gas in Eastern Europe`` contains descriptions of the energy sectors of former Eastern European countries and an evaluation of the potential future demand for natural gas in these nations. The paper has chapters on each country and sections on reserves, production, exports and markets, transport possibilities and technology, demand and development as well as evaluation of the present situation. 11 figs., 37 tabs., 33 refs

  16. Guidelines for ground motion definition for the eastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwaltney, R.C.; Aramayo, G.A.; Williams, R.T.

    1985-06-01

    Guidelines for the determination of earthquake ground motion definition for the eastern United States are established here. Both far-field and near-field guidelines are given. The guidelines were based on an extensive review of the current procedures for specifying ground motion in the United States. Both empirical and theoretical procedures were used in establishing the guidelines because of the low seismicity in the eastern United States. Only a few large- to great-sized earthquakes (M/sub s/ > 7.5) have occurred in this region, no evidence of tectonic surface ruptures related to historic or Holocene earthquakes has been found, and no currently active plate boundaries of any kind are known in this region. Very little instrumented data have been gathered in the East. Theoretical procedures are proposed so that in regions of almost no data, a reasonable level of seismic ground motion activity can be assumed. The guidelines are to be used to develop the safe shutdown earthquake (SSE). A new procedure for establishing the operating basis earthquake (OBE) is proposed, in particular for the eastern United States. The OBE would be developed using a probabilistic assessment of the geological conditions and the recurrence of seismic events at a site. These guidelines should be useful in development of seismic design requirements for future reactors. 17 refs., figs., tabs

  17. Superfund Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer represents active Superfund Sites published by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). These data were extracted from the Superfund Enterprise...

  18. Site development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noack, J.

    1975-01-01

    The subject of this paper is a general view over all necessary considerations to develop the site after it has been chosen and before starting with the construction of a nuclear power plant. (orig./RW) [de

  19. Site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, C.W.

    1983-07-01

    The conditions and criteria for selecting a site for a nuclear weapons test at the Nevada Test Site are summarized. Factors considered are: (1) scheduling of drill rigs, (2) scheduling of site preparation (dirt work, auger hole, surface casing, cementing), (3) schedule of event (when are drill hole data needed), (4) depth range of proposed W.P., (5) geologic structure (faults, Pz contact, etc.), (6) stratigraphy (alluvium, location of Grouse Canyon Tuff, etc.), (7) material properties (particularly montmorillonite and CO 2 content), (8) water table depth, (9) potential drilling problems (caving), (10) adjacent collapse craters and chimneys, (11) adjacent expended but uncollapsed sites, (12) adjacent post-shot or other small diameter holes, (13) adjacent stockpile emplacement holes, (14) adjacent planned events (including LANL), (15) projected needs of Test Program for various DOB's and operational separations, and (16) optimal use of NTS real estate

  20. Evaluating forest land development effects on private forestry in eastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kline; David L. Azuma

    2007-01-01

    Research suggests that forest land development can reduce the productivity of remaining forest land because private forest owners reduce their investments in forest management. We developed empirical models describing forest stocking, thinning, harvest, and postharvest tree planting in eastern Oregon, as functions of stand and site characteristics, ownership, and...

  1. Projected Eastern Slovakia nuclear power plant and its effect on the area settlement structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uvirova, E.

    1986-01-01

    The current situation of and expected changes in the settlement of the Kecerovce locality, where the Eastern Slovakia nuclear power plant will be sited, are discussed. The estimated requisition of agricultural soil and of forests is considered and the questions are outlined of the resettlement of the population in the power plant protective zone. (M.D.). 6 tabs., 4 refs

  2. Forest production dynamics along a wood density spectrum in eastern US forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.W. Woodall; M.B. Russell; B.F. Walters; A.W. D' Amato; K. Zhu; S.S. Saatchi

    2015-01-01

    Emerging plant economics spectrum theories were confirmed across temperate forest systems of the eastern US where the use of a forest stand's mean wood density elucidated forest volume and biomass production dynamics integrating aspects of climate, tree mortality/growth, and rates of site occupancy.

  3. Ecology and silviculture of the spruce-fir forests of eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinus. Westveld

    1953-01-01

    Using the climax forest as a guide to growing the species best suited to the climate and the site, the author offers a silvicultural system for managing the spruce-fir forests of eastern North America. Based on ecological principles, such silviculture is aimed to bring about forests that are inherently healthy and have a natural resistance to insects and disease.

  4. Diagenesis in subrecent marine sediments in the Eastern Scheldt Southwest Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.

    1988-01-01

    The diagenesis in fine-grained sediments from a 300 to 400-years-old Dunkirk deposit, exposed on the intertidal flat, was studied at a site in the Eastern Scheldt. A new in situ pore water sampling technique that allowed repeated sampling at exactly the same place was used to monitor the seasonal

  5. Growth and stocking of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale S. Solomon; William B. Leak

    2000-01-01

    Summarization of the limited growth information in mixed-species stands in New England indicates that eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) may be one of the fastest growing species in diameter, second only to white pine. However, on some sites hemlock diameter growth is about equal to that of associated hardwoods. Hemlock grows slowly in height and...

  6. Assessing indicators relating to overall tourist satisfaction of ecotourism developments in eastern North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher L. Ellis; Hans Vogelsong

    2003-01-01

    The Partnership for the Sounds is a non-profit organization based in eastern North Carolina and is in charge of operating a collection of museums and cultural sites including the North Carolina Estuarium in Washington, The Mattamuskeet Lodge in Swan Quarter, and the Columbia Theater Cultural Resource Center in Columbia. A recent survey was conducted at these areas by...

  7. 75 FR 7152 - Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Hollis & Eastern Railroad L.L.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-17

    ...] Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc.--Lease and Operation Exemption--Hollis & Eastern Railroad L.L.C. Stillwater... & Eastern Railroad L.L.C. (H&E), 14 miles of H&E's rail line between milepost 0.0 at Duke, OK and milepost... available on our Web site at http://www.stb.dot.gov . Decided: By the Board, Rachel D. Campbell, Director...

  8. 76 FR 28210 - Eastern Arizona Counties Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Eastern Arizona Counties Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Eastern Arizona Counties will meet...: Julia Faith Rivera, RAC Program Manager, Eastern Arizona Counties Resource Advisory Committee, Apache...

  9. 76 FR 41755 - Eastern Arizona Counties Resource Advisory; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Eastern Arizona Counties Resource Advisory; Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Eastern Arizona Counties Resource... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Julia Faith Rivera, RAC Program Manager, Eastern Arizona Counties Resource...

  10. Old age mortality in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danan Gu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eastern and South-Eastern Asian countries have witnessed a marked decline in old age mortality in recent decades. Yet no studies have investigated the trends and patterns in old age morality and cause-of-death in the region. Objective: We reviewed the trends and patterns of old age mortality and cause-of-death for countries in the region. Methods: We examined data on old age mortality in terms of life expectancy at age 65 and age-specific death rates from the 2012 Revision of the World Population Prospects for 14 countries in the region (China, Hong Kong, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Indonesia, Japan, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Malaysia, Mongolia, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam and data on cause-of-death from the WHO for five countries (China, Hong Kong, Japan, Republic of Korea, and Singapore from 1980 to 2010. Results: While mortality transitions in these populations took place in different times, and at different levels of socioeconomic development and living environment, changes in their age patterns and sex differentials in mortality showed certain similarities: women witnessed a similar decline to men in spite of their lower mortality, and young elders had a larger decline than the oldest-old. In all five countries examined for cause-of-death, most of the increases in life expectancy at age 65 in both men and women were attributable to declines in mortality from stroke and heart disease. GDP per capita, educational level, and urbanization explained much of the variations in life expectancy and cause-specific mortality, indicating critical contributions of these basic socioeconomic development indicators to the mortality decline over time in the region. Conclusions: These findings shed light on the relationship between epidemiological transition, changing age patterns of mortality, and improving life expectancy in these populations.

  11. Babesia microti infection, eastern Pennsylvania, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Marcela E Perez; Ender, Peter T; Smith, Erin M; Jahre, Jeffrey A

    2013-07-01

    Infection with Babesia microti has not been well-described in eastern Pennsylvania, USA, despite the vector of this organism being prevalent. We report 3 cases of babesiosis in eastern Pennsylvania in persons without recent travel outside the region or history of blood transfusions, suggesting emergence of this infection.

  12. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review (EASSRR) is a bi-annual journal published by the Organization for Social Science Research in Eastern Africa (OSSREA). Since the publication of its maiden ... Emerging regions in Ethiopia: are they catching up with the rest of Ethiopia? EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL ...

  13. tive conflict resolution mechanism in eastern Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eastern Ethiopia: The case of the Ittu ... The study was conducted in eastern Ethiopia where the Somali and ... Zigale Tamir Tenaw is assistant professor in the Department of Gender and Development ..... regional state in collaboration with the local people – aggravate the already ..... Resource Based Conflict Network,.

  14. SHC, Seismic Hazard Assessment for Eastern US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savy, J.; Davis, B.

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: SHC was developed as part of the Eastern United States (EUS) Seismic Hazard Characterization (SHC) Project to design an SHC methodology for the region east of the Rocky Mountains in a form suitable for probabilistic risk assessment and to apply that methodology to 69 site locations, some of them with local soil conditions. The method developed uses expert opinions to obtain the input to the analysis. SHC contains four modules which calculate the seismic hazard at a site located in a region of diffuse seismicity, where the seismicity is modeled by area sources. SHC integrates the opinions of 11 seismicity and five ground-motion experts. The PRDS model generates the discrete probability density function of the distances to the site for the various seismic source zones. These probability distributions are used by the COMAP module to generate the set of all alternative maps and the discrete probability density of the seismic zonation maps for each expert. The third module, ALEAS, uses these maps and their weights to calculate the best estimate and constant percentile hazard distribution resulting from the choice of a given seismicity expert for all ground-motion experts. This module can be used alone to perform a seismic hazard analysis as well as in conjunction with the other modules. The fourth module, COMB, combines the best- estimate and constant-percentile hazard over all seismicity experts, using the set of weights calculated by ALEAS, to produce the final probability distribution of the hazard for the site under consideration so that the hazard analysis can be performed for any location in the EUS. Local geological-site characteristics are incorporated in a generic fashion, and the data are developed in a generic manner. 2 - Method of solution: SHC uses a seismic-source approach utilizing statistical and geological evidence to define geographical regions with homogeneous Poisson activity throughout the zone, described by a

  15. 77 FR 51966 - Eastern Arizona Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Eastern Arizona Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Eastern Arizona Resource Advisory Committee...

  16. Ozone modelling in Eastern Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stohl, A.; Wotawa, G.; Kromp-Kolb, H. [Univ. of Agriculture, Vienna (Austria). Inst. of Meteorology and Physics; Winiwater, W. [Austrian Research Centre, Seibersdorf (Austria); Baumann, R.; Spangl, W. [Federal Environmental Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1995-12-31

    High ozone concentrations are frequently observed in Eastern Austria, often exceeding local as well as international health standards, both for short-term as well as for long-term exposures. The maximum concentrations are produced in urban plumes, e.g. of the city of Vienna, whereas regional-scale transport and production of ozone is more important for the long-term concentrations. The Pannonian Ozone Project (POP) is an Austrian research initiative to model photochemical processes on a regional as well as on a local scale with a Lagrangian model to better understand the mechanisms leading to the high ozone concentrations and to develop abatement strategies. Up to now, focus has been on the regional scale. Aircraft, tethered balloon, tetroon and intensified ground measurements are carried out to validate the model. Although the major measurement campaign will be held in summer 1995, first results from a measurement campaign in summer 1994 are already available

  17. Site development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaynor, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    Development of a low-level radioactive waste land disposal facility is little different than any industrial development of similar scope. Consideration must be made for normal business and operations management, security, facility maintenance, traffic control and necessary amenities for personnel. The item specific to the low-level waste site is the handling of radioactive waste materials and the regulatory and environmental protection procedures that must be planned for and accomodated in the site design and development. Each of these elements and the facility as a whole must be designed to be compatible with local land use plans, available transportation and support services, and the social and economic goals of the local community. Plans should also be made for quality control and orderly construction. This chapter deals with those aspects of the facility, its design and construction which are integral parts to the overall performance of the site

  18. Off-site emergency preparedness activities within the European Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, G.N.

    1998-01-01

    Increasing attention is being given by the European Commission to off-site emergency preparedness as part of its broader contribution to improving nuclear safety in Eastern Europe. The main initiatives being taken or planned by the Commission in this area are summarised. Particular attention is given to two topics: Firstly, the development of the RODOS (Real-time On-line DecisiOn Support) system for supporting off-site emergency management in the event of a nuclear accident; and, secondly, the work of an Inter-Service Group on nuclear Off-Site Emergency Preparedness (OSEP) in Eastern Europe that has been established within the Commission. The contribution that each is making to improving emergency preparedness, both in Eastern Europe and in Europe more widely, is described. (orig.)

  19. European commission contribution to improving off-site emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, G.N.

    1996-01-01

    Increasing attention is being given by the European Commission to off-site emergency preparedness as part of its broader contribution to improving nuclear safety in Eastern Europe. The main initiatives being taken or planned by the Commission in this area are summarized. Particular attention is given to two topics: firstly, the development of the RODOS (Real-time On-line Decision Support) system for supporting off-site emergency management in the event of a nuclear accident; and, secondly, the work of an Inter-Service Group on nuclear Off-Site Emergency Preparedness (OSEP) in Eastern Europe that has recently been established within the Commission. The contribution that each is making to improving emergency preparedness, both in Eastern Europe and in Europe more widely, is described

  20. Site Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahedi, Haseebullah

    2016-01-01

    different practices in the construction phase. The research is based on an ethnographic study of a case in Denmark. The empirical data were collected through direct observations and semi-structured interviews with site managers, contract managers, foremen and craftsmen. Findings revealed...... that the construction phase comprises several communities and practices, leading to various uses of the drawings. The results indicated that the craftsmen used drawings to position themselves in the correct location, and that the site managers and contract managers used them as management tools and legal documents...

  1. The onset of alpine pastoral systems in the Eastern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeggl, Klaus; Festi, Daniela; Putzer, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Since the discovery of the Neolithic glacier mummy "Ötzi" in the nival belt of the main Alpine ridge, the onset of alpine pasture is matter of a highly controversial debate both in archaeology and in palaeo-ecology of the Eastern Alps. The implication is that his sojourn in the high-altitudes of the Alps is considered to be connected with pastoral nomadism. Regrettably any archaeological evidence for the existence of such Neolithic alpine pastoral systems is missing up to now and the assumption is based on palynological data only. However, also the palynological record is ambiguous, because pasture indicators in the alpine regions react positive on grazing as well as on fertilization induced by a higher runoff of precipitation. Thus alpine pasture indicators reflect both grazing pressure and climatic change. Anyhow, alpine pastoral systems are a common practice in Alpine animal husbandry, but from an economic point of view such a seasonal vertical transhumance is costly. There are three main reasons for its practice: i) climatic, ii) economic (mainly in connection with population pressure or mining activities), and iii) cultural ideology. In this study we tested the above mentioned reasons in an interdisciplinary study on the beginning of pastoral activities in high altitudes in the central part of the Eastern Alps. This is conducted by palynological analyses of peat deposits situated in the vicinity of the timberline (1600 - 2400 m a.s.l.) combined with archaeological surveys. The investigated sites are located in traditional Alpine transhumance regions and aligned on a transect through the central part of the Eastern Alps. The studies reveal that grazing pressure is reflected since the Bronze Age, which is corroborated by archaeological findings in the vicinity of the investigated sites.

  2. Site selection

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1968-01-01

    To help resolve the problem of site selection for the proposed 300 GeV machine, the Council selected "three wise men" (left to right, J H Bannier of the Netherlands, A Chavanne of Switzerland and L K Boggild of Denmark).

  3. Site Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

    2001-04-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations.

  4. Site Restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations

  5. Preliminary geology of eastern Umtanum Ridge, South-Central Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, F.E.

    1981-01-01

    The basalt stratigraphy and geologic structures of eastern Umtanum Ridge have been mapped and studied in detail to help assess the feasibility of nuclear waste terminal storage on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Eastern Umtanum Ridge is an asymmetric east-west-trending anticline of Columbia River basalt that plunges 5 degrees eastward into the Pasco Basin. Geologic mapping and determination of natural remanent magnetic polarity and chemical composition reveal that flows of the Pomona and Umatilla Members (Saddle Mountains Basalt), Priest Rapids and Frenchman Springs Members (Wanapum Basalt), and Grande Ronde Basalt were erupted as fairly uniform sheets. The Wahluke and Huntzinger flows (Saddle Mountains Basalt) fill a paleovalley cut into Wanapum Basalt. No evidence was found to indicate Quaternary-age movement on any structures in the map area. The basalt strata on the south limb of the Umtanum anticline display relatively little tectonic deformation since Miocene-Pliocene time. Thus, the buried south flank of Umtanum Ridge may provide an excellent location for a nuclear waste repository beneath the Hanford Site.

  6. Preliminary geology of eastern Umtanum Ridge, South-Central Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, F.E.

    1981-01-01

    The basalt stratigraphy and geologic structures of eastern Umtanum Ridge have been mapped and studied in detail to help assess the feasibility of nuclear waste terminal storage on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Eastern Umtanum Ridge is an asymmetric east-west-trending anticline of Columbia River basalt that plunges 5 degrees eastward into the Pasco Basin. Geologic mapping and determination of natural remanent magnetic polarity and chemical composition reveal that flows of the Pomona and Umatilla Members (Saddle Mountains Basalt), Priest Rapids and Frenchman Springs Members (Wanapum Basalt), and Grande Ronde Basalt were erupted as fairly uniform sheets. The Wahluke and Huntzinger flows (Saddle Mountains Basalt) fill a paleovalley cut into Wanapum Basalt. No evidence was found to indicate Quaternary-age movement on any structures in the map area. The basalt strata on the south limb of the Umtanum anticline display relatively little tectonic deformation since Miocene-Pliocene time. Thus, the buried south flank of Umtanum Ridge may provide an excellent location for a nuclear waste repository beneath the Hanford Site

  7. Ethnographies of Grey Zones in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Over the last two decades, Eastern Europe has experienced extensive changes in geo-political relocations and relations leading to everyday uncertainty. Attempts to establish liberal democracies, re-orientations from planned to market economics, and a desire to create ‘new states’ and internationa......Over the last two decades, Eastern Europe has experienced extensive changes in geo-political relocations and relations leading to everyday uncertainty. Attempts to establish liberal democracies, re-orientations from planned to market economics, and a desire to create ‘new states...... contemporary Eastern Europe....

  8. Ethnographies of Grey Zones in Eastern Europe:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Over the last two decades, Eastern Europe has experienced extensive changes in geo-political relocations and relations leading to everyday uncertainty. Attempts to establish liberal democracies, re-orientations from planned to market economics, and a desire to create ‘new states’ and internationa......Over the last two decades, Eastern Europe has experienced extensive changes in geo-political relocations and relations leading to everyday uncertainty. Attempts to establish liberal democracies, re-orientations from planned to market economics, and a desire to create ‘new states...... contemporary Eastern Europe....

  9. Baseline ambient gaseous ammonia concentrations in the Four Corners area and eastern Oklahoma, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sather, Mark E; Mathew, Johnson; Nguyen, Nghia; Lay, John; Golod, George; Vet, Robert; Cotie, Joseph; Hertel, Terry; Aaboe, Erik; Callison, Ryan; Adam, Jacque; Keese, Danielle; Freise, Jeremy; Hathcoat, April; Sakizzie, Brenda; King, Michael; Lee, Chris; Oliva, Sylvia; San Miguel, George; Crow, Leon; Geasland, Frank

    2008-11-01

    Ambient ammonia monitoring using Ogawa passive samplers was conducted in the Four Corners area and eastern Oklahoma, USA during 2007. The resulting data will be useful in the multipollutant management of ozone, nitrogen oxides, and visibility (atmospheric regional haze) in the Four Corners area, an area with growing oil/gas production and increasing coal-based power plant construction. The passive monitoring data also add new ambient ammonia concentration information for the U.S. and will be useful to scientists involved in present and future visibility modeling exercises. Three week integrated passive ammonia samples were taken at five sites in the Four Corners area and two sites in eastern Oklahoma from December, 2006 through December, 2007 (January, 2008 for two sites). Results show significantly higher regional background ammonia concentrations in eastern Oklahoma (1.8 parts per billion (ppb) arithmetic mean) compared to the Four Corners area (0.2 ppb arithmetic mean). Annual mean ammonia concentrations for all Four Corners area sites for the 2007 study ranged from 0.2 ppb to 1.5 ppb. Peak ambient ammonia concentrations occurred in the spring and summer in both areas. The passive samplers deployed at the Stilwell, Oklahoma site compared favorably with other passive samplers and a continuous ammonia monitoring instrument.

  10. Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Townsend, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palchak, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Novacheck, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, Jack [RePPAE LLC, Wexford, PA (United States); Barrows, Clayton [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibanez, Eduardo [GE Energy, Denver, CO (United States); O' Connell, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jordan, Gary [GE Energy, Denver, CO (United States); Roberts, Billy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Draxl, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gruchalla, Kenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The Eastern Interconnection (EI) is one of the largest power systems in the world, and its size and complexity have historically made it difficult to study in high levels of detail in a modeling environment. In order to understand how this system might be impacted by high penetrations (30% of total annual generation) of wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) during steady state operations, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducted the Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study (ERGIS). This study investigates certain aspects of the reliability and economic efficiency problem faced by power system operators and planners. Specifically, the study models the ability to meet electricity demand at a 5-minute time interval by scheduling resources for known ramping events, while maintaining adequate reserves to meet random variation in supply and demand, and contingency events. To measure the ability to meet these requirements, a unit commitment and economic dispatch (UC&ED) model is employed to simulate power system operations. The economic costs of managing this system are presented using production costs, a traditional UC&ED metric that does not include any consideration of long-term fixed costs. ERGIS simulated one year of power system operations to understand regional and sub-hourly impacts of wind and PV by developing a comprehensive UC&ED model of the EI. In the analysis, it is shown that, under the study assumptions, generation from approximately 400 GW of combined wind and PV capacity can be balanced on the transmission system at a 5-minute level. In order to address the significant computational burdens associated with a model of this detail we apply novel computing techniques to dramatically reduce simulation solve time while simultaneously increasing the resolution and fidelity of the analysis. Our results also indicate that high penetrations of wind and PV (collectively variable generation (VG

  11. 78 FR 43874 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP13-514-000] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application On July 2, 2013, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern) filed... natural gas facilities no longer in service. As described more fully in the Application, Texas Eastern...

  12. 76 FR 7833 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ...] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on January 25, 2011, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas 77056, filed in the above... TEAM 2012 Project. Specifically, Texas Eastern requests: (i) Authorization under NGA sections 7(b) and...

  13. Ciguatoxin-like substances in edible fish on the eastern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentur, Yedidia; Spanier, Ehud

    2007-09-01

    The consumption of edible fish (e.g., Siganus spp) was assumed to have caused ciguatera poisoning at an atypical site, the eastern Mediterranean. This pilot study assesses the presence of ciguatoxin-like substances in edible fish on the eastern Mediterranean coast of Israel. Samples of Siganus rivulatus from polluted seawater (Haifa Bay), Siganus rivulatus from relatively clean seawater (Dor), and fish from the freshwater Sea of Galilee not inhabited by toxic algae were analyzed during summertime. Ciguatoxin-like substances were tested by a membrane immunobead assay that yields a color reaction (positive, weakly positive, negative). Significantly more large and small fish from Haifa Bay yielded positive color reactions compared to fish from Dor. Sea of Galilee fish gave no positive color reactions. Our results suggest the presence of ciguatoxin-like substances in edible fish of the eastern Mediterranean. Additional analyses are needed to determine whether these substances are ciguatoxins or related polyethers.

  14. First report of the post-fire morel Morchella exuberans in eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew N; Raudabaugh, Daniel B; Iturriaga, Teresa; Matheny, P Brandon; Petersen, Ronald H; Hughes, Karen W; Gube, Matthias; Powers, Rob A; James, Timothy Y; O'Donnell, Kerry

    2017-01-01

    Reports of true morels (Morchella) fruiting on conifer burn sites are common in western North America where five different fire-adapted species of black morels (Elata Clade) have been documented based on multilocus phylogenetic analyses. Fruiting of post-fire morels in eastern North America, by comparison, are rare and limited to a report from Minnesota in 1977 and eastern Ontario in 1991. Here, nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 = ITS) sequences were used to identify the post-fire morel that fruited in great abundance the year following the 2012 Duck Lake Fire in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and after the 2016 large-scale fire in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park in Tennessee as M. exuberans. A preliminary phylogenetic analysis suggests that the collections from eastern North America may be more closely related to those from Europe than from western North America, Europe, and China.

  15. Transcultural Memory in Eastern European Migrant Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortner, Jessica

    of the major processes that circulate memories across cultural and national borderlines. This paper will investigate the circulation of memories in Eastern Europe migrant-literature that since 2000 has become an increasingly influential literary tendency in Germany. Articulating an eastern perspective...... consciously follow the mission to “enlighten and inform Western readers about their eastern neighbours” (Haines 2008). Causing an “eastern enlargement” of German literature (Bürger-Koftis 2008), the wave of migrant authors broadens Germany’s cultural memory by supplementing it with “new” memories. Furthermore......The “transcultural turn” of memory studies focuses on the fluid and dynamic aspects of cultural memory. This paper is concerned with the traveling of memories along the paths of migration. As migrants carry along “collective images and narratives of the past” (Erll 2011), migration is one...

  16. Eastern and Southern Africa Seismological Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogubazghi, G.

    2002-01-01

    Member countries of the Eastern and Southern Africa Seismologica Working Group are listed. The presentation also gives the objectives, activities, date of birth and sponsors of the said ESARSWG. Areas of possible cooperation with CTBTO are indicated

  17. Abundance and sources of atmospheric halocarbons in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenenberger, Fabian; Henne, Stephan; Hill, Matthias; Vollmer, Martin K.; Kouvarakis, Giorgos; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; O'Doherty, Simon; Maione, Michela; Emmenegger, Lukas; Peter, Thomas; Reimann, Stefan

    2018-03-01

    A wide range of anthropogenic halocarbons is released to the atmosphere, contributing to stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. Using measurements of atmospheric abundances for the estimation of halocarbon emissions on the global and regional scale has become an important top-down tool for emission validation in the recent past, but many populated and developing areas of the world are only poorly covered by the existing atmospheric halocarbon measurement network. Here we present 6 months of continuous halocarbon observations from Finokalia on the island of Crete in the Eastern Mediterranean. The gases measured are the hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), HFC-134a (CH2FCF3), HFC-125 (CHF2CF3), HFC-152a (CH3CHF2) and HFC-143a (CH3CF3) and the hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), HCFC-22 (CHClF2) and HCFC-142b (CH3CClF2). The Eastern Mediterranean is home to 250 million inhabitants, consisting of a number of developed and developing countries, for which different emission regulations exist under the Kyoto and Montreal protocols. Regional emissions of halocarbons were estimated with Lagrangian atmospheric transport simulations and a Bayesian inverse modeling system, using measurements at Finokalia in conjunction with those from Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) sites at Mace Head (Ireland), Jungfraujoch (Switzerland) and Monte Cimone (Italy). Measured peak mole fractions at Finokalia showed generally smaller amplitudes for HFCs than at the European AGAGE sites except for periodic peaks of HFC-152a, indicating strong upwind sources. Higher peak mole fractions were observed for HCFCs, suggesting continued emissions from nearby developing regions such as Egypt and the Middle East. For 2013, the Eastern Mediterranean inverse emission estimates for the four analyzed HFCs and the two HCFCs were 13.9 (11.3-19.3) and 9.5 (6.8-15.1) Tg CO2eq yr-1, respectively. These emissions contributed 16.8 % (13.6-23.3 %) and 53.2 % (38.1-84.2 %) to the total inversion

  18. Eastern Canada natural gas developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, A.

    2001-01-01

    This power point presentation addressed the following topics regarding development of natural gas in eastern Canada: (1) the 18 Tcf of proven natural gas reserves at Sable Island, (2) Canadian markets benefiting from the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline (M and NP), (3) a 20 year franchise agreement between Enbridge Gas and the government of New Brunswick, (4) the 25 year provincial franchise agreement by Sempra Atlantic Gas, and (5) Sable Island's influence on central Canada. The Sable Offshore Energy Project (SOEP) is now producing about 540,000 MMBtu/day from 6 fields. Plans for Tier 2 expansion are underway. Firm contracts for the M and NP are scheduled to transport gas from the SOEP to markets in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Maine and New Hampshire. Sable gas is also a potential supply for the Quebec market. Gaz Metropolitain and Enbridge have proposed to build the Cartier Pipeline from the Quebec/New Brunswick border to Quebec City. It is unlikely that Sable Island supply will directly serve the Ontario market. Canadian customers for Sable gas and M and NP service include pulp and paper companies, oil refineries, power generators and local distribution companies (LDC), with the majority of demand coming form the electric power industry. tabs., figs

  19. Eastern countries - WIN activity review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiopol, Mihaela

    1998-01-01

    Women can play this important role in informing people about nuclear energy. WIN is a world-wide association of women working professionally in the fields of nuclear energy and radiation application who want to devote their time to public information. The main goal of the WIN is to establish an objective and effective communication with the public through educational programmes, information exchange and arranging study visits. The membership includes women working in medicine and health care, in regulatory authorities, in industry and as independent researches at Universities. They want to contribute to objectively informing the public by making presentation, discussing and giving information materials on subjects such as; radiation, radioactivity and health effects medical applications nuclear energy nuclear power plants and their safety nuclear and environment uranium mining radiation protection energy sustainable development WIN is also open to men, supporting the goals of WIN. The intention of this paper was to underline the main aspects which reflect WIN activity in some Eastern and Central countries. There are common features and also specific elements for each country. But the goal is the same: to assure an effective and a real information of the public related to the nuclear field

  20. The energy question in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, C.

    1992-01-01

    In a first part, this book describes the energetic schemes, energy consumption and centralized economy in Eastern Europe countries. In the second part, the relationships between energy supply and macro-economic disequilibria in USSR is studied: Petroleum and power generation are chosen as example. In the third part, the book shows the energetic stakes in Central and Eastern Europe: the end of the exchange model (imports, exports) and the energetic schemes facing economical reforms

  1. Midwifery education in Central-Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mivšek, Polona; Baškova, Martina; Wilhelmova, Radka

    2016-02-01

    Problems in midwifery in many Central-Eastern European countries are very similar; it is possible to speak about the evolving Central-Eastern model of midwifery care. The educational models of this region have a relatively strong theoretical part; however, there is an insufficient practical dimension. Theoretical part of midwifery education in the universities is relatively autonomous and is slowly changing the professional identity of graduates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 75 FR 68397 - DeQueen and Eastern Railroad, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-DeQueen and Eastern...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... Eastern Railroad, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--DeQueen and Eastern Railroad Company DeQueen and Eastern Railroad, LLC (DQE), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from DeQueen and Eastern Railroad Company and to operate approximately 47 miles of...

  3. 500.000 years of environmental history in Eastern Anatolia: The PALEOVAN drilling project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litt, Thomas; Anselmetti, Flavio; Baumgarten, Henrike

    2012-01-01

    International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) drilled a complete succession of the lacustrine sediment sequence deposited during the last ~500,000 years in Lake Van, Eastern Anatolia (Turkey). Based on a detailed seismic site survey, two sites at a water depth of up to 360 m were...... drilled in summer 2010, and cores were retrieved from sub-lake-floor depths of 140 m (Northern Basin) and 220 m (Ahlat Ridge). To obtain a complete sedimentary section, the two sites were multiple-cored in order to investigate the paleoclimate history of a sensitive semi-arid region between the Black...

  4. Factors for Microbial Carbon Sources in Organic and Mineral Soils from Eastern United States Deciduous Forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stitt, Caroline R. [Mills College, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2013-09-16

    Forest soils represent a large portion of global terrestrial carbon; however, which soil carbon sources are used by soil microbes and respired as carbon dioxide (CO2) is not well known. This study will focus on characterizing microbial carbon sources from organic and mineral soils from four eastern United States deciduous forests using a unique radiocarbon (14C) tracer. Results from the dark incubation of organic and mineral soils are heavily influenced by site characteristics when incubated at optimal microbial activity temperature. Sites with considerable differences in temperature, texture, and location differ in carbon source attribution, indicating that site characteristics play a role in soil respiration.

  5. Eastern slopes grizzly bear project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    The cumulative effects of human activities on the grizzly bears in the central Canadian Rockies are not well known. As a result, a project was initiated in 1994 to address the urgent requirement for accurate scientific information on the habitat and populations of grizzly bears in the area of the Banff National Park and Kananaskis Country. This area is probably the most heavily used and developed area where the grizzly still survives. The information gathered throughout the course of this study will be used to better protect and manage the bears and other sensitive carnivores in the region. Using telemetry, researchers are monitoring 25 grizzly bears which were radio-collared in a 22,000 square-kilometer area in the upper Bow Valley drainage of the eastern Alberta slopes. The researchers involved in the project are working with representatives from Husky Oil and Talisman Energy on the sound development of the Moose Mountain oil and gas field without adversely affecting the grizzly bear population. Information collected over seven years indicated that the grizzly bears have few and infrequent offspring. Using the information gathered so far, the location of the Moose Mountain to Jumping Pound pipeline was carefully selected, since the bears recover very slowly from high mortality, and also considering that the food and cover had already been compromised by the high number of roads, trails and other human activities in the area. The status of the population and habitat of the grizzly bear will be assessed upon the conclusion of the field research phase in 2001. Models will be updated using the data obtained during eight years and will assist in the understanding of complex variables that affect grizzly bears.

  6. Water, plants, and early human habitats in eastern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magill, Clayton R; Ashley, Gail M; Freeman, Katherine H

    2013-01-22

    Water and its influence on plants likely exerted strong adaptive pressures in human evolution. Understanding relationships among water, plants, and early humans is limited both by incomplete terrestrial records of environmental change and by indirect proxy data for water availability. Here we present a continuous record of stable hydrogen-isotope compositions (expressed as δD values) for lipid biomarkers preserved in lake sediments from an early Pleistocene archaeological site in eastern Africa--Olduvai Gorge. We convert sedimentary leaf- and algal-lipid δD values into estimates for ancient source-water δD values by accounting for biochemical, physiological, and environmental influences on isotopic fractionation via published water-lipid enrichment factors for living plants, algae, and recent sediments. Reconstructed precipitation and lake-water δD values, respectively, are consistent with modern isotopic hydrology and reveal that dramatic fluctuations in water availability accompanied ecosystem changes. Drier conditions, indicated by less negative δD values, occur in association with stable carbon-isotopic evidence for open, C(4)-dominated grassland ecosystems. Wetter conditions, indicated by lower δD values, are associated with expanded woody cover across the ancient landscape. Estimates for ancient precipitation amounts, based on reconstructed precipitation δD values, range between approximately 250 and 700 mm · y(-1) and are consistent with modern precipitation data for eastern Africa. We conclude that freshwater availability exerted a substantial influence on eastern African ecosystems and, by extension, was central to early human proliferation during periods of rapid climate change.

  7. Atmospheric mercury deposition to forests in the eastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Martin R; DeWild, John F; Gay, David A; Zhang, Leiming; Boyer, Elizabeth W; Krabbenhoft, David P

    2017-09-01

    Atmospheric mercury (Hg) deposition to forests is important because half of the land cover in the eastern USA is forest. Mercury was measured in autumn litterfall and weekly precipitation samples at a total of 27 National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) monitoring sites in deciduous and mixed deciduous-coniferous forests in 16 states in the eastern USA during 2007-2014. These simultaneous, uniform, repeated, annual measurements of forest Hg include the broadest area and longest time frame to date. The autumn litterfall-Hg concentrations and litterfall mass at the study sites each year were combined with annual precipitation-Hg data. Rates of litterfall-Hg deposition were higher than or equal to precipitation-Hg deposition rates in 70% of the annual data, which indicates a substantial contribution from litterfall to total atmospheric-Hg deposition. Annual litterfall-Hg deposition in this study had a median of 11.7 μg per square meter per year (μg/m 2 /yr) and ranged from 2.2 to 23.4 μg/m 2 /yr. It closely matched modeled dry-Hg deposition, based on land cover at selected NADP Hg-monitoring sites. Mean annual atmospheric-Hg deposition at forest study sites exhibited a spatial pattern partly explained by statistical differences among five forest-cover types and related to the mapped density of Hg emissions. Forest canopies apparently recorded changes in atmospheric-Hg concentrations over time because litterfall-Hg concentrations decreased year to year and litterfall-Hg concentrations were significantly higher in 2007-2009 than in 2012-2014. These findings reinforce reported decreases in Hg emissions and atmospheric elemental-Hg concentrations during this same time period. Methylmercury (MeHg) was detected in all litterfall samples at all sites, compared with MeHg detections in less than half the precipitation samples at selected sites during the study. These results indicate MeHg in litterfall is a pathway into the terrestrial food web where it can

  8. Site Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

    2002-04-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of SCK-CEN's Site Restoration Department for 2001 are described. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and the management of spent fuel and the flow of dismantled materials and the recycling of materials from decommissioning activities based on the smelting of metallic materials in specialised foundries. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations and performs R and D on new techniques including processes for the treatment of various waste components including the reprocessing of spent fuel, the treatment of tritium, the treatment of liquid alkali metals into cabonates through oxidation, the treatment of radioactive organic waste and the reconditioning of bituminised waste products.

  9. Mochovce site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In Mochovce site the construction of four units of WWER 440 NPP with V-213 type of reactor is being carried out. The financing of Mochovce units completion was resolved in April 1996. The completion work commenced at the construction site under leadership of SKODA Prague, the general supplier. The completion work on building part and tests of constructional electric distributions and lightning constructors started. The revisions in technological part were finished, and final protocols from revisions are the basis for starting of completion work. The assembly of transport container anchorage,ventilation system in hermetic areas and hermetic coverage of pools for stored spent nuclear fuel is being carried out. The pre-completion tests of instrumentation and control of ventilation systems, individual dosimetric control in medical station, and tests of nuclear programme according to commissioning and assembling work schedule at the equipment for physical protection of the NPP area started. Inspection activities at Mochovce were performed in accordance with inspection plan for 1996. Evaluation of routine inspections was performed by means of quarterly protocols. Main findings from the inspections performed in Mochovce were in the following areas: (a) deficiencies in the knowledge of the respective regulation and conditions from the Resolution of the state regulatory body, concerning selected employees; (b) training of the selected employees; (c) aim of the measures imposes by inspectors is to eliminate deficiencies in preparation of programmes for pre-completion and completion testing. NRA SR assessment activities at Mochovce NPP were focused mainly on approving and inspecting of design modification to approving programmes for pre-completion and completion testing of system s and equipment and on approving quality assurance programmes. The suggestions of international missions, which reviewed Mochovce safety in the years, were taken into consideration in the programme

  10. IAEA/WHO postal dose audits for radiotherapy hospitals in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izewska, J.; Vatnitsky, S.; Shortt, K.R.

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA/WHO TLD programme has been in operation for 34 years. In this period the calibration of approximately 5200 high-energy photon beams in over 1300 radiotherapy hospitals in 115 countries worldwide was checked. Of these, 18% of the audits were performed in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe. There are large contrasts in the region; while the results are very good for most countries, a few countries struggle with basic problems in dosimetry. The hospitals operating radiotherapy services without qualified medical physicists or dosimetry equipment have poorer results than those properly equipped and staffed. Only about 2/3 of TLD audit participants in Eastern Europe have the appropriate dosimetry equipment. To achieve consistency of the audit results within Eastern and South-Eastern Europe, strengthening of radiotherapy infrastructure in a few countries would be necessary. (authors)

  11. Establishing trees on cut-over peatlands in eastern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bussières

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Four major tree-planting trials on cut-over peatlands in eastern Canada were surveyed in 2002, in order to evaluate the potential use of trees in rehabilitation following horticultural peat extraction. At one of the sites, an experiment to determine the appropriate fertilisation rate for trees planted on cut-over peatlands was also conducted over several years. Tree performance was assessed by measuring survival, total height and annual growth of red maple (Acer rubrum L., tamarack (Larix laricina (Du Roi Koch., black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. B.S.P., jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb. and hybrid poplar (Populus spp.. Establishment and growth of tamarack and black spruce in cut-over peatlands showed good potential when compared to performance in conventional forestry plantations. Red maple and jack pine gave poor productivity but promising survival, whilst hybrid poplar plantings failed. Adding nutrients was essential for growth but dosages above 122.5 g of 3.4N-8.3P-24.2K per tree gave no further improvement. Therefore, several different tree species can be planted to reclaim cut-over peatlands in eastern Canada, so long as the appropriate species are chosen and nutrients are provided.

  12. The status of marine turtles in Montserrat (Eastern Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin, C. S.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The status of marine turtles in Montserrat (Eastern Caribbean is reviewed following five years of monitoring (1999-2003. The mean number of nests recorded during the annual nesting season (June-October was 53 (± 24.9 SD; range: 13-43. In accordance with earlier reports, the nesting of hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata and green (Chelonia mydas turtles was confirmed on several beaches around the island. Only non-nesting emergences were documented for loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta and there was no evidence of nesting by leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea; however, it is possible that additional survey effort would reveal low density nesting by these species. Officially reported turtle capture data for 1993-2003 suggest that a mean of 0.9 turtle per year (±1.2 SD; range: 0-4 were landed island-wide, with all harvest having occurred during the annual open season (1 October to 31 May. Informed observers believe that the harvest is significantly under-reported and that fishermen avoid declaring their catch by butchering turtles at sea (both during and outside the open season. Of concern is the fact that breeding adults are potentially included in the harvest, and that the open season partially coincides with the breeding season. The present study has shown that although Montserrat is not a major nesting site for sea turtles, it remains important on a regional basis for the Eastern Caribbean.

  13. The traces of roman metallurgy in Eastern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petković Sofija

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The archaeological traces of the Roman mining and metallurgy in eastern Serbia are rather frequent but insufficiently studied and published. Three mining-metallurgical regions abounding in gold, silver, copper, iron and lead could be distinguished there: 1. the upper course of the Pek river, metalla Pincensia, 2. the area between Bor, Zlot, Crna Reka and Rgotina and 3. the area in the river basin of Beli Timok, two latter ones had been organized as territoria metallorum. The archeometallurgical sites confirmed by investigations are: Kraku lu Jordan at the confluence of the Brodica river and the Pek river, Rudna Glava, Tilva Roš in Bor, Gamzigrad - Romuliana, Rgotina near Zaječar and Timacum Minus in the village Ravna near Knjaževac. Roman mining-metallurgical activities in eastern Serbia flourished from the end of the 3rd century, were interrupted by the invasion of Huns in AD 441. and restored in the time of emperors Anastasius and Justin I, in the end of the 5th - beginning of the 6th centuries. The Roman mining-metallurgical centers functioned in the 6th century until the Slav invasion in the beginning of the 7th century.

  14. Ore levels in Paleozoic of Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergaliev, G.Kh.; Myasnikov, A.K.; Fomichev, V.I.

    1999-01-01

    The regularity of the deposition of main mineralization of industrial types within Semipalatinsk test site proves and here and there defines more exactly location of the ore levels in Eastern Kazakhstan. Two mega levels, namely: Cambrian-Ordovician (siliceous-basalt, island-arc) and Carboniferous (especially carbonaceous-tarragons) ones are the most perspective for localizing the leading gold mineralization in the region

  15. Experience in implementing projects in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weichard, A.; Bauer, I.; Rieck, R.; Ziehm, R.

    2007-01-01

    The article covers the present projects and activities in Eastern Europe of Nukem Technologies GmbH. The company's East European business began in 1973 in the field of uranium trading. After difficult negotiations in the period of the ''cold war'' it became possible to enter into an agreement with the Soviet foreign trade organization, Techsnabexport, about purchases of uranium for Western nuclear power plants. In the course of Nukem's realignment in the late 1980s, the focus was shifted more and more to the possibility of exporting into other countries the technologies developed and proven in Germany. This included countries in Eastern Europe. The situation changed abruptly with the political opening of Eastern Europe. A large potential market opened to Nukem as a supplier of technologies and plants for waste treatment and, later, the wider area of decommissioning. The partners in Eastern Europe were interested in proven, modern solutions. The ensuing success was also due to the fact that Nukem, in the early nineties, hired specialists from the new German federal states who had studied in the Soviet Union and were familiar with Russian technology, language, and culture. Soliciting analogous projects in the countries of Eastern Europe other than the former Soviet Union was begun in a parallel process. Very soon it turned out that also the interim storage of spent fuel elements constituted a potential market. (orig.)

  16. Analysis of Regional GPS Networks in Eastern Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi Alinia, H.; Tiampo, K. F.

    2014-12-01

    Although stable, intraplate region of eastern Canada is considered low rate deformation area in the North American plate, the retreat of large ice sheets during deglaciation in the last 20 ka has resulted in horizontal and vertical deformation of the Earth's in eastern Ontario. Present-day glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) uplift rates approach 10 mm/yr or more at Hudson Bay and decrease with distance southeastward. Current GIA models forecast that the hinge line between uplift to the northwest and subsidence to the southeast lies somewhere near the Saint Lawrence valley in eastern Canada [Tushingham and Peltier, 1991; Peltier, 2002]. Employing continuous Global Positioning System (cGPS) observations and high precision tools for processing and then analyzing each component of derived time series are important tools to monitor the associated regional crustal deformation with good accuracies. Here we describe the analysis of coordinate time series of cGPS stations scattered sparsely throughout southeastern Ontario and between Ottawa and the east coast of Hudson Bay. Here, the two most reliable local networks, each including 4 to 6 reference stations, were selected for analysis. Data for period of approximately five years, 2008-2012.9, was processed with Bernese 5.0 over several campaigns. Individual cGPS coordinate time series were generated for each station and basic parameters, such as mean, variance and repeatability, were estimated. The time series are corrected with respect to the rigid plate motion and seasonal variations and advanced time series analysis techniques, including spectral analysis and principal component analysis were implemented. Post-processing of the time series reproduces the general GIA spatial pattern. Results also show that the vertical velocities of all stations in the solution are consistent with the GIA model uplift rate and are consistent with other cGPS sites in eastern Canada and increases from north of lake of Ontario (approximately

  17. Characterizing phosphorus dynamics in tile-drained agricultural fieldsof eastern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, Allison; Ruark, Matthew; Stuntebeck, Todd D.; Komiskey, Matthew J.; Good, Laura W.; Drummy, Nancy; Cooley, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Artificial subsurface drainage provides an avenue for the rapid transfer of phosphorus (P) from agricultural fields to surface waters. This is of particular interest in eastern Wisconsin, where there is a concentrated population of dairy farms and high clay content soils prone to macropore development. Through collaboration with private landowners, surface and tile drainage was measured and analyzed for dissolved reactive P (DRP) and total P (TP) losses at four field sites in eastern Wisconsin between 2005 and 2009. These sites, which received frequent manure applications, represent a range of crop management practices which include: two chisel plowed corn fields (CP1, CP2), a no-till corn–soybean field (NT), and a grazed pasture (GP). Subsurface drainage was the dominant pathway of water loss at each site accounting for 66–96% of total water discharge. Average annual flow-weighted (FW) TP concentrations were 0.88, 0.57, 0.21, and 1.32 mg L−1 for sites CP1, CP2, NT, and GP, respectively. Low TP concentrations at the NT site were due to tile drain interception of groundwater flow where large volumes of tile drainage water diluted the FW-TP concentrations. Subsurface pathways contributed between 17% and 41% of the TP loss across sites. On a drainage event basis, total drainage explained between 36% and 72% of the event DRP loads across CP1, CP2, and GP; there was no relationship between event drainflow and event DRP load at the NT site. Manure applications did not consistently increase P concentrations in drainflow, but annual FW-P concentrations were greater in years receiving manure applications compared to years without manure application. Based on these field measures, P losses from tile drainage must be integrated into field level P budgets and P loss calculations on heavily manured soils, while also acknowledging the unique drainage patterns observed in eastern Wisconsin.

  18. Forest decline research in Eastern Central Europe and Bavaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuther, M.; Kirchner, M.; Kirchinger, E.; Reiter, H.; Roesel, K.; Pfeifer, U.

    1991-07-01

    In 26 conference contributions, the condition of the forest in eastern central Europe (new Federal German laender, CSFR, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Estonia, Poland) and in Bavaria and Austria is described. The methodics of the countries' comprehensive monitoring and ecosystem analyzes in selected sites with their results are presented, mostly for the 80s. Possibilities and advantages of the modelling of forest ecosystems by computer are indicated as well as the gain of knowledge from extensive screening. For some regions, especially the Sudeten, maps showing the spatial distribution of airborne pollutants are presented. Pollutant concentrations are, in part, related to emittors. In almost all cases, indirect effects of acidic gaseous pollutants via changes in soil chemism are blamed for tree disease jointly with other factors or their outcome (silvicultural mistakes, drought, insect infestation). A striking fact is that in Hungary and Romania, unlike other European countries, oak-trees not conifers are most seriously affected. (UWA) [de

  19. Deformation patterns and seismic hazard along the eastern Sunda margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Heidrun; Djajadihardja, Yusuf; Flueh, Ernst R.; Hindle, David; Klaeschen, Dirk; Mueller, Christian; Planert, Lars; Reichert, Christian; Shulgin, Alexey; Wittwer, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    The eastern Sunda margin offshore Java, Bali, Lombok and Sumba is the site of oceanic subduction of the Indo-Australian plate underneath the Indonesian archipelago. Data from a suite of geophysical experiments conducted between 1997-2006 using RV SONNE as platform include seismic and seismological studies, potential field measurements and high-resolution seafloor bathymetry mapping. Tomographic inversions provide an image of the ongoing deformation of the forearc and the deep subsurface. We investigate the role of various key mechanisms that shape the first-order features characterizing the present margin architecture. Our contribution evaluates the differences in architecture and evolution along the Java forearc from a marine perspective to better understand the variation in tectonic styles and segmentation of the convergent margin, including its seismic risk potential.

  20. Foggy Diaspora: Romanian Women in Eastern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorescu-Marinković Annemarie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on ethnographic and anthropological research on the Romanian communities in Eastern Serbia, this article seeks to contribute to the global scholarship on diaspora and migration. It reveals interesting differences between the well defined and intensely studied notion of “diaspora” on the one hand, and the understudied, but useful concept of “near diaspora” on the other. First, the presence of Romanians in Eastern Serbia is looked at from a gender perspective, in the wider context of feminization of international migration. Second, the paper argues that the Romanian women in Eastern Serbia adopt the strategy of living in the “social fog”, thus becoming what can be termed “foggy diaspora”.

  1. Reproducing pine stands on the eastern shore of Maryland using a seed-tree cutting and preparing seedbeds with machinery and summer fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Little; J. J. Mohr

    1954-01-01

    Pure pine stands are the most profitable forest crop on upland sites of the Eastern Shore of Maryland. The stands have been common in the past, because loblolly pine and pond pine usually made up most of the first forest growth on abandoned farmland. And apparently nearly all upland sites have been tilled at one time or another.

  2. Radiation levels in eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.; Simmonds, J.R.; Wilkins, B.T.

    1986-01-01

    Immediately after news of the accident at Chernobyl became available on 28 April, the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) was asked by the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) for an appraisal of the radiation situation on the basis of which advice would be given to embassy staff, residents in affected countries and prospective travellers. The first Swedish measurements, external gamma dose rates and, later, concentrations of atmospheric and ground radioactivity, were used to estimate the quantity of radioactivity released by means of NRPB's accident consequence code (1), MARC. Our first predictions of 29 April indicated a substantial release of the order of 10 17 - 10 18 Bq, which was expected to lead to tens of early radiation-induced deaths in the area around the site. On the basis of NRPB's recommended Emergency Reference Levels (ERL's), it was thought that there would be a need for evacuation out to 20 to 30 km and for temporary food restrictions out to a few hundred kilometres from the site. FCO accordingly decided to evacuate students from Kiev and Minsk and to advise people not to travel to the western Soviet Union or to north-east Poland unless absolutely necessary

  3. Entomologic and Serologic Evidence of Zoonotic Transmission of Babesia microti, Eastern Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Foppa, Ivo M.; Krause, Peter J.; Spielman, Andrew; Goethert, Heidi; Gern, Lise; Brand, Brigit; Telford, Sam R.

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated human risk for infection with Babesia microti at a site in eastern Switzerland where several B. microti–infected nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks had been found. DNA from pooled nymphal ticks amplified by polymerase chain reaction was highly homologous to published B. microti sequences. More ticks carried babesial infection in the lower portion of the rectangular 0.7-ha grid than in the upper (11% vs. 0.8%). In addition, we measured seroprevalence of immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies ...

  4. Nutritional and organoleptic quality of Beni-Guil lamb meat breeding in eastern Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Belhaj, Kamal; Mansouri, Farid; Sindic, Marianne; Boukharta, M; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Abid, M; Serghini; Elamrani, A

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays in Morocco, 98% of red meat production is ensured by cattles, sheeps and goast. The eastern Morocco represents one of the main sheep farming areas, characterized by the specificity of its production systems. So it is well known by the quality of the sheep meat produced. The Beni-Guil breed is a dominate breed in this breeding area, labeled Protected Geographical Indication (PIG). Thus, it’s an important protein source for the population in this geographical site and highly appreciate...

  5. Human migration activities drive the fluctuation of ARGs : Case study of landfills in Nanjing, eastern China

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Mingming; Ye, Mao; Schwab, Arthur P; Li, Xu; Wan, Jinzhong; Wei, Zhong; Wu, Jun; Friman, Ville-Petri; Liu, Kuan; Tian, Da; Liu, Manqiang; Li, Huixin; Hu, Feng; Jiang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Landfills are perfect sites to study the effect of human migration on fluctuation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) as they are the final destination of municipal waste. For example, large-scale human migration during the holidays is often accompanied by changes in waste dumping having potential effects on ARG abundance. Three landfills were selected to examine fluctuation in the abundance of fifteen ARGs and Intl1 genes for 14 months in Nanjing, eastern China. Mass human migration, the a...

  6. Probabilistic assessment of the seismic hazard for eastern United States nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savy, J.; Bernreuter, D.; Mensing, R.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the seismic hazard characterization of the Eastern US project, for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, was to develop a methodology and data bases to estimate the seismic hazard at all the plant sites east of the Rocky Mountains. A summary of important conclusions reached in this multi year study is presented in this paper. The magnitude and role of the uncertainty in the hazard estimates is emphasized in regard of the intended final use of the results

  7. Terricolous Lichens in the Glacier Forefield of the Pasterze (Eastern Alps, Carinthia, Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Wallner, Anja; Tutzer, Veronika; Nascimbene, Juri; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Summary The investigation of lichens on soil, plant debris and terricolous mosses in the glacier forefield of the Pasterze yielded 35 lichen species. Placidiopsis oreades Breuss (Verrucariales) is new to Austria. Three sampling sites were established at increasing distance from the glacier, in order to compare species diversity, abundance and composition within the forefield and with four other glacier forefields of the Eastern Alps. PMID:26877565

  8. Litterfall mercury dry deposition in the eastern USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risch, Martin R.; DeWild, John F.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Kolka, Randall K.; Zhang, Leiming

    2012-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) in autumn litterfall from predominately deciduous forests was measured in 3 years of samples from 23 Mercury Deposition Network sites in 15 states across the eastern USA. Annual litterfall Hg dry deposition was significantly higher (median 12.3 micrograms per square meter (μg/m 2 ), range 3.5–23.4 μg/m 2 ) than annual Hg wet deposition (median 9.6 μg/m 2 , range 4.4–19.7 μg/m 2 ). The mean ratio of dry to wet Hg deposition was 1.3–1. The sum of dry and wet Hg deposition averaged 21 μg/m 2 per year and 55% was litterfall dry deposition. Methylmercury was a median 0.8% of Hg in litterfall and ranged from 0.6 to 1.5%. Annual litterfall Hg and wet Hg deposition rates differed significantly and were weakly correlated. Litterfall Hg dry deposition differed among forest-cover types. This study demonstrated how annual litterfall Hg dry deposition rates approximate the lower bound of annual Hg dry fluxes. - Highlights: ► Annual litterfall mercury dry deposition was significantly higher than wet deposition. ► The mean ratio of dry to wet mercury deposition was 1.3–1. ► The sum of dry and wet mercury deposition averaged 55% litterfall dry deposition. ► Litterfall mercury deposition was highest in the oak-hickory forest-cover type. ► Methylmercury was a median 0.8% of mercury in litterfall and ranged to 1.5%. - A multi-year study of Mercury Deposition Network sites found that annual mercury dry deposition from litterfall in predominately deciduous forests exceeded annual mercury wet deposition in the eastern USA.

  9. Gaseous Oxidized Mercury Dry Deposition Measurements in the FourCorners Area and Eastern Oklahoma, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) dry deposition measurements using surrogate surface passive samplers were collected in the Four Corners area and eastern Oklahoma from August, 2009–August, 2011. Using data from a six site area network, a characterization of the magnitude and spatia...

  10. Response of Planted Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus L.) to Mechanical Release, Competition, and Drought in the Southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton D. Clinton; Katherine J. Elliott; Wayne T. Swank

    1997-01-01

    Conversion of low-quality, natural mixed pine hardwood ecosystems, containing a mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia L.) dominated understory, to more productive eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.)/mixed-hardwood systems is a common prescription on relatively xeric southern Appalachian forest sites. We examined the effects of...

  11. Uterine prolapse prevention in Eastern Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radl, Christina Mathilde; Rajwar, Ranjita; Aro, Arja R.

    2012-01-01

    are working well or the attitudes toward them. This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study on primary and secondary prevention of uterine prolapse in Eastern Nepal. Method: The study involved eight focus group discussions with 71 women in six villages of the eastern districts of Siraha and Saptari......: It was found that patriarchy, gender discrimination, and cultural traditions such as early marriage and pregnancy make it difficult for people to discontinue uterine prolapse risk behaviors. Women are aware of risk factors, prevention, and treatment, but are powerless to change their situations. Health...

  12. Mycoplasma gallopavonis in eastern wild turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttrell, M P; Eleazer, T H; Kleven, S H

    1992-04-01

    Serum samples and tracheal cultures were collected from eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris) trapped for relocation in South Carolina (USA) during 1985 to 1990. Sera were tested for Mycoplasma gallisepticum and M. synoviae by the rapid plate agglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests and were found to be negative. Tracheal cultures were negative for all pathogenic Mycoplasma spp., including M. gallisepticum, M. synoviae, M. meleagridis, and M. iowae. However, M. gallopavonis was isolated from every group of wild turkeys tested in 1986 to 1990. These data suggest that M. gallopavonis, which is generally considered nonpathogenic, may be a common microorganism in eastern wild turkeys.

  13. Eastern Germany Ahead in Employment of Women

    OpenAIRE

    Elke Holst; Anna Wieber

    2014-01-01

    Almost a quarter of a century after the fall of the Wall, there are still more women in employment in eastern Germany than in the west. Although the disparity is marginal now, the two regions started from dramatically different levels. In 1991, immediately after reunification, the employment rate for women in western Germany was 54.6 percent, but since then it has increased year on year, reaching 67.5 percent in 2012. In eastern Germany, female employment initially plummeted after the fall of...

  14. Fission track geochronology of Eastern Ghats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virk, H S; Koul, S L; Singh, S [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics

    1978-12-01

    Fission track geochronology of Eastern Ghats has been established by using fission track technique in dating micaceous and accessory minerals occurring in the region. Annealing studies confirm that radiation damage fossil tracks can be erased in minerals under intense metamorphic episodes thus resetting the geological clock. The fission track ages of the minerals range between 450 +- 5 m.y. to 622 +- 148 m.y. It is concluded that f.t. ages of the minerals date the last metamorphic event of the Eastern Ghats, known as the Indian Ocean Cycle.

  15. Middle Eastern Christian spaces in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galal, Lise Paulsen; Hunter, Alistair; McCallum, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Despite little scholarly attention, Middle Eastern Christian Churches are a well-established element of the European religious landscape. Based on collaborative research, this article examines how three mutual field visits facilitated a deeper understanding of the complexity that characterises...... church establishment and activities among Iraqi, Assyrian/Syriac and Coptic Orthodox Christians in the UK, Sweden and Denmark. Exploring analytical dimensions of space, diversity, size, and minority position we identify three positions of Middle Eastern Christians: in London as the epitome of super...

  16. Bird collision impacts at wind turbines in eastern North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerlinger, Paul; Curry, Richard; Guarnaccia, John [Curry and Kerlinger, LLC (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This paper discusses the incidence of bird collisions at wind turbines in Eastern North America. Modern wind turbines are high, with long, tubular towers. Bird fatality is analyzed and references to the relevant studies that have been done are given. 26 sites were investigated for turbine mortality in 2011 and these are shown on a map. 64 turbines were examined in Maple Ridge and it was seen that 4 birds were killed per turbine per year. The results demonstrated that no eagles were killed, there were no endangered species involved and there was no real deviation from site to site. More than 80,000 individual turbines were researched and more than $30 million spent on the study. Around 120,000 birds are killed per year, or an average of over 6 birds per turbine per year, in the United States. It is clear from the extensive research conducted that there are a lot of data on birds and turbines; the data show that songbirds are the most often affected.

  17. Distribution, population status, and threats of nationally threatened Cantor's leaf-nosed bat Hipposideros galeritus Cantor, 1846 in eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrat Debata

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This report provides information regarding the distribution range, population status, and threats of the nationally threatened Cantor's leaf-nosed bat from Odisha, eastern India. The study revealed six new roosting sites of the species with an estimated total population of 97 individuals. Roosting sites were mostly recorded within moist deciduous habitats, located in caves, old temples, and buildings. In most of the sites, bats are threatened from roost site disturbance and hunted for ethnozoological uses. We recommend long-term monitoring on population trends in relation to human activities. The information generated from the study will aid in reassessing the conservation status of the species in future.

  18. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: About this journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: About this journal. Journal Home > Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. 78 FR 6319 - Eastern Hydroelectric Corporation; Notice Rejecting Request for Rehearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 7019-068] Eastern... an order amending license Article 401 for Eastern Hydroelectric Corporation's (Eastern Hydroelectric....\\1\\ On January 11, 2013, Eastern Hydroelectric filed a request for rehearing of Commission staff's...

  20. Diagnosing injury to eastern forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Skelly; Donald D. Davis; William Merrill; E. Alan Cameron; H. Daniel Brown; David B. Drummond; Leon S., eds. Dochinger

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to assist members of the National Vegetation Survey in recognizing air pollutant-induced injury and in identifying disease and insect damage that may be confused with air pollutant-induced injury to forest vegetation in the eastern United States. Ozone, sulfur dioxide, and, to a limited geographic extent, hydrogen fluoride, are all...

  1. Fragmentation of eastern United States forest types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; John W. Coulston

    2013-01-01

    Fragmentation is a continuing threat to the sustainability of forests in the Eastern United States, where land use changes supporting a growing human population are the primary driver of forest fragmentation (Stein and others 2009). While once mostly forested, approximately 40 percent of the original forest area has been converted to other land uses, and most of the...

  2. Trends in Employee Ownership in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels

    2012-01-01

    are tested using the new members of the EU in Eastern Europe and the candidate country of Croatia as cases. There is no coherent panel data, but by categorizing specific trends in each country and then combining the different trend variables it is possible to identify the most important factors influencing...

  3. The "New Politics" of EU's Eastern Enlargement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    The paper gives an overview of EU's eastern enlargement and draws some theoretical conclusions. In particular, it stresses the point that the EU member states in the process of enlargement have entered a phase of "new politics", characterised by multilateralism, conditionality, help and binding...

  4. INORGANIC ELEMENTS AND DISTRIBUTION OF EASTERN OYSTERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William S. In press. Inorganic Elements and Distribution of Eastern Oysters (Abstract). To be presented at the 96th Annual Meeting (Aquaculture 2004) of the National Shellfisheries Association, 1-5 March 2004, Honolulu, HI. 1 p. (ERL,GB R962). For over a century w...

  5. Eastern forest environmental threat assessment center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Research Station. USDA Forest Service

    2010-01-01

    The Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center (EFETAC) provides the latest research and expertise concerning threats to healthy forests – such as insects and disease, wildland loss, invasive species, wildland fire, and climate change – to assist forest landowners, managers and scientists throughout the East. Established in 2005, EFETAC is a joint effort of...

  6. Efficient silvicultural practices for eastern hardwood management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary W. Miller; John E. Baumgras

    1994-01-01

    Eastern hardwood forests are now managed to meet a wide range of objectives, resulting in the need for silvicultural alternatives that provide timber, wildlife, aesthetics, recreation, and other benefits. However, forest management practices must continue to be efficient in terms of profiting from current harvests, protecting the environment, and sustaining production...

  7. Is Eastern Hardwood Sawtimber Becoming Scarcer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Gilbert P. Dempsey; Gilbert P. Dempsey

    1996-01-01

    In recent years the hardwood lumber industry has become increasingly concerned about the availability and quality of hardwood sawtimber. However, these concerns seem to contradict USDA Forest Service estimates of increased volume and quality of hardwood sawtimber. This paper examines changes in eastern hardwood sawtimber inventories and the apparent contradiction...

  8. What's known about managing eastern white pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Lockard

    1959-01-01

    At the 1957 meeting of the Northeastern Forest Research Advisory Council the comment was made that although Eastern white pine has been the most studied forest tree species in the Northeast, the only literature on the management of the species was in reports on isolated and uncoordinated studies. There was no comprehensive compendium of knowledge.

  9. Biomass productivity improvement for eastern cottonwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry L. Robison; Randy J. Rousseau; Jianwei Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Eastern cottonwood ( Populus deltoides Marsh.) is grown in plantations by MeadWestvaco for use at its Wickliffe Kentucky Fine Papers Mill1. Genetic and productivity research over the past two decades have led to significant increases in biomass yield while reducing production costs.Initially, genetic research identified fast growing...

  10. Eastern national forests: managing for nontimber products

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain; Robert J. Bush; A.L. Hammett; Philip A. Araman

    2002-01-01

    Many products are harvested from the forests of the eastern United States that are not timber-based but originate from plant materials. Over the past decade, concern has grown about the sustainability of the forest resources from which these products originate, and an associated interest in managing for these products has materialized. A content analysis of the...

  11. Lifting the curtain in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    This article discusses the opportunities for engineering and technical services and investment in Eastern Bloc nations. Topics include political stability, capital and currency, economies, municipal waste processing plants, power generation equipment, nuclear and fossil power, technology, environmental protection, and construction and operation practices

  12. Rhinoplasty in the Middle Eastern nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apaydin, Fazil

    2014-08-01

    In this article, the main characteristics of Middle Eastern patients seeking rhinoplasty are reported. Besides the preoperative preparation, surgical techniques that can be used to obtain good results are discussed. The pitfalls of profile alignment, tip procedures and skin have been noted as well. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Eastern Africa Journal of Rural Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Eastern Africa Journal of Rural Development (EAJRD) is now going to be jointly published by the Ugandan Agricultural Economics Association - a professional body for Agricultural Economists and those interested in agricultural economics and rural development issues - and the Department of Agricultural Economics ...

  14. Culture and Language Learning: Middle Eastern Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrath, Douglas

    Middle Eastern students face cultural conflicts in adapting to the western value system. While feeling obligated to maintain their native culture they also need to feel comfortable with the culture of their target language. In attempting to identify with a new group, ESL students may sense a loss of membership in their native group. Culture stress…

  15. Astroparticle physics at the Eastern Colombia region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asorey, Hernán; Núñez, Luis A.

    2015-12-01

    We present the emerging panorama of Astroparticle Physics at the Eastern Colombia region, and describe several ongoing projects, most of them related to the Latin American Giant Observatory (LAGO) Project. This research work is carried out at the Grupo de Investigaciones en Relatividad y Gravitacin of Universidad Industrial de Santander.

  16. Environmental Factors Influencing Artisanal Fishing in Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The study identified the environmental factors affecting artisanal fishing in. Eastern Obolo local government area of Akwa ... colonial administration (Anko &Eyo, 2003). According to Olomola (1998), artisanal ... The problems faced by artisanal fishers in Nigeria are not far from what is experienced by artisanal fishermen in ...

  17. Development of sinkholes resulting from man's activities in the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, John G.

    1987-01-01

    Development of induced sinkholes in carbonate terranes in the Eastern United States has resulted in costly damage and water pollution. Previously, detailed investigations of sinkholes were limited to Alabama and Missouri, with the most comprehensive being in Alabama. An investigation of the remainder of the area was made in 1981 to regionalize previous findings. More than 850 sites of sinkhole development have been identified in 19 States. It is estimated that more than 6,500 sinkholes or related features have formed at these sites. Most have occurred since 1950. Based on information available, States most impacted are Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Missouri, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee.

  18. 78 FR 70573 - Eastern States: Filing of Plats of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLES956000 L14200000.BJ0000 14X] Eastern... BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield, Virginia, 30 calendar days from the date of publication in the Federal Register. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bureau of Land Management-Eastern States, 7450...

  19. 75 FR 4412 - Eastern States: Filing of Plats of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLES956000-L14200000-BJ0000] Eastern States... survey of the lands described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield, Virginia, 30... of Land Management-Eastern States, 7450 Boston Boulevard, Springfield, Virginia 22153. Attn...

  20. 76 FR 49760 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP11-524-000] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on July 29, 2011, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas 77056-5310, filed with the Federal Energy...

  1. 75 FR 45611 - Texas Eastern Transmission LP; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP10-471-000] Texas Eastern Transmission LP; Notice of Application July 27, 2010. Take notice that on July 15, 2010, Texas Eastern Transmission (Texas Eastern), P.O. Box 1642, Houston, Texas 77251-1642, filed in Docket No. CP10-471-000, an...

  2. 75 FR 39579 - Eastern States: Filing of Plats of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ...] Eastern States: Filing of Plats of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... file the plats of survey of the lands described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield... CONTACT: Bureau of Land Management-Eastern States, 7450 Boston Boulevard, Springfield, Virginia 22153...

  3. 78 FR 66352 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP14-9-000] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on October 17, 2013, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas 77056, filed an application in Docket No. CP14-9...

  4. 75 FR 65028 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ...] Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... of survey of the lands described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield, Virginia, 30... of Land Management-Eastern States, 7450 Boston Boulevard, Springfield, Virginia 22153. Attn...

  5. 78 FR 54482 - Eastern States: Filing of Plats of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLES956000-L14200000-BK0000] Eastern States... the Federal Register, Volume 78, Number 2, on pages 318-319 a notice entitled ``Eastern States: Filing... resurvey of a portion of the Qualla Indian Boundary, land held in trust for the Eastern Band of Cherokee...

  6. 76 FR 77846 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ...] Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... survey of the lands described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield, Virginia, 30... of Land Management-Eastern States, 7450 Boston Boulevard, Springfield, Virginia 22153. Attn...

  7. 75 FR 72837 - Eastern States: Filing of Plats of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ...] Eastern States: Filing of Plats of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... (BLM) will file the plats of survey of the lands described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in... INFORMATION CONTACT: Bureau of Land Management-Eastern States, 7450 Boston Boulevard, Springfield, Virginia...

  8. 76 FR 55700 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ...] Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... survey of the lands described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield, Virginia, 30... of Land Management-Eastern States, 7450 Boston Boulevard, Springfield, Virginia 22153. Attn...

  9. 75 FR 18234 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ...] Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of...) will file the plats of survey of the lands described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in... INFORMATION CONTACT: Bureau of Land Management--Eastern States, 7450 Boston Boulevard, Springfield, Virginia...

  10. 78 FR 48900 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ...] Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... survey of the lands described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield, Virginia, 30... of Land Management-Eastern States, 7450 Boston Boulevard, Springfield, Virginia 22153. Attn...

  11. 76 FR 45293 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ...] Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... survey of the lands described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield, Virginia, 30... of Land Management-Eastern States, 7450 Boston Boulevard, Springfield, Virginia 22153. Attn...

  12. 76 FR 48882 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ...] Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice Of... survey of the lands described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield, Virginia, 30... of Land Management--Eastern States, 7450 Boston Boulevard, Springfield, Virginia 22153. Attn...

  13. 76 FR 3651 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLES956000-L14200000-BJ0000] Eastern States... described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield, Virginia, 30 calendar days from the date of publication in the Federal Register. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bureau of Land Management-Eastern States...

  14. 75 FR 13302 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ...] Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of...) will file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in... INFORMATION CONTACT: Bureau of Land Management--Eastern States, 7450 Boston Boulevard, Springfield, Virginia...

  15. 77 FR 30314 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ...] Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior ACTION: Notice... the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield, Virginia, 30 calendar days from the date of publication in the Federal Register. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bureau of Land Management-Eastern States...

  16. 78 FR 16294 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLES956000-L14100000-BX0000] Eastern States... of Land Management (BLM) will file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM-Eastern... Register. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bureau of Land Management-Eastern States, 7450 Boston Boulevard...

  17. 77 FR 63856 - Eastern States: Filing of Plats of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ...] Eastern States: Filing of Plats of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... plats of survey of the lands described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield, Virginia... CONTACT: Bureau of Land Management-Eastern States, 7450 Boston Boulevard, Springfield, Virginia 22153...

  18. 76 FR 16444 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLES956000-L14200000-BJ0000] Eastern States... described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield, Virginia. DATES: BLM will file the plat of survey on April 22, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bureau of Land Management-Eastern States, 7450...

  19. 75 FR 33635 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLES956000-L14200000-BJ0000] Eastern States... described below in the BLM--Eastern States office in Springfield, Virginia, 30 calendar days from the date...--Eastern States, 7450 Boston Boulevard, Springfield, Virginia 22153. Attn: Cadastral Survey. SUPPLEMENTARY...

  20. 78 FR 23952 - Eastern States: Filing of Plats of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ...] Eastern States: Filing of Plats of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... file the plats of survey of the lands described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield... CONTACT: Bureau of Land Management-Eastern States, 7450 Boston Boulevard, Springfield, Virginia 22153...

  1. 75 FR 42459 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ...] Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... survey of the lands described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield, Virginia, 30... of Land Management-Eastern States, 7450 Boston Boulevard, Springfield, Virginia 22153. Attn...

  2. 76 FR 45292 - Eastern States: Filing of Plats of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ...] Eastern States: Filing of Plats of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... the plats of survey of the lands described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield... CONTACT: Bureau of Land Management--Eastern States, 7450 Boston Boulevard, Springfield, Virginia 22153...

  3. 75 FR 80069 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ...] Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... survey of the lands described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield, Virginia, 30... of Land Management-Eastern States, 7450 Boston Boulevard, Springfield, Virginia 22153. Attn...

  4. 78 FR 64933 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP14-4-000] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on October 10, 2013, Texas Eastern Transmission, (Texas Eastern), having its principal place of business at 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas, 77056...

  5. 76 FR 38381 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP11-67-001] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Amendment Take notice that on June 13, 2011, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas 77056, filed in the above referenced docket an amendment...

  6. 77 FR 37919 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLES956000-L19100000-Bk0000] Eastern States... of Land Management (BLM) will file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM-Eastern... Register. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bureau of Land Management-Eastern States, 7450 Boston Boulevard...

  7. 76 FR 2133 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLES956000-L14200000-BJ0000] Eastern States... described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield, Virginia, 30 calendar days from the date of publication in the Federal Register. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bureau of Land Management-Eastern States...

  8. 76 FR 6816 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ...] Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... survey of the lands described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield, Virginia, 30... of Land Management--Eastern States, 7450 Boston Boulevard, Springfield, Virginia 22153. Attn...

  9. 76 FR 26767 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLES956000-L14200000-BJ0000] Eastern States... described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield, Virginia, 30 calendar days from the date of publication in the Federal Register. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bureau of Land Management-Eastern States...

  10. 78 FR 79687 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP14-29-000] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on December 10, 2013 Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), at 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas 77056, filed an application in Docket No. CP14...

  11. 77 FR 26534 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP12-164-000] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on April 19, 2012, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas 77056, filed in Docket No. CP12-164-000, a request...

  12. 77 FR 20015 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP12-88-000] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on March 19, 2012, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas 77056-5310, filed an application in Docket No...

  13. 76 FR 33342 - Eastern States; Filing of Plats of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ...] Eastern States; Filing of Plats of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... published in the Federal Register, Volume 75, Number 174, on page 54910 a notice entitled ``Eastern States..., 2011 and the plat of survey accepted June 22, 2010, was officially filed in Eastern States Office...

  14. 75 FR 4412 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ...] Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield... CONTACT: Bureau of Land Management-Eastern States, 7450 Boston Boulevard, Springfield, Virginia 22153...

  15. 77 FR 12045 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP12-68-000] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on February 16, 2012, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), PO Box 1642, Houston, Texas 77056 filed an application in the above referenced docket...

  16. 76 FR 18210 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP11-138-000] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application On March 15, 2011, Texas Eastern Transmission Corporation (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas 77056-5310, filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory...

  17. 77 FR 58575 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ...] Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice... the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield, Virginia, 30 calendar days from the date of publication in the Federal Register. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bureau of Land Management-Eastern States...

  18. 76 FR 65533 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ...] Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... of survey of the land described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield, Virginia, 30... of Land Management--Eastern States, 7450 Boston Boulevard, Springfield, Virginia 22153. Attn...

  19. 75 FR 18145 - Eastern Arizona Counties Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Eastern Arizona Counties Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Eastern Arizona Counties Resource... Rivera, Coordinator, Eastern Arizona Counties Resource Advisory Committee, c/o Forest Service, USDA, P.O...

  20. 75 FR 54910 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ...] Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... survey of the lands described below in the BLM-Eastern States office in Springfield, Virginia, 30... of Land Management-Eastern States, 7450 Boston Boulevard, Springfield, Virginia 22153. Attn...

  1. Assessing health literacy in the eastern and middle-eastern cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Satish Chandrasekhar; Satish, Karthyayani Priya; Sreedharan, Jayadevan; Ibrahim, Halah

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Health literacy is a term employed to assess the ability of people to meet the increasing demands related to health in a rapidly evolving society. Low health literacy can affect the social determinants of health, health outcomes and the use of healthcare services. The purpose of the study was to develop a survey construct to assess health literacy within the context of regional culture. Different socioeconomic status among the Eastern and Middle Eastern countries may restr...

  2. Assessing health literacy in the eastern and middle-eastern cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Satish Chandrasekhar; Satish, Karthyayani Priya; Sreedharan, Jayadevan; Ibrahim, Halah

    2016-08-19

    Health literacy is a term employed to assess the ability of people to meet the increasing demands related to health in a rapidly evolving society. Low health literacy can affect the social determinants of health, health outcomes and the use of healthcare services. The purpose of the study was to develop a survey construct to assess health literacy within the context of regional culture. Different socioeconomic status among the Eastern and Middle Eastern countries may restrict, health information access and utilization for those with low literacy. By employing expert panel, Delphi technique, focus group methodologies, and pre-testing using participants (N = 900) from the UAE and India, a survey construct to the Eastern-Middle Eastern cultures was developed. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach's α and validity using Factor analysis. Kiaser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) sampling adequacy and Bartlett's tests were used to assess the strength of the relationship among the variables. Inclusion of non-health related items were found to be critical in the authentic assessment of health literacy in the Eastern and Middle Eastern population given the influence of social desirability. Thirty-two percentage of the original 19-item construct was eliminated by the focus group for reasons of relevance and impact for the local culture. Field pretesting participants from two countries, indicated overall construct reliability (Cronbach's α =0.85), validity and consistency (KMO value of 0.92 and Bartlett's test of sphericity was significant). The Eastern-Middle Eastern Adult Health Literacy (EMAHL13), screening instrument is brief, simple, a useful indicator of whether or not a patient can read. It assessespatients' ability to comprehend by distinguishing between health and non-health related items. The EMAHL13 will be a useful too for the reliable assessment of health literacy in countries, where culture plays a significant impact. This will be the first steptowards providing

  3. Pachybrachis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cryptocephalinae) of Eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Robert J.; LeSage, Laurent; Savard, Karine

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Seventeen Pachybrachis species occurring in eastern Canada [Ontario (ON), Québec (QC), New Brunswick (NB), Nova Scotia (NS), and Prince Edward Island (PE)] are treated by the authors. Two new national records were discovered, both from southernmost Ontario: P. cephalicus Fall and P. luctuosus Suffrian. Four species were new provincial records: P. cephalicus (ON), P. luctuosus (ON, QC), P. obsoletus Suffrian (NB), P. peccans (PE). A fully illustrated key to the Pachybrachis of eastern Canada is provided and supported with extensive photographs, distribution maps, and plant associations. Three species were distributed from southern Ontario into at least one province in the Maritimes (P. nigricornis (Say), P. obsoletus Suffrianand P. peccans Suffrian). Six species were distributed along the shores of the Great Lakes (Erie, Michigan, and Ontario) and rivers (Ottawa, Saguenay and St. Lawrence), but unknown from central and northern ON and QC (P. bivittatus (Say), P. hepaticus hepaticus (F. E. Melsheimer), P. othonus othonus (Say), P. pectoralis (F. E. Melsheimer), P. spumarius Suffrianand P. trinotatus (F. E. Melsheimer)). Seven species were rare, five being found exclusively from southern ON (P. calcaratus Fall, P. cephalicus, P. luridus (Fabricius), P. subfasciatus (J. E. LeConte)and P. tridens (F. E. Melsheimer)), with two having, in addition, a disjunct population in QC (P. atomarius (F. E. Melsheimer)and P. luctuosus). One species was found to be the northern most extension of an eastern United States (US) distribution into the eastern townships of QC (P. m-nigrum (F. E. Melsheimer)). There were no Pachybrachis that could be considered arctic, subarctic, or boreal species; no specimens were found from Labrador and Newfoundland, and all species had southern affinities. Pachybrachis atomarius, P. calcaratus, P. luridus, P. subfaciatus, and P. tridens, not seen over the last 30–70 years, may be extirpated from eastern Canada. PMID:24163583

  4. Remediation System Evaluation, Tutu Wellfield Superfund Site, St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Tutu Wellfield Superfund Site is a 1.5 square mile site located on the eastern end of St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) within the upper Turpentine Run surface drainage basin in the Anna’s Retreat area.

  5. Hemlock woolly adelgid (Homoptera: Adelgidae): stylet bundle insertion and feeding sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca F. Young; Kathleen S. Shields; Graeme P. Berlyn

    1995-01-01

    Stylet bundle insertion site, path traveled, and feeding site were examined for the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand, on needles from current and previous years of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis Carriere. The stylet bundle is composed of 4 individual stylets--2 outer mandibular stylets and 2 inner maxillary stylets...

  6. Phylogeography of Eastern Grey Kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, Suggests a Mesic Refugium in Eastern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett A Coghlan

    Full Text Available Phylogeographic studies around the world have identified refugia where fauna were able to persist during unsuitable climatic periods, particularly during times of glaciation. In Australia the effects of Pleistocene climate oscillations on rainforest taxa have been well studied but less is known about the effects on mesic-habitat fauna, such as the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus. The eastern grey kangaroo is a large mammal that is common and widespread throughout eastern Australia, preferring dry mesic habitat, rather than rainforest. As pollen evidence suggests that the central-eastern part of Australia (southeast Queensland and northern New South Wales experienced cycles of expansion in mesic habitat with contraction in rainforests, and vice versa during glacial and interglacial periods, respectively, we hypothesise that the distribution of the eastern grey kangaroo was affected by these climate oscillations and may have contracted to mesic habitat refugia. From 375 mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from across the distribution of eastern grey kangaroos we obtained 108 unique haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis identified two clades in Queensland, one of which is newly identified and restricted to a small coastal region in southern Queensland north of Brisbane, known as the Sunshine Coast. The relatively limited geographic range of this genetically isolated clade suggests the possibility of a mesic habitat refugium forming during rainforest expansion during wetter climate cycles. Other potential, although less likely, reasons for the genetic isolation of the highly distinct clade include geographic barriers, separate northward expansions, and strong local adaptation.

  7. Phylogeography of Eastern Grey Kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, Suggests a Mesic Refugium in Eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghlan, Brett A; Goldizen, Anne W; Thomson, Vicki A; Seddon, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    Phylogeographic studies around the world have identified refugia where fauna were able to persist during unsuitable climatic periods, particularly during times of glaciation. In Australia the effects of Pleistocene climate oscillations on rainforest taxa have been well studied but less is known about the effects on mesic-habitat fauna, such as the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). The eastern grey kangaroo is a large mammal that is common and widespread throughout eastern Australia, preferring dry mesic habitat, rather than rainforest. As pollen evidence suggests that the central-eastern part of Australia (southeast Queensland and northern New South Wales) experienced cycles of expansion in mesic habitat with contraction in rainforests, and vice versa during glacial and interglacial periods, respectively, we hypothesise that the distribution of the eastern grey kangaroo was affected by these climate oscillations and may have contracted to mesic habitat refugia. From 375 mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from across the distribution of eastern grey kangaroos we obtained 108 unique haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis identified two clades in Queensland, one of which is newly identified and restricted to a small coastal region in southern Queensland north of Brisbane, known as the Sunshine Coast. The relatively limited geographic range of this genetically isolated clade suggests the possibility of a mesic habitat refugium forming during rainforest expansion during wetter climate cycles. Other potential, although less likely, reasons for the genetic isolation of the highly distinct clade include geographic barriers, separate northward expansions, and strong local adaptation.

  8. Contaminated Sites in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Sites contaminated by hazardous materials or wastes. These sites are those administered by the Contaminated Sites Section of Iowa DNR. Many are sites which are...

  9. New Hexactinellid Sponge Chaunoplectella megapora sp. nov. (Lyssacinosida: Leucopsacidae) from Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone, Eastern Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunsheng; Zhang, Yuan; Lu, Bo; Wang, Dexiang

    2018-01-23

    The new Hexactinellid sponge Chaunoplectella megapora sp. nov. reported in this study was collected from the COMRA contract area, the western part of Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone (CCFZ) in the eastern Pacific Ocean at a depth of 5258 m. This sponge's extraordinary multiporous body with the presence of unique codonhexasters, sigmatocomes, toothed discohexasters and hemidiscohexasters, as well as stellate disocohexasters, characterizes it as a new species in the genus Chaunoplectella. This report presents the first record of family Leucopsacidae at this site in the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  10. Rural measurements of the chemical composition of airborne particles in the Eastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, G.T.; Kelly, N.A.; Ferman, M.A.; Morrissey, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    Quantitative measurements of particulate composition was made at three rural sites: in central South Dakota, on the Louisiana Gulf Coastal, and in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia. The first two sites were selected to determine background concentrations in continental polar and maritime tropical air masses, respectively, which affect the eastern United State during the summer. The Virginia site was selected as a receptor site, downwind of the midwestern source area. The South Dakota data established the background concentrations. These concentrations were similar to the levels in Louisiana when air parcels arrived from the Gulf of Mexico, without recently passing over the United States. Levels of fine particles (diameters less than 2.5 μm) were highest in Virginia and were due chiefly to sulfate. Using trajectory and statistical analyses, it is shown that the residence time of an air parcel over the midwestern source area was the most important variable in determining the sulface levels in the Blue Ridge Mountains

  11. The impact of black wattle encroachment of indigenous grasslands on soil carbon, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oelofse, Myles; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Magid, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    adverse environmental impacts in South Africa. Little is known about the effects of black wattle encroachment on soil carbon, therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of black wattle encroachment of natural grassland on soil carbon stocks and dynamics. Focussing on two sites...... in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, the study analysed carbon stocks in soil and litter on a chronosequence of black wattle stands of varying ages (up to >50 years) and compared these with adjacent native grassland. The study found that woody encroachment of grassland at one site had an insignificant effect...... on soil and litter carbon stocks. The second site showed a clear decline in combined soil and litter carbon stocks following wattle encroachment. The lowest stock was in the oldest wattle stand, meaning that carbon stocks are still declining after 50 years of encroachment. The results from the two sites...

  12. Abundance and sources of atmospheric halocarbons in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Schoenenberger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of anthropogenic halocarbons is released to the atmosphere, contributing to stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. Using measurements of atmospheric abundances for the estimation of halocarbon emissions on the global and regional scale has become an important top-down tool for emission validation in the recent past, but many populated and developing areas of the world are only poorly covered by the existing atmospheric halocarbon measurement network. Here we present 6 months of continuous halocarbon observations from Finokalia on the island of Crete in the Eastern Mediterranean. The gases measured are the hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs, HFC-134a (CH2FCF3, HFC-125 (CHF2CF3, HFC-152a (CH3CHF2 and HFC-143a (CH3CF3 and the hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs, HCFC-22 (CHClF2 and HCFC-142b (CH3CClF2. The Eastern Mediterranean is home to 250 million inhabitants, consisting of a number of developed and developing countries, for which different emission regulations exist under the Kyoto and Montreal protocols. Regional emissions of halocarbons were estimated with Lagrangian atmospheric transport simulations and a Bayesian inverse modeling system, using measurements at Finokalia in conjunction with those from Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE sites at Mace Head (Ireland, Jungfraujoch (Switzerland and Monte Cimone (Italy. Measured peak mole fractions at Finokalia showed generally smaller amplitudes for HFCs than at the European AGAGE sites except for periodic peaks of HFC-152a, indicating strong upwind sources. Higher peak mole fractions were observed for HCFCs, suggesting continued emissions from nearby developing regions such as Egypt and the Middle East. For 2013, the Eastern Mediterranean inverse emission estimates for the four analyzed HFCs and the two HCFCs were 13.9 (11.3–19.3 and 9.5 (6.8–15.1 Tg CO2eq yr−1, respectively. These emissions contributed 16.8 % (13.6–23.3 % and 53.2 % (38.1–84.2

  13. Prevalence of blood parasites in eastern versus Western house finches: are eastern birds resistant to infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew K; Hood, Wendy R; Hill, Geoffrey E

    2013-09-01

    The rapid spread of the bacterial disease, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), throughout the introduced range of house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) in eastern North America, compared to its slower spread through the native western range, has puzzled researchers and highlights the need to understand the relative differences in health state of finches from both populations. We conducted a light-microscope survey of hemoparasites in populations of finches from Arizona (within the western range) and from Alabama (within the eastern range), and compared our estimates of prevalence to published reports from house finches sampled in both ranges. Of the 33 Arizona birds examined, we recorded hematozoan infections in 16 (48.5%) individuals, compared to 1 infected Alabama bird out of 30 birds examined (3.3%). Based on independent surveys of seven western North American and five eastern North American populations of house finches the average prevalence of blood parasites in western populations is 38.8% (±17.9 SD), while the average prevalence within the eastern range is only 5.9% (±6.1 SD). The average rate of infection among all songbirds sampled in the east is 34.2% (±4.8 SD). Thus, our surveys of wild birds as well as previously published observations point to eastern house finches having a much lower prevalence of blood parasite infections than their western counterparts. Combined with the fact that eastern finches also tend to have lower rates of avian pox infections than do western birds (based on a literature review), these observations suggest that eastern birds have either strong resistance to these infections or high susceptibility and associated mortality.

  14. The chromium in timberline forests in the eastern Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ji; Tang, Ronggui; She, Jia; Chen, Youchao; Gong, Yiwen; Zhou, Jun; Yu, Dong

    2013-10-01

    In order to study the regional distribution, trait and possible source of chromium in the eastern Tibetan Plateau, we collected samples of xylem, bark, leaves and twigs in two parallel northwest-southeast belt transects (TA and TB) from the Hengduan Mountains. According to the Cr mean concentration, organ/tissue was split into two groups: the high-level organ/tissue (twigs: 1.476 mg kg(-1)) and the low-level organ/tissue (bark: 0.413 mg kg(-1), leaves: 0.340 mg kg(-1) and xylem: 0.194 mg kg(-1)). The mean Cr concentrations of twigs and leaves in TB samples were higher than those in the TA samples, and the mean Cr concentration in both sites gradually reduced from southeast to northwest. Both the southeasterly and southwesterly monsoons could be significant, influential factors in this connection. The top three mean Cr concentrations were S7, S1 and S8, which were closer to the developed city. Mean Cr concentrations in S3, S4 and S5, (remote, high mountains) were relatively low. The high mountains acting as a barrier to the monsoon and the distance from the big city may play important roles in the distribution of Chromium. Furthermore, the relationship between the mean Cr concentration and precipitation, timberline trees as bio-monitors of chromium pollution in polluted areas and the possible source of Cr in the eastern Tibetan Plateau are also discussed. This study may provide reliable proof of Cr contamination processes, and so help in future to prevent further Cr pollution, and also be helpful in understanding the important function of forest ecosystems in relation to atmospheric pollution and global change. To better understand the characteristics of temporal and spatial distribution of Cr concentration, we found that tree ring, fine roots and soil samples are good choices.

  15. Tree Nonstructural Carbohydrate Reserves Across Eastern US Temperate Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantooth, J.; Dietze, M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the roles, importance, and dynamics of tree non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) is currently an active area of research. The question of how the relationships between NSCs, growth, and mortality can be used to develop more accurate projections of forest dynamics is central to this research. To begin to address this question, we have asked an even more fundamental question: How much are trees allocating carbon to storage, in the form of NSCs, versus new growth? Ecological theory predicts that there should be trade-offs between different plant life history strategies provided that there are the carbon mass-balance constraints to enforce these trade-offs. Current data on tree NSCs lack the spatial and taxonomic extent required to properly address this question. Therefore, we established a network of forest inventory plots at ten sites across the eastern US and measured growth in adult trees using increment cores and repeat measures of diameter at breast height (DBH). Increment cores were also used to measure sapwood NSCs. We hypothesized that across the eastern US, shade tolerant species, e.g. Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum) have the largest NSC reserves and that shade intolerant species have the lowest reserves. We also hypothesized that NSC reserves increase with temperature and precipitation, as with growth, and that within species NSC reserves increase with growth rate. Initial analyses of tree NSCs indicates that trees of intermediate shade tolerance, e.g. Red Oak (Quercus rubra) have the highest concentrations of sapwood NSCs, and among the highest growth rates. Across the entire study region, NSC concentrations are positively correlated with tree size and growth rate. Within species, NSC concentrations are also positively correlated with growth rate. Across functional groups healthy individuals have significantly higher sapwood NSC concentrations than visibly stressed individuals. There are also significantly lower NSC concentrations in sapwood of

  16. Multiple distant origins for green sea turtles aggregating off Gorgona Island in the Colombian eastern Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego F Amorocho

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA analyses have been useful for resolving maternal lineages and migratory behavior to foraging grounds (FG in sea turtles. However, little is known about source rookeries and haplotype composition of foraging green turtle aggregations in the southeastern Pacific. We used mitochondrial DNA control region sequences to identify the haplotype composition of 55 green turtles, Chelonia mydas, captured in foraging grounds of Gorgona National Park in the Colombian Pacific. Amplified fragments of the control region (457 bp revealed the presence of seven haplotypes, with haplotype (h and nucleotide (π diversities of h = 0.300±0.080 and π = 0.009±0.005 respectively. The most common haplotype was CMP4 observed in 83% of individuals, followed by CMP22 (5%. The genetic composition of the Gorgona foraging population primarily comprised haplotypes that have been found at eastern Pacific rookeries including Mexico and the Galapagos, as well as haplotypes of unknown stock origin that likely originated from more distant western Pacific rookeries. Mixed stock analysis suggests that the Gorgona FG population is comprised mostly of animals from the Galapagos rookery (80%. Lagrangian drifter data showed that movement of turtles along the eastern Pacific coast and eastward from distant western and central Pacific sites was possible through passive drift. Our results highlight the importance of this protected area for conservation management of green turtles recruited from distant sites along the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  17. Multiple distant origins for green sea turtles aggregating off Gorgona Island in the Colombian eastern Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorocho, Diego F; Abreu-Grobois, F Alberto; Dutton, Peter H; Reina, Richard D

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA analyses have been useful for resolving maternal lineages and migratory behavior to foraging grounds (FG) in sea turtles. However, little is known about source rookeries and haplotype composition of foraging green turtle aggregations in the southeastern Pacific. We used mitochondrial DNA control region sequences to identify the haplotype composition of 55 green turtles, Chelonia mydas, captured in foraging grounds of Gorgona National Park in the Colombian Pacific. Amplified fragments of the control region (457 bp) revealed the presence of seven haplotypes, with haplotype (h) and nucleotide (π) diversities of h = 0.300±0.080 and π = 0.009±0.005 respectively. The most common haplotype was CMP4 observed in 83% of individuals, followed by CMP22 (5%). The genetic composition of the Gorgona foraging population primarily comprised haplotypes that have been found at eastern Pacific rookeries including Mexico and the Galapagos, as well as haplotypes of unknown stock origin that likely originated from more distant western Pacific rookeries. Mixed stock analysis suggests that the Gorgona FG population is comprised mostly of animals from the Galapagos rookery (80%). Lagrangian drifter data showed that movement of turtles along the eastern Pacific coast and eastward from distant western and central Pacific sites was possible through passive drift. Our results highlight the importance of this protected area for conservation management of green turtles recruited from distant sites along the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  18. Fuel shortage hits eastern Siberia region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, R.

    1992-01-01

    Moscow's loss of absolute authority over the Russian economy has contributed to growing chaos in the supply of oil and gas to the former U.S.S.R.'s far eastern territories. This paper reports that Sakhalin Island, which has provided a substantial portion of the area's hydrocarbon fuels, has shown increasing reluctance to sell oil and gas for nearly worthless rubles to its eastern Siberian neighbors. Instead, it is bartering as much as possible of its surplus petroleum for foreign food and consumer goods. Moscow's Izvestia newspaper strongly criticized Sakhalin authorities for placing the island's interests ahead of the welfare of the Russian republic as a whole. It the Sakhalin's selfish attitude resulted in near disaster last winter for the economy and populace of neighboring Khabarovsk territory on the Siberian mainland. Only milder than normal winter weather prevented a catastrophe, Izvestia reported. Even so, some old people died from the cold in Khabarovsk, a city of 600,000 population

  19. International uranium production. An eastern Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albino, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    The Eastern Canadian perspective on uranium production is based on 30 years of continuous mining at Elliot Lake and on the experience of selling uranium over the same time period, mainly to export markets. In Ontario the orebodies are basically contiguous, being part of the same large formation. All the mining is underground. Ore grades are low, but economic extraction is improved by continuity and uniformity of grades, stable ground conditions, and the ability to mine and mill on a large scale. Mining is being carried out by two companies, Denison and Rio Algom. It is unlikely that mine capacity will be increased. Government policies have significant effects on the Eastern Canadian uranium industry in particular, as to U.S. import policies. (L.L.)

  20. Late Ordovician brachiopods from eastern North Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mac Ørum Rasmussen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Late Ordovician rhynchonelliformean brachiopods, typical of the North American Red River fauna, are found sporadically in the BOrglum River Formation of the Centrum SO area, Kronprins Christian Land, eastern North Greenland. The geographical distribution of this characteristic brachiopod fauna......) to younger strata exclusively yielding specimens of H.gigas. As H.gigas occurs in the upper part of the Cape Calhoun Formation in Washington Land, it indicates that the upper boundary of the Cape Calhoun Formation is considerably younger than previous estimates, reaching into the uppermost Katian (middle...... (Richmondian), it possesses a strong provincial signal during the later Ordovician. The new occurrences indicate that this fauna extended to the north-eastern margin of the Laurentian Craton. It lived in close association with cosmopolitan faunal elements that may have been the earliest sign of the succeeding...

  1. Nuclear insurance in Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, G.

    1998-01-01

    In the world outside the former Soviet Union, insurance industries in their respective domestic markets have pooled their resources so as to provide a secure and cost-effective conduit for the transaction of insurance business on behalf of the nuclear industry. These are the so-called nuclear pools. This paper explains the four main principles behind nuclear liability insurance and discusses their application to Central Europe and in particular to the problems facing the nuclear industry in Eastern Europe. (author)

  2. Phytoremediation of Excavation in Eastern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeeva, S. S.; Zhmurova, T. M.

    2017-04-01

    The paper deals with prospects and applicability of phytoremediation technology in the conditions of Eastern Siberia as applied to gypsum stone extraction of Zalarinsky deposit in Irkutsk region. It analyses dust intensity for different technological processes of the deposit and evaluates the dust loading on the workers of the deposit. The selection of plantings that have potential to neutralize the dust loading produced by the plot “Severniy” is carried out.

  3. Drained Triaxial Tests on Eastern Scheldt Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praastrup, U.; Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    In the process of understanding and developing models for geomaterials, the stress-strain behaviour is commonly studied by performing triaxial tests. In the present study static triaxial tests have been performed to gain knowledge of the stress-strain behaviour of frictional materials during...... monotonic loading. The tests reported herein are all drained tests, starting from different initial states of stress and following various stress paths. AIl the tests are performed on reconstituted medium dense specimens of Eastern Scheldt Sand....

  4. Cancer Control in Central and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    La Vecchia, Carlo; Conte, Pierfranco

    2016-01-01

    In Central and Western Europe, cancer mortality is declining at slower rates as compared with rates in the rest of the world. More than a generation has now passed since the end of nonmarket economies in Central and Eastern Europe. It is time for this area of the continent to close the gap in cancer incidence and mortality rates between it and Western Europe and other high-income areas of the world.

  5. Gaseous Oxidized Mercury Dry Deposition Measurements in the Southwestern USA: A Comparison between Texas, Eastern Oklahoma, and the Four Corners Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E. Sather

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM dry deposition measurements using aerodynamic surrogate surface passive samplers were collected in central and eastern Texas and eastern Oklahoma, from September 2011 to September 2012. The purpose of this study was to provide an initial characterization of the magnitude and spatial extent of ambient GOM dry deposition in central and eastern Texas for a 12-month period which contained statistically average annual results for precipitation totals, temperature, and wind speed. The research objective was to investigate GOM dry deposition in areas of Texas impacted by emissions from coal-fired utility boilers and compare it with GOM dry deposition measurements previously observed in eastern Oklahoma and the Four Corners area. Annual GOM dry deposition rate estimates were relatively low in Texas, ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 ng/m2h at the four Texas monitoring sites, similar to the 0.2 ng/m2h annual GOM dry deposition rate estimate recorded at the eastern Oklahoma monitoring site. The Texas and eastern Oklahoma annual GOM dry deposition rate estimates were at least four times lower than the highest annual GOM dry deposition rate estimate previously measured in the more arid bordering western states of New Mexico and Colorado in the Four Corners area.

  6. EU, Eastern Europe and Values Imperialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen White

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an idea of'values imperialism'as a helpful way of conceptualising the relationship between the EU and the states that came within its sphere of influence after the end of the Cold War, particularly its 'neighbours' in Eastern Europe. Values imperialism places its emphasis on the 'superstructure', including norms, laws and social practices. EU larger objective was that the assumptions about government and ownership that were favoured by the dominant powers (EU and the West in the broad term should be absorbed and recapitulated by those countries that were subordinate. The broad framework ofsubordination was established by the Partnership and Cooperation Agreements that began to be concluded from 1994 onwards. Patterns of'values imperialism'could also be discovered in the EU Common Strategies on Russia and Ukraine that were adopted in 1999. Article also points out several cases when the EU intervened directly in the domestic affairs of the Eastern Europe countries in a manner that was not always compatible with the provisions on state sovereignty: a 'European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights', launched in 2006, interventions ofEU representatives in the work of local courts and organisation of exit polls, which could be used to discredit the official election results and in this way to undermine the position of local governments. Finally, the author concludes that the EU used 'values imperialism'practices in order to extend its influence, particularly in the Eastern Europe.

  7. SO2 emission scenarios of eastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, L.; Hao, J.; Lu, M.

    1995-01-01

    Under the National Key Project in Eighth Five-year Plan, a study was carried out on forecasting SO 2 emission from coal combustion in China, with a special emphasis on the eastern area. 3 scenarios, i.e. 'Optimistic', 'Pessimistic' and 'Business as Usual' scenarios were developed trying to cover changing scale of coal consumption and SO 2 emission from 1990 to 2020. A 'Top-down' approach was employed, and coal consumption elasticity was defined to project future economic growth and coal consumption. SO 2 emission scenarios were outlined, based on coal consumption, estimated sulfur content level and prospective SO 2 control situation. Emission level for each 1 degree longitude x 1 degree latitude grid cell within eastern China was also estimated to show geographical distribution of SO 2 sources. The results show that SO 2 emission in China will increase rapidly, if the current situation for energy saving and SO 2 control is maintained without improvement; measures enhanced reasonably with economic growth could stop further increase of emission by 2010. Realization of more encouraging objective to keep emission at even below 1990 level needs, however, more stringent options. The share of eastern China in the country's total emission would increase until 2000, while the general changing tendency would principally follow the scenarios of the whole country. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  8. Human paleoecological integration in subarctic eastern Beringia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanoë, François B.; Reuther, Joshua D.; Holmes, Charles E.; Hodgins, Gregory W. L.

    2017-11-01

    We contribute to the understanding of megafauna extinction and human dispersal in subarctic eastern Beringia by focusing on changes in the trophic dynamics of the large mammal community as well as the ecological role of humans as a predator and competitor. We reconstruct habitat use by megafauna and humans throughout the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary based on zooarchaeological data and stable isotope ratios of collagen. Our results are consistent with habitat heterogeneity and availability being important factors in the changing abundance of large herbivores. We argue that an increase in herbivore diversity and biomass at the beginning of the Bølling-Allerød interstadial and a relative lack of competitors favored the initial human colonization of subarctic eastern Beringia. As herbivore resources dwindled later in the Late Glacial, people increasingly relied on bison and wapiti. By efficiently extracting some of the highest-ranked resources in the landscape, people are likely to have contributed to the trophic displacement or regional extirpation of other large predators. The ecological patterns that we observe in subarctic eastern Beringia are consistent with a mixture of both top-down and bottom-up controls over biotic turnover.

  9. Crisis of the EU Eastern Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Bolgova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the Vilnius summit of the EaP project and the consequent Ukrainian crisis with major international effects make possible questioning about the eventual scenarios of the EU eastern politics and possible configurations ofinternational interactions. The article elaborates on the key elements and trends of the EU activities at the post-soviet space that are likely to frame the context of its further developments. The most visible trends analysed here are the extreme differentiation of bilateral relations within the EaP project alongside with the growing symbolism of official rhetoric and program practices of the European Union. As a result, we see the EU's intention to narrow the geographical and qualitative field of its activities on the eastern directionwith saving the shell of the EaP for nominal functioning. Such tactics is not likely to result in a drastic change of the model of conflict dependencies in the "shared neighbourhood". The article analyses key misperceptions of the actors involved in the complex of interactions in the region. The structure is complicated by the deepening and widening of Russia-lead Eurasian integration project. Current crisis of the EU eastern policy is considered to derive from the exaggeration of the value-based, normative aspect of the common foreign policy in general and will have the systemic consequences both for the European external actions and for its internal developments.

  10. Seismic hazard in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Charles; Boyd, Oliver; Petersen, Mark D.; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Rezaeian, Sanaz; Shumway, Allison

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey seismic hazard maps for the central and eastern United States were updated in 2014. We analyze results and changes for the eastern part of the region. Ratio maps are presented, along with tables of ground motions and deaggregations for selected cities. The Charleston fault model was revised, and a new fault source for Charlevoix was added. Background seismicity sources utilized an updated catalog, revised completeness and recurrence models, and a new adaptive smoothing procedure. Maximum-magnitude models and ground motion models were also updated. Broad, regional hazard reductions of 5%–20% are mostly attributed to new ground motion models with stronger near-source attenuation. The revised Charleston fault geometry redistributes local hazard, and the new Charlevoix source increases hazard in northern New England. Strong increases in mid- to high-frequency hazard at some locations—for example, southern New Hampshire, central Virginia, and eastern Tennessee—are attributed to updated catalogs and/or smoothing.

  11. Sleeping sites of woolly mouse opossum Micoureus demerarae (Thomas (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae in the Atlantic Forest of south-eastern Brazil Sítios de dormida da cuíca Micoureus demerarae (Thomas (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidaa na Floresta Atlântica do sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edsel A. Moraes Junior

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Micoureus demerarae (Thomas, 1905 is a medium-sized marsupial, around 130 g, with a nocturnal habit and insectivorous-omnivorous diet. From August 2001 to July 2002, seven individuals, three males and four females, were monitored with radio-telemetry in Reserva Biológica União, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, aiming to investigate and describe the sleeping sites used by this marsupial. Fifty eight sleeping sites were located, most of which (70,7% in palm trees Astrocaryum aculeatissimum (Schott Burret, and the remaining in other tree species (29,3%, a significant difference (chi2 test; p Micoureus demerarae (Thomas, 1905 é um marsupial de tamanho médio, cerca de 130 g, de hábito noturno e arborícola e dieta insetívora-onívora. No período de agosto de 2001 a julho de 2002, sete indivíduos, três machos e quatro fêmeas, foram acompanhados, através de rádio-telemetria, na Reserva Biológica União, Rio de Janeiro, com o objetivo de investigar e descrever os abrigos utilizados por essa espécie de marsupial. Foram localizados 58 abrigos, a maioria dos quais (70,7% em palmeiras Iri Astrocaryum aculeatissimum (Schott Burret e o restante em outras espécies de árvores (29,3%, uma diferença significativa (teste chi2; p < 0,005. Esta preferência por palmeiras não foi significativamente diferente entre os sexos (teste chi2; p = 0,920. Em 31 abrigos (53,4% do total o local exato onde o animal se encontrava pode ser localizado: nas palmeiras os animais sempre estavam alojados no local de inserção dos pecíolos junto ao tronco e a uma altura média de 4,66 ± 1,36 m, enquanto nas demais espécies de árvores, sete animais estavam em emaranhados de cipós e dois em ocos, a uma altura média de 10,67 ± 2,75 m. Esta diferença de altura entre abrigos em iris e não iris foi significativa (teste Mann Whitney; p < 0,001. Os resultados indicam que as palmeiras iris são um importante recurso para M. demerarae. A preferência por A

  12. Cancer incidence in eastern Morocco: cancer patterns and incidence trends, 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elidrissi Errahhali, Manal; Elidrissi Errahhali, Mounia; Ouarzane, Meryem; Boulouiz, Redouane; Bellaoui, Mohammed

    2017-08-29

    Cancer is one of the major health problems worldwide. In this article, we present for the first time the cancer incidence trends, the distribution and the socioeconomic profile of incident cancer cases in Eastern Morocco over a period of eight years. Retrospective descriptive study of patients diagnosed with cancer at the Hassan II Regional Oncology Center (ROC) since it was created in October 2005 until December 2012. During the study period, the ROC was the only hospital specialized in cancer care in Eastern Morocco. A total of 7872 incident cases of cancer were registered in Eastern Morocco. Among these incident cases 5220 cases were women and 2652 were men, with a female to male ratio of 1.97. The mean age at diagnosis was 58 years for males and 52 for females and 94% of the patients aged over 30 years. For both sexes combined and for all cancer sites, breast cancer was the commonest followed by cervix uteri, colon-rectum, lung, nasopharynx, and stomach cancers. The most common cancer in women was breast cancer, followed respectively by cervix uteri cancer, colon-rectum cancer, ovary cancer, and stomach cancer. In men, the lung cancer ranked first, followed respectively by colon-rectum cancer, nasopharynx cancer, prostate cancer, and stomach cancer. For most cancers, crude incidence rates (CR) have increased significantly. The CR for all cancers combined has increased from 56.6 to 80.3 per 100,000 females and from 32.3 to 42.6 per 100,000 males during the study period. Patients profile analysis showed that 79% of cancer patients were from urban areas, 83% were unemployed and 85% had no health insurance. The distribution of cancers in Eastern Morocco is different from those observed in other regions of Morocco. Unlike most countries, women were much more affected with cancer than men in Eastern Morocco. More importantly, the rates of many cancers are rising. Therefore, our data justify the need to develop effective programs for cancer control and prevention in

  13. Nuclear installations sites safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, P.; Candes, P.; Duclos, P.; Doumenc, A.; Faure, J.; Hugon, J.; Mohammadioun, B.

    1988-11-01

    This report is divided into ten parts bearing: 1 Safety analysis procedures for Basis Nuclear Installations sites (BNI) in France 2 Site safety for BNI in France 3 Industrial and transport activities risks for BNI in France 4 Demographic characteristics near BNI sites in France 5 Meteorologic characteristics of BNI sites in France 6 Geological aspects near the BNI sites in France 7 Seismic studies for BNI sites in France 8 Hydrogeological aspects near BNI sites in France 9 Hydrological aspects near BNI sites in France 10 Ecological and radioecological studies of BNI sites in France [fr

  14. Archaeological Survey and Monitoring Data from the Flower of Ugie, Wrecked 1852 in the Eastern Solent, England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Whitewright

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the potential future reuse of the archived dataset resulting from the archaeological survey of the shipwreck remains of the Flower of Ugie, a wooden sailing barque wrecked in the Eastern Solent in 1852. Seven years of archaeological survey are represented in the site plans which record the structural details of the vessel along with many of its material characteristics. This record serves to establish the baseline condition of the site, against which future monitoring of the site will be conducted allowing informed management decisions to be made.

  15. Effects of Warming on Tree Species’ Recruitment in Deciduous Forests of the Eastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melillo, Jerry M. [Marine Biological Lab., Woods Hole, MA (United States); Clark, James S. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Mohan, Jacqueline [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2015-03-25

    Climate change is restructuring forests of the United States, although the details of this restructuring are currently uncertain. Rising temperatures of 2 to 8oC and associated changes in soil moisture will shift the competitive balance between species that compete for light and water, and so change their abilities to produce seed, germinate, grow, and survive. We have used large-scale experiments to determine the effects of warming on the most sensitive stage of species distributions, i.e., recruitment, in mixed deciduous forests in southern New England and in the Piedmont region of North Carolina. Two questions organized our research: (1) Might temperate tree species near the “warm” end of their range in the eastern United States decline in abundance during the coming century due to projected warming? and (2) Might trees near the “cool” end of their range in the eastern United States increase in abundance, or extend their range, during the coming 100 years because of projected warming? To explore these questions, we exposed seedlings to air and soil warming experiments in two eastern deciduous forest sites; one at the Harvard Forest (HF) in central Massachusetts, and the other at the Duke Forest (DF) in the Piedmont region of North Carolina. We focused on tree species common to both Harvard and Duke Forests (such as red, black, and white oaks), those near northern range limits (black oak, flowing dogwood, tulip poplar), and those near southern range limits (yellow birch, sugar maple, Virginia pine). At each site, we planted seeds and seedlings in common gardens established in temperature-controlled, open-top chambers. The experimental design was replicated and fully factorial and involved three temperature regimes (ambient, +3oC and +5oC) and two light regimes (closed forest canopy (low light) and gap conditions (high light)). Measured variables included Winter/Spring responses to temperature and mid-Summer responses to low soil moisture. This research

  16. Site description of Laxemar at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-12-01

    the waning stages of the Svecokarelian orogeny. The candidate area is circular-shaped with an area of 54 km 2 , and hosts the Laxemar subarea in its eastern part. The south-western part of the Laxemar subarea was selected as the focused area for the complete site investigation work, following the initial investigations at the site. Prior to the presentation of the SDM-Site report, three versions of a site descriptive model have been completed for the Laxemar-Simpevarp area and subjected to peer review. The last version, referred to as version Laxemar 1.2, constituted a preliminary site description that concluded the initial site investigation work and was presented in 2006. This preliminary site description formed the basis for a preliminary safety evaluation (PSE) of the Laxemar subarea, a preliminary repository layout, and the first evaluation of the long-term safety of this layout for a KBS-3 repository in the context of the SR-Can project. The final site descriptive model, SDM-Site Laxemar, builds on a coordinated geological model in 3D, into which other discipline-specific models have been integrated without any major conflicting interpretations. In particular, the bedrock thermal and strength properties of the bedrock at the site have been coupled to lithology and identified rock domains in the geological model and an integrated description has been devised that links the hydrogeology and the chemistry of the groundwater to hydraulic conductor domains (deformation zones) and hydraulic rock domains (and underlying fracture domains) and their division in depth zones. These mutually consistent results demonstrate that a fundamental understanding of the current state, properties and processes in Laxemar, from the surface down to potential repository depth, has been achieved. In addition, the properties of the area can be explained in the context of an understanding of its past evolution, throughout a long period of geological history. This integrated understanding

  17. Site description of Laxemar at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-12-15

    the waning stages of the Svecokarelian orogeny. The candidate area is circular-shaped with an area of 54 km2, and hosts the Laxemar subarea in its eastern part. The south-western part of the Laxemar subarea was selected as the focused area for the complete site investigation work, following the initial investigations at the site. Prior to the presentation of the SDM-Site report, three versions of a site descriptive model have been completed for the Laxemar-Simpevarp area and subjected to peer review. The last version, referred to as version Laxemar 1.2, constituted a preliminary site description that concluded the initial site investigation work and was presented in 2006. This preliminary site description formed the basis for a preliminary safety evaluation (PSE) of the Laxemar subarea, a preliminary repository layout, and the first evaluation of the long-term safety of this layout for a KBS-3 repository in the context of the SR-Can project. The final site descriptive model, SDM-Site Laxemar, builds on a coordinated geological model in 3D, into which other discipline-specific models have been integrated without any major conflicting interpretations. In particular, the bedrock thermal and strength properties of the bedrock at the site have been coupled to lithology and identified rock domains in the geological model and an integrated description has been devised that links the hydrogeology and the chemistry of the groundwater to hydraulic conductor domains (deformation zones) and hydraulic rock domains (and underlying fracture domains) and their division in depth zones. These mutually consistent results demonstrate that a fundamental understanding of the current state, properties and processes in Laxemar, from the surface down to potential repository depth, has been achieved. In addition, the properties of the area can be explained in the context of an understanding of its past evolution, throughout a long period of geological history. This integrated understanding of

  18. Stable isotope evidence for late medieval (14th-15th C origins of the eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua fishery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Orton

    Full Text Available Although recent historical ecology studies have extended quantitative knowledge of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua exploitation back as far as the 16th century, the historical origin of the modern fishery remains obscure. Widespread archaeological evidence for cod consumption around the eastern Baltic littoral emerges around the 13th century, three centuries before systematic documentation, but it is not clear whether this represents (1 development of a substantial eastern Baltic cod fishery, or (2 large-scale importation of preserved cod from elsewhere. To distinguish between these hypotheses we use stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis to determine likely catch regions of 74 cod vertebrae and cleithra from 19 Baltic archaeological sites dated from the 8th to the 16th centuries. δ(13C and δ(15N signatures for six possible catch regions were established using a larger sample of archaeological cod cranial bones (n = 249. The data strongly support the second hypothesis, revealing widespread importation of cod during the 13th to 14th centuries, most of it probably from Arctic Norway. By the 15th century, however, eastern Baltic cod dominate within our sample, indicating the development of a substantial late medieval fishery. Potential human impact on cod stocks in the eastern Baltic must thus be taken into account for at least the last 600 years.

  19. Social Media Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Media Sites Site Registration Contact Us Search AF.mil: Home > AF Sites > Social Media Sites Social Media Welcome to the Air Force social media directory! The directory is a one-stop shop of official Air Force social media pages across various social media sites. Social media is all about

  20. Migraine pain location in adult patients from eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarty Ambar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sparse literature documenting the location of pain at the onset of migraine attacks and during established headaches is available. Objectives: A prospective study (2003-05 on 800 adult migraine patients (International Classifications of Headache Disorders (ICHD, 2:1.1, 1.2.1 and 1.6.1 was conducted to document (a sites of onset of pain and (b location of pain during established attacks (in> 50% occasions through semistructured interviews. Results: Demography: N = 800; M:F = 144:656 (1:4.56; age, 16-42 years (mean, 26 years; duration of migraine, 1-18 years (mean, 6.8 years. 87% of the subjects were ethnic Bengalis from the eastern Indian state of West Bengal, Calcutta being the capital city. Migraine types (on the basis of> 50% headache spells: N = 800; 1.1:668 (83.5%; 1.2.1:18 (2.25%; 1.6.1:114 (14.25%. Location of pain at onset: Unilateral onset was present in 41.38% of the patients; of these, 53.17% had eye pain; 8.16%, frontal pain and 38.67%, temporal pain. In 32.25% of the patients, bilateral/central location of pain, mostly bitemporal or at vertex was noted. Cervico-occipital pain onset was noted in 26.43% patients (predominantly occipital, 14.68%; predominantly cervical, 11.75%. Location of established headaches: In 47.4% of the patients, with unilateral ocular or temporal onset, pain remained at the same site. Pain became hemicranial in 32.9%. In most patients, unilateral frontal onset pain (55.5% became bilateral or holocranial. Most bilateral ocular (69.4% and temporal onset (69.7% pains remained at the same location. However, most bifrontal (55.6% and vertex onset (56.9% pains subsequently became holocranial. Most occipital pains at onset became holocranial (45.3%, but cervical pains subsequently became either hemicranial (38.3% or holocranial (36.2%. Conclusions: This study documents location of pain at the onset and during established headaches in migraine patients largely from a specific ethnic group. Migraine with

  1. Assessing health literacy in the eastern and middle-eastern cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Chandrasekhar Nair

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health literacy is a term employed to assess the ability of people to meet the increasing demands related to health in a rapidly evolving society. Low health literacy can affect the social determinants of health, health outcomes and the use of healthcare services. The purpose of the study was to develop a survey construct to assess health literacy within the context of regional culture. Different socioeconomic status among the Eastern and Middle Eastern countries may restrict, health information access and utilization for those with low literacy. Methods By employing expert panel, Delphi technique, focus group methodologies, and pre-testing using participants (N = 900 from the UAE and India, a survey construct to the Eastern-Middle Eastern cultures was developed. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s α and validity using Factor analysis. Kiaser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO sampling adequacy and Bartlett’s tests were used to assess the strength of the relationship among the variables. Results Inclusion of non-health related items were found to be critical in the authentic assessment of health literacy in the Eastern and Middle Eastern population given the influence of social desirability. Thirty-two percentage of the original 19-item construct was eliminated by the focus group for reasons of relevance and impact for the local culture. Field pretesting participants from two countries, indicated overall construct reliability (Cronbach’s α =0.85, validity and consistency (KMO value of 0.92 and Bartlett’s test of sphericity was significant. Conclusion The Eastern-Middle Eastern Adult Health Literacy (EMAHL13, screening instrument is brief, simple, a useful indicator of whether or not a patient can read. It assessespatients’ ability to comprehend by distinguishing between health and non-health related items. The EMAHL13 will be a useful too for the reliable assessment of health literacy in countries, where culture plays a

  2. Obsidian from volcanic sequences and rent alluvial deposits, Erzurum district, north-eastern Anatolia: Chemical characterisation and archaeological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, P.; Sagona, T.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Recent geoarchaeological research in the Erzurum district, north-eastern Anatolia, has revealed an abundance of obsidian at numerous neolithic and Bronze Age sites. Geochemical characterisation using neutron activation analysis indicates that the obsidian was obtained from several sources that are chemically distinct from the major sources already known from Central Anatolia an the Lake Van area. Multiple sources are represented in the samples collected from at least two of the sites, namely the sites of Sos and Pulur. The primary source of some of the obsidian utilised at the site of Sos has been located in the volcanic sequence outcropping tot he north-west of Pasinler. Field survey however has shown that the alluvial deposits along the main rivers and some of their tributaries were the main sources of the obsidian utilised at the sites near Erzurum. Trade or exchange of obsidian with sites outside the Erzurum area seems to have been limited

  3. Ocean Disposal Site Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is responsible for managing all designated ocean disposal sites. Surveys are conducted to identify appropriate locations for ocean disposal sites and to monitor the impacts of regulated dumping at the disposal sites.

  4. Promoting Your Web Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeder, Aggi

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of ways to promote sites on the World Wide Web focuses on how search engines work and how they retrieve and identify sites. Appropriate Web links for submitting new sites and for Internet marketing are included. (LRW)

  5. Particle Physics Education Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    back to home page Particle Physics Education Sites quick reference Education and Information - National Laboratory Education Programs - Women and Minorities in Physics - Other Physics Sites - Physics Alliance - Accelerators at National Laboratories icon Particle Physics Education and Information sites: top

  6. Environmental assessment of Wismut uranium sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The German government is facing one of the most significant environmental challenges ever: The environmental reconstruction and remediation of contaminated mining sites of the former East German/Soviet uranium operation known as Wismut. Political pressures at the federal and community levels mandate that the government do something soon, even if it demonstrates its long-term commitment to solving the problems by remediating only a small portion of the overall situation. The government continues to address the technical and economic issues of existing environmental problems, including the disposition of Wismut sites, as well as new concerns such as the feasibility of using underground mines in eastern Germany as potential burial grounds for nuclear waste material

  7. Hanford Site Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinne, C.A.; Curry, R.H.; Hagan, J.W.; Seiler, S.W.; Sommer, D.J. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA)); Yancey, E.F. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (Site Development Plan) is intended to guide the short- and long-range development and use of the Hanford Site. All acquisition, development, and permanent facility use at the Hanford Site will conform to the approved plan. The Site Development Plan also serves as the base document for all subsequent studies that involve use of facilities at the Site. This revision is an update of a previous plan. The executive summary presents the highlights of the five major topics covered in the Site Development Plan: general site information, existing conditions, planning analysis, Master Plan, and Five-Year Plan. 56 refs., 67 figs., 31 tabs.

  8. Hanford Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinne, C.A.; Curry, R.H.; Hagan, J.W.; Seiler, S.W.; Sommer, D.J.; Yancey, E.F.

    1990-01-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (Site Development Plan) is intended to guide the short- and long-range development and use of the Hanford Site. All acquisition, development, and permanent facility use at the Hanford Site will conform to the approved plan. The Site Development Plan also serves as the base document for all subsequent studies that involve use of facilities at the Site. This revision is an update of a previous plan. The executive summary presents the highlights of the five major topics covered in the Site Development Plan: general site information, existing conditions, planning analysis, Master Plan, and Five-Year Plan. 56 refs., 67 figs., 31 tabs

  9. Effects of Biosolids Application on Pasture and Grape Vines in South-Eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Nash

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosolids were applied to a pasture and a vineyard in south-eastern Australia. At both sites, soil Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations linearly increased with biosolids application rates although not to the extent of exceeding soil quality guidelines. Biosolids marginally increased soil C and N concentrations at the pasture site but significantly increased P concentrations. With lower overall soil fertility at the vineyard, biosolids increased C, N, and P concentrations. At neither site did biosolids application affect soil microbial endpoints. Biosolids increased pasture production compared to the unfertilised control but had little effect on grape production or quality. Interestingly, over the 3-year trial, there was no difference in pasture production between the biosolids treated plots and plots receiving inorganic fertiliser. These results suggest that biosolids could be used as a fertiliser to stimulate pasture production and as a soil conditioner to improve vineyard soils in this region.

  10. Biomass burning in eastern Europe during spring 2006 caused high deposition of ammonium in northern Fennoscandia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Per Erik; Ferm, Martin; Pihl Karlsson, Gunilla

    2013-01-01

    High air concentrations of ammonium were detected at low and high altitude sites in Sweden, Finland and Norway during the spring 2006, coinciding with polluted air from biomass burning in eastern Europe passing over central and northern Fennoscandia. Unusually high values for throughfall deposition...... of ammonium were detected at one low altitude site and several high altitude sites in north Sweden. The occurrence of the high ammonium in throughfall differed between the summer months 2006, most likely related to the timing of precipitation events. The ammonia dry deposition may have contributed to unusual...... visible injuries on the tree vegetation in northern Fennoscandia that occurred during 2006, in combination with high ozone concentrations. It is concluded that long-range transport of ammonium from large-scale biomass burning may contribute substantially to the nitrogen load at northern latitudes. © 2013...

  11. Effects of Bio solids Application on Pasture and Grape Vines in South-Eastern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, D.; Butler, C.; Cody, J.; Warne, M.S.J.; McLaughlin, M.J.; Heemsbergen, D.; Broos, K.; McLaughlin, M.J.; Heemsbergen, D.; Broos, K.; Bell, M.; Barry, G.; Pritchard, D.; Penny, N.; Penny, N.

    2011-01-01

    Bio solids were applied to a pasture and a vineyard in south-eastern Australia. At both sites, soil Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations linearly increased with bio solids application rates although not to the extent of exceeding soil quality guidelines. Bio solids marginally increased soil C and N concentrations at the pasture site but significantly increased P concentrations. With lower overall soil fertility at the vineyard, bio solids increased C, N, and P concentrations. At neither site did bio solids application affect soil microbial endpoints. Bio solids increased pasture production compared to the unfertilised control but had little effect on grape production or quality. Interestingly, over the 3-year trial, there was no difference in pasture production between the bio solids treated plots and plots receiving inorganic fertiliser. These results suggest that bio solids could be used as a fertiliser to stimulate pasture production and as a soil conditioner to improve vineyard soils in this region.

  12. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) (Superfund) - NPL Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — National Priorities List (NPL) Sites - The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access...

  13. Superfund Site Information - Site Sampling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes Superfund site-specific sampling information including location of samples, types of samples, and analytical chemistry characteristics of...

  14. Site Closure Strategy Model for Creosote Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coll, F.R.; Gray, D.R.

    2009-01-01

    In conjunction with RCRA site corrective action at an active wood preserving facility, a risk-based site closure strategy was developed and incorporated the performance of a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source recovery remedy, a monitored natural attenuation (MNA) remedy for dissolved phase groundwater, and institutional controls. Innovative creosote DNAPL source recovery has been undertaken at the Site since 1998. Pooled creosote DNAPL is present 90 feet below ground within a transmissive sand and gravel aquifer with a saturated thickness of approximately 80 feet. The creosote DNAPL source is situated on the property boundary of the site and has generated a 1/2 mile off-site dissolved phase plume, creating significant NAPL management and remedial technology verification issues. To date, over 120,000 gallons of creosote DNAPL have been recovered from the subsurface utilizing a modified circulation well technology. A mass discharge flux protocol was developed to serve as a major performance metrics for the continuation of source removal efforts and to support the application of monitored natural attenuation as an associated remedial technology for groundwater. The mass removal success has supported the MNA remedy for dissolved phase groundwater and the associated development of institutional controls. The enacted site management strategy outlines the current and future risk management activities for the Site and represents an appropriate site closure strategy for the Site. (authors)

  15. Eastern Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossé, D; Ng, T; Ahmad, C; Alfakeeh, A; Alruzug, I; Biagi, J; Brierley, J; Chaudhury, P; Cleary, S; Colwell, B; Cripps, C; Dawson, L A; Dorreen, M; Ferland, E; Galiatsatos, P; Girard, S; Gray, S; Halwani, F; Kopek, N; Mahmud, A; Martel, G; Robillard, L; Samson, B; Seal, M; Siddiqui, J; Sideris, L; Snow, S; Thirwell, M; Vickers, M; Goodwin, R; Goel, R; Hsu, T; Tsvetkova, E; Ward, B; Asmis, T

    2016-12-01

    The annual Eastern Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference 2016 was held in Montreal, Quebec, 5-7 February. Experts in radiation oncology, medical oncology, surgical oncology, and infectious diseases involved in the management of patients with gastrointestinal malignancies participated in presentations and discussion sessions for the purpose of developing the recommendations presented here. This consensus statement addresses multiple topics: ■ Follow-up and survivorship of patients with resected colorectal cancer■ Indications for liver metastasectomy■ Treatment of oligometastases by stereotactic body radiation therapy■ Treatment of borderline resectable and unresectable pancreatic cancer■ Transarterial chemoembolization in hepatocellular carcinoma■ Infectious complications of antineoplastic agents.

  16. A vegetation map for eastern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillesø, Jens-Peter Barnekow; van Breugel, Paulo; Graudal, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The potential natural vegetation (PNV) map of eastern and southern Africa covers the countries Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zambia. The first version of the map was developed by various partners in East Africa and Europe in 2010 and has now reached version 2. The map...... is available in different formats and is accompanied by an extensive documentation of the floristic, physiognomic and other characteristics of the different vegetation types and useful woody species in the 8 countries. It is complemented by a species selection tool, which can be used to 'find the right tree...

  17. Dakota, Minnesota and Eastern Railroad: 1997

    OpenAIRE

    Paul R. Reed; Carol J. Cumber

    1998-01-01

    Approximately twenty-five years ago, a majority of the railroads in the industry were either in or near bankruptcy. As a partial cure, a series of federal and state legislation was enacted which freed the industry from archaic laws passed in the days railroads enjoyed a virtual monopoly in U.S. transportation. One of the outcomes of this new legislation was the freedom granted major railroads to abandon or sell off excess trackage to entrepreneurs. The Dakota Minnesota & Eastern (DM&E) is a r...

  18. Diatoms in Liyu Lake, Eastern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Chi Wang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study described the diatoms appeared in the sediments of Liyu Lake, a lowland natural lake situated at Hualen, eastern Taiwan. A total of 50 species was found in the sediments of this eutrophic lake. In them, 8 species were reported for the first time in Taiwan. They are: Cymbella thienemannii, Navicula absoluta, Navicula bacillum, Frustulia rhomboides var. crassinervia, Gyrosigma procerum, Nitzschia paleacea Epithemia smithii and Eunotia subarcuatioides. The ultrastructures of each species were described on the basis of observations under a scanning electron microscope. The ecological implications of the occurrence of these diatom species in this lake were inferred.

  19. Eastern and western happiness in work behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Kubátová

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to clarify what motivates East Asian work behavior. The research question is: How can a Western manager better understand work behavior and motivation in East Asian cultures? Knowledge about national culture, motivation and the concept of happiness are connected via deductive and comparative methods, while pointing out their new connections and relations. We argue that work motivation in East Asian cultures can be explained using the self-concept-based motivation meta-theory as it corresponds to the East Asian concept of face and that the East Asian self-concept originates with the Eastern concept of happiness.

  20. Environmental Regulation Impacts on Eastern Interconnection Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markham, Penn N [ORNL; Liu, Yilu [ORNL; Young II, Marcus Aaron [ORNL

    2013-07-01

    In the United States, recent environmental regulations will likely result in the removal of nearly 30 GW of oil and coal-fired generation from the power grid, mostly in the Eastern Interconnection (EI). The effects of this transition on voltage stability and transmission line flows have previously not been studied from a system-wide perspective. This report discusses the results of power flow studies designed to simulate the evolution of the EI over the next few years as traditional generation sources are replaced with environmentally friendlier ones such as natural gas and wind.

  1. Permeability Tests on Eastern Scheldt Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    on the characteristics of the soil matrix, the permeability is determined for different void ratios. All tests are performed on reconstituted specimens of Eastern Scheldt Sand. The permeability is determined by use of a falling head apparatus. Finally the test results are briefly summarised and a relationship between......The flow through porous media plays an important role in various engineering disciplines, as for example in ground water hydrology and soil mechanics. In the present study the permeability is determined for a fine, saturated sand. As the flow through a porous media strongly depends...

  2. Wooden Calendar Sticks in Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva, Vesselina; Koleva, Svetlana

    Wooden calendar sticks have preserved an archaic time-keeping tradition, which, during the Middle Ages, was one of the tools for establishing and disseminating Christian chronology and the liturgical calendars of the Western and Eastern Churches. The calendars vary in size and shape, type of signs, and structure of the record. Christian symbols interwoven with signs and pictograms mark days of importance in the ritual and economic year cycle. The wooden calendars are considered one of the proofs of the syncretism between the pagan tradition and Christian rites in folk cultures.

  3. The Trading Potential of Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhen Kun; Winters, L. Alan

    1991-01-01

    This paper fits a gravity model to the trade of 76 market economies. It then applies the model to data on East European economies to estimate what their trading potential might have been, had behaved like market economies in the mid-1980s. At existing levels of national income, the liberalization of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union is unlikely to affect their mutual trade and trade with developing countries, but it will increase trade with industrial counties by factors of three to thirty....

  4. Site specific information in site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeikaes, T.; Hautojaervi, A.

    1998-01-01

    The programme for the siting of a deep repository for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel was started already in 1983 and is carried out today by Posiva Oy which continues the work started by Teollisuuden Voima Oy. The programme aims at site selection by the end of the year 2000. The programme has progressed in successive interim stages with defined goals. After an early phase for site identification, five sites were selected in 1987 for preliminary site characterisation. Three of these were selected and judged to be best suited for the more detailed characterisation in 1992. An additional new site was included into the programme based on a separate feasibility study in the beginning of 1997. Since the year 1983 several safety assessments together with technical plans of the facility have been completed. When approaching the site selection the needs for more detailed consideration of the site specific properties in the safety assessment have been increased. The Finnish regulator STUK has published a proposal for general safety requirements for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland. This set of requirements has been projected to be used in conjunction of the decision making by the end 2000. Based on the site evaluation all sites can provide a stable environment and there is evidence that the requirements for the longevity of the canister can be fulfilled at each site. In this manner the four candidate sites do not differ too much from each other. The main difference between the sites is in the salinity of the deep groundwater. The significance of differences in the salinity for the long-term safety cannot be defined yet. The differences may contribute to the discussion of the longevity of the bentonite buffer and also to the modelling of the groundwater flow and transport. The use of the geosphere as a transport barrier is basically culminated on the questions about sparse but fast flow routes and 'how bad channeling can be'. To answer these questions

  5. Indications of low macrobenthic activity in the deep sediments of the eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Basso

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The fluxes and budget of organic matter from the oligotrophic surface waters of the eastern Mediterranean to the deep waters are poorly known, and little information is available on past and present macrobenthic activity on the sea floor. Evidence of macrobenthic activity can be direct, through recovery of living organisms or their autochthonous skeletal remains, or indirect, through bioturbation and trace fossils. The evidence of biological activity in deep eastern Mediterranean sediments has been evaluated and compared through 210Pb profiles from box-cores and study of dredge samples from sites on Medina Rise (1374 m water depth, the Messina Abyssal Plain (4135 m and several sites along the Mediterranean Ridge, SW and S of Crete (1783 to 3655 m. All these sites are remote from the continental shelves, so the biological benthic activity is expected to depend primarily on primary production from surface waters. The results show that present-day macrobenthos and trace fossils are generally scarce, especially at depths > 2500 m. This observation is supported by surface sediment 210Pb excess distributions that show a surface mixed layer (SML 2500 m. The historical layer of some box-cores and the Pleistocene hardgrounds collected in the Cleft area (Mediterranean Ridge do, however, record a macrobenthic activity that is apparently more intense than at present, which may be related to higher primary production of the Pleistocene glacial intervals. In contrast with most areas of the present-day deep eastern Mediterranean which depend on surface primary production based on photosynthesis, a relatively dense and diversified macrobenthic community based on chemosynthesis has been recognised at depths > 1100 m on the Napoli Dome mud volcano in the Olimpi area, and on the Kazan and other mud volcanoes in the Anaximander Mountains.

  6. Changes in upwelling and surface productivity in the Eastern Pacific during Terminations I and II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Z.; De Bar, M.; Stolwijk, D.; Schneider, R. R.; S Sinninghe Damsté, J.; Schouten, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Eastern Pacific coastal system is characterized by intense upwelling and consequently by an enhanced surface primary productivity. Combination of this high organic matter flux with sluggish bottom water ventilation results in one of the most pronounced oxygen minimum zones reaching from offshore California in the North to offshore Chile in the South. As a result of this process, the region is particularly interesting in view of nutrient and carbon cycling as well as ecosystem dynamics. The dynamics of the upwelling and oxygen concentrations are closely related to climatic conditions. Therefore, paleo-reconstructions of different settings are crucial in order to improve our understanding of the response of these nutrient-rich, oxygen-deficient, environments in relation to the recent global ocean warming, acidification and deoxygenation. In this study, we present downcore results from three different sites in the Eastern Pacific: offshore California (IODP site 1012), Peru (M77/2-52-2) and Chile (IODP site 1234). We applied different biomarkers as proxies to decipher changes in phytoplankton community composition, including the upwelling index based on long chain diols, and other common productivity indicators such as bulk organic carbon, carbonate and biogenic opal. In addition, application of carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of total organic carbon and benthic foraminifera complement our multiproxy approach. Herewith we aim to compare at least two glacial-interglacial transitions with different magnitudes of deglacial warming along the Eastern Pacific upwelling systems at different latitudes. The data presented will cover the last 160 ka BP offshore California and Chile, and 30 ka BP offshore Peru enabling comparison between glacial Terminations I and II.

  7. A depositional model for the Taylor coal bed, Martin and Johnson counties, eastern Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, W.M.; Hower, J.C.; Ferm, J.C.; Evans, S.D.; Sirek, N.S.; Warrell, M.; Eble, C.F.

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated the Taylor coal bed in Johnson and Martin counties, eastern Kentucky, using field and petrographic techniques to develop a depositional model of the coal bed. Petrography and chemistry of the coal bed were examined. Multiple benches of the Taylor coal bed were correlated over a 10 km distance. Three sites were studied in detail. The coal at the western and eastern sites were relatively thin and split by thick clastic partings. The coal at the central site was the thickest and unsplit. Two major clastic partings are included in the coal bed. Each represents a separate and distinct fluvial splay. The Taylor is interpreted to have developed on a coastal plain with periodic flooding from nearby, structurally-controlled fluvial systems. Doming is unlikely due to the petrographic and chemical trends, which are inconsistent with modern Indonesian models. The depositional history and structural and stratigraphic setting suggest contemporaneous structural influence on thickness and quality of the Taylor coal bed in this area.

  8. Orbital-scale denitrification changes in the Eastern Arabian Sea during the last 800 kyrs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Eun; Khim, Boo-Keun; Ikehara, Minoru; Lee, Jongmin

    2018-05-04

    Denitrification in the Arabian Sea is closely related to the monsoon-induced upwelling and subsequent phytoplankton production in the surface water. The δ 15 N values of bulk sediments collected at Site U1456 of the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 355 reveal the orbital-scale denitrification history in response to the Indian Monsoon. Age reconstruction based on the correlation of planktonic foraminifera (Globigerinoides ruber) δ 18 O values with the LR04 stack together with the shipboard biostratigraphic and paleomagnetic data assigns the study interval to be 1.2 Ma. Comparison of δ 15 N values during the last 800 kyrs between Site U1456 (Eastern Arabian Sea) and Site 722B (Western Arabian Sea) showed that δ 15 N values were high during interglacial periods, indicating intensified denitrification, while the opposite was observed during glacial periods. Taking 6‰ as the empirical threshold of denitrification, the Eastern Arabian Sea has experienced a persistent oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) to maintain strong denitrification whereas the Western Arabian Sea has undergone OMZ breakdown during some glacial periods. The results of this study also suggests that five principal oceanographic conditions were changed in response to the Indian Monsoon following the interglacial and glacial cycles, which controls the degree of denitrification in the Arabian Sea.

  9. Hanford Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hathaway, H.B.; Daly, K.S.; Rinne, C.A.; Seiler, S.W.

    1993-05-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (HSDP) provides an overview of land use, infrastructure, and facility requirements to support US Department of Energy (DOE) programs at the Hanford Site. The HSDP's primary purpose is to inform senior managers and interested parties of development activities and issues that require a commitment of resources to support the Hanford Site. The HSDP provides an existing and future land use plan for the Hanford Site. The HSDP is updated annually in accordance with DOE Order 4320.1B, Site Development Planning, to reflect the mission and overall site development process. Further details about Hanford Site development are defined in individual area development plans

  10. Distribution and migration chronology of Eastern population sandhill cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronczak, David L.; Andersen, David; Hanna, Everett E.; Cooper, Thomas R.

    2017-01-01

    The Eastern Population (EP) of greater sandhill cranes (Antigone canadensis tabida; cranes) is expanding in size and geographic range. Little information exists regarding the geographic extent of breeding, migration, and wintering ranges, migration chronology, or use of staging areas for cranes in the EP. To obtain these data, we attached solar global positioning system (GPS) platform transmitting terminals (PTTs) to 42 sandhill cranes and monitored daily locations from December 2009 through August 2014. On average, tagged cranes settled in summer areas during late‐March in Minnesota (7%), Wisconsin (29%), Michigan, USA (21%), and Ontario, Canada (38%) and arrived at their winter terminus beginning mid‐December in Indiana (15%), Kentucky (3%), Tennessee (45%), Georgia (5%), and Florida (32%). Cranes initiated spring migration beginning mid‐February to their respective summer areas on routes similar to those used during fall migration. Twenty‐five marked cranes returned to the same summer area after a second spring migration, of which 19 (76%) settled cranes in the EP, we estimated that approximately 29–31% of cranes that summered in both Wisconsin and the Lower Peninsula of Michigan were not in areas included in the survey. The information we collected on crane movements provides insight into distribution and migration chronology that will aid in assessment of the current USFWS fall survey. In addition, information on specific use sites can assist state and federal managers to identify and protect key staging and winter areas particularly during current and future recreational harvest seasons.

  11. Weather Effects on Crop Diseases in Eastern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradt, Tobias

    2017-04-01

    Since the 1970s there are several long-term monitoring programmes for plant diseases and pests in Germany. Within the framework of a national research project, some otherwise confidential databases comprising 77 111 samples from numerous sites accross Eastern Germany could be accessed and analysed. The pest data covered leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis) in winter wheat, aphids (Aphididae, four genera) on wheat and other cereal crops, late blight (Phytophthora infestans) in potatoes, and pollen beetles (Brassicogethes aeneus) on rape. These data were complemented by daily weather observations from the German Weather Service (DWD). In a first step, Pearson correlations between weather variables and pest frequencies were calculated for seasonal time periods of different start months and durations and ordered into so-called correlograms. This revealed principal weather effects on disease spread - e. g. that wind is favourable for mildew throughout the year or that rape pollen beetles like it warm, but not during wintertime. Secondly, the pest frequency samples were found to resemble gamma distributions, and a generalised linear model was fitted to describe their parameter shift depending on end-of-winter temperatures for aphids on cereals. The method clearly shows potential for systematic pest risk assessments regarding climate change.

  12. Wind energy market study Eastern Europe. Czech and Slovak Republics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjerk Christensen, P.

    1994-06-01

    The main objective of the THERMIE Associated Measure WE05 is to study the conditions for utilising wind power and estimate the market for wind power in Eastern Europe. This report describes the results of a study of the conditions in the Czech and Slovak republics, which has been concentrated on the following areas: A collection of information on the wind energy potential in these countries and the present structure of the power production system including costs; A search for information concerning payback prices, subsidies, etc. with relation to renewable energy sources, especially wind power, existing wind turbines and their production; An estimate of the possibilities for co-production of wind turbines by Czech, Slovak, and EC factories; A compilation of information on rules and legislation pertaining to the establishment of wind turbines and to power production by wind, e.g. regulations related to grid connections, safety, and environmental production. In order to promote the utilisation of wind power in the Czech and Slovak Republics, some recommendations based on this study may be put forward: the operation of pilot plants should be evaluated in order to compare the recorded production with that which is estimated theoretically based on measured wind data. Existing wind data should be supplemented with new measurements especially at sites that based on current knowledge may be suitable for establishing wind parks. The economic feasibility of wind power in these countries should be calculated based on the best available physical and economic data. (EG)

  13. Odontogenic tumors: A review of 675 cases in Eastern Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravana HL Goteti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the relative frequency of odontogenic tumors (OTs in an Eastern Libyan population based on the 2005 World Health Organization (WHO classification, and also to compare the actual data with previous studies. Materials and Methods: We retrieved and analyzed 85 OTs from a total of 675 tumors and tumor-like lesions of the oral and perioral structures, for gender, age, tumor site, and frequency. The diagnosis was based on the most recent WHO (2005 classification of OTs. Results: OTs constituted 12.6% of all oral/jaw tumors and tumor-like lesions. Ameloblastoma (28.2% was the most common type, followed by keratocystic odontogenic tumor (25.2% and odontoma (19.9%. The male: female ratio was 1.2:1, and maxilla: mandible ratio 1:2. The mean age of occurrence of tumors was 29 years with a peak incidence between 10 and 40 years. Conclusions: OTs are relatively common lesion in this Libyan Population, but the incidence of tumors is neither similar to Caucasians nor Sub-Saharan population.

  14. Seismic hazard assessment of the Hanford region, Eastern Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngs, R.R.; Coppersmith, K.J.; Power, M.S.; Swan, F.H. III

    1985-01-01

    A probabilistic seismic hazard assessment was made for a site within the Hanford region of eastern Washington state, which is characterized as an intraplate region having a relatively low rate of seismic activity. Probabilistic procedures, such as logic trees, were utilized to account for the uncertainties in identifying and characterizing the potential seismic sources in the region. Logic trees provide a convenient, flexible means of assessing the values and relative likelihoods of input parameters to the hazard model that may be dependent upon each other. Uncertainties accounted for in this way include the tectonic model, segmentation, capability, fault geometry, maximum earthquake magnitude, and earthquake recurrence rate. The computed hazard results are expressed as a distribution from which confidence levels are assessed. Analysis of the results show the contributions to the total hazard from various seismic sources and due to various earthquake magnitudes. In addition, the contributions of uncertainties in the various source parameters to the uncertainty in the computed hazard are assessed. For this study, the major contribution to uncertainty in the computed hazard are due to uncertainties in the applicable tectonic model and the earthquake recurrence rate. This analysis serves to illustrate some of the probabilistic tools that are available for conducting seismic hazard assessments and for analyzing the results of these studies. 5 references, 7 figures

  15. Data measured on water collected from eastern Mojave Desert, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Tim P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-17

    In March of 2000 field collection of water from the Eastern Mojave Desert resulted in the measurement of stable isotope, radiocarbon, tritium, and limited dissolved noble gases. This work was follow-on to previous studies on similar systems in southern Nevada associated with the Nevada Test Site (Davisson et al., 1999; Rose and Davisson, 2003). The data for groundwater from wells and springs was never formally published and is therefore tabulated in Table 1 in order to be recorded in public record. In addition 4 years of remote precipitation data was collected for stable isotopes and is included in Table 2. These studies, along with many parallel and subsequent ones using isotopes and elemental concentrations, are all related to the general research area of tracing sources and quantifying transport times of natural and man-made materials in the environment. This type of research has direct relevance in characterizing environmental contamination, understanding resource development and protection, designing early detection in WMD related terrorism, and application in forensics analysis.

  16. Intercontinental and intracontinental biogeography of the eastern Asian - Eastern North American disjunct Panax (the ginseng genus, Araliaceae), emphasizing its diversification processes in eastern Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yun-Juan; Wen, Jun; Zhou, Shi-Liang

    2017-12-01

    The intercontinental biogeography between eastern Asia and eastern North America has attracted much attention from evolutionary biologists. Further insights into understanding the evolution of the intercontinental disjunctions have been hampered by the lack of studies on the intracontinental biogeography in eastern Asia, a region with complex geology, geography, climates and habitats. Herein we studied the biogeographic history of the eastern Asian-eastern North American disjunct genus Panax with special emphasis on the investigation of its uneven diversification in Asia. This study reconstructs the diversification history of Panax and also emphasizes a large clade of Panax taxa, which has a wide distribution in eastern Asia, but was unresolved in previous studies. We examined the noncoding plastid DNA fragments of trnH-psbA, rps16, and psbM-trnD, the mitochondrial b/c intron of NAD1, and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of 356 samples from 47 populations. The results revealed the subtropical Northern Hemisphere origin (Asia or Asia and North America) of Panax in the Paleocene. Intercontinental disjunctions between eastern Asia and eastern North America formed twice in Panax, once estimated in early Eocene for the split of P. trifolius and another in mid-Miocene for the divergence of P. quinquefolius. Intercontinental diversifications in Panax showed temporal correlation with the increase of global temperature. The evolutionary radiation of the P. bipinnatifidus species complex occurred around the boundary of Oligocene and Miocene. Strong genetic structure among populations of the species complex was detected and the populations may be isolated by distance. The backbone network and the Bayesian clustering analysis revealed a major evolutionary radiation centered in the Hengduan Mountains of western China. Our results suggested that the evolutionary radiation of Panax was promoted by geographic barriers, including mountain ranges

  17. Preferred nasolabial angle in Middle Eastern population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharethy, Sami

    2017-05-01

    To define the preferred nasolabial angle measurement in Middle Eastern population. An observational study was conducted from January 2012 to January 2016 at the Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 1027 raters, 506 males, and 521 females were asked to choose the most ideal nasolabial angle for 5 males and 5 females lateral photographs whose nasolabial angle were modified with Photoshop into the following angles (85°, 90°, 95°, 100°, 105°, and 110°). Male raters preferred the angle of 89.5° ± 3.5° (mean ± SD) for males and 90.8° ± 5.6° for females. While female raters preferred the angle of 89.3° ± 3.8° for males and 90.5° ± 4.8° for females. ANOVA test compare means among groups: p: 0.342, and there is no statistically significant difference between groups. The results of our study showed an even more acute angles than degrees found in the literature. It shows that what young generation in our region prefers and clearly reflects that what could be explained as under rotation of the nasal tip in other cultures is just the ideal for some Middle Eastern population.

  18. Region 9 NPL Sites (Superfund Sites 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    NPL site POINT locations for the US EPA Region 9. NPL (National Priorities List) sites are hazardous waste sites that are eligible for extensive long-term cleanup under the Superfund program. Eligibility is determined by a scoring method called Hazard Ranking System. Sites with high scores are listed on the NPL. The majority of the locations are derived from polygon centroids of digitized site boundaries. The remaining locations were generated from address geocoding and digitizing. Area covered by this data set include Arizona, California, Nevada, Hawaii, Guam, American Samoa, Northern Marianas and Trust Territories. Attributes include NPL status codes, NPL industry type codes and environmental indicators. Related table, NPL_Contaminants contains information about contaminated media types and chemicals. This is a one-to-many relate and can be related to the feature class using the relationship classes under the Feature Data Set ENVIRO_CONTAMINANT.

  19. Guidelines for earthquake ground motion definition for the eastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwaltney, R.C.; Aramayo, G.A.; Williams, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    Guidelines for the determination of earthquake ground-motion definition for the eastern United States are established in this paper. Both far-field and near-field guidelines are given. The guidelines were based on an extensive review of the current procedures for specifying ground motion in the United States. Both empirical and theoretical procedures were used in establishing the guidelines because of the low seismicity in the eastern United States. Only a few large to great (M > 7.5) sized earthquakes have occurred in this region, no evidence of tectonic surface ruptures related to historic or Holocene earthquakes have been found, and no currently active plate boundaries of any kind are known in this region. Very little instrumented data has been gathered in the East. Theoretical procedures are proposed so that in regions of almost no data a reasonable level of seismic ground motion activity can be assumed. The guidelines are to be used to develop the Safe Shutdown Earthquake, SSE. A new procedure for establishing the Operating Basis Earthquake, OBE, is proposed, in particular for the eastern United States. The OBE would be developed using a probabilistic assessment of the geological conditions and the recurrence of seismic events at a site. These guidelines should be useful in development of seismic design requirements for future reactors. 17 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  20. Guidelines for earthquake ground motion definition for the Eastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwaltney, R.C.; Aramayo, G.A.; Williams, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    Guidelines for the determination of earthquake ground-motion definition for the eastern United States are established in this paper. Both far-field and near-field guidelines are given. The guidelines were based on an extensive review of the current procedures for specifying ground motion in the United States. Both empirical and theoretical procedures were used in establishing the guidelines because of the low seismicity in the eastern United States. Only a few large to great (M > 7.5) sized earthquakes have occurred in this region, no evidence of tectonic surface ruptures related to historic or Holocene earthquakes have been found, and no currently active plate boundaries of any kind are known in this region. Very little instrumented data has been gathered in the East. Theoretical procedures are proposed so that in regions of almost no data a reasonable level of seismic ground motion activity can be assumed. The guidelines are to be used to develop the Safe Shutdown Earthquake, SSE. A new procedure for establishing the Operating Basis Earthquake, OBE, is proposed, in particular for the eastern United States. The OBE would be developed using a probabilistic assessment of the geological conditions and the recurrence of seismic events at a site. These guidelines should be useful in development of seismic design requirements for future reactors

  1. Discovery of the Earliest Synthetic Carborundum (SiC in Neolithic Jade Artifacts in Eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Jung Chou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using Raman microscopy and scanning electron microscopy we have successfully identified, for the first time, synthetic silicon carbide (carborundum particles in 15 unearthed relics and assorted remains from five out of six Neolithic sites (~4000 - 7000 years b.p. in Eastern China. Because of its extreme hardness, silicon carbide was apparently employed in the manufacture of ancient jade artifacts presumably as an abrasive for polishing. We show that Neolithic people may have already used this synthetic material to carve and polish both jade and quartz artifacts, contributing to the blooming development of the jade culture throughout ancient China.

  2. Soil Respiration under Different Land Uses in Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Li-Chao; Yang, Ming-Zhen; Han, Wen-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Land-use change has a crucial influence on soil respiration, which further affects soil nutrient availability and carbon stock. We monitored soil respiration rates under different land-use types (tea gardens with three production levels, adjacent woodland, and a vegetable field) in Eastern China at weekly intervals over a year using the dynamic closed chamber method. The relationship between soil respiration and environmental factors was also evaluated. The soil respiration rate exhibited a remarkable single peak that was highest in July/August and lowest in January. The annual cumulative respiration flux increased by 25.6% and 20.9% in the tea garden with high production (HP) and the vegetable field (VF), respectively, relative to woodland (WL). However, no significant differences were observed between tea gardens with medium production (MP), low production (LP), WL, and VF. Soil respiration rates were significantly and positively correlated with organic carbon, total nitrogen, and available phosphorous content. Each site displayed a significant exponential relationship between soil respiration and soil temperature measured at 5 cm depth, which explained 84–98% of the variation in soil respiration. The model with a combination of soil temperature and moisture was better at predicting the temporal variation of soil respiration rate than the single temperature model for all sites. Q10 was 2.40, 2.00, and 1.86–1.98 for VF, WL, and tea gardens, respectively, indicating that converting WL to VF increased and converting to tea gardens decreased the sensitivity of soil respiration to temperature. The equation of the multiple linear regression showed that identical factors, including soil organic carbon (SOC), soil water content (SWC), pH, and water soluble aluminum (WSAl), drove the changes in soil respiration and Q10 after conversion of land use. Temporal variations of soil respiration were mainly controlled by soil temperature, whereas spatial variations were

  3. Perception of the Environmental Degradation of Gold Mining on Socio-Economic Variables in Eastern Cameroon, Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Anselme Kamga; Charles Olufisayo Olatubara; Moses Monday Atteh; Serge Nzali; Adeola Adenikinju; Théodore Yimgnia Mbiatso; Ralain Bryan Ngatcha

    2018-01-01

    Artisanal mining is associated with a number of environmental impacts, including deforestation and land degradation, open pits which pose animal traps and health hazards, and heavy metals contamination of land (water and soil), dust and noise pollution. The study examines the perception of environmental degradation of gold mining sites in eastern Cameroon. Human-environment interaction and distance decay models are the conceptual framework for this study.  This study employed a survey re...

  4. New data on Eimeria dicentrarchi (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae), a common parasite of farmed European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) from the mid-eastern Adriatic

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study extends the original description of Eimeria dicentrarchi Daoudi and Marquès, 1987, a common coccidian parasite of European sea bass from the mid-eastern Adriatic, by providing insights into the parasite’s site of infection, development and pathogenicity. E. dicentrarchi was found in vario...

  5. The SKI SITE-94 project approach to analyzing confidence in site-specific data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dverstorp, B.; Andersson, J.

    1995-01-01

    The ongoing SKI SITE-94 project is a fully integrated performance assessment based on a hypothetical repository at 500 m depth in crystalline rock. One main objective of the project is to develop a methodology for incorporating data from a site characterization into the performance assessment. The hypothetical repository is located at SKB's Hard Rock Laboratory at Aspo in south-eastern Sweden. The site evaluation in SITE-94 uses data from the pre-excavation phase that comprised measurements performed on the ground and in boreholes, including cross-hole hydraulic and tracer experiments. Uncertainties related to measurement technique, equipment and methods for interpretation were evaluated through a critical review of geohydraulic measurement methods and a complete re-evaluation of the hydraulic packer tests using the generalised radial flow (GRF) theory. Groundwater chemistry samples were analyzed for representativeness and sampling errors. A wide range of site models within geology, hydrogeology, geochemistry and rock mechanics has been developed and tested with the site characterization data. (authors). 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Soil carbon and nitrogen budget in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands along an air pollution gradient in eastern Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, T.; Bergmann, C.; Huettl, R.F.

    1995-01-01

    Litterfall, bio- and necromass of the forest floor vegetation, decomposition of recent organic material, soil respiration and humus stocks were examined in 3 Scots pine stands along an air pollution gradient in eastern Germany. One site, Rosea, received heavy deposition loads from chemical industries and brown coal fired power plants. The site Taura received moderate air pollution due to lower deposition of coarse and calcium rich dust particles; the third site, Neuglobsow was afforested and represents a low polluted control site. High nitrogen loads and increased pH value due to Ca deposition caused shifts in the vegetation structure, and higher biomass production of the forest floor vegetation, whereas needle litter production was not impacted. Simultaneously, decomposition rates of the recently harvested forest floor vegetation decreased with increasing pollutant loads, but needle litter and soil organic matter decomposition rates did not differ between the sites. Consequently, soil carbon and nitrogen stocks increased with increasing pollutant input. 19 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  7. Plugs or flood-makers? the unstable landslide dams of eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Elizabeth B.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Ely, Lisa L.; House, P. Kyle; Grant, Gordon E.; Harrity, Kelsey; Croall, Kelsey; Jones, Emily

    2015-01-01

    data sets successfully separate dam sites in eastern Oregon that failed catastrophically from those that did not. Accumulated sediments upstream of about 50% of the dam sites indicate at least short-term persistence of landslide dams prior to eventual failure. Nevertheless, only three landslide dam remnants and one extant dam significantly elevate the modern river profile. We conclude that eastern Oregon's landslide dams are indeed floodmakers, but we lack clear evidence that they form lasting plugs.

  8. Clinical characteristics and presentation of ameloblastomas: an 8-year retrospective study of 240 cases in Eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwuneke, F N; Anyanechi, C E; Akpeh, J O; Chukwuka, A; Ekwueme, O C

    2016-05-01

    Our aim was to summarise the clinical characteristics and presentation of ameloblastomas in eastern Nigeria. We organised a retrospective study of 240 patients who presented with ameloblastomas to the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery units of five specialist hospitals in the eastern states of Nigeria over an eight-year period (2004-2011). We analysed the casenotes, and categorised the cases by site of tumour, age, sex, and time of presentation. There were 117 men (49%) (mean (SD) age 43 (6.2) years) and 123 women (51%) (mean (SD) age 32 (4.7) years), a male:female ratio of 1:1.1. The largest age group was 20-39 years (n=102, 43%), and the most common site was the anterior mandible (n=140, 58%). Most of the patients presented late. Our results show that the most common site of ameloblastomas in Eastern Nigeria is the anterior mandible and that women are affected more than men, which is at variance with the results of most other studies. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Eastern Arc Mountains and their national and global importance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Eastern Arc Mountains comprise a chain of separate mountain blocks running from southern Kenya through Tanzania in a crescent or arc shape. In Tanzania, the Eastern Arc consists of North and South Pare, East and West Usambaras, Nguru, Ukaguru, Rubeho, Uluguru, Udzungwa and Mahenge Mountains.

  10. Quality of Antenatal care services in eastern Uganda: implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Good quality Antenatal Care (ANC) provides opportunity to detect and respond to risky maternal conditions. This study assessed quality of ANC services in eastern Uganda with a goal of benchmarking implications for interventions. Methods Data was collected from 15 health facilities in Eastern Uganda to establish capacity ...

  11. Financial market development in the Central and Eastern European countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berglund, T.; Hanousek, Jan; Mramor, D.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2006), s. 280-282 ISSN 1566-0141. [ Financial market development in the Central and Eastern European countries. Prague, 26.05.2006-27.05.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : financial markets * Central and Eastern Europe Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  12. Strategic Military Colonisation: The Cape Eastern Frontier 1806–1872

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Cape Eastern Frontier of South Africa offers a fascinating insight into British military strategy as well as colonial development. The Eastern Frontier was for over 100 years a very turbulent frontier. It was the area where the four main population groups (the Dutch, the British, the Xhosa and the Khoikhoi) met, and in many ...

  13. Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernández, J.; Volpato, G.

    2004-01-01

    Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba. Traditional herbal mixtures in Eastern Cuba are investigated through interviews with 130 knowledgeable people and traditional healers of the provinces of Santiago de Cuba and Guantanamo. One hundred seventy plant species and other products

  14. Tourism Policies and the Space Economy of the Eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The key objective of this paper is to x-ray the situation in the tourism development process of the post-1994 tourism sector of the Eastern Cape Province. This paper uses empirical data to examine the extent to which actors in the Eastern Cape tourism sector interpreted the national tourism policies. The White Paper on ...

  15. Influences of eastern hemlock mortality on nutrient cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thad E. Yorks; Jennifer C. Jenkins; Donald J. Leopold; Dudley J. Raynal; David A. Orwig

    2000-01-01

    Mortality of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere) may be caused by a variety of agents, but hemlock trees of all sizes over a large geographic area are currently threatened by an outbreak of the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA: Adelges tsugae Annand) in the eastern United States. In this paper, we review what is currently...

  16. Who needs credit and who gets credit in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, M.; Ongena, S.; Popov, A.; Yesin, P.

    2011-01-01

    Based on survey data covering 8,387 firms in 20 countries we compare the access to bank credit for firms in Eastern Europe to that in selected Western European countries. Our analysis reveals five main results. First, the firm-level determinants of the propensity to apply are similar in Eastern and

  17. Eastern Kentucky Teacher and Administrative Stress: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Sam; Ballestero, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to survey selected Eastern Kentucky Teachers (Elementary, Middle, and High School) to collect data about stress in public schools. This was a continuation study for Eastern Kentucky that collected data on how men and women teachers and men and women administrators handle stress. A stress survey (Appendix C) was…

  18. Introduction to Eastern Philosophy, Social Studies: 6414.23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Judy Reeder

    Major Eastern philosophies and/or religions consisting of Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, and Shintoism are investigated by 10th through 12th grade students in this general social studies quinmester course. Since Eastern philosophical ideas are already influencing students, this course aims to guide students in a universal search for…

  19. Inflammatory bowel disease in children of middle eastern descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Christina Mai Ying; Leach, Steven T; Day, Andrew S; Lemberg, Daniel A

    2014-01-01

    Increasing rates of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are now seen in populations where it was once uncommon. The pattern of IBD in children of Middle Eastern descent in Australia has never been reported. This study aimed to investigate the burden of IBD in children of Middle Eastern descent at the Sydney Children's Hospital, Randwick (SCHR). The SCHR IBD database was used to identify patients of self-reported Middle Eastern ethnicity diagnosed between 1987 and 2011. Demographic, diagnosis, and management data was collected for all Middle Eastern children and an age and gender matched non-Middle Eastern IBD control group. Twenty-four patients of Middle Eastern descent were identified. Middle Eastern Crohn's disease patients had higher disease activity at diagnosis, higher use of thiopurines, and less restricted colonic disease than controls. Although there were limitations with this dataset, we estimated a higher prevalence of IBD in Middle Eastern children and they had a different disease phenotype and behavior compared to the control group, with less disease restricted to the colon and likely a more active disease course.

  20. 75 FR 54910 - Eastern States: Filing of Plats of Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLES956000-L14200000-BJ0000-LXSITRST0000] Eastern States: Filing of Plats of Survey AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... Federal Register, Volume 75, Number 131, on page 39579 a notice entitled ``Eastern States: Filing of Plats...

  1. 77 FR 54557 - Eastern Idaho Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Eastern Idaho Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Easern Idaho Resource Advisory Committee will meet... between 8 a.m. and 8 p.m., Eastern Standard Time, Monday through Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The...

  2. Ozone and carbon monoxide budgets over the Eastern Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myriokefalitakis, S.; Daskalakis, N.; Fanourgakis, G.S.; Voulgarakis, A.; Krol, M.C.; Brugh, Aan de J.M.J.; Kanakidou, M.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of the long-range transport (LRT) on O3 and CO budgets over the Eastern Mediterranean has been investigated using the state-of-the-art 3-dimensional global chemistry-transport model TM4-ECPL. A 3-D budget analysis has been performed separating the Eastern from the

  3. Satellite Remote Sensing of Severe Haze Pollution over Eastern China on June, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, S. A.; Feng, N.; Guo, Y.; Hong, S.

    2012-12-01

    Severe yellow haze hit a vast portion of Eastern China during the second week on June, 2012, as large area in Hubei, Henan, Hunan, Jiangsu, Anhui, Jiangxi, Shandong, Zhejiang provinces and Shanghai city were covered by lingering haze. This massive haze conditions caused considerable inconvenience to people's daily lives. Previous global air quality studies have also shown that Eastern China is one of regions with highest fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations around the world. In this study, we estimate spatial and temporal variations of PM2.5 concentrations using satellite observations of this severe haze pollution on June, 2012. Satellite derived Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT), sites measured hourly PM2.5 and meteorological fields from surface are statistically correlated based on a multiple regression model. We also explore the utility of higher spatial resolution aerosol retrieval from MODIS. Both satellite-derived and in-situ values have peak daily mean concentrations of approximately 400 μg m-3 on June 12th, 2012 in the City of Wuhan, which is nearly 10 times of the primary standard of PM2.5 concentration of China's "Ambient Air Quality Standards" (35 μg m-3). Cities in the Eastern China, e.g. Nanjing, Hangzhou and Nanchang, have also witnessed similar peak values, along with heavy smog during the same period. Satellite observations in this case study demonstrate that the transport of smoke plumes can be one of the main drivers of regional haze pollution over Eastern China. Comparing to the U.S., current limited ground-based stations is one of the biggest problem to develop the PM2.5 monitoring program over China. Our results may suggest the potential of combining satellite remote sensing with atmospheric model to map the PM2.5 spatial concentration over the nationwide level, which can further accelerate the construction of PM2.5 monitoring network over China.

  4. Spatial distribution and occurrence probability of regional new particle formation events in eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Shen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the spatial extent of new particle formation (NPF events and the relative probability of observing particles originating from different spatial origins around three rural sites in eastern China were investigated using the NanoMap method, using particle number size distribution (PNSD data and air mass back trajectories. The length of the datasets used were 7, 1.5, and 3 years at rural sites Shangdianzi (SDZ in the North China Plain (NCP, Mt. Tai (TS in central eastern China, and Lin'an (LAN in the Yangtze River Delta region in eastern China, respectively. Regional NPF events were observed to occur with the horizontal extent larger than 500 km at SDZ and TS, favoured by the fast transport of northwesterly air masses. At LAN, however, the spatial footprint of NPF events was mostly observed around the site within 100–200 km. Difference in the horizontal spatial distribution of new particle source areas at different sites was connected to typical meteorological conditions at the sites. Consecutive large-scale regional NPF events were observed at SDZ and TS simultaneously and were associated with a high surface pressure system dominating over this area. Simultaneous NPF events at SDZ and LAN were seldom observed. At SDZ the polluted air masses arriving over the NCP were associated with higher particle growth rate (GR and new particle formation rate (J than air masses from Inner Mongolia (IM. At TS the same phenomenon was observed for J, but GR was somewhat lower in air masses arriving over the NCP compared to those arriving from IM. The capability of NanoMap to capture the NPF occurrence probability depends on the length of the dataset of PNSD measurement but also on topography around the measurement site and typical air mass advection speed during NPF events. Thus the long-term measurements of PNSD in the planetary boundary layer are necessary in the further study of spatial extent and the probability of NPF events. The spatial

  5. POLITICAL PROCESS DRIVERS OF CORRUPTION IN EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada-Iuliana POPESCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Corruption stands as one of the many obstacles to the political and economic security of the Eastern European region. Thus, despite the political and economic instability in the region, Eastern European countries, in and outside of the European Union need to fight corruption collectively and individually. The task is difficult, but hope is justified because the causes of corruption in this part of the region are similar and anti-corruption expertise is available. We believe that a deeper analysis of corruption’s drivers can produce a better articulated and more efficient anti-corruption strategy. This strategy will create an anti-corruption infrastructure that will strengthen the Eastern European Partnership. As a prelude to the deeper analysis that we believe must be a part of this strategy, this paper identifies the main drivers of corruption in the Eastern European Partnership countries and explains why addressing these drivers will strengthen the Eastern European Partnership.

  6. Methodology of site studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caries, J.C.; Hugon, J.; Grauby, A.

    1980-01-01

    This methodology consists in an essentially dynamic, estimated and follow-up analysis of the impact of discharges on all the environment compartments, whether natural or not, that play a part in the protection of man and his environment. It applies at two levels, to wit: the choice of site, or the detailed study of the site selected. Two examples of its application will be developed, namely: at the choice of site level in the case of marine sites, and of the detailed study level of the chosen site in that of a riverside site [fr

  7. Eastern Europe: pronatalist policies and private behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, H P

    1982-02-01

    Fertility trends in the 9 Eastern European socialist countries (Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, USSR, Yugoslavia) are reviewed. Official policy in all these countries but Yugoslavia is explicitly pronatalist to varying degrees. Attention is directed to the following areas: similarities and differences; fertility trends (historical trends, post World War 2 trends, and family size); abortion trends (abortion legislation history, current legislation, abortion data, impact on birth rates, abortion seekers, health risks, and psychological aftereffects); contraceptive availability and practice; pronatal economic incentives (impact on fertility); women's position; and marriage, divorce, and sexual attitudes. The fact that fertility was generally higher in the Eastern European socialist countries than in Western Europe in the mid-1970s is credited to pronatalist measures undertaken when fertility fell or threatened to fall below replacement level (2.1 births/woman) after abortion was liberalized in all countries but Albania, following the lead of the USSR in 1955. Fertility increased where access to abortion was again restricted (mildly in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary at various times, and severely in Romania in 1966) and/or economic incentives such as birth grants, paid maternity leave, family and child care allowances, and low interest loans to newlyweds were substantially increased (Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland to some extent, in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and the German Democratic Republic in 1976). Subsequent declines in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Romania suggest that policy induced increases in fertility are short-lived. Couples respond to abortion restrictions by practicing more efficient contraception or resorting to illegal abortion. It is evident that the region's low birth rate is realized mainly with abortion, for withdrawal remains the primary contraceptive

  8. Methodology for contaminated sites of military activity territories restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrushchov, D. P.; Yushchenko, Yu. V.; Shekhunova, S. B.

    2002-01-01

    Major part of Eastern Europe countries meet environmental problems related to sites of military activity. Major part of these sites is characterised with degradation of natural landscapes and contamination of geological environment with toxic and hazardous waste representing actual and potential danger for population and environment. Actual danger is caused with localisation of toxic waste, hazardous materials and waste which are preventing normal land use. Potential danger is related to successive dispersion of contamination in biosphere as well as origin of new derivatives and products having toxic and hazardous properties. The list of such sites and objects comprises bases of land, air and naval forces. These objects include a network of infrastructures: storages of fuels and lubricants (surface, underground), filling stations, pipe lines, reparation stations, garages, decontamination stations, underground storages of different purposes, depots (for ammunition, chemical products), hospitals, constructions, firing grounds (tank, artillery, aircraft bombing etc.) and waste disposal sites. Special programs aimed at military industries and bases contaminated sites remediation have been carrying out in developed countries (USA, United Kingdom, Germany etc.). This experience was used in the frames of joint programs having been founded in several countries of Central and Eastern Europe (Chesh Republic, Slovakia, Lithuania etc.). (author)

  9. Yields of eastern white pine in New England related to age, site and stocking

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Leak; Peter H. Allen; James P. Barrett; Frank K. Beyer; Donald L. Mader; Joseph C. Mawson; Robert K. Wilson; Robert K. Wilson

    1970-01-01

    This paper contains partial results of a cooperative study made jointly by the Universities of Maine, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire, and the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station of the USDA Forest Service.

  10. A marked seasonality of malaria transmission in two rural sites in eastern Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamad, Amel A; Nugud, Abd El Hamid D; Arnot, David E

    2002-01-01

    the number of A. arabiensis detected dropped gradually until February when neither outdoor human bait trapping nor indoor spray catches revealed any mosquitoes. Vectors re-appeared in June as humidity rose with the onset of rain. Despite the apparent absence of the vector at the height of the long, hot dry...

  11. Forest meteorology research within the Oak Ridge site, eastern deciduous forest biome, USIBP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchison, B.A.; Matt, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    The data presented here indicate that the diurnal trends in forest microclimate are dominated by the diurnal trend in incident solar radiation amounts and the diurnal changes in solar elevations. Absolute values of these microclimatic variables, on the other hand, reflect strongly, the synoptic climatic conditions present and, to a lesser degree, the interactions among synoptic climatic parameters, forest structure, forest physiology, and soil moisture conditions. The seasonal changes in forest microclimate are the result of changes in incident radiation amounts, earth-sun geometry, and phenological change in forest structure along with seasonal changes in synoptic climatic parameters. The temporal and spatial variations of solar radiation within and above a deciduous forest composed predominately of tulip poplar (biriodendron tulipifera) were documented and on attempt was made to relate the variations to forest structure

  12. The evolution of the callovo-oxfordian argillite site, Eastern France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brulhet, J.

    2004-01-01

    In France, investigations on the feasibility of a repository for long-lived radioactive waste in a deep geological formation are carried out according to a regulatory framework (Basic Safety Rule, RFS III.2.f prescribing that the long-term geological evolution be taken into account to assess the dynamics of radionuclide transfers over the very long timescales involved. As a matter of fact, the period in the future is in the order of 1 million years and is consistent with the timescales of geological evolutions likely to be significant, especially at ground surface, due to fast and high-amplitude climate variations. In order to achieve that goal, external and internal geodynamic phenomena that would generate the potential evolution are studied both on the surface and deep underground. The purpose is to define a reference scenario where the evolution of the environment is induced by a series of very likely natural events in the future. In such a framework, the basis of the approach is to continue studying the geological evolution together with past situation analogies. The work also involves the description of one or several possible variations, such as potential extreme variations or disturbances of the evolution due to the impact of human activities. That aspect is particularly important with regard to the climate evolution, because of the hypotheses on the long-term effects of greenhouse gases. In that context, the goal is to forecast potential exceptional situations in the future with or without similar conditions in the past. (author)

  13. Regional trend analysis of surface ozone observations from monitoring networks in eastern North America, Europe and East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, K. L.; Petropavlovskikh, I. V.; Cooper, O. R.; Schultz, M.; Wang, T.

    2017-12-01

    Surface ozone is a greenhouse gas and pollutant detrimental to human health and crop and ecosystem productivity. The Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR) is designed to provide the research community with an up-to-date observation-based overview of tropospheric ozone's global distribution and trends. The TOAR Surface Ozone Database contains ozone metrics at thousands of monitoring sites around the world, densely clustered across mid-latitude North America, western Europe and East Asia. Calculating regional ozone trends across these locations is challenging due to the uneven spacing of the monitoring sites across urban and rural areas. To meet this challenge we conducted a spatial and temporal trend analysis of several TOAR ozone metrics across these three regions for summertime (April-September) 2000-2014, using the generalized additive mixed model (GAMM). Our analysis indicates that East Asia has the greatest human and plant exposure to ozone pollution among investigating regions, with increasing ozone levels through 2014. The results also show that ozone mixing ratios continue to decline significantly over eastern North America and Europe, however, there is less evidence for decreases of daytime average ozone at urban sites. The present-day spatial coverage of ozone monitors in East Asia (South Korea and Japan) and eastern North America is adequate for estimating regional trends by simply taking the average of the individual trends at each site. However the European network is more sparsely populated across its northern and eastern regions and therefore a simple average of the individual trends at each site does not yield an accurate regional trend. This analysis demonstrates that the GAMM technique can be used to assess the regional representativeness of existing monitoring networks, indicating those networks for which a regional trend can be obtained by simply averaging the trends of all individual sites and those networks that require a more

  14. Proteomic landscape in Central and Eastern Europe: the 9th Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference, Poznan, Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gadher, S. J.; Marczak, L.; Luczak, M.; Stobiecki, M.; Widlak, P.; Kovářová, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2016), s. 5-7 ISSN 1478-9450. [Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference (CEEPC) /9./. Poznaň, 15.06.2015-18.06.2015] Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Central and Eastern Proteomic Conference * proteomics * mass spectrometry imaging Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.849, year: 2016

  15. Financing clean coal projects in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, G.

    1992-01-01

    The Trade and Development Program (TDP), a U.S. Government agency, provides funding for US firms to carry out feasibility studies, consultancies, and other planning services related to major projects in developing countries. By providing assistance in project planning, TDP promotes economic development; at the same time, TDP helps US firms get involved in projects that offer significant export opportunities. TDP has programs throughout the developing world, including Central and Eastern Europe, and has recently been authorized to operate in the Newly Independent States (NIS) of the former Soviet Union. The vast size and population of this region, as well as its tremendous infrastructural and basic industrial needs, present new challenges to TDP. The basic TDP program is described below; it is likely to be modified somewhat to meet the specific requirements of the NIS

  16. Lethal domestic violence in eastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, M G; Spence, P R; Spence, R L

    2000-01-01

    Strategies for preventing domestic violence can be tailored to a particular geographic or socioeconomic area if the patterns of domestic violence in the area are known. National statistics, although widely available, may not be applicable to a specific region. We reviewed homicide deaths in Eastern North Carolina between 1978 and 1999 to identify patterns in this rural area. Approximately 20% of the homicide deaths in eastern North Carolina are caused by intimate partners. Women accounted for 53% of the victims in 1976, similar to national figures but not rising to 72% as seen nationally in 1998. Latinos are an increasing presence in the area, but had only one recorded episode of lethal violence against an intimate partner. Gunshots accounted for most of the deaths (59% in men, 72% in women). Knowledge of such patterns can assist in selecting prevention strategies for this particular area. Over the last 25 years increasing attention has been devoted to domestic violence (DV), initially defined as abuse committed against a spouse, former spouse, fiancée, boy- or girlfriend, or cohabitant. As time has passed, the definition has been broadened to include other family members--elders, children, and siblings. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) now uses the term "intimate partner violence" for intentional emotional or physical abuse inflicted by a spouse, ex-spouse, a present or former boy- or girlfriend, or date. For the purposes of this paper, we consider DV interchangeable with intimate partner violence. There has been a national concern that abusive events are under-reported. The National Crime Victimization Survey, an anonymous household survey, indicated nearly 1 million incidents of non-lethal intimate partner violence per year between 1992 and 1996. The number decreased from 1.1 million in 1993 to 840,000 in 1996. Attempts to validate such data for a given geographic area often require subjects to violate anonymity--this may account for lower

  17. Research of Rainwater Infiltration in Eastern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudáková Gabriela

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Today precipitation water in the majority of built up and other sealed surface areas no longer reach the water circulation system via natural routes. This can lead to long-term changes to the soil and water resources, reduce the natural local regeneration of the groundwater and have effects on the chemical and biological conditions above and below the ground surface. Reasonable rainwater management leads to maintain or recover a sound and sustainable water cycle. The purpose of this paper is to present objectives and monitoring of a drainage project in Eastern Slovakia, in Kosice city. The paper focuses on percolation facilities in the research area of campus of Technical University and measurements connected with rainwater infiltration.

  18. Eastern European patenting activities in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinova, D. [Murdoch University, Perth, WA (Australia). Inst. of Sustainability & Technological Policy

    2001-09-01

    The patenting activities of the former centrally planned economies in the US between 1976 and 1999 are examined. The technological performance of Eastern Europe is assessed and compared with that of the OECD countries. A sharp decline is observed as a consequence of the economic changes undergone by these countries in recent years. The study reveals some common technological strengths, such as in the areas of petroleum, coal, chemicals and other related products, and country-specific advantages, such as in mining in the former USSR, Poland and Bulgaria, textiles, clothing, footwear and leather in the former Czechoslovakia, printing, publishing and recorded media in the former East Germany, health in the former Yugoslavia, energy in Romania and design in Slovenia. Recommendations are made for the future use of foreign patents.

  19. New Records of Raptors in Eastern Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna N. Barashkova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article we describe our data on observations of birds of prey in Eastern-Kazakhstan Upland and Northern Balkhash Lake area collected mostly in 2013, May–June and September, and also in 2012, March and May. In total we have recorded 15 species of birds of prey: Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis, Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos, Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca, Booted Eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus, Short-Toed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus, Long-Legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus, Black-Eared Kite (Milvus migrans lineatus, Pallid Harrier (Circus macrourus, Montagu’s Harrier (Circus pygargus, Western Marsh Harrier (Circus aeruginosus, Eurasian Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus, Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug, Steppe Merlin (Falco columbarius pallidus, Lesser and Common Kestrels (Falco naumanni, F. tinnunculus, and also 4 owl species: Eurasian Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo, Short-Eared Owl (Asio flammeus, Little Owl (Athene noctua, and Scops Owl (Otus scops. Nesting peculiarities (data on nests' locations and breeding are described for some species.

  20. Western and Eastern Values are Complementary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Natarajan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available All values are spiritual in their essence, even those that appear to be physical. For all values seek perfection of the whole. The widest and highest perfection is based on the totality and oneness of reality. Such a perfection is comprehensive and inclusive. It is founded on truths that complete other truths rather than compete with them. Despite their vast cultural differences, Eastern and Western values reflect complementary aspects of a unified whole. But the process of developing values in any society depends on its underlying cultural perspective. The nature of mind is such that it divides and analyzes reality, and concentrates on one thing at a time, whereas spirituality is founded on the perception of the whole. This vast difference in underlying cultural orientation helps explain the immense gulf in understanding that has long distinguished and separated the cultures of Asia and Europe.

  1. Eastern Scheldt Sand, Baskarp Sand No. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A. T; Madsen, E. B.; Schaarup-Jensen, A. L.

    The present data report contains data from 13 drained triaxial tests, performed on two different sand types in the Soil Mechanics Laboratory at Aalborg University in March, 1997. Two tests have been performed on Baskarp Sand No. 15, which has already ken extensively tested in the Soil Mechanics...... Laboratory. The remaining 11 triaxial tests have ben performed on Eastern Scheldt Sand, which is a material not yet investigated at the Soil Mechanics Laboratory. In the first pari of this data report, the characteristics of the two sand types in question will be presented. Next, a description...... will described. In this connection, the procedure for preparation of the soil specimens will be presented, and the actual performance of the tests will be briefly outlined. Finally, the procedure for processing of the measurements from the laboratory in order to obtain usable data will be described. The final...

  2. NPL Site Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Priorities List (NPL) is a list published by EPA of Superfund sites. A site must be added to this list before remediation can begin under Superfund. The...

  3. Site Area Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of site boundaries from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  4. NPL Site Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Priorities List (NPL) is a list published by EPA of Superfund sites. A site must be added to this list before remediation can begin under Superfund. The...

  5. THE EASTERN PARTNERSHIP – A PREMISE FOR AN ENHANCED EU-EASTERN NEIGHBOURS COOPERATION RELATIONSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Mocanu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The enlargement of the European Union towards the Central and Eastern Europe has brought to attention the necessity to reshape the EU institutional framework and specific policies addressing its new neighbourhood. Repeatedly stating that the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP is not a preceding phase for membership, the European Union also embraced the Polish-Swedish initiative for an Eastern Partnership (EaP. Meant at first to counterbalance the Union for Mediterranean project, the EaP has developed into a distinct project, with specific and ambitious cooperation goals, a positive and constructive agenda meant to support six countries (Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia and Belarus develop and harmonize with the European standards and, at the same, attempting to build and further develop an Eastern dimension of the ENP. The questions of the efficiency of the conditionality derived from the EaP and also the complementarity of this initiative with other regional projects in the area can also be important matters of concern.

  6. Drupal 7 Multilingual Sites

    CERN Document Server

    Pol, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    A practical book with plenty of screenshots to guide you through the many features of multilingual Drupal. A demo ecommerce site is provided if you want to practice on a sample site, although you can apply the techniques learnt in the book directly to your site too. Any Drupal users who know the basics of building a Drupal site and are familiar with the Drupal UI, will benefit from this book. No previous knowledge of localization or internationalization is required.

  7. Status report on geochemical field results from Atlantic study sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, T.R.S.; Thomson, J.; Hydes, D.J.; Colley, S.

    1983-01-01

    This report summarises the results of preliminary geochemical investigations at three North Atlantic study areas. The two eastern sites, on the Cape Verde abyssal plain (CV2) and east of Great Meteor Seamount (GME) were visited during 1982. The results presented are preliminary. Studies in the western Atlantic, close to the Nares Abyssal Plain study site are more detailed and are presented in a separate paper. The report shows for the first time the relative redox status of the three sites. The differences are unexpectedly large, the most reduced cores being recovered at GME and the most oxidised at CV2. The sporadic nature of Recent sediment accumulation at these sites is also emphasised. In order to place these preliminary results in context their relevance to the production of mathematical system models is discussed in a closing section. The necessity for such models to rest on sound foundations of geochemical understanding is noted. Suggestions on future research priorities are offered for discussion. (author)

  8. Estimating irrigation water use in the humid eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Sara B.; Zarriello, Phillip J.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate accounting of irrigation water use is an important part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Use Information Program and the WaterSMART initiative to help maintain sustainable water resources in the Nation. Irrigation water use in the humid eastern United States is not well characterized because of inadequate reporting and wide variability associated with climate, soils, crops, and farming practices. To better understand irrigation water use in the eastern United States, two types of predictive models were developed and compared by using metered irrigation water-use data for corn, cotton, peanut, and soybean crops in Georgia and turf farms in Rhode Island. Reliable metered irrigation data were limited to these areas. The first predictive model that was developed uses logistic regression to predict the occurrence of irrigation on the basis of antecedent climate conditions. Logistic regression equations were developed for corn, cotton, peanut, and soybean crops by using weekly irrigation water-use data from 36 metered sites in Georgia in 2009 and 2010 and turf farms in Rhode Island from 2000 to 2004. For the weeks when irrigation was predicted to take place, the irrigation water-use volume was estimated by multiplying the average metered irrigation application rate by the irrigated acreage for a given crop. The second predictive model that was developed is a crop-water-demand model that uses a daily soil water balance to estimate the water needs of a crop on a given day based on climate, soil, and plant properties. Crop-water-demand models were developed independently of reported irrigation water-use practices and relied on knowledge of plant properties that are available in the literature. Both modeling approaches require accurate accounting of irrigated area and crop type to estimate total irrigation water use. Water-use estimates from both modeling methods were compared to the metered irrigation data from Rhode Island and Georgia that were used to

  9. Geochemistry of groundwater in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Laboratory and vicinity, eastern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattray, Gordon W.

    2018-05-30

    Nuclear research activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in eastern Idaho produced radiochemical and chemical wastes that were discharged to the subsurface, resulting in detectable concentrations of some waste constituents in the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer. These waste constituents may pose risks to the water quality of the aquifer. In order to understand these risks to water quality the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the DOE, conducted a study of groundwater geochemistry to improve the understanding of hydrologic and chemical processes in the ESRP aquifer at and near the INL and to understand how these processes affect waste constituents in the aquifer.Geochemistry data were used to identify sources of recharge, mixing of water, and directions of groundwater flow in the ESRP aquifer at the INL. The geochemistry data were analyzed from 167 sample sites at and near the INL. The sites included 150 groundwater, 13 surface-water, and 4 geothermal-water sites. The data were collected between 1952 and 2012, although most data collected at the INL were collected from 1989 to 1996. Water samples were analyzed for all or most of the following: field parameters, dissolved gases, major ions, dissolved metals, isotope ratios, and environmental tracers.Sources of recharge identified at the INL were regional groundwater, groundwater from the Little Lost River (LLR) and Birch Creek (BC) valleys, groundwater from the Lost River Range, geothermal water, and surface water from the Big Lost River (BLR), LLR, and BC. Recharge from the BLR that may have occurred during the last glacial epoch, or paleorecharge, may be present at several wells in the southwestern part of the INL. Mixing of water at the INL primarily included mixing of surface water with groundwater from the tributary valleys and mixing of geothermal water with regional groundwater. Additionally, a zone of mixing between tributary valley water and

  10. Nuclear waste repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloman, B.D.; Cameron, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the geopolitics of nuclear waste disposal in the USA. Constitutional choice and social equity perspectives are used to argue for a more open and just repository siting program. The authors assert that every potential repository site inevitably contains geologic, environmental or other imperfections and that the political process is the correct one for determining sites selected

  11. Site Calibration report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yordanova, Ginka; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes site calibration measurements carried out on a site in Denmark. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. The site calibration is carried out before a power performance measurement on a given turbine to clarify the influence from the terrain on the ratio...

  12. CCS site characterisation criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachu, S.; Hawkes, C.; Lawton, D.; Pooladi-Darvish, M.; Perkins, E.

    2009-12-15

    IEA GHG recently commissioned the Alberta Research Counil in Canada to conduct a review of storage site selection criteria and site characterisation methods in order to produce a synthesis report. This report reviews the literature on the subject on the site seleciton and characterisation since the publication of the IPCC Special Report on CCS, and provides a synthesis and classification of criteria. 161 refs.

  13. Development of site specific response spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernreuter, D.L.; Chen, J.C.; Savy, J.B.

    1987-03-01

    For a number of years the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has employed site specific spectra (SSSP) in their evaluation of the adequacy of the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE). These spectra were developed only from the spectra of the horizontal components of the ground motion and from a very limited data set. As the data set has considerably increased for Eastern North America (ENA) and as more relevant data has become available from earthquakes occurring in other parts of the world (e.g., Italy), together with the fact that recent data indicated the importance of the vertical component, it became clear that an update of the SSSP's for ENA was desirable. The methodology used in this study is similar to the previous ones in that it used actual earthquake ground motion data with magnitudes within a certain range and recorded at distances and at sites similar to those that would be chosen for the definition of an SSE. An extensive analysis of the origin and size of the uncertainty is an important part of this study. The results of this analysis of the uncertainties is used to develop criteria for selecting the earthquake records to be used in the derivation of the SSSP's. We concluded that the SSSPs were not very sensitive to the distribution of the source to site distance of the earthquake records used in the analysis. That is, the variability (uncertainty) introduced by the range of distances was relatively small compared to the variability introduced by other factors. We also concluded that the SSSP are somewhat sensitive to the distribution of the magnitudes of these earthquakes, particularly at rock sites and, by inference, at shallow soil sites. We found that one important criterion in selecting records to generate SSSP is the depth of soil at the site

  14. Recent expansion of erect shrubs in the Low Arctic: evidence from Eastern Nunavik

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremblay, Benoît; Lévesque, Esther; Boudreau, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    In order to characterize shrub response near the treeline in Eastern Nunavik (Québec), a region under extensive warming since the 1990s, we compared two series (1964 and 2003) of vertical aerial photos from the vicinity of Kangiqsualujjuaq. Our study revealed a widespread increase in erect woody vegetation cover. During the 40 years spanning the two photo series, erect shrub and tree cover increased markedly on more than half of the land surface available for new colonization or infilling. Within the 7.2 km 2 analysed, areas with dense shrub and tree cover (>90%) increased from 34% to 44% whereas areas with low cover (<10%) shrank from 45% to 29%. This increase in cover of trees and shrubs occurred throughout the landscape regardless of altitude, slope angle and exposure, although to varying extents. The main shrub species involved in this increase was Betula glandulosa Michx. (dwarf birch), which was present in 98% and dominant in 85% of the 345 plots. In addition, numerous seedlings and saplings of Larix laricina (Du Roi) K Koch (eastern larch) were found above the treeline (25% of the plots), suggesting that the altitudinal treeline might shift upslope in the near future. Sites that remained devoid of erect woody vegetation in 2003 were either characterized by the absence of a suitable seedbed or by harsh local microclimatic conditions (wind exposure or excessive drainage). Our results indicate dramatic increases in shrub and tree cover at a Low Arctic site in Eastern Nunavik, contributing to a growing number of observations of woody vegetation change from various areas around the North. (letter)

  15. Quantifying effects of soil heteogeneity on groundwater pollution at four sites in USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuurens, S.H.; Stagnitti, F.; Rooij, de G.H.; Boll, J.; Ling, Li; LeBlanc, M.; Ierodiaconou, D.; Versace, V.; Salzman, S.

    2005-01-01

    Four sites located in the north-eastern region of the United States of America have been chosen to investigate the impacts of soil heterogeneity in the transport of solutes (bromide and chloride) through the vadose zone (the zone in the soil that lies below the root zone and above the permanent

  16. Olkiluoto site description 2008. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-04-01

    This third version of the Olkiluoto Site Report, produced by the OMTF (Olkiluoto Modelling Task Force), updates the Olkiluoto Site Report 2006 (Andersson et al. 2007) with the data and knowledge obtained up to December 2007. The main product of the modelling has been to develop an updated version of the descriptive model of the site (the Site Descriptive Model), i.e. a model describing the geometry, properties of the bedrock and the water and the associated interacting processes and mechanisms. The Site Descriptive Model is divided into six parts: the surface system, geology, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and migration, which are presented in individual chapters. Five separated models are presented: the geological, rock mechanics, hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical and migration models. The main advances since Site Report 2006 are: (1) The geological model has been revised according to new data and interpretations. This has improved the consistency between the locations of the deformation zones in the geological model and the hydraulic zones in the hydrogeological model, (2) New 3D seismic data have been incorporated within the geological model and an initial model for the eastern part of the Island is presented. Site-scale brittle deformation zones are extrapolated to intersect the surrounding regional lineaments, unless prohibited by direct observations to the contrary. The alteration model has been revised, showing a clear correspondence between the illitisation and the sitescale fault zones, (3) A first account of the development of the brittle deformation history of the site is provided, (4) A new geological DFN model has been developed, that considers mapped fracture traces from both the surface and the ONKALO, (5) A new stress state model and fracture and fracture zone properties are presented, (6) A new hydrogeological DFN model has been developed, (7) An updated site scale (EPM) flow model has been developed, (8) There has been an

  17. Songbirds as sentinels of mercury in terrestrial habitats of eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Allyson K.; Evers, David C.; Adams, Evan M.; Cristol, Daniel A.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Edmonds, Samuel T.; Gray, Carrie E.; Hoskins, Bart; Lane, Oksana P.; Sauer, Amy; Tear, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a globally distributed environmental contaminant with a variety of deleterious effects in fish, wildlife, and humans. Breeding songbirds may be useful sentinels for Hg across diverse habitats because they can be effectively sampled, have well-defined and small territories, and can integrate pollutant exposure over time and space. We analyzed blood total Hg concentrations from 8,446 individuals of 102 species of songbirds, sampled on their breeding territories across 161 sites in eastern North America [geometric mean Hg concentration = 0.25 μg/g wet weight (ww), range of the USEPA Mercury and Air Toxics Standards, which will reduce Hg emissions from coal-fired power plants by over 90 %. Mixed-effects modeling indicated that habitat, foraging guild, and age were important predictors of blood Hg concentrations across species and sites. Blood Hg concentrations in adult invertebrate-eating songbirds were consistently higher in wetland habitats (freshwater or estuarine) than upland forests. Generally, adults exhibited higher blood Hg concentrations than juveniles within each habitat type. We used model results to examine species-specific differences in blood Hg concentrations during this time period, identifying potential Hg sentinels in each region and habitat type. Our results present the most comprehensive assessment of blood Hg concentrations in eastern songbirds to date, and thereby provide a valuable framework for designing and evaluating risk assessment schemes using sentinel songbird species in the time after implementation of the new atmospheric Hg standards.

  18. Geological and hydrochemical sensitivity of the eastern United States to acid precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrey, G.R.; Galloway, J.N.; Norton, S.A.; Schofield, C.L.; Shaffer, P.W.; Burns, D.A.

    1980-03-01

    A new analysis of bedrock geology maps of the eastern US constitutes a simple model for predicting areas which might be impacted by acid precipitation and it allows much greater resolution for detecting sensitivity than has previously been available for the region. Map accuracy has been verified by examining current alkalinities and pH's of waters in several test states, including Maine, New Hampshire, New York, Virginia and North Carolina. In regions predicted to be highly sensitive, alkalinities in upstream sites were generally low. Many areas of the eastern US are pinpointed in which some of the surface waters, especially upstream reaches, may be sensitive to acidification. Pre-1970 data were compared to post-1975 data, revealing marked declines in both alkalinity and pH of sensitive waters of two states tested, North Carolina, where pH and alkalinity have decreased in 80% of 38 streams and New Hampshire, where pH in 90% of 49 streams and lakes has decreased since 1949. These sites are predicted to be sensitive by the geological map on the basis of their earlier alkalinity values. The map is to be improved by the addition of a soils component.

  19. 2001 Bhuj, India, earthquake engineering seismoscope recordings and Eastern North America ground-motion attenuation relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, C.H.; Kumar, A.

    2003-01-01

    Engineering seismoscope data collected at distances less than 300 km for the M 7.7 Bhuj, India, mainshock are compatible with ground-motion attenuation in eastern North America (ENA). The mainshock ground-motion data have been corrected to a common geological site condition using the factors of Joyner and Boore (2000) and a classification scheme of Quaternary or Tertiary sediments or rock. We then compare these data to ENA ground-motion attenuation relations. Despite uncertainties in recording method, geological site corrections, common tectonic setting, and the amount of regional seismic attenuation, the corrected Bhuj dataset agrees with the collective predictions by ENA ground-motion attenuation relations within a factor of 2. This level of agreement is within the dataset uncertainties and the normal variance for recorded earthquake ground motions.

  20. Entomologic and serologic evidence of zoonotic transmission of Babesia microti, eastern Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foppa, Ivo M; Krause, Peter J; Spielman, Andrew; Goethert, Heidi; Gern, Lise; Brand, Brigit; Telford, Sam R

    2002-07-01

    We evaluated human risk for infection with Babesia microti at a site in eastern Switzerland where several B. microti-infected nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks had been found. DNA from pooled nymphal ticks amplified by polymerase chain reaction was highly homologous to published B. microti sequences. More ticks carried babesial infection in the lower portion of the rectangular 0.7-ha grid than in the upper (11% vs. 0.8%). In addition, we measured seroprevalence of immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies against B. microti antigen in nearby residents. Serum from 1.5% of the 396 human residents of the region reacted to B. microti antigen (>1:64), as determined by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IgG). These observations constitute the first report demonstrating B. microti in a human-biting vector, associated with evidence of human exposure to this agent in a European site.

  1. Mine water pollution studies in Chapha Incline, Umaria Coalfield, Eastern Madhya Pradesh, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathak, V.; Banerjee, A.K. [Hari Singh Gour University, Sagar (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1992-06-01

    Mining effects physical and chemical changes in the mine environment resulting in water pollution. Based on the geological distribution the coal mines in the state of Madhya Pradesh, the Coalfield can be categorised into three basins Northern, Southern and Satpura. The Northern belt lies along the Sone Valley whilst the Southern one lies within Mahanadi Valley and the Satpura basin lies south of the alluvial tract. Mine water pollution study reported in this paper is concerned with Chapha Incline, Umaria Coalfield in Eastern Madhya Pradesh. The water analysis was carried out on representative samples obtained from the site on pre-Monsoon and post-monsoon seasons, and reference samples were obtained from the area in the vicinity of the site of investigation. The samples were analysed in the laboratory for determining water quality parameters including trace element detection and microbial analyses. The chemical analysis results of mine water are presented in the form of Durov diagrams. 10 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Site Environmental Report, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Site Environmental Report (SER) is prepared annually in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, ``General Environmental Protection Program.`` This 1993 SER provides the general public as well as scientists and engineers with the results from the site`s ongoing Environmental Monitoring Program. Also included in this report is information concerning the site`s progress toward achieving full compliance with requirements set forth by DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and Ohio EPA (OEPA). For some readers, the highlights provided in the Executive Summary may provide sufficient information. Many readers, however, may wish to read more detailed descriptions of the information than those which are presented here.

  3. Olkiluoto site description 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    This fourth version of the Olkiluoto Site Report, produced by the OMTF (Olkiluoto Modelling Task Force), updates the Olkiluoto Site Report 2008 with the data and knowledge obtained up to December 2010. A descriptive model of the site (the Site Descriptive Model, SDM), i.e. a model describing the geological and hydrogeological structure of the site, properties of the bedrock and the groundwater and its flow, and the associated interacting processes and mechanisms. The SDM is divided into six parts: surface system, geology, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and transport properties

  4. Olkiluoto site description 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    This fourth version of the Olkiluoto Site Report, produced by the OMTF (Olkiluoto Modelling Task Force), updates the Olkiluoto Site Report 2008 with the data and knowledge obtained up to December 2010. A descriptive model of the site (the Site Descriptive Model, SDM), i.e. a model describing the geological and hydrogeological structure of the site, properties of the bedrock and the groundwater and its flow, and the associated interacting processes and mechanisms. The SDM is divided into six parts: surface system, geology, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and transport properties.

  5. SITE-94. Discrete-feature modelling of the Aespoe site: 2. Development of the integrated site-scale model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, J.E. [Golder Associates AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    A 3-dimensional, discrete-feature hydrological model is developed. The model integrates structural and hydrologic data for the Aespoe site, on scales ranging from semi regional fracture zones to individual fractures in the vicinity of the nuclear waste canisters. Hydrologic properties of the large-scale structures are initially estimated from cross-hole hydrologic test data, and automatically calibrated by numerical simulation of network flow, and comparison with undisturbed heads and observed drawdown in selected cross-hole tests. The calibrated model is combined with a separately derived fracture network model, to yield the integrated model. This model is partly validated by simulation of transient responses to a long-term pumping test and a convergent tracer test, based on the LPT2 experiment at Aespoe. The integrated model predicts that discharge from the SITE-94 repository is predominantly via fracture zones along the eastern shore of Aespoe. Similar discharge loci are produced by numerous model variants that explore uncertainty with regard to effective semi regional boundary conditions, hydrologic properties of the site-scale structures, and alternative structural/hydrological interpretations. 32 refs.

  6. SITE-94. Discrete-feature modelling of the Aespoe site: 2. Development of the integrated site-scale model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, J.E.

    1996-12-01

    A 3-dimensional, discrete-feature hydrological model is developed. The model integrates structural and hydrologic data for the Aespoe site, on scales ranging from semi regional fracture zones to individual fractures in the vicinity of the nuclear waste canisters. Hydrologic properties of the large-scale structures are initially estimated from cross-hole hydrologic test data, and automatically calibrated by numerical simulation of network flow, and comparison with undisturbed heads and observed drawdown in selected cross-hole tests. The calibrated model is combined with a separately derived fracture network model, to yield the integrated model. This model is partly validated by simulation of transient responses to a long-term pumping test and a convergent tracer test, based on the LPT2 experiment at Aespoe. The integrated model predicts that discharge from the SITE-94 repository is predominantly via fracture zones along the eastern shore of Aespoe. Similar discharge loci are produced by numerous model variants that explore uncertainty with regard to effective semi regional boundary conditions, hydrologic properties of the site-scale structures, and alternative structural/hydrological interpretations. 32 refs

  7. Hanford Site Infrastructure Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Hanford Site Infrastructure Plan (HIP) has been prepared as an overview of the facilities, utilities, systems, and services that support all activities on the Hanford Site. Its purpose is three-fold: to examine in detail the existing condition of the Hanford Site's aging utility systems, transportation systems, Site services and general-purpose facilities; to evaluate the ability of these systems to meet present and forecasted Site missions; to identify maintenance and upgrade projects necessary to ensure continued safe and cost-effective support to Hanford Site programs well into the twenty-first century. The HIP is intended to be a dynamic document that will be updated accordingly as Site activities, conditions, and requirements change. 35 figs., 25 tabs

  8. Hanford Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hathaway, H.B.; Daly, K.S.; Rinne, C.A.; Seiler, S.W.

    1992-05-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (HSDP) provides an overview of land use, infrastructure, and facility requirements to support US Department of Energy (DOE) programs at the Hanford Site. The HSDP's primary purpose is to inform senior managers and interested parties of development activities and issues that require a commitment of resources to support the Hanford Site. The HSDP provides a land use plan for the Hanford Site and presents a picture of what is currently known and anticipated in accordance with DOE Order 4320.1B. Site Development Planning. The HSDP wig be updated annually as future decisions further shape the mission and overall site development process. Further details about Hanford Site development are defined in individual area development plans

  9. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Guidelines for determining design basis ground motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report develops and applies a methodology for estimating strong earthquake ground motion. The motivation was to develop a much needed tool for use in developing the seismic requirements for structural designs. An earthquake's ground motion is a function of the earthquake's magnitude, and the physical properties of the earth through which the seismic waves travel from the earthquake fault to the site of interest. The emphasis of this study is on ground motion estimation in Eastern North America (east of the Rocky Mountains), with particular emphasis on the Eastern United States and southeastern Canada. Eastern North America is a stable continental region, having sparse earthquake activity with rare occurrences of large earthquakes. While large earthquakes are of interest for assessing seismic hazard, little data exists from the region to empirically quantify their effects. Therefore, empirically based approaches that are used for other regions, such as Western North America, are not appropriate for Eastern North America. Moreover, recent advances in science and technology have now made it possible to combine theoretical and empirical methods to develop new procedures and models for estimating ground motion. The focus of the report is on the attributes of ground motion in Eastern North America that are of interest for the design of facilities such as nuclear power plants. Specifically considered are magnitudes M from 5 to 8, distances from 0 to 500 km, and frequencies from 1 to 35 Hz. This document, Volume IV, provides Appendix 8.B, Laboratory Investigations of Dynamic Properties of Reference Sites

  10. The prevalence of extreme Middle Eastern ideologies around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loza, Wagdy; Abd-el-Fatah, Youssef; Prinsloo, Johan; Hesselink-Louw, Anni; Seidler, Katie

    2011-02-01

    The Belief Diversity Scale (BDS) was administered to Australian, Canadian, Egyptian, and South African participants of different religious backgrounds. The BDS is a 33-item, six subscale instrument that is designed to quantitatively measure Middle Eastern extremist ideologies on risk areas that are reported in the literature. Results demonstrated the reliability and validity of the BDS, thus suggesting that the BDS could be used as an objective tool to measure Middle Eastern extremist ideologies. Results also supported the hypothesis of prevalence of Middle Eastern extremist ideologies around different parts of the world.

  11. A Hierarchical Analysis of Tree Growth and Environmental Drivers Across Eastern US Temperate Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantooth, J.; Dietze, M.

    2014-12-01

    Improving predictions of how forests in the eastern United States will respond to future global change requires a better understanding of the drivers of variability in tree growth rates. Current inventory data lack the temporal resolution to characterize interannual variability, while existing growth records lack the extent required to assess spatial scales of variability. Therefore, we established a network of forest inventory plots across ten sites across the eastern US, and measured growth in adult trees using increment cores. Sites were chosen to maximize climate space explored, while within sites, plots were spread across primary environmental gradients to explore landscape-level variability in growth. Using the annual growth record available from tree cores, we explored the responses of trees to multiple environmental covariates over multiple spatial and temporal scales. We hypothesized that within and across sites growth rates vary among species, and that intraspecific growth rates increase with temperature along a species' range. We also hypothesized that trees show synchrony in growth responses to landscape-scale climatic changes. Initial analyses of growth increments indicate that across sites, trees with intermediate shade tolerance, e.g. Red Oak (Quercus rubra), tend to have the highest growth rates. At the site level, there is evidence for synchrony in response to large-scale climatic events (e.g. prolonged drought and above average temperatures). However, growth responses to climate at the landscape scale have yet to be detected. Our current analysis utilizes hierarchical Bayesian state-space modeling to focus on growth responses of adult trees to environmental covariates at multiple spatial and temporal scales. This predictive model of tree growth currently incorporates observed effects at the individual, plot, site, and landscape scale. Current analysis using this model shows a potential slowing of growth in the past decade for two sites in the

  12. Eastern Posavina as unique geologic and hydrogeologic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grba, Nenad; Krcmar, Dejan; Neubauer, Franz; Roncevic, Srdjan; Kragulj Isakovski, Marijana; Molnar Jazic, Jelena; Dalmacija, Bozo

    2016-04-01

    The geochemical survey on soils has huge significance for determining the anthropogenic source of metals in total metal content from sediments, that could origin from both sources. In order to obtain a complete picture, geological mapping and impact on specific area should be done. The investigated area included the eastern part of the Posavina Basin from the furthest north-western part of Jadar block terrane (sampling sites Zasavica Special Nature Reserve of the first category in the Ramsar List, Batrovci, Bosut and Jamena locality). In period between 2010 and 2014 all investigations were performed on samples from depth to 0.50 m. Sediment were analyzed for Ni, Zn, Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb by flame atomic absorption spectrometry-FAAS (Perkin Elmer, AAnalyst 700). The heavy metal content of this alluvial plain and loess terraces area are variable like Ni (14 - 47 mg/kg), Zn (70 - 265 mg/kg), Cd (2,7-4,0 mg/kg), Cr (4 - 32 mg/kg), Cu (28 - 68 mg/kg) and Pb (5 - 101 mg/kg). Except Cr, the most of the obtained range values were higher than Upper Continental Crust (UCC) from sedimentary and loess data (Rudnick and Gao, 2004)). Several studies collaborate to this hypothesis related to Chemical Proxy of Alteration (CPA, 60-95) from Jadar unit and neighbor representative catchment areas (Grba et al., 2014, Buggle et al., 2011and Šajnović, 2008). The direction of hillslope transport are as follow: from north it is Fruska Gora Mountain with serpentinite soils from ultramafic rocks, Cer Mountains mostly with a plutonic composition and from south and from east Bosnian Mountains mainly Majevica as part of Internal Dinarides Ophiolites mélange. Contributions of geochemical process have direct and dominant influence on concentrations of heavy metals in this region. Taking into account the background values for this region (Grba et al., 2014) anthropogenic impacts are small in extent, dominantly by zinc moderately to strongly polluted which have dual origin (geological and

  13. Post-rehabilitation environmental hazard of Cu, Zn, As and Pb at the derelict Conrad Mine, eastern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gore, Damian B.; Preston, Nicholas J.; Fryirs, Kirstie A.

    2007-01-01

    A post-rehabilitation audit of the derelict Conrad base metal mine, eastern Australia, indicates ongoing environmental hazard regarding acid mine drainage and concentrations of arsenic and lead to 3 wt% in the soil and sediment. In order to rehabilitate remote contaminated sites effectively, on-site analyses should be carried out to ensure that the materials used to rehabilitate the site are not contaminant-bearing. Understanding the geomorphic setting of the rehabilitated areas is also important in understanding where, and for what period, contaminated materials might be stored in fluvial systems downstream of mine workings. Chemical and geomorphic audits should form a fundamental part of all rehabilitation works to ensure favourable environmental outcomes. - Post-rehabilitation audit of mine reveals ongoing As and Pb environmental hazard enhanced by acid drainage and site geomorphology

  14. Sediment retention in a bottomland hardwood wetland in Eastern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiss, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    One of the often-stated functions of wetlands is their ability to remove sediments and other particulates from water, thus improving water quality in the adjacent aquatic system. However, actual rates of suspended sediment removal have rarely been measured in freshwater wetland systems. To address this issue, suspended sediment dynamics were measured in a 85-km2 bottomland hardwood (BLH) wetland adjacent to the highly turbid Cache River in eastern Arkansas during the 1988-1990 water years. A suspended sediment mass balance was calculated using depth-integrated, flow-weighted daily measurements at wetland inflow and outflow points. Over the three-year period, suspended sediment load decreased an average of 14% between upstream and downstream sampling points. To test the idea that the suspended sediments were retained by the adjacent wetland and to determine what portion of the BLH forest was most responsible for retaining the suspended sediments, concurrent measurements of sediment accretion were made at 30 sites in the wetland using feldspar clay marker horizons, sedimentation disks, the 137cesium method, and dendrogeomorphic techniques. Sedimentation rates exceeding 1 cm/yr were measured in frequently flooded areas dominated by Nyssa aquatica and Taxodium distichum. Maximum sedimentation rates did not occur on the natural levee, as would be predicted by classical fluvial geomorphology, but in the "first bottom," where retention time of the water reached a maximum. Multiple regression was used to relate sedimentation rates with several physical and biological factors. A combination of distance from the river, flood duration, and tree basal area accounted for nearly 90% of the variation in sedimentation rates.

  15. VISITOR AND EXHIBITOR CLUSTERS AT EASTERN-EUROPEAN AGRICULTURAL FAIRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varga Levente

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no exact information concerning the economic effect of the agricultural exhibitions neither on national nor on international level. Some publications focus on the positive externalities of exhibitions, but the exhibition itself is a neglected topic. Although the fair is one of the most ancient marketing-tools; its role is still relatively high in the marketing mix of different economic sectors, even nowadays, in the Internet-age. One of these sectors is the agribusiness, where the exhibition is a place of business-to-business communication, Customer Relationship Management, and last, but not least an important Point Of Sale. The aim of the present paper is to point out the importance of exhibitions through the assessment of their popularity. From this aim, we have derived the following objectives: - To build a model concerning the relationships among the interested parties. - To asses the visitors of five Eastern-European exhibitions. - To asses the exhibitors of the same exhibitions. - To compare the opinion and expectance of the mentioned groups. - To test the model, based on the questionnaires data. - To measure the radius of attraction by the attendees, as well as by exhibitors I have collected primary data through questionnaires and site visit, and also have obtained secondary data from printed and electronic documents. In this paper, I present a model, which describes the relationships among the interested parties. The data was collected on four different exhibitions: Farmerexpo (Debrecen, Hungary in 2005 and 2006, OMK (Budapest, Hungary from 2005 and Polagra-Farm (Poznan, Poland 2006.

  16. Site characterization plan:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed

  17. Site characterization plan:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in acordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and eveloping a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing prinicples, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed. 880 refs., 130 figs., 25 tabs

  18. 76 FR 25330 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP11-216-000] Texas Eastern... Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas 77056, filed in Docket No... in the termination of any services to Texas Eastern's customers, all as more fully set forth in the...

  19. 75 FR 68398 - Texas, Oklahoma & Eastern Railroad, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Texas, Oklahoma...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... & Eastern Railroad, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Texas, Oklahoma & Eastern Railroad Company Texas, Oklahoma & Eastern Railroad, LLC (TOE), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from Texas, Oklahoma & Eastern Railroad Company and to operate...

  20. 76 FR 14387 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP11-118-000] Texas Eastern... Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), Post Office Box 1642, Houston, Texas 77251-1642, filed in Docket... West Cameron Blocks 566, 565, and 548, offshore Louisiana, under Texas Eastern's blanket certificate...

  1. Decommissioning of commercial shallow-land burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, E.S.; Holter, G.M.

    1979-01-01

    Estimated costs and safety considerations for decommissioning LLW burial grounds have been evaluated. Calculations are based on a generic burial ground assumed to be located at a western and an eastern site. Decommissioning modes include: (1) site stabilization followed by long-term care of the site; and (2) waste relocation. Site stabilization is estimated to cost from $0.4 million to $7.5 million, depending on the site and the stabilization option chosen. Long-term care is estimated to cost about $100,000 annually, with somewhat higher costs during early years because of increased site maintenance and environmental monitoring requirements. Long-term care is required until the site is released for unrestricted public use. Occupational and public safety impacts of site stabilization and long-term care are estimated to be small. Relocation of all the waste from a reference burial ground is estimated to cost more than $1.4 billion and to require more than 20 years for completion. Over 90% of the cost is associated with packaging, transportation, and offsite disposal of the exhumed waste. Waste relocation results in significant radiation exposure to decommissioning workers

  2. Economic restructuring in Eastern Europe and acid rain abatement strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amann, Markus; Klaassen, Ger; Schoepp, Wolfgang; Soerensen, Lene; Hordijk, Leen

    1992-01-01

    Acid rain abatement strategies in Europe are currently being discussed in view of the expiration of the Helsinki Protocol on SO 2 emission reduction. The changing energy situation in Eastern European countries is expected to have an influence on the deposition pattern in Europe. The paper presents a consistent energy scenario for Eastern European countries and compares optimal strategies to reduce SO 2 emissions. These strategies are based on runs with the RAINS model in which environmental targets have been set based on critical loads for sulphur. The analysis shows that economic restructuring and efficiency improvements in Eastern European countries, as well as in Western Europe, may result in significantly lower sulphur abatement costs. Potential assistance to Eastern Europe to guarantee desired environmental standards in Western countries should therefore focus not only on providing emission control devices but also on the success of the economic transition process. (author)

  3. Discrepancy of Cytogenetic Analysis in Western and Eastern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsun Chang

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: We demonstrated regional differences in second-trimester amniocyte karyotyping results and established a database of common chromosomal anomalies that could be useful for genetic counseling, especially in eastern Taiwan.

  4. Accounting for violence in Eastern Congo: Young people's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In these accounts, the voices of young people have been largely absent. Although ... in eastern Congo from September to December 2009 as part of the author's doctoral ..... More rarely, young Congolese recognised the contribution made by ...

  5. Upwelling systems in eastern boundary currents have been ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Differences are found in the location of return, onshore flow. .... eastern boundary currents, downstream of the west wind drift ... show maximum upwelling conditions (equatorward winds) in ..... The work of PTS and CJ was supported by Grant.

  6. Atmospheric pollution and its implications in the Eastern Transvaal highveld

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tyson, PD

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available This report is a review of available information on the dispersion climatology, the degree of atmospheric pollution and the various impacts of that pollution on man and environment in the Eastern Transvaal Highveld (ETH) and adjacent regions...

  7. Eastern Cape hybrid mini-grid systems - a case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This presentation provides a rationale for off-grid projects, and then briefly discusses renewable energy for rural electrification in the Eastern Cape. The impact of this project, and related research work, is also touched on....

  8. Empowering vulnerable women in eastern Africa through innovative ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Empowering vulnerable women in eastern Africa through innovative savings ... savings schemes play in empowering poor women to overcome economic ... and how decision-making power relations influence women's participation in SGs; ...

  9. INFLUENCE OF ALTERED FRESHWATER FLOWS ON EASTERN OYSTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract for National Shellfisheries AssociationEastern oysters Crassostrea virginica are prominent in Gulf of Mexico estuaries. Valued both commercially and ecologically, oyster populations are threatened by human activity, including dredging, harvesting, and upstream al...

  10. Feeding ecology of major carnivorous fish from four eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1984-03-29

    Mar 29, 1984 ... Whitfield & Blaber (1978) investigated the feeding ecology of piscivorous ...... Figure 3 Trophic relationships of carnivores (square blocks) in eastern Cape estuaries. ... Key species in the food chain of group A samples (Figures.

  11. Diet of bonnethead shark in eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To examine variation in diet and daily ration of the bonnethead, Sphyrna tiburo (Linnaeus, 1758), sharks were collected from three areas in the eastern Gulf of...

  12. Animal vectors of eastern dwarf mistletoe of black spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Ostry; Thomas H. Nicholls; D.W. French

    1983-01-01

    Describes a study to determine the importance of animals in the spread of eastern dwarf mistletoe of black spruce. Radio telemetry, banding, and color-marking techniques were used to study vectors of this forest pathogen.

  13. Secondary School Admissions Policies in Eastern Africa: Some Regional Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, W. T. S.

    1974-01-01

    This discussion considers some regional issues implicit in current procedures regulating admission to secondary education in four countries of Eastern Africa and places these procedures in their general political context. (Author)

  14. Issues in Health Care of Middle Eastern Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipson, Juliene G.; Meleis, Afaf I.

    1983-01-01

    Relationships between Middle Eastern patients and Western health care professionals are often troubled by mutual misunderstanding of culturally influenced values and communication styles. Although Middle Easterners vary ethnically, they do share a core of common values and behavior that include the importance of affiliation and family, time and space orientations, interactional style and attitudes toward health and illness. Problems in providing health care involve obtaining adequate information, “demanding behavior” by a patient's family, conflicting beliefs about planning ahead and differing patterns of communicating grave diagnoses or “bad news.” There are guidelines that will provide an understanding of the cultural characteristics of Middle Easterners and, therefore, will improve rather than impede their health care. A personal approach and continuity of care by the same health care professional help to bridge the gap between Middle Eastern cultures and Western medical culture. In addition, periodic use of cultural interpreters helps ameliorate the intensity of some cultural issues. PMID:6364575

  15. Genetic Variation Among Open-Pollinated Progeny of Eastern Cottonwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. E. Farmer

    1970-01-01

    Improvement programs in eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.) are most frequently designed to produce genetically superior clones for direct commercial use. This paper describes a progeny test to assess genetic variability on which selection might be based.

  16. Marketing of Sahelian Goats in North -Eastern Nigeria: Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marketing of Sahelian Goats in North -Eastern Nigeria: Experience from Borno State. ... The study evaluated Sahelian goat marketing in Northeastern Nigeria, drawing experience from Borno State. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  17. Intraseasonal meridional current variability in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ogata, T.; Sasaki, H.; Murty, V.S.N.; Sarma, M.S.S.; Masumoto, Y.

    . [2007] demonstrate the possibility of the air-sea interac- tion in the eastern Indian Ocean at the intraseasonal time- scale by analyzing observed and simulated data. Recent studies also reveal that multiscale air-sea interactions be- tween intraseasonal...

  18. Mutual-Help among Afar Pastoralists of Ethiopia | Hundie | Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 26, No 2 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. The vegetation of Malilangwe Wildlife Reserve, south-eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The vegetation of Malilangwe Wildlife Reserve, south-eastern Zimbabwe. ... African Journal of Range and Forage Science ... Comparisons with other southern African savannas are made, and similarities and differences are discussed.

  20. IS COPPER REQUIRED FOR EASTERN OYSTER SETTING AND METAMORPHOSIS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent field research with eastern oysters demonstrated higher defense activities, including hemocyte numbers, locomotion and bactericidal ability, associated with locations exhibiting relatively high contamination. Copper and zinc, found in high concentrations in tissues of oyst...