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Sample records for site deletion mutant

  1. Emergence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus deletion mutants: Correlation with the porcine antibody response to a hypervariable site in the ORF 3 structural glycoprotein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Bøtner, Anette; Toft, P.

    2000-01-01

    reading frames, the same PRRSV genetic locus codes for the ORF 3 "RKASLSTS" sequence, and a previously described ORF 4 epitope (Meulenherg, J. J. M., Van Nieuwstadt, A. P,, Van Essen-Zandbergen, A., and Langeveld, J. P. M., 1997, J. Virol. 71, 6061-6067). Sequence analysis identified naturally occurring...... deletion mutants at this ORF 3/4 site. Phylogenetic analysis showed the presence of a highly accurate ORF 3 molecular clock, according to which deletion mutants and nondeleted viruses evolved at differing speeds. Furthermore, deletion mutants and nondeleted viruses evolved as separate lineages...

  2. Catalytic properties of ADAM12 and its domain deletion mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jonas; Visse, Robert; Sørensen, Hans Peter

    2008-01-01

    of pro, catalytic, disintegrin, cysteine-rich, and EGF domains. Here we present a novel activity of recombinant ADAM12-S and its domain deletion mutants on S-carboxymethylated transferrin (Cm-Tf). Cleavage of Cm-Tf occurred at multiple sites, and N-terminal sequencing showed that the enzyme exhibits...

  3. Comparison of a coq7 deletion mutant with other respiration-defective mutants in fission yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Risa; Saiki, Ryoichi; Ozoe, Yoshihisa; Kawamukai, Makoto

    2008-11-01

    Among the steps in ubiquinone biosynthesis, that catalyzed by the product of the clk-1/coq7 gene has received considerable attention because of its relevance to life span in Caenorhabditis elegans. We analyzed the coq7 ortholog (denoted coq7) in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, to determine whether coq7 has specific roles that differ from those of other coq genes. We first confirmed that coq7 is necessary for the penultimate step in ubiquinone biosynthesis, from the observation that the deletion mutant accumulated the ubiquinone precursor demethoxyubiquinone-10 instead of ubiquinone-10. The coq7 mutant displayed phenotypes characteristic of other ubiquinone-deficient Sc. pombe mutants, namely, hypersensitivity to hydrogen peroxide, a requirement for antioxidants for growth on minimal medium, and an elevated production of sulfide. To compare these phenotypes with those of other respiration-deficient mutants, we constructed cytochrome c (cyc1) and coq3 deletion mutants. We also assessed accumulation of oxidative stress in various ubiquinone-deficient strains and in the cyc1 mutant by measuring mRNA levels of stress-inducible genes and the phosphorylation level of the Spc1 MAP kinase. Induction of ctt1, encoding catalase, and apt1, encoding a 25 kDa protein, but not that of gpx1, encoding glutathione peroxidase, was indistinguishable in four ubiquinone-deficient mutants, indicating that the oxidative stress response operates at similar levels in the tested strains. One new phenotype was observed, namely, loss of viability in stationary phase (chronological life span) in both the ubiquinone-deficient mutant and in the cyc1 mutant. Finally, Coq7 was found to localize in mitochondria, consistent with the possibility that ubiquinone biosynthesis occurs in mitochondria in yeasts. In summary, our results indicate that coq7 is required for ubiquinone biosynthesis and the coq7 mutant is not distinguishable from other ubiquinone-deficient mutants, except that its phenotypes are more

  4. Enhanced N2-fixing ability of a deletion mutant of arctic rhizobia with sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, D K; Bordeleau, L M

    1990-12-01

    Mutagenesis provoked by exposure at elevated temperature of the cold-adapted, arctic Rhizobium strain N31 resulted in the generation of five deletion mutants, which exhibited loss of their smaller plasmid (200 kb), whereas the larger plasmid (> 500 kb) was still present in all mutants. Deletion mutants did not show differences from the wild type in the antibiotic resistance pattern, the carbohydrates and organic acids utilization, and the growth rate at low temperature. However, deletion mutants differed from the wild type and among themselves in the ex planta nitrogenase activity, the nodulation index, and the symbiotic effectiveness. The deletion mutant N31.6rif (r) showed higher nodulation index and exhibited higher nitrogenase activity and symbiotic efficiency than the other deletion mutants and the wild type. The process of deletion mutation resulted in the improvement of an arctic Rhizobium strain having an earlier and higher symbiotic nitrogen fixation efficiency than the wild type.

  5. Whole genome HBV deletion profiles and the accumulation of preS deletion mutant during antiviral treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV), because of its error-prone viral polymerase, has a high mutation rate leading to widespread substitutions, deletions, and insertions in the HBV genome. Deletions may significantly change viral biological features complicating the progression of liver diseases. However, the clinical conditions correlating to the accumulation of deleted mutants remain unclear. In this study, we explored HBV deletion patterns and their association with disease status and antiviral treatment by performing whole genome sequencing on samples from 51 hepatitis B patients and by monitoring changes in deletion variants during treatment. Clone sequencing was used to analyze preS regions in another cohort of 52 patients. Results Among the core, preS, and basic core promoter (BCP) deletion hotspots, we identified preS to have the highest frequency and the most complex deletion pattern using whole genome sequencing. Further clone sequencing analysis on preS identified 70 deletions which were classified into 4 types, the most common being preS2. Also, in contrast to the core and BCP regions, most preS deletions were in-frame. Most deletions interrupted viral surface epitopes, and are possibly involved in evading immuno-surveillance. Among various clinical factors examined, logistic regression showed that antiviral medication affected the accumulation of deletion mutants (OR = 6.81, 95% CI = 1.296 ~ 35.817, P = 0.023). In chronic carriers of the virus, and individuals with chronic hepatitis, the deletion rate was significantly higher in the antiviral treatment group (Fisher exact test, P = 0.007). Particularly, preS2 deletions were associated with the usage of nucleos(t)ide analog therapy (Fisher exact test, P = 0.023). Dynamic increases in preS1 or preS2 deletions were also observed in quasispecies from samples taken from patients before and after three months of ADV therapy. In vitro experiments demonstrated that preS2 deletions alone

  6. Biochemical activities of T-antigen proteins encoded by simian virus 40 A gene deletion mutants.

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, R; Peden, K; Pipas, J M; Nathans, D; Tjian, R

    1983-01-01

    We have analyzed T antigens produced by a set of simian virus 40 (SV40) A gene deletion mutants for ATPase activity and for binding to the SV40 origin of DNA replication. Virus stocks of nonviable SV40 A gene deletion mutants were established in SV40-transformed monkey COS cells. Mutant T antigens were produced in mutant virus-infected CV1 cells. The structures of the mutant T antigens were characterized by immunoprecipitation with monoclonal antibodies directed against distinct regions of th...

  7. Antibodies with higher bactericidal activity induced by a Neisseria gonorrhoeae Rmp deletion mutant strain.

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    Guocai Li

    Full Text Available Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N. gonorrhoeae outer membrane protein reduction modifiable protein (Rmp has strong immunogenicity. However, anti-Rmp antibodies block rather than preserve the antibacterial effects of protective antibodies, which hampers the development of vaccines for gonococcal infections. We herein constructed an Rmp deletion mutant strain of N. gonorrhoeae by gene homologous recombination. The 261-460 nucleotide residues of Rmp gene amplified from N. gonorrhoeae WHO-A strain were replaced with a kanamycin-resistant Kan gene amplified from pET-28a. The resultant hybridized DNA was transformed into N. gonorrhoeae WHO-A strain. PCR was used to screen the colonies in which wild-type Rmp gene was replaced with a mutant gene fragment. Western blotting revealed that the Rmp deletion mutant strain did not express Rmp protein. Rmp deletion did not alter the morphological and Gram staining properties of the mutant strain that grew slightly more slowly than the wild-type one. Rmp gene mutated stably throughout 25 generations of passage. Antibody-mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity assay indicated that the antibodies induced by the mutant strain had evidently higher bactericidal activities than those induced by the wild-type strain. Further modification of the Rmp deletion mutant strain is still required in the development of novel live attenuated vaccines for gonorrhea by Opa genes deletion or screening of phenotypic variant strains that do not express Opa proteins.

  8. Selection of Mycoplasma hominis PG21 deletion mutants by cultivation in the presence of monoclonal antibody 552

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L T; Ladefoged, S; Birkelund, S

    1995-01-01

    characterized. The mutants showed deletions of a various number of repeats. The deletions were accompanied by a decrease in size of the proteins. With increasing size of deletions, agglutination and growth inhibition by MAb 552 became less pronounced. Spontaneous aggregation of the mutant M. hominis cells...

  9. Analysis of human HPRT- deletion mutants by the microarray-CGH (comparative genomic hybridization)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodaira, M.; Sasaki, K.; Tagawa, H.; Omine, H.; Kushiro, J.; Takahashi, N.; Katayama, H.

    2003-01-01

    We are trying to evaluate genetic effects of radiation on human using mutation frequency as an indicator. For the efficient detection of mutations, it is important to understand the mechanism and the characteristics of radiation-induced mutations. We have started the analysis of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) mutants induced by X-ray in order to clarify the deletion size and the mutation-distribution. We analyzed 39 human X-ray induced HPRT-deletion mutants by using the microarray-CGH. The array for this analysis contains 57 BAC clones covering as much as possible of the 4Mb of the 5' side and 10Mb of the 3' side of the HPRT gene based on the NCBI genome database. DNA from parent strain and each HPRT-mutant strain are labeled with Cy5 and Cy3 respectively, and were mixed and hybridized on the array. Fluorescent intensity ratio of the obtained spots was analyzed using software we developed to identify clones corresponding to the deletion region. The deletion in these strains ranged up to 3.5 Mb on the 5' side and 6 Mb on the 3' side of the HPRT gene. Deletions in 13 strains ended around BAC clones located at about 3 Mb on the 5' side. On the 3' side, deletions extended up to the specific clones located at 1.5 Mb in 11 strains. The mutations seem to be complex on the 3' end of deletion; some accompanied duplications with deletions and others could not be explained by one mutation event. We need to confirm these results, taking into account the experimental reproducibility and the accuracy of the published genetic map. The results of the research using the microarray-CGH help us to search the regions where deletions are easily induced and to identify the factors affecting the range of deletions

  10. Deletion mutants of region E1 a of AD12 E1 plasmids: Effect on oncogenic transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.L.; Jochemsen, A.G.; Bernards, R.A.; Schrier, P.I.; Ormondt, H. van; Eb, A.J. van der

    1983-01-01

    Plasmids containing the El region of Ad12 DNA can transform certain rodent cells into oncogenic cells. To study the role of the Ela subregion in the process of oncogenic transformation, Ad12 region El mutants carrying deletions in the Ela region were constructed. Deletion mutants pR7 and pR8 affect

  11. Parallel analysis of tagged deletion mutants efficiently identifies genes involved in endoplasmic reticulum biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robin; Parrish, Mark L; Cadera, Emily; Larson, Lynnelle; Matson, Clinton K; Garrett-Engele, Philip; Armour, Chris; Lum, Pek Yee; Shoemaker, Daniel D

    2003-07-30

    Increased levels of HMG-CoA reductase induce cell type- and isozyme-specific proliferation of the endoplasmic reticulum. In yeast, the ER proliferations induced by Hmg1p consist of nuclear-associated stacks of smooth ER membranes known as karmellae. To identify genes required for karmellae assembly, we compared the composition of populations of homozygous diploid S. cerevisiae deletion mutants following 20 generations of growth with and without karmellae. Using an initial population of 1,557 deletion mutants, 120 potential mutants were identified as a result of three independent experiments. Each experiment produced a largely non-overlapping set of potential mutants, suggesting that differences in specific growth conditions could be used to maximize the comprehensiveness of similar parallel analysis screens. Only two genes, UBC7 and YAL011W, were identified in all three experiments. Subsequent analysis of individual mutant strains confirmed that each experiment was identifying valid mutations, based on the mutant's sensitivity to elevated HMG-CoA reductase and inability to assemble normal karmellae. The largest class of HMG-CoA reductase-sensitive mutations was a subset of genes that are involved in chromatin structure and transcriptional regulation, suggesting that karmellae assembly requires changes in transcription or that the presence of karmellae may interfere with normal transcriptional regulation. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. The BIM Deletion Polymorphism and its Clinical Implication in Patients with EGFR-Mutant Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Treated with EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Yun; Ku, Bo Mi; Lim, Sung Hee; Lee, Min-Young; Kim, Haesu; Kim, Moonjin; Kim, Sungmin; Jung, Hyun Ae; Sun, Jong-Mu; Ahn, Jin Seok; Park, Keunchil; Ahn, Myung-Ju

    2015-06-01

    A germline BIM deletion polymorphism has been proposed to predict poor treatment response to certain kinase inhibitors. The purpose of this study was to explore whether the BIM deletion polymorphism predicts treatment efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in Korean patients with EGFR-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Peripheral blood samples from a total of 205 patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC who were treated with EGFR TKIs between July 2008 and April 2013 were included. The incidence of BIM deletions in these samples was detected by polymerase chain reaction. We compared the clinical outcomes in patients with and without the polymorphism after treatment with EGFR TKIs (gefitinib or erlotinib). The BIM deletion polymorphism was present in 15.6% (32 of 205) of patients. One patient was homozygous for the deletion, and the remaining 31 had heterozygous deletions. The majority of patients were younger than 65 years (74%), female (68%), never smokers (76%), and had stage IV NSCLC (67%). There were no associations between the BIM deletion polymorphism and clinicopathological features including gender, age, smoking status, histology, stage, and number of metastasis sites. Patients with and without the BIM deletion polymorphism had similar objective response rates (91 vs. 84%, p = 0.585). Progression-free survival and overall survival did not differ significantly between patients with and without the BIM deletion polymorphism (median progression-free survival 12 vs. 11 months, p = 0.160; median overall survival 31 vs. 30 months, p = 0.452). Multivariate analysis identified significantly predictive markers for clinical outcomes of EGFR TKIs including Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-1, adenocarcinoma histology, recurrent disease, and EGFR mutation type. The results were validated in an independent cohort of 69 NSCLC patients. It remains to be determined whether the BIM deletion polymorphism

  13. Construction and characterization of a cigR deletion mutant of Salmonella enterica serovar Pullorum.

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    Yin, Junlei; Xia, Jie; Tao, Mingxin; Xu, Lijuan; Li, Qiuchun; Geng, Shizhong; Jiao, Xinan

    2016-10-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Pullorum (S. Pullorum) is the causative agent of pullorum disease (PD) and results in severe economic losses to the poultry industry. As a Salmonella type III secretion system 2 (T3SS2) effector and predicted membrane protein, CigR is encoded by the cigR gene within Salmonella pathogenicity island 3 (SPI3). In order to research the influence of the cigR gene on S. Pullorum, a cigR mutant of S. Pullorum S06004 was constructed by the lambda Red recombination system, and then its characterization was analysed. Lack of cigR did not affect the growth and biochemical properties, but resulted in decreased biofilm formation. The mutant strain was stable with the deletion of the cigR gene. Macrophage infection assay and in vivo competition assay showed that the mutant strain increased the replication and/or survival ability in the HD11 cell line and in chickens compared to that of the parent strain, the median lethal dose (LD50) of the mutant strain was one-fifth of the parent strain for 2-day-old chickens when injected intramuscularly. These results demonstrate CigR plays roles in biofilm formation and pathogenicity of S. Pullorum, deletion of cigR can significantly decrease biofilm formation and significantly increase virulence.

  14. Structural and Functional Consequences of Chaperone Site Deletion in αA-Crystallin

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    Santhoshkumar, Puttur; Karmakar, Srabani; Sharma, Krishna K.

    2016-01-01

    The chaperone-like activity of αA-crystallin has an important role in maintaining lens transparency. Previously we identified residues 70–88 as a chaperone site in αA-crystallin. In this study, we deleted the chaperone site residues to generate αAΔ70–76 and αAΔ70–88 mutants and investigated if there are additional substrate-binding sites in αA-crystallin. Both mutant proteins when expressed in E. coli formed inclusion bodies, and on solubilizing and refolding, they exhibited similar structural properties, with a 2- to 3-fold increase in molar mass compared to the molar mass of wild-type protein. The deletion mutants were less stable than the wild-type αA-crystallin. Functionally αAΔ70–88 was completely inactive as a chaperone, while αAΔ70–76 demonstrated a 40–50% reduction in anti-aggregation activity against alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Deletion of residues 70–88 abolished the ADH binding sites in αA-crystallin at physiological temperature. At 45 °C, cryptic ADH binding site(s) became exposed, which contributed subtly to the chaperone-like activity of αAΔ70–88. Both of the deletion mutants were completely inactive in suppressing aggregation of βL-crystallin at 53 °C. The mutants completely lost the anti-apoptotic property that αA-crystallin exhibits while they protected ARPE-19 (a human retinal pigment epithelial cell line) and primary human lens epithelial (HLE) cells from oxidative stress. Our studies demonstrate that residues 70–88 in αA-crystallin act as a primary substrate binding site and account for the bulk of the total chaperone activity. The β3 and β4 strands in αA-crystallin comprising 70–88 residues play an important role in maintenance of the structure and in preventing aggregation of denaturing proteins. PMID:27524665

  15. Physiology of deletion mutants in the anaerobic β-myrcene degradation pathway in Castellaniella defragrans

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    Lüddeke Frauke

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monoterpenes present a large and versatile group of unsaturated hydrocarbons of plant origin with widespread use in the fragrance as well as food industry. The anaerobic β-myrcene degradation pathway in Castellaniella defragrans strain 65Phen differs from well known aerobic, monooxygenase-containing pathways. The initial enzyme linalool dehydratase-isomerase ldi/LDI catalyzes the hydration of β-myrcene to (S-(+-linalool and its isomerization to geraniol. A high-affinity geraniol dehydrogenase geoA/GeDH and a geranial dehydrogenase geoB/GaDH contribute to the formation of geranic acid. A genetic system was for the first time applied for the betaproteobacterium to prove in vivo the relevance of the linalool dehydratase-isomerase and the geraniol dehydrogenase. In-frame deletion cassettes were introduced by conjugation and two homologous recombination events. Results Polar effects were absent in the in-frame deletion mutants C. defragrans Δldi and C. defragrans ΔgeoA. The physiological characterization of the strains demonstrated a requirement of the linalool dehydratase-isomerase for growth on acyclic monoterpenes, but not on cyclic monoterpenes. The deletion of geoA resulted in a phenotype with hampered growth rate on monoterpenes as sole carbon and energy source as well as reduced biomass yields. Enzyme assays revealed the presence of a second geraniol dehydrogenase. The deletion mutants were in trans complemented with the broad-host range expression vector pBBR1MCS-4ldi and pBBR1MCS-2geoA, restoring in both cases the wild type phenotype. Conclusions In-frame deletion mutants of genes in the anaerobic β-myrcene degradation revealed novel insights in the in vivo function. The deletion of a high-affinity geraniol dehydrogenase hampered, but did not preclude growth on monoterpenes. A second geraniol dehydrogenase activity was present that contributes to the β-myrcene degradation pathway. Growth on cyclic monoterpenes

  16. A Meiotic Uv-Sensitive Mutant That Causes Deletion of Duplications in Neurospora

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    Newmeyer, Dorothy; Galeazzi, Donna R.

    1978-01-01

    The meiotic-3 (mei-3) mutant of Neurospora crassa has several effects: (1) When homozygous, it almost completely blocks meiosis and ascospore formation, (2) it is sensitive to UV, (3) its growth is inhibited by histidine and, (4) it increases the instability of nontandem duplications. This was shown for duplications produced by five different rearrangements and was demonstrated by two different criteria. The effects on meiosis and duplication instability are expressed strongly at 25°; the effects on sensitivity to UV and to histidine are expressed strongly at 38.5° but only slightly at 25°. Nevertheless, all four effects were shown to be due to a single gene. mei-3 is not allelic with previously reported UV-sensitive mutants.—Two other results were obtained that are not necessarily due to mei-3: (1) A cross involving mei-3 produced a new unlinked meiotic mutant, mei-4, which is not sensitive to UV or histidine, and (2) a burst of several new mutants occurred in a different mei-3 stock, including a partial revertant of mei-3.—mei-3 has previously been shown to cause frequent complete loss of a terminal duplicate segment, beginning exactly at the original rearrangement breakpoint. Possible mechanisms are discussed by which a UV-sensitive mutant could cause such precise deletions. PMID:17248837

  17. Physiology and pathogenicity of cpdB deleted mutant of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huifang; Chen, Liping; Si, Wei; Wang, Chunlai; Zhu, Fangna; Li, Guangxing; Liu, Siguo

    2017-04-01

    Avian colibacillosis is one of the most common infectious diseases caused partially or entirely by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) in birds. In addition to spontaneous infection, APEC can also cause secondary infections that result in greater severity of illness and greater losses to the poultry industry. In order to assess the role of 2', 3'-cyclic phosphodiesterase (cpdB) in APEC on disease physiology and pathogenicity, an avian pathogenic Escherichia coli-34 (APEC-34) cpdB mutant was obtained using the Red system. The cpdB mutant grew at a slower rate than the natural strain APEC-34. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that the bacteria of the cpdB mutant were significantly longer than the bacteria observed in the natural strain (P<0.01), and that the width of the cpdB mutant was significantly smaller than its natural counterpart (P<0.01). In order to evaluate the role of cpdB in APEC in the colonization of internal organs (lung, liver and spleen) in poultry, seven-day-old SPF chicks were infected with 10 9 CFU/chick of the cpdB mutant or the natural strain. No colonizations of cpdB mutants were observed in the internal organs 10days following the infection, though numerous natural strains were observed at 20days following infection. Additionally, the relative expression of division protein ftsZ, outer membrane protein A ompA, ferric uptake regulator fur and tryptophanase tnaA genes in the mutant strain were all significantly lower than in the natural strain (P<0.05 or P<0.01). These results suggested that cpdB is involved in the long-term colonization of APEC in the internal organs of the test subjects. The deletion of the cpdB gene also significantly affected the APEC growth and morphology. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Crystal structure of a C-terminal deletion mutant of human protein kinase CK2 catalytic subunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ermakova, Inessa; Boldyreff, Brigitte; Issinger, Olaf-Georg

    2003-01-01

    structure of a C-terminal deletion mutant of human CK2alpha was solved and refined to 2.5A resolution. In the crystal the CK2alpha mutant exists as a monomer in agreement with the organization of the subunits in the CK2 holoenzyme. The refined structure shows the helix alphaC and the activation segment, two...

  19. Assessment of the Toxicity of CuO Nanoparticles by Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mutants with Multiple Genes Deleted

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    Bao, Shaopan; Lu, Qicong; Dai, Heping; Zhang, Chao

    2015-01-01

    To develop applicable and susceptible models to evaluate the toxicity of nanoparticles, the antimicrobial effects of CuO nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) on various Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) strains (wild type, single-gene-deleted mutants, and multiple-gene-deleted mutants) were determined and compared. Further experiments were also conducted to analyze the mechanisms associated with toxicity using copper salt, bulk CuO (bCuO), carbon-shelled copper nanoparticles (C/Cu-NPs), and carbon nanoparticles (C-NPs) for comparisons. The results indicated that the growth inhibition rates of CuO-NPs for the wild-type and the single-gene-deleted strains were comparable, while for the multiple-gene deletion mutant, significantly higher toxicity was observed (P CuO-NPs to yeast cells was compared with the toxicities of copper salt and bCuO, we concluded that the toxicity of CuO-NPs should be attributed to soluble copper rather than to the nanoparticles. The striking difference in adverse effects of C-NPs and C/Cu-NPs with equivalent surface areas also proved this. A toxicity assay revealed that the multiple-gene-deleted mutant was significantly more sensitive to CuO-NPs than the wild type. Specifically, compared with the wild-type strain, copper was readily taken up by mutant strains when cell permeability genes were knocked out, and the mutants with deletions of genes regulated under oxidative stress (OS) were likely producing more reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hence, as mechanism-based gene inactivation could increase the susceptibility of yeast, the multiple-gene-deleted mutants should be improved model organisms to investigate the toxicity of nanoparticles. PMID:26386067

  20. Functional dissection of regulatory models using gene expression data of deletion mutants.

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    Jin'e Li

    Full Text Available Genome-wide gene expression profiles accumulate at an alarming rate, how to integrate these expression profiles generated by different laboratories to reverse engineer the cellular regulatory network has been a major challenge. To automatically infer gene regulatory pathways from genome-wide mRNA expression profiles before and after genetic perturbations, we introduced a new Bayesian network algorithm: Deletion Mutant Bayesian Network (DM_BN. We applied DM_BN to the expression profiles of 544 yeast single or double deletion mutants of transcription factors, chromatin remodeling machinery components, protein kinases and phosphatases in S. cerevisiae. The network inferred by this method identified causal regulatory and non-causal concurrent interactions among these regulators (genetically perturbed genes that are strongly supported by the experimental evidence, and generated many new testable hypotheses. Compared to networks reconstructed by routine similarity measures or by alternative Bayesian network algorithms, the network inferred by DM_BN excels in both precision and recall. To facilitate its application in other systems, we packaged the algorithm into a user-friendly analysis tool that can be downloaded at http://www.picb.ac.cn/hanlab/DM_BN.html.

  1. A Population of Deletion Mutants and an Integrated Mapping and Exome-seq Pipeline for Gene Discovery in Maize

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    Jia, Shangang; Li, Aixia; Morton, Kyla; Avoles-Kianian, Penny; Kianian, Shahryar F.; Zhang, Chi; Holding, David

    2016-01-01

    To better understand maize endosperm filling and maturation, we used γ-irradiation of the B73 maize reference line to generate mutants with opaque endosperm and reduced kernel fill phenotypes, and created a population of 1788 lines including 39 Mo17 × F2s showing stable, segregating, and viable kernel phenotypes. For molecular characterization of the mutants, we developed a novel functional genomics platform that combined bulked segregant RNA and exome sequencing (BSREx-seq) to map causative mutations and identify candidate genes within mapping intervals. To exemplify the utility of the mutants and provide proof-of-concept for the bioinformatics platform, we present detailed characterization of line 937, an opaque mutant harboring a 6203 bp in-frame deletion covering six exons within the Opaque-1 gene. In addition, we describe mutant line 146 which contains a 4.8 kb intragene deletion within the Sugary-1 gene and line 916 in which an 8.6 kb deletion knocks out a Cyclin A2 gene. The publically available algorithm developed in this work improves the identification of causative deletions and its corresponding gaps within mapping peaks. This study demonstrates the utility of γ-irradiation for forward genetics in large nondense genomes such as maize since deletions often affect single genes. Furthermore, we show how this classical mutagenesis method becomes applicable for functional genomics when combined with state-of-the-art genomics tools. PMID:27261000

  2. X-ray survival characteristics and genetic analysis for nine saccharomyces deletion mutants that show altered radiation sensitivity

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    Game, John C.; Williamson, Marsha S.; Baccari, Clelia

    2004-01-07

    The availability of a genome-wide set of Saccharomyces deletion mutants provides a chance to identify all the yeast genes involved in DNA repair. Using X-rays, we are screening these mutants to identify additional genes that show increased sensitivity to the lethal effects of ionizing radiation. For each mutant identified as sensitive, we are confirming that the sensitivity phenotype co-segregates with the deletion allele and are obtaining multipoint survival-versus-dose assays in at least two haploid and one homozygous diploid strains. We present data for deletion mutants involving the genes DOT1, MDM20, NAT3, SPT7, SPT20, GCN5, HFI1, DCC1 and VID21/EAF1, and discuss their potential roles in repair. Eight of these genes have a clear radiation-sensitive phenotype when deleted, but the ninth, GCN5, has at most a borderline phenotype. None of the deletions confer substantial sensitivity to ultra-violet radiation, although one or two may confer marginal sensitivity. The DOT1 gene is of interest because its only known function is to methylate one lysine residue in the core of the histone H3 protein. We find that histone H3 mutants (supplied by K. Struhl) in which this residue is replaced by other amino-acids are also X-ray sensitive, seeming to confirm that methylation of the lysine-79 residue is required for effective repair of radiation damage.

  3. Deletion mutant defines DQ beta variants with DR4 positive DQw3 positive haplotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nepom, B.S.; Kim, S.J.; Nepom, G.T.

    1986-01-01

    We describe the production of an HLA deletion mutation by radiation mutagenesis of a DR4- and DQw3-homozygous, Dw4- and Dw14-heterozygous cell line designed to analyze polymorphisms associated with DR4 and DQw3. Southern blot analysis confirms a deletion of class I and class II genes on one haplotype. Variation in DQ beta alleles associated with DQw3 was previously described by characteristic RFLP patterns for a DQ beta bene. One pattern, which correlated precisely with A-10-83 monoclonal antibody reactivity (TA10), defined an allele which we call DQ''3.1''. The mutant cell line has lost the polymorphic bands on Southern blots corresponding to the DQ''3.1'' allele, while the intact Dw14 haplotype retains the alternate allele at DQ beta which is DQw-3 positive. TA10-negative. These data demonstrate the segregation of two DQw3 positive DQ beta allelic variants, both associated with DR4, which can be distinguished on the basis of both RFLP and monoclonal antibody reactivity

  4. Latent membrane protein 1 deletion mutants accumulate in reed-sternberg cells of human immunodeficiency virus-related Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidoboni, Massimo; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Caggiari, Laura; Lettini, Antonia A; Vago, Luca; De Re, Valli; Gloghini, Annunziata; Zancai, Paola; Carbone, Antonino; Boiocchi, Mauro; Dolcetti, Riccardo

    2005-02-01

    The origin and biological significance of deletions at the 3' end of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) gene are still controversial. We herein demonstrate that LMP-1 deletion mutants are highly associated with human immunodeficiency virus-related Hodgkin's lymphoma (HIV-HL) of Italian patients (29 of 31 cases; 93.5%), a phenomenon that is not due to a peculiar distribution of EBV strains in this area. In fact, although HIV-HL patients are infected by multiple EBV variants, we demonstrate that LMP-1 deletion mutants preferentially accumulate within neoplastic tissues. Subcloning and sequencing of the 3' LMP-1 ends of two HIV-HL genes in which both variants were present showed the presence of molecular signatures suggestive of a likely derivation of the LMP-1 deletion mutant from a nondeletion ancestor. This phenomenon likely occurs within tumor cells in vivo, as shown by the detection of both LMP-1 variants in single microdissected Reed-Sternberg cells, and may at least in part explain the high prevalence of LMP-1 deletions associated with HIV-HL.

  5. KV4.3 N-terminal deletion mutant Δ2–39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovind, Laura J; Skerritt, Matthew R

    2011-01-01

    Gating transitions in the KV4.3 N-terminal deletion mutant Δ2–39 were characterized in the absence and presence of KChIP2b. We particularly focused on gating characteristics of macroscopic (open state) versus closed state inactivation (CSI) and recovery. In the absence of KChIP2b Δ2–39 did not significantly alter the steady-state activation “a4” relationship or general CSI characteristics, but it did slow the kinetics of deactivation, macroscopic inactivation and macroscopic recovery. Recovery kinetics (for both WT KV4.3 and Δ2–39) were complicated and displayed sigmoidicity, a process which was enhanced by Δ2–39. Deletion of the proximal N-terminal domain therefore appeared to specifically slow mechanisms involved in regulating gating transitions occurring after the channel open state(s) had been reached. In the presence of KChIP2b Δ2–39 recovery kinetics (from both macroscopic and CSI) were accelerated, with an apparent reduction in initial sigmoidicity. Hyperpolarizing shifts in both “a4” and isochronal inactivation “i” were also produced. KChIP2b-mediated remodeling of KV4.3 gating transitions was therefore not obligatorily dependent upon an intact N-terminus. To account for these effects we propose that KChIP2 regulatory domains exist in KV4.3 α subunit regions outside of the proximal N-terminal. In addition to regulating macroscopic inactivation, we also propose that the KV4.3 N-terminus may act as a novel regulator of deactivation-recovery coupling. PMID:21057209

  6. Rhomboids of Mycobacteria: characterization using an aarA mutant of Providencia stuartii and gene deletion in Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Patrick Kateete

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rhomboids are ubiquitous proteins with unknown roles in mycobacteria. However, bioinformatics suggested putative roles in DNA replication pathways and metabolite transport. Here, mycobacterial rhomboid-encoding genes were characterized; first, using the Providencia stuartii null-rhomboid mutant and then deleted from Mycobacterium smegmatis for additional insight in mycobacteria. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using in silico analysis we identified in M. tuberculosis genome the genes encoding two putative rhomboid proteins; Rv0110 (referred to as "rhomboid protease 1" and Rv1337 ("rhomboid protease 2". Genes encoding orthologs of these proteins are widely represented in all mycobacterial species. When transformed into P. stuartii null-rhomboid mutant (ΔaarA, genes encoding mycobacterial orthologs of "rhomboid protease 2" fully restored AarA activity (AarA is the rhomboid protein of P. stuartii. However, most genes encoding mycobacterial "rhomboid protease 1" orthologs did not. Furthermore, upon gene deletion in M. smegmatis, the ΔMSMEG_4904 single mutant (which lost the gene encoding MSMEG_4904, orthologous to Rv1337, "rhomboid protease 2" formed the least biofilms and was also more susceptible to ciprofloxacin and novobiocin, antimicrobials that inhibit DNA gyrase. However, the ΔMSMEG_5036 single mutant (which lost the gene encoding MSMEG_5036, orthologous to Rv0110, "rhomboid protease 1" was not as susceptible. Surprisingly, the double rhomboid mutant ΔMSMEG_4904-ΔMSMEG_5036 (which lost genes encoding both homologs was also not as susceptible suggesting compensatory effects following deletion of both rhomboid-encoding genes. Indeed, transforming the double mutant with a plasmid encoding MSMEG_5036 produced phenotypes of the ΔMSMEG_4904 single mutant (i.e. susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and novobiocin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Mycobacterial rhomboid-encoding genes exhibit differences in complementing aarA whereby it's only

  7. Rhomboids of Mycobacteria: characterization using an aarA mutant of Providencia stuartii and gene deletion in Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kateete, David Patrick; Katabazi, Fred Ashaba; Okeng, Alfred; Okee, Moses; Musinguzi, Conrad; Asiimwe, Benon Byamugisha; Kyobe, Samuel; Asiimwe, Jeniffer; Boom, W Henry; Joloba, Moses Lutaakome

    2012-01-01

    Rhomboids are ubiquitous proteins with unknown roles in mycobacteria. However, bioinformatics suggested putative roles in DNA replication pathways and metabolite transport. Here, mycobacterial rhomboid-encoding genes were characterized; first, using the Providencia stuartii null-rhomboid mutant and then deleted from Mycobacterium smegmatis for additional insight in mycobacteria. Using in silico analysis we identified in M. tuberculosis genome the genes encoding two putative rhomboid proteins; Rv0110 (referred to as "rhomboid protease 1") and Rv1337 ("rhomboid protease 2"). Genes encoding orthologs of these proteins are widely represented in all mycobacterial species. When transformed into P. stuartii null-rhomboid mutant (ΔaarA), genes encoding mycobacterial orthologs of "rhomboid protease 2" fully restored AarA activity (AarA is the rhomboid protein of P. stuartii). However, most genes encoding mycobacterial "rhomboid protease 1" orthologs did not. Furthermore, upon gene deletion in M. smegmatis, the ΔMSMEG_4904 single mutant (which lost the gene encoding MSMEG_4904, orthologous to Rv1337, "rhomboid protease 2") formed the least biofilms and was also more susceptible to ciprofloxacin and novobiocin, antimicrobials that inhibit DNA gyrase. However, the ΔMSMEG_5036 single mutant (which lost the gene encoding MSMEG_5036, orthologous to Rv0110, "rhomboid protease 1") was not as susceptible. Surprisingly, the double rhomboid mutant ΔMSMEG_4904-ΔMSMEG_5036 (which lost genes encoding both homologs) was also not as susceptible suggesting compensatory effects following deletion of both rhomboid-encoding genes. Indeed, transforming the double mutant with a plasmid encoding MSMEG_5036 produced phenotypes of the ΔMSMEG_4904 single mutant (i.e. susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and novobiocin). Mycobacterial rhomboid-encoding genes exhibit differences in complementing aarA whereby it's only genes encoding "rhomboid protease 2" orthologs that fully restore AarA activity

  8. Phenotypic characterization and complementation analysis of Bacillus subtilis 6S RNA single and double deletion mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Philipp G; Burenina, Olga Y; Weber, Michael H W; Elkina, Daria A; Nesterchuk, Mikhail V; Sergiev, Petr V; Hartmann, Roland K; Kubareva, Elena A

    2015-10-01

    6S RNA, a global regulator of transcription in bacteria, binds to housekeeping RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzymes to competitively inhibit transcription from DNA promoters. Bacillus subtilis encodes two 6S RNA homologs whose differential functions are as yet unclear. We constructed derivative strains of B. subtilis PY79 lacking 6S-1 RNA (ΔbsrA), 6S-2 RNA (ΔbsrB) or both (ΔbsrAB) to study the physiological role of the two 6S RNAs. We observed two growth phenotypes of mutant strains: (i) accelerated decrease of optical density toward extended stationary phase and (ii) faster outgrowth from stationary phase under alkaline stress conditions (pH 9.8). The first phenotype was observed for bacteria lacking bsrA, and even more pronounced for ΔbsrAB bacteria, but not for those lacking bsrB. The magnitude of the second phenotype was relatively weak for ΔbsrB, moderate for ΔbsrA and again strongest for ΔbsrAB bacteria. Whereas ΔbsrAB bacteria complemented with bsrB or bsrA (strains ΔbsrAB + B and ΔbsrAB + A) mimicked the phenotypes of the ΔbsrA and ΔbsrB strains, respectively, complementation with the gene ssrS encoding Escherichia coli 6S RNA failed to cure the "low stationary optical density" phenotype of the double mutant, despite ssrS expression, in line with previous findings. Finally, proteomics (two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis, 2D-DIGE) of B. subtilis 6S RNA deletion strains unveiled a set of proteins that were expressed at higher levels particularly during exponential growth and preferentially in mutant strains lacking 6S-2 RNA. Several of these proteins are involved in metabolism and stress responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société française de biochimie et biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  9. Transcriptomic profile of aguR deletion mutant of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666

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    Beatriz del Rio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 (formerly GE2-14 is a dairy strain that catabolizes agmatine (a decarboxylated derivative of arginine into the biogenic amine putrescine by the agmatine deiminase (AGDI pathway [1]. The AGDI cluster of L. lactis is composed by five genes aguR, aguB, aguD, aguA and aguC. The last four genes are responsible for the deamination of agmatine to putrescine and are co-transcribed as a single policistronic mRNA forming the catabolic operon aguBDAC [1]. aguR encodes a transmembrane protein that functions as a one-component signal transduction system that senses the agmatine concentration of the medium and accordingly regulates the transcription of aguBDAC [2], which is also transcriptionally regulated by carbon catabolic repression (CCR via glucose, but not by other sugars such as lactose and galactose [1,3]. Here we report the transcriptional profiling of the aguR gene deletion mutant (L. lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 ∆aguR [2] compared to the wild type strain, both grown in M17 medium with galactose as carbon source and supplemented with agmatine. The transcriptional profiling data of AguR-regulated genes were deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database under accession no. GSE59514.

  10. Homologous expression of aspartokinase (ask) gene in Streptomyces clavuligerus and its hom-deleted mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okay, Sezer; Ünsaldı, Eser; Taşkın, Bilgin; Liras, Paloma; Piret, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effect of homologous multiple copies of the ask gene, which encodes aspartokinase catalyzing the first step of the aspartate pathway, on cephamycin C biosynthesis in S. clavuligerus NRRL 3585 and its hom mutant was investigated. The intracellular pool levels of aspartate pathway amino acids accorded well with the Ask activity levels in TB3585 and AK39. When compared with the control strain carrying vector alone without any gene insert, amplification of the ask gene in the wild strain resulted in a maximum of 3.1- and 3.3-fold increase in specific, 1.7- and 1.9-fold increase in volumetric cephamycin C production when grown in trypticase soy broth (TSB) and a modified chemically defined medium (mCDM), respectively. However, expression of multicopy ask gene in a hom-deleted background significantly decreased cephamycin C yields when the cells were grown in either TSB or mCDM, most probably due to physiological disturbance resulting from enzyme overexpression and high copy number plasmid burden in an auxotrophic host, respectively. PMID:21326925

  11. Latent Membrane Protein 1 Deletion Mutants Accumulate in Reed-Sternberg Cells of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Related Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Guidoboni, Massimo; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Caggiari, Laura; Lettini, Antonia A.; Vago, Luca; De Re, Valli; Gloghini, Annunziata; Zancai, Paola; Carbone, Antonino; Boiocchi, Mauro; Dolcetti, Riccardo

    2005-01-01

    The origin and biological significance of deletions at the 3′ end of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) gene are still controversial. We herein demonstrate that LMP-1 deletion mutants are highly associated with human immunodeficiency virus-related Hodgkin's lymphoma (HIV-HL) of Italian patients (29 of 31 cases; 93.5%), a phenomenon that is not due to a peculiar distribution of EBV strains in this area. In fact, although HIV-HL patients are infected by multi...

  12. Deletion of luxS further attenuates the virulence of the avian pathogenic Escherichia coli aroA mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiangan; Bai, Hao; Tu, Jian; Yang, Lijun; Xu, Da; Wang, Shaohui; Qi, Kezong; Fan, Guobo; Zhang, Yuxi; Zuo, Jiakun; Tian, Mingxing; Ding, Chan; Yu, Shengqing

    2015-11-01

    In this study, an aroA-deletion avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) mutant (strain DE17ΔaroA) and aroA and luxS double deletion APEC mutant (strain DE17ΔluxSΔaroA) were constructed from the APEC DE17 strain. The results showed that as compared to DE17ΔaroA, the virulence of DE17ΔluxSΔaroA was further attenuated by 200- and 31.7-fold, respectively, in ducklings based on the 50% lethal dose. The adherence and invasion abilities of DE17ΔluxSΔaroA and DE17ΔaroA were reduced by 36.5%/42.5% and 25.8%/29.3%, respectively, as compared to the wild-type strain DE17 (p avian colibacillosis than DE17ΔaroA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of pools of targeted Salmonella deletion mutants identifies novel genes affecting fitness during competitive infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiviago, Carlos A; Reynolds, M Megan; Porwollik, Steffen; Choi, Sang-Ho; Long, Fred; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene L; McClelland, Michael

    2009-07-01

    Pools of mutants of minimal complexity but maximal coverage of genes of interest facilitate screening for genes under selection in a particular environment. We constructed individual deletion mutants in 1,023 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium genes, including almost all genes found in Salmonella but not in related genera. All mutations were confirmed simultaneously using a novel amplification strategy to produce labeled RNA from a T7 RNA polymerase promoter, introduced during the construction of each mutant, followed by hybridization of this labeled RNA to a Typhimurium genome tiling array. To demonstrate the ability to identify fitness phenotypes using our pool of mutants, the pool was subjected to selection by intraperitoneal injection into BALB/c mice and subsequent recovery from spleens. Changes in the representation of each mutant were monitored using T7 transcripts hybridized to a novel inexpensive minimal microarray. Among the top 120 statistically significant spleen colonization phenotypes, more than 40 were mutations in genes with no previously known role in this model. Fifteen phenotypes were tested using individual mutants in competitive assays of intraperitoneal infection in mice and eleven were confirmed, including the first two examples of attenuation for sRNA mutants in Salmonella. We refer to the method as Array-based analysis of cistrons under selection (ABACUS).

  14. Analysis of pools of targeted Salmonella deletion mutants identifies novel genes affecting fitness during competitive infection in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Santiviago

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Pools of mutants of minimal complexity but maximal coverage of genes of interest facilitate screening for genes under selection in a particular environment. We constructed individual deletion mutants in 1,023 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium genes, including almost all genes found in Salmonella but not in related genera. All mutations were confirmed simultaneously using a novel amplification strategy to produce labeled RNA from a T7 RNA polymerase promoter, introduced during the construction of each mutant, followed by hybridization of this labeled RNA to a Typhimurium genome tiling array. To demonstrate the ability to identify fitness phenotypes using our pool of mutants, the pool was subjected to selection by intraperitoneal injection into BALB/c mice and subsequent recovery from spleens. Changes in the representation of each mutant were monitored using T7 transcripts hybridized to a novel inexpensive minimal microarray. Among the top 120 statistically significant spleen colonization phenotypes, more than 40 were mutations in genes with no previously known role in this model. Fifteen phenotypes were tested using individual mutants in competitive assays of intraperitoneal infection in mice and eleven were confirmed, including the first two examples of attenuation for sRNA mutants in Salmonella. We refer to the method as Array-based analysis of cistrons under selection (ABACUS.

  15. Trapping of normal EB1 ligands in aggresomes formed by an EB1 deletion mutant

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    Askham Jon M

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background EB1 is a microtubule tip-associated protein that interacts with the APC tumour suppressor protein and the p150glued subunit of dynactin. We previously reported that an EB1 deletion mutant that retains both of these interactions but does not directly associate with microtubules (EB1-ΔN2-GFP spontaneously formed perinuclear aggregates when expressed in COS-7 cells. Results In the present study live imaging indicated that EB1-ΔN2-GFP aggregates underwent dynamic microtubule-dependent changes in morphology and appeared to be internally cohesive. EB1-ΔN2-GFP aggregates were phase-dense structures that displayed microtubule-dependent accumulation around the centrosome, were immunoreactive for both the 20s subunit of the proteasome and ubiquitin, and induced the collapse of the vimentin cytoskeleton. Fractionation studies revealed that a proportion of EB1-ΔN2-GFP was detergent-insoluble and ubiquitylated, indicating that EB1-ΔN2-GFP aggregates are aggresomes. Immunostaining also revealed that APC and p150glued were present in EB1-ΔN2-GFP aggregates, whereas EB3 was not. Furthermore, evidence for p150glued degradation was found in the insoluble fraction of EB1-ΔN2-GFP transfected cultures. Conclusion Our data indicate that aggresomes can be internally cohesive and may not represent a simple "aggregate of aggregates" assembled around the centrosome. Our observations also indicate that a partially misfolded protein may retain the ability to interact with its normal physiological ligands, leading to their co-assembly into aggresomes. This supports the idea that the trapping and degradation of co-aggregated proteins might contribute to human pathologies characterised by aggresome formation.

  16. Deletions of the hypervariable region (HVR) in open reading frame 1 of hepatitis E virus do not abolish virus infectivity: evidence for attenuation of HVR deletion mutants in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudupakam, R S; Huang, Y W; Opriessnig, T; Halbur, P G; Pierson, F W; Meng, X J

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important human pathogen, although little is known about its biology and replication. Comparative sequence analysis revealed a hypervariable region (HVR) with extensive sequence variations in open reading frame 1 of HEV. To elucidate the role of the HVR in HEV replication, we first constructed two HVR deletion mutants, hHVRd1 and hHVRd2, with in-frame deletion of amino acids (aa) 711 to 777 and 747 to 761 in the HVR of a genotype 1 human HEV replicon. Evidence of HEV replication was detected in Huh7 cells transfected with RNA transcripts from mutant hHVRd2, as evidenced by expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein. To confirm the in vitro results, we constructed three avian HEV mutants with various HVR deletions: mutants aHVRd1, with deletion of aa 557 to 585 (Delta557-585); aHVRd2 (Delta612-641); and aHVRd3 (Delta557-641). Chickens intrahepatically inoculated with capped RNA transcripts from mutants aHVRd1 and aHVRd2 developed active viral infection, as evidenced by seroconversion, viremia, and fecal virus shedding, although mutant aHVRd3, with complete HVR deletion, was apparently attenuated in chickens. To further verify the results, we constructed four additional HVR deletion mutants using the genotype 3 swine HEV as the backbone. Mutants sHVRd2 (Delta722-781), sHVRd3 (Delta735-765), and sHVRd4 (Delta712-765) were shown to tolerate deletions and were infectious in pigs intrahepatically inoculated with capped RNA transcripts from the mutants, whereas mutant sHVRd1 (Delta712-790), with a nearly complete HVR deletion, exhibited an attenuation phenotype in infected pigs. The data from these studies indicate that deletions in HVR do not abolish HEV infectivity in vitro or in vivo, although evidence for attenuation was observed for HEV mutants with a larger or nearly complete HVR deletion.

  17. Expression of an amino-terminal BRCA1 deletion mutant causes a dominant growth inhibition in MCF10A cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Fanglei; Chiba, Natsuko; Ishioka, Chikashi; Parvin, Jeffrey D

    2004-07-29

    Expression of deletion mutants of the breast and ovarian cancer-specific tumor suppressor protein, BRCA1, in the mammary epithelial cell line MCF10A revealed a powerful growth suppressive effect by a mutant that has the amino-terminal 302 amino acids deleted (DeltaN-BRCA1). The growth suppression is associated with an increase in apoptosis and amplification in centrosome number. The growth inhibitory effect of DeltaN-BRCA1 was not observed in cervical epithelial HeLa cells, suggesting that the phenotypes of BRCA1 mutant proteins differ depending on the cell line being tested. An internal domain, including BRCA1 residues 303-1292, caused the suppression of MCF10A cell growth, and the amino terminus of BRCA1 autoinhibited the growth suppression. Single point mutations that disrupted the amino-terminal RING domain of BRCA1 caused significant suppression of growth in MCF10A cells. These results suggest that the proper function of the RING domain, likely to be ubiquitin ligase function, is important in regulating the growth of the mammary epithelial cell line and in autoregulating the powerful internal growth-inhibiting domain of the BRCA1 tumor suppressor.

  18. Dysfunctional p53 deletion mutants in cell lines derived from Hodgkin's lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feuerborn, Alexander; Moritz, Constanze; von Bonin, Frederike

    2006-01-01

    derived from cHL are rare and therefore not notably involved in the pathogenesis of the malignant H&RS cells. Re-evaluating the expression in cHL-derived cell lines, we found that in 3/6 of these cell lines, TP53 transcripts are characterized by deletions within exon 4 (L428 cells) and nearly a complete...

  19. Construction and characterization of pta gene-deleted mutant of Clostridium tyrobutyricum for enhanced butyric acid fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Liu, Xiaoguang; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2005-04-20

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755 is an acidogenic bacterium, producing butyrate and acetate as its main fermentation products. In order to decrease acetate and increase butyrate production, integrational mutagenesis was used to disrupt the gene associated with the acetate formation pathway in C. tyrobutyricum. A nonreplicative integrational plasmid containing the phosphotransacetylase gene (pta) fragment cloned from C. tyrobutyricum by using degenerate primers and an erythromycin resistance cassette were constructed and introduced into C. tyrobutyricum by electroporation. Integration of the plasmid into the homologous region on the chromosome inactivated the target pta gene and produced the pta-deleted mutant (PTA-Em), which was confirmed by Southern hybridization. SDS-PAGE and two-dimensional protein electrophoresis results indicated that protein expression was changed in the mutant. Enzyme activity assays using the cell lysate showed that the activities of PTA and acetate kinase (AK) in the mutant were reduced by more than 60% for PTA and 80% for AK. The mutant grew more slowly in batch fermentation with glucose as the substrate but produced 15% more butyrate and 14% less acetate as compared to the wild-type strain. Its butyrate productivity was approximately 2-fold higher than the wild-type strain. Moreover, the mutant showed much higher tolerance to butyrate inhibition, and the final butyrate concentration was improved by 68%. However, inactivation of pta gene did not completely eliminate acetate production in the fermentation, suggesting the existence of other enzymes (or pathways) also leading to acetate formation. This is the first-reported genetic engineering study demonstrating the feasibility of using a gene-inactivation technique to manipulate the acetic acid formation pathway in C. tyrobutyricum in order to improve butyric acid production from glucose. Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. An efficient deletion mutant packaging system for defective herpes simplex virus vectors: Potential applications to human gene therapy and neuronal physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geller, A.I.; Keyomarsi, K.; Bryan, J.; Pardee, A.B.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have previously described a defective herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) vector system that permits that introduction of virtually any gene into nonmitotic cells. pHSVlac, the prototype vector, stably expresses Escherichia coli β-galactosidase from a constitutive promoter in many human cell lines, in cultured rat neurons from throughout the nervous system, and in cells in the adult rat brain. HSV-1 vectors expressing other genes may prove useful for studying neuronal physiology or performing human gene therapy for neurological diseases, such as Parkinson disease or brain tumors. A HSV-1 temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant, ts K, has been used as helper virus; ts mutants revert to wild type. In contrast, HSV-1 deletion mutants essentially cannot revert to wild type; therefore, use of a deletion mutant as helper virus might permit human gene therapy with HSV-1 vectors. They now report an efficient packaging system for HSV-1 VECTORS USING A DELETION MUTANT, d30EBA, as helper virus; virus is grown on the complementing cell line M64A. pHSVlac virus prepared using the deletion mutant packaging system stably expresses β-galactosidase in cultured rat sympathetic neurons and glia. Both D30EBA and ts K contain a mutation in the IE3 gene of HSV-1 strain 17 and have the same phenotype; therefore, changing the helper virus from ts K to D30EBA does not alter the host range or other properties of the HSV-1 vector system

  1. Deletion of Osr2 Partially Rescues Tooth Development in Runx2 Mutant Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, H J E; Park, E K; Jia, S; Liu, H; Lan, Y; Jiang, R

    2015-08-01

    Tooth organogenesis depends on genetically programmed sequential and reciprocal inductive interactions between the dental epithelium and neural crest-derived mesenchyme. Previous studies showed that the Msx1 and Runx2 transcription factors are required for activation of odontogenic signals, including Bmp4 and Fgf3, in the early tooth mesenchyme to drive tooth morphogenesis through the bud-to-cap transition and that Runx2 acts downstream of Msx1 to activate Fgf3 expression. Recent studies identified Osr2 as a repressor of tooth development and showed that inactivation of Osr2 rescued molar tooth morphogenesis in the Msx1(-/-) mutant mice as well as in mice with neural crest-specific inactivation of Bmp4. Here we show that Runx2 expression is expanded in the tooth bud mesenchyme in Osr2(-/-) mutant mouse embryos and is partially restored in the tooth mesenchyme in Msx1(-/-)Osr2(-/-) mutants in comparison with Msx1(-/-) and wild-type embryos. Whereas mandibular molar development arrested at the bud stage and maxillary molar development arrested at the bud-to-cap transition in Runx2(-/-) mutant mice, both mandibular and maxillary molar tooth germs progressed to the early bell stage, with rescued expression of Msx1 and Bmp4 in the dental papilla as well as expression of Bmp4, p21, and Shh in the primary enamel knot in the Osr2(-/-)Runx2(-/-) compound mutants. In contrast to the Msx1(-/-)Osr2(-/-) compound mutants, which exhibit nearly normal first molar morphogenesis, the Osr2(-/-)Runx2(-/-) compound mutant embryos failed to activate the expression of Fgf3 and Fgf10 in the dental papilla and exhibited significant deficit in cell proliferation in both the dental epithelium and mesenchyme in comparison with the control embryos. These data indicate that Runx2 synergizes with Msx1 to drive tooth morphogenesis through the bud-to-cap transition and that Runx2 controls continued tooth growth and morphogenesis beyond the cap stage through activation of Fgf3 and Fgf10 expression

  2. A Yeast Mutant Deleted of GPH1 Bears Defects in Lipid Metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Gsell

    Full Text Available In a previous study we demonstrated up-regulation of the yeast GPH1 gene under conditions of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE depletion caused by deletion of the mitochondrial (M phosphatidylserine decarboxylase 1 (PSD1 (Gsell et al., 2013, PLoS One. 8(10:e77380. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077380. Gph1p has originally been identified as a glycogen phosphorylase catalyzing degradation of glycogen to glucose in the stationary growth phase of the yeast. Here we show that deletion of this gene also causes decreased levels of phosphatidylcholine (PC, triacylglycerols and steryl esters. Depletion of the two non-polar lipids in a Δgph1 strain leads to lack of lipid droplets, and decrease of the PC level results in instability of the plasma membrane. In vivo labeling experiments revealed that formation of PC via both pathways of biosynthesis, the cytidine diphosphate (CDP-choline and the methylation route, is negatively affected by a Δgph1 mutation, although expression of genes involved is not down regulated. Altogether, Gph1p besides its function as a glycogen mobilizing enzyme appears to play a regulatory role in yeast lipid metabolism.

  3. Radiation susceptibility of the mouse smalleye mutants, Del(2)Sey3Hpax6 and Del(2)Sey4Hpax6, which delete the chromosome 2 middle regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitta, Y.; Hoshi, M.; Yoshida, K.; Yamate, J.; Peters, J.; Cattanach, B.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: LOH at the chromosome 2 middle regions is common in the radiation-induced mouse acute myeloid leukemia (AML). To identify the suppressor or the modifier gene of AML at this region, the mouse deletion mutants, Del(2)Sey3H pax6 and Del(2)Sey3H pax6 could be the good models, as they deleted the chromosome 2 middle regions hemizygously. The allele of the partially deleted chromosome 2 was paternally generated and maintained hemizygously. The exact deleted regions of the two mutants were mapped by the PCR-based detection of polymorphism of the STS markers. The length of the deletions was 3.01Mb and 10.11MB for Del(2)Sey3H pax6 and Del(2)Sey3H pax6 , respectively. For the induction of tumors, a radiation, 3.0Gy of Co-60 and a chemical carcinogen, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea were applied to the mutants. Their tumorigenicity was compared with those of control as well as normal sibs by the Kaplan-Meier analysis. Both mutants were found to predispose to small intestinal tumors. Intestinal tumors developed spontaneously with the incidence of 30%. The radiation and the chemical accelerated the malignancy and increased the incidence of the intestinal tumors. Radiation shortened the latency of AML development in the Del(2)Sey3H pax6 mutant but not in the Del(2)Sey3H pax6 . Spontaneous AML has not been observed, nor any increase in the incidence of induced AMLs. The commonly deleted region of the two mutants, the 3.01Mb region, must be critical for the development of tumors and the high susceptibility to radiation. The role of Pax6 gene should be considered in the intestinal tumorigenesis, as the Pax6 gene plays an important role in the pancreas development during the embryogenesis. The Wt1, a tumor suppressor gene, which is deleted hemizygously in these mutants as well. The screening of homozygous deletion has been started using the induced as well as spontaneously developed tumors

  4. Use of bioreporters and deletion mutants reveals ionic silver and ROS to be equally important in silver nanotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Nimisha; Ngwenya, Bryne T; Butler, Ian B; French, Chris E

    2015-04-28

    The mechanism of antibacterial action of silver nanoparticles (AgNp) was investigated by employing a combination of microbiology and geochemical approaches to contribute to the realistic assessment of nanotoxicity. Our studies showed that suspending AgNp in media with different levels of chloride relevant to environmental conditions produced low levels of ionic silver thereby suggesting that dissolution of silver ions from nanoparticulate surface could not be the sole mechanism of toxicity. An Escherichia coli based bioreporter strain responsive to silver ions together with mutant strains of E. coli lacking specific protective systems were tested against AgNp. Deletion mutants lacking silver ion efflux systems and resistance mechanisms against oxidative stress showed an increased sensitivity to AgNp. However, the bioreporter did not respond to silver nanoparticles. Our results suggest that oxidative stress is a major toxicity mechanism and that this is at least partially associated with ionic silver, but that bulk dissolution of silver into the medium is not sufficient to account for the observed effects. Chloride ions do not appear to offer significant protection, indicating that chloride in receiving waters will not necessarily protect environmental bacteria from the toxic effects of nanoparticles in effluents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Immunization with Toxoplasma gondii GRA17 Deletion Mutant Induces Partial Protection and Survival in Challenged Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Lei Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis remains a world-threatening disease largely because of the lack of a fully effective vaccine. Here, we created a ΔGRA17 mutant by disrupting the virulence factor GRA17 using CRISPR-Cas9 method. Then, we tested whether ΔGRA17 tachyzoites can be used as a live-attenuated vaccine against acute, chronic, and congenital Toxoplasma gondii infection in mice. Immune response evoked by ΔGRA17 immunization suggested a sequential Th1 and Th2 T cell response, indicated by high levels of Th1 and a mixed Th1/Th2 cytokines at 28 and 70 days after immunization, respectively. ΔGRA17-mediated immunity fully protected mice against lethal infection with wild-type (wt RH strain, heterologous challenge with PYS, and TgC7 strains of the Chinese ToxoDB#9 genotype, and T. gondii Pru strain. Although parasite cysts were detected in 8 out of 10 immunized mice, cyst burden in the brain was significantly reduced (P < 0.05 in immunized mice (53 ± 15 cysts/brain compared to non-immunized mice (4,296 ± 687 cysts/brain. In respect to congenital infection, the litter size, survival rate, and body weight (BW of pups born to ΔGRA17-immunized dams were not different compared to pups born to naïve control dams (P = 0.24. However, a marked reduction in the litter size (P < 0.001, survival rate, and BW (P < 0.01 of pups born to non-immunized and infected dams was detected. Also, immunized dams infected with type II Pru strain had significantly (P < 0.001 less cyst burden in the brain compared with non-immunized and infected dams. These findings show that immunization with ΔGRA17 strain evokes cell-mediated and neutralizing antibody responses and confers some degree of protection against challenge with homologous and heterologous virulent T. gondii strains.

  6. Functional characterization of a new p53 mutant generated by homozygous deletion in a neuroblastoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yohko; Ozaki, Toshinori; Niizuma, Hidetaka; Ohira, Miki; Kamijo, Takehiko; Nakagawara, Akira

    2007-01-01

    p53 is a key modulator of a variety of cellular stresses. In human neuroblastomas, p53 is rarely mutated and aberrantly expressed in cytoplasm. In this study, we have identified a novel p53 mutant lacking its COOH-terminal region in neuroblastoma SK-N-AS cells. p53 accumulated in response to cisplatin (CDDP) and thereby promoting apoptosis in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells bearing wild-type p53, whereas SK-N-AS cells did not undergo apoptosis. We found another p53 (p53ΔC) lacking a part of oligomerization domain and nuclear localization signals in SK-N-AS cells. p53ΔC was expressed largely in cytoplasm and lost the transactivation function. Furthermore, a 3'-part of the p53 locus was homozygously deleted in SK-N-AS cells. Thus, our present findings suggest that p53 plays an important role in the DNA-damage response in certain neuroblastoma cells and it seems to be important to search for p53 mutations outside DNA-binding domain

  7. Pathogenetical Characterization of MHV-76: a Spontaneous 9.5-Kilobase-Deletion Mutant of Murine Lymphotropic Gammaherpesvirus 68

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chalupková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Murid gammaherpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4 provides a small animal model for the study of animal gammaherpesviruses. MHV-76 is a spontaneous deletion mutant as compared to the prototype strain of MuHV-4 (MHV-68. The MHV-76 genome lacks at least 12 ORFs at the 5'-end including the M1, M2, M3 and M4 genes and the eight viral t-RNA-like genes. During 27 months of experimental infection of BALB/c mice we followed their pathogenesis, immunology and oncogenic properties. After intranasal infection with MHV-76, the infectious virus was detected in the blood, thymus, lungs, heart, liver, spleen, bone marrow, peritoneal macrophages, lymph nodes, kidneys, mammary glands, brain and small intestine. The acute phase of infection was attenuated, but the chronic phase of infection was accompanied with long persistence of virus not only in the lymphatic, but in the neural and glandular tissue, as well. In comparison with the prototype strain, splenomegaly and lymphocytosis was very low. Surprisingly, during 27 months the BALB/c mice infected with MHV-76 did not develop lymphoproliferative disorders like infectious mononucleosis, leukaemia or lymphomas. We hypothesize that the M4 gene, present in all oncogenic MHV isolates, might be related (directly or indirectly to their transforming properties.

  8. Homologous expression of aspartokinase (ask) gene in Streptomyces clavuligerus and its hom-deleted mutant: effects on cephamycin C production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcengiz, Gülay; Okay, Sezer; Ünsaldı, Eser; Taşkın, Bilgin; Liras, Paloma; Piret, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effect of homologous multiple copies of the ask gene, which encodes aspartokinase catalyzing the first step of the aspartate pathway, on cephamycin C biosynthesis in S. clavuligerus NRRL 3585 and its hom mutant was investigated. The intracellular pool levels of aspartate pathway amino acids accorded well with the Ask activity levels in TB3585 and AK39. When compared with the control strain carrying vector alone without any gene insert, amplification of the ask gene in the wild strain resulted in a maximum of 3.1- and 3.3-fold increase in specific, 1.7- and 1.9-fold increase in volumetric cephamycin C production when grown in trypticase soy broth (TSB) and a modified chemically defined medium (mCDM), respectively. However, expression of multicopy ask gene in a hom-deleted background significantly decreased cephamycin C yields when the cells were grown in either TSB or mCDM, most probably due to physiological disturbance resulting from enzyme overexpression and high copy number plasmid burden in an auxotrophic host, respectively. © 2010 Landes Bioscience

  9. A suitable streptomycin-resistant mutant for constructing unmarked in-frame gene deletions using rpsL as a counter-selection marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yu-Kuo; Liou, Ci-Hong; Lin, Jung-Chung; Ma, Ling; Fung, Chang-Phone; Chang, Feng-Yee; Siu, L Kristopher

    2014-01-01

    The streptomycin counter-selection system is a useful tool for constructing unmarked in-frame gene deletions, which is a fundamental approach to study bacteria and their pathogenicity at the molecular level. A prerequisite for this system is acquiring a streptomycin-resistant strain due to rpsL mutations, which encodes the ribosomal protein S12. However, in this study no streptomycin resistance was found to be caused by rpsL mutations in all 127 clinical strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from liver abscess patients. By screening 107 spontaneous mutants of streptomycin resistance from a clinical strain of K. pneumoniae, nucleotide substitution or insertion located within the rpsL was detected in each of these strains. Thirteen different mutants with varied S12 proteins were obtained, including nine streptomycin-dependent mutants. The virulence of all four streptomycin-resistant mutants was further evaluated. Compared with the parental strain, the K42N, K42T and K87R mutants showed a reduction in growth rate, and the K42N and K42T mutants became susceptible to normal human serum. In the mice LD50 (the bacterial dose that caused 50% death) assay, the K42N and K42T mutants were ∼ 1,000-fold less lethal (∼ 2 × 10(5) CFU) and the K87R mutant was ∼ 50-fold less lethal (∼ 1 × 10(4) CFU) than the parental strain (∼ 2 × 10(2) CFU). A K42R mutant showed non-observable effects on the above assays, while this mutant exhibited a small cost (P streptomycin resistance caused by rpsL mutations are less virulent than their parental strain in the absence of streptomycin. The K42R mutant showed similar pathogenicity to its parental strain and should be one of the best choices when using rpsL as a counter-selection marker.

  10. Construction and characterization of a glycoprotein E deletion mutant of bovine herpesvirus type 1.2 strain isolated in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franco, A.C.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Flores, E.F.; Weiblen, R.; Roehe, P.M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the construction and characterization of a Brazilian strain of bovine herpesvirus type 1.2a (BoHV-1.2a) with a deletion of the glycoprotein E (gE) gene. The deletion was introduced by co-transfection of a deletion fragment containing the 5´and 3´gE flanking regions and genomic

  11. Novel system for efficient isolation of Clostridium double-crossover allelic exchange mutants enabling markerless chromosomal gene deletions and DNA integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hinai, Mohab A; Fast, Alan G; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T

    2012-11-01

    Isolation of Clostridium mutants based on gene replacement via allelic exchange remains a major limitation for this important genus. Use of a heterologous counterselection marker can facilitate the identification of the generally rare allelic exchange events. We report on the development of an inducible counterselection marker and describe its utility and broad potential in quickly and efficiently generating markerless DNA deletions and integrations at any genomic locus without the need for auxotrophic mutants or the use of the mobile group II introns. This system is based on a codon-optimized mazF toxin gene from Escherichia coli under the control of a lactose-inducible promoter from Clostridium perfringens. This system is potentially applicable to almost all members of the genus Clostridium due to their similarly low genomic GC content and comparable codon usage. We isolated all allelic-exchange-based gene deletions (ca_p0167, sigF, and sigK) or disruptions (ca_p0157 and sigF) we attempted and integrated a 3.6-kb heterologous DNA sequence (made up of a Clostridium ljungdahlii 2.1-kb formate dehydrogenase [fdh] gene plus a FLP recombination target [FRT]-flanked thiamphenicol resistance marker) into the Clostridium acetobutylicum chromosome. Furthermore, we report on the development of a plasmid system with inducible segregational instability, thus enabling efficient deployment of the FLP-FRT system to generate markerless deletion or integration mutants. This enabled expeditious deletion of the thiamphenicol resistance marker from the fdh integrant strain as well as the sigK deletion strain. More generally, our system can potentially be applied to other organisms with underdeveloped genetic tools.

  12. Deletion mutants of the Escherichia coli K-12 mannitol permease: dissection of transport-phosphorylation, phospho-exchange, and mannitol-binding activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisafi, P L; Scholle, A; Sugiyama, J; Briggs, C; Jacobson, G R; Lengeler, J W

    1989-05-01

    We have constructed a series of deletion mutations of the cloned Escherichia coli K-12 mtlA gene, which encodes the mannitol-specific enzyme II of the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent carbohydrate phosphotransferase system. This membrane-bound permease consists of 637 amino acid residues and is responsible for the concomitant transport and phosphorylation of D-mannitol in E. coli. Deletions into the 3' end of mtlA were constructed by exonuclease III digestion. Restriction mapping of the resultant plasmids identified several classes of deletions that lacked approximately 5% to more than 75% of the gene. Immunoblotting experiments revealed that many of these plasmids expressed proteins within the size range predicted by the restriction analyses, and all of these proteins were membrane localized, which demonstrated that none of the C-terminal half of the permease is required for membrane insertion. Functional analyses of the deletion proteins, expressed in an E. coli strain deleted for the chromosomal copy of mtlA, showed that all but one of the strains containing confirmed deletions were inactive in transport and PEP-dependent phosphorylation of mannitol, but deletions removing up to at least 117 amino acid residues from the C terminus of the permease were still active in catalyzing phospho exchange between mannitol 1-phosphate and mannitol. A deletion protein that lacked 240 residues from the C terminus of the permease was inactive in phospho exchange but still bound mannitol with high affinity. These experiments localize sites important for transport and PEP-dependent phosphorylation to the extreme C terminus of the mannitol permease, sites important for phospho exchange to between residues 377 and 519, and sites necessary for mannitol binding to the N-terminal 60% of the molecule. The results are discussed with respect to the fact that the mannitol permease consists of structurally independent N- and C-terminal domains.

  13. Coat protein deletion mutants elicit more severe symptoms than wild-type virus in multiple cereal hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coat protein (CP) of Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV; genus Tritimovirus, family Potyviridae) tolerates deletion of amino acids 36 to 84 for efficient systemic infection of wheat. This study demonstrates that deletion of CP amino acids 58 to 84, but not 36 to 57, from WSMV genome induced severe ...

  14. Microclones derived from the mouse chromosome 7 D-E bands map within the proximal region of the c14CoS deletion in albino mutant mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toenjes, R.R.W.; Weith, A.; Rinchik, E.M.; Winking, H.; Carnwath, J.W.; Kaliner, B.; Paul, D.

    1991-01-01

    A group of radiation-induced perinatal-lethal deletions that include the albino (c) locus on mouse chromosome 7 causes failure of expression of various hepatocyte-specific genes when homozygous. The transcription of such genes could be controlled in trans by a regulatory gene(s) located within the proximal region of the C14CoS deletion. To identify this potential regulatory gene, a microclone library was established from microdissected D and E bands of chromosome 7. Three nonoverlapping microclones (E305, E336B, and E453B) hybridizing with wildtype but not with C14CoS/C14CoS DNA were isolated. E336B represents a single-copy DNA fragment, whereas E305 and E453B hybridized with 3 and 10 EcoRI DNA restriction fragments, respectively. All fragments map exclusively within the deletion. The microclones hybridized to DNA of viable C6H/C14CoS deletion heterozygotes but not to DNA of homozygotes for the lethal mutation c10R75M, which belongs to the same complementation group as c14CoS. DNA of viable homozygous mutant C62DSD, which carries a deletion breakpoint proximal to that of c6H, hybridized only with E453B. This microclone identified 6 EcoRI restriction fragments in C62DSD/C62DSD DNA. The results demonstrate that of the isolated microclones, E453B identifies a locus (D7RT453B) that maps closest to the hsdr-1 (hepatocyte-specific developmental regulation) locus, which maps between the proximal breakpoints of deletions c10R75M and c62DSD

  15. Replication and pathogenicity of primer binding site mutants of SL3-3 murine leukemia viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anders Henrik; Schmidt, J; Luz, A

    1999-01-01

    -chain, the immunoglobulin kappa light chain, and the c-myc locus. Whereas none of the mutants were found to revert to tRNAPro primer utilization, in two tumors resulting from the injection of the SL3-3 Lys3 mutant the primer binding site was altered to match that of a new primer species, tRNA1,2Lys. In addition...

  16. A suitable streptomycin-resistant mutant for constructing unmarked in-frame gene deletions using rpsL as a counter-selection marker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Kuo Tsai

    Full Text Available The streptomycin counter-selection system is a useful tool for constructing unmarked in-frame gene deletions, which is a fundamental approach to study bacteria and their pathogenicity at the molecular level. A prerequisite for this system is acquiring a streptomycin-resistant strain due to rpsL mutations, which encodes the ribosomal protein S12. However, in this study no streptomycin resistance was found to be caused by rpsL mutations in all 127 clinical strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from liver abscess patients. By screening 107 spontaneous mutants of streptomycin resistance from a clinical strain of K. pneumoniae, nucleotide substitution or insertion located within the rpsL was detected in each of these strains. Thirteen different mutants with varied S12 proteins were obtained, including nine streptomycin-dependent mutants. The virulence of all four streptomycin-resistant mutants was further evaluated. Compared with the parental strain, the K42N, K42T and K87R mutants showed a reduction in growth rate, and the K42N and K42T mutants became susceptible to normal human serum. In the mice LD50 (the bacterial dose that caused 50% death assay, the K42N and K42T mutants were ∼ 1,000-fold less lethal (∼ 2 × 10(5 CFU and the K87R mutant was ∼ 50-fold less lethal (∼ 1 × 10(4 CFU than the parental strain (∼ 2 × 10(2 CFU. A K42R mutant showed non-observable effects on the above assays, while this mutant exhibited a small cost (P < 0.01 in an in vitro growth competition experiment. In summary, most of the K. pneumoniae strains with streptomycin resistance caused by rpsL mutations are less virulent than their parental strain in the absence of streptomycin. The K42R mutant showed similar pathogenicity to its parental strain and should be one of the best choices when using rpsL as a counter-selection marker.

  17. Construction of an Unmarked Zymomonas mobilis Mutant Using a Site-Specific FLP Recombinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Lan Zou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Flippase expression was carried out in Zymomonas mobilis strain ZM4. The FRT-flanked selection marker gene was first integrated into the ZM4 chromosome by homologous recombination. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae flp gene was then introduced under the control of the ZM4 gap gene promoter (Pgap, encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase or the λ bacteriophage cI857-pR contained in the broad-host-range cloning vector pBBR1-MCS-2. This study demonstrated that flp was expressed and that the deletion frequency of the FRT-flanked marker gene was very high (approx. 100 %. In addition, the flp gene expression vector could be conveniently removed from the resulting unmarked Z. mobilis mutants by serially transferring the cells three times into antibiotic-free medium, thereby establishing an efficient method for constructing unmarked Z. mobilis mutants.

  18. Histone Deacetylase 3 Inhibition Overcomes BIM Deletion Polymorphism-Mediated Osimertinib Resistance in EGFR-Mutant Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Azusa; Takeuchi, Shinji; Arai, Sachiko; Fukuda, Koji; Yamada, Tadaaki; Roca, Xavier; Ong, S Tiong; Yano, Seiji

    2017-06-15

    Purpose: The BIM deletion polymorphism is associated with apoptosis resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI), such as gefitinib and erlotinib, in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring EGFR mutations. Here, we investigated whether the BIM deletion polymorphism contributes to resistance against osimertinib, a third-generation EGFR-TKI. In addition, we determined the efficacy of a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, vorinostat, against this form of resistance and elucidated the underlying mechanism. Experimental Design: We used EGFR -mutated NSCLC cell lines, which were either heterozygous or homozygous for the BIM deletion polymorphism, to evaluate the effect of osimertinib in vitro and in vivo Protein expression was examined by Western blotting. Alternative splicing of BIM mRNA was analyzed by RT-PCR. Results: EGFR -mutated NSCLC cell lines with the BIM deletion polymorphism exhibited apoptosis resistance to osimertinib in a polymorphism dosage-dependent manner, and this resistance was overcome by combined use with vorinostat. Experiments with homozygous BIM deletion-positive cells revealed that vorinostat affected the alternative splicing of BIM mRNA in the deletion allele, increased the expression of active BIM protein, and thereby induced apoptosis in osimertinib-treated cells. These effects were mediated predominantly by HDAC3 inhibition. In xenograft models, combined use of vorinostat with osimertinib could regress tumors in EGFR -mutated NSCLC cells homozygous for the BIM deletion polymorphism. Moreover, this combination could induce apoptosis even when tumor cells acquired EGFR -T790M mutations. Conclusions: These findings indicate the importance of developing HDAC3-selective inhibitors, and their combined use with osimertinib, for treating EGFR -mutated lung cancers carrying the BIM deletion polymorphism. Clin Cancer Res; 23(12); 3139-49. ©2016 AACR . ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. IDH mutant and 1p/19q co-deleted oligodendrogliomas: tumor grade stratification using diffusion-, susceptibility-, and perfusion-weighted MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yu; Xing, Zhen; She, Dejun; Yang, Xiefeng; Zheng, Yingyan; Xiao, Zebin; Cao, Dairong [First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Department of Radiology, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Wang, Xingfu [First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Department of Pathology, Fuzhou (China)

    2017-06-15

    Currently, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation and 1p/19q co-deletion are proven diagnostic biomarkers for both grade II and III oligodendrogliomas (ODs). Non-invasive diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), and dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion-weighted imaging (DSC-PWI) are widely used to provide physiological information (cellularity, hemorrhage, calcifications, and angiogenesis) of neoplastic histology and tumor grade. However, it is unclear whether DWI, SWI, and DSC-PWI are able to stratify grades of IDH-mutant and 1p/19q co-deleted ODs. We retrospectively reviewed the conventional MRI (cMRI), DWI, SWI, and DSC-PWI obtained on 33 patients with IDH-mutated and 1p/19q co-deleted ODs. Features of cMRI, normalized ADC (nADC), intratumoral susceptibility signals (ITSSs), normalized maxim CBV (nCBV), and normalized maximum CBF (nCBF) were compared between low-grade ODs (LGOs) and high-grade ODs (HGOs). Receiver operating characteristic curve and logistic regression were applied to determine diagnostic performances. HGOs tended to present with prominent edema and enhancement. nADC, ITSSs, nCBV, and nCBF were significantly different between groups (all P < 0.05). The combination of SWI and DSC-PWI for grading resulted in sensitivity and specificity of 100.00 and 93.33%, respectively. IDH-mutant and 1p/19q co-deleted ODs can be stratified by grades using cMRI and advanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques including DWI, SWI, and DSC-PWI. Combined ITSSs with nCBV appear to be a promising option for grading molecularly defined ODs in clinical practice. (orig.)

  20. IDH mutant and 1p/19q co-deleted oligodendrogliomas: tumor grade stratification using diffusion-, susceptibility-, and perfusion-weighted MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu; Xing, Zhen; She, Dejun; Yang, Xiefeng; Zheng, Yingyan; Xiao, Zebin; Wang, Xingfu; Cao, Dairong

    2017-06-01

    Currently, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation and 1p/19q co-deletion are proven diagnostic biomarkers for both grade II and III oligodendrogliomas (ODs). Non-invasive diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), and dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion-weighted imaging (DSC-PWI) are widely used to provide physiological information (cellularity, hemorrhage, calcifications, and angiogenesis) of neoplastic histology and tumor grade. However, it is unclear whether DWI, SWI, and DSC-PWI are able to stratify grades of IDH-mutant and 1p/19q co-deleted ODs. We retrospectively reviewed the conventional MRI (cMRI), DWI, SWI, and DSC-PWI obtained on 33 patients with IDH-mutated and 1p/19q co-deleted ODs. Features of cMRI, normalized ADC (nADC), intratumoral susceptibility signals (ITSSs), normalized maxim CBV (nCBV), and normalized maximum CBF (nCBF) were compared between low-grade ODs (LGOs) and high-grade ODs (HGOs). Receiver operating characteristic curve and logistic regression were applied to determine diagnostic performances. HGOs tended to present with prominent edema and enhancement. nADC, ITSSs, nCBV, and nCBF were significantly different between groups (all P IDH-mutant and 1p/19q co-deleted ODs can be stratified by grades using cMRI and advanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques including DWI, SWI, and DSC-PWI. Combined ITSSs with nCBV appear to be a promising option for grading molecularly defined ODs in clinical practice.

  1. Development of Shigella sonnei live oral vaccines based on defined rfbInaba deletion mutants of Vibrio cholerae expressing the Shigella serotype D O polysaccharide.

    OpenAIRE

    Favre, D; Cryz, S J; Viret, J F

    1996-01-01

    Previous experimentation has highlighted a number of difficulties in the development of carrier-based bivalent vaccines (J.-F. Viret and D. Favre, Biologicals 22:361-372, 1994) In an attempt to obviate these carrier strains. Toward this aim, a series of defined rfbInaba deletion (delta rfbInaba) mutants of the cholera vaccine strain V. cholerae CVD103-HgR (O1 Inaba serotype) and derivative bearing the chromosomally integrated locus encoding the S. sonnei O-PS were constructed and characterize...

  2. The effect of miR-338-3p on HBx deletion-mutant (HBx-d382 mediated liver-cell proliferation through CyclinD1 regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Fu

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B Virus (HBV DNA integration and HBV X (HBx deletion mutation occurs in HBV-positive liver cancer patients, and C-terminal deletion in HBx gene mutants are highly associated with hepatocarcinogenesis. Our previous study found that the HBx-d382 deletion mutant (deleted at nt 382-400 can down-regulate miR-338-3p expression in HBx-expressing cells. The aim of the present study is to examine the role of miR-338-3p in the HBx-d382-mediated liver-cell proliferation.We established HBx-expressing LO2 cells by Lipofectamine 2000 transfection. A miR-338-3p mimics or inhibitor was transfected into LO2/HBx-d382 and LO2/HBx cells using miR-NC as a control miRNA. In silico analysis of potential miR-338-3p targets revealed that miR-338-3p could target the cell cycle regulatory protein CyclinD1. To confirm that CyclinD1 is negatively regulated by miR-338-3p, we constructed luciferase reporters with wild-type and mutated CyclinD1-3'UTR target sites for miR-338-3p binding. We examined the CyclinD1 expression by real-time PCR and western blot, and proliferation activity by flow cytometric cell cycle analysis, Edu incorporation, and soft agar colony.HBx-d382 exhibited enhanced proliferation and CyclinD1 expression in LO2 cells. miR-338-3p expression inhibited cell proliferation in LO2/HBx-d382 cells (and LO2/HBx cells, and also negatively regulated CyclinD1 protein expression. Of the two putative miR-338-3p binding sites in the CyclinD1-3'UTR region, the effect of miR-338-3p on the second binding site (nt 2397-2403 was required for the inhibition.miR-338-3p can directly regulate CyclinD1 expression through binding to the CyclinD1-3'UTR region, mainly at nt 2397-2403. Down-regulation of miR-338-3p expression is required for liver cell proliferation in both LO2/HBx and LO2/HBx-d382 mutant cells, although the effect is more pronounced in LO2/HBx-d382 cells. Our study elucidated a novel mechanism, from a new miRNA-regulation perspective, underlying the

  3. Selection of Mycoplasma hominis PG21 deletion mutants by cultivation in the presence of monoclonal antibody 552

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lise Torp; Ladefoged, Søren; Birkelund, Svend

    1995-01-01

    Three mutants of Mycoplasma hominis PG21 were isolated and shown to contain alterations in the size of a repeat-containing gene encoding a surface-localized 135-kDa antigen designated Lmp1. The mutants were isolated by cultivating M. hominis for a 3-month period in the presence of Lmp1-specific...... in culture medium was, however, increased, indicating that the repeated elements may be of importance for repulsion of the cells....

  4. Rapid genotyping assays for the 4-base pair deletion of canine MDR1/ABCB1 gene and low frequency of the mutant allele in Border Collie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Keijiro; Chang, Hye-Sook; Yabuki, Akira; Kawamichi, Takuji; Hossain, Mohammad A; Rahman, Mohammad M; Uddin, Mohammad M; Yamato, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    P-glycoprotein, encoded by the MDR1 or ABCB1 gene, is an integral component of the blood-brain barrier as an efflux pump for xenobiotics crucial in limiting drug uptake into the central nervous system. Dogs homozygous for a 4-base pair deletion of the canine MDR1 gene show altered expression or function of P-glycoprotein, resulting in neurotoxicosis after administration of the substrate drugs. In the present study, the usefulness of microchip electrophoresis for genotyping assays detecting this deletion mutation was evaluated. Mutagenically separated polymerase chain reaction (MS-PCR) and real-time PCR assays were newly developed and evaluated. Furthermore, a genotyping survey was carried out in a population of Border Collies dogs in Japan to determine the allele frequency in this breed. Microchip electrophoresis showed advantages in detection sensitivity and time saving over other modes of electrophoresis. The MS-PCR assay clearly discriminated all genotypes. Real-time PCR assay was most suitable for a large-scale survey due to its high throughput and rapidity. The genotyping survey demonstrated that the carrier and mutant allele frequencies were 0.49% and 0.25%, respectively, suggesting that the mutant allele frequency in Border Collies is markedly low compared to that in the susceptible dog breeds such as rough and smooth Collies.

  5. Differences in virulence of pneumolysin and autolysin mutants constructed by insertion duplication mutagenesis and in-frame deletion in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Esther Yip-Mei; Chang, Feng-Yee; Chang, Jen-Chang; Fung, Chang-Phone

    2014-02-21

    Insertion duplication mutagenesis (IDM) and in-frame deletion (IFD) are common techniques for studying gene function, and have been applied to pneumolysin (ply), a virulence gene in Streptococcus pneumoniae (D39). Discrepancies in virulence between the two techniques were observed in both the previous and present studies. This phenomenon was also observed during mutation analysis of autolysin (lytA). Our data showed that target gene restoration (TGR) occurred in IDM mutants, even in the presence of antibiotics, while the IFD mutants were stable. In PCR result, TGR occurred later in IDM-ply and -lytA mutants cultured in non-supplemented medium (4-5 h) compared with those grown in medium supplemented with erythromycin (erm)/chloramphenicol (cat) (3-4 h), but plateaued faster. Real-time PCR for detecting TGR had been performed. When compared with 8-h culture, TGR detection increased from Day 1 and Day 2 of IDM mutant's culture. erm-sensitive clones from IDM mutant were found. Southern blot hybridization and Western blotting also confirmed the phenomenon of TGR. The median survival of mice following intraperitoneal (IP) injection with a 3-h culture of IDM-mutants was significantly longer than that with an 8-h culture, irrespective of antibiotic usage. The median survival time of mice following IP injection of a 3-h culture versus an 8-h culture of IDM-ply in the absence of antibiotics was 10 days versus 2 days (p = 0.031), respectively, while in the presence of erm, the median survival was 5 days versus 2.5 days (p = 0.037), respectively. For an IDM-lytA mutant, the corresponding values were 8.5 days versus 2 days (p = 0.019), respectively, for non-supplemented medium, and 2.5 versus 2 days (p = 0.021), respectively, in the presence of cat. A comparable survival rate was observed between WT D39 and an 8-h IDM culture. TGR in IDM mutants should be monitored to avoid inconsistent results, and misinterpretation of data due to TGR could lead to

  6. Role of SH3b binding domain in a natural deletion mutant of Kayvirus endolysin LysF1 with a broad range of lytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benešík, Martin; Nováček, Jiří; Janda, Lubomír; Dopitová, Radka; Pernisová, Markéta; Melková, Kateřina; Tišáková, Lenka; Doškař, Jiří; Žídek, Lukáš; Hejátko, Jan; Pantůček, Roman

    2018-02-01

    The spontaneous host-range mutants 812F1 and K1/420 are derived from polyvalent phage 812 that is almost identical to phage K, belonging to family Myoviridae and genus Kayvirus. Phage K1/420 is used for the phage therapy of staphylococcal infections. Endolysin of these mutants designated LysF1, consisting of an N-terminal cysteine-histidine-dependent aminohydrolase/peptidase (CHAP) domain and C-terminal SH3b cell wall-binding domain, has deleted middle amidase domain compared to wild-type endolysin. In this work, LysF1 and both its domains were prepared as recombinant proteins and their function was analyzed. LysF1 had an antimicrobial effect on 31 Staphylococcus species of the 43 tested. SH3b domain influenced antimicrobial activity of LysF1, since the lytic activity of the truncated variant containing the CHAP domain alone was decreased. The results of a co-sedimentation assay of SH3b domain showed that it was able to bind to three types of purified staphylococcal peptidoglycan 11.2, 11.3, and 11.8 that differ in their peptide bridge, but also to the peptidoglycan type 11.5 of Streptococcus uberis, and this capability was verified in vivo using the fusion protein with GFP and fluorescence microscopy. Using several different approaches, including NMR, we have not confirmed the previously proposed interaction of the SH3b domain with the pentaglycine bridge in the bacterial cell wall. The new naturally raised deletion mutant endolysin LysF1 is smaller than LysK, has a broad lytic spectrum, and therefore is an appropriate enzyme for practical use. The binding spectrum of SH3b domain covering all known staphylococcal peptidoglycan types is a promising feature for creating new chimeolysins by combining it with more effective catalytic domains.

  7. Bivalent vaccination against pneumonic pasteurellosis in domestic sheep and goats with modified-live in-frame lktA deletion mutants of Mannheimia haemolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Robert E; Hauglund, Melissa J; Maheswaran, Samuel K; Tatum, Fred M

    2013-11-01

    A temperature-sensitive shuttle vector, pBB80C, was utilized to generate in-frame deletion mutants of the leukotoxin structural gene (lktA) of Mannheimia haemolytica serotypes 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 12. Culture supernatants from the mutants contained a truncated protein with an approximate molecular weight of 66 kDa which was reactive to anti-leukotoxin monoclonal antibody. No protein reactive to anti-LktA monoclonal antibody was detected at the molecular weight 100-105 kDa of native LktA. Sheep and goats vaccinated intramuscularly with a mixture of serotypes 5 and 6 mutants were resistant to virulent challenge with a mixture of the wild-type parent strains. These vaccinates responded serologically to both vaccine serotypes and exhibited markedly-reduced lung lesion volume and pulmonary infectious load compared to control animals. Control animals yielded a mixture of serotypes from lung lobes, but the proportion even within an individual animal varied widely from 95% serotype 5-95% serotype 6. Cultures recovered from liver were homogeneous, but two animals yielded serotype 5 and the other two yielded serotype 6 in pure culture. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. ATM mutants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. ATM mutants. ATM (Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated). AT2BE and AT5B1 cells – fibroblast cell lines from Ataxia telangiectasia patients. Deletion mutants expressing truncated ATM protein which is inactive. Have been used in studies looking at the role of ATM in DNA damage ...

  9. X-ray survival characteristics and genetic analysis for nineSaccharomyces deletion mutants that affect radiation sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Game, John C.; Williamson, Marsha S.; Baccari, Clelia

    2006-07-21

    We examine ionizing radiation (IR) sensitivity and epistasisrelationships of several Saccharomyces mutants affectingpost-translational modifications of histones H2B and H3. Mutantsbre1delta, lge1delta, and rtf1delta, defective in histone H2B lysine 123ubiquitination, show IR sensitivity equivalent to that of the dot1deltamutant that we reported on earlier, consistent with published findingsthat Dot1p requires H2B K123 ubiquitination to fully methylate histone H3K79. This implicates progressive K79 methylation rather thanmono-methylation in IR resistance. The set2delta mutant, defective in H3K36 methylation, shows mild IR sensitivity whereas mutants that abolishH3 K4 methylation resemble wild type. The dot1delta, bre1delta, andlge1delta mutants show epistasis for IR sensitivity. The paf1deltamutant, also reportedly defective in H2B K123 ubiquitination, confers nosensitivity. The rad6delta, rad51null, rad50delta, and rad9deltamutations are epistatic to bre1? and dot1delta, but rad18delta andrad5delta show additivity with bre1delta, dot1delta, and each other. Thebre1delta rad18delta double mutant resembles rad6delta in sensitivity;thus the role of Rad6p in ubiquitinating H2B accounts for its extrasensitivity compared to rad18delta. We conclude that IR resistanceconferred by BRE1 and DOT1 is mediated through homologous recombinationalrepair, not postreplication repair, and confirm findings of a G1checkpoint role for the RAD6/BRE1/DOT1 pathway.

  10. Characterization and Evaluation of a Salmonella enterica Serotype Senftenberg Mutant Created by Deletion of Virulence-Related Genes for Use as a Live Attenuated Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamble, Nitin M; Lee, John Hwa

    2016-10-01

    Natural infections of chickens with Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Senftenberg (S. Senftenberg) are characterized by low-level intestinal invasiveness and insignificant production of antibodies. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of lon and cpxR gene deletions on the invasiveness of S Senftenberg into the intestinal epithelium of chickens and its ability to induce an immune response, conferring protection against S Senftenberg infection. With the allelic exchange method, we developed JOL1596 (Δlon), JOL1571 (ΔcpxR), and JOL1587 (Δlon ΔcpxR) deletion mutants from wild-type S Senftenberg. Deletion of the lon gene from S Senftenberg produced increased frequency of elongated cells, with significantly greater amounts of exopolysaccharide (EPS) than in the cpxR-deleted strain and the wild-type strain. The in vivo intestinal loop invasion assay showed a significant increase in epithelial invasiveness for JOL1596 (Δlon) and JOL1587 (Δlon ΔcpxR), compared to JOL1571 (ΔcpxR) and the wild-type strain. Furthermore, the S Senftenberg wild-type and mutant strains were internalized at high levels inside activated abdominal macrophages from chicken. The in vivo inoculation of JOL1587 (Δlon ΔcpxR) into chickens led to colonization of the liver, spleen, and cecum for a short time. Chickens inoculated with JOL1587 (Δlon ΔcpxR) showed significant increases in humoral, mucosal, and cellular immune responses specific to S Senftenberg antigens. Postchallenge, compared to the control group, the JOL1587 (Δlon ΔcpxR)-inoculated chickens showed not only lower persistence but also faster clearance of wild-type S Senftenberg from the cecum. We conclude that the increased intestinal invasiveness and colonization of internal organs exhibited by JOL1587 (Δlon ΔcpxR) led to the establishment of immunogenicity and conferred protective efficacy against S Senftenberg infections in chickens. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights

  11. Wing defects in Drosophila xenicid mutant clones are caused by C-terminal deletion of additional sex combs (Asx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Kara; Ballew, Anna C; Simon, Michael A; O'Reilly, Alana M

    2009-12-01

    The coordinated action of genes that control patterning, cell fate determination, cell size, and cell adhesion is required for proper wing formation in Drosophila. Defects in any of these basic processes can lead to wing aberrations, including blisters. The xenicid mutation was originally identified in a screen designed to uncover regulators of adhesion between wing surfaces [1]. Here, we demonstrate that expression of the betaPS integrin or the patterning protein Engrailed are not affected in developing wing imaginal discs in xenicid mutants. Instead, expression of the homeotic protein Ultrabithorax (Ubx) is strongly increased in xenicid mutant cells. Our results suggest that upregulation of Ubx transforms cells from a wing blade fate to a haltere fate, and that the presence of haltere cells within the wing blade is the primary defect leading to the adult wing phenotypes observed.

  12. Wing defects in Drosophila xenicid mutant clones are caused by C-terminal deletion of additional sex combs (Asx.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara Bischoff

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The coordinated action of genes that control patterning, cell fate determination, cell size, and cell adhesion is required for proper wing formation in Drosophila. Defects in any of these basic processes can lead to wing aberrations, including blisters. The xenicid mutation was originally identified in a screen designed to uncover regulators of adhesion between wing surfaces [1].Here, we demonstrate that expression of the betaPS integrin or the patterning protein Engrailed are not affected in developing wing imaginal discs in xenicid mutants. Instead, expression of the homeotic protein Ultrabithorax (Ubx is strongly increased in xenicid mutant cells.Our results suggest that upregulation of Ubx transforms cells from a wing blade fate to a haltere fate, and that the presence of haltere cells within the wing blade is the primary defect leading to the adult wing phenotypes observed.

  13. Phase I study of combined therapy with vorinostat and gefitinib to treat BIM deletion polymorphism-associated resistance in EGFR-mutant lung cancer (VICTROY-J): a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Shinji; Yoshimura, Kenichi; Fujiwara, Tadami; Ando, Masahiko; Shimizu, Shinobu; Nagase, Katsuhiko; Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Toshiaki; Katakami, Nobuyuki; Inoue, Akira; Yano, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    The BIM deletion polymorphism is reported to be associated with poor outcomes of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with EGFR-TKIs, including gefitinib. We have shown that a histone deacetylase inhibitor, vorinostat, can epigenetically restore BIM function and apoptosis sensitivity to EGFR-TKIs in EGFR-mutant NSCLC cells with BIM deletion polymorphisms. The purpose of this study is to determine the feasibility of combined treatment of vorinostat with gefitinib in BIM deletion polymorphism positive EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients. BIM deletion polymorphism positive EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients treated with at least one EGFR-TKI and one regimen of chemotherapy are being recruited to this study. Vorinostat (200-400 mg) will be administered orally once daily on days 1-7, and gefitinib 250 mg orally once daily on days 1-14. With a fixed dose of gefitinib, the dose of vorinostat will be escalated following a conventional 3+3 design. The primary endpoint is to define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of vorinostat combined with 250 mg of gefitinib. This is the first phase I study of combined therapy with vorinostat and gefitinib for NSCLC patients double selected for an EGFR mutation and BIM deletion polymorphism. J. Med. Invest. 64: 321-325, August, 2017.

  14. An ENU mutagenesis screen in zebrafish for visual system mutants identifies a novel splice-acceptor site mutation in patched2 that results in Colobomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiwoon; Cox, Ben D; Daly, Christina M S; Lee, Chanjae; Nuckels, Richard J; Tittle, Rachel K; Uribe, Rosa A; Gross, Jeffrey M

    2012-12-13

    To identify recessive mutations affecting development and/or maintenance of the zebrafish visual system. A three-generation ENU (N-Nitroso-N-ethylurea)-based forward genetic screen was performed. F3 embryos were screened visually from 1 to 5 days postfertilization (dpf) for ocular abnormalities, and 5 dpf embryos were fixed and processed for cryosectioning, after which eye sections were screened for defects in cellular organization within the retina, lens, and cornea. A combination of PCR and DNA sequencing, in situ hybridization, and pharmacological treatments were used to clone and characterize a coloboma mutant. A total of 126 F2 families were screened, and, from these, 18 recessive mutations were identified that affected eye development. Phenotypes included lens malformations and cataracts, photoreceptor defects, oculocutaneous albinism, microphthalmia, and colobomas. Analysis of one such coloboma mutant, uta(1), identified a splice-acceptor mutation in the patched2 gene that resulted in an in-frame deletion of 19 amino acids that are predicted to contribute to the first extracellular loop of Patched2. ptch2(uta1) mutants possessed elevated Hedgehog (Hh) pathway activity, and blocking the Hh pathway with cyclopamine prevented colobomas in ptch2(uta1) mutant embryos. We have identified 18 recessive mutations affecting development of the zebrafish visual system and we have characterized a novel splice-acceptor site mutation in patched2 that results in enhanced Hh pathway activity and colobomas.

  15. Reduced host cell invasiveness and oxidative stress tolerance in double and triple csp gene family deletion mutants of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loepfe, Chantal; Raimann, Eveline; Stephan, Roger; Tasara, Taurai

    2010-07-01

    The cold shock protein (Csp) family comprises small, highly conserved proteins that bind nucleic acids to modulate various bacterial gene expressions. In addition to cold adaptation functions, this group of proteins is thought to facilitate various cellular processes to promote normal growth and stress adaptation responses. Three proteins making up the Listeria monocytogenes Csp family (CspA, CspB, and CspD) promote both cold and osmotic stress adaptation functions in this bacterium. The contribution of these three Csps in the host cell invasion processes of L. monocytogenes was investigated based on human Caco-2 and murine macrophage in vitro cell infection models. The DeltacspB, DeltacspD, DeltacspAB, DeltacspAD, DeltacspBD, and DeltacspABD strains were all significantly impaired in Caco-2 cell invasion compared with the wild-type strain, whereas in the murine macrophage infection assay only, the double (DeltacspBD) and triple (DeltacspABD) csp mutants were also significantly impaired in cell invasion compared with the wild-type strain. The DeltacspBD and DeltacspABD mutants displayed the most severely impaired invasion phenotypes. The invasion ability of these two mutant strains was also further analyzed using cold-stress-exposed organisms. In both cell infection models a significant reduction in invasiveness was observed after cold stress exposure of Listeria organisms. The negative impact of cold stress on subsequent cell invasion ability was, however, more severe in cold-sensitive csp mutants (DeltacspBD and DeltacspABD) compared with the wild type. The impaired macrophage invasion and intracellular growth of DeltacspBD and DeltacspABD also led us to examine oxidative stress resistance capacity in these two mutant strains. Both strains also displayed higher oxidative stress sensitivity relative to the wild-type strain. Our data indicate that besides cold and osmotic stress adaptation roles, Csp family proteins also promote efficient host cell invasion and

  16. Inflammatory response of TLR4 deficient spleen macrophages (CRL 2471) to Brucella abortus S19 and an isogenic ΔmglA deletion mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Jens; Makou, Patricia; Finke, Antje; Mielke, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Brucellosis is a worldwide distributed zoonosis caused by members of the genus Brucella. One of them, Brucella abortus, is the etiological agent of bovine brucellosis. With the attenuated strain B. abortus S19 a vaccine is available. However, both, virulence (safety) and the ability to induce a protective B and T cell response (efficacy) have to be tested in suitable assays before successful use in the field. For this purpose, several macrophage cell lines of various origins have been used while splenic macrophages are the preferred host cells in vivo. We here characterized the in vitro response of the murine splenic macrophage cell line CRL 2471(I-13.35) to B. abortus. This cell line still depends on the presence of colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) and is derived from LPS resistant (TLR4 deficient) C3H/HeJ mice. For infection the vaccine strain B. abortus S19A as well as the formerly described isogenic deletion mutant B. abortus S19A ΔmglA 3.14 were used. While numbers of viable bacteria did not differ significantly between the vaccine strain and the deletion mutant at 6h post infection, a higher bacterial load was measured in case of the mutant at 24h and 48h after infection. This was also true, when IFNγ was used for macrophage activation. A comprehensive gene expression profile of macrophages was analysed 6 and 24h after infection by means of an RT-PCR based gene expression array. The mutant strain B. abortus S19A ΔmglA 3.14 elicited a stronger cellular response of the splenic macrophages as compared to the parental vaccine strain. This was most prominent for the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, TNF-α and IL6 as well as for the chemokine ligands CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL10, CCL2, CCL5, CCL7, CCL17 and the co-stimulatory molecules CD40 and ICAM1. While these differences were also present in IFNγ-stimulated macrophages, an addition of IFNγ after infection not only resulted in a dramatic increase of the translation of the afore mentioned genes but also

  17. Marker-Assisted Molecular Profiling, Deletion Mutant Analysis, and RNA-Seq Reveal a Disease Resistance Cluster Associated with Uromyces appendiculatus Infection in Common Bean Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Antonette R; Donofrio, Nicole; Sripathi, Venkateswara R; McClean, Phillip E; Lee, Rian K; Pastor-Corrales, Marcial; Kalavacharla, Venu Kal

    2017-05-23

    Common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important legume, useful for its high protein and dietary fiber. The fungal pathogen Uromyces appendiculatus (Pers.) Unger can cause major loss in susceptible varieties of the common bean. The Ur-3 locus provides race specific resistance to virulent strains or races of the bean rust pathogen along with Crg , (Complements resistance gene), which is required for Ur-3 -mediated rust resistance. In this study, we inoculated two common bean genotypes (resistant "Sierra" and susceptible crg) with rust race 53 of U. appendiculatus , isolated leaf RNA at specific time points, and sequenced their transcriptomes. First, molecular markers were used to locate and identify a 250 kb deletion on chromosome 10 in mutant crg (which carries a deletion at the Crg locus). Next, we identified differential expression of several disease resistance genes between Mock Inoculated (MI) and Inoculated (I) samples of "Sierra" leaf RNA within the 250 kb delineated region. Both marker assisted molecular profiling and RNA-seq were used to identify possible transcriptomic locations of interest regarding the resistance in the common bean to race 53. Identification of differential expression among samples in disease resistance clusters in the bean genome may elucidate significant genes underlying rust resistance. Along with preserving favorable traits in the crop, the current research may also aid in global sustainability of food stocks necessary for many populations.

  18. Transformation of apple (Malus × domestica) using mutants of apple acetolactate synthase as a selectable marker and analysis of the T-DNA integration sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jia-Long; Tomes, Sumathi; Gleave, Andrew P

    2013-05-01

    Apple acetolactate synthase mutants were generated by site-specific mutagenesis and successfully used as selection marker in tobacco and apple transformation. T-DNA/Apple genome junctions were analysed using genome-walking PCR and sequencing. An Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation system was developed for apple (Malus × domestica), using mutants of apple acetolactate synthase (ALS) as a selectable marker. Four apple ALS mutants were generated by site-specific mutagenesis and subsequently cloned under the transcriptional control of the CaMV 35S promoter and ocs 3' terminator, in a pART27-derived plant transformation vector. Three of the four mutations were found to confer resistance to the herbicide Glean(®), containing the active agent chlorsulfuron, in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) transformation. In apple transformation, leaf explants infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 containing one of the three ALS mutants resulted in the production of shoots on medium containing 2-8 μg L(-1) Glean(®), whilst uninfected wild-type explants failed to regenerate shoots or survive on medium containing 1 and 3 μg L(-1) Glean(®), respectively. Glean(®)-resistant, regenerated shoots were further multiplied and rooted on medium containing 10 μg L(-1) Glean(®). The T-DNA and apple genome-DNA junctions from eight rooted transgenic apple plants were analysed using genome-walking PCR amplification and sequencing. This analysis confirmed T-DNA integration into the apple genome, identified the genome integration sites and revealed the extent of any vector backbone integration, T-DNA rearrangements and deletions of apple genome DNA at the sites of integration.

  19. Comparative transcriptomics of H. pylori strains AM5, SS1 and their hpyAVIBM deletion mutants: possible roles of cytosine methylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Kumar

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is an important human pathogen and one of the most successful chronic colonizers of the human body. H. pylori uses diverse mechanisms to modulate its interaction with the host in order to promote chronic infection and overcome host immune response. Restriction-modification genes are a major part of strain-specific genes present in H. pylori. The role of N(6--adenine methylation in bacterial gene regulation and virulence is well established but not much is known about the effect of C(5 -cytosine methylation on gene expression in prokaryotes. In this study, it was observed by microarray analysis and RT-PCR, that deletion of an orphan C(5 -cytosine methyltransferase, hpyAVIBM in H. pylori strains AM5and SS1 has a significant effect on the expression of number of genes belonging to motility, adhesion and virulence. AM5ΔhpyAVIBM mutant strain has a different LPS profile and is able to induce high IL-8 production compared to wild-type. hpyAVIBM from strain 26695 is able to complement mutant SS1 and AM5 strains. This study highlights a possible significance of cytosine methylation in the physiology of H. pylori.

  20. Escherichia coli deletion mutants illuminate trade-offs between growth rate and flux through a foreign anabolic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falls, Kelly C; Williams, Aimee L; Bryksin, Anton V; Matsumura, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic engineers strive to improve the production yields of microbial fermentations, sometimes by mutating the genomes of production strains. Some mutations are detrimental to the health of the organism, so a quantitative and mechanistic understanding of the trade-offs could inform better designs. We employed the bacterial luciferase operon (luxABCDE), which uses ubiquitous energetic cofactors (NADPH, ATP, FMNH2, acetyl-CoA) from the host cell, as a proxy for a novel anabolic pathway. The strains in the Escherichia coli Keio collection, each of which contains a single deletion of a non-essential gene, represent mutational choices that an engineer might make to optimize fermentation yields. The Keio strains and the parental BW25113 strain were transformed with a luxABCDE expression vector. Each transformant was propagated in defined M9 medium at 37 °C for 48 hours; the cell density (optical density at 600 nanometers, OD600) and luminescence were measured every 30 minutes. The trade-offs were visualized by plotting the maximum growth rate and luminescence/OD600 of each transformant across a "production possibility frontier". Our results show that some loss-of-function mutations enhance growth in vitro or light production, but that improvement in one trait generally comes at the expense of the other.

  1. Differential activation of wild-type estrogen receptor alpha and C-terminal deletion mutants by estrogens, antiestrogens and xenoestrogens in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fei; Safe, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    17beta-Estradiol (E2), diethylstilbestrol (DES) and several synthetic (or xenoestrogenic) compounds induced transactivation in MCF-7 or MDA-MB-231 cells transfected with wild-type estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and a construct (pERE(3)) containing three tandem estrogen responsive elements (EREs) linked to a luciferase gene. In contrast, the antiestrogens ICI 182,780 and 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) were inactive in this assay. We have investigated the effects of these compounds and several structurally-diverse estrogenic compounds on transactivation in cells transfected with pERE(3) and wild-type ERalpha, mutant ERalpha (1-553), and ERalpha (1-537) containing deletions of amino acids 595-554 and 595-538, respectively. These constructs were used to develop an in vitro assay to distinguish between different structural classes of estrogenic compounds. The results obtained using these constructs were highly cell context- and structure-dependent. Neither E2- nor diethylstilbestrol-induced transactivation in MCF-7 (or MDA-MB-231) cells transfected with pERE(3)/ERalpha (1-537) due to partial deletion of helix 12; however, octylphenol and nonlylphenol, resveratrol (a phytoestrogen), kepone and 2',3',4',5'-tetrachloro-4-biphenylol were "estrogenic" in MCF-7 cells transfected with pERE(3)/ERalpha (1-537). Moreover, the structure-dependent estrogenic activities of several synthetic estrogens (xenoestrogens) in MDA-MB-231 cells were different than those observed in MCF-7 cells. These results demonstrate that the estrogenic activity of many synthetic compounds do not require activation function 2 (AF-2) of ERalpha and are mechanistically different from E2. These data suggest that xenoestrogens are selective ER modulators (SERMs).

  2. Replication and pathogenicity of primer binding site mutants of SL3-3 murine leukemia viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anders Henrik; Schmidt, J; Luz, A

    1999-01-01

    ) in undifferentiated embryonic cells. In this study we test whether SL3-3 MLV can replicate stably using tRNA primers other than the cognate tRNAPro and analyze the effect of altering the primer binding site sequence to match the 3' end of tRNA1Gln, tRNA3Lys, or tRNA1,2Arg in a mouse pathogenicity model. Contrary...... delayed relative to that of the wild-type virus, molecular tumor analysis indicated that all the primer binding site-modified viruses induce T-cell lymphomas similar to those induced by the wild-type virus in terms of frequencies of genomic rearrangements within the T-cell receptor beta......, recombination with endogenous viruses resulting in the generation of recombinant viruses carrying a glutamine primer binding site was detected in the majority of the tumors induced by the SL3-3 Lys3 mutant as well as in two tumors induced by wild-type SL3-3 and the SL3-3 Arg1,2 mutant....

  3. Formulation of a mmaA4 gene deletion mutant of Mycobacterium bovis BCG in cationic liposomes significantly enhances protection against tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven C Derrick

    Full Text Available A new vaccination strategy is urgently needed for improved control of the global tuberculosis (TB epidemic. Using a mouse aerosol Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenge model, we investigated the protective efficacy of a mmaA4 gene deletion mutant of Mycobacterium bovis BCG (ΔmmaA4BCG formulated in dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium bromide (DDA - D(+ trehalose 6,6 dibenenate (TDB (DDA/TDB adjuvant. In previous studies, deletion of the mmaA4 gene was shown to reduce the suppression of IL-12 production often seen after mycobacterial infections. While the non-adjuvanted ΔmmaA4BCG strain did not protect mice substantially better than conventional BCG against a tuberculous challenge in four protection experiments, the protective responses induced by the ΔmmaA4BCG vaccine formulated in DDA/TDB adjuvant was consistently increased relative to nonadjuvanted BCG controls. Furthermore, the ΔmmaA4BCG-DDA/TDB vaccine induced significantly higher frequencies of multifunctional (MFT CD4 T cells expressing both IFNγ and TNFα (double positive or IFNγ, TNFα and IL-2 (triple positive than CD4 T cells derived from mice vaccinated with BCG. These MFT cells were characterized by having higher IFNγ and TNFα median fluorescence intensity (MFI values than monofunctional CD4 T cells. Interestingly, both BCG/adjuvant and ΔmmaA4BCG/adjuvant formulations induced significantly higher frequencies of CD4 T cells expressing TNFα and IL-2 than nonadjuvanted BCG or ΔmmaA4BCG vaccines indicating that BCG/adjuvant mixtures may be more effective at inducing central memory T cells. Importantly, when either conventional BCG or the mutant were formulated in adjuvant and administered to SCID mice or immunocompromised mice depleted of IFNγ, significantly lower vaccine-derived mycobacterial CFU were detected relative to immunodeficient mice injected with non-adjuvanted BCG. Overall, these data suggest that immunization with the ΔmmaA4BCG/adjuvant formulation may be an effective

  4. The capacity of Listeria monocytogenes mutants with in-frame deletions in putative ATP-binding cassette transporters to form biofilms and comparison with the wild type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ceruso

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes (Lm is a food-borne pathogen responsible for human listeriosis, an invasive infection with high mortality rates. Lm has developed efficient strategies for survival under stress conditions such as starvation and wide variations in temperature, pH, and osmolarity. Therefore, Lm can survive in food under multiple stress conditions. Detailed studies to determine the mode of action of this pathogen for survival under stress conditions are important to control Lm in food. It has been shown that genes encoding for ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters are induced in Lm in food, in particular under stress conditions. Previous studies showed that these genes are involved in sensitivity to nisin, acids, and salt. The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of some ABC transporters in biofilm formation. Therefore, deletion mutants of ABC transporter genes (LMOf2365_1875 and LMOf2365_1877 were created in Lm F2365, and then were compared to the wild type for their capacity to form biofilms. Lm strain F2365 was chosen as reference since the genome is fully sequenced and furthermore this strain is particularly involved in food-borne outbreaks of listeriosis. Our results showed that DLMOf2365_1875 had an increased capacity to form biofilms compared to the wild type, indicating that LMOf2365_1875 negatively regulates biofilm formation. A deeper knowledge on the ability to form biofilms in these mutants may help in the development of intervention strategies to control Lm in food and in the environment.

  5. Self-excising Cre/mutant lox marker recycling system for multiple gene integrations and consecutive gene deletions in Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Silai; Ban, Akihiko; Ebara, Naoki; Mizutani, Osamu; Tanaka, Mizuki; Shintani, Takahiro; Gomi, Katsuya

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we developed a self-excising Cre/loxP-mediated marker recycling system with mutated lox sequences to introduce a number of biosynthetic genes into Aspergillus oryzae. To construct the self-excising marker cassette, both the selectable marker, the Aspergillus nidulans adeA gene, and the Cre recombinase gene (cre), conditionally expressed by the xylanase-encoding gene promoter, were designed to be located between the mutant lox sequences, lox66 and lox71. However, construction of the plasmid failed, possibly owing to a slight expression of cre downstream of the fungal gene promoter in Escherichia coli. Hence, to avoid the excision of the cassette in E. coli, a 71-bp intron of the A. oryzae xynG2 gene was inserted into the cre gene. The A. oryzae adeA deletion mutant was transformed with the resulting plasmid in the presence of glucose, and the transformants were cultured in medium containing xylose as the sole carbon source. PCR analysis of genomic DNA from resultant colonies revealed the excision of both the marker and Cre expression construct, indicating that the self-excising marker cassette was efficient at removing the selectable marker. Using the marker recycling system, hyperproduction of kojic acid could be achieved in A. oryzae by the introduction of two genes that encode oxidoreductase and transporter. Furthermore, we also constructed an alternative marker recycling cassette bearing the A. nidulans pyrithiamine resistant gene (ptrA) as a dominant selectable marker. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The mouse small eye mutant, Del(2)Sey3H, which deletes the putative tumor suppressor region of the radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia is susceptible to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitta, Yumiko; Yoshida, Kazuko; Tanaka, Kimio; Peters, Jo; Cattanach, Bruce M.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation-induced murine acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by the chromosome 2 deletions. Standing on the hypothesis that an AML suppressor gene would locate on the chromosome 2, a deletion-wide screen was performed on radiation-induced AMLs by the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method. The hemizugous deletion of the D2Mit15, a marker DNA at the 49.0cM region from the centromere, associated with the AMLs in 97 out of the 105 cases (92.4%). As the deletion region was close to the region of human WAGR syndrome (MIM194072), the mouse small eye mutants could be the animal model for radiation-induced AMLs. The mutant, Del(2)Sey3H (Sey3H) was found to delete around the 49.0cM region by the allelic loss mapping. The Sey3H showed high susceptibility to radiation to develop tumors including the myeloid leukemia with shorter latency. These finding support the existence of a putative tumor suppressor gene responsible for the radiation-leukemogenesis near the D2Mit15 region. (author)

  7. Characterization of recombinant human α2-antiplasmin and of mutants obtained by site-directed mutagenesis of the reactive site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, W.E.; Lijnen, H.R.; Collen, D.

    1987-01-01

    Human α 2 -antiplasmin (α 2 AP) has been expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells and purified from conditioned media. The recombinant protein (rα 2 AP) is immunologically identical with natural α 2 AP and indistinguishable with respect to plasmin(ogen) binding properties. Second-order rate constants (k 1 ) for the interaction of α 2 AP and rα 2 AP with plasmin are both (1-2) x 10 7 M -1 s -1 . In order to examine the effects of alterations within the reactive site of α 2 AP, deletions of the P 1 residue Arg-364 (rα 2 AP-ΔArg364) of the P' 1 residue Met-365 (rα 2 AP-ΔMet365) were introduced by in vitro site-directed mutagenesis. rα 2 AP-ΔMet365 completely retains its ability to inhibit both plasmin and trypsin, indicating that α 2 AP has no absolute requirement for Met in the P' 1 position. Unexpectedly, no increase in antithrombin activity was observed. rα 2 AP-ΔArg364 has lost the ability to inhibit plasmin, trypsin, and thrombin, but unlike the wild-type protein, this variant is an effective elastase inhibitor

  8. Cytosine hypomethylation at CHG and CHH sites in the pleiotropic mutants of Mendelian inheritance in Catharanthus roseus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Renu; Yadav, Gitanjali; Sharma, Vishakha; Sharma, Vinay; Kumar, Sushil

    2013-12-01

    The 5S and 18S rDNA sequences of Catharanthus roseus cv 'Nirmal' (wild type) and its leafless inflorescence (lli), evergreen dwarf (egd) and irregular leaf lamina (ill) single mutants and lli egd, lli ill and egd ill double mutants were characterized. The lli, egd and ill mutants of Mendelian inheritance bore the names after their most conspicuous morphological feature(s). They had been chemically induced and isolated for their salt tolerance. The double mutants were isolated as morphological segregants from crosses between single mutants. The morphological features of the two parents accompanied salt tolerance in the double mutants. All the six mutants were hypomethylated at repeat sequences, upregulated and downregulated for many genes and carried pleiotropic alterations for several traits. Here the 5S and 18S rDNAs of C. roseus were found to be relatively low in cytosine content. Cytosines were preponderantly in CG context (53%) and almost all of them were methylated (97%). The cytosines in CHH and CHG (where H = A, T or C) contexts were largely demethylated (92%) in mutants. The demethylation was attributable to reduced expression of RDR2 and DRM2 led RNA dependant DNA methylation and CMT3 led maintenance methylation pathways. Mutants had gained some cytosines by substitution of C at T sites. These perhaps arose on account of errors in DNA replication, mediated by widespread cytosine demethylation at CHG and CHH sites. It was concluded that the regulation of cytosine ethylation mechanisms was disturbed in the mutants. ILL, EGD and LLI genes were identified as the positive regulators of other genes mediating the RdDM and CMT3 pathways, for establishment and maintenance of cytosine methylation in C. roseus.

  9. Crystal structures of E. coli native MenH and two active site mutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodie M Johnston

    Full Text Available Recent revision of the biosynthetic pathway for menaquinone has led to the discovery of a previously unrecognized enzyme 2-succinyl-6-hydroxy-2,4-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylate synthase, also known as MenH. This enzyme has an α/β hydrolase fold with a catalytic triad comprising Ser86, His232, and Asp210. Mutational studies identified a number of conserved residues of importance to activity, and modeling further implicated the side chains of Tyr85 and Trp147 in formation of a non-standard oxyanion hole. We have solved the structure of E. coli MenH (EcMenH at 2.75 Å resolution, together with the structures of the active site mutant proteins Tyr85Phe and Arg124Ala, both at 2.5 Å resolution. EcMenH has the predicted α/β hydrolase fold with its core α/β domain capped by a helical lid. The active site, a long groove beneath the cap, contains a number of conserved basic residues and is found to bind exogeneous anions, modeled as sulfate and chloride, in all three crystal structures. Docking studies with the MenH substrate and a transition state model indicate that the bound anions mark the binding sites for anionic groups on the substrate. The docking studies, and careful consideration of the active site geometry, further suggest that the oxyanion hole is of a conventional nature, involving peptide NH groups, rather than the proposed site involving Tyr85 and Trp147. This is in accord with conclusions from the structure of S. aureus MenH. Comparisons with the latter do, however, indicate differences in the periphery of the active site that could be of relevance to selective inhibition of MenH enzymes.

  10. Markerless Escherichia coli rrn Deletion Strains for Genetic Determination of Ribosomal Binding Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quan, Selwyn; Skovgaard, Ole; McLaughlin, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Single-copy rrn strains facilitate genetic ribosomal studies in Escherichia coli. Consecutive markerless deletion of rrn operons resulted in slower growth upon inactivation of the fourth copy, which was reversed by supplying transfer RNA genes encoded in rrn operons in trans. Removal of the sixth...

  11. Spontaneous asj-2J mutant mouse as a model for generalized arterial calcification of infancy: a large deletion/insertion mutation in the Enpp1 gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoli Li

    Full Text Available Generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI, an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the ENPP1 gene, manifests with extensive mineralization of the cardiovascular system. The affected individuals in most cases die within the first year of life, and there is currently no effective treatment for this disorder. In this study, we characterized a spontaneous mutant mouse, asj-2J, as a model for GACI. These mice were identified as part of a phenotypic deviant search in a large-scale production colony of BALB/cJ mice at The Jackson Laboratory. They demonstrated a characteristic gait due to stiffening of the joints, with phenotypic similarity to a previously characterized asj ("ages with stiffened joints" mouse, caused by a missense mutation in the Enpp1 gene. Complementation testing indicated that asj-2J and asj were allelic. PCR-based mutation detection strategy revealed in asj-2J mice a large, 40,035 bp, deletion spanning from intron 1 to the 3'-untranslated region of the Enpp1 gene, coupled with a 74 bp insertion. This was accompanied with a significant reduction in the plasma PPi concentration and reduced PPi/Pi ratio. As a consequence, extensive aberrant mineralization affecting the arterial vasculature, a number of internal organs, and the dermal sheath of vibrissae, a progressive biomarker of the ectopic mineralization process, was demonstrated by a combination of micro computed tomography, histopathology with calcium-specific stains, and direct chemical assay of calcium. Comparison of the asj and asj-2J mice demonstrated that the latter ones, particularly when placed on an acceleration diet high in phosphate and low in magnesium, had more extensive mineralization. Thus, the asj-2J mouse serves as a novel model for GACI, a currently intractable disorder.

  12. DNA deformability changes of single base pair mutants within CDE binding sites in S. Cerevisiae centromere DNA correlate with measured chromosomal loss rates and CDE binding site symmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marx Kenneth A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The centromeres in yeast (S. cerevisiae are organized by short DNA sequences (125 bp on each chromosome consisting of 2 conserved elements: CDEI and CDEIII spaced by a CDEII region. CDEI and CDEIII are critical sequence specific protein binding sites necessary for correct centromere formation and following assembly with proteins, are positioned near each other on a specialized nucleosome. Hegemann et al. BioEssays 1993, 15: 451–460 reported single base DNA mutants within the critical CDEI and CDEIII binding sites on the centromere of chromosome 6 and quantitated centromere loss of function, which they measured as loss rates for the different chromosome 6 mutants during cell division. Olson et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998, 95: 11163–11168 reported the use of protein-DNA crystallography data to produce a DNA dinucleotide protein deformability energetic scale (PD-scale that describes local DNA deformability by sequence specific binding proteins. We have used the PD-scale to investigate the DNA sequence dependence of the yeast chromosome 6 mutants' loss rate data. Each single base mutant changes 2 PD-scale values at that changed base position relative to the wild type. In this study, we have utilized these mutants to demonstrate a correlation between the change in DNA deformability of the CDEI and CDEIII core sites and the overall experimentally measured chromosome loss rates of the chromosome 6 mutants. Results In the CDE I and CDEIII core binding regions an increase in the magnitude of change in deformability of chromosome 6 single base mutants with respect to the wild type correlates to an increase in the measured chromosome loss rate. These correlations were found to be significant relative to 105 Monte Carlo randomizations of the dinucleotide PD-scale applied to the same calculation. A net loss of deformability also tends to increase the loss rate. Binding site position specific, 4 data-point correlations were also

  13. Complementation analysis of mutants of 1-aminocyclopropane- 1-carboxylate synthase reveals the enzyme is a dimer with shared active sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarun, A S; Theologis, A

    1998-05-15

    The pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS, EC 4.4.1.14) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the ethylene biosynthetic pathway. ACS shares the conservation of 11 invariant residues with a family of aminotransferases that includes aspartate aminotransferase. Site-directed mutagenesis on two of these residues, Tyr-92 and Lys-278, in the tomato isoenzyme Le-ACS2 greatly reduces enzymatic activity, indicating their importance in catalysis. These mutants have been used in complementation experiments either in vivo in Escherichia coli or in an in vitro transcription/translation assay to study whether the enzyme functions as a dimer. When the Y92L mutant is coexpressed with the K278A mutant protein, there is partial restoration of enzyme activity, suggesting that the mutant proteins can dimerize and form active heterodimers. Coexpressing a double mutant with the wild-type protein reduces wild-type activity, indicating that inactive heterodimers are formed between the wild-type and the double mutant protein subunits. Furthermore, hybrid complementation shows that another tomato isoenzyme, Le-ACS4, can dimerize and that Le-ACS2 and Le-ACS4 have limited capacity for heterodimerization. The data suggest that ACS functions as a dimer with shared active sites.

  14. Site-specific deletions of the mitochondrial genome in the Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rötig, A; Cormier, V; Koll, F; Mize, C E; Saudubray, J M; Veerman, A; Pearson, H A; Munnich, A

    1991-06-01

    The Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a fatal disorder involving the hematopoietic system and the exocrine pancreas in early infancy. We have previously shown that this disease results from a widespread defect of oxidative phosphorylation. Here, we describe deletions of the mitochondrial (mt) genome between repeated 8- to 13-bp sequences as consistent features of the disease. Studying a series of nine unrelated children, including the patient originally reported by H. Pearson, we found five different types of direct repeats at the boundaries of the mtDNA deletions and we provided evidence for conservation of the 3'-repeated sequence in the deletions. In addition, we found a certain degree of homology between the nucleotide composition of the direct repeats and several structures normally involved in mtDNA replication and mtRNA processing. These results are consistent either with the recognition and cleavage of a particular DNA sequence with a factor of still unknown origin or with a homologous recombination between direct-repeat mtDNA sequences in the Pearson syndrome.

  15. Preliminary Work in Obtaining Site-Directed Mutants of Hen Egg White Lysozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Leonard D.

    1996-01-01

    tetramer octamer higher order. It is believed that multimer aggregation of lysozyme occurs by interaction at specific binding sites on the surface of the protein crystals. If the presence of discrete binding sites and the aggregation hypothesis is true, then it follows that the alteration of the binding site(s) should have significant effect on the measurements obtained during growth experiments. Site-directed mutagenesis allows the specific alteration of proteins by replacement, deletion or addition of specific amino acid residues. This report outlines the approach for this strategy and the progress made thus far toward that end.

  16. Simple and efficient site-directed mutagenesis using two single-primer reactions in parallel to generate mutants for protein structure-function studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelheit Oded

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In protein engineering, site-directed mutagenesis methods are used to generate DNA sequences with mutated codons, insertions or deletions. In a widely used method, mutations are generated by PCR using a pair of oligonucleotide primers designed with mismatching nucleotides at the center of the primers. In this method, primer-primer annealing may prevent cloning of mutant cDNAs. To circumvent this problem we developed an alternative procedure that does not use forward-reverse primer pair in the same reaction. Results In initial studies we used a double-primer PCR mutagenesis protocol, but sequencing of products showed tandem repeats of primer in cloned DNA. We developed an alternative method that starts with two Single-Primer Reactions IN Parallel using high-fidelity Pwo DNA polymerase. Thus, we call the method with the acronym SPRINP. The SPRINP reactions are then combined, denatured at 95°C, and slowly cooled, promoting random annealing of the parental DNA and the newly synthesized strands. The products are digested with DpnI that digests methylated parental strands, and then transformed into E. coli. Using this method we generated >40 mutants in cDNAs coding for human Epithelial Na+ Channel (ENaC subunits. The method has been tested for 1–3 bp codon mutation and insertion of a 27 bp epitope tag into cDNAs. Conclusion The SPRINP mutagenesis protocol yields mutants reliably and with high fidelity. The use of a single primer in each amplification reaction increases the probability of success of primers relative to previous methods employing a forward and reverse primer pair in the same reaction.

  17. Simple and efficient site-directed mutagenesis using two single-primer reactions in parallel to generate mutants for protein structure-function studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelheit, Oded; Hanukoglu, Aaron; Hanukoglu, Israel

    2009-06-30

    In protein engineering, site-directed mutagenesis methods are used to generate DNA sequences with mutated codons, insertions or deletions. In a widely used method, mutations are generated by PCR using a pair of oligonucleotide primers designed with mismatching nucleotides at the center of the primers. In this method, primer-primer annealing may prevent cloning of mutant cDNAs. To circumvent this problem we developed an alternative procedure that does not use forward-reverse primer pair in the same reaction. In initial studies we used a double-primer PCR mutagenesis protocol, but sequencing of products showed tandem repeats of primer in cloned DNA. We developed an alternative method that starts with two Single-Primer Reactions IN Parallel using high-fidelity Pwo DNA polymerase. Thus, we call the method with the acronym SPRINP. The SPRINP reactions are then combined, denatured at 95 degrees C, and slowly cooled, promoting random annealing of the parental DNA and the newly synthesized strands. The products are digested with DpnI that digests methylated parental strands, and then transformed into E. coli. Using this method we generated >40 mutants in cDNAs coding for human Epithelial Na+ Channel (ENaC) subunits. The method has been tested for 1-3 bp codon mutation and insertion of a 27 bp epitope tag into cDNAs. The SPRINP mutagenesis protocol yields mutants reliably and with high fidelity. The use of a single primer in each amplification reaction increases the probability of success of primers relative to previous methods employing a forward and reverse primer pair in the same reaction.

  18. Further characterization of a highly attenuated Yersinia pestis CO92 mutant deleted for the genes encoding Braun lipoprotein and plasminogen activator protease in murine alveolar and primary human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lier, Christina J; Tiner, Bethany L; Chauhan, Sadhana; Motin, Vladimir L; Fitts, Eric C; Huante, Matthew B; Endsley, Janice J; Ponnusamy, Duraisamy; Sha, Jian; Chopra, Ashok K

    2015-03-01

    We recently characterized the Δlpp Δpla double in-frame deletion mutant of Yersinia pestis CO92 molecularly, biologically, and immunologically. While Braun lipoprotein (Lpp) activates toll-like receptor-2 to initiate an inflammatory cascade, plasminogen activator (Pla) protease facilitates bacterial dissemination in the host. The Δlpp Δpla double mutant was highly attenuated in evoking bubonic and pneumonic plague, was rapidly cleared from mouse organs, and generated humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to provide subsequent protection to mice against a lethal challenge dose of wild-type (WT) CO92. Here, we further characterized the Δlpp Δpla double mutant in two murine macrophage cell lines as well as in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages to gauge its potential as a live-attenuated vaccine candidate. We first demonstrated that the Δpla single and the Δlpp Δpla double mutant were unable to survive efficiently in murine and human macrophages, unlike WT CO92. We observed that the levels of Pla and its associated protease activity were not affected in the Δlpp single mutant, and, likewise, deletion of the pla gene from WT CO92 did not alter Lpp levels. Further, our study revealed that both Lpp and Pla contributed to the intracellular survival of WT CO92 via different mechanisms. Importantly, the ability of the Δlpp Δpla double mutant to be phagocytized by macrophages, to stimulate production of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, and to activate the nitric oxide killing pathways of the host cells remained unaltered when compared to the WT CO92-infected macrophages. Finally, macrophages infected with either the WT CO92 or the Δlpp Δpla double mutant were equally efficient in their uptake of zymosan particles as determined by flow cytometric analysis. Overall, our data indicated that although the Δlpp Δpla double mutant of Y. pestis CO92 was highly attenuated, it retained the ability to elicit innate and subsequent acquired immune

  19. Prediction of P53 mutants (multiple sites transcriptional activity based on structural (2D&3D properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Geetha Ramani

    Full Text Available Prediction of secondary site mutations that reinstate mutated p53 to normalcy has been the focus of intense research in the recent past owing to the fact that p53 mutants have been implicated in more than half of all human cancers and restoration of p53 causes tumor regression. However laboratory investigations are more often laborious and resource intensive but computational techniques could well surmount these drawbacks. In view of this, we formulated a novel approach utilizing computational techniques to predict the transcriptional activity of multiple site (one-site to five-site p53 mutants. The optimal MCC obtained by the proposed approach on prediction of one-site, two-site, three-site, four-site and five-site mutants were 0.775,0.341,0.784,0.916 and 0.655 respectively, the highest reported thus far in literature. We have also demonstrated that 2D and 3D features generate higher prediction accuracy of p53 activity and our findings revealed the optimal results for prediction of p53 status, reported till date. We believe detection of the secondary site mutations that suppress tumor growth may facilitate better understanding of the relationship between p53 structure and function and further knowledge on the molecular mechanisms and biological activity of p53, a targeted source for cancer therapy. We expect that our prediction methods and reported results may provide useful insights on p53 functional mechanisms and generate more avenues for utilizing computational techniques in biological data analysis.

  20. The single N-glycan deletion mutant of soluble ErbB3 protein attenuates heregulin β1-induced tumor progression by blocking of the HIF-1 and Nrf2 pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamiya, Rina, E-mail: rinataka0429@gmail.com; Takahashi, Motoko; Uehara, Yasuaki; Ariki, Shigeru; Hashimoto, Jiro; Hasegawa, Yoshihiro; Kuroki, Yoshio

    2014-11-21

    Highlights: • The sErbB3 N418Q mutant blocks heregulin β1 induced nuclear accumulation of HIF-1α. • The sErbB3 N418Q mutant attenuates cancer cell migration induced by heregulin β1. • The sErbB3 N418Q mutant blocks heregulin β1 induced nuclear accumulation of Nrf2. • The sErbB3 N418Q mutant may be a potential therapeutic application for tumor. - Abstract: It has been well documented that activation of the ErbB3–PI3K–Akt pathway is implicated in tumor survival and progression. We previously demonstrated that the single N-glycan deletion mutant of soluble ErbB3 protein (sErbB3 N418Q) attenuates heregulin β1-induced ErbB3 signaling. The active PI3K–Akt pathway augments the nuclear accumulation of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α, which activates the transcription of many target genes and drives cancer progression. In this study, we focused on the effects of sErbB3 N418Q mutant on nuclear accumulation of HIF-1α. Pretreatment with the sErbB3 N418Q mutant suppressed heregulin β1-induced HIF-1α activation in MCF7 cells. Similar results were also obtained in other breast cancer cell lines, T47D and BT474. Interestingly, these suppressive effects were not observed with the sErbB3 wild type. In addition, pretreatment with the sErbB3 N418Q mutant suppressed the cell migration of MCF7 cells induced by heregulin β1. Furthermore, incubation with heregulin β1 also induced the nuclear accumulation of Nrf2, and this effect was also reduced by the sErbB3 N418Q mutant, but not the sErbB3 wild type. These findings indicated that the sErbB3 N418Q mutant suppressed malignant formation of cancer cells by blocking of the HIF-1α and Nrf2 pathways.

  1. Development of Insertion and Deletion Markers for Bottle Gourd Based on Restriction Site-associated DNA Sequencing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyi WU

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bottle gourd is an important cucurbit crop worldwide. To provide more available molecular markers for this crop, a bioinformatic approach was employed to develop insertion–deletions (InDels markers in bottle gourd based on restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-Seq data. A total of 892 Indels were predicted, with the length varying from 1 bp to 167 bp. Single-nucleotide InDels were the predominant types of InDels. To validate these InDels, PCR primers were designed from 162 loci where InDels longer than 2 bp were predicated. A total of 112 InDels were found to be polymorphic among 9 bottle gourd accessions under investigation. The rate of prediction accuracy was thus at a high level of 72.7%. DNA fingerprinting for 4 cultivars were performed using 8 selected Indels markers, demonstrating the usefulness of these markers.

  2. Physical mapping of a commonly deleted region, the site of a candidate tumor suppressor gene, at 12q22 in human male germ cell tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murty, V.V.V.S.; Bosl, G.J.; Chaganti, R.S.K. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-08-01

    A candidate tumor suppressor gene (TSG) site at 12q22 characterized by a high frequency of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and a homozygous deletion has previously (LOH) and a homozygous deletion has previously been reported in human male germ cell tumors (GCTs). In a detailed deletion mapping analysis of 67 normal-tumor DNAs utilizing 20 polymorphic markers mapped to 12q22-q24, we identified the limits of the minimal region of deletion at 12q22 between D12S377 (priximal) and D12S296 (distal). We have constructed a YAC contig map of a 3-cM region of this band between the proximal marker D12S101 and the distal marker D12S346, which contained the minimal region of deletion in GCTs. The map is composed of 53 overlapping YACs and 3 cosmids onto which 25 polymorphic and nonpolymorphic sequence-tagged sites (STSs) were placed in a unique order. The size of the minimal region of deletion was approximately 2 Mb from overlapping, nonchimeric YACs that spanned the region. We also developed a radiation hybrid (RH) map of the region between D12S101 and D12S346 containing 17 loci. The consensus order developed by RH mapping is in good agreement with the YAC STS-content map order. The RH map estimated the distance between D12S101 and D12S346 to be 246 cR{sub 8000} and the minimal region of deletion to be 141 cR{sub 8000}. In addition, four genes that were previously mapped to 12q22 have been excluded as candidate genes. The leads gained from the deletion mapping and physical maps should expedite the isolation and characterization of the TSG at 12q22. 35 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Targeted N-glycan deletion at the receptor-binding site retains HIV Env NFL trimer integrity and accelerates the elicited antibody response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrovskaya, Viktoriya; Guenaga, Javier; de Val, Natalia; Wilson, Richard; Feng, Yu; Movsesyan, Arlette; Karlsson Hedestam, Gunilla B; Ward, Andrew B; Wyatt, Richard T

    2017-09-01

    Extensive shielding by N-glycans on the surface of the HIV envelope glycoproteins (Env) restricts B cell recognition of conserved neutralizing determinants. Elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) in selected HIV-infected individuals reveals that Abs capable of penetrating the glycan shield can be generated by the B cell repertoire. Accordingly, we sought to determine if targeted N-glycan deletion might alter antibody responses to Env. We focused on the conserved CD4 binding site (CD4bs) since this is a known neutralizing determinant that is devoid of glycosylation to allow CD4 receptor engagement, but is ringed by surrounding N-glycans. We selectively deleted potential N-glycan sites (PNGS) proximal to the CD4bs on well-ordered clade C 16055 native flexibly linked (NFL) trimers to potentially increase recognition by naïve B cells in vivo. We generated glycan-deleted trimer variants that maintained native-like conformation and stability. Using a panel of CD4bs-directed bNAbs, we demonstrated improved accessibility of the CD4bs on the N-glycan-deleted trimer variants. We showed that pseudoviruses lacking these Env PNGSs were more sensitive to neutralization by CD4bs-specific bNAbs but remained resistant to non-neutralizing mAbs. We performed rabbit immunogenicity experiments using two approaches comparing glycan-deleted to fully glycosylated NFL trimers. The first was to delete 4 PNGS sites and then boost with fully glycosylated Env; the second was to delete 4 sites and gradually re-introduce these N-glycans in subsequent boosts. We demonstrated that the 16055 PNGS-deleted trimers more rapidly elicited serum antibodies that more potently neutralized the CD4bs-proximal-PNGS-deleted viruses in a statistically significant manner and strongly trended towards increased neutralization of fully glycosylated autologous virus. This approach elicited serum IgG capable of cross-neutralizing selected tier 2 viruses lacking N-glycans at residue N276 (natural or

  4. Probing the SERCA1a sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase phosphorylation-site mutant D351E with inorganic phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.O. Carreira

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum SERCA1a Ca2+-ATPase wild-type and D351E mutants was optimized in yeast under the control of a galactose promoter. Fully active wild-type enzyme was recovered in yeast microsomal membrane fractions in sufficient amounts to permit a rapid and practical assay of ATP hydrolysis and phosphoenzyme formation from ATP or Pi. Mutant and wild-type Ca2+-ATPase were assayed for phosphorylation by Pi under conditions that are known to facilitate this reaction in the wild-type enzyme, including pH 6.0 or 7.0 at 25ºC in the presence of dimethylsulfoxide. Although glutamyl (E and aspartyl (D residue side chains differ by only one methylene group, no phosphoenzyme could be detected in the D351E mutant, even upon the addition of 40% dimethylsulfoxide and 1 mM 32Pi in the presence of 10 mM EGTA and 5 mM MgCl2. These results show that in the D351E mutant, increasing hydrophobicity of the site with inorganic solvent was not a sufficient factor for the required abstraction of water in the reaction of E351 with Pi to form a glutamylphosphate (P-E351 phosphoenzyme moiety. Mutation D351E may disrupt the proposed alignment of the reactive water molecule with the aspartylphosphate (P-D351 moiety in the phosphorylation site, which may be an essential alignment both in the forward reaction (hydrolysis of aspartylphosphate and in the reverse reaction (abstraction of water upon formation of an aspartylphosphate intermediate.

  5. Expression of brown-midrib in a spontaneous sorghum mutant is linked to a 5'-UTR deletion in lignin biosynthesis gene SbCAD2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown midrib (bmr) mutants in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and several other C4 grasses are associated with reduced lignin concentration, altered lignin composition and improved cell wall digestibility, which are desirable properties in biomass development for the emerging lignocellulosic b...

  6. Ku80-deleted cells are defective at base excision repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Han; Marple, Teresa; Hasty, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ku80-deleted cells are hypersensitive to ROS and alkylating agents. • Cells deleted for Ku80, but not Ku70 or Lig4, have reduced BER capacity. • OGG1 rescues hypersensitivity to H 2 O 2 and paraquat in Ku80-mutant cells. • Cells deleted for Ku80, but not Lig4, are defective at repairing AP sites. • Cells deleted for Ku80, but not Lig4 or Brca2 exon 27, exhibit increased PAR. - Abstract: Ku80 forms a heterodimer with Ku70, called Ku, that repairs DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) via the nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway. As a consequence of deleting NHEJ, Ku80-mutant cells are hypersensitive to agents that cause DNA DSBs like ionizing radiation. Here we show that Ku80 deletion also decreased resistance to ROS and alkylating agents that typically cause base lesions and single-strand breaks (SSBs). This is unusual since base excision repair (BER), not NHEJ, typically repairs these types of lesions. However, we show that deletion of another NHEJ protein, DNA ligase IV (Lig4), did not cause hypersensitivity to these agents. In addition, the ROS and alkylating agents did not induce γ-H2AX foci that are diagnostic of DSBs. Furthermore, deletion of Ku80, but not Lig4 or Ku70, reduced BER capacity. Ku80 deletion also impaired BER at the initial lesion recognition/strand scission step; thus, involvement of a DSB is unlikely. Therefore, our data suggests that Ku80 deletion impairs BER via a mechanism that does not repair DSBs

  7. Ku80-deleted cells are defective at base excision repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Han [The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, The Institute of Biotechnology, The Department of Molecular Medicine, 15355 Lambda Drive, San Antonio, TX 78245-3207 (United States); Tumor Suppression Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Madrid 28029 (Spain); Marple, Teresa [The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, The Institute of Biotechnology, The Department of Molecular Medicine, 15355 Lambda Drive, San Antonio, TX 78245-3207 (United States); Hasty, Paul, E-mail: hastye@uthscsa.edu [The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, The Institute of Biotechnology, The Department of Molecular Medicine, 15355 Lambda Drive, San Antonio, TX 78245-3207 (United States); Tumor Suppression Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Madrid 28029 (Spain)

    2013-05-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ku80-deleted cells are hypersensitive to ROS and alkylating agents. • Cells deleted for Ku80, but not Ku70 or Lig4, have reduced BER capacity. • OGG1 rescues hypersensitivity to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and paraquat in Ku80-mutant cells. • Cells deleted for Ku80, but not Lig4, are defective at repairing AP sites. • Cells deleted for Ku80, but not Lig4 or Brca2 exon 27, exhibit increased PAR. - Abstract: Ku80 forms a heterodimer with Ku70, called Ku, that repairs DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) via the nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway. As a consequence of deleting NHEJ, Ku80-mutant cells are hypersensitive to agents that cause DNA DSBs like ionizing radiation. Here we show that Ku80 deletion also decreased resistance to ROS and alkylating agents that typically cause base lesions and single-strand breaks (SSBs). This is unusual since base excision repair (BER), not NHEJ, typically repairs these types of lesions. However, we show that deletion of another NHEJ protein, DNA ligase IV (Lig4), did not cause hypersensitivity to these agents. In addition, the ROS and alkylating agents did not induce γ-H2AX foci that are diagnostic of DSBs. Furthermore, deletion of Ku80, but not Lig4 or Ku70, reduced BER capacity. Ku80 deletion also impaired BER at the initial lesion recognition/strand scission step; thus, involvement of a DSB is unlikely. Therefore, our data suggests that Ku80 deletion impairs BER via a mechanism that does not repair DSBs.

  8. Detection of new mutant sites of HIV-1 coreceptor CCR5 among Saudi populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelsaad, Abdelaziz S A; Al-Ghamdi, Abdullhamid S; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed N; Alakkas, Eyad A; Alsulaimani, Adnan A; Al-Harthi, Abdulla A; Abdel-Moneim, Ahmed S

    2013-12-01

    The genetic association of CCR5 with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) pathogenesis is well known. The HIV-1 entry into target cells is initiated by the binding of the viral envelope glycoproteins (gp120-gp41) with the cell surface receptor (CD4) and the coreceptor (CCR5), followed by fusion of the viral and cell membranes. Genetic variants of the gene-encoding HIV-1 coreceptor are implicated in the susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. The prevalence of these mutations may vary according to population ethnicity. In the current study, characterization and frequency distribution of the HIV-related gene variants in 135 samples of the Saudi populations were conducted. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of 276 bp amplicons was used to rapidly detect Δ32 deletion in the initial sample of DNA. The direct sequence of 2 overlapping PCR amplicons flanking 1,059 bp was used to detect single-nucleotide polymorphisms. A single hetrozygous Δ32 deletion allele and 6 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were detected. Only one of the identified haplotypes, Taif-1, which was found in the majority of the tested sample, is identical to CCR5 wild-type alleles. Furthermore, the results of this study raised a concern about the prospective role of the mutations detected among Saudi nationals in the HIV pathogenesis and the clinical use of CCR5 antagonists, which are currently being developed as therapeutics for HIV-1 and inflammatory diseases.

  9. Biochemical characterization of mutants in the active site residues of the β-galactosidase enzyme of Bacillus circulans ATCC 31382

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelle B. Bultema

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bacillus circulans ATCC 31382 β-galactosidase (BgaD is a retaining-type glycosidase of glycoside hydrolase family 2 (GH2. Its commercial enzyme preparation, Biolacta N5, is used for commercial-scale production of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS. The BgaD active site and catalytic amino acid residues have not been studied. Using bioinformatic routines we identified two putative catalytic glutamates and two highly conserved active site histidines. The site-directed mutants E447N, E532Q, and H345F, H379F had lost (almost all catalytic activity. This confirmed their essential role in catalysis, as general acid/base catalyst (E447 and nucleophile (E532, and as transition state stabilizers (H345, H379, respectively.

  10. Size does matter: Cre-mediated somatic deletion efficiency depends on the distance between the target lox-sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppoolse, E.R.; Vroomen, de M.J.; Gennip, van F.; Hersmus, B.J.M.; Haaren, van M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Cre/lox recombination in vivo has become an important tool to induce chromosomal rearrangements like deletions. Using a combination of Ds transposition and Cre/lox recombination in two independent experiments on chromosomes 6 and 7 of tomato, two sets of somatic deletions up to a size of 200 kb were

  11. Toxicity of CuO nanoparticles to yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 wild-type and its nine isogenic single-gene deletion mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasemets, Kaja; Suppi, Sandra; Künnis-Beres, Kai; Kahru, Anne

    2013-03-18

    A suite of eight tentatively oxidative stress response-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 single-gene mutants (sod1Δ, sod2Δ, yap1Δ, cta1Δ, ctt1Δ, gsh1Δ, glr1Δ, and ccs1Δ) and one copper-vulnerable mutant (cup2Δ) was used to elucidate weather the toxicity of CuO nanoparticles to S. cerevisiae is mediated by oxidative stress (OS). Specifically, sensitivity profiles of mutants' phenotypes and wild-type (wt) upon exposure to nano-CuO were compared. As controls, CuSO4 (solubility), bulk-CuO (size), H2O2, and menadione (OS) were used. Growth inhibition of wt and mutant strains was studied in rich YPD medium and cell viability in deionized water (DI). Dissolved Cu-ions were quantified by recombinant metal-sensing bacteria and chemical analysis. To wt strain nano-CuO was 32-fold more toxic than bulk-CuO: 24-h IC50 4.8 and 155 mg/L in DI and 643 and >20000 mg/L in YPD, respectively. In toxicant-free YPD medium, all mutants had practically similar growth patterns as wt. However, the mutant strains sod1Δ, sod2Δ, ccs1Δ, and yap1Δ showed up to 12-fold elevated sensitivity toward OS standard chemicals menadione and H2O2 but not to nano-CuO, indicating that CuO nanoparticles exerted toxicity to yeast cells via different mechanisms. The most vulnerable strain to all studied Cu compounds was the copper stress response-deficient strain cup2Δ (∼16-fold difference with wt), indicating that the toxic effect of CuO (nano)particles proceeds via dissolved Cu-ions. The dissolved copper solely explained the toxicity of nano-CuO in DI but not in YPD. Assumingly, in YPD nano-CuO acquired a coating of peptides/proteins and sorbed onto the yeast's outer surface, resulting in their increased solubility in the close vicinity of yeast cells and increased uptake of Cu-ions that was not registered by the assays used for the analysis of dissolved Cu-ions in the test medium. Lastly, as yeast retained its viability in DI even by 24th hour of incubation, the profiling of the acute

  12. Amino-acid composition after loop deletion drives domain swapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandwani, Neha; Surana, Parag; Udgaonkar, Jayant B; Das, Ranabir; Gosavi, Shachi

    2017-10-01

    Rational engineering of a protein to enable domain swapping requires an understanding of the sequence, structural and energetic factors that favor the domain-swapped oligomer over the monomer. While it is known that the deletion of loops between β-strands can promote domain swapping, the spliced sequence at the position of the loop deletion is thought to have a minimal role to play in such domain swapping. Here, two loop-deletion mutants of the non-domain-swapping protein monellin, frame-shifted by a single residue, were designed. Although the spliced sequence in the two mutants differed by only one residue at the site of the deletion, only one of them (YEIKG) promoted domain swapping. The mutant containing the spliced sequence YENKG was entirely monomeric. This new understanding that the domain swapping propensity after loop deletion may depend critically on the chemical composition of the shortened loop will facilitate the rational design of domain swapping. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  13. Use of virion DNA as a cloning vector for the construction of mutant and recombinant herpesviruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Duboise, S M; Guo, J; Desrosiers, R C; Jung, J U

    1996-01-01

    We have developed improved procedures for the isolation of deletion mutant, point mutant, and recombinant herpesvirus saimiri. These procedures take advantage of the absence of NotI and AscI restriction enzyme sites within the viral genome and use reporter genes for the identification of recombinant viruses. Genes for secreted engineered alkaline phosphatase and green fluorescent protein were placed under simian virus 40 early promoter control and flanked by NotI and AscI restriction sites. W...

  14. Widely Used Herpes Simplex Virus 1 ICP0 Deletion Mutant Strain dl1403 and Its Derivative Viruses Do Not Express Glycoprotein C Due to a Secondary Mutation in the gC Gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina W Cunha

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 ICP0 is a multi-functional phosphoprotein expressed with immediate early kinetics. An ICP0 deletion mutant, HSV-1 dl1403, has been widely used to study the roles of ICP0 in the HSV-1 replication cycle including gene expression, latency, entry and assembly. We show that HSV-1 dl1403 virions lack detectable levels of envelope protein gC, and that gC is not synthesized in infected cells. Sequencing of the gC gene from HSV-1 dl1403 revealed a single amino acid deletion that results in a frameshift mutation. The HSV-1 dl1403 gC gene is predicted to encode a polypeptide consisting of the original 62 N-terminal amino acids of the gC protein followed by 112 irrelevant, non-gC residues. The mutation was also present in a rescuant virus and in two dl1403-derived viruses, D8 and FXE, but absent from the parental 17+, suggesting that the mutation was introduced during the construction of the dl1403 virus, and not as a result of passage in culture.

  15. Widely Used Herpes Simplex Virus 1 ICP0 Deletion Mutant Strain dl1403 and Its Derivative Viruses Do Not Express Glycoprotein C Due to a Secondary Mutation in the gC Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Cristina W; Taylor, Kathryne E; Pritchard, Suzanne M; Delboy, Mark G; Komala Sari, Tri; Aguilar, Hector C; Mossman, Karen L; Nicola, Anthony V

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) ICP0 is a multi-functional phosphoprotein expressed with immediate early kinetics. An ICP0 deletion mutant, HSV-1 dl1403, has been widely used to study the roles of ICP0 in the HSV-1 replication cycle including gene expression, latency, entry and assembly. We show that HSV-1 dl1403 virions lack detectable levels of envelope protein gC, and that gC is not synthesized in infected cells. Sequencing of the gC gene from HSV-1 dl1403 revealed a single amino acid deletion that results in a frameshift mutation. The HSV-1 dl1403 gC gene is predicted to encode a polypeptide consisting of the original 62 N-terminal amino acids of the gC protein followed by 112 irrelevant, non-gC residues. The mutation was also present in a rescuant virus and in two dl1403-derived viruses, D8 and FXE, but absent from the parental 17+, suggesting that the mutation was introduced during the construction of the dl1403 virus, and not as a result of passage in culture.

  16. A Mutant with Expression Deletion of Gene Sec-1 in a 1RS.1BL Line and Its Effect on Production Quality of Wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Li

    Full Text Available The chromosome arm 1RS of rye (Secale cereal L. has been used worldwide as a source of genes for agronomic and resistant improvement. However, the 1RS arm in wheat has end-use quality defects that are partially attributable to the presence of ω-secalins, which are encoded by genes at the Sec-1 locus. Various attempts in removing the Sec-1 genes from the 1RS.1BL translocation chromosome have been made. In the present study, two new primary 1RS.1BL translocation lines, T917-26 and T917-15, were developed from a cross between wheat variety "A42912" and Chinese local rye "Weining." The lines T917-15 and T917-26 carried a pair of intact and homogeneous 1RS.1BL chromosomes. The line T917-26 also harbored an expression deletion of some genes at the Sec-1 locus, which originated from a mutation that occurred simultaneously with wheat-rye chromosome translocations. These results suggest that the accompanying mutations of the evolutionarily significant translocations are remarkable resources for plant improvement. Comparison of translocation lines with its wheat parent showed improvements in the end-use quality parameters, which included protein content (PC, water absorption (WA, sodium dodecyl sulfate sedimentation (SDSS, wet gluten (WG, dry gluten (DG and dough stickiness (DS, whereas significant reduction in gluten index (GI and stability time (ST were observed. These findings indicate that 1RS in wheat has produced a higher amount of protein, although these comprised worse compositions. However, in the T917-26 line that harbored an expression deletion mutation in the Sec-1 genes, the quality parameters were markedly improved relative to its sister line, T917-15, especially for GI and DS (P < 0.05. These results indicated that expression deletion of Sec-1 genes significantly improves the end-use quality of wheat cultivars harboring the 1RS.1BL translocation. Strategies to remove the Sec-1 genes from the 1RS.1BL translocation in wheat improvement are

  17. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of an active-site mutant hydantoin racemase from Sinorhizobium meliloti CECT4114

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Sergio; González-Ramírez, Luis Antonio; Clemente-Jiménez, Josefa María; Rodríguez-Vico, Felipe; Las Heras-Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Gavira, Jose Antonio; García-Ruiz, Juan Ma.

    2007-01-01

    Crystals of an active-site mutated hydantoin racemase from S. meliloti have been obtained in the presence and absence of d,l-5-isopropyl-hydantoin and characterized by X-ray diffraction. A recombinant active-site mutant of hydantoin racemase (C76A) from Sinorhizobium meliloti CECT 4114 (SmeHyuA) has been crystallized in the presence and absence of the substrate d,l-5-isopropyl hydantoin. Crystals of the SmeHyuA mutant suitable for data collection and structure determination were grown using the counter-diffusion method. X-ray data were collected to resolutions of 2.17 and 1.85 Å for the free and bound enzymes, respectively. Both crystals belong to space group R3 and contain two molecules of SmeHyuA per asymmetric unit. The crystals of the free and complexed SmeHyuA have unit-cell parameters a = b = 85.43, c = 152.37 Å and a = b = 85.69, c = 154.38 Å, crystal volumes per protein weight (V M ) of 1.94 and 1.98 Å 3 Da −1 and solvent contents of 36.7 and 37.9%, respectively

  18. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of an active-site mutant hydantoin racemase from Sinorhizobium meliloti CECT4114

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Sergio [Department of Cellular and Molecular Interactions, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Ultrastructure Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); González-Ramírez, Luis Antonio [Laboratorio de Estudios Cristalográficos, IACT (CSIC-U. Granada), P. T. Ciencias de la Salud, Granada 18100 (Spain); Clemente-Jiménez, Josefa María; Rodríguez-Vico, Felipe; Las Heras-Vázquez, Francisco Javier [Departamento de Química Física, Bioquímica y Química Inorgánica, Área de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Edf. CITE I, Universidad de Almería (Spain); Gavira, Jose Antonio, E-mail: jgavira@ugr.es; García-Ruiz, Juan Ma. [Laboratorio de Estudios Cristalográficos, IACT (CSIC-U. Granada), P. T. Ciencias de la Salud, Granada 18100 (Spain); Department of Cellular and Molecular Interactions, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2008-01-01

    Crystals of an active-site mutated hydantoin racemase from S. meliloti have been obtained in the presence and absence of d,l-5-isopropyl-hydantoin and characterized by X-ray diffraction. A recombinant active-site mutant of hydantoin racemase (C76A) from Sinorhizobium meliloti CECT 4114 (SmeHyuA) has been crystallized in the presence and absence of the substrate d,l-5-isopropyl hydantoin. Crystals of the SmeHyuA mutant suitable for data collection and structure determination were grown using the counter-diffusion method. X-ray data were collected to resolutions of 2.17 and 1.85 Å for the free and bound enzymes, respectively. Both crystals belong to space group R3 and contain two molecules of SmeHyuA per asymmetric unit. The crystals of the free and complexed SmeHyuA have unit-cell parameters a = b = 85.43, c = 152.37 Å and a = b = 85.69, c = 154.38 Å, crystal volumes per protein weight (V{sub M}) of 1.94 and 1.98 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and solvent contents of 36.7 and 37.9%, respectively.

  19. The diageotropica mutant of tomato lacks high specific activity auxin sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, G.R.; Lomax, T.L.; Rayle, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum, Mill) plants homozygous for the single gene diageotropica (dgt) mutation have reduced shoot growth, abnormal vascular tissue, altered leaf morphology, and lack of lateral root branching. These and other morphological and physiological abnormalities suggest that dgt plants are unable to respond to the plant growth hormone auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA). The photoaffinity auxin analogue 3 H-5N 3 -IAA specifically labels a polypeptide doublet of 40 ad 42 kD in membrane preparations from stems of the parental variety VFN8, but not from stems of dgt. In elongation tests, excised dgt roots respond in the same manner to IAA an VFN8 roots. These data suggest that the two polypeptides are part of a physiologically important auxin receptor system which is altered in a tissue-specific manner in the mutant

  20. Cellular Trafficking of the Pathogenic Prion Protein PrPSc and Phenotypic Characterisation of Deletion Mutants in the Hydrophobic Domain of the Normal Prion Protein PrPC

    OpenAIRE

    Veith, Nathalie Monika

    2008-01-01

    The localisation of the pathogenic prion protein PrPSc was investigated with light and electron microscopy. The PrPSc specific antibody 15B3 was tested for its efficiency in immuncytochemistry. Subsequently, an appropriate method was found to stain PrPSc selectively. PrPSc was detected in clathrin coated pits, early endosomes, late endosomes/lysosomes nad exosomes. PrPSc could not be observed in lipid droplets.In the next part of the thesis different mutants of the prion protein carrying micr...

  1. Profiling of the toxicity mechanisms of coated and uncoated silver nanoparticles to yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 using a set of its 9 single-gene deletion mutants defective in oxidative stress response, cell wall or membrane integrity and endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käosaar, Sandra; Kahru, Anne; Mantecca, Paride; Kasemets, Kaja

    2016-09-01

    The widespread use of nanosilver in various antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral products warrants the studies of the toxicity pathways of nanosilver-enabled materials toward microbes and viruses. We profiled the toxicity mechanisms of uncoated, casein-coated, and polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild-type (wt) and its 9 single-gene deletion mutants defective in oxidative stress (OS) defense, cell wall/membrane integrity, and endocytosis. The 48-h growth inhibition assay in organic-rich growth medium and 24-h cell viability assay in deionized (DI) water were applied whereas AgNO3, H2O2, and SDS served as positive controls. Both coated AgNPs (primary size 8-12nm) were significantly more toxic than the uncoated (~85nm) AgNPs. All studied AgNPs were ~30 times more toxic if exposed to yeast cells in DI water than in the rich growth medium: the IC50 based on nominal concentration of AgNPs in the growth inhibition test ranged from 77 to 576mg Ag/L and in the cell viability test from 2.7 to 18.7mg Ag/L, respectively. Confocal microscopy showed that wt but not endocytosis mutant (end3Δ) internalized AgNPs. Comparison of toxicity patterns of wt and mutant strains defective in OS defense and membrane integrity revealed that the toxicity of the studied AgNPs to S. cerevisiae was not caused by the OS or cell wall/membrane permeabilization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Transcriptome analysis of wild-type and afsS deletion mutant strains identifies synergistic transcriptional regulator of afsS for a high antibiotic-producing strain of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Woo; Lee, Bo-Rahm; You, SungYong; Kim, Eun-Jung; Kim, Ji-Nu; Song, Eunjung; Yang, Yung-Hun; Hwang, Daehee; Kim, Byung-Gee

    2018-04-01

    Most secondary metabolism in Actinobacteria is controlled by multi-layered, gene-regulatory networks. These regulatory mechanisms are not easily identified due to their complexity. As a result, when a strong transcriptional regulator (TR) governs activation of biosynthetic pathways of target antibiotics such as actinorhodin (ACT), additional enhancement of the biosynthesis is difficult in combination with other TRs. To find out any "synergistic transcriptional regulators (sTRs)" that show an additive effect on the major, often strong, transcriptional regulator (mTR), here, we performed a clustering analysis using the transcriptome datasets of an mTR deletion mutant and wild-type strain. In the case of ACT biosynthesis in Streptomyces coelicolor, PhoU (SCO4228) and RsfA (SCO4677) were selected through the clustering analysis, using AfsS (SCO4425) as a model mTR, and experimentally validated their roles as sTRs. Furthermore, through analysis of synergistic effects, we were able to suggest a novel regulation mechanism and formulate a strategy to maximize the synergistic effect. In the case of the double TR mutant strain (ΔrsfA pIBR25::afsS), it was confirmed that the increase of cell mass was the major cause of the synergistic effect. Therefore, the strategy to increase the cell mass of double mutant was further attempted by optimizing the expression of efflux pump, which resulted in 2-fold increase in the cell mass and 24-fold increase in the production of ACT. This result is the highest ACT yield from S. coelicolor ever reported.

  3. Use of the rep technique for allele replacement to construct mutants with deletions of the pstSCAB-phoU operon: evidence of a new role for the PhoU protein in the phosphate regulon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steed, P M; Wanner, B L

    1993-01-01

    The phosphate regulon is negatively regulated by the PstSCAB transporter and PhoU protein by a mechanism that may involve protein-protein interaction(s) between them and the Pi sensor protein, PhoR. In order to study such presumed interaction(s), mutants with defined deletions of the pstSCAB-phoU operon were made. This was done by construction of M13 recombinant phage carrying these mutations and by recombination of them onto the chromosome by using a rep host (which cannot replicate M13) for allele replacement. These mutants were used to show that delta (pstSCAB-phoU) and delta (pstB-phoU) mutations abolished Pi uptake by the PstSCAB transporter, as expected, and that delta phoU mutations had no effect on uptake. Unexpectedly, delta phoU mutations had a severe growth defect, and this growth defect was (largely) alleviated by a compensatory mutation in the pstSCAB genes or in the phoBR operon, whose gene products positively regulate expression of the pstSCAB-phoU operon. Because delta phoU mutants that synthesize a functional PstSCAB transporter constitutively grew extremely poorly, the PhoU protein must have a new role, in addition to its role as a negative regulator. A role for the PhoU protein in intracellular Pi metabolism is proposed. Further, our results contradict those of M. Muda, N. N. Rao, and A. Torriani (J. Bacteriol. 174:8057-8064, 1992), who reported that the PhoU protein was required for Pi uptake. Images PMID:8226621

  4. Maternal Supply of Cas9 to Zygotes Facilitates the Efficient Generation of Site-Specific Mutant Mouse Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebrian-Serrano, Alberto; Zha, Shijun; Hanssen, Lars; Biggs, Daniel; Preece, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Genome manipulation in the mouse via microinjection of CRISPR/Cas9 site-specific nucleases has allowed the production time for genetically modified mouse models to be significantly reduced. Successful genome manipulation in the mouse has already been reported using Cas9 supplied by microinjection of a DNA construct, in vitro transcribed mRNA and recombinant protein. Recently the use of transgenic strains of mice overexpressing Cas9 has been shown to facilitate site-specific mutagenesis via maternal supply to zygotes and this route may provide an alternative to exogenous supply. We have investigated the feasibility of supplying Cas9 genetically in more detail and for this purpose we report the generation of a transgenic mice which overexpress Cas9 ubiquitously, via a CAG-Cas9 transgene targeted to the Gt(ROSA26)Sor locus. We show that zygotes prepared from female mice harbouring this transgene are sufficiently loaded with maternally contributed Cas9 for efficient production of embryos and mice harbouring indel, genomic deletion and knock-in alleles by microinjection of guide RNAs and templates alone. We compare the mutagenesis rates and efficacy of mutagenesis using this genetic supply with exogenous Cas9 supply by either mRNA or protein microinjection. In general, we report increased generation rates of knock-in alleles and show that the levels of mutagenesis at certain genome target sites are significantly higher and more consistent when Cas9 is supplied genetically relative to exogenous supply. PMID:28081254

  5. Viable deletions of the M13 complementary strand origin

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Myoung Hee; Hines, Jane C.; Ray, Dan S.

    1981-01-01

    The single-stranded DNA of bacteriophage M13 is converted to a duplex replicative form by a mechanism involving RNA-primed initiation at a single unique site on the viral DNA. The DNA sequence that specifies the RNA primer is contained largely within one of two adjacent hairpin structures protected from DNase degradation by RNA polymerase. We have used in vitro techniques to construct a series of M13 mutants having deletions in the region of the complementary strand origin. Deletions of the d...

  6. Histidine-rich protein 2 (pfhrp2) and pfhrp3 gene deletions in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from select sites in Brazil and Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachid Viana, Giselle Maria; Akinyi Okoth, Sheila; Silva-Flannery, Luciana; Lima Barbosa, Danielle Regina; Macedo de Oliveira, Alexandre; Goldman, Ira F; Morton, Lindsay C; Huber, Curtis; Anez, Arletta; Dantas Machado, Ricardo Luiz; Aranha Camargo, Luís Marcelo; Costa Negreiros do Valle, Suiane; Marins Póvoa, Marinete; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Barnwell, John W

    2017-01-01

    More than 80% of available malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are based on the detection of histidine-rich protein-2 (PfHRP2) for diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Recent studies have shown the genes that code for this protein and its paralog, histidine-rich protein-3 (PfHRP3), are absent in parasites from the Peruvian Amazon Basin. Lack of PfHRP2 protein through deletion of the pfhrp2 gene leads to false-negative RDT results for P. falciparum. We have evaluated the extent of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletions in a convenience sample of 198 isolates from six sites in three states across the Brazilian Amazon Basin (Acre, Rondonia and Para) and 25 isolates from two sites in Bolivia collected at different times between 2010 and 2012. Pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene and their flanking genes on chromosomes 7 and 13, respectively, were amplified from 198 blood specimens collected in Brazil. In Brazil, the isolates collected in Acre state, located in the western part of the Brazilian Amazon, had the highest percentage of deletions for pfhrp2 25 (31.2%) of 79, while among those collected in Rondonia, the prevalence of pfhrp2 gene deletion was only 3.3% (2 out of 60 patients). In isolates from Para state, all parasites were pfhrp2-positive. In contrast, we detected high proportions of isolates from all 3 states that were pfhrp3-negative ranging from 18.3% (11 out of 60 samples) to 50.9% (30 out of 59 samples). In Bolivia, only one of 25 samples (4%) tested had deleted pfhrp2 gene, while 68% (17 out of 25 samples) were pfhrp3-negative. Among the isolates tested, P. falciparum pfhrp2 gene deletions were present mainly in those from Acre State in the Brazilian Amazon. These results indicate it is important to reconsider the use of PfHRP2-based RDTs in the western region of the Brazilian Amazon and to implement appropriate surveillance systems to monitor pfhrp2 gene deletions in this and other parts of the Amazon region.

  7. Biochemical and structural analysis of a site directed mutant of manganese dependent aminopeptidase P from Streptomyces lavendulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARYA NANDAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aminopeptidase P (APP removes N-terminal amino acids from peptides and proteins when the penultimate residue is proline. To understand the structure-function relationships of aminopeptidase P of Streptomyces lavendulae, a conserved arginine residue was replaced with lysine (R453K by site-directed mutagenesis. The overexpressed wild and mutant enzymes were of nearly 60 kDa and purified by nickel affinity chromatography. Kinetic analysis of R453K variant using Gly-Pro-pNA as the substrate revealed an increase in Km with a decrease in Vmax, leading to overall decrease in the catalytic efficiency, indicating that the guanidinium group of arginine plays an important role in substrate binding in APP. We constructed three dimensional models for the catalytic domains of wild and mutant enzyme and it revealed an interaction in R453 of native enzyme through hydrogen bonding with the adjacent residues making a substrate binding cavity whereas K453 did not participate in any hydrogen bonding. Hence, R453 in APP of S. lavenduale must be playing a critical role in the hydrolysis of the substrate.

  8. A carboxy-terminal deletion mutant of Notch1 accelerates lymphoid oncogenesis in E2A-PBX1 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, B J; Hampton, T; Cleary, M L

    2000-09-01

    PBX1 is a proto-oncogene that plays important roles in pattern formation during development. It was discovered as a fusion with the E2A gene after chromosomal translocations in a subset of acute leukemias. The resulting E2a-Pbx1 chimeric proteins display potent oncogenic properties that appear to require dimerization with Hox DNA binding partners. To define molecular pathways that may be impacted by E2a-Pbx1, a genetic screen consisting of neonatal retroviral infection was used to identify genes that accelerate development of T-cell tumors in E2A-PBX1 transgenic mice. Retroviral insertions in the Notch1 gene were observed in 88% of tumors arising with a shortened latency. Among these, approximately half created a Notch(IC) allele, encoding the intracellular, signaling portion of Notch1, suggesting a synergistic interaction between the Notch and E2a-Pbx1 pathways in oncogenesis. The remaining proviral insertions involving Notch1 occurred in a more 3' exon, resulting in truncating mutations that deleted the carboxy-terminal region of Notch1 containing negative regulatory sequences (Notch1(DeltaC)). In contrast to Notch(IC), forced expression of Notch1(DeltaC) in transgenic mice did not perturb thymocyte growth or differentiation. However, mice transgenic for both the E2A-PBX1 and Notch1(DeltaC) genes displayed a substantially shortened latency for tumor development compared with E2A-PBX1 single transgenic mice. These studies reveal a novel mechanism for oncogenic activation of Notch1 and demonstrate a collaborative relationship between 2 cellular oncogenes that also contribute to cell fate determination during embryonic development. (Blood. 2000;96:1906-1913)

  9. Impaired long-term memory retention and working memory in sdy mutant mice with a deletion in Dtnbp1, a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Keizo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia is a complex genetic disorder caused by multiple genetic and environmental factors. The dystrobrevin-binding protein 1 (DTNBP1: dysbindin-1 gene is a major susceptibility gene for schizophrenia. Genetic variations in DTNBP1 are associated with cognitive functions, general cognitive ability and memory function, and clinical features of patients with schizophrenia including negative symptoms and cognitive decline. Since reduced expression of dysbindin-1 has been observed in postmortem brains of patients with schizophrenia, the sandy (sdy mouse, which has a deletion in the Dtnbp1 gene and expresses no dysbindin-1 protein, could be an animal model of schizophrenia. To address this issue, we have carried out a comprehensive behavioral analysis of the sdy mouse in this study. Results In a rotarod test, sdy mice did not exhibit motor learning whilst the wild type mice did. In a Barnes circular maze test both sdy mice and wild type mice learned to selectively locate the escape hole during the course of the training period and in the probe trial conducted 24 hours after last training. However, sdy mice did not locate the correct hole in the retention probe tests 7 days after the last training trial, whereas wild type mice did, indicating impaired long-term memory retention. A T-maze forced alternation task, a task of working memory, revealed no effect of training in sdy mice despite the obvious effect of training in wild type mice, suggesting a working memory deficit. Conclusion Sdy mouse showed impaired long-term memory retention and working memory. Since genetic variation in DTNBP1 is associated with both schizophrenia and memory function, and memory function is compromised in patients with schizophrenia, the sdy mouse may represent a useful animal model to investigate the mechanisms of memory dysfunction in the disorder.

  10. Comparative studies on the minus origin mutants of Escherichia coli spherical single-stranded DNA phages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodaira, K; Godson, N G; Taketo, A

    1995-01-25

    The minus origins for complementary strand DNA synthesis (-ori) of Escherichia coli spherical single-stranded DNA (microvirid) phages G4, phi K, alpha 3, and St-1 closely resemble each other in DNA structure and contain two potential secondary hairpin loops (I and II) that have been implicated as direct recognition sites for host E. coli dnaG protein (primase). We introduced mutations (deletion or insertion) within the -ori regions of phi K and G4 by the nuclease digestion method. Mutants thus constructed produced minute plaques, showed thermosensitivity, and they remarkably reduced the phage yield and rate of viral DNA synthesis. Deletions in the phi K mutants (dTa) were ranging from 1 nucleotide (nt) to 102 nt centered at the hairpin II; a dTa8 mutant was entirely lacking in the two hairpins besides the starting point for primer RNA synthesis. On the other hand, the G4 mutants (dSa) had deletions centered at hairpin I; two mutants dSa35 and dXN completely lost the hairpin I and the primer RNA starting point. In addition, progeny phage populations of several phi K and G4 mutants contained revertant-like phages. DNA sequencing analysis revealed that these secondary phages had been generated by spontaneous DNA rearrangement with additional insertion or deletion near the parental mutation sites, via an unknown recA-independent pathway.

  11. Factor IX[sub Madrid 2]: A deletion/insertion in Facotr IX gene which abolishes the sequence of the donor junction at the exon IV-intron d splice site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solera, J. (Unidades de Genetica Molecular, Madrid (Spain)); Magallon, M.; Martin-Villar, J. (Hemofilia Hospital, Madrid (Spain)); Coloma, A. (Departamento deBioquimica de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Autonoma, Madrid (Spain))

    1992-02-01

    DNA from a patient with severe hemophilia B was evaluated by RFLP analysis, producing results which suggested the existence of a partial deletion within the factor IX gene. The deletion was further localized and characterized by PCR amplification and sequencing. The altered allele has a 4,442-bp deletion which removes both the donor splice site located at the 5[prime] end of intron d and the two last coding nucleotides located at the 3[prime] end of exon IV in the normal factor IX gene; this fragment has been inserted in inverted orientation. Two homologous sequences have been discovered at the ends of the deleted DNA fragment.

  12. Growth, physicochemical properties, and morphogenesis of Chinese wild-type PRV Fa and its gene-deleted mutant strain PRV SA215

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Shanhu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PRV Fa is common in China and causes most of the pseudorabies in the pig industry. A PRV SA215 strain with deleted gE, gI, and TK genes was constructed to develop a commercial attenuated live vaccine. However, the physicochemical properties, growth pattern, penetration kinetics, and morphogenesis of the PRV SA215 and its parental PRV Fa strain are unclear. Results A series of experiments were conducted to characterize both strains and provide more information. PRV Fa and PRV SA215 were found to have similar penetration patterns, with about 5 min half-time of penetration. The SA215 strain exhibited a slight delay in entry compared with PRV Fa. In the one-step growth test, the titers of the SA215 strain were first detected at 8 h, rapidly increased, and peaked at 12 h. A plateau was formed between 12-36 h of culturing. PRV SA215 showed delayed replication and approximately 10-30-fold lower titers during 0-16 h of culturing compared with the PRV-Fa strain. After 16 h, the PRV Fa titers dramatically decreased, whereas those of PRV SA215 were prolonged to 36 h and reached a titer value equal to that of PRV Fa and then decreased. Both strains were sensitive to both heat and acid-alkali treatments; however, PRV Fa was relatively more stable to heat treatment than PRV SA215. Both strains could propagate in the cultures with pH values from 5.0 to 9.0. Cultures with pH below 3.0 or above 11.0 were fatal to both strains. Both strains had considerable resistance to freeze-thawing treatments. Morphogenetic investigations showed that typical phases in the maturation pathway were observed in the PRV Fa-infected PK15 cells, whereas secondary envelopment was not observed in the PRV SA215 strain. Instead, capsid aggregations with concomitants of electrodense materials were observed. Conclusions These results suggest that PRV SA215 is a promising strain for vaccine development

  13. Global Systems-Level Analysis of Hfq and SmpB Deletion Mutants in Salmonella: Implications for Virulence and Global Protein Translation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansong, Charles; Yoon, Hyunjin; Porwollik, Steffen; Mottaz-Brewer, Heather; Petritis, Brianne O.; Jaitly, Navdeep; Adkins, Joshua N.; Mcclelland, Michael; Heffron, Fred; Smith, Richard D.

    2009-03-11

    In recent years the profound importance of sRNA-mediated translational/post-transcriptional regulation has been increasingly appreciated. However, the global role played by translational regulation in control of gene expression has never been elucidated in any organism for the simple reason that global proteomics methods required to accurately characterize post-transcriptional processes and the knowledge of translational control mechanisms have only become available within the last few years. The proteins Hfq and SmpB are essential for the biological activity of a range of regulatory sRNAs and thus provide a means to identify potential targets of sRNA regulation. We performed a sample-matched global proteomics and transcriptional analysis to examine the role of Hfq and SmpB in global protein translation and virulence using the Salmonella typhimurium model system. Samples were analyzed from bacteria grown under four different conditions; two laboratory conditions and two that are thought to mimic the intracellular environment. We show that mutants of hfq and smpB directly or indirectly modulate at least 20% and 4% of all Salmonella proteins, respectively, with limited correlation between transcription and protein expression. This is the first report suggesting that SmpB could be a general translational regulator. The broad spectrum of proteins modulated by Hfq was also surprising including central metabolism, LPS biosynthesis, two-component regulatory systems, quorum sensing, SP1-TTSS, oxidative stress, fatty acid metabolism, nucleoside and nucleotide metabolism, envelope stress, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, amino acid biosynthesis, peptide transport, and motility.. The extent of global regulation of translation by Hfq is unexpected, with profound effects in all stages of Salmonella’s life cycle. Our results represent the first global systems-level analysis of translational regulation; the elucidated potential targets of sRNA regulation from our analysis will

  14. Kinetic analysis of site-directed mutants of methionine synthase from Candida albicans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasannan, Priya; Suliman, Huda S.; Robertus, Jon D.

    2009-01-01

    Fungal methionine synthase catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate to homocysteine to create methionine. The enzyme, called Met6p in fungi, is required for the growth of the pathogen Candida albicans, and is consequently a reasonable target for antifungal drug design. In order to understand the mechanism of this class of enzyme, we created a three-dimensional model of the C. albicans enzyme based on the known structure of the homologous enzyme from Arabidopsis thaliana. A fusion protein was created and shown to have enzyme activity similar to the wild-type Met6p. Fusion proteins containing mutations at eight key sites were expressed and assayed in this background. The D614 carboxylate appears to ion pair with the amino group of homocysteine and is essential for activity. Similarly, D504 appears to bind to the polar edge of the folate and is also required for activity. Other groups tested have lesser roles in substrate binding and catalysis.

  15. Kinetic analysis of site-directed mutants of methionine synthase from Candida albicans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasannan, Priya; Suliman, Huda S. [Institute of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 1 University Station A5300, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Robertus, Jon D., E-mail: jrobertus@mail.utexas.edu [Institute of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 1 University Station A5300, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Fungal methionine synthase catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate to homocysteine to create methionine. The enzyme, called Met6p in fungi, is required for the growth of the pathogen Candida albicans, and is consequently a reasonable target for antifungal drug design. In order to understand the mechanism of this class of enzyme, we created a three-dimensional model of the C. albicans enzyme based on the known structure of the homologous enzyme from Arabidopsis thaliana. A fusion protein was created and shown to have enzyme activity similar to the wild-type Met6p. Fusion proteins containing mutations at eight key sites were expressed and assayed in this background. The D614 carboxylate appears to ion pair with the amino group of homocysteine and is essential for activity. Similarly, D504 appears to bind to the polar edge of the folate and is also required for activity. Other groups tested have lesser roles in substrate binding and catalysis.

  16. Potential complications when developing gene deletion clones in Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kameka L; Cursino, Luciana; Athinuwat, Dusit; Burr, Thomas J; Mowery, Patricia

    2015-04-16

    The Gram-negative xylem-limited bacterium, Xylella fastidiosa, is an important plant pathogen that infects a number of high value crops. The Temecula 1 strain infects grapevines and induces Pierce's disease, which causes symptoms such as scorching on leaves, cluster collapse, and eventual plant death. In order to understand the pathogenesis of X. fastidiosa, researchers routinely perform gene deletion studies and select mutants via antibiotic markers. Site-directed pilJ mutant of X. fastidiosa were generated and selected on antibiotic media. Mutant cultures were assessed by PCR to determine if they were composed of purely transformant cells or included mixtures of non-transformants cells. Then pure pilJ mutant and wildtype cells were mixed in PD2 medium and following incubation and exposure to kanamycin were assessed by PCR for presence of mutant and wildtype populations. We have discovered that when creating clones of targeted mutants of X. fastidiosa Temecula 1 with selection on antibiotic plates, X. fastidiosa lacking the gene deletion often persist in association with targeted mutant cells. We believe this phenomenon is due to spontaneous antibiotic resistance and/or X. fastidiosa characteristically forming aggregates that can be comprised of transformed and non-transformed cells. A combined population was confirmed by PCR, which showed that targeted mutant clones were mixed with non-transformed cells. After repeated transfer and storage the non-transformed cells became the dominant clone present. We have discovered that special precautions are warranted when developing a targeted gene mutation in X. fastidiosa because colonies that arise following transformation and selection are often comprised of transformed and non-transformed cells. Following transfer and storage the cells can consist primarily of the non-transformed strain. As a result, careful monitoring of targeted mutant strains must be performed to avoid mixed populations and confounding results.

  17. Site-specific mutagenesis in Enterobacter agglomerans: construction of nif B mutants and analysis of the gene's structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddavattam, D; Nickles, A; Herterich, S; Steibl, H D; Kreutzer, R; Klingmüller, W

    1995-12-15

    A novel technique was developed which may be generally well suited to the site-specific construction of mutations in Enterobacter agglomerans. The method is based on the observation that E. agglomerans can be cured of a plasmid of the incompatibility group IncQ by cultivation on citrate-containing medium. To test the applicability of this technique, we inserted a kanamycin cassette into the cloned nifB gene, transferred it into E. agglomerans, and selected for recombinants in which the wild-type nifB was replaced by the mutated gene by growing transformants on citrate medium with kanamycin. The nifB- mutants with the kanamycin cassette inserted in either orientation showed a nif- phenotype. Further, we determined the nucleotide sequence of nifB. A typical sigma 54-dependent promoter and a consensus NifA binding site were found upstream of nifB. Activation of this promoter by both heterologous and homologous NifA proteins was observed in vivo. The predicted amino acid sequence of the NifB protein showed strong similarity to the NifB sequences of other diazotrophic bacteria. The typical clustering of cysteine residues at the N-terminal end indicates its involvement in Fe-Mo cofactor biosynthesis.

  18. Construction of a catalytically inactive cholesterol oxidase mutant: investigation of the interplay between active site-residues glutamate 361 and histidine 447.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ye; Liu, Pingsheng; Anderson, Richard G W; Sampson, Nicole S

    2002-06-15

    Cholesterol oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of cholesterol to cholest-5-en-3-one and its subsequent isomerization into cholest-4-en-3-one. Two active-site residues, His447 and Glu361, are important for catalyzing the oxidation and isomerization reactions, respectively. Double-mutants were constructed to test the interplay between these residues in catalysis. We observed that the k(cat) of oxidation for the H447Q/E361Q mutant was 3-fold less than that for H447Q and that the k(cat) of oxidation for the H447E/E361Q mutant was 10-fold slower than that for H447E. Because both doubles-mutants do not have a carboxylate at position 361, they do not catalyze isomerization of the reaction intermediate cholest-5-en-3-one to cholest-4-en-3-one. These results suggest that Glu361 can compensate for the loss of histidine at position 447 by acting as a general base catalyst for oxidation of cholesterol. Importantly, the construction of the double-mutant H447E/E361Q yields an enzyme that is 31,000-fold slower than wild type in k(cat) for oxidation. The H447E/E361Q mutant is folded like native enzyme and still associates with model membranes. Thus, this mutant may be used to study the effects of membrane binding in the absence of catalytic activity. It is demonstrated that in assays with caveolae membrane fractions, the wild-type enzyme uncouples platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRbeta) autophosphorylation from tyrosine phosphorylation of neighboring proteins, and the H447E/E361Q mutant does not. Thus maintenance of membrane structure by cholesterol is important for PDGFRbeta-mediated signaling. The cholesterol oxidase mutant probe described will be generally useful for investigating the role of membrane structure in signal transduction pathways in addition to the PDGFRbeta-dependent pathway tested.

  19. A short in-frame deletion in NTRK1 tyrosine kinase domain caused by a novel splice site mutation in a patient with congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arístegui Javier

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disease characterized by the lack of reaction to noxious stimuli and anhidrosis. It is caused by mutations in the NTRK1 gene, which encodes the high affinity tyrosine kinase receptor I for Neurotrophic Growth Factor (NGF. Case Presentation We present the case of a female patient diagnosed with CIPA at the age of 8 months. The patient is currently 6 years old and her psychomotor development conforms to her age (RMN, SPECT and psychological study are in the range of normality. PCR amplification of DNA, followed by direct sequencing, was used to investigate the presence of NTRK1 gene mutations. Reverse transcriptase (RT-PCR amplification of RNA, followed by cloning and sequencing of isolated RT-PCR products was used to characterize the effect of the mutations on NTRK1 mRNA splicing. The clinical diagnosis of CIPA was confirmed by the detection of two splice-site mutations in NTRK1, revealing that the patient was a compound heterozygote at this gene. One of these alterations, c.574+1G>A, is located at the splice donor site of intron 5. We also found a second mutation, c.2206-2 A>G, not previously reported in the literature, which is located at the splice acceptor site of intron 16. Each parent was confirmed to be a carrier for one of the mutations by DNA sequencing analysis. It has been proposed that the c.574+1G>A mutation would cause exon 5 skipping during NTRK1 mRNA splicing. We could confirm this prediction and, more importantly, we provide evidence that the novel c.2206-2A>G mutation also disrupts normal NTRK1 splicing, leading to the use of an alternative splice acceptor site within exon 17. As a consequence, this mutation would result in the production of a mutant NTRK1 protein with a seven aminoacid in-frame deletion in its tyrosine kinase domain. Conclusions We present the first description of a CIPA-associated NTRK1 mutation

  20. Equilibrium isotope exchange kinetics of native and site-specific mutant forms of E. coli aspartate transcarbamoylase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedler, F.C.; Hsuanyu, Y.; Kantrowitz, E.R.

    1987-01-01

    Isotope exchange kinetics at equilibrium (EIEK) have been used to probe the kinetic and regulatory mechanisms of native aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) from E. coli at pH 7.0, 30 0 . Substrate saturation patterns were most consistent with a preferred order random kinetic mechanism: C-P prior to L-Asp, C-Asp released before Pi, with the Asp ↔ C-Asp exchange rate 5X faster than C-P ↔ Pi. Computer simulations allow one to fit the EIEK experimental data and to arrive at the best set of kinetic constants for a given enzyme state. These approaches have been applied to modified ATCase. Bound CTP and ATP were observed, respectively, to inhibit and activate differentially Asp ↔ C-Asp, but not C-P ↔ Pi, indicating that these modifiers alter the association-dissociation rates of L-Asp and C-Asp but not of C-P or Pi. Low levels of PALA activated both exchange rates (due to shifting the T-R equilibrium), but higher [PALA] completely blocked both exchanges. The effects of a site-specific mutation of Tyr240 Phe have been similarly probed by EIEK methods. The Phe240 mutant enzyme exhibited kinetic properties markedly different from native ATCase: the data indicate that Phe240 ATCase is much closer to an R-state enzyme than is native enzyme

  1. Improved detection of small deletions in complex pools of DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgley, Mark; D’Souza, Anil; Moulder, Gary; McKay, Sheldon; Shen, Bin; Gilchrist, Erin; Moerman, Donald; Barstead, Robert

    2002-01-01

    About 40% of the genes in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have homologs in humans. Based on the history of this model system, it is clear that the application of genetic methods to the study of this set of genes would provide important clues to their function in humans. To facilitate such genetic studies, we are engaged in a project to derive deletion alleles in every gene in this set. Our standard methods make use of nested PCR to hunt for animals in mutagenized populations that carry deletions at a given locus. The deletion bearing animals exist initially in mixed populations where the majority of the animals are wild type at the target. Therefore, the production of the PCR fragment representing the deletion allele competes with the production of the wild type fragment. The size of the deletion fragment relative to wild type determines whether it can compete to a level where it can be detected above the background. Using our standard conditions, we have found that when the deletion is 600 bp, they do not work well to detect mutants with smaller deletions. Here we report a new strategy to detect small deletion alleles in complex DNA pools. Our new strategy is a modification of our standard PCR based screens. In the first round of the nested PCR, we include a third PCR primer between the two external primers. The presence of this third primer leads to the production of three fragments from wild type DNA. We configure the system so that two of these three fragments cannot serve as a template in the second round of the nested PCR. The addition of this third primer, therefore, handicaps the amplification from wild type template. On the other hand, the amplification of mutant fragments where the binding site for the third primer is deleted is unabated. Overall, we see at least a 500-fold increase in the sensitivity for small deletion fragments using our new method. Using this new method, we report the recovery of new deletion alleles within 12 C.elegans genes. PMID

  2. Site-specific deletions of chromosomally located DNA segments with the multimer resolution system of broad-host-range plasmid RP4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sternberg, Claus; Eberl, Leo; Sanchezromero, Juan M.

    1995-01-01

    The multimer resolution system (mrs) of the broad-host-range plasmid RP4 has been exploited to develop a general method that permits the precise excision of chromosomal segments in a variety of gram-negative bacteria. The procedure is based on the site-specific recombination between two directly...... of the parA expression system suggested that just a few molecules of the resolvase are required to achieve the site-specific recombination event, Transient expression of parA from a plasmid unable to replicate in the target bacterium was instrumental to effect differential deletions within complex hybrid...... transposons inserted in the chromosome of Pseudomonas putida, This strategy permits the stable inheritance of heterologous DNA segments virtually devoid of the sequences used initially to select their insertion....

  3. Differential effects of N- and C-terminal deletions on the two activities of rubisco activase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esau, B D; Snyder, G W; Portis, A R

    1996-02-01

    Spinach (Spinacea oleracea) leaf ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco) activase was subjected to limited proteolysis with trypsin and directed deletions were made by modifying the spinach rubisco activase cDNA and expressing the 41-kDa isoform in Escherichia coli. Protein exposed to trypsin displayed a more rapid loss of the ability to promote the activation of decarbamylated rubisco than ATP hydrolysis (e.g., 10 and 50% activity remaining, respectively, after 1 h). A series of N-terminal deletions exhibited near abolition of rubisco activation after the 12th residue, a conserved tryptophan, was deleted. Conversely, a deletion of 19 residues at the C-terminus increased rubisco activation with little effect on ATP hydrolysis, resulting in an increased efficiency of activation. The C-terminal deletion mutant was further modified by a site-directed mutation in the ATP binding region (Q109E) which was previously observed to increase the efficiency of activation (J. B. Shen and W. L. Ogren, 1991, Plant Physiol. 99, 1201-1207). The efficiency of activation with this double mutant was greater than that for either of the original mutants. The results indicate that a conserved tryptophan in the N-terminal portion of rubisco activase is critical for promotion of the activation of rubisco, consistent with a possible role in interaction with rubisco. The C-terminus appears to have a regulatory effect on both rubisco activation and ATP hydrolysis.

  4. A simple, flexible and efficient PCR-fusion/Gateway cloning procedure for gene fusion, site-directed mutagenesis, short sequence insertion and domain deletions and swaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etchells J Peter

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The progress and completion of various plant genome sequencing projects has paved the way for diverse functional genomic studies that involve cloning, modification and subsequent expression of target genes. This requires flexible and efficient procedures for generating binary vectors containing: gene fusions, variants from site-directed mutagenesis, addition of protein tags together with domain swaps and deletions. Furthermore, efficient cloning procedures, ideally high throughput, are essential for pyramiding of multiple gene constructs. Results Here, we present a simple, flexible and efficient PCR-fusion/Gateway cloning procedure for construction of binary vectors for a range of gene fusions or variants with single or multiple nucleotide substitutions, short sequence insertions, domain deletions and swaps. Results from selected applications of the procedure which include ORF fusion, introduction of Cys>Ser mutations, insertion of StrepII tag sequence and domain swaps for Arabidopsis secondary cell wall AtCesA genes are demonstrated. Conclusion The PCR-fusion/Gateway cloning procedure described provides an elegant, simple and efficient solution for a wide range of diverse and complicated cloning tasks. Through streamlined cloning of sets of gene fusions and modification variants into binary vectors for systematic functional studies of gene families, our method allows for efficient utilization of the growing sequence and expression data.

  5. Partial restoration of replication of simian immunodeficiency virus by point mutations in either the dimerization initiation site (DIS) or Gag region after deletion mutagenesis within the DIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Y; Diallo, K; Detorio, M; Whitney, J B; Liang, C; Wainberg, M A

    2001-12-01

    We used the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) molecular clone SIVmac239 to generate a deletion construct, termed SD2, in which we eliminated 22 nucleotides at positions +398 to +418 within the putative dimerization initiation site (DIS) stem. This SD2 deletion severely impaired viral replication, due to adverse effects on the packaging of viral genomic RNA, the processing of Gag proteins, and viral protein patterns. However, long-term culture of SD2 in either C8166 or CEMx174 cells resulted in restoration of replication capacity, due to two different sets of three compensatory point mutations, located within both the DIS and Gag regions. In the case of C8166 cells, both a K197R and a E49K mutation were identified within the capsid (CA) protein and the p6 protein of Gag, respectively, while the other point mutation (A423G) was found within the putative DIS loop. In the case of CEMx174 cells, two compensatory mutations were present within the viral nucleocapsid (NC) protein, E18G and Q31K, in addition to the same A423G substitution as observed with C8166 cells. A set of all three mutations was required in each case for restoration of replication capacity, and either set of mutations could be substituted for the other in both the C8166 and CEMx174 cell lines.

  6. Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors-1 Protein (DMBT1: A Pattern Recognition Receptor with Multiple Binding Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enno C. I. Veerman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors-1 protein (DMBT1, salivary agglutinin (DMBT1SAG, and lung glycoprotein-340 (DMBT1GP340 are three names for glycoproteins encoded by the same DMBT1 gene. All these proteins belong to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR superfamily of proteins: a superfamily of secreted or membrane-bound proteins with SRCR domains that are highly conserved down to sponges, the most ancient metazoa. In addition to SRCR domains, all DMBT1s contain two CUB domains and one zona pellucida domain. The SRCR domains play a role in the function of DMBT1s, which is the binding of a broad range of pathogens including cariogenic streptococci, Helicobacter pylori and HIV. Mucosal defense proteins like IgA, surfactant proteins and lactoferrin also bind to DMBT1s through their SRCR domains. The binding motif on the SRCR domains comprises an 11-mer peptide in which a few amino acids are essential for binding (GRVEVLYRGSW. Adjacent to each individual SRCR domain are glycosylation domains, where the attached carbohydrate chains play a role in the binding of influenza A virus and Helicobacter pylori. The composition of the carbohydrate chains is not only donor specific, but also varies between different organs. These data demonstrate a role for DMBT1s as pattern recognition molecules containing various peptide and carbohydrate binding motifs.

  7. Deletion of a splice donor site ablates expression of the following exon and produces an unphosphorylated RB protein unable to bind SV40 T antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shew, J Y; Chen, P L; Bookstein, R; Lee, E Y; Lee, W H

    1990-01-01

    Studies of mutated retinoblastoma (RB) proteins in human tumor cells potentially reveal regions of the normal RB gene product that are required for its cancer suppression function. We here characterize a mutated RB protein of Mr 104,000 (p104) from a primary small-cell lung carcinoma. Unlike normal RB protein (pp110RB), p104 was unphosphorylated and unable to bind T antigen of SV40 both in vivo and in vitro. On the other hand, nuclear localization and DNA binding activity were preserved in the mutated protein. p104 was immunoprecipitable with four separate polyclonal antibodies recognizing different epitopes of the RB polypeptide, suggesting the presence of most exons in their correct reading frame. Following reverse transcription and in vitro amplification, RB mRNA from this tumor was shown to lack nucleotides encoded by exon 16. Analysis of genomic DNA from this tumor showed that exon 16 and its flanking splice donor and acceptor sequences were present and entirely normal; however, a 43-base pair (bp) region containing the splice donor site of intron 15 was deleted instead. Exon 15 was joined directly to exon 17 during mRNA processing via a cryptic splice donor site; exon 16 was presumably skipped because the preceding mutated intron was of insufficient length (less than 80 bp) for normal RB mRNA processing. These results demonstrate that loss of a single small exon disrupts several important biochemical properties of RB protein. In addition, sequence features of the 43-bp depletion suggest involvement of a novel deletional mechanism.

  8. Increased L-arginine Production by Site-directed Mutagenesis of N-acetyl-L-glutamate Kinase and proB Gene Deletion in Corynebacterium crenatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Wan, Fang; Qiu, Yu Lou; Chen, Xue Lan; Tang, Li; Chen, Jin Cong; Xiong, Yong Hua

    2015-12-01

    In Corynebacterium crenatum, the adjacent D311 and D312 of N-acetyl-L-glutamate kinase (NAGK), as a key rate-limiting enzyme of L-arginine biosynthesis under substrate regulatory control by arginine, were initially replaced with two arginine residues to investigate the L-arginine feedback inhibition for NAGK. NAGK enzyme expression was evaluated using a plasmid-based method. Homologous recombination was employed to eliminate the proB. The IC50 and enzyme activity of NAGK M4, in which the D311R and D312R amino acid substitutions were combined with the previously reported E19R and H26E substitutions, were 3.7-fold and 14.6% higher, respectively, than those of the wild-type NAGK. NAGK M4 was successfully introduced into the C. crenatum MT genome without any genetic markers; the L-arginine yield of C. crenatum MT-M4 was 26.2% higher than that of C. crenatum MT. To further improve upon the L-arginine yield, we constructed the mutant C. crenatum MT-M4 proB. The optimum concentration of L-proline was also investigated in order to determine its contribution to L-arginine yield. After L-proline was added to the medium at 10 mmol/L, the L-arginine yield reached 16.5 g/L after 108 h of shake-flask fermentation, approximately 70.1% higher than the yield attained using C. crenatum MT. Feedback inhibition of L-arginine on NAGK in C. crenatum is clearly alleviated by the M4 mutation of NAGK, and deletion of the proB in C. crenatum from MT to M4 results in a significant increase in arginine production. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  9. Active Site Dynamics in Substrate Hydrolysis Catalyzed by DapE Enzyme and Its Mutants from Hybrid QM/MM-Molecular Dynamics Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Debodyuti; Mishra, Sabyashachi

    2017-07-27

    The mechanism of the catalytic hydrolysis of N-succinyl diaminopimelic acid (SDAP) by the microbial enzyme DapE in its wild-type (wt) form as well as three of its mutants (E134D, H67A, and H349A) is investigated employing a hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method coupled with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, wherein the time evolution of the atoms of the QM and MM regions are obtained from the forces acting on the individual atoms. The free-energy profiles along the reaction coordinates of this multistep hydrolysis reaction process are explored using a combination of equilibrium and nonequilibrium (umbrella sampling) QM/MM-MD simulation techniques. In the enzyme-substrate complexes of wt-DapE and the E134D mutant, nucleophilic attack is found to be the rate-determining step involving a barrier of 15.3 and 21.5 kcal/mol, respectively, which satisfactorily explains the free energy of activation obtained from kinetic experiments in wt-DapE-SDAP (15.2 kcal/mol) and the 3 orders of magnitude decrease in the catalytic activity due to E134D mutation. The catalysis is found to be quenched in the H67A and H349A mutants of DapE due to conformational rearrangement in the active site induced by the absence of the active site His residues that prohibits activation of the catalytic water molecule.

  10. The crystal structure of HIV CRF07 B′/C gp41 reveals a hyper-mutant site in the middle of HR2 heptad repeat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Jiansen; Xue, Hailing; Ma, Jing; Liu, Fang; Zhou, Jianhua; Shao, Yiming; Qiao, Wentao; Liu, Xinqi

    2013-01-01

    HIV CRF07 B′/C is a strain circulating mainly in northwest region of China. The gp41 region of CRF07 is derived from a clade C virus. In order to compare the difference of CRF07 gp41 with that of typical clade B virus, we solved the crystal structure of the core region of CRF07 gp41. Compared with clade B gp41, CRF07 gp41 evolved more basic and hydrophilic residues on its helix bundle surface. Based on sequence alignment, a hyper-mutant cluster located in the middle of HR2 heptads repeat was identified. The mutational study of these residues revealed that this site is important in HIV mediated cell–cell fusion and plays critical roles in conformational changes during viral invasion. - Highlights: • We solved the crystal structure of HIV CRF07 gp41 core region. • A hyper-mutant cluster in the middle of HR2 heptads repeat was identified. • The hyper-mutant site is important in HIV-cell fusion. • The model will help to understand the HIV fusion process

  11. The crystal structure of HIV CRF07 B′/C gp41 reveals a hyper-mutant site in the middle of HR2 heptad repeat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Jiansen; Xue, Hailing; Ma, Jing; Liu, Fang [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Zhou, Jianhua [Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150001 (China); Shao, Yiming [State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, and National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206 (China); Qiao, Wentao, E-mail: wentaoqiao@nankai.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Liu, Xinqi, E-mail: liu2008@nankai.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2013-11-15

    HIV CRF07 B′/C is a strain circulating mainly in northwest region of China. The gp41 region of CRF07 is derived from a clade C virus. In order to compare the difference of CRF07 gp41 with that of typical clade B virus, we solved the crystal structure of the core region of CRF07 gp41. Compared with clade B gp41, CRF07 gp41 evolved more basic and hydrophilic residues on its helix bundle surface. Based on sequence alignment, a hyper-mutant cluster located in the middle of HR2 heptads repeat was identified. The mutational study of these residues revealed that this site is important in HIV mediated cell–cell fusion and plays critical roles in conformational changes during viral invasion. - Highlights: • We solved the crystal structure of HIV CRF07 gp41 core region. • A hyper-mutant cluster in the middle of HR2 heptads repeat was identified. • The hyper-mutant site is important in HIV-cell fusion. • The model will help to understand the HIV fusion process.

  12. A systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data on the impact of the BIM deletion polymorphism on treatment outcomes in epidermal growth factor receptor mutant lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Sheila X; Siddiqui, Fahad J; Allen, John C; Kim, Go Woon; Lee, Jae Cheol; Yatabe, Yasushi; Soda, Manabu; Mano, Hiroyuki; Soo, Ross A; Chin, Tan-Min; Ebi, Hiromichi; Yano, Seiji; Matsuo, Keitaro; Niu, Xiaomin; Lu, Shun; Isobe, Kazutoshi; Lee, Jih-Hsiang; Yang, James C; Zhao, Mingchuan; Zhou, Caicun; Lee, June-Koo; Lee, Se-Hoon; Lee, Ji Yun; Ahn, Myung-Ju; Tan, Tira J; Tan, Daniel S; Tan, Eng-Huat; Ong, S Tiong; Lim, Wan-Teck

    2017-06-20

    A germline deletion in the BIM (BCL2L11) gene has been shown to impair the apoptotic response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in vitro but its association with poor outcomes in TKI-treated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients remains unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on both aggregate and individual patient data to address this issue. In an aggregate data meta-analysis (n = 1429), the BIM deletion was associated with inferior PFS (HR = 1.51, 95%CI = 1.06-2.13, P = 0.02). Using individual patient data (n = 1200), we found a significant interaction between the deletion and ethnicity. Amongst non-Koreans, the deletion was an independent predictor of shorter PFS (Chinese: HR = 1.607, 95%CI = 1.251-2.065, P = 0.0002; Japanese: HR = 2.636, 95%CI = 1.603-4.335, P = 0.0001), and OS (HR = 1.457, 95% CI = 1.063-1.997, P = 0.019). In Kaplan-Meier analyses, the BIM deletion was associated with shorter survival in non-Koreans (PFS: 8.0 months v 11.1 months, P BIM deletion was not predictive of PFS or OS. 10 published and 3 unpublished studies that reported survival outcomes in NSCLC patients stratified according to BIM deletion were identified from PubMed and Embase. Summary risk estimates were calculated from aggregate patient data using a random-effects model. For individual patient data, Kaplan-Meier analyses were supported by multivariate Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for PFS and OS. In selected populations, the BIM deletion is a significant predictor of shorter PFS and OS on EGFR-TKIs. Further studies to determine its effect on response to other BIM-dependent therapeutic agents are needed, so that alternative treatment strategies may be devised.

  13. Arginine kinase in Toxocara canis: Exon-intron organization, functional analysis of site-directed mutants and evaluation of putative enzyme inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Susiji; Yatawara, Lalani; Nagataki, Mitsuru; Agatsuma, Takeshi

    2016-10-01

    To determine exon/intron organization of the Toxocara canis (T. canis) AK (TCAK) and to test green and black tea and several other chemicals against the activity of recombinant TCAK in the guanidino-specific region by site-directed mutants. Amplification of genomic DNA fragments containing introns was carried out by PCRs. The open-reading frame (1200 bp) of TCAK (wild type) was cloned into the BamH1/SalI site of pMAL-c2X. The maltose-binding protein-TCAK fusion protein was expressed in Escherichia coli TB1 cells. The purity of the expressed enzyme was verified by SDS-PAGE. Mutations were introduced into the guanidino-specific region and other areas of pMAL/TCAK by PCR. Enzyme activity was measured with an NADH-linked assay at 25 °C for the forward reaction (phosphagen synthesis). Arginine kinase in T. canis has a seven-exon/six-intron gene structure. The lengths of the introns ranged from 542 bp to 2 500 bp. All introns begin with gt and end with ag. Furthermore, we measured the enzyme activity of site-directed mutants of the recombinant TCAK. The K m value of the mutant (Alanine to Serine) decreased indicating a higher affinity for substrate arginine than the wild-type. The K m value of the mutant (Serine to Glycine) increased to 0.19 mM. The K m value (0.19 mM) of the double mutant (Alanine-Serine to Serine-Glycine) was slightly greater than in the wild-type (0.12 mM). In addition, several other chemicals were tested; including plant extract Azadiracta indica (A. indica), an aminoglycoside antibiotic (aminosidine), a citrus flavonoid glycoside (rutin) and a commercially available catechin mixture against TCAK. Green and black tea (1:10 dilution) produced 15% and 25% inhibition of TCAK, respectively. The extract of A. indica produced 5% inhibition of TCAK. Moreover, green and black tea produced a non-competitive type of inhibition and A. indica produced a mixed-type of inhibition on TCAK. Arginine kinase in T. canis has a seven-exon/six-intron gene

  14. Improved thermostability and enzyme activity of a recombinant phyA mutant phytase from Aspergillus niger N25 by directed evolution and site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zizhong; Jin, Weiqiong; Sun, Rong; Liao, Yan; Zhen, Tianrun; Chen, Hui; Wu, Qi; Gou, Lin; Li, Chenlei

    2018-01-01

    We previously constructed three recombinant phyA mutant strains (PP-NP m -8, PP-NP ep -6A and I44E/T252R-PhyA), showing improved catalytic efficiency or thermostability of Aspergillus niger N25 phytase, by error-prone PCR or site-directed mutagenesis. In this study, directed evolution and site-directed mutagenesis were further applied to improve the modified phytase properties. After one-round error-prone PCR for phytase gene of PP-NP ep -6A, a single transformant, T195L/Q368E/F376Y, was obtained with the significant improvements in catalytic efficiency and thermostability. The phytase gene of T195L/Q368E/F376Y, combined with the previous mutant phytase genes of PP-NP ep -6A, PP-NP m -8 and I44E/T252R-PhyA, was then sequentially modified by DNA shuffling. Three genetically engineered strains with desirable properties were then obtained, namedQ172R, Q172R/K432R andQ368E/K432R. Among them, Q172R/K432R showed the highest thermostability with the longest half-life and the greatest remaining phytase activity after heat treatment, while Q368E/K432R showed the highest catalytic activity. Five substitutions (Q172R, T195L, Q368E, F376Y, K432R) identified from random mutagenesis were added sequentially to the phytase gene of PP-NP ep -6A to investigate how the mutant sites influence the properties of phytase. Characterization and structural analysis demonstrated that these mutations could produce cumulative or synergistic improvements in thermostability or catalytic efficiency of phytase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Expression, purification and characterization of a novel double-sites mutant of the single-chain sweet-tasting protein monellin (MNEI) with both improved sweetness and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Weiwei; Yang, Liu; Cai, Chenggu; Ni, Jinfeng; Liu, Bo

    2018-03-01

    The sweet protein monellin has high sweet potency with limited stability. In this study, 3 double-sites mutants (E2N/E23A, E2N/Y65R and E23A/Y65R) of the single-chain monellin (MNEI) were constructed. The proteins were expressed in E. coli BL21 and purified to homogeneity by nickel affinity chromatography with yields above 10 mg/L cell culture. Introduction of a sweeter mutant E2N into E23A or Y65R (E2N/E23A and E2N/Y65R) led to about 3-fold increase of sweetness, while addition of a more stable mutant E23A into E2N or Y65R (E2N/E23A and E23A/Y65R) resulted in improved thermal stability (about 10 °C). The results indicate that residues E2 and E23 mediate the sweetness and thermal stability of the protein, respectively. Multiple mutations of different residues (E2N/E23A) led to an additive performance with both improved sweetness and stability, suggesting that the sweetness and stability could be modulated by the independent molecular mechanism. The sweeter and thermal stable variant has a potential in further industrial applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Delayed chromosomal instability caused by large deletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojima, M.; Suzuki, K.; Kodama, S.; Watanabe, M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: There is accumulating evidence that genomic instability, manifested by the expression of delayed phenotypes, is induced by X-irradiation but not by ultraviolet (UV) light. It is well known that ionizing radiation, such as X-rays, induces DNA double strand breaks, but UV-light mainly causes base damage like pyrimidine dimers and (6-4) photoproducts. Although the mechanism of radiation-induced genomic instability has not been thoroughly explained, it is suggested that DNA double strand breaks contribute the induction of genomic instability. We examined here whether X-ray induced gene deletion at the hprt locus induces delayed instability in chromosome X. SV40-immortalized normal human fibroblasts, GM638, were irradiated with X-rays (3, 6 Gy), and the hprt mutants were isolated in the presence of 6-thioguanine (6-TG). A 2-fold and a 60-fold increase in mutation frequency were found by 3 Gy and 6 Gy irradiation, respectively. The molecular structure of the hprt mutations was determined by multiplex polymerase chain reaction of nine exons. Approximately 60% of 3 Gy mutants lost a part or the entire hprt gene, and the other mutants showed point mutations like spontaneous mutants. All 6 Gy mutants show total gene deletion. The chromosomes of the hprt mutants were analyzed by Whole Human Chromosome X Paint FISH or Xq telomere FISH. None of the point or partial gene deletion mutants showed aberrations of X-chromosome, however total gene deletion mutants induced translocations and dicentrics involving chromosome X. These results suggest that large deletion caused by DNA double strand breaks destabilizes chromosome structure, which may be involved in an induction of radiation-induced genomic instability

  17. Catalytic soman scavenging by Y337A/F338A acetylcholinesterase mutant assisted with novel site-directed aldoximes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarik, Zrinka; Hrvat, Nikolina Maček; Katalinić, Maja; Sit, Rakesh K.; Paradyse, Alexander; Žunec, Suzana; Musilek, Kamil; Fokin, Valery V.; Taylor, Palmer; Radić, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to the nerve agent soman is difficult to treat due to the rapid dealkylation of soman-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) conjugate known as aging. Oxime antidotes commonly used to reactivate organophosphate inhibited AChE are ineffective against soman, while the efficacy of the recommended nerve agent bioscavenger butyrylcholinesterase is limited by strictly stoichiometric scavenging. To overcome this limitation, we tested ex vivo, in human blood, and in vivo, in soman exposed mice, the capacity of aging-resistant human AChE mutant Y337A/F338A in combination with oxime HI-6 to act as a catalytic bioscavenger of soman. HI-6 was previously shown in vitro to efficiently reactivate this mutant upon soman, as well as VX, cyclosarin, sarin and paraoxon inhibition. We here demonstrate that ex vivo, in whole human blood, 1 μM soman was detoxified within 30 minutes when supplemented with 0.5 μM Y337A/F338A AChE and 100 μM HI-6. This combination was further tested in vivo. Catalytic scavenging of soman in mice improved the therapeutic outcome and resulted in the delayed onset of toxicity symptoms. Furthermore, in a preliminary in vitro screen we identified an even more efficacious oxime than HI-6, in a series of forty-two pyridinium aldoximes, and five imidazole 2-aldoxime N-propyl pyridinium derivatives. One of the later imidazole aldoximes, RS-170B, was a 2–3 –fold more effective reactivator of Y337A/F338A AChE than HI-6 due to the smaller imidazole ring, as indicated by computational molecular models, that affords a more productive angle of nucleophilic attack. PMID:25835984

  18. Active sites of the cytochrome p450cam (CYP101) F87W and F87A mutants. Evidence for significant structural reorganization without alteration of catalytic regiospecificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, S F; Graham-Lorence, S; Peterson, J A; Ortiz de Montellano, P R

    1993-01-05

    Ferricyanide oxidation of the aryl-iron complexes formed by the reaction of cytochrome P450 enzymes with arylhydrazines causes in situ migration of the aryl group from the iron to the porphyrin nitrogen atoms. The regiochemistry of this migration, defined by the ratio of the four possible N-arylprotoporphyrin IX isomers, provides a method for mapping the topologies of cytochrome P450 active sites. The method has been validated by using it to examine the active site of cytochrome P450cam (CYP101), for which a crystal structure is available. In agreement with the crystal structure, reaction with phenylhydrazine gives a 5:25:70 ratio of the NA:NC:ND (subscript indicates pyrrole ring) N-phenylprotoporphyrin IX isomers. Naphthylhydrazine, however, yields exclusively the NC regioisomer and 4-(phenyl)phenylhydrazine the NA:NC:ND isomers in a 14:40:46 ratio. These isomer ratio differences are readily explained by topological differences between the upper and lower reaches of the active site. Having validated the aryl-iron shift as a topological probe, we used it to investigate the structural changes caused by mutation of Phe-87, a residue that provides the ceiling over pyrrole ring D in the crystal structure of cytochrome P450cam. Mutation of Phe-87 to a tryptophan causes no detectable change in the regiochemistry of camphor hydroxylation and only minor changes in the N-aryl isomer ratios. However, mutation of Phe-87 to an alanine, which was expected to open up the region above pyrrole ring D, severely decreased the proportion of the ND in favor of the NA isomer. Less rather than more space is therefore available over pyrrole ring D in the F87A mutant despite the fact that the regiochemistry of camphor hydroxylation remains unchanged. These results provide evidence for significant structural reorganization in the upper regions of the substrate binding site without alteration of the camphor hydroxylation regiospecificity in the F87A mutant.

  19. Characterization of three lactic acid bacteria and their isogenic ldh deletion mutants shows optimization for Y(ATP) (cell mass produced per mole of ATP) at their physiological pHs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiedler, T.; Bekker, M.; Jonsson, M.; Mehmeti, I.; Pritzschke, A.; Siemens, N.; Nes, I.; Hugenholtz, J.; Kreikemeyer, B.

    2011-01-01

    Several lactic acid bacteria use homolactic acid fermentation for generation of ATP. Here we studied the role of the lactate dehydrogenase enzyme on the general physiology of the three homolactic acid bacteria Lactococcus lactis, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus pyogenes. Of note, deletion

  20. Construction and characterization of a glycoprotein E deletion mutant of bovine herpesvirus type 1.2 strain isolated in Brazil Construção e caracterização de uma amostra de BoHV-1.2 isolada no Brasil com uma deleção no gene da glicoproteína E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Franco

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the construction and characterization of a Brazilian strain of bovine herpesvirus type 1.2a (BoHV-1.2a with a deletion of the glycoprotein E (gE gene. The deletion was introduced by co-transfection of a deletion fragment containing the 5´and 3´gE flanking regions and genomic DNA of wild type BoHV-1 into bovine cells. Isolation of gE deletion mutant was performed by immunoperoxidase staining with an anti-gE monoclonal antibody. Viral clones were plaque purified and further examined by restriction endonuclesase digestion and Southern blot hybridization. This gE deletion mutant will be evaluated as a vaccinal virus, in order to determine its potential use for a differential vaccine.Este artigo descreve a construção e caracterização de uma amostra de um herpesvírus bovino tipo 1.2a (BoHV-1.2a que apresenta uma deleção na região genômica que codifica a glicoproteína E (gE. A deleção gênica foi induzida através da co-transfecção de um fragmento de deleção, contendo as regiões 5´e 3´flanqueadoras da gE, com o DNA viral intacto de uma amostra viral isolada de um animal que apresentava doença respiratória. O isolamento do vírus gE negativo (gE- foi realizado com auxílio da técnica de imunoperoxidase em que foi utilizado como anticorpo primário um anticorpo monoclonal anti-gE. O vírus gE- foi purificado e o DNA isolado desta amostra foi examinado através das técnicas de análise por enzimas de restrição e "Southern blot". Esta amostra gE- será avaliada como candidata para compor uma vacina diferencial contra a rinotraqueíte infecciosa dos bovinos.

  1. Directed mutagenesis in Candida albicans: one-step gene disruption to isolate ura3 mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, R.; Miller, S.M.; Kurtz, M.B.; Kirsch, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    A method for introducing specific mutations into the diploid Candida albicans by one-step gene disruption and subsequent UV-induced recombination was developed. The cloned C. albicans URA3 gene was disrupted with the C. albicans ADE2 gene, and the linearized DNA was used for transformation of two ade2 mutants, SGY-129 and A81-Pu. Both an insertional inactivation of the URA3 gene and a disruption which results in a 4.0-kilobase deletion were made. Southern hybridization analyses demonstrated that the URA3 gene was disrupted on one of the chromosomal homologs in 15 of the 18 transformants analyzed. These analyses also revealed restriction site dimorphism of EcoRI at the URA3 locus which provides a unique marker to distinguish between chromosomal homologs. This enabled us to show that either homolog could be disrupted and that disrupted transformants of SGY-129 contained more than two copies of the URA3 locus. The A81-Pu transformants heterozygous for the ura3 mutations were rendered homozygous and Ura- by UV-induced recombination. The homozygosity of a deletion mutant and an insertion mutant was confirmed by Southern hybridization. Both mutants were transformed to Ura+ with plasmids containing the URA3 gene and in addition, were resistant to 5-fluoro-orotic acid, a characteristic of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ura3 mutants as well as of orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase mutants of other organisms

  2. Kinetic analysis of inhibition of glucoamylase and active site mutants via chemoselective oxime immobilization of acarbose on SPR chip surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Jørgen; Abou Hachem, Maher; Svensson, Birte

    2013-01-01

    We here report a quantitative study on the binding kinetics of inhibition of the enzyme glucoamylase and how individual active site amino acid mutations influence kinetics. To address this challenge, we have developed a fast and efficient method for anchoring native acarbose to gold chip surfaces...

  3. Biochemical characterization of mutants in the active site residues of the beta-galactosidase enzyme of Bacillus circulans ATCC 31382

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bultema, Jelle B.; Kuipers, Bas J. H.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2014-01-01

    The Bacillus circulans ATCC 31382 beta-galactosidase (BgaD) is a retaining-type glycosidase of glycoside hydrolase family 2 (GH2). Its commercial enzyme preparation, Biolacta N5, is used for commercial-scale production of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS). The BgaD active site and catalytic amino acid

  4. Whole-genome sequencing of mutants with increased resistance against the two-peptide bacteriocin plantaricin JK reveals a putative receptor and potential docking site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekblad, Bie; Nissen-Meyer, Jon; Kristensen, Tom

    2017-01-01

    By whole-genome sequencing of resistant mutants, a putative receptor for plantaricin JK, a two-peptide bacteriocin produced by some Lactobacillus plantarum strains, was identified in Lactobacillus plantarum NCFB 965 and Weissella viridescens NCFB 1655. The receptors of the two species had 66% identical amino acid sequences and belong to the amino acid-polyamine-organocation (APC) transporter protein family. The resistant mutants contained point mutations in the protein-encoding gene resulting in either premature stop codons, leading to truncated versions of the protein, or single amino acid substitutions. The secondary structure of the W. viridescens protein was predicted to contain 12 transmembrane (TM) helices, a core structure shared by most members of the APC protein family. The single amino acid substitutions that resulted in resistant strains were located in a confined region of the protein that consists of TM helix 10, which is predicted to be part of an inner membrane pore, and an extracellular loop between TM helix 11 and 12. By use of template-based modeling a 3D structure model of the protein was obtained, which visualizes this mutational hotspot region and further strengthen the hypothesis that it represents a docking site for plantaricin JK.

  5. Discovery of candidate disease genes in ENU-induced mouse mutants by large-scale sequencing, including a splice-site mutation in nucleoredoxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa K Boles

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An accurate and precisely annotated genome assembly is a fundamental requirement for functional genomic analysis. Here, the complete DNA sequence and gene annotation of mouse Chromosome 11 was used to test the efficacy of large-scale sequencing for mutation identification. We re-sequenced the 14,000 annotated exons and boundaries from over 900 genes in 41 recessive mutant mouse lines that were isolated in an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU mutation screen targeted to mouse Chromosome 11. Fifty-nine sequence variants were identified in 55 genes from 31 mutant lines. 39% of the lesions lie in coding sequences and create primarily missense mutations. The other 61% lie in noncoding regions, many of them in highly conserved sequences. A lesion in the perinatal lethal line l11Jus13 alters a consensus splice site of nucleoredoxin (Nxn, inserting 10 amino acids into the resulting protein. We conclude that point mutations can be accurately and sensitively recovered by large-scale sequencing, and that conserved noncoding regions should be included for disease mutation identification. Only seven of the candidate genes we report have been previously targeted by mutation in mice or rats, showing that despite ongoing efforts to functionally annotate genes in the mammalian genome, an enormous gap remains between phenotype and function. Our data show that the classical positional mapping approach of disease mutation identification can be extended to large target regions using high-throughput sequencing.

  6. Novel induced mlo mutant alleles in combination with site-directed mutagenesis reveal functionally important domains in the heptahelical barley Mlo protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piffanelli Pietro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recessively inherited natural and induced mutations in the barley Mlo gene confer durable broad-spectrum resistance against the powdery mildew pathogen, Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei. Mlo codes for a member of a plant-specific family of polytopic integral membrane proteins with unknown biochemical activity. Resistant barley mlo mutant alleles identify amino acid residues that are critical for Mlo function in the context of powdery mildew susceptibility. Results We molecularly analyzed a novel set of induced barley mlo mutants and used site-directed mutagenesis in combination with transient gene expression to unravel novel amino acid residues of functional significance. We integrate these results with previous findings to map functionally important regions of the heptahelical Mlo protein. Our data reveal the second and third cytoplasmic loop as being particularly sensitive to functional impediment by mutational perturbation, suggesting that these regions are critical for the susceptibility-conferring activity of the Mlo protein. In contrast, only mutations in the second but not the third cytoplasmic loop appear to trigger the Endoplasmic Reticulum-localized quality control machinery that ensures the biogenesis of properly folded membrane proteins. Conclusion Our findings identify functionally important regions of the polytopic barley Mlo protein and reveal the differential sensitivity of individual protein domains to cellular quality control.

  7. Use of a Phosphorylation Site Mutant To Identify Distinct Modes of Gene Repression by the Control of Virulence Regulator (CovR) in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstmann, Nicola; Sahasrabhojane, Pranoti; Yao, Hui; Su, Xiaoping; Shelburne, Samuel A

    2017-09-15

    Control of the virulence regulator/sensor kinase (CovRS) two-component system (TCS) serves as a model for investigating the impact of signaling pathways on the pathogenesis of Gram-positive bacteria. However, the molecular mechanisms by which CovR, an OmpR/PhoB family response regulator, controls virulence gene expression are poorly defined, partly due to the labile nature of its aspartate phosphorylation site. To better understand the regulatory effect of phosphorylated CovR, we generated the phosphorylation site mutant strain 10870-CovR-D53E, which we predicted to have a constitutive CovR phosphorylation phenotype. Interestingly, this strain showed CovR activity only for a subset of the CovR regulon, which allowed for classification of CovR-influenced genes into D53E-regulated and D53E-nonregulated groups. Inspection of the promoter sequences of genes belonging to each group revealed distinct promoter architectures with respect to the location and number of putative CovR-binding sites. Electrophoretic mobility shift analysis demonstrated that recombinant CovR-D53E protein retains its ability to bind promoter DNA from both CovR-D53E-regulated and -nonregulated groups, implying that factors other than mere DNA binding are crucial for gene regulation. In fact, we found that CovR-D53E is incapable of dimerization, a process thought to be critical to OmpR/PhoB family regulator function. Thus, our global analysis of CovR-D53E indicates dimerization-dependent and dimerization-independent modes of CovR-mediated repression, thereby establishing distinct mechanisms by which this critical regulator coordinates virulence gene expression. IMPORTANCE Streptococcus pyogenes causes a wide variety of diseases, ranging from superficial skin and throat infections to life-threatening invasive infections. To establish these various disease manifestations, Streptococcus pyogenes requires tightly coordinated production of its virulence factor repertoire. Here, the response regulator

  8. Cell lines that support replication of a novel herpes simplex virus 1 UL31 deletion mutant can properly target UL34 protein to the nuclear rim in the absence of UL31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Li; Tanaka, Michiko; Kawaguchi, Yasushi; Baines, Joel D.

    2004-01-01

    Previous results indicated that the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) U L 31 gene is necessary and sufficient for localization of the U L 34 protein exclusively to the nuclear membrane of infected Hep2 cells. In the current studies, a bacterial artificial chromosome containing the entire HSV-1 strain F genome was used to construct a recombinant viral genome in which a gene encoding kanamycin resistance was inserted in place of 262 codons of the 306 codon U L 31 open reading frame. The deletion virus produced virus titers approximately 10- to 50-fold lower in rabbit skin cells, more than 2000-fold lower in Vero cells, and more than 1500-fold lower in CV1 cells, compared to a virus bearing a restored U L 31 gene. The replication of the U L 31 deletion virus was restored on U L 31-complementing cell lines derived either from rabbit skin cells or CV1 cells. Confocal microscopy indicated that the majority of U L 34 protein localized aberrantly in the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm of Vero cells and CV1 cells, whereas U L 34 protein localized at the nuclear membrane in rabbit skin cells, and U L 31 complementing CV1 cells infected with the U L 31 deletion virus. We conclude that rabbit skin cells encode a function that allows proper localization of U L 34 protein to the nuclear membrane. We speculate that this function partially complements that of U L 31 and may explain why U L 31 is less critical for replication in rabbit skin cells as opposed to Vero and CV1 cells

  9. Characterization of three lactic acid bacteria and their isogenic ldh deletion mutants shows optimization for YATP (cell mass produced per mole of ATP) at their physiological pHs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Tomas; Bekker, Martijn; Jonsson, Maria; Mehmeti, Ibrahim; Pritzschke, Anja; Siemens, Nikolai; Nes, Ingolf; Hugenholtz, Jeroen; Kreikemeyer, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    Several lactic acid bacteria use homolactic acid fermentation for generation of ATP. Here we studied the role of the lactate dehydrogenase enzyme on the general physiology of the three homolactic acid bacteria Lactococcus lactis, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus pyogenes. Of note, deletion of the ldh genes hardly affected the growth rate in chemically defined medium under microaerophilic conditions. However, the growth rate was affected in rich medium. Furthermore, deletion of ldh affected the ability for utilization of various substrates as a carbon source. A switch to mixed acid fermentation was observed during glucose-limited continuous growth and was dependent on the growth rate for S. pyogenes and on the pH for E. faecalis. In S. pyogenes and L. lactis, a change in pH resulted in a clear change in Y(ATP) (cell mass produced per mole of ATP). The pH that showed the highest Y(ATP) corresponded to the pH of the natural habitat of the organisms.

  10. Possible cleavage sites of glutelin partial degradation confirmed by immunological analysis in globulin-less mutants of rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nadar; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Katsube-Tanaka, Tomoyuki

    2017-10-01

    Proteolytic cleavage or partial degradation of proteins is one of the important post-translational modifications for various biological processes, but it is difficult to analyze. Previously, we demonstrated that some subunits of the major rice (Oryza sativa L.) seed storage protein glutelin are partially degraded to produce newly identified polypeptides X1-X5 in mutants in which another major seed storage protein globulin is absent. In this study, the new polypeptides X3 and X4/X5 were immunologically confirmed to be derived from GluA3 and GluA1/GluA2 subunits, respectively. Additionally, the new polypeptides X1 and X2 were at least in part the α polypeptides of the GluB4 subunit partially degraded at the C-terminus. Simulated 2D-PAGE migration patterns of intact and partially degraded α polypeptides based on the calculation of their MWs and pIs enabled us to narrow or predict the possible locations of cleavage sites. The predicted cleavage sites were also verified by the comparison of 2D-PAGE patterns between seed-extracted and E. coli-expressed proteins of the intact and truncated α polypeptides. The results and methodologies demonstrated here would be useful for analyses of partial degradation of proteins and the structure-function relationships of rice seed protein bodies. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Deletion Mutagenesis and Identification of Causative Mutations in Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shangang; Li, Aixia; Zhang, Chi; Holding, David

    2018-01-01

    We describe a method for gamma-irradiation of mature maize seeds to generate mutants with opaque endosperm and reduced kernel fill phenotypes. We also describe methods for mapping mutants and identifying causal gene mutations. Using this method, a population of 1788M2 families and 47 Mo17 × F2s showing stable, segregating, and viable kernel phenotypes was developed. For molecular characterization of the mutants, we utilized a novel functional genomics platform that combines separate Bulked Segregant RNA and exome sequencing data sets (BSREx-seq) to map causative mutations and identify candidate genes within mapping intervals. We also describe the use of exome capture sequencing of F2 mutant and normal pools to perform mapping and candidate gene identification without the need for separate RNA-seq (BSEx-seq). To exemplify the utility of the deletion mutants for functional genomics and provide proof-of-concept for the bioinformatics platform, we summarize the identification of the causative deletion in two mutants. Mutant 937, which was characterized by BSREx-seq, harbors a 6203-bp in-frame deletion covering six exons within the Opaque-1 gene on chromosome 4. Preliminary investigation of opaque mutant 1486 with BSEx-seq shows a tight mapping interval and associated deletion on chromosome 10.

  12. A Yersinia pestis tat mutant is attenuated in bubonic and small-aerosol pneumonic challenge models of infection but not as attenuated by intranasal challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Bozue

    Full Text Available Bacterial proteins destined for the Tat pathway are folded before crossing the inner membrane and are typically identified by an N-terminal signal peptide containing a twin arginine motif. Translocation by the Tat pathway is dependent on the products of genes which encode proteins possessing the binding site of the signal peptide and mediating the actual translocation event. In the fully virulent CO92 strain of Yersinia pestis, the tatA gene was deleted. The mutant was assayed for loss of virulence through various in vitro and in vivo assays. Deletion of the tatA gene resulted in several consequences for the mutant as compared to wild-type. Cell morphology of the mutant bacteria was altered and demonstrated a more elongated form. In addition, while cultures of the mutant strain were able to produce a biofilm, we observed a loss of adhesion of the mutant biofilm structure compared to the biofilm produced by the wild-type strain. Immuno-electron microscopy revealed a partial disruption of the F1 antigen on the surface of the mutant. The virulence of the ΔtatA mutant was assessed in various murine models of plague. The mutant was severely attenuated in the bubonic model with full virulence restored by complementation with the native gene. After small-particle aerosol challenge in a pneumonic model of infection, the mutant was also shown to be attenuated. In contrast, when mice were challenged intranasally with the mutant, very little difference in the LD50 was observed between wild-type and mutant strains. However, an increased time-to-death and delay in bacterial dissemination was observed in mice infected with the ΔtatA mutant as compared to the parent strain. Collectively, these findings demonstrate an essential role for the Tat pathway in the virulence of Y. pestis in bubonic and small-aerosol pneumonic infection but less important role for intranasal challenge.

  13. Central role of mic10 in the mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohnert, Maria; Zerbes, Ralf M; Davies, Karen M; Mühleip, Alexander W; Rampelt, Heike; Horvath, Susanne E; Boenke, Thorina; Kram, Anita; Perschil, Inge; Veenhuis, Marten; Kühlbrandt, Werner; van der Klei, Ida J; Pfanner, Nikolaus; van der Laan, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system (MICOS) is a conserved multi-subunit complex crucial for maintaining the characteristic architecture of mitochondria. Studies with deletion mutants identified Mic10 and Mic60 as core subunits of MICOS. Mic60 has been studied in detail;

  14. Structural and Biochemical Evidence That a TEM-1 [beta]-Lactamase N170G Active Site Mutant Acts via Substrate-assisted Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Nicholas G.; Shanker, Sreejesh; Prasad, B.V. Venkataram; Palzkill, Timothy; (Baylor)

    2010-03-12

    TEM-1 {beta}-lactamase is the most common plasmid-encoded {beta}-lactamase in Gram-negative bacteria and is a model class A enzyme. The active site of class A {beta}-lactamases share several conserved residues including Ser{sup 70}, Glu{sup 166}, and Asn{sub 170} that coordinate a hydrolytic water involved in deacylation. Unlike Ser{sup 70} and Glu{sup 166}, the functional significance of residue Asn{sup 170} is not well understood even though it forms hydrogen bonds with both Glu{sup 166} and the hydrolytic water. The goal of this study was to examine the importance of Asn{sup 170} for catalysis and substrate specificity of {beta}-lactam antibiotic hydrolysis. The codon for position 170 was randomized to create a library containing all 20 possible amino acids. The random library was introduced into Escherichia coli, and functional clones were selected on agar plates containing ampicillin. DNA sequencing of the functional clones revealed that only asparagine (wild type) and glycine at this position are consistent with wild-type function. The determination of kinetic parameters for several substrates revealed that the N170G mutant is very efficient at hydrolyzing substrates that contain a primary amine in the antibiotic R-group that would be close to the Asn{sup 170} side chain in the acyl-intermediate. In addition, the x-ray structure of the N170G enzyme indicated that the position of an active site water important for deacylation is altered compared with the wild-type enzyme. Taken together, the results suggest the N170G TEM-1 enzyme hydrolyzes ampicillin efficiently because of substrate-assisted catalysis where the primary amine of the ampicillin R-group positions the hydrolytic water and allows for efficient deacylation.

  15. A Codon Deletion at the Beginning of Green Fluorescent Protein Genes Enhances Protein Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Mejía, José-Luis; Roldán-Salgado, Abigail; Osuna, Joel; Merino, Enrique; Gaytán, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Recombinant protein expression is one of the key issues in protein engineering and biotechnology. Among the different models for assessing protein production and structure-function studies, green fluorescent protein (GFP) is one of the preferred models because of its importance as a reporter in cellular and molecular studies. In this research we analyze the effect of codon deletions near the amino terminus of different GFP proteins on fluorescence. Our study includes Gly4 deletions in the enhanced GFP (EGFP), the red-shifted GFP and the red-shifted EGFP. The Gly4 deletion mutants and their corresponding wild-type counterparts were transcribed under the control of the T7 or Trc promoters and their expression patterns were analyzed. Different fluorescent outcomes were observed depending on the type of fluorescent gene versions. In silico analysis of the RNA secondary structures near the ribosome binding site revealed a direct relationship between their minimum free energy and GFP production. Integrative analysis of these results, including SDS-PAGE analysis, led us to conclude that the fluorescence improvement of cells expressing different versions of GFPs with Gly4 deleted is due to an enhancement of the accessibility of the ribosome binding site by reducing the stability of the RNA secondary structures at their mRNA leader regions. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Partial deletion 11q

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Jens Michael; Tommerup, N; Sørensen, F B

    1995-01-01

    We describe the cytogenetic findings and the dysmorphic features in a stillborn girl with a large de novo terminal deletion of the long arm of chromosome 11. The karyotype was 46,XX,del(11)(q21qter). By reviewing previous reports of deletion 11q, we found that cleft lip and palate are most...... frequently seen in proximal 11q deletions involving 11q21. Telomeric staining using the PRINS technique demonstrated normal telomeric sequences in the deleted chromosome 11....

  17. Hyperactivity of the Arabidopsis cryptochrome (cry1) L407F mutant is caused by a structural alteration close to the cry1 ATP-binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Christian; Niemann, Nils; Hennig, Lars; Essen, Lars-Oliver; Batschauer, Alfred

    2017-08-04

    Plant cryptochromes (cry) act as UV-A/blue light receptors. The prototype, Arabidopsis thaliana cry1, regulates several light responses during the life cycle, including de-etiolation, and is also involved in regulating flowering time. The cry1 photocycle is initiated by light absorption by its FAD chromophore, which is most likely fully oxidized (FAD ox ) in the dark state and photoreduced to the neutral flavin semiquinone (FADH°) in its lit state. Cryptochromes lack the DNA-repair activity of the closely related DNA photolyases, but they retain the ability to bind nucleotides such as ATP. The previously characterized L407F mutant allele of Arabidopsis cry1 is biologically hyperactive and seems to mimic the ATP-bound state of cry1, but the reason for this phenotypic change is unclear. Here, we show that cry1 L407F can still bind ATP, has less pronounced photoreduction and formation of FADH° than wild-type cry1, and has a dark reversion rate 1.7 times lower than that of the wild type. The hyperactivity of cry1 L407F is not related to a higher FADH° occupancy of the photoreceptor but is caused by a structural alteration close to the ATP-binding site. Moreover, we show that ATP binds to cry1 in both the dark and the lit states. This binding was not affected by cry1's C-terminal extension, which is important for signal transduction. Finally, we show that a recently discovered chemical inhibitor of cry1, 3-bromo-7-nitroindazole, competes for ATP binding and thereby diminishes FADH° formation, which demonstrates that both processes are important for cry1 function. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Characterizing the DNA Methyltransferases of Haloferax volcanii via Bioinformatics, Gene Deletion, and SMRT Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Ouellette

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available DNA methyltransferases (MTases, which catalyze the methylation of adenine and cytosine bases in DNA, can occur in bacteria and archaea alongside cognate restriction endonucleases (REases in restriction-modification (RM systems or independently as orphan MTases. Although DNA methylation and MTases have been well-characterized in bacteria, research into archaeal MTases has been limited. A previous study examined the genomic DNA methylation patterns (methylome of the halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii, a model archaeal system which can be easily manipulated in laboratory settings, via single-molecule real-time (SMRT sequencing and deletion of a putative MTase gene (HVO_A0006. In this follow-up study, we deleted other putative MTase genes in H. volcanii and sequenced the methylomes of the resulting deletion mutants via SMRT sequencing to characterize the genes responsible for DNA methylation. The results indicate that deletion of putative RM genes HVO_0794, HVO_A0006, and HVO_A0237 in a single strain abolished methylation of the sole cytosine motif in the genome (Cm4TAG. Amino acid alignments demonstrated that HVO_0794 shares homology with characterized cytosine CTAG MTases in other organisms, indicating that this MTase is responsible for Cm4TAG methylation in H. volcanii. The CTAG motif has high density at only one of the origins of replication, and there is no relative increase in CTAG motif frequency in the genome of H. volcanii, indicating that CTAG methylation might not have effectively taken over the role of regulating DNA replication and mismatch repair in the organism as previously predicted. Deletion of the putative Type I RM operon rmeRMS (HVO_2269-2271 resulted in abolished methylation of the adenine motif in the genome (GCAm6BN6VTGC. Alignments of the MTase (HVO_2270 and site specificity subunit (HVO_2271 demonstrate homology with other characterized Type I MTases and site specificity subunits, indicating that the rmeRMS operon is

  19. [Construction of T-DNA insertion mutants of Botrytis cinerea via Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation and sequence analysis of insertion site].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Juan; Zhu, Tingheng; Cui, Zhifeng; Wang, Kun

    2010-02-01

    Construction of Botrytis cinerea T-DNA insertion mutant library through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and for further understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity of Botrytis cinerea. Agrobacterium containing the binary vector pCMBIA1390 was used for transformation of Botrytis cinerea. Hygromycin resistant transformants were screened out and subjected to biological and morphological observation, Detached tomato leaves were used for pathogenicity assay. The flanking sequence of T-DNA inserted in mutant genome was cloned and analyzed by using TAIL-PCR. A variety of mutants were obtained and important phenotypes including reduction in growth rate, loss or reduction in conidiation and loss of pathogenicity were screened out. The T-DNA flanking sequence of one of the mutants was successfully amplified with TAIL-PCR. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system of Botrytis cinerea was established and a T-DNA insertion mutants library was constructed. TAIL-PCR was an effective method for isolating the flanking sequence of T-DNA inserted in genome.

  20. Characterization of the Escherichia coli prsA1-encoded mutant phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase identifies a divalent cation-nucleotide binding site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bower, Stanley G.; Harlow, Kenneth W.; Switzer, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    by chemical determination of the amino acid sequence of a tryptic peptide derived from the purified mutant enzyme. The mutation lies at the N-terminal end of a 16 residue sequence that is highly conserved in E. coli, Bacillus subtilis, and rat PRPP synthetases and has the following consensus sequence......The prsA1 allele, specifying a mutant Escherichia coli phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP) synthetase, has been cloned. The mutation was shown by nucleotide sequence analysis to result from substitution of Asp-128 (GAT) in the wild type by Ala (GCT) in prsA1. This alteration was confirmed...

  1. Effect of gamma rays at the dihydrofolate reductase locus: deletions and inversions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urlaub, G.; Mitchell, P.J.; Kas, E.; Chasin, L.A.; Funanage, V.L.; Myoda, T.T.; Hamlin, J.

    1986-01-01

    A series 11 gamma-ray-induced mutants at the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) locus in Chinese hamster ovary cells has been examined for the types of DNA sequence change brought about by this form of ionizing radiation. All 11 mutants were found to have suffered major structural changes affecting the dhfr gene. In eight of the mutants, all or part of the dhfr gene has been deleted. The extent of these deletions was examined in seven of these mutants and, for comparison, in two deletion mutants that were induced by UV irradiation. For this purpose, probes from an overlapping set of cosmids that span 210 kb of DNA in this region were used. Three of seven gamma-ray-induced mutants and one UV-induced mutant were shown to have deleted the entire 210-kb region. In the remaining mutants, endpoints ranging from within the dhfr gene to 100 kb downstream were observed. No upstream endpoints were detected, so that an upper limit on the size of these large deletions could not be assigned. Three of the 11 gamma-ray-induced mutants contained an interruption in the dhfr gene without any detectable loss of sequence. Restriction analysis of these interrupted mutants showed that at least 8-14 kb of foreign DNA sequence became joined to the gene at the point of disruption. Cytogenetic analysis of these mutants showed that in two cases an inversion of the banding pattern on chromosome Z-2 had taken place. The inverted dhfr mutants contain very low amounts of dhfr RNA sequences, and the 5' end of an inversion mutant gene exhibits the same pattern of DNA methylation and DNase I-hypersensitivity as the wild-type gene. Our results suggest that ionizing radiation causes primarily, if not exclusively, large deletions and inversions in mammalian cells

  2. NPL deletion policy for RCRA-regulated TSD facilities finalized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Under a new policy published by EPA on March 20, 1995, certain sites may be deleted from the National Priorities List (NPL) and deferred to RCRA corrective action. To be deleted from the NPL, a site must (1) be regulated under RCRA as a treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facility and (2) meet the four criteria specified by EPA. The new NPL deletion policy, which does not pertain to federal TSD facilities, became effective on April 19, 1995. 1 tab

  3. Characterization of the Escherichia coli prsA1-encoded mutant phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase identifies a divalent cation-nucleotide binding site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bower, Stanley G.; Harlow, Kenneth W.; Switzer, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    -fold lower affinity for Ca2+, as judged by the ability of Ca2+ to inhibit the reaction in the presence of 10 mM Mg2+. Wild type PRPP synthetase is subject to product inhibition by AMP, but AMP inhibition of the prsA1 mutant enzyme could not be detected. It has been previously proposed that a divalent...

  4. Recombination Phenotypes of Escherichia coli greA Mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poteete Anthony R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The elongation factor GreA binds to RNA polymerase and modulates transcriptional pausing. Some recent research suggests that the primary role of GreA may not be to regulate gene expression, but rather, to promote the progression of replication forks which collide with RNA polymerase, and which might otherwise collapse. Replication fork collapse is known to generate dsDNA breaks, which can be recombinogenic. It follows that GreA malfunction could have consequences affecting homologous recombination. Results Escherichia coli mutants bearing substitutions of the active site acidic residues of the transcription elongation factor GreA, D41N and E44K, were isolated as suppressors of growth inhibition by a toxic variant of the bacteriophage lambda Red-beta recombination protein. These mutants, as well as a D41A greA mutant and a greA deletion, were tested for proficiency in recombination events. The mutations were found to increase the efficiency of RecA-RecBCD-mediated and RecA-Red-mediated recombination, which are replication-independent, and to decrease the efficiency of replication-dependent Red-mediated recombination. Conclusion These observations provide new evidence for a role of GreA in resolving conflicts between replication and transcription.

  5. Chromosomal deletion unmasking a recessive disease: 22q13 deletion syndrome and metachromatic leukodystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, A-M; Kirchhoff, M; Nielsen, J E

    2008-01-01

    A deletion on one chromosome and a mutant allele on the other may cause an autosomal recessive disease. We report on two patients with mental retardation, dysmorphic features and low catalytic activity of arylsulfatase A. One patient had a pathogenic mutation in the arylsulfatase A gene (ARSA......) and succumbed to metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD). The other patient had a pseudoallele, which does not lead to MLD. The presenting clinical features and low arylsulfatase A activity were explained, in each patients, by a deletion of 22q13 and, thereby, of one allele of ARSA....

  6. Partial deletion 11q

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Jens Michael; Tommerup, N; Sørensen, F B

    1995-01-01

    We describe the cytogenetic findings and the dysmorphic features in a stillborn girl with a large de novo terminal deletion of the long arm of chromosome 11. The karyotype was 46,XX,del(11)(q21qter). By reviewing previous reports of deletion 11q, we found that cleft lip and palate are most...

  7. Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Tomoya; Ara, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Miki; Takai, Yuki; Okumura, Yoshiko; Baba, Miki; Datsenko, Kirill A; Tomita, Masaru; Wanner, Barry L; Mori, Hirotada

    2006-01-01

    We have systematically made a set of precisely defined, single-gene deletions of all nonessential genes in Escherichia coli K-12. Open-reading frame coding regions were replaced with a kanamycin cassette flanked by FLP recognition target sites by using a one-step method for inactivation of chromosomal genes and primers designed to create in-frame deletions upon excision of the resistance cassette. Of 4288 genes targeted, mutants were obtained for 3985. To alleviate problems encountered in high-throughput studies, two independent mutants were saved for every deleted gene. These mutants-the 'Keio collection'-provide a new resource not only for systematic analyses of unknown gene functions and gene regulatory networks but also for genome-wide testing of mutational effects in a common strain background, E. coli K-12 BW25113. We were unable to disrupt 303 genes, including 37 of unknown function, which are candidates for essential genes. Distribution is being handled via GenoBase (http://ecoli.aist-nara.ac.jp/).

  8. Genome-wide analysis of mutations in mutant lineages selected following fast-neutron irradiation mutagenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Belfield, E.J.

    2012-04-12

    Ionizing radiation has long been known to induce heritable mutagenic change in DNA sequence. However, the genome-wide effect of radiation is not well understood. Here we report the molecular properties and frequency of mutations in phenotypically selected mutant lines isolated following exposure of the genetic model flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana to fast neutrons (FNs). Previous studies suggested that FNs predominantly induce deletions longer than a kilobase in A. thaliana. However, we found a higher frequency of single base substitution than deletion mutations. While the overall frequency and molecular spectrum of fast-neutron (FN)-induced single base substitutions differed substantially from those of "background" mutations arising spontaneously in laboratory-grown plants, G:C>A:T transitions were favored in both. We found that FN-induced G:C>A:T transitions were concentrated at pyrimidine dinucleotide sites, suggesting that FNs promote the formation of mutational covalent linkages between adjacent pyrimidine residues. In addition, we found that FNs induced more single base than large deletions, and that these single base deletions were possibly caused by replication slippage. Our observations provide an initial picture of the genome-wide molecular profile of mutations induced in A. thaliana by FN irradiation and are particularly informative of the nature and extent of genome-wide mutation in lines selected on the basis of mutant phenotypes from FN-mutagenized A. thaliana populations.

  9. Two novel partial deletions of LDL-receptor gene in Italian patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH Siracusa and FH Reggio Emilia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garuti, R; Lelli, N; Barozzini, M; Tiozzo, R; Ghisellini, M; Simone, M L; Li Volti, S; Garozzo, R; Mollica, F; Vergoni, W; Bertolini, S; Calandra, S

    1996-03-01

    In the present study we report two novel partial deletions of the LDL-R gene. The first (FH Siracusa), found in an FH-heterozygote, consists of a 20 kb deletion spanning from the 5' flanking region to the intron 2 of the LDL-receptor gene. The elimination of the promoter and the first two exons prevents the transcription of the deleted allele, as shown by Northern blot analysis of LDL-R mRNA isolated from the proband's fibroblasts. The second deletion (FH Reggio Emilia), which eliminates 11 nucleotides of exon 10, was also found in an FH heterozygote. The characterization of this deletion was made possible by a combination of techniques such as single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis, direct sequence of exon 10 and cloning of the normal and deleted exon 10 from the proband's DNA. The 11 nt deletion occurs in a region of exon 10 which contains three triplets (CTG) and two four-nucleotides (CTGG) direct repeats. This structural feature might render this region more susceptible to a slipped mispairing during DNA duplication. Since this deletion causes a shift of the BamHI site at the 5' end of exon 10, a method has been devised for its rapid screening which is based on the PCR amplification of exon 10 followed by BamHI digestion. FH Reggio Emilia deletion produces a shift in the reading frame downstream from Lys458, leading to a sequence of 51 novel amino acids before the occurrence of a premature stop codon (truncated receptor). However, since RT-PCR failed to demonstrate the presence of the mutant LDL-R mRNA in proband fibroblasts, it is likely that the amount of truncated receptor produced in these cells is negligible.

  10. Schizophrenia and chromosomal deletions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, E.A.; Baldini, A. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Morris, M. A. [Univ. of Geneva School of Medicine, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    Recent genetic linkage analysis studies have suggested the presence of a schizophrenia locus on the chromosomal region 22q11-q13. Schizophrenia has also been frequently observed in patients affected with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS), a disorder frequently associated with deletions within 22q11.1. It has been hypothesized that psychosis in VCFS may be due to deletion of the catechol-o-methyl transferase gene. Prompted by these observations, we screened for 22q11 deletions in a population of 100 schizophrenics selected from the Maryland Epidemiological Sample. Our results show that there are schizophrenic patients carrying a deletion of 22q11.1 and a mild VCFS phenotype that might remain unrecognized. These findings should encourage a search for a schizophrenia-susceptibility gene within the deleted region and alert those in clinical practice to the possible presence of a mild VCFS phenotype associated with schizophrenia. 9 refs.

  11. Induced Levels of Heat Shock Proteins in dnaK mutants of Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Birgit; Hammer, Karin; Vogensen, Finn K.

    1998-01-01

    of the inferred substrate binding site of the DnaK protein, exhibits a pronounced temperature sensitive phenotype and shows altered regulation of the heat shock response. The expression of the heat shock proteins are increased at the normal growth temperature measured both as protein synthesis rates and m......The bacterial heat shock response is characterized by the elevated expression of a number of chaperone complexes and proteases including the DnaK-GrpE-DnaJ and the GroELS chaperone complexes. In order to investigate the importance of the DnaK chaperone complex for the growth and the heat shock...... regulation in Lactococcus lactis we have constructed two dnaK mutants with C-terminal deletions in dnaK. The minor deletion of 65 amino acids in the dnaK2 mutant, results in a slightly temperature sensitive phenotype. BK6 containing the larger deletion of 174 amino acids (dnaK1) removing the major part...

  12. Quantum deletion: Beyond the no-deletion principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, Satyabrata

    2005-01-01

    Suppose we are given two identical copies of an unknown quantum state and we wish to delete one copy from among the given two copies. The quantum no-deletion principle restricts us from perfectly deleting a copy but it does not prohibit us from deleting a copy approximately. Here we construct two types of a 'universal quantum deletion machine' which approximately deletes a copy such that the fidelity of deletion does not depend on the input state. The two types of universal quantum deletion machines are (1) a conventional deletion machine described by one unitary operator and (2) a modified deletion machine described by two unitary operators. Here it is shown that the modified deletion machine deletes a qubit with fidelity 3/4, which is the maximum limit for deleting an unknown quantum state. In addition to this we also show that the modified deletion machine retains the qubit in the first mode with average fidelity 0.77 (approx.) which is slightly greater than the fidelity of measurement for two given identical states, showing how precisely one can determine its state [S. Massar and S. Popescu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1259 (1995)]. We also show that the deletion machine itself is input state independent, i.e., the information is not hidden in the deleting machine, and hence we can delete the information completely from the deletion machine

  13. Genetic deletion of cdc42 reveals a crucial role for astrocyte recruitment to the injury site in vitro and in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robel, Stefanie; Bardehle, Sophia; Lepier, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    signals, the small RhoGTPase Cdc42, selectively in mouse astrocytes in vitro and in vivo. We used an in vitro scratch assay as a minimal wounding model and found that astrocytes lacking Cdc42 (Cdc42Δ) were still able to form protrusions, although in a nonoriented way. Consequently, they failed to migrate...... in a directed manner toward the scratch. When animals were injured in vivo through a stab wound, Cdc42Δ astrocytes developed protrusions properly oriented toward the lesion, but the number of astrocytes recruited to the lesion site was significantly reduced. Surprisingly, however, lesions in Cdc42Δ animals...

  14. Conversion of a beta-strand to an alpha-helix induced by a single-site mutation observed in the crystal structure of Fis mutant Pro26Ala.

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, W. Z.; Ko, T. P.; Corselli, L.; Johnson, R. C.; Yuan, H. S.

    1998-01-01

    The conversion from an alpha-helix to a beta-strand has received extensive attention since this structural change may induce many amyloidogenic proteins to self-assemble into fibrils and cause fatal diseases. Here we report the conversion of a peptide segment from a beta-strand to an alpha-helix by a single-site mutation as observed in the crystal structure of Fis mutant Pro26Ala determined at 2.0 A resolution. Pro26 in Fis occurs at the point where a flexible extended beta-hairpin arm leaves...

  15. Structural plasticity of green fluorescent protein to amino acid deletions and fluorescence rescue by folding-enhancing mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-su; Wei, Xuan; Dong, Xue; Xu, Liang; Liu, Jia; Jiang, Biao

    2015-07-25

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) and its derivative fluorescent proteins (FPs) are among the most commonly used reporter systems for studying gene expression and protein interaction in biomedical research. Most commercially available FPs have been optimized for their oligomerization state to prevent potential structural constraints that may interfere with the native function of fused proteins. Other approach to reducing structural constraints may include minimizing the structure of GFPs. Previous studies in an enhanced GFP variant (EGFP) identified a series of deletions that can retain GFP fluorescence. In this study, we interrogated the structural plasticity of a UV-optimized GFP variant (GFP(UV)) to amino acid deletions, characterized the effects of deletions and explored the feasibility of rescuing the fluorescence of deletion mutants using folding-enhancing mutations. Transposon mutagenesis was used to screen amino acid deletions in GFP that led to fluorescent and nonfluorescent phenotypes. The fluorescent GFP mutants were characterized for their whole-cell fluorescence and fraction soluble. Fluorescent GFP mutants with internal deletions were purified and characterized for their spectral and folding properties. Folding-ehancing mutations were introduced to deletion mutants to rescue their compromised fluorescence. We identified twelve amino acid deletions that can retain the fluorescence of GFP(UV). Seven of these deletions are either at the N- or C- terminus, while the other five are located at internal helices or strands. Further analysis suggested that the five internal deletions diminished the efficiency of protein folding and chromophore maturation. Protein expression under hypothermic condition or incorporation of folding-enhancing mutations could rescue the compromised fluorescence of deletion mutants. In addition, we generated dual deletion mutants that can retain GFP fluorescence. Our results suggested that a "size-minimized" GFP may be developed by

  16. Sequence homology at the breakpoint and clinical phenotype of mitochondrial DNA deletion syndromes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekim Sadikovic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA deletions are a common cause of mitochondrial disorders. Large mtDNA deletions can lead to a broad spectrum of clinical features with different age of onset, ranging from mild mitochondrial myopathies (MM, progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO, and Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS, to severe Pearson syndrome. The aim of this study is to investigate the molecular signatures surrounding the deletion breakpoints and their association with the clinical phenotype and age at onset. MtDNA deletions in 67 patients were characterized using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH followed by PCR-sequencing of the deletion junctions. Sequence homology including both perfect and imperfect short repeats flanking the deletion regions were analyzed and correlated with clinical features and patients' age group. In all age groups, there was a significant increase in sequence homology flanking the deletion compared to mtDNA background. The youngest patient group (<6 years old showed a diffused pattern of deletion distribution in size and locations, with a significantly lower sequence homology flanking the deletion, and the highest percentage of deletion mutant heteroplasmy. The older age groups showed rather discrete pattern of deletions with 44% of all patients over 6 years old carrying the most common 5 kb mtDNA deletion, which was found mostly in muscle specimens (22/41. Only 15% (3/20 of the young patients (<6 years old carry the 5 kb common deletion, which is usually present in blood rather than muscle. This group of patients predominantly (16 out of 17 exhibit multisystem disorder and/or Pearson syndrome, while older patients had predominantly neuromuscular manifestations including KSS, PEO, and MM. In conclusion, sequence homology at the deletion flanking regions is a consistent feature of mtDNA deletions. Decreased levels of sequence homology and increased levels of deletion mutant heteroplasmy appear to correlate with earlier

  17. Sequence homology at the breakpoint and clinical phenotype of mitochondrial DNA deletion syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadikovic, Bekim; Wang, Jing; El-Hattab, Ayman W; Landsverk, Megan; Douglas, Ganka; Brundage, Ellen K; Craigen, William J; Schmitt, Eric S; Wong, Lee-Jun C

    2010-12-20

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions are a common cause of mitochondrial disorders. Large mtDNA deletions can lead to a broad spectrum of clinical features with different age of onset, ranging from mild mitochondrial myopathies (MM), progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO), and Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS), to severe Pearson syndrome. The aim of this study is to investigate the molecular signatures surrounding the deletion breakpoints and their association with the clinical phenotype and age at onset. MtDNA deletions in 67 patients were characterized using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) followed by PCR-sequencing of the deletion junctions. Sequence homology including both perfect and imperfect short repeats flanking the deletion regions were analyzed and correlated with clinical features and patients' age group. In all age groups, there was a significant increase in sequence homology flanking the deletion compared to mtDNA background. The youngest patient group (deletion distribution in size and locations, with a significantly lower sequence homology flanking the deletion, and the highest percentage of deletion mutant heteroplasmy. The older age groups showed rather discrete pattern of deletions with 44% of all patients over 6 years old carrying the most common 5 kb mtDNA deletion, which was found mostly in muscle specimens (22/41). Only 15% (3/20) of the young patients (deletion, which is usually present in blood rather than muscle. This group of patients predominantly (16 out of 17) exhibit multisystem disorder and/or Pearson syndrome, while older patients had predominantly neuromuscular manifestations including KSS, PEO, and MM. In conclusion, sequence homology at the deletion flanking regions is a consistent feature of mtDNA deletions. Decreased levels of sequence homology and increased levels of deletion mutant heteroplasmy appear to correlate with earlier onset and more severe disease with multisystem involvement.

  18. Deletion of the propeptide from human preproapolipoprotein A-II redirects cotranslation processing by signal peptidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folz, R.J.; Gordon, J.I.

    1986-01-01

    The functions of NH 2 -terminal propeptides are not known. The authors have used apoA-II as a model to study prosegment structure/function relationships. The primary translation product of human apolipoprotein A-II mRNA contains an 18-amino acid signal peptide, a 5-amino acid propeptide, and the mature 77-amino acid plasma protein sequence. Its propeptide was deleted by site-directed mutagenesis of a cloned cDNA. The effects of this mutation on cotranslational translocation and proteolytic processing were assessed using an in vitro transcription/translation/microsomal membrane processing system. Deletion of the propeptide did not affect cotranslational translocation. However, without its propeptide, signal peptidase cleavage was redirected to a different site located between the 2nd and 3rd residues of the mature protein. Since the primary structure of the signal peptide was not altered in the mutant, these results suggest that sequences located downstream from the signal peptidase cleavage site (e.g. in propeptides) may modulate, or participate in defining, the correct site of cotranslational proteolytic processing

  19. An unusual insertion/deletion in the gene encoding the. beta. -subunit of propionyl-CoA carboxylase is a frequent mutation in Caucasian propionic acidemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahara, T.; Kraus, J.P.; Rosenberg, L.E. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (USA))

    1990-02-01

    Propionic acidemia is an inherited disorder of organic acid metabolism that is caused by deficiency of propionly-CoA carboxylase. Affected patients fall into two complementation groups, pccA and pccBC (subgroups B, C, and BC), resulting from deficiency of the nonidentical {alpha} and {beta} subunits of PCC, respectively. The authors have detected an unusual insertion/deletion in the DNA of patients from the pccBC and pccC subgroups that replaces 14 nucleotides in the coding sequence of the {beta} subunit with 12 nucleotides unrelated to this region of the gene. Among 14 unrelated Caucasian patients in the pccBc complementation group, this unique mutation was found in 8 of 28 mutant alleles examined. Mutant allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization to amplified genomic DNAs revealed that the inserted 12 nucleotides do not originate in an {approx}1000-bp region around the mutation. In the course of the investigation, they identified another mutation in the same exon: a 3-bp in-frame deletion that eliminates one of two isoleucine codons immediately preceding the Msp I site. Two unrelated patients were compound heterozygotes for this single-codon deletion and for the insertion/deletion described above. They conclude that either there is a propensity for the PCC {beta}-subunit gene to undergo mutations of this sort at this position or, more likely, the mutations in all of the involved Caucasian patients have a common origin in preceding generations.

  20. An unusual insertion/deletion in the gene encoding the β-subunit of propionyl-CoA carboxylase is a frequent mutation in Caucasian propionic acidemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahara, T.; Kraus, J.P.; Rosenberg, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    Propionic acidemia is an inherited disorder of organic acid metabolism that is caused by deficiency of propionly-CoA carboxylase. Affected patients fall into two complementation groups, pccA and pccBC (subgroups B, C, and BC), resulting from deficiency of the nonidentical α and β subunits of PCC, respectively. The authors have detected an unusual insertion/deletion in the DNA of patients from the pccBC and pccC subgroups that replaces 14 nucleotides in the coding sequence of the β subunit with 12 nucleotides unrelated to this region of the gene. Among 14 unrelated Caucasian patients in the pccBc complementation group, this unique mutation was found in 8 of 28 mutant alleles examined. Mutant allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization to amplified genomic DNAs revealed that the inserted 12 nucleotides do not originate in an ∼1000-bp region around the mutation. In the course of the investigation, they identified another mutation in the same exon: a 3-bp in-frame deletion that eliminates one of two isoleucine codons immediately preceding the Msp I site. Two unrelated patients were compound heterozygotes for this single-codon deletion and for the insertion/deletion described above. They conclude that either there is a propensity for the PCC β-subunit gene to undergo mutations of this sort at this position or, more likely, the mutations in all of the involved Caucasian patients have a common origin in preceding generations

  1. Deletion of amino acid residues 33-46 in growth hormone alters the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigate the effect of deletion on the chemistry of the molecule, computational biology tools were employed. The mutant with the deletion of amino acid residues 33-46, was designed and the model was visualized on computer. The structure of 20k bGH was compared with bGH and dissected for hydrogen bonds and ...

  2. The smt-0 mutation which abolishes mating-type switching in fission yeast is a deletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Styrkársdóttir, U; Egel, R; Nielsen, O

    1993-01-01

    Mating-type switching in the fission yeast, S. pombe, is initiated by a DNA double-strand break (DSB) between the mat1 cassette and the H1 homology box. The mat1-cis-acting mutant, smt-0, abolishes mating-type switching and is shown here to be a 263-bp deletion. This deletion starts in the middle...

  3. A γA-Crystallin Mouse Mutant Secc with Small Eye, Cataract and Closed Eyelid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Hei Cheng

    Full Text Available Cataract is the most common cause of visual loss in humans. A spontaneously occurred, autosomal dominant mouse mutant Secc, which displayed combined features of small eye, cataract and closed eyelid was discovered in our laboratory. In this study, we identified the mutation and characterized the cataract phenotype of this novel Secc mutant. The Secc mutant mice have eyelids that remain half-closed throughout their life. The mutant lens has a significant reduction in size and with opaque spots clustered in the centre. Histological analysis showed that in the core region of the mutant lens, the fiber cells were disorganized and clefts and vacuoles were observed. The cataract phenotype was evident from new born stage. We identified the Secc mutation by linkage analysis using whole genome microsatellite markers and SNP markers. The Secc locus was mapped at chromosome 1 flanked by SNPs rs3158129 and rs13475900. Based on the chromosomal position, the candidate cataract locus γ-crystallin gene cluster (Cryg was investigated by sequencing. A single base deletion (299delG in exon 3 of Cryga which led to a frame-shift of amino acid sequence from position 91 was identified. As a result of this mutation, the sequences of the 3rd and 4th Greek-key motifs of the γA-crystallin are replaced with an unrelated C-terminal peptide of 75 residues long. Coincidentally, the point mutation generated a HindIII restriction site, allowing the identification of the CrygaSecc mutant allele by RFLP. Western blot analysis of 3-week old lenses showed that the expression of γ-crystallins was reduced in the CrygaSecc mutant. Furthermore, in cell transfection assays using CrygaSecc mutant cDNA expression constructs in 293T, COS-7 and human lens epithelial B3 cell lines, the mutant γA-crystallins were enriched in the insoluble fractions and appeared as insoluble aggregates in the transfected cells. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that the Secc mutation leads to the

  4. An allosteric binding site at the human serotonin transporter mediates the inhibition of escitalopram by R-citalopram: kinetic binding studies with the ALI/VFL-SI/TT mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Huailing; Hansen, Kasper B; Boyle, Noel J; Han, Kiho; Muske, Galina; Huang, Xinyan; Egebjerg, Jan; Sánchez, Connie

    2009-10-25

    The human serotonin transporter (hSERT) has primary and allosteric binding sites for escitalopram and R-citalopram. Previous studies have established that the interaction of these two compounds at a low affinity allosteric binding site of hSERT can affect the dissociation of [(3)H]escitalopram from hSERT. The allosteric binding site involves a series of residues in the 10th, 11th, and 12th trans-membrane domains of hSERT. The low affinity allosteric activities of escitalopram and R-citalopram are essentially eliminated in a mutant hSERT with changes in some of these residues, namely A505V, L506F, I507L, S574T, I575T, as measured in dissociation binding studies. We confirm that in association binding experiments, R-citalopram at clinically relevant concentrations reduces the association rate of [(3)H]escitalopram as a ligand to wild type hSERT. We demonstrate that the ability of R-citalopram to reduce the association rate of escitalopram is also abolished in the mutant hSERT (A505V, L506F, I507L, S574T, I575T), along with the expected disruption the low affinity allosteric function on dissociation binding. This suggests that the allosteric binding site mediates both the low affinity and higher affinity interactions between R-citalopram, escitalopram, and hSERT. Our data add an additional structural basis for the different efficacies of escitalopram compared to racemic citalopram reported in animal studies and clinical trials, and substantiate the hypothesis that hSERT has complex allosteric mechanisms underlying the unexplained in vivo activities of its inhibitors.

  5. Structural and functional consequences of binding site mutations in transferrin: crystal structures of the Asp63Glu and Arg124Ala mutants of the N-lobe of human transferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Heather M; He, Qing-Yu; Briggs, Sara K; Mason, Anne B; Baker, Edward N

    2003-06-17

    Human transferrin is a serum protein whose function is to bind Fe(3+) with very high affinity and transport it to cells, for delivery by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Structurally, the transferrin molecule is folded into two globular lobes, representing its N-terminal and C-terminal halves, with each lobe possessing a high-affinity iron binding site, in a cleft between two domains. Central to function is a highly conserved set of iron ligands, including an aspartate residue (Asp63 in the N-lobe) that also hydrogen bonds between the two domains and an arginine residue (Arg124 in the N-lobe) that binds an iron-bound carbonate ion. To further probe the roles of these residues, we have determined the crystal structures of the D63E and R124A mutants of the N-terminal half-molecule of human transferrin. The structure of the D63E mutant, determined at 1.9 A resolution (R = 0.245, R(free) = 0.261), showed that the carboxyl group still binds to iron despite the larger size of the Glu side chain, with some slight rearrangement of the first turn of alpha-helix residues 63-72, to which it is attached. The structure of the R124A mutant, determined at 2.4 A resolution (R = 0.219, R(free) = 0.288), shows that the loss of the arginine side chain results in a 0.3 A displacement of the carbonate ion, and an accompanying movement of the iron atom. In both mutants, the iron coordination is changed slightly, the principal change being in each case a lengthening of the Fe-N(His249) bond. Both mutants also release iron more readily than the wild type, kinetically and in terms of acid lability of iron binding. We attribute this to more facile protonation of the synergistically bound carbonate ion, in the case of R124A, and to strain resulting from the accommodation of the larger Glu side chain, in the case of D63E. In both cases, the weakened Fe-N(His) bond may also contribute, consistent with protonation of the His ligand being an early intermediate step in iron release, following the

  6. Recombinant respiratory syncytial virus from which the entire SH gene has been deleted grows efficiently in cell culture and exhibits site-specific attenuation in the respiratory tract of the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukreyev, A; Whitehead, S S; Murphy, B R; Collins, P L

    1997-12-01

    The small hydrophobic protein SH of human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a short transmembrane surface protein of unknown function. A full-length cDNA of RSV strain A2 (subgroup A) antigenomic RNA was modified such that the entire SH gene, including the transcription signals and the complete mRNA-encoding sequence, was deleted and replaced by a synthetic intergenic region. This reduced the length of the antigenome by 398 nucleotides and ablated expression of 1 of the 10 RSV mRNAs. Recombinant virus containing this engineered deletion was recovered, and the absence of the SH gene was confirmed by reverse transcription in conjunction with PCR. Northern blot analysis of intracellular RNAs and gel electrophoresis of labeled intracellular proteins confirmed the lack of expression of the SH mRNA and protein. The absence of the SH gene did not noticeably affect RNA replication, but two effects on transcription were noted. First, synthesis of the G, F, and M2 mRNAs was increased, presumably due to their being one position closer to the promoter in the gene order. Second, transcription of genes downstream of the engineered site exhibited a steeper gradient of polarity. On monolayers of HEp-2 cells, the SH-minus virus produced syncytia which were at least equivalent in size to those of the wild type and produced plaques which were 70% larger. Furthermore, the SH-minus virus grew somewhat better (up to 12.6-fold) than wild-type recombinant RSV in certain cell lines. While the function of the SH protein remains to be determined, it seems to be completely dispensable for growth in tissue culture and fusion function. When inoculated intranasally into mice, the SH-minus virus resembled the wild-type recombinant virus in its efficiency of replication in the lungs, whereas it replicated 10-fold less efficiently in the upper respiratory tract. In mice, the SH-minus and wild-type recombinant viruses were similarly immunogenic and effective in inducing resistance to virus

  7. A comparison of direct infusion MS and GC-MS for metabolic footprinting of yeast mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mass, S.; Villas-Bôas, Silas Granato; Hansen, Michael Adsetts Edberg

    2007-01-01

    -deletion mutants. Filtered fermentation broth samples were analyzed by GC-MS and direct infusion ESI-MS. The potential of both methods in producing specific and, therefore, discriminant metabolite profiles was evaluated using samples from several yeast deletion mutants grown in batch-culture conditions....... Thus, the GC-MS method is good for classification of mutants with altered nitrogen regulation as it primarily measures amino acids, whereas this method cannot classify mutants involved in regulation of phospholipids metabolism as well as the direct infusion MS (DI-MS) method. From the analysis, we find...

  8. Establishment of screening technique for mutant cell and analysis of base sequence in the mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofuni, Toshio; Nomi, Takehiko; Yamada, Masami; Masumura, Kenichi

    2000-01-01

    This research project aimed to establish an easy and quick detection method for radiation-induced mutation using molecular-biological techniques and an effective analyzing method for the molecular changes in base sequence. In this year, Spi mutants derived from γ-radiation exposed mouse were analyzed by PCR method and DNA sequence method. Male transgenic mice were exposed to γ-ray at 5,10, 50 Gy and the transgene was taken out from the genome DNA from the spleen in vivo packaging method. Spi mutant plaques were obtained by infecting the recovered phage to E. coli. Sequence analysis for the mutants was made using ALFred DNA sequencer and SequiTherm TM Long-Red Cycle sequencing kit. Sequence analysis was carried out for 41 of 50 independent Spi mutants obtained. The deletions were classified into 4 groups; Group 1 included 15 mutants that were characterized with a large deletion (43 bp-10 kb) with a short homologous sequence. Group 2 included 11 mutants of a large deletion having no homologous sequence at the connecting region. Group 3 included 11 mutants having a short deletion of less than 20 bp, which occurred in the non-repetitive sequence of gam gene and possibly caused by oxidative breakage of DNA or recombination of DNA fragment produced by the breakage. Group 4 included 4 mutants having deletions as short as 20 bp or less in the repetitive sequence of gam gene, resulting in an alteration of the reading frame. Thus, the synthesis of Gam protein was terminated by the appearance of TGA between code 13 and 14 of redB gene, leading to inactivation of gam gene and redBA gene. These results indicated that most of Spi mutants had a deletion in red/gam region and the deletions in more than half mutants occurred in homologous sequences as short as 8 bp. (M.N.)

  9. Structural Determinants of the Gain-of-Function Phenotype of Human Leukemia-associated Mutant CBL Oncogene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Scott A; An, Wei; Mohapatra, Bhopal C; Mushtaq, Insha; Bielecki, Timothy A; Luan, Haitao; Zutshi, Neha; Ahmad, Gulzar; Storck, Matthew D; Sanada, Masashi; Ogawa, Seishi; Band, Vimla; Band, Hamid

    2017-03-03

    Mutations of the tyrosine kinase-directed ubiquitin ligase CBL cause myeloid leukemias, but the molecular determinants of the dominant leukemogenic activity of mutant CBL oncogenes are unclear. Here, we first define a gain-of-function attribute of the most common leukemia-associated CBL mutant, Y371H, by demonstrating its ability to increase proliferation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) derived from CBL-null and CBL/CBL-B-null mice. Next, we express second-site point/deletion mutants of CBL-Y371H in CBL/CBL-B-null HSPCs or the cytokine-dependent human leukemic cell line TF-1 to show that individual or combined Tyr → Phe mutations of established phosphotyrosine residues (Tyr-700, Tyr-731, and Tyr-774) had little impact on the activity of the CBL-Y371H mutant in HSPCs, and the triple Tyr → Phe mutant was only modestly impaired in TF-1 cells. In contrast, intact tyrosine kinase-binding (TKB) domain and proline-rich region (PRR) were critical in both cell models. PRR deletion reduced the stem cell factor (SCF)-induced hyper-phosphorylation of the CBL-Y371H mutant and the c-KIT receptor and eliminated the sustained p-ERK1/2 and p-AKT induction by SCF. GST fusion protein pulldowns followed by phospho-specific antibody array analysis identified distinct CBL TKB domains or PRR-binding proteins that are phosphorylated in CBL-Y371H-expressing TF-1 cells. Our results support a model of mutant CBL gain-of-function in which mutant CBL proteins effectively compete with the remaining wild type CBL-B and juxtapose TKB domain-associated PTKs with PRR-associated signaling proteins to hyper-activate signaling downstream of hematopoietic growth factor receptors. Elucidation of mutant CBL domains required for leukemogenesis should facilitate targeted therapy approaches for patients with mutant CBL-driven leukemias. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. An internal deletion in the cytoplasmic tail reverses the apical localization of human NGF receptor in transfected MDCK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bivic, A; Sambuy, Y; Patzak, A; Patil, N; Chao, M; Rodriguez-Boulan, E

    1991-11-01

    A cDNA encoding the full-length 75-kD human nerve growth factor receptor was transfected into MDCK cells and its product was found to be expressed predominantly (80%) on the apical membrane, as a result of vectorial targeting from an intracellular site. Apical hNGFR bound NGF with low affinity and internalized it inefficiently (6% of surface bound NGF per hour). Several mutant hNGFRs were analyzed, after transfection in MDCK cells, for polarized surface expression, ligand binding, and endocytosis. Deletionof juxta-membrane attachment sites for a cluster of O-linked sugars did not alter apical localization. A mutant receptor lacking the entire cytoplasmic tail (except for the five proximal amino acids) was also expressed on the apical membrane, suggesting that information for apical sorting was contained in the ectoplasmic or transmembrane domains. However, a 58 amino acid deletion in the hNGFR tail that moved a cytoplasmic tyrosine (Tyr 308) closer to the membrane into a more charged environment resulted in a basolateral distribution of the mutant receptor and reversed vectorial (basolateral) targeting. The basolateral mutant receptor also internalized 125I-NGF rapidly (90% of surface bound NGF per hour), exhibited a larger intracellular fraction and displayed a considerably shortened half-life (approximately 3 h). We suggest that hNGFR with the internal cytoplasmic deletion expresses a basolateral targeting signal, related to endocytic signals, that is dominant over apical targeting information in the ecto/transmembrane domains. These results apparently contradict a current model that postulates that basolateral targeting is a default mechanism.

  11. ⁵¹V NMR Crystallography of Vanadium Chloroperoxidase and Its Directed Evolution P395D/L241V/T343A Mutant: Protonation Environments of the Active Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rupal; Hou, Guangjin; Renirie, Rokus; Wever, Ron; Polenova, Tatyana

    2015-04-29

    Vanadium-dependent haloperoxidases (VHPOs) perform two-electron oxidation of halides using hydrogen peroxide. Their mechanism, including the factors determining the substrate specificity and the pH-dependence of the catalytic rates, is poorly understood. The vanadate cofactor in the active site of VHPOs contains "spectroscopically silent" V(V), which does not change oxidation state during the reaction. We employed an NMR crystallography approach based on (51)V magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory, to gain insights into the structure and coordination environment of the cofactor in the resting state of vanadium-dependent chloroperoxidases (VCPO). The cofactor environments in the wild-type VCPO and its P395D/L241V/T343A mutant exhibiting 5-100-fold improved catalytic activity are examined at various pH values. Optimal sensitivity attained due to the fast MAS probe technologies enabled the assignment of the location and number of protons on the vanadate as a function of pH. The vanadate cofactor changes its protonation from quadruply protonated at pH 6.3 to triply protonated at pH 7.3 to doubly protonated at pH 8.3. In contrast, in the mutant, the vanadate protonation is the same at pH 5.0 and 8.3, and the cofactor is doubly protonated. This methodology to identify the distinct protonation environments of the cofactor, which are also pH-dependent, could help explain the different reactivities of the wild-type and mutant VCPO and their pH-dependence. This study demonstrates that (51)V-based NMR crystallography can be used to derive the detailed coordination environments of vanadium centers in large biological molecules.

  12. Deletions in the fifth alpha helix of HIV-1 matrix block virus release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, Bridget; Li, Yan; Maly, Connor J.; Madson, Christian J. [Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Creighton University, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha, NE 68178 (United States); Chen, Han [Center for Biotechnology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE (United States); Zhou, You [Center for Biotechnology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE (United States); Nebraska Center for Virology, Lincoln, NE (United States); Belshan, Michael, E-mail: michaelbelshan@creighton.edu [Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Creighton University, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha, NE 68178 (United States); Nebraska Center for Virology, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2014-11-15

    The matrix (MA) protein of HIV-1 is the N-terminal component of the Gag structural protein and is critical for the early and late stages of viral replication. MA contains five α-helices (α1–α5). Deletions in the N-terminus of α5 as small as three amino acids impaired virus release. Electron microscopy of one deletion mutant (MA∆96-120) showed that its particles were tethered to the surface of cells by membranous stalks. Immunoblots indicated all mutants were processed completely, but mutants with large deletions had alternative processing intermediates. Consistent with the EM data, MA∆96-120 retained membrane association and multimerization capability. Co-expression of this mutant inhibited wild type particle release. Alanine scanning mutation in this region did not affect virus release, although the progeny virions were poorly infectious. Combined, these data demonstrate that structural ablation of the α5 of MA inhibits virus release. - Highlights: • Deletions were identified in the C-terminus of matrix that block virus release. • These deletion mutants still multimerized and associated with membranes. • TEM showed the mutant particles were tethered to the cell surface. • Amino acid mutagenesis of the region did not affect release. • The data suggests that disruption of matrix structure blocks virus release.

  13. Deletions in the fifth alpha helix of HIV-1 matrix block virus release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, Bridget; Li, Yan; Maly, Connor J.; Madson, Christian J.; Chen, Han; Zhou, You; Belshan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The matrix (MA) protein of HIV-1 is the N-terminal component of the Gag structural protein and is critical for the early and late stages of viral replication. MA contains five α-helices (α1–α5). Deletions in the N-terminus of α5 as small as three amino acids impaired virus release. Electron microscopy of one deletion mutant (MA∆96-120) showed that its particles were tethered to the surface of cells by membranous stalks. Immunoblots indicated all mutants were processed completely, but mutants with large deletions had alternative processing intermediates. Consistent with the EM data, MA∆96-120 retained membrane association and multimerization capability. Co-expression of this mutant inhibited wild type particle release. Alanine scanning mutation in this region did not affect virus release, although the progeny virions were poorly infectious. Combined, these data demonstrate that structural ablation of the α5 of MA inhibits virus release. - Highlights: • Deletions were identified in the C-terminus of matrix that block virus release. • These deletion mutants still multimerized and associated with membranes. • TEM showed the mutant particles were tethered to the cell surface. • Amino acid mutagenesis of the region did not affect release. • The data suggests that disruption of matrix structure blocks virus release

  14. Novel phenotype of mouse spermatozoa following deletion of nine β-defensin genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia R Dorin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available β-defensin peptides are a large family of antimicrobial peptides. Although they kill microbes in vitro and interact with immune cells, the precise role of these genes in vivo remains uncertain. Despite their inducible presence at mucosal surfaces, their main site of expression is the epididymis. Recent evidence suggests that a major function of these peptides is in sperm maturation. In addition to previous work suggesting this, work at the MRC Human Genetics Unit, Edinburgh, has shown that homozygous deletion of a cluster of nine β-defensin genes in the mouse results in profound male sterility. The spermatozoa derived from the mutants had reduced motility and increased fragility. Epididymal spermatozoa isolated from the cauda region of the homozygous mutants demonstrated precocious capacitation and increased spontaneous acrosome reactions compared with those from wild-types. Despite this, these mutant spermatozoa had reduced ability to bind to the zona pellucida of oocytes. Ultrastructural examination revealed a disintegration of the microtubule structure of mutant-derived spermatozoa isolated from the epididymal cauda region, but not from the caput. Consistent with premature acrosome reaction and hyperactivation, spermatozoa from mutant animals had significantly increased intracellular calcium content. This work demonstrates that in vivo β-defensins are essential for successful sperm maturation, and that their disruption alters intracellular calcium levels, which most likely leads to premature activation and spontaneous acrosome reactions that result in hyperactivation and loss of microtubule structure of the axoneme. Determining which of the nine genes are responsible for the phenotype and the relevance to human sperm function is important for future work on male infertility.

  15. Novel phenotype of mouse spermatozoa following deletion of nine β-defensin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorin, Julia R

    2015-01-01

    β-defensin peptides are a large family of antimicrobial peptides. Although they kill microbes in vitro and interact with immune cells, the precise role of these genes in vivo remains uncertain. Despite their inducible presence at mucosal surfaces, their main site of expression is the epididymis. Recent evidence suggests that a major function of these peptides is in sperm maturation. In addition to previous work suggesting this, work at the MRC Human Genetics Unit, Edinburgh, has shown that homozygous deletion of a cluster of nine β-defensin genes in the mouse results in profound male sterility. The spermatozoa derived from the mutants had reduced motility and increased fragility. Epididymal spermatozoa isolated from the cauda region of the homozygous mutants demonstrated precocious capacitation and increased spontaneous acrosome reactions compared with those from wild-types. Despite this, these mutant spermatozoa had reduced ability to bind to the zona pellucida of oocytes. Ultrastructural examination revealed a disintegration of the microtubule structure of mutant-derived spermatozoa isolated from the epididymal cauda region, but not from the caput. Consistent with premature acrosome reaction and hyperactivation, spermatozoa from mutant animals had significantly increased intracellular calcium content. This work demonstrates that in vivo β-defensins are essential for successful sperm maturation, and that their disruption alters intracellular calcium levels, which most likely leads to premature activation and spontaneous acrosome reactions that result in hyperactivation and loss of microtubule structure of the axoneme. Determining which of the nine genes are responsible for the phenotype and the relevance to human sperm function is important for future work on male infertility.

  16. Frataxin directly stimulates mitochondrial cysteine desulfurase by exposing substrate-binding sites, and a mutant Fe-S cluster scaffold protein with frataxin-bypassing ability acts similarly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Alok; Gordon, Donna M; Pain, Jayashree; Stemmler, Timothy L; Dancis, Andrew; Pain, Debkumar

    2013-12-27

    For iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster synthesis in mitochondria, the sulfur is derived from the amino acid cysteine by the cysteine desulfurase activity of Nfs1. The enzyme binds the substrate cysteine in the pyridoxal phosphate-containing site, and a persulfide is formed on the active site cysteine in a manner depending on the accessory protein Isd11. The persulfide is then transferred to the scaffold Isu, where it combines with iron to form the Fe-S cluster intermediate. Frataxin is implicated in the process, although it is unclear where and how, and deficiency causes Friedreich ataxia. Using purified proteins and isolated mitochondria, we show here that the yeast frataxin homolog (Yfh1) directly and specifically stimulates cysteine binding to Nfs1 by exposing substrate-binding sites. This novel function of frataxin does not require iron, Isu1, or Isd11. Once bound to Nfs1, the substrate cysteine is the source of the Nfs1 persulfide, but this step is independent of frataxin and strictly dependent on Isd11. Recently, a point mutation in Isu1 was found to bypass many frataxin functions. The data presented here show that the Isu1 suppressor mimics the frataxin effects on Nfs1, explaining the bypassing activity. We propose a regulatory mechanism for the Nfs1 persulfide-forming activity. Specifically, at least two separate conformational changes must occur in the enzyme for optimum activity as follows: one is mediated by frataxin interaction that exposes the "buried" substrate-binding sites, and the other is mediated by Isd11 interaction that brings the bound substrate cysteine and the active site cysteine in proximity for persulfide formation.

  17. Sexual dimorphism in white campion: complex control of carpel number is revealed by Y chromosome deletions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lardon, A.; Georgiev, S.; Aghmir, A.; Le Merrer, G.; Negrutiu, I.

    1999-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in the dioecious plant white campion (Silene latifolia = Melandrium album) is under the control of two main regions on the Y chromosome. One such region, encoding the gynoecium-suppressing function (GSF), is responsible for the arrest of carpel initiation in male flowers. To generate chromosomal deletions, we used pollen irradiation in male plants to produce hermaphroditic mutants (bsx mutants) in which carpel development was restored. The mutants resulted from alterations in at least two GSF chromosomal regions, one autosomal and one located on the distal half of the (p)-arm of the Y chromosome. The two mutations affected carpel development independently, each mutation showing incomplete penetrance and variegation, albeit at significantly different levels. During successive meiotic generations, a progressive increase in penetrance and a reduction in variegation levels were observed and quantified at the level of the Y-linked GSF (GSF-Y). Possible mechanisms are proposed to explain the behavior of the bsx mutations: epigenetic regulation or/and second-site mutation of modifier genes. In addition, studies on the inheritance of the hermaphroditic trait showed that, unlike wild-type Y chromosomes, deleted Y chromosomes can be transmitted through both the male and the female lines. Altogether, these findings bring experimental support, on the one hand, to the existence on the Y chromosome of genic meiotic drive function(s) and, on the other hand, to models that consider that dioecy evolved through multiple mutation events. As such, the GSF is actually a system containing more than one locus and whose primary component is located on the Y chromosome

  18. A novel intronic splice site deletion of the IL-2 receptor common gamma chain results in expression of a dysfunctional protein and T-cell-positive X-linked Severe combined immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, P E A; Logan, G J; Alexander, I E; Poulton, S; Roscioli, T; Ziegler, J

    2015-02-01

    X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency is caused by mutations in the IL-2 receptor common gamma chain and classically presents in the first 6 months of life with predisposition to bacterial, viral and fungal infections. In most instances, affected individuals are lymphopenic with near complete absence of T cells and NK cells. We report a boy who presented at 12 months of age with Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia and a family history consistent with X-linked recessive inheritance. He had a normal lymphocyte count including the presence of T cells and a broad T-cell-receptor diversity, as well as normal surface expression of the common gamma chain (CD132) protein. He however had profound hypogammaglobulinaemia, and IL-2-induced STAT5 phosphorylation was absent. Sequencing of IL-2RG demonstrated a 12-base pair intronic deletion close to the canonical splice site of exon 5, which resulted in a variety of truncated IL2RG mRNA species. A review of the literature identified 4 other patients with T-cell-positive X-SCID, with the current patient being the first associated with an mRNA splicing defect. This case raises the question of how a dysfunctional protein incapable of mediating STAT5 phosphorylation might nonetheless support T-cell development. Possible explanations are that STAT5-mediated signal transduction may be less relevant to IL7-receptor-mediated T-cell development than are other IL7R-induced intracellular transduction pathways or that a low level of STAT5 phosphorylation, undetectable in the laboratory, may be sufficient to support some T-cell development. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Structures of the Michaelis Complex (1.2A) and the Covalent Acyl Intermediate (2.0A ) of Cefamandole Bound in the Active Sites of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis beta-Lactamase K72A and E166A Mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L Tremblay; h Xu; J Blanchard

    2011-12-31

    The genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) contains a gene that encodes a highly active {beta}-lactamase, BlaC, that imparts TB with resistance to {beta}-lactam chemotherapy. The structure of covalent BlaC-{beta}-lactam complexes suggests that active site residues K73 and E166 are essential for acylation and deacylation, respectively. We have prepared the K73A and E166A mutant forms of BlaC and have determined the structures of the Michaelis complex of cefamandole and the covalently bound acyl intermediate of cefamandole at resolutions of 1.2 and 2.0 {angstrom}, respectively. These structures provide insight into the details of the catalytic mechanism.

  20. Mapping the end points of large deletions affecting the hprt locus in human peripheral blood cells and cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, S.L.; Grosovsky, A.J.; Jones, I.M.; Burkhart-Schultz, K.; Fuscoe, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    We have examined the extent of of HPRT - total gene deletions in three mutant collections: spontaneous and X-ray-induced deletions in TK6 human B lymphoblasts, and HPRT - deletions arising in vivo in T cells. A set of 13 Xq26 STS markers surrounding hprt and spanning approximately 3.3 Mb was used. Each marker used was observed to be missing in at least one of the hprt deletion mutants analyzed. The largest deletion observed encompassed at least 3 Mb. Nine deletions extended outside of the mapped region in the centromeric direction (>1.7 Mb). In contrast, only two telomeric deletions extended to marker 342R (1.26 Mb), and both exhibited slowed or limited cell growth. These data suggest the existence of a gene, within the vicinity of 342R, which establishes the telomeric limit of recoverable deletions. Most (25/41) X-ray-induced total gene deletion mutants exhibited marker loss, but only 1/8 of the spontaneous deletions encompassed any Xq26 markers (P = 0.0187). Furthermore, nearly half (3/8) of the spontaneous 3' total deletion breakpoints were within 14 kb of the hprt coding sequence. In contrast, 40/41 X-ray-induced HPRT - total deletions extended beyond this point (P = 0.011). Although the overall representation of total gene deletions in the in vivo spectrum is low, 4/5 encompass Xq26 markers flanking hprt. This pattern differs significantly from spontaneous HPRT - large deletions occurring in vitro (P = 0.032) but resembles the spectrum of X-ray-induced deletions. 24 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  1. Understanding the -C-X1-X2-C- motif in the active site of the thioredoxin superfamily: E. coli DsbA and its mutants as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karshikoff, Andrey; Nilsson, Lennart; Foloppe, Nicolas

    2013-08-27

    E. coli DsbA is an intensively studied enzyme of the thioredoxin superfamily of thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases. DsbA catalyzes the disulfide bond formation and folding of proteins in the bacterial periplasm. DsbA and its mutants have highlighted the strong and puzzling influence of the -C-X1-X2-C- active site variants, found across the thioredoxin superfamily, on the ionization and redox properties of this site. However, the interpretation of these observations remains wanting, largely due to a dearth of structural information. Here, molecular dynamics simulations are used to provide extensive information on the structure and dynamics of reduced -C30-X31-X32-C33- motifs in wild type DsbA and 13 of its mutants. These simulations are combined with calculations of the pK of H32 and of the very low pK of the catalytic cysteine C30. In wild type DsbA, the titrations of C30 and H32 are shown to be coupled; the protonation states and dynamics of H32 are examined. The thiolate of C30 is stabilized by hydrogen bonds with the protein. Modulation of these hydrogen bonds by alteration of residue X32 has the greatest impact on the pK of C30, which rationalizes its higher pK in thioredoxin and tryparedoxin. Because of structural constrains, residue X31 has only an indirect and weak influence on the pK of C30. The dynamics of C30 is clearly related to its stabilizing interactions and pK value. Although relatively small differences between pKs were not reproduced in the calculations, the major trends are explained, adding new insights to our understanding of enzymes in this family.

  2. Deletion of zmp1 improves Mycobacterium bovis BCG-mediated protection in a guinea pig model of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Peter; Clark, Simon; Petrera, Agnese; Vilaplana, Cristina; Meuli, Michael; Selchow, Petra; Zelmer, Andrea; Mohanan, Deepa; Andreu, Nuria; Rayner, Emma; Dal Molin, Michael; Bancroft, Gregory J; Johansen, Pål; Cardona, Pere-Joan; Williams, Ann; Böttger, Erik C

    2015-03-10

    Having demonstrated previously that deletion of zinc metalloprotease zmp1 in Mycobacterium bovis BCG increased immunogenicity of BCG vaccines, we here investigated the protective efficacy of BCG zmp1 deletion mutants in a guinea pig model of tuberculosis infection. zmp1 deletion mutants of BCG provided enhanced protection by reducing the bacterial load of tubercle bacilli in the lungs of infected guinea pigs. The increased efficacy of BCG due to zmp1 deletion was demonstrated in both BCG Pasteur and BCG Denmark indicating that the improved protection by zmp1 deletion is independent from the BCG sub-strain. In addition, unmarked BCG Δzmp1 mutant strains showed a better safety profile in a CB-17 SCID mouse survival model than the parental BCG strains. Together, these results support the further development of BCG Δzmp1 for use in clinical trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Partial deletion of chromosome 8 β-defensin cluster confers sperm dysfunction and infertility in male mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu S Zhou

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available β-defensin peptides are a family of antimicrobial peptides present at mucosal surfaces, with the main site of expression under normal conditions in the male reproductive tract. Although they kill microbes in vitro and interact with immune cells, the precise role of these genes in vivo remains uncertain. We show here that homozygous deletion of a cluster of nine β-defensin genes (DefbΔ9 in the mouse results in male sterility. The sperm derived from the mutants have reduced motility and increased fragility. Epididymal sperm isolated from the cauda should require capacitation to induce the acrosome reaction but sperm from the mutants demonstrate precocious capacitation and increased spontaneous acrosome reaction compared to wild-types but have reduced ability to bind the zona pellucida of oocytes. Ultrastructural examination reveals a defect in microtubule structure of the axoneme with increased disintegration in mutant derived sperm present in the epididymis cauda region, but not in caput region or testes. Consistent with premature acrosome reaction, sperm from mutant animals have significantly increased intracellular calcium content. Thus we demonstrate in vivo that β-defensins are essential for successful sperm maturation, and their disruption leads to alteration in intracellular calcium, inappropriate spontaneous acrosome reaction and profound male infertility.

  4. (AJST) GENERALISED DELETION DESIGNS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    th row if the t-th level is deleted from factor Fj in the preliminary design d-p to obtain d and xss j is an s x s permutation matrix with 1 in the aj - th column of the o-th row. We shall also write j j a j j. * a. cDPDc d j j. ′. ′= (3.2) where cj is a contrast ...

  5. Partial deletion in the JK locus causing a Jk(null) phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucien, Nicole; Chiaroni, Jacques; Cartron, Jean-Pierre; Bailly, Pascal

    2002-02-01

    A new alteration of the blood group JK*A allele was identified in a Jk(null) patient from Tunisia with an allo-anti-Jk3 in her serum. Southern blot and exon mapping analyses revealed an internal deletion within the Kidd (JK) locus encompassing exons 4 and 5. Sequence analysis of the Jk transcript showed that exons 4 and 5 were missing but were replaced by a 136-base-pair (bp) intron 3 sequence located 315 bp and 179 bp upstream from exon 4. This sequence is flanked by typical donor-acceptor cryptic splice sites used in the mutant but not in the normal JK gene. Because the translation initiation codon is located in exon 4, the Jk protein is not produced.

  6. Understanding the mechanism of drug resistance due to a codon deletion in protoporphyrinogen oxidase through computational modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ge-Fei; Zhu, Xiao-Lei; Ji, Feng-Qin; Zhang, Li; Yang, Guang-Fu; Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2009-04-09

    Protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO; EC 1.3.3.4) is the last common enzyme for the enzymatic transformation of protoporphyrinogen-IX to protoporphyrin-IX, which is the key common intermediate leading to heme and chlorophyll. Hence, PPO has been identified as one of the most importance action targets for the treatment of some important diseases including cancer and variegated porphyria (VP). In the agricultural field, PPO inhibitors have been used as herbicides for many years. Recently, a unique drug resistance was found to be associated with a nonactive site residue (Gly210) deletion rather than substitution in A. tuberculatus PPO. In the present study, extensive computational simulations, including homology modeling, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and molecular mechanics-Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) calculations, have been carried out to uncover the detailed molecular mechanism of drug resistance associated with Gly210 deletion. Although Gly210 in the wild-type A. tuberculatus PPO has no direct interaction with the inhibitors, all the computational models and energetic results indicated that Gly210 deletion has great effects on the hydrogen-bonding network and the conformational change of the binding pocket. An interchain hydrogen bond between Gly210 with Ser424, playing an important role in stabilizing the local conformation of the wild-type enzyme, disappeared after Gly210 deletion. As a result, the mutant-type PPO has a lower affinity than the wild-type enzyme, which accounts for the molecular mechanism of drug resistance. The structural and mechanistic insights obtained from the present study provide a new starting point for future rational design of novel PPO inhibitors to overcome drug resistance associated with Gly210 deletion.

  7. Deletion of the sigB gene in Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 leads to hydrogen peroxide hyperresistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaik, van W.; Zwietering, M.H.; Vos, de W.M.; Abee, T.

    2005-01-01

    The sigB gene of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 encodes the alternative sigma factor B. Deletion of sigB in B. cereus leads to hyperresistance to hydrogen peroxide. The expression of katA, which encodes one of the catalases of B. cereus, is upregulated in the sigB deletion mutant, and this may

  8. Deletion of the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase sod-2 extends lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy M Van Raamsdonk

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative stress theory of aging postulates that aging results from the accumulation of molecular damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS generated during normal metabolism. Superoxide dismutases (SODs counteract this process by detoxifying superoxide. It has previously been shown that elimination of either cytoplasmic or mitochondrial SOD in yeast, flies, and mice results in decreased lifespan. In this experiment, we examine the effect of eliminating each of the five individual sod genes present in Caenorhabditis elegans. In contrast to what is observed in other model organisms, none of the sod deletion mutants shows decreased lifespan compared to wild-type worms, despite a clear increase in sensitivity to paraquat- and juglone-induced oxidative stress. In fact, even mutants lacking combinations of two or three sod genes survive at least as long as wild-type worms. Examination of gene expression in these mutants reveals mild compensatory up-regulation of other sod genes. Interestingly, we find that sod-2 mutants are long-lived despite a significant increase in oxidatively damaged proteins. Testing the effect of sod-2 deletion on known pathways of lifespan extension reveals a clear interaction with genes that affect mitochondrial function: sod-2 deletion markedly increases lifespan in clk-1 worms while clearly decreasing the lifespan of isp-1 worms. Combined with the mitochondrial localization of SOD-2 and the fact that sod-2 mutant worms exhibit phenotypes that are characteristic of long-lived mitochondrial mutants-including slow development, low brood size, and slow defecation-this suggests that deletion of sod-2 extends lifespan through a similar mechanism. This conclusion is supported by our demonstration of decreased oxygen consumption in sod-2 mutant worms. Overall, we show that increased oxidative stress caused by deletion of sod genes does not result in decreased lifespan in C. elegans and that deletion of sod-2 extends worm

  9. Characterization of actin and poly-L-proline binding sites of Acanthamoeba profilin with monoclonal antibodies and by mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, D A; Pollard, T D

    1996-02-16

    We characterized several deletion and substitution mutations of Acanthamoeba profilin and nine monoclonal antibodies to Acanthamoeba profilin. The results provide two independent lines of evidence about the binding sites for actin and poly-L-proline on the profilin molecule. This new evidence is consistent with the main conclusions about these binding sites from previous structural and mutagenic studies. Mutagenesis also revealed that the native structure of profilin is very sensitive to substitutions and deletions at the C terminus. For example, profilin with a deletion of the eight C-terminal residues has many of the physical properties of a molten globule, yet remarkably still binds to actin. This instability may account for the lack of function of similar mutants in yeast.

  10. Targeted gene deletion in Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollapour, M; Piper, P

    2001-01-30

    Yeasts of the genus Zygosaccharomyces are notable agents of large-scale food spoilage. Despite the economic importance of these organisms, little is known about the stress adaptations whereby they adapt to many of the more severe conditions of food preservation. In this study it was shown that genes of Z. bailii, a yeast notable for its high resistances to food preservatives and ethanol, can be isolated by complementation of the corresponding mutant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It was also discovered that the acquisition by S. cerevisiae of a single small Z. bailii gene (ZbYME2) was sufficient for the former yeast to acquire the ability to degrade two major food preservatives, benzoic acid and sorbic acid. Using DNA cassettes containing dominant selectable markers and methods originally developed for performing gene deletions in S. cerevisiae, the two copies of ZbYME2 in the Z. bailii genome were sequentially deleted. The resulting Zbyme2/Zbyme2 homozygous deletant strain had lost any ability to utilize benzoate as sole carbon source and was more sensitive to weak acid preservatives during growth on glucose. Thus, ZbYME2, probably the nuclear gene for a mitochondrial mono-oxygenase function, is essential for Z. bailii to degrade food preservatives. This ability to catabolize weak acid preservatives is a significant factor contributing to the preservative resistance of Z. bailii under aerobic conditions. This study is the first to demonstrate that it is possible to delete in Z. bailii genes that are suspected as being important for growth of this organism in preserved foods and beverages. With the construction of further mutant of Z. bailii strains, a clearer picture should emerge of how this yeast adapts to the conditions of food preservation. This information will, in turn, allow the design of new preservation strategies. GenBank Accession Nos: ZbURA3 (AF279259), ZbTIM9 (AF279260), ZbYME2 (AF279261), ZbTRP1 (AF279262), ZbHHT1(AF296170). Copyright 2000 John

  11. Gibson Deletion: a novel application of isothermal in vitro recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalva, Swara; Boeke, Jef D; Mita, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    Recombinant DNA technology is today a fundamental tool for virtually all biological research fields. Among the many techniques available for the construction of a "custom DNA" molecule, the isothermal in vitro assembly, or Gibson assembly, allows for an efficient, one-step, scarless recombination-based assembly. Here, we apply and characterize the use of Gibson assembly for the deletion of DNA sequences around a DNA cut. This method, that we named "Gibson Deletion", can be used to easily substitute or delete one or more restriction sites within a DNA molecule. We show that Gibson Deletion is a viable method to delete up to 100 nucleotides from the DNA ends of a cleavage site. In addition, we found that Gibson Deletion can be performed using single strand DNA with the same efficiency as using double strand DNA molecules. Gibson Deletion is a novel, easy and convenient application of isothermal in vitro assembly, that performs with high efficiency and can be implemented for a broad range of applications.

  12. Unmarked gene deletion and host-vector system for the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus islandicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Ling; Zhu, Haojun; Chen, Zhengjun

    2009-01-01

    , and unmarked lacS mutants were obtained by each method. A new alternative recombination mechanism, i.e., marker circularization and integration, was shown to operate in the latter method, which did not yield the designed deletion mutation. Subsequently, Sulfolobus-E. coli plasmid shuttle vectors were...... mutant was obtained containing only 233 bp of the original pyrE sequence in the mutant allele and it was used as a host to delete the beta-glycosidase (lacS) gene. Two unmarked gene deletion methods were employed, namely plasmid integration and segregation, and marker replacement and looping out...... constructed, which genetically complemented DeltapyrEFDeltalacS mutation after transformation. Thus, a complete set of genetic tools was established for S. islandicus with pyrEF and lacS as genetic markers....

  13. Promising rice mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakim, L.; Azam, M.A.; Miah, A.J.; Mansur, M.A.; Akanda, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    Two induced mutants namely, Mut NS 1 (tall) and Mut NS 5 (semi-dwarf) derived from rice variety Nizersail were evaluated for various agronomic characters at four locations in Bangladesh. Both the mutants matured about three weeks earlier and yielded significantly higher than the parent variety Nizersail. (author). 3 tabs., 9 refs

  14. Mutant heterosis in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    In the variety TKM6 a high yielding semidwarf mutant has been induced. This TKM6 mutant was used in test crosses with a number of other varieties and mutants to examine the extent of heterosis of dwarfs in rice and to select superior crosses. An excerpt of the published data is given. It appears from the backcross of the mutant with its original variety, that an increase in number of productive tillers occurs in the hybrid, leading to a striking grain yield increase, while the semi-dwarf culm length (the main mutant character) reverts to the normal phenotype. In the cross with IR8 on the other hand, there is only a minimal increase in tiller number but a substantial increase in TGW leading to more than 30% yield increase over the better parent

  15. Human GLTP and mutant forms of ACD11 suppress cell death in the Arabidopsis acd11 mutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nikolaj H T; McKinney, Lea V; Pike, Helen

    2008-01-01

    The Arabidopsis acd11 mutant exhibits runaway, programmed cell death due to the loss of a putative sphingosine transfer protein (ACD11) with homology to mammalian GLTP. We demonstrate that transgenic expression in Arabidopsis thaliana of human GLTP partially suppressed the phenotype of the acd11...... null mutant, resulting in delayed programmed cell death development and plant survival. Surprisingly, a GLTP mutant form impaired in glycolipid transfer activity also complemented the acd11 mutants. To understand the relationship between functional complementarity and transfer activity, we generated...... site-specific mutants in ACD11 based on homologous GLTP residues required for glycolipid transfer. We show that these ACD11 mutant forms are impaired in their in vitro transfer activity of sphingolipids. However, transgenic expression of these mutant forms fully complemented acd11 mutant cell death...

  16. [Changes of biological behavioral of E. coli K1 after ppk1 gene deletion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Liang; Pan, Jiayun; Luo, Su; Yang, Zhenghui; Huang, Mufang; Cao, Hong

    2014-06-01

    To study the changes in biological behaviors of meningitis E. coli K1 strain E44 after deletion of polyphosphate kinase 1 (ppk1) gene and explore the role of ppk1 in the pathogenesis of E. coli K1-induced meningitis. The wild-type strain E. coli K1 and ppk1 deletion mutant were exposed to heat at 56 degrees celsius; for 6 min, and their survival rates were determined. The adhesion and invasion of the bacteria to human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) were observed using electron microscopy and quantitative tests. HBMECs were co-incubated with wild-type strain or ppk1 deletion mutant, and the cytoskeleton rearrangement was observed under laser scanning confocal microscope. The survival rate of the ppk1 deletion mutant was significantly lower than that of the wild-type strain after heat exposure. The ppk1 deletion mutant also showed lowered cell adhesion and invasion abilities and weakened ability to induce cytoskeleton rearrangement in HBMECs. ppk1 gene is important for E.coli K1 for heat resistance, cell adhesion and invasion, and for inducing cytoskeletal rearrangement in HBMECs.

  17. The Yeast Deletion Collection: A Decade of Functional Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey

    2014-01-01

    The yeast deletion collections comprise >21,000 mutant strains that carry precise start-to-stop deletions of ∼6000 open reading frames. This collection includes heterozygous and homozygous diploids, and haploids of both MATa and MATα mating types. The yeast deletion collection, or yeast knockout (YKO) set, represents the first and only complete, systematically constructed deletion collection available for any organism. Conceived during the Saccharomyces cerevisiae sequencing project, work on the project began in 1998 and was completed in 2002. The YKO strains have been used in numerous laboratories in >1000 genome-wide screens. This landmark genome project has inspired development of numerous genome-wide technologies in organisms from yeast to man. Notable spinoff technologies include synthetic genetic array and HIPHOP chemogenomics. In this retrospective, we briefly describe the yeast deletion project and some of its most noteworthy biological contributions and the impact that these collections have had on the yeast research community and on genomics in general. PMID:24939991

  18. Systematic deletion analyses of the fla genes in the flagella operon identify several genes essential for proper assembly and function of flagella in the archaeon, Methanococcus maripaludis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaban, Bonnie; Ng, Sandy Y M; Kanbe, Masaomi; Saltzman, Ilana; Nimmo, Graeme; Aizawa, Shin-Ichi; Jarrell, Ken F

    2007-11-01

    The archaeal flagellum is a unique motility apparatus in the prokaryotic domain, distinct from the bacterial flagellum. Most of the currently recognized archaeal flagella-associated genes fall into a single fla operon that contains the genes for the flagellin proteins (two or more genes designated as flaA or flaB), some variation of a set of conserved proteins of unknown function (flaC, flaD, flaE, flaF, flaG and flaH), an ATPase (flaI) and a membrane protein (flaJ). In addition, the flaD gene has been demonstrated to encode two proteins: a full-length gene product and a truncated product derived from an alternate, internal start site. A systematic deletion approach was taken using the methanogen Methanococcus maripaludis to investigate the requirement and a possible role for these proposed flagella-associated genes. Markerless in-frame deletion strains were created for most of the genes in the M. maripaludis fla operon. In addition, a strain lacking the truncated FlaD protein [FlaD M(191)I] was also created. DNA sequencing and Southern blot analysis confirmed each mutant strain, and the integrity of the remaining operon was confirmed by immunoblot. With the exception of the DeltaFlaB3 and FlaD M(191)I strains, all mutants were non-motile by light microscopy and non-flagellated by electron microscopy. A detailed examination of the DeltaFlaB3 mutant flagella revealed that these structures had no hook region, while the FlaD M(191)I strain appeared identical to wild type. Each deletion strain was complemented, and motility and flagellation was restored. Collectively, these results demonstrate for first time that these fla operon genes are directly involved and critically required for proper archaeal flagella assembly and function.

  19. Targeted deletion of multiple CTCF-binding elements in the human C-MYC gene reveals a requirement for CTCF in C-MYC expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy M Gombert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insulators and domain boundaries both shield genes from adjacent enhancers and inhibit intrusion of heterochromatin into transgenes. Previous studies examined the functional mechanism of the MYC insulator element MINE and its CTCF binding sites in the context of transgenes that were randomly inserted into the genome by transfection. However, the contribution of CTCF binding sites to both gene regulation and maintenance of chromatin has not been tested at the endogenous MYC gene. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To determine the impact of CTCF binding on MYC expression, a series of mutant human chromosomal alleles was prepared in homologous recombination-efficient DT40 cells and individually transferred by microcell fusion into murine cells. Functional tests reported here reveal that deletion of CTCF binding elements within the MINE does not impact the capacity of this locus to correctly organize an 'accessible' open chromatin domain, suggesting that these sites are not essential for the formation of a competent, transcriptionally active locus. Moreover, deletion of the CTCF site at the MYC P2 promoter reduces transcription but does not affect promoter acetylation or serum-inducible transcription. Importantly, removal of either CTCF site leads to DNA methylation of flanking sequences, thereby contributing to progressive loss of transcriptional activity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings collectively demonstrate that CTCF-binding at the human MYC locus does not repress transcriptional activity but is required for protection from DNA methylation.

  20. Sequence characterisation of deletion breakpoints in the dystrophin gene by PCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbs, S.; Sandhu, S.; Bobrow, M. [Guy`s Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    1994-09-01

    Partial deletions of the dystrophin gene account for 65% of cases of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. A high proportion of these structural changes are generated by new mutational events, and lie predominantly within two `hotspot` regions, yet the underlying reasons for this are not known. We are characterizing and sequencing the regions surrounding deletion breakpoints in order to: (i) investigate the mechanisms of deletion mutation, and (ii) enable the design of PCR assays to specifically amplify mutant and normal sequences, allowing us to search for the presence of somatic mosaicism in appropriate family members. Using this approach we have been able to demonstrate the presence of somatic mosaicism in a maternal grandfather of a DMD-affected male, deleted for exons 49-50. Three deletions, namely of exons 48-49, 49-50, and 50, have been characterized using a PCR approach that avoids any cloning procedures. Breakpoints were initially localized to within regions of a few kilobases using Southern blot restriction analyses with exon-specific probes and PCR amplification of exonic and intronic loci. Sequencing was performed directly on PCR products: (i) mutant sequences were obtained from long-range or inverse-PCR across the deletion junction fragments, and (ii) normal sequences were obtained from the products of standard PCR, vectorette PCR, or inverse-PCR performed on YACs. Further characterization of intronic sequences will allow us to amplify and sequence across other deletion breakpoints and increase our knowledge of the mechanisms of mutation in the dystophin gene.

  1. The subcutaneous inoculation of pH 6 antigen mutants of Yersinia pestis does not affect virulence and immune response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, Andrey P; Bakhteeva, Irina V; Panfertsev, Evgeniy A; Svetoch, Tat'yana E; Kravchenko, Tat'yana B; Platonov, Mikhail E; Titareva, Galina M; Kombarova, Tat'yana I; Ivanov, Sergey A; Rakin, Alexander V; Amoako, Kingsley K; Dentovskaya, Svetlana V

    2009-01-01

    Two isogenic sets of Yersinia pestis strains were generated, composed of wild-type strains 231 and I-1996, their non-polar pH 6(-) mutants with deletions in the psaA gene that codes for its structural subunit or the whole operon, as well as strains with restored ability for temperature- and pH-dependent synthesis of adhesion pili or constitutive production of pH 6 antigen. The mutants were generated by site-directed mutagenesis of the psa operon and subsequent complementation in trans. It was shown that the loss of synthesis or constitutive production of pH 6 antigen did not influence Y. pestis virulence or the average survival time of subcutaneously inoculated BALB/c naïve mice or animals immunized with this antigen.

  2. A high-throughput method for the detection of homoeologous gene deletions in hexaploid wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhongyi

    2010-11-01

    4500 M2 mutant wheat lines generated by heavy ion irradiation, we detected multiple mutants with deletions of each TaPFT1 homoeologue, and confirmed these deletions using a CAPS method. We have subsequently designed, optimized, and applied this method for the screening of homoeologous deletions of three additional wheat genes putatively involved in plant disease resistance. Conclusions We have developed a method for automated, high-throughput screening to identify deletions of individual homoeologues of a wheat gene. This method is also potentially applicable to other polyploidy plants.

  3. Efficient Construction of Large Genomic Deletion in Agrobacterium tumefaciens by Combination of Cre/loxP System and Triple Recombineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengqiang; Xie, Yali; Zhang, Xu; Hu, Xiaofeng; Li, Yusheng; Ding, Xuezhi; Xia, Liqiu; Hu, Shengbiao

    2016-04-01

    In order to develop an efficient system for deleting genomic segment in Agrobacterium tumefaciens to analyze gene functions and construct marker gene-free recombinant strains, a Cre recombinase expression plasmid was constructed by placing its encoding gene under the control of Ptet promoter and cloning into the plasmid replicable in both A. tumefaciens and E. coli. Triple recombineering was applied to efficiently construct integrative vectors which were used to introduce loxP sites and selection markers into the chromosome of A. tumefaciens. Cre recombinase could be properly induced by anhydrotetracycline in A. tumefaciens, which was revealed by the fact that kanamycin resistance gene flanked by two parallel loxP sites was excised from the genome of A. tumefaciens with virtually 100% efficiency. And what is more, an A. tumefaciens mutant carrying large-deletion (~85 kb) in genome was successfully constructed by Cre/loxP system. Here, we described the application of combination of Cre/loxP system and triple recombineering to efficiently excise genomic segment in A. tumefaciens, which also would facilitate efficient construction of multiple gene disruptions in A. tumefaciens.

  4. Mitochondrially targeted ZFNs for selective degradation of pathogenic mitochondrial genomes bearing large-scale deletions or point mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammage, Payam A; Rorbach, Joanna; Vincent, Anna I; Rebar, Edward J; Minczuk, Michal

    2014-01-01

    We designed and engineered mitochondrially targeted obligate heterodimeric zinc finger nucleases (mtZFNs) for site-specific elimination of pathogenic human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We used mtZFNs to target and cleave mtDNA harbouring the m.8993T>G point mutation associated with neuropathy, ataxia, retinitis pigmentosa (NARP) and the “common deletion” (CD), a 4977-bp repeat-flanked deletion associated with adult-onset chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia and, less frequently, Kearns-Sayre and Pearson's marrow pancreas syndromes. Expression of mtZFNs led to a reduction in mutant mtDNA haplotype load, and subsequent repopulation of wild-type mtDNA restored mitochondrial respiratory function in a CD cybrid cell model. This study constitutes proof-of-principle that, through heteroplasmy manipulation, delivery of site-specific nuclease activity to mitochondria can alleviate a severe biochemical phenotype in primary mitochondrial disease arising from deleted mtDNA species. PMID:24567072

  5. Deletions of the mitochondrial genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, A E; Hammans, S R

    1992-01-01

    Single large deletions of mitochondrial DNA are found in the muscle of about 40% of patients with mitochondrial myopathies, and are detectable in both blood and muscle in Pearson syndrome. In mitochondrial myopathies, there is a close association between the presence of deletions and involvement of extra-ocular muscles, together with other features of the Kearns-Sayre syndrome. Deletions appear to arise as fresh mutations in the vast majority of patients and are often flanked by direct repeats up to 13 nucleotides in length. They should affect translation of all mitochondrially encoded components of the respiratory chain, but there is evidence to suggest that intramitochondrial complementation occurs in some cases.

  6. Revealing the essentiality of multiple archaeal pcna genes using a mutant propagation assay based on an improved knockout method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Changyi; Guo, Li; Deng, Ling

    2010-01-01

    during incubation of pMID-pcna3 and pMID-araS-pcna1 transformants under counter selection. Studying the propagation of mutant cells by semi-quantitative PCR analysis of the deleted target gene allele (Deltapcna1 or Deltapcna3) revealed that mutant cells lost propagativity, demonstrating that these pcna...

  7. Deletion of ALS5, ALS6 or ALS7 increases adhesion of Candida albicans to human vascular endothelial and buccal epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    ZHAO, XIAOMIN; OH, SOON-HWAN; HOYER, LOIS L.

    2007-01-01

    C. albicans yeast forms deleted for ALS5, ALS6 or ALS7 are more adherent than a relevant control strain to human vascular endothelial cell monolayers and buccal epithelial cells. In the buccal and vaginal reconstituted human epithelium (RHE) disease models, however, mutant and control strains caused a similar degree of tissue destruction. Deletion of ALS5 or ALS6 significantly slowed growth of the mutant strain; this phenotype was not affected by addition of excess uridine to the culture medi...

  8. Deletion in the first cysteine-rich repeat of low density lipoprotein receptor impairs its transport but not lipoprotein binding in fibroblasts from a subject with familial hypercholesterolemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitersdorf, E.; Hobbs, H.H.; Fourie, A.M.; Jacobs, M.; Van Der Westhuyzen, D.R.; Coetzee, G.A. (Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas (USA))

    1988-11-01

    The ligand-binding domain of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor is composed of seven cysteine-rich repeats, each {approx} 40 amino acids long. Previous studies showed that if the first repeat of the ligand-binding domain (encoded by exon 2) is deleted, the receptor fails to bind an anti-LDL receptor monoclonal antibody (IgG-C7) but continues to bind LDL with high affinity. Cultured fibroblasts from a Black South African Xhosa patient (TT) with the clinical syndrome of homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia demonstrated high-affinity cell-surface binding of {sup 125}I-labeled LDL but not {sup 125}I-labeled IgG-C7. previous haplotype analysis, using 10 restriction fragment length polymorphic sites, suggested that the patient inherited two identical LDL receptor alleles. The polymerase chain reaction technique was used to selectively amplify exon 2 of the LDL receptor gene from this patient. Sequence analysis of the amplified fragment disclosed a deletion of six base pairs that removes two amino acids, aspartic acid and glycine, from the first cysteine-rich ligand binding repeat. The mutation creates a new Pst I restriction site that can be used to detect the deletion. The existence of this mutant allele confirms that the epitope of IgG-C7 is located in the first cysteine-rich repeat and that this repeat is not necessary for LDL binding. The mutant gene produced a normally sized 120-kilodalton LDL receptor precursor protein that matured to the 160-kilodalton form at less than one-fourth the normal rate.

  9. Characterization of a potential radiation-sensitive fragile site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, R.; Oroskar, A.A.; Sedita, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    We have been characterizing a Chinese hamster ovary cell line, CHO-K1 10T5, into which a gpt-containing retroviral shuttle vector has been stably integrated. This normally stable locus in CHO-K1 10T5 cells is very sensitive to deletion mutation following ionizing radiation exposure and shows an LET response with an RBE of 3 for α particles. Almost all of the gpt mutants are total gene deletions. The gpt gene has been localized to chromosome 5q15, within 100-1000 kb of a large region of interstitial telomere repeats. In addition, sequences showing homology to telomere repeat sequences have been identified at the integration site both 5' and 3' to the gpt gene locus. The integration site has been cloned and is presently being sequenced. Preliminary data suggest that there is a hotspot for breakage and/or recombination 5' of the integration site. We hypothesize that (1) the gpt vector has integrated into a region containing telomere repeat sequences, (2) this region of the genome is a radiation-sensitive fragile site, and (3) the radiation sensitivity of this site is due to the telomere sequences, which act by either serving as a site for further telomerase action and chromosome terminilization, or by providing repeat structures to facilitate radiation-induced recombination

  10. Productive mutants of niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, R.C.

    2001-01-01

    Seeds of six niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.) varieties ('GA-10', 'ONS-8', 'IGP-72', 'N-71', 'NB-9' and 'UN-4') were treated with 0.5, 0.75 and 1% ethyl methanesulphonate. After four generations of selection, 29 mutant lines were developed and those were evaluated from 1990-92 during Kharif (July to October) and Rabi (December to March) seasons. Average plant characteristics and yield data of four high yielding mutants along with 'IGP-76' (National Check), GA-10 (Zonal Check) and 'Semiliguda Local' (Local Check) are presented

  11. Complex mutations & subpopulations of deletions at exon 19 of EGFR in NSCLC revealed by next generation sequencing: potential clinical implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marchetti

    Full Text Available Microdeletions at exon 19 are the most frequent genetic alterations affecting the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR gene in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC and they are strongly associated with response to treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. A series of 116 NSCLC DNA samples investigated by Sanger Sequencing (SS, including 106 samples carrying exon 19 EGFR deletions and 10 without deletions (control samples, were subjected to deep next generation sequencing (NGS. All samples with deletions at SS showed deletions with NGS. No deletions were seen in control cases. In 93 (88% cases, deletions detected by NGS were exactly corresponding to those identified by SS. In 13 cases (12% NGS resolved deletions not accurately characterized by SS. In 21 (20% cases the NGS showed presence of complex (double/multiple frameshift deletions producing a net in-frame change. In 5 of these cases the SS could not define the exact sequence of mutant alleles, in the other 16 cases the results obtained by SS were conventionally considered as deletions plus insertions. Different interpretative hypotheses for complex mutations are discussed. In 46 (43% tumors deep NGS showed, for the first time to our knowledge, subpopulations of DNA molecules carrying EGFR deletions different from the main one. Each of these subpopulations accounted for 0.1% to 17% of the genomic DNA in the different tumors investigated. Our findings suggest that a region in exon 19 is highly unstable in a large proportion of patients carrying EGFR deletions. As a corollary to this study, NGS data were compared with those obtained by immunohistochemistry using the 6B6 anti-mutant EGFR antibody. The immunoreaction was E746-A750del specific. In conclusion, NGS analysis of EGFR exon 19 in NSCLCs allowed us to formulate a new interpretative hypothesis for complex mutations and revealed the presence of subpopulations of deletions with potential pathogenetic and clinical impact.

  12. Mimicking the BIM BH3 domain overcomes resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jinjing; Bai, Hao; Yan, Bo; Li, Rong; Shao, Minhua; Xiong, Liwen; Han, Baohui

    2017-12-12

    Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR TKIs) are widely applied to treat EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). BIM is a BH3 domain-containing protein encoded by BCL2L11. Some EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients showing BIM deletion polymorphism are resistant to EGFR TKIs. We retrospectively investigated BIM deletion polymorphism in NSCLC patients, its correlation with EGFR TKI (erlotinib) resistance, and the mechanism underlying the drug resistance. Among 245 EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients examined, BIM deletion polymorphism was detected in 43 (12.24%). Median progression-free and overall survival was markedly shorter in patients with BIM deletion polymorphism than with BIM wide-type. Moreover, NSCLC cells expressing EGFR-mutant harboring BIM polymorphism were more resistant to erlotinib-induced apoptosis than BIM wide-type cells. However, combined use of erlotinib and the BH3-mimetic ABT-737 up-regulated BIM expression and overcame erlotinib resistance in EGFR-mutant NSCLC cells harboring BIM deletion polymorphism. In vivo , erlotinib suppressed growth of BIM wide-type NSCLC cell xenographs by inducing apoptosis. Combined with ABT-737, erlotinib also suppressed NSCLC xenographs expressing EGFR-mutant harboring BIM deletion polymorphism. These results indicate that BIM polymorphism is closely related to a poor clinical response to EGFR TKIs in EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients, and that the BH3-mimetic ABT-737 restores BIM functionality and EGFR-TKI sensitivity.

  13. atp mutants of Escherichia coli fail to grow on succinate due to a transport deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boogerd, Fred; Boe, Lars; Michelsen, Ole

    1998-01-01

    Escherichia coli atp mutants, which lack a functional Hf-ATPase complex, are capable of growth on glucose but not on succinate or other C-4-dicarboxylates (Suc(-) phenotype). Suc(+) revertants of an atp deletion strain were isolated which were capable of growth on succinate even though they lack......) was expressed in trans, the Suc(-) phenotype of the atp deletion strain reverted to Suc(+), which shows that the reason why the E. coli atp mutant is unable to grow aerobically on C-4-dicarboxylates is insufficient transport capacity for these substrates....

  14. Molecular evidence for the induction of large interstitial deletions on mouse chromosome 8 by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turker, Mitchell S.; Pieretti, Maura; Kumar, Sudha

    1997-01-01

    The P19H22 mouse embryonal carcinoma cell line is characterized by a hemizygous deficiency for the chromosome 8 encoded aprt (adenine phosphoribosyltransferase) gene and heterozygosity for many chromosome 8 loci. We have previously demonstrated that this cell line is suitable for mutational studies because it is permissive of events ranging in size from base-pair substitutions at the aprt locus to apparent loss of chromosome 8. Large mutational events, defined by loss of the remaining aprt allele, were found to predominate in spontaneous mutants and those induced by ionizing radiation. In this study we have used a PCR based assay to screen for loss of heterozygosity at microsatellite loci both proximal and distal to aprt in 137 Cs-induced and spontaneous aprt mutants. This approach allowed us to distinguish apparent interstitial deletional events from apparent recombinational events. Significantly, 32.5% (26 of 80) of the mutational events induced by 137 Cs appeared to be interstitial deletions as compared with 7.7% (6 of 78) in the spontaneous group. This difference was statistically significant (p 137 Cs caused a significant number of deletion mutations. Most 137 Cs-induced interstitial deletions were larger than 6 cM, whereas none of the spontaneous deletions were larger than 6 cM. These results provide further support for the notion that ionizing radiation induces deletion mutations and validate the use of the P19H22 cell line for the study of events induced by ionizing radiation

  15. Selective screening of a large phage display library of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 mutants to localize interaction sites with either thrombin or the variable region 1 of tissue-type plasminogen activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meijer, M; Roelofs, Y; Neels, J; Horrevoets, A J; van Zonneveld, A J; Pannekoek, H

    1996-03-29

    Phage display technology has been exploited to study in detail the interaction between plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and either thrombin or an essential positively charged "loop" of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), denoted variable region 1 (VR1). For this purpose, a PAI-1 mutant phage library was used that served as a reservoir of PAI-1 proteins potentially deficient in the interaction with either VR1 or thrombin. A stringent two-step selection procedure was developed. (i) A negative selection was performed by incubating the pComb3/PAI-1 mutant library with an excess of a thrombin mutant with its VR1 domain substituted with that of t-PA (thrombin-VR1). (ii) The remaining phages were complexed with t-PA (positive selection) and selected by panning with an immobilized anti-t-PA monoclonal antibody. Four consecutive panning rounds yielded an enrichment of pComb3/PAI-1 mutant phages of approximately 50-fold. Sequence analysis of 16 different cDNAs, encoding PAI-1 mutants that are hampered in the binding to thrombin-VR1, revealed the following mutations. Four independent variants share a mutation of the P4' residue (Glu350 --> Lys). Nine independent PAI-1 variants share a substitution of P1' (Met347 --> Lys), whereas three others share a P2 substitution (Ala345 --> Asp). Kinetic analysis of representative PAI-1 mutants provides evidence that the P4' residue is essential for the interaction with the VR1 domain, consistent with the data of Madison et al. (Madison, E.L., Goldsmith, E.J., Gething, M.J., Sambrook, J.F., and Gerard, R.D. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 21423-21426), whereas the P1' and P2 residues confer thrombin specificity. Concordant with the design of the selection procedure, mutants were obtained that inhibit thrombin-VR1 at least 100-fold slower than wild-type PAI-1, identifying residues that are central to the interaction with either thrombin or VR1. This study demonstrates that phage technology can be used to analyze large numbers of

  16. In Vivo Deletion of the Cebpa +37 kb Enhancer Markedly Reduces Cebpa mRNA in Myeloid Progenitors but Not in Non-Hematopoietic Tissues to Impair Granulopoiesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hong; Cooper, Stacy; Friedman, Alan D.

    2016-01-01

    The murine Cebpa gene contains a +37 kb, evolutionarily conserved 440 bp enhancer that directs high-level expression to myeloid progenitors in transgenic mice. The enhancer is bound and activated by Runx1, Scl, GATA2, C/EBPα, c-Myb, Pu.1, and additional Ets factors in myeloid cells. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated replacement of the wild-type enhancer with a variant mutant in its seven Ets sites leads to 20-fold reduction of Cebpa mRNA in the 32Dcl3 myeloid cell line. To determine the effect of deleting the enhancer in vivo, we now characterize C57BL/6 mice in which loxP sites flank a 688 bp DNA segment containing the enhancer. CMV-Cre mediated germline deletion resulted in diminution of the expected number of viable Enh(f/f);CMV-Cre offspring, with 28-fold reduction in marrow Cebpa mRNA but normal levels in liver, lung, adipose, intestine, muscle, and kidney. Cre-transduction of lineage-negative marrow cells in vitro reduced Cebpa mRNA 12-fold, with impairment of granulocytic maturation, morphologic blast accumulation, and IL-3 dependent myeloid colony replating for >12 generations. Exposure of Enh(f/f);Mx1-Cre mice to pIpC led to 14-fold reduction of Cebpa mRNA in GMP or CMP, 30-fold reduction in LSK, and deletion and confirmed marrow-intrinsic impairment of granulopoiesis and B cell generation with LSK and monocyte lineage expansion. These findings demonstrate a critical role for the +37 kb Cebpa enhancer for hematopoietic-specific Cebpa expression, with enhancer deletion leading to impaired myelopoiesis and potentially preleukemic progenitor expansion. PMID:26937964

  17. Strategies for state-dependent quantum deleting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Wei; Yang Ming; Cao Zhuoliang

    2004-01-01

    A quantum state-dependent quantum deleting machine is constructed. We obtain a upper bound of the global fidelity on N-to-M quantum deleting from a set of K non-orthogonal states. Quantum networks are constructed for the above state-dependent quantum deleting machine when K=2. Our deleting protocol only involves a unitary interaction among the initial copies, with no ancilla. We also present some analogies between quantum cloning and deleting

  18. Multi-exon deletions of the FBN1 gene in Marfan syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schrijver Iris

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in the fibrillin -1 gene (FBN1 cause Marfan syndrome (MFS, an autosomal dominant multi-system connective tissue disorder. The 200 different mutations reported in the 235 kb, 65 exon-containing gene include only one family with a genomic multi-exon deletion. Methods We used long-range RT-PCR for mutation detection and long-range genomic PCR and DNA sequencing for identification of deletion breakpoints, allele-specific transcript analyses to determine stability of the mutant RNA, and pulse-chase studies to quantitate fibrillin synthesis and extracellular matrix deposition in cultured fibroblasts. Southern blots of genomic DNA were probed with three overlapping fragments covering the FBN1 coding exons Results Two novel multi-exon FBN1 deletions were discovered. Identical nucleotide pentamers were found at or near the intronic breakpoints. In a Case with classic MFS, an in-frame deletion of exons 42 and 43 removed the C-terminal 24 amino acids of the 5th LTBP (8-cysteine domain and the adjacent 25th calcium-binding EGF-like (6-cysteine domain. The mutant mRNA was stable, but fibrillin synthesis and matrix deposition were significantly reduced. A Case with severe childhood-onset MFS has a de novo deletion of exons 44–46 that removed three EGF-like domains. Fibrillin protein synthesis was normal, but matrix deposition was strikingly reduced. No genomic rearrangements were detected by Southern analysis of 18 unrelated MFS samples negative for FBN1 mutation screening. Conclusions Two novel deletion cases expand knowledge of mutational mechanisms and genotype/phenotype correlations of fibrillinopathies. Deletions or mutations affecting an LTBP domain may result in unstable mutant protein cleavage products that interfere with microfibril assembly.

  19. QR in Child Grammar: Evidence from Antecedent-Contained Deletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrett, Kristen; Lidz, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    We show that 4-year-olds assign the correct interpretation to antecedent-contained deletion (ACD) sentences because they have the correct representation of these structures. This representation involves Quantifier Raising (QR) of a Quantificational Noun Phrase (QNP) that must move out of the site of the verb phrase in which it is contained to…

  20. Starvation Selection Restores Elastase and Rhamnolipid Production in a Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quorum-Sensing Mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Delden, Christian; Pesci, Everett C.; Pearson, James P.; Iglewski, Barbara H.

    1998-01-01

    The las quorum-sensing system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa controls the expression of elastase and rhamnolipid. We report that starvation can select a mutant producing these virulence factors in spite of a lasR deletion. Expression of the autoinducer synthase gene rhlI was increased in this suppressor mutant, suggesting compensation by the rhl system. These data show that P. aeruginosa can restore elastase and rhamnolipid production in the absence of a functional las quorum-sensing system. PMID:9712807

  1. Deletion of the topoisomerase III gene in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus islandicus results in slow growth and defects in cell cycle control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiyang; Guo, Li; Deng, Ling

    2011-01-01

    Topoisomerase III (topo III), a type IA topoisomerase, is widespread in hyperthermophilic archaea. In order to interrogate the in vivo role of archaeal topo III, we constructed and characterized a topo III gene deletion mutant of Sulfolobus islandicus. The mutant was viable but grew more slowly t...

  2. Retrospective application of transposon-directed insertion site sequencing to a library of signature-tagged mini-Tn5Km2 mutants of Escherichia coli O157:H7 screened in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Sabine E; Dziva, Francis; Chaudhuri, Roy R; Langridge, Gemma C; Turner, Daniel J; Pickard, Derek J; Maskell, Duncan J; Thomson, Nicholas R; Stevens, Mark P

    2011-04-01

    Massively parallel sequencing of transposon-flanking regions assigned the genotype and fitness score to 91% of Escherichia coli O157:H7 mutants previously screened in cattle by signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM). The method obviates the limitations of STM and markedly extended the functional annotation of the prototype E. coli O157:H7 genome without further animal use.

  3. Deletion analysis of susy-sl promoter for the identification of optimal promoter sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacha, S.; Khatoon, A.; Asif, M.; Bshir, A.

    2015-01-01

    The promoter region of sucrose synthase (susy-Sl) was identified and isolated from tomato. The 5? deletion analysis was carried out for the identification of minimum optimal promoter. Transgenic lines of Arabidopsis thaliana were developed by floral dip method incorporating various promoter deletion cassettes controlling GUS reporter gene. GUS assay of transgenic tissues indicated that full length susy-Sl promoter and its deletion mutants were constitutively expressed in vegetative and floral tissues of A. thaliana. The expression was observed in roots, shoots and flowers of A. thaliana. Analysis of 5? deletion series of susy-Sl promoter showed that a minimum of 679 bp fragment of the promoter was sufficient to drive expression of GUS reporter gene in the major tissues of transgenic A. thaliana. (author)

  4. Genetic interactions among homologous recombination mutants in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellido, Alberto; Andaluz, Encarnación; Gómez-Raja, Jonathan; Álvarez-Barrientos, Alberto; Larriba, Germán

    2015-01-01

    rad52-ΔΔ and, to a lesser extent, rad51-ΔΔ deletants of Candidaalbicans displayed slow growth and aberrant filamentous morphology whereas rad59-ΔΔ mutants, both by growth rate and morphology resembled wild type. In this study, we have constructed pair-wise double deletants to analyze genetic interactions among these homologous recombination (HR) proteins that affect growth and morphology traits. When grown in liquid YPD medium, double mutant rad51-ΔΔ rad59-ΔΔ exhibited growth rates, cell and colony morphologies, and plating efficiencies that were not significantly different from those observed for rad51-ΔΔ. The same was true for rad52-ΔΔ rad59-ΔΔ compared to rad52-ΔΔ. Slow growth and decreased plating efficiency were caused, at least in part, by a decreased viability, as deduced from FUN1 staining. Flow cytometry and microscopic studies of filamentous mutant populations revealed major changes in cell ploidy, size and morphology, whereas DAPI staining identified complex nuclear rearrangements in yeast and filamentous cells. These phenotypes were not observed in the rad59-ΔΔ mutant populations. Our results show that abolishing Rad51 functions induces the appearance of a subpopulation of aberrant yeast and filamentous forms with increased cell size and ploidy. The size of this complex subpopulation was exacerbated in rad52-ΔΔ mutants. The combination of filamentous cell morphology and viability phenotypes was reflected on the colony morphology of the respective mutants. We conclude that the rad52 mutation is epistatic to rad51 for all the morphological traits analyzed. We discuss these results in the light of the several functions of these recombination genes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Deletion of the sigB gene in Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 leads to hydrogen peroxide hyperresistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Willem; Zwietering, Marcel H; de Vos, Willem M; Abee, Tjakko

    2005-10-01

    The sigB gene of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 encodes the alternative sigma factor sigma(B). Deletion of sigB in B. cereus leads to hyperresistance to hydrogen peroxide. The expression of katA, which encodes one of the catalases of B. cereus, is upregulated in the sigB deletion mutant, and this may contribute to the hydrogen peroxide-resistant phenotype.

  6. Deletion of the sigB gene in Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 leads to hydrogen peroxide hyperresistance

    OpenAIRE

    Schaik, van, W.; Zwietering, M.H.; Vos, de, W.M.; Abee, T.

    2005-01-01

    The sigB gene of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 encodes the alternative sigma factor σB. Deletion of sigB in B. cereus leads to hyperresistance to hydrogen peroxide. The expression of katA, which encodes one of the catalases of B. cereus, is upregulated in the sigB deletion mutant, and this may contribute to the hydrogen peroxide-resistant phenotype.

  7. Deletion of N-terminal amino acids from human lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase differentially affects enzyme activity toward alpha- and beta-substrate lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickaryous, Nicola K; Teh, Evelyn M; Stewart, Bruce; Dolphin, Peter J; Too, Catherine K L; McLeod, Roger S

    2003-03-21

    Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is the enzyme responsible for generation of the majority of the cholesteryl esters (CE) in human plasma. Although most plasma cholesterol esterification occurs on high-density lipoprotein (HDL), via alpha-LCAT activity, esterification also occurs on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) via the beta-activity of the enzyme. Computer threading techniques have provided a three-dimensional model for use in the structure-function analysis of the core and catalytic site of the LCAT protein, but the model does not extend to the N-terminal region of the enzyme, which may mediate LCAT interaction with lipoprotein substrates. In the present study, we have examined the functional consequences of deletion of the highly conserved hydrophobic N-terminal amino acids (residues 1-5) of human LCAT. Western blot analysis showed that the mutant proteins (Delta 1-Delta 5) were synthesized and secreted from transfected COS-7 cells at levels approximately equivalent to those of wild-type hLCAT. The secreted proteins had apparent molecular weights of 67 kDa, indicating that they were correctly processed and glycosylated during cellular transit. However, deletion of the first residue of the mature LCAT protein (Delta 1 mutant) resulted in a dramatic loss of alpha-LCAT activity (5% of wild type using reconstituted HDL substrate, rHDL), although this mutant retained full beta-LCAT activity (108% of wild-type using human LDL substrate). Removal of residues 1 and 2 (Delta 2 mutant) abolished alpha-LCAT activity and reduced beta-LCAT activity to 12% of wild type. Nevertheless, LCAT Delta 1 and Delta 2 mutants retained their ability to bind to rHDL and LDL lipoprotein substrates. The dramatic loss of enzyme activity suggests that the N-terminal residues of LCAT may be involved in maintaining the conformation of the lid domain and influence activation by the alpha-LCAT cofactor apoA-I (in Delta 1) and/or loss of enzyme activity (in Delta 1-Delta 5). Since the

  8. Deletion of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 from the peri-wolffian duct stroma leads to ureteric induction abnormalities and vesicoureteral reflux.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth A Walker

    Full Text Available Pax3cre-mediated deletion of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (Fgfr2 broadly in renal and urinary tract mesenchyme led to ureteric bud (UB induction defects and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR, although the mechanisms were unclear. Here, we investigated whether Fgfr2 acts specifically in peri-Wolffian duct stroma (ST to regulate UB induction and development of VUR and the mechanisms of Fgfr2 activity.We conditionally deleted Fgfr2 in ST (Fgfr2(ST-/- using Tbx18cre mice. To look for ureteric bud induction defects in young embryos, we assessed length and apoptosis of common nephric ducts (CNDs. We performed 3D reconstructions and histological analyses of urinary tracts of embryos and postnatal mice and cystograms in postnatal mice to test for VUR. We performed in situ hybridization and real-time PCR in young embryos to determine mechanisms underlying UB induction defects.We confirmed that Fgfr2 is expressed in ST and that Fgfr2 was efficiently deleted in this tissue in Fgfr2(ST-/- mice at embryonic day (E 10.5. E11.5 Fgfr2(ST-/- mice had randomized UB induction sites with approximately 1/3 arising too high and 1/3 too low from the Wolffian duct; however, apoptosis was unaltered in E12.5 mutant CNDs. While ureters were histologically normal, E15.5 Fgfr2(ST-/- mice exhibit improper ureteral insertion sites into the bladder, consistent with the ureteric induction defects. While ureter and bladder histology appeared normal, postnatal day (P 1 mutants had high rates of VUR versus controls (75% versus 3%, p = 0.001 and occasionally other defects including renal hypoplasia and duplex systems. P1 mutant mice also had improper ureteral bladder insertion sites and shortened intravesicular tunnel lengths that correlated with VUR. E10.5 Fgfr2(ST-/- mice had decreases in Bmp4 mRNA in stromal tissues, suggesting a mechanism underlying the ureteric induction and VUR phenotypes.Mutations in FGFR2 could possibly cause VUR in humans.

  9. Lack of association between the BIM deletion polymorphism and the risk of lung cancer with and without EGFR mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebi, Hiromichi; Oze, Isao; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Ito, Hidemi; Hosono, Satoyo; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Takahashi, Meiko; Takeuchi, Shinji; Sakao, Yukinori; Hida, Toyoaki; Faber, Anthony C; Tanaka, Hideo; Yatabe, Yasushi; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Yano, Seiji; Matsuo, Keitaro

    2015-01-01

    The BIM deletion polymorphism in intron 2 was found in a significant percent of the Asian population. Patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant lung cancers harboring this BIM polymorphism have shorter progression free survival and overall response rates to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. However, the association between the BIM deletion polymorphism and lung cancer risk is unknown. The BIM deletion polymorphism was screened by polymerase chain reaction in 765 lung cancer cases and 942 healthy individuals. Carriers possessing one allele of the BIM polymorphism were observed in 13.0% of control cases and 12.8% of lung cancer cases, similar to incidence rates reported earlier in healthy individuals. Homozygote for the BIM polymorphism was observed in four of 942 healthy controls and three of 765 lung cancer cases. The frequency of the BIM deletion polymorphism in lung cancer patients was not related to age, sex, smoking history, or family history of lung cancer. The BIM deletion polymorphism was found in 30 of 212 patients with EGFR wild type lung cancers and 16 of 120 patients with EGFR mutant lung cancers. The frequency of the BIM polymorphism is similar between cancers with wild type EGFR and mutated EGFR (p = 0.78). The BIM deletion polymorphism was not associated with lung cancer susceptibility. Furthermore, the BIM polymorphism is not associated with EGFR mutant lung cancer.

  10. Exploration of methods to localize DNA sequences missing from c-locus deletions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albritton, L.M.; Russell, L.B.; Montgomery, C.S.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have earlier characterized a large number of radiation-induced mutations at the c locus (on Chromosome 7) through genetic analysis, including extensive complementation tests. Based on this work, they have postulated that many of these mutations are deletions of various lengths, overlapping at c (the marker used in the mutation-rate experiments that generated the mutants). It was possible to apportion these deletions among 13 complementation groups and to fit them to a linear map of 8 functional units. Collectively, the deletions extend from a point between tp and c to one between sh-1 and Hbb, i.e., a genetic distance of from 6 to 10 cM, corresponding to at least 10 4 Kb of DNA. This year, the authors completed a pilot study designed to explore methods for finding DNA sequences that map to the region covered by the various c-deletions. The general plan was to probe DNA with clones derived from Chromosome-7-enriched libraries or with sequences known (or suspected) to reside in Chromosome 7. Three methods were explored for deriving the c-region-deficient DNA: (a) from mouse-hamster somatic-cell hydrids retaining a deleted mouse Chromosome 7, but no homologue; (b) from F 1 hybrids of M. musculus domesticus (carrying a c-locus deletion) by M. spretus; and (c) from F 1 hybrids of M. domesticus stocks carrying complementing deletions

  11. Solid-phase nested deletion: a new subcloning-less method for generating nested deletions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohda, M; Kato, N; Endo, I

    1995-08-31

    We have developed a new subcloning-less method for generating nested deletions which we have termed Solid-Phase Nested Deletion. The basic procedure for this method is as follows. The target DNA fragment is cloned in the multiple cloning site of a cloning vector, pUC or its derivatives, and amplified by PCR using a set of primers, one of which is 5'-biotinylated. The amplified DNA is partially digested by a restriction enzyme with a 4-base recognition sequence. The digested DNA is ligated with a synthetic adapter DNA. Monodiverse beads coupled with streptavidin (Dynabeads M-280 streptavidin) are added to the mixture and the biotinylated DNA fragments are separated by applying magnetic field. The unidirectionally deleted DNA fragments are recovered by PCR from the magnetic beads, and size-fractionated by agarose gel electrophoresis. The DNA fragments are amplified by PCR and used for sequencing. We demonstrate the potential of this method using a 4878-bp EcoRI fragment of lambda phage DNA.

  12. A re-sequencing based assessment of genomic heterogeneity and fast neutron-induced deletions in a common bean cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie A. O'Rourke

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A small fast neutron mutant population has been established from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Red Hawk. We leveraged the available P. vulgaris genome sequence and high throughput next generation DNA sequencing to examine the genomic structure of five Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Red Hawk fast neutron mutants with striking visual phenotypes. Analysis of these genomes identified three classes of structural variation; between cultivar variation, natural variation within the fast neutron mutant population, and fast neutron induced mutagenesis. Our analyses focused on the latter two classes. We identified 23 large deletions (>40 bp common to multiple individuals, illustrating residual heterogeneity and regions of structural variation within the common bean cv. Red Hawk. An additional 18 large deletions were identified in individual mutant plants. These deletions, ranging in size from 40 bp to 43,000 bp, are potentially the result of fast neutron mutagenesis. Six of the 18 deletions lie near or within gene coding regions, identifying potential candidate genes causing the mutant phenotype.

  13. Enhanced Symbiotic Performance by Rhizobium tropici Glycogen Synthase Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroquí, Silvia; Zorreguieta, Angeles; Santamaría, Carmen; Temprano, Francisco; Soberón, Mario; Megías, Manuel; Downie, J. Allan

    2001-01-01

    We isolated a Tn5-induced Rhizobium tropici mutant that has enhanced capacity to oxidize N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylendiamine (DMPD) and therefore has enhanced respiration via cytochrome oxidase. The mutant had increased levels of the cytochromes c1 and CycM and a small increase in the amount of cytochrome aa3. In plant tests, the mutant increased the dry weight of Phaseolus vulgaris plants by 20 to 38% compared with the control strain, thus showing significantly enhanced symbiotic performance. The predicted product of the mutated gene is homologous to glycogen synthases from several bacteria, and the mutant lacked glycogen. The DNA sequence of the adjacent gene region revealed six genes predicted to encode products homologous to the following gene products from Escherichia coli: glycogen phosphorylase (glgP), glycogen branching enzyme (glgB), ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase (glgC), glycogen synthase (glgA), phosphoglucomutase (pgm), and glycogen debranching enzyme (glgX). All six genes are transcribed in the same direction, and analysis with lacZ gene fusions suggests that the first five genes are organized in one operon, although pgm appears to have an additional promoter; glgX is transcribed independently. Surprisingly, the glgA mutant had decreased levels of high-molecular-weight exopolysaccharide after growth on glucose, but levels were normal after growth on galactose. A deletion mutant was constructed in order to generate a nonpolar mutation in glgA. This mutant had a phenotype similar to that of the Tn5 mutant, indicating that the enhanced respiration and symbiotic nitrogen fixation and decreased exopolysaccharide were due to mutation of glgA and not to a polar effect on a downstream gene. PMID:11208782

  14. Method for introducing unidirectional nested deletions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, J.J.; Quesada, M.A.; Randesi, M.

    1999-07-27

    Disclosed is a method for the introduction of unidirectional deletions in a cloned DNA segment. More specifically, the method comprises providing a recombinant DNA construct comprising a DNA segment of interest inserted in a cloning vector. The cloning vector has an f1 endonuclease recognition sequence adjacent to the insertion site of the DNA segment of interest. The recombinant DNA construct is then contacted with the protein pII encoded by gene II of phage f1 thereby generating a single-stranded nick. The nicked DNA is then contacted with E. coli Exonuclease III thereby expanding the single-stranded nick into a single-stranded gap. The single-stranded gapped DNA is then contacted with a single-strand-specific endonuclease thereby producing a linearized DNA molecule containing a double-stranded deletion corresponding in size to the single-stranded gap. The DNA treated in this manner is then incubated with DNA ligase under conditions appropriate for ligation. Also disclosed is a method for producing single-stranded DNA probes. In this embodiment, single-stranded gapped DNA, produced as described above, is contacted with a DNA polymerase in the presence of labeled nucleotides to fill in the gap. This DNA is then linearized by digestion with a restriction enzyme which cuts outside the DNA segment of interest. The product of this digestion is then denatured to produce a labeled single-stranded nucleic acid probe. 1 fig.

  15. Barley Mla and Rar mutants compromised in the hypersensitive cell death response against Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei are modified in their ability to accumulate reactive oxygen intermediates at sites of fungal invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hückelhoven, R; Fodor, J; Trujillo, M; Kogel, K H

    2000-12-01

    The pathogenesis-related accumulation of superoxide radical anions (O2*-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was comparatively analyzed in a barley line (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Sultan-5) carrying the powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei, Speer, Bgh) resistance gene Mla12, and in susceptible mutants defective in Mla12 or in genes "required for Mla12-specified disease resistance" (Rar1 and Rar2). In-situ localization of reactive oxygen intermediates was performed both by microscopic detection of azide-insensitive nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction or diaminobenzidine (DAB) polymerization, and by an NBT-DAB double-staining procedure. The Mla12-mediated hypersensitive cell death occurred either in attacked epidermal cells or adjacent mesophyll cells of wild-type plants. Whole-cell H2O2 accumulation was detected in dying cells, while O2*- emerged in adjacent cells. Importantly, all susceptible mutants lacked these reactions. An oxalate oxidase, which is known to generate H2O2 and has been implicated in barley resistance against the powdery mildew fungus, was not differentially expressed between the wild type and all mutants. The results demonstrate that the Rar1 and Rar2 gene products, which are control elements of R-gene-mediated programmed cell death, also control accumulation of reactive oxygen intermediates but not the pathogenesis-related expression of oxalate oxidase.

  16. A genome-wide polyketide synthase deletion library uncovers novel genetic links to polyketides and meroterpenoids in Aspergillus nidulans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Lynge; Nielsen, Jakob Blæsbjerg; Rank, Christian

    2011-01-01

    by systematically deleting all 32 individual genes encoding polyketide synthases. Wild-type and all mutant strains were challenged on different complex media to provoke induction of the secondary metabolism. Screening of the mutant library revealed direct genetic links to two austinol meroterpenoids and expanded...... the current understanding of the biosynthetic pathways leading to arugosins and violaceols. We expect that the library will be an important resource towards a systemic understanding of polyketide production in A. nidulans....

  17. Crystal structure of a mutant of archaeal ribosomal protein L1 from Methanococcus jannaschii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarskikh, A. V.; Gabdulkhakov, A. G.; Kostareva, O. S.; Shklyaeva, A. A.; Tishchenko, S. V.

    2014-05-01

    The crystal structure of a mutant of archaeal ribosomal protein L1 from Methanococcus jannaschii with the deletion of a nonconserved positively charged cluster consisting of eight C-terminal amino acid residues is determined by the molecular replacement method at 1.75 Å resolution. This mutant is shown to form more stable and ordered crystals belonging to a space group other than that of the wild-type protein crystals. The positively charged C-terminal region has only a slight effect on the interaction between protein L1 and RNA molecules. Hence, this mutant can be used to prepare protein-RNA complexes and obtain their crystals.

  18. Sphingolipid synthesis deficiency in a mutant of Bacteroides levii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brumleve, B.; Lev, M.

    1986-05-01

    Bacteroides levii, an anaerobic bacterium, synthesizes two sphingolipids; the sphingomyelin analogue, ceramide phosphorylethanolamine (CPE), and also ceramide phosphorylglycerol (CPG). The first enzyme in the sphingolipid pathway, 3-ketodihydro-sphingosine (3KDS) synthase, has been partially purified previously. To study subsequent steps in the pathways, mutants defective in sphingolipid synthesis were derived by ethyl methanesulfonate and nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis. Extracts of the mutant, 1075BB, show synthase activity although the cells do not synthesize CPE or CPG. The mutant differs from the wild type in that: (1) synthase activity was much diminished in the mutant, (2) sphingolipid synthesis does not occur in the mutant as evidenced by the absence of spots at sites where CPE and CPG migrate following two-dimensional thin layer chromatography, (3) incorporation of uniformly-labelled (/sup 14/C)serine carbon or (/sup 14/C)3KDS into sphingolipids was not observed in the mutant, (4) following incubation with (/sup 14/C)3KDS, radioactivity corresponding to dihydrosphingosine (DHS) and ceramide were observed in the mutant; no (/sup 14/C)DHS was detected in the wild type, and (5) enhanced incorporation of (/sup 14/C)serine carbon into two lipids not containing phosphorus was found in the mutant. The authors conclude, therefore, that this mutant, 1075BB, has a metabolic block at the terminal biosynthetic steps of sphingolipid synthesis.

  19. Precise Null Deletion Mutations of the Mycothiol Synthesis Genes Reveal Their Role in Isoniazid and Ethionamide Resistance in Mycobacterium smegmatis ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xia; Vilchèze, Catherine; Av-Gay, Yossef; Gómez-Velasco, Anaximandro; Jacobs, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Mycothiol (MSH; AcCys-GlcN-Ins) is the glutathione analogue for mycobacteria. Mutations in MSH biosynthetic genes have been associated with resistance to isoniazid (INH) and ethionamide (ETH) in mycobacteria, but rigorous genetic studies are lacking, and those that have been conducted have yielded different results. In this study, we constructed independent null deletion mutants for all four genes involved in the MSH biosynthesis pathway (mshA, mshB, mshC, and mshD) in Mycobacterium smegmatis and made complementing constructs in integrating plasmids. The resulting set of strains was analyzed for levels of MSH, INH resistance, and ETH resistance. The mshA and mshC single deletion mutants were devoid of MSH production and resistant to INH, whereas the mshB deletion mutant produced decreased levels of MSH yet was sensitive to INH, suggesting that MSH biosynthesis is essential for INH susceptibility in M. smegmatis. Further evidence supporting this conclusion was generated by deleting the gene encoding the MSH S-conjugate amidase (mca) from the ΔmshB null mutant. This double mutant, ΔmshB Δmca, completely abolished MSH production and was resistant to INH. The mshA, mshC, and mshB single deletion mutants were also resistant to ETH, indicating that ETH resistance is modulated by the level of MSH in M. smegmatis. Surprisingly, the mshD deletion mutant lacked MSH production but was sensitive to both INH and ETH. The drug sensitivity was likely mediated by the compensated synthesis of N-formyl-Cys-GlcN-Ins, previously demonstrated to substitute for MSH in an mshD mutant of M. smegmatis. We conclude that MSH or N-formyl-Cys-GlcN-Ins is required for susceptibility to INH or ETH in M. smegmatis. PMID:21502624

  20. Mutation induction in γ-irradiated primary human bronchial epithelial cells and molecular analysis of the HPRT- mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Keiji; Hei, Tom K.

    1996-01-01

    We have examined various radiobiological parameters using commercially-available primary normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells, which can be subcultured more than 20 population doublings, and have established the mutation system in order to characterize the molecular changes in γ-irradiated primary cells. The survival curve, obtained after irradiation of cells with 137 Cs γ-rays, indicates that the D 0 , D q , and n values are 1.34 Gy, 1.12 Gy, and 2.3, respectively. The induction of HPRT - mutation was dose-dependent and the mutant fraction increased in a non-linear fashion. Since the doubling number of NHBE cells is limited, DNA was extracted directly from the single mutant colonies and alteration in the HPRT gene locus was analyzed using multiplex PCR technique. Among spontaneous mutants, the proportion with total and partial deletions of the gene was 10.0% (2/20) and 60.0% (12/20), respectively, while 30.0% (6/20) did not have any detectable changes in the nine exons examined. On the other hand, the fraction of total deletion increased by more than 2-fold among mutants induced by γ-rays in that 26.3% (10/38) of them showed the total gene deletions. Twenty-five out of 38 γ-induced mutants (65.8%) had partial deletions and 3 mutants (7.9%) had no detectable alteration. The present results showed that γ-irradiation efficiently induced HPRT gene mutation in primary human epithelial cells and that most of the induced mutants suffered larger deletions compared to that observed in spontaneous mutants. This system provides a useful tool for determination of mutagenicity and understanding the molecular mechanisms of environmental carcinogens in primary human bronchial cells

  1. First report of a deletion encompassing an entire exon in the homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase gene causing alkaptonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouheir Habbal, Mohammad; Bou-Assi, Tarek; Zhu, Jun; Owen, Renius; Chehab, Farid F

    2014-01-01

    Alkaptonuria is often diagnosed clinically with episodes of dark urine, biochemically by the accumulation of peripheral homogentisic acid and molecularly by the presence of mutations in the homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase gene (HGD). Alkaptonuria is invariably associated with HGD mutations, which consist of single nucleotide variants and small insertions/deletions. Surprisingly, the presence of deletions beyond a few nucleotides among over 150 reported deleterious mutations has not been described, raising the suspicion that this gene might be protected against the detrimental mechanisms of gene rearrangements. The quest for an HGD mutation in a proband with AKU revealed with a SNP array five large regions of homozygosity (5-16 Mb), one of which includes the HGD gene. A homozygous deletion of 649 bp deletion that encompasses the 72 nucleotides of exon 2 and surrounding DNA sequences in flanking introns of the HGD gene was unveiled in a proband with AKU. The nature of this deletion suggests that this in-frame deletion could generate a protein without exon 2. Thus, we modeled the tertiary structure of the mutant protein structure to determine the effect of exon 2 deletion. While the two β-pleated sheets encoded by exon 2 were missing in the mutant structure, other β-pleated sheets are largely unaffected by the deletion. However, nine novel α-helical coils substituted the eight coils present in the native HGD crystal structure. Thus, this deletion results in a deleterious enzyme, which is consistent with the proband's phenotype. Screening for mutations in the HGD gene, particularly in the Middle East, ought to include this exon 2 deletion in order to determine its frequency and uncover its origin.

  2. 76 FR 9555 - Procurement List; Proposed Deletions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Deletions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed deletions from the Procurement...'Day Act (41 U.S.C. 46- 48c) in connection with the products proposed for deletion from the Procurement...

  3. 78 FR 56679 - Procurement List; Deletions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Deletions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Deletions from the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action deletes products from the Procurement List previously furnished by nonprofit agencies employing...

  4. Photorepair mutants of Arabidopsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, C.Z.; Yee, J.; Mitchell, D.L.; Britt, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    UV radiation induces two major DNA damage products, the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and, at a lower frequency, the pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidinone dimer (6-4 product). Although Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae produce a CPD-specific photolyase that eliminates only this class of dimer, Arabidopsis thaliana, Drosophila melanogaster, Crotalus atrox, and Xenopus laevis have recently been shown to photoreactivate both CPDs and 6-4 products. We describe the isolation and characterization of two new classes of mutants of Arabidopsis, termed uvr2 and uvr3, that are defective in the photoreactivation of CPDs and 6-4 products, respectively. We demonstrate that the CPD photolyase mutation is genetically linked to a DNA sequence encoding a type II (metazoan) CPD photolyase. In addition, we are able to generate plants in which only CPDs or 6-4 products are photoreactivated in the nuclear genome by exposing these mutants to UV light and then allowing them to repair one or the other class of dimers. This provides us with a unique opportunity to study the biological consequences of each of these two major UV-induced photoproducts in an intact living system

  5. Genomic rearrangements by LINE-1 insertion-mediated deletion in the human and chimpanzee lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyudong; Sen, Shurjo K; Wang, Jianxin; Callinan, Pauline A; Lee, Jungnam; Cordaux, Richard; Liang, Ping; Batzer, Mark A

    2005-01-01

    Long INterspersed Elements (LINE-1s or L1s) are abundant non-LTR retrotransposons in mammalian genomes that are capable of insertional mutagenesis. They have been associated with target site deletions upon insertion in cell culture studies of retrotransposition. Here, we report 50 deletion events in the human and chimpanzee genomes directly linked to the insertion of L1 elements, resulting in the loss of approximately 18 kb of sequence from the human genome and approximately 15 kb from the chimpanzee genome. Our data suggest that during the primate radiation, L1 insertions may have deleted up to 7.5 Mb of target genomic sequences. While the results of our in vivo analysis differ from those of previous cell culture assays of L1 insertion-mediated deletions in terms of the size and rate of sequence deletion, evolutionary factors can reconcile the differences. We report a pattern of genomic deletion sizes similar to those created during the retrotransposition of Alu elements. Our study provides support for the existence of different mechanisms for small and large L1-mediated deletions, and we present a model for the correlation of L1 element size and the corresponding deletion size. In addition, we show that internal rearrangements can modify L1 structure during retrotransposition events associated with large deletions.

  6. Computational prediction of the tolerance to amino-acid deletion in green-fluorescent protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Eleisha L; Spielman, Stephanie J; Wilke, Claus O

    2017-01-01

    Proteins evolve through two primary mechanisms: substitution, where mutations alter a protein's amino-acid sequence, and insertions and deletions (indels), where amino acids are either added to or removed from the sequence. Protein structure has been shown to influence the rate at which substitutions accumulate across sites in proteins, but whether structure similarly constrains the occurrence of indels has not been rigorously studied. Here, we investigate the extent to which structural properties known to covary with protein evolutionary rates might also predict protein tolerance to indels. Specifically, we analyze a publicly available dataset of single-amino-acid deletion mutations in enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) to assess how well the functional effect of deletions can be predicted from protein structure. We find that weighted contact number (WCN), which measures how densely packed a residue is within the protein's three-dimensional structure, provides the best single predictor for whether eGFP will tolerate a given deletion. We additionally find that using protein design to explicitly model deletions results in improved predictions of functional status when combined with other structural predictors. Our work suggests that structure plays fundamental role in constraining deletions at sites in proteins, and further that similar biophysical constraints influence both substitutions and deletions. This study therefore provides a solid foundation for future work to examine how protein structure influences tolerance of more complex indel events, such as insertions or large deletions.

  7. Deletion of chromosomes 13q and 14q is a common feature of tumors with BRCA2 mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Rouault

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations account for 20-30% of familial clustering of breast cancer. The main indication for BRCA2 screening is currently the family history but the yield of mutations identified in patients selected this way is low. METHODS: To develop more efficient approaches to screening we have compared the gene expression and genomic profiles of BRCA2-mutant breast tumors with those of breast tumors lacking BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. RESULTS: We identified a group of 66 genes showing differential expression in our training set of 7 BRCA2-mutant tumors and in an independent validation set of 19 BRCA2-mutant tumors. The differentially expressed genes include a prominent cluster of genes from chromosomes 13 and 14 whose expression is reduced. Gene set enrichment analysis confirmed that genes in specific bands on 13q and 14q showed significantly reduced expression, suggesting that the affected bands may be preferentially deleted in BRCA2-mutant tumors. Genomic profiling showed that the BRCA2-mutant tumors indeed harbor deletions on chromosomes 13q and 14q. To exploit this information we have created a simple fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH test and shown that it detects tumors with deletions on chromosomes 13q and 14q. CONCLUSION: Together with previous reports, this establishes that deletions on chromosomes 13q and 14q are a hallmark of BRCA2-mutant tumors. We propose that FISH to detect these deletions would be an efficient and cost-effective first screening step to identify potential BRCA2-mutation carriers among breast cancer patients without a family history of breast cancer.

  8. The RhoJ-BAD signaling network: An Achilles' heel for BRAF mutant melanomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Ruiz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Genes and pathways that allow cells to cope with oncogene-induced stress represent selective cancer therapeutic targets that remain largely undiscovered. In this study, we identify a RhoJ signaling pathway that is a selective therapeutic target for BRAF mutant cells. RhoJ deletion in BRAF mutant melanocytes modulates the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein BAD as well as genes involved in cellular metabolism, impairing nevus formation, cellular transformation, and metastasis. Short-term treatment of nascent melanoma tumors with PAK inhibitors that block RhoJ signaling halts the growth of BRAF mutant melanoma tumors in vivo and induces apoptosis in melanoma cells in vitro via a BAD-dependent mechanism. As up to 50% of BRAF mutant human melanomas express high levels of RhoJ, these studies nominate the RhoJ-BAD signaling network as a therapeutic vulnerability for fledgling BRAF mutant human tumors.

  9. The RhoJ-BAD signaling network: An Achilles' heel for BRAF mutant melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Rolando; Jahid, Sohail; Harris, Melissa; Marzese, Diego M; Espitia, Francisco; Vasudeva, Priya; Chen, Chi-Fen; de Feraudy, Sebastien; Wu, Jie; Gillen, Daniel L; Krasieva, Tatiana B; Tromberg, Bruce J; Pavan, William J; Hoon, Dave S; Ganesan, Anand K

    2017-07-01

    Genes and pathways that allow cells to cope with oncogene-induced stress represent selective cancer therapeutic targets that remain largely undiscovered. In this study, we identify a RhoJ signaling pathway that is a selective therapeutic target for BRAF mutant cells. RhoJ deletion in BRAF mutant melanocytes modulates the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein BAD as well as genes involved in cellular metabolism, impairing nevus formation, cellular transformation, and metastasis. Short-term treatment of nascent melanoma tumors with PAK inhibitors that block RhoJ signaling halts the growth of BRAF mutant melanoma tumors in vivo and induces apoptosis in melanoma cells in vitro via a BAD-dependent mechanism. As up to 50% of BRAF mutant human melanomas express high levels of RhoJ, these studies nominate the RhoJ-BAD signaling network as a therapeutic vulnerability for fledgling BRAF mutant human tumors.

  10. Phenotypic characterization of glucose repression mutants of Saccharomyce cerevisiae usinge experiments with C-13-labelled glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vijayendran, Raghevendran; Gombert, A.K.; Christensen, B.

    2004-01-01

    glucose. Through GC-MS analysis of the C-13 incorporated into the amino acids of cellular proteins, it was possible to obtain quantitative information on the function of the central carbon metabolism in the different mutants. Traditionally, such labelling data have been used to quantify metabolic fluxes...... through the use of a suitable mathematical model, but here we show that the raw labelling data may also be used directly for phenotypic characterization of different mutant strains. Different glucose derepressed strains investigated employed are the disruption mutants reg1, hxk2, grr1, mig1 and mig1mig2...... and the reference strain CEN.PK113-7D. Principal components analysis of the summed fractional labelling data show that deleting the genes HXK2 and GRR1 results in similar phenotype at the fluxome level, with a partial alleviation of glucose repression on the respiratory metabolism. Furthermore, deletion...

  11. BRED: a simple and powerful tool for constructing mutant and recombinant bacteriophage genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J Marinelli

    Full Text Available Advances in DNA sequencing technology have facilitated the determination of hundreds of complete genome sequences both for bacteria and their bacteriophages. Some of these bacteria have well-developed and facile genetic systems for constructing mutants to determine gene function, and recombineering is a particularly effective tool. However, generally applicable methods for constructing defined mutants of bacteriophages are poorly developed, in part because of the inability to use selectable markers such as drug resistance genes during viral lytic growth. Here we describe a method for simple and effective directed mutagenesis of bacteriophage genomes using Bacteriophage Recombineering of Electroporated DNA (BRED, in which a highly efficient recombineering system is utilized directly on electroporated phage DNA; no selection is required and mutants can be readily detected by PCR. We describe the use of BRED to construct unmarked gene deletions, in-frame internal deletions, base substitutions, precise gene replacements, and the addition of gene tags.

  12. Remote intracranial recurrence of IDH mutant gliomas is associated with TP53 mutations and an 8q gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakae, Shunsuke; Kato, Takema; Murayama, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Hikaru; Abe, Masato; Kumon, Masanobu; Kumai, Tadashi; Yamashiro, Kei; Inamasu, Joji; Hasegawa, Mitsuhiro; Kurahashi, Hiroki; Hirose, Yuichi

    2017-01-01

    Most IDH mutant gliomas harbor either 1p/19q co-deletions or TP53 mutation; 1p/19q co-deleted tumors have significantly better prognoses than tumors harboring TP53 mutations. To investigate the clinical factors that contribute to differences in tumor progression of IDH mutant gliomas, we classified recurrent tumor patterns based on MRI and correlated these patterns with their genomic characterization. Accordingly, in IDH mutant gliomas (N = 66), 1p/19 co-deleted gliomas only recurred locally, whereas TP53 mutant gliomas recurred both locally and in remote intracranial regions. In addition, diffuse tensor imaging suggested that remote intracranial recurrence in the astrocytomas, IDH-mutant with TP53 mutations may occur along major fiber bundles. Remotely recurrent tumors resulted in a higher mortality and significantly harbored an 8q gain; astrocytomas with an 8q gain resulted in significantly shorter overall survival than those without an 8q gain. OncoScan® arrays and next-generation sequencing revealed specific 8q regions (i.e., between 8q22 and 8q24) show a high copy number. In conclusion, only tumors with TP53 mutations showed patterns of remote recurrence in IDH mutant gliomas. Furthermore, an 8q gain was significantly associated with remote intracranial recurrence and can be considered a poor prognostic factor in astrocytomas, IDH-mutant. PMID:29156679

  13. Tetracycline hypersensitivity of an ezrA mutant links GalE and TseB (YpmB to cell division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela eGamba

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cell division in bacteria is initiated by the polymerization of FtsZ into a ring-like structure at midcell that functions as a scaffold for the other cell division proteins. In Bacillus subtilis, the conserved cell division protein EzrA is involved in modulation of Z-ring formation and coordination of septal peptidoglycan synthesis. Here, we show that an ezrA mutant is hypersensitive to tetracycline, even when the tetracycline efflux pump TetA is present. This effect is not related to the protein translation inhibiting activity of tetracycline. Overexpression of FtsL suppresses this phenotype, which appears to be related to the intrinsic low FtsL levels in an ezrA mutant background. A transposon screen indicated that the tetracycline effect can also be suppressed by overproduction of the cell division protein ZapA. In addition, tetracycline sensitivity could be suppressed by transposon insertions in galE and the unknown gene ypmB, which was renamed tseB (tetracycline sensitivity suppressor of ezrA. GalE is an epimerase using UDP-glucose and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine as substrate. Deletion of this protein bypasses the synthetic lethality of zapA ezrA and sepF ezrA double mutations, indicating that GalE influences cell division. The transmembrane protein TseB contains an extracytoplasmic peptidase domain, and a GFP fusion shows that the protein is enriched at cell division sites. A tseB deletion causes a shorter cell phenotype, indicating that TseB plays a role in cell division. Why a deletion of ezrA renders B. subtilis cells hypersensitive for tetracycline remains unclear. We speculate that this phenomenon is related to the tendency of tetracycline analogues to accumulate into the lipid bilayer, which may destabilize certain membrane proteins.

  14. Developing Universal Genetic Tools for Rapid and Efficient Deletion Mutation in Vibrio Species Based on Suicide T-Vectors Carrying a Novel Counterselectable Marker, vmi480.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Peng; He, Xiangyan; Liu, Qiuting; Hu, Chaoqun

    2015-01-01

    Despite that Vibrio spp. have a significant impact on the health of humans and aquatic animals, the molecular basis of their pathogenesis is little known, mainly due to the limited genetic tools for the functional research of genes in Vibrio. In some cases, deletion of target DNAs in Vibrio can be achieved through the use of suicide vectors. However, these strategies are time-consuming and lack universality, and the widely used counterselectable gene sacB does not work well in Vibrio cells. In this study, we developed universal genetic tools for rapid and efficient deletion mutations in Vibrio species based on suicide T-Vectors carrying a novel counterselectable marker, vmi480. We explored two uncharacterized genes, vmi480 and vmi470, in a genomic island from Vibrio mimicus VM573 and confirmed that vmi480 and vmi470 constitute a two-component toxin-antitoxin system through deletion and expression of vmi480 and vmi470. The product of vmi480 exhibited strong toxicity to Escherichia coli cells. Based on vmi480 and the PBAD or PTAC promoter system, we constructed two suicide T-vectors, pLP11 and pLP12, and each of these vectors contained a multiple cloning region with two AhdI sites. Both vectors linearized by AhdI digestion could be stored and directly ligated with purified PCR products without a digestion step. By using pLP11 and pLP12 coupled with a highly efficient conjugation system provided by E. coli β2163, six genes from four representative Vibrio species were easily deleted. By using the counterselective marker vmi480, we obtained 3-12 positive colonies (deletion mutants) among no more than 20 colonies randomly selected on counterselection plates. The strategy does not require the digestion of PCR products and suicide vectors every time, and it avoids large-scale screening colonies on counterselective plates. These results demonstrate that we successfully developed universal genetic tools for rapid and efficient gene deletion in Vibrio species.

  15. Isozyme differences in barley mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AI-Jibouri, A.A.M.; Dham, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Thirty mutants (M 11 ) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) induced by physical and chemical mutagens were analysed for isozyme composition using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results show that these mutants were different in the isozymes leucine aminopeptidase, esterase and peroxidase. The differences included the number of forms of each enzyme, relative mobility value and their intensity on the gel. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase isozyme was found in six molecular forms and these forms were similar in all mutants. (author)

  16. Detection of classical 17p11.2 deletions, an atypical deletion and RAI1 alterations in patients with features suggestive of Smith-Magenis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Gustavo H; Rodriguez, Jayson D; Carmona-Mora, Paulina; Cao, Lei; Gamba, Bruno F; Carvalho, Daniel R; de Rezende Duarte, Andréa; Santos, Suely R; de Souza, Deise H; DuPont, Barbara R; Walz, Katherina; Moretti-Ferreira, Danilo; Srivastava, Anand K

    2012-02-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a complex disorder whose clinical features include mild to severe intellectual disability with speech delay, growth failure, brachycephaly, flat midface, short broad hands, and behavioral problems. SMS is typically caused by a large deletion on 17p11.2 that encompasses multiple genes including the retinoic acid induced 1, RAI1, gene or a mutation in the RAI1 gene. Here we have evaluated 30 patients with suspected SMS and identified SMS-associated classical 17p11.2 deletions in six patients, an atypical deletion of ~139 kb that partially deletes the RAI1 gene in one patient, and RAI1 gene nonsynonymous alterations of unknown significance in two unrelated patients. The RAI1 mutant proteins showed no significant alterations in molecular weight, subcellular localization and transcriptional activity. Clinical features of patients with or without 17p11.2 deletions and mutations involving the RAI1 gene were compared to identify phenotypes that may be useful in diagnosing patients with SMS.

  17. Mouse Dach2 mutants do not exhibit gross defects in eye development or brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Richard J; Pesah, Yakov I; Harding, Mark; Paylor, Richard; Mardon, Graeme

    2006-02-01

    Drosophila dachshund is a critical regulator of eye, brain, and limb formation. Vertebrate homologs, Dach1 and Dach2, are expressed in the developing retina, brain, and limbs, suggesting functional conservation of the dachshund/Dach gene family. Dach1 mutants die postnatally, but exhibit grossly normal development. Here we report the generation of Dach2 mutant mice. Although deletion of Dach2 exon 1 results in abrogation of RNA expression, Dach2 mutants are viable and fertile. Histochemical analysis reveals grossly normal Dach2 mutant eye development. In addition, a battery of neurological assays failed to yield significant differences in behavior between Dach2 mutants and controls. We discuss these findings in the light of published observations of DACH2 mutations in the human population. Finally, to test the functional conservation hypothesis, we generated Dach2; Dach1 double mutant mice. Dach double mutants die after birth, similar to Dach1 homozygotes. However, unlike Drosophila dachshund mutants that lack eyes and exhibit leg truncations, the eyes and limbs of Dach double mutants are present, suggesting differences between Dach and dachshund gene function during embryonic eye and limb formation.

  18. Analysis of BIM (BCL-2 like 11 gene) deletion polymorphism in Chinese non-small cell lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jia; Li, Zheng-Xiang; Zhao, Jun; Duan, Jian-Chun; Bai, Hua; An, Tong-Tong; Yang, Xiao-Dan; Wang, Jie

    2014-11-01

    Drug resistance significantly weakens the efficacy of cancer treatment, and the BIM (also known as the BCL2L11 gene) deletion polymorphism has been identified as a potential biomarker for drug resistance. In this retrospective study, we included a total of 290 patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received treatment with epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) and chemotherapy. The BIM deletion polymorphism of each patient was detected by polymerase chain reaction. EGFR mutations were detected by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography methods and the amplification refractory mutation system. The BIM deletion polymorphism was detected in 45/290 (15.5%) Chinese NSCLC patients. No associations were observed between the BIM deletion and clinic-pathologic characteristics of patients. The BIM deletion polymorphism was predictive of shorter progression-free survival in Chinese patients with EGFR-mutant adenocarcinoma and who were treated with EGFR-TKIs (7.30 vs. 9.53 months, P = 0.034). Additionally, we found that the BIM deletion polymorphism was an effective predictor of short progression-free survival in individuals with EGFR-mutant NSCLC and treated with chemotherapy containing pemetrexed (3.32 vs. 5.30, P = 0.012) or second-/beyond-line chemotherapy containing taxanes (1.53 vs. 2.61 months, P = 0.025). The BIM deletion was not correlated with overall survival. The BIM deletion polymorphism occurs in 15.5% of Chinese NSCLC patients, and is a biomarker for resistance to TKIs and chemotherapy. However, BIM deletion was not a decisive factor in overall survival.

  19. Induction and characterization of mitochondrial DNA mutants in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    In addition to lethal minute colony mutations which correspond to loss of mitochondrial DNA, acriflavin induces in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii a low percentage of cells that grow in the light but do not divide under heterotrophic conditions. Two such obligate photoautotrophic mutants were shown to lack the cyanide-sensitive cytochrome pathway of the respiration and to have a reduced cytochrome c oxidase activity. In crosses to wild type, the mutations are transmitted almost exclusively from the mating type minus parent. A same pattern of inheritance is seen for the mitochondrial DNA in crosses between the two interfertile species C. reinhardtii and Chlamydomonas smithii. Both mutants have a deletion in the region of the mitochondrial DNA containing the apocytochrome b gene and possibly the unidentified URFx gene. PMID:2925784

  20. Analysis of AVR4 promoter by sequential response-element deletion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Avr4 promoter region ligated to chloramphenicol acetyltransferase plasmid vector (pBLCAT2) to produce recombinant plasmid Avr4pBLCAT2 was sequentially deleted to produce five distinct mutants: Avr4pBLCAT2907-176, Avr4pBLCAT2809-176, Avr4pBLCAT2789-176, Avr4pBLCAT2429-176 and Avr4pBLCAT2 ...

  1. Structures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa β-ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase II (FabF) and a C164Q mutant provide templates for antibacterial drug discovery and identify a buried potassium ion and a ligand-binding site that is an artefact of the crystal form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, Bernhard [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Staudinger Weg 5, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Lecker, Laura S. M.; Zoltner, Martin [University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4EH, Scotland (United Kingdom); Jaenicke, Elmar [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Jakob Welder Weg 26, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Schnell, Robert [Karolinska Institutet, 17 177 Stockholm (Sweden); Hunter, William N., E-mail: w.n.hunter@dundee.ac.uk [University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4EH, Scotland (United Kingdom); Brenk, Ruth, E-mail: w.n.hunter@dundee.ac.uk [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Staudinger Weg 5, 55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2015-07-28

    Three crystal structures of recombinant P. aeruginosa FabF are reported: the apoenzyme, an active-site mutant and a complex with a fragment of a natural product inhibitor. The characterization provides reagents and new information to support antibacterial drug discovery. Bacterial infections remain a serious health concern, in particular causing life-threatening infections of hospitalized and immunocompromised patients. The situation is exacerbated by the rise in antibacterial drug resistance, and new treatments are urgently sought. In this endeavour, accurate structures of molecular targets can support early-stage drug discovery. Here, crystal structures, in three distinct forms, of recombinant Pseudomonas aeruginosa β-ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase II (FabF) are presented. This enzyme, which is involved in fatty-acid biosynthesis, has been validated by genetic and chemical means as an antibiotic target in Gram-positive bacteria and represents a potential target in Gram-negative bacteria. The structures of apo FabF, of a C164Q mutant in which the binding site is altered to resemble the substrate-bound state and of a complex with 3-(benzoylamino)-2-hydroxybenzoic acid are reported. This compound mimics aspects of a known natural product inhibitor, platensimycin, and surprisingly was observed binding outside the active site, interacting with a symmetry-related molecule. An unusual feature is a completely buried potassium-binding site that was identified in all three structures. Comparisons suggest that this may represent a conserved structural feature of FabF relevant to fold stability. The new structures provide templates for structure-based ligand design and, together with the protocols and reagents, may underpin a target-based drug-discovery project for urgently needed antibacterials.

  2. High proportion of 22q13 deletions and SHANK3 mutations in Chinese patients with intellectual disability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Gong

    Full Text Available Intellectual disability (ID is a heterogeneous disorder caused by chromosomal abnormalities, monogenic factors and environmental factors. 22q13 deletion syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by severe ID. Although the frequency of 22q13 deletions in ID is unclear, it is believed to be largely underestimated. To address this issue, we used Affymetrix Human SNP 6.0 array to detect the 22q13 deletions in 234 Chinese unexplained ID patients and 103 controls. After the Quality Control (QC test of raw data, 22q13 deletions were found in four out of 230 cases (1.7%, while absent in parents of the cases and 101 controls. A review of genome-wide microarray studies in ID was performed and the frequency of 22q13 deletions from the literatures was 0.24%, much lower than our report. The overlapping region shared by all 4 cases encompasses the gene SHANK3. A heterozygous de novo nonsense mutation Y1015X of SHANK3 was identified in one ID patient. Cortical neurons were prepared from embryonic mice and were transfected with a control plasmid, shank3 wild-type (WT or mutant plasmids. Overexpression of the Y1015 mutant in neurons significantly affected neurite outgrowth compared with shank3 WT. These findings suggest that 22q13 deletions may be a more frequent cause for Chinese ID patients than previously thought, and the SHANK3 gene is involved in the neurite development.

  3. Bypassing the Need for the Transcriptional Activator EarA through a Spontaneous Deletion in the BRE Portion of the fla Operon Promoter in Methanococcus maripaludis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ding

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In Methanococcus maripaludis, the euryarchaeal archaellum regulator A (EarA is required for the transcription of the fla operon, which is comprised of a series of genes which encode most of the proteins needed for the formation of the archaeal swimming organelle, the archaellum. In mutants deleted for earA (ΔearA, there is almost undetectable transcription of the fla operon, Fla proteins are not synthesized and the cells are non-archaellated. In this study, we have isolated a spontaneous mutant of a ΔearA mutant in which the restoration of the transcription and translation of the fla operon (using flaB2, the second gene of the operon, as a reporter, archaella formation and swarming motility were all restored even in the absence of EarA. Analysis of the DNA sequence from the fla promoter of this spontaneous mutant revealed a deletion of three adenines within a string of seven adenines in the transcription factor B recognition element (BRE. When the three adenine deletion in the BRE was regenerated in a stock culture of the ΔearA mutant, very similar phenotypes to that of the spontaneous mutant were observed. Deletion of the three adenines in the fla promoter BRE resulted in the mutant BRE having high sequence identity to BREs from promoters that have strong basal transcription level in Mc. maripaludis and Methanocaldococcus jannaschii. These data suggest that EarA may help recruit transcription factor B to a weak BRE in the fla promoter of wild-type cells but is not required for transcription from the fla promoter with a strong BRE, as in the three adenine deletion version in the spontaneous mutant.

  4. The association between haematological manifestation and mtDNA deletions in Pearson syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraki, K; Nishimura, S; Goto, Y; Nonaka, I; Sakura, N; Ueda, K

    1997-09-01

    We studied the proportion of deleted mitochondrial DNA in blood cells from patients with Pearson syndrome. Patient 1 is a 17-year-old female with Kearns-Sayre syndrome who survived Pearson syndrome. Patient 2 is a 5-year-old boy with Pearson syndrome who recovered from refractory anaemia but continues to have thrombocytopenia and neutropenia. Patient 3 is a female neonate who died with severe acidosis and pancytopenia at 14 days of age. Southern blot analysis was performed with total DNA from three patients' blood cells and two samples of bone marrow cells from one patient. In peripheral blood, patients with a higher proportion of deleted mitochondrial DNA had lower blood cell counts. In patient 2, the percentage of mutant mitochondrial DNA in bone marrow cells decreased as anaemia improved. This indicates that the proportion of deleted mitochondrial DNA in peripheral blood and in bone marrow has a tendency to correlate to the severity of haematological manifestation.

  5. Deletion of JJJ1 improves acetic acid tolerance and bioethanol fermentation performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuechang; Zhang, Lijie; Jin, Xinna; Fang, Yahong; Zhang, Ke; Qi, Lei; Zheng, Daoqiong

    2016-07-01

    To improve tolerance to acetic acid that is present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates and affects bioethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with improved tolerance to acetic acid were obtained through deletion of the JJJ1 gene. The lag phase of the JJJ1 deletion mutant BYΔJJJ1 was ~16 h shorter than that of the parent strain, BY4741, when the fermentation medium contained 4.5 g acetic acid/l. Additionally, the specific ethanol production rate of BYΔJJJ1 was increased (0.057 g/g h) compared to that of the parent strain (0.051 g/g h). Comparative transcription and physiological analyses revealed higher long chain fatty acid, trehalose, and catalase contents might be critical factors responsible for the acetic acid resistance of JJJ1 knockout strains. JJJ1 deletion improves acetic acid tolerance and ethanol fermentation performance of S. cerevisiae.

  6. Evaluation of tall rice mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakim, L.; Azam, M.A.; Miah, A.J.; Mansur, M.A.; Akanda, H.R.

    1989-01-01

    One tall mutant (Mut NS1) of rice variety Nizersail was put to multilocation on-farm trial. It showed improvement over the parent in respect of by earlier maturity and higher grain yield at all locations and thus it appears as an improved mutant of Nizersail. (author). 6 refs

  7. [Chromosomal large fragment deletion induced by CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L H; Liu, Y; Niu, T

    2017-05-14

    Objective: Using CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing technology to achieve a number of genes co-deletion on the same chromosome. Methods: CRISPR-Cas9 lentiviral plasmid that could induce deletion of Aloxe3-Alox12b-Alox8 cluster genes located on mouse 11B3 chromosome was constructed via molecular clone. HEK293T cells were transfected to package lentivirus of CRISPR or Cas9 cDNA, then mouse NIH3T3 cells were infected by lentivirus and genomic DNA of these cells was extracted. The deleted fragment was amplified by PCR, TA clone, Sanger sequencing and other techniques were used to confirm the deletion of Aloxe3-Alox12b-Alox8 cluster genes. Results: The CRISPR-Cas9 lentiviral plasmid, which could induce deletion of Aloxe3-Alox12b-Alox8 cluster genes, was successfully constructed. Deletion of target chromosome fragment (Aloxe3-Alox12b-Alox8 cluster genes) was verified by PCR. The deletion of Aloxe3-Alox12b-Alox8 cluster genes was affirmed by TA clone, Sanger sequencing, and the breakpoint junctions of the CRISPR-Cas9 system mediate cutting events were accurately recombined, insertion mutation did not occur between two cleavage sites at all. Conclusion: Large fragment deletion of Aloxe3-Alox12b-Alox8 cluster genes located on mouse chromosome 11B3 was successfully induced by CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing system.

  8. Global Analysis of the Impact of Deleting Trigger Factor on the Transcriptome Profile of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Dongjie; Liu, Lushan; Zhu, Lingxiang; Peng, Fang; Zhou, Qiming; Liu, Chuanpeng

    2017-01-01

    Trigger factor (TF) is a key component of prokaryotic chaperone network, which is involved various basic cellular processes such as nascent peptide folding, protein trafficking, ribosome assembly. To better understanding the physiological roles of TF, global transcriptome profiles of a variety of TF deletion mutant strains of Escherichia coli were determined. We found that deletion of the tig gene, encoding TF, led to a dramatic alteration of transcriptome profile, not only affecting the gene expression of members of the chaperone network, but also changing the levels of quite a few RNAs related to metabolism and other cellular processes. Further studies showed that this alteration was only partially recovered by knockin of TF domain-deletion mutants into the endogenous tig locus, indicating that structural integrity is crucial for the biological function of TF. Finally, by combining the transcriptome and phenotype results, a physiological mechanism underlying the impact of TF deletion on the transcriptome profile was proposed. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 141-153, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Base substitutions, frameshifts, and small deletions constitute ionizing radiation-induced point mutations in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosovsky, A.J.; de Boer, J.G.; de Jong, P.J.; Drobetsky, E.A.; Glickman, B.W.

    1988-01-01

    The relative role of point mutations and large genomic rearrangements in ionizing radiation-induced mutagenesis has been an issue of long-standing interest. Recent studies using Southern blotting analysis permit the partitioning of ionizing radiation-induced mutagenesis in mammalian cells into detectable deletions and major genomic rearrangements and into point mutations. The molecular nature of these point mutations has been left unresolved; they may include base substitutions as well as small deletions, insertions, and frame-shifts below the level of resolution of Southern blotting analysis. In this investigation, we have characterized a collection of ionizing radiation-induced point mutations at the endogenous adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (aprt) locus of Chinese hamster ovary cells at the DNA sequence level. Base substitutions represented approximately equal to 2/3 of the point mutations analyzed. Although the collection of mutants is relatively small, every possible type of base substitution event has been recovered. These mutations are well distributed throughout the coding sequence with only one multiple occurrence. Small deletions represented the remainder of characterized mutants; no insertions have been observed. Sequence-directed mechanisms mediated by direct repeats could account for some of the observed deletions, while others appear to be directly attributable to radiation-induced strand breakage

  10. DNA sequence analysis of HPRT- mutants induced in human lymphoblastoid cells adapted to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigaud, O.; Laquerbe, A.; Moustacchi, E.

    1995-01-01

    Radioadaptation to the mutagenic effect of ionizing radiation by pre-exposure of human cells to a low dose has been shown to decrease the proportion of HPRT - mutants of the deletion type. To determine whether point mutations would be affected by the adaptive treatment, the molecular nature of mutations induced after exposure to low, high or low plus high doses was established. DNA sequencing of 38 point mutants which still expressed mRNA was performed using reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction amplification. Under all conditions, base substitutions were the most common mutational event (range 72-80%), the remainder being frameshift and small deletions. The types and proportions of base changes did not appear to be differentially modified. A clustering of mutations was observed in exon 8, independently of the radiation protocol. About 40% of the mutants exhibited incorrect splicing of mRNA. The lack of striking modifications between the different molecular spectra of point mutations suggests that low-dose pre-exposure does not affect the production and/or the processing of lesions leading to point mutations. Thus the highly significant effect triggered by the low dose is the preferential reduction of deletion-type mutations. In view of the actual small data set, definitive conclusions will be drawn only when our observations are confirmed or can be generalized to human endogenous loci other than the HPRT locus, which is particularly prone to the recovery of deletion-type mutations. 37 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  11. Deletion of acetate transporter gene ADY2 improved tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae against multiple stresses and enhanced ethanol production in the presence of acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingming; Zhang, Keyu; Mehmood, Muhammad Aamer; Zhao, Zongbao Kent; Bai, Fengwu; Zhao, Xinqing

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of deleting acetate transporter gene ADY2 on growth and fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence of inhibitors. Comparative transcriptome analysis revealed that three genes encoding plasma membrane carboxylic acid transporters, especially ADY2, were significantly downregulated under the zinc sulfate addition condition in the presence of acetic acid stress, and the deletion of ADY2 improved growth of S. cerevisiae under acetic acid, ethanol and hydrogen peroxide stresses. Consistently, a concomitant increase in ethanol production by 14.7% in the presence of 3.6g/L acetic acid was observed in the ADY2 deletion mutant of S. cerevisiae BY4741. Decreased intracellular acetic acid, ROS accumulation, and plasma membrane permeability were observed in the ADY2 deletion mutant. These findings would be useful for developing robust yeast strains for efficient ethanol production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Intramuscular Immunization of Mice with a Live-Attenuated Triple Mutant of Yersinia pestis CO92 Induces Robust Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immunity To Completely Protect Animals against Pneumonic Plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiner, Bethany L; Sha, Jian; Ponnusamy, Duraisamy; Baze, Wallace B; Fitts, Eric C; Popov, Vsevolod L; van Lier, Christina J; Erova, Tatiana E; Chopra, Ashok K

    2015-12-01

    Earlier, we showed that the Δlpp ΔmsbB Δail triple mutant of Yersinia pestis CO92 with deleted genes encoding Braun lipoprotein (Lpp), an acyltransferase (MsbB), and the attachment invasion locus (Ail), respectively, was avirulent in a mouse model of pneumonic plague. In this study, we further evaluated the immunogenic potential of the Δlpp ΔmsbB Δail triple mutant and its derivative by different routes of vaccination. Mice were immunized via the subcutaneous (s.c.) or the intramuscular (i.m.) route with two doses (2 × 10(6) CFU/dose) of the above-mentioned triple mutant with 100% survivability of the animals. Upon subsequent pneumonic challenge with 70 to 92 50% lethal doses (LD(50)) of wild-type (WT) strain CO92, all of the mice survived when immunization occurred by the i.m. route. Since Ail has virulence and immunogenic potential, a mutated version of Ail devoid of its virulence properties was created, and the genetically modified ail replaced the native ail gene on the chromosome of the Δlpp ΔmsbB double mutant, creating a Δlpp ΔmsbB::ailL2 vaccine strain. This newly generated mutant was attenuated similarly to the Δlpp ΔmsbB Δail triple mutant when administered by the i.m. route and provided 100% protection to animals against subsequent pneumonic challenge. Not only were the two above-mentioned mutants cleared rapidly from the initial i.m. site of injection in animals with no histopathological lesions, the immunized mice did not exhibit any disease symptoms during immunization or after subsequent exposure to WT CO92. These two mutants triggered balanced Th1- and Th2-based antibody responses and cell-mediated immunity. A substantial increase in interleukin-17 (IL-17) from the T cells of vaccinated mice, a cytokine of the Th17 cells, further augmented their vaccine potential. Thus, the Δlpp ΔmsbB Δail and Δlpp ΔmsbB::ailL2 mutants represent excellent vaccine candidates for plague, with the latter mutant still retaining Ail immunogenicity but

  13. Effects of ion beam irradiation on size of mutant sector and genetic damage in Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hase, Yoshihiro, E-mail: hase.yoshihiro@qst.go.jp [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology (QST), 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Nozawa, Shigeki [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology (QST), 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Narumi, Issay [Faculty of Life Sciences, Toyo University, 1-1-1 Izumino, Itakura, Gunma 374-0193 (Japan); Oono, Yutaka [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology (QST), 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2017-01-15

    Size of mutant sector and genetic damage were evaluated in Arabidopsis to further our understanding of effective ion beam use in plant mutation breeding. Arabidopsis seeds, heterozygous for the GLABRA1 (GL1) gene (GL1/gl1-1), were irradiated with 15.8 MeV/u neon ions (mean linear energy transfer (LET): 352 keV/μm), 17.3 MeV/u carbon ions (113 keV/μm), or {sup 60}Co gamma rays. The frequency and size of glabrous sectors generated because of inactivation of the GL1 allele were examined. The frequency and overall size of large deletions were evaluated based on the loss of heterozygosity of DNA markers using DNA isolated from glabrous tissue. Irrespective of the radiation properties, plants with mutant sectors were obtained at similar frequencies at the same effective dosage necessary for survival reduction. Ion beams tended to induce larger mutant sectors than gamma rays. The frequency of large deletions (>several kbp) increased as the LET value increased, with chromosome regions larger than 100 kbp lost in most large deletions. The distorted segregation ratio of glabrous plants in the progenies of irradiated GL1/gl1-1 plants suggested frequent occurrence of chromosome rearrangement, especially those subjected to neon ions. Exposure to ion beams with moderate LET values (30–110 keV/μm) is thought effective for inducing mutant sectors without causing extensive genetic damage.

  14. Single molecule TPM analysis of the catalytic pentad mutants of Cre and Flp site-specific recombinases: contributions of the pentad residues to the pre-chemical steps of recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hsiu-Fang; Cheng, Yong-Song; Ma, Chien-Hui; Jayaram, Makkuni

    2015-03-31

    Cre and Flp site-specific recombinase variants harboring point mutations at their conserved catalytic pentad positions were characterized using single molecule tethered particle motion (TPM) analysis. The findings reveal contributions of these amino acids to the pre-chemical steps of recombination. They suggest functional differences between positionally conserved residues in how they influence recombinase-target site association and formation of 'non-productive', 'pre-synaptic' and 'synaptic' complexes. The most striking difference between the two systems is noted for the single conserved lysine. The pentad residues in Cre enhance commitment to recombination by kinetically favoring the formation of pre-synaptic complexes. These residues in Flp serve a similar function by promoting Flp binding to target sites, reducing non-productive binding and/or enhancing the rate of assembly of synaptic complexes. Kinetic comparisons between Cre and Flp, and between their derivatives lacking the tyrosine nucleophile, are consistent with a stronger commitment to recombination in the Flp system. The effect of target site orientation (head-to-head or head-to-tail) on the TPM behavior of synapsed DNA molecules supports the selection of anti-parallel target site alignment prior to the chemical steps. The integrity of the synapse, whose establishment/stability is fostered by strand cleavage in the case of Flp but not Cre, appears to be compromised by the pentad mutations. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. Single molecule TPM analysis of the catalytic pentad mutants of Cre and Flp site-specific recombinases: contributions of the pentad residues to the pre-chemical steps of recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hsiu-Fang; Cheng, Yong-Song; Ma, Chien-Hui; Jayaram, Makkuni

    2015-01-01

    Cre and Flp site-specific recombinase variants harboring point mutations at their conserved catalytic pentad positions were characterized using single molecule tethered particle motion (TPM) analysis. The findings reveal contributions of these amino acids to the pre-chemical steps of recombination. They suggest functional differences between positionally conserved residues in how they influence recombinase-target site association and formation of ‘non-productive’, ‘pre-synaptic’ and ‘synaptic’ complexes. The most striking difference between the two systems is noted for the single conserved lysine. The pentad residues in Cre enhance commitment to recombination by kinetically favoring the formation of pre-synaptic complexes. These residues in Flp serve a similar function by promoting Flp binding to target sites, reducing non-productive binding and/or enhancing the rate of assembly of synaptic complexes. Kinetic comparisons between Cre and Flp, and between their derivatives lacking the tyrosine nucleophile, are consistent with a stronger commitment to recombination in the Flp system. The effect of target site orientation (head-to-head or head-to-tail) on the TPM behavior of synapsed DNA molecules supports the selection of anti-parallel target site alignment prior to the chemical steps. The integrity of the synapse, whose establishment/stability is fostered by strand cleavage in the case of Flp but not Cre, appears to be compromised by the pentad mutations. PMID:25765648

  16. The Swedish mutant barley collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Full text: The Swedish mutation research programme in barley began about 50 years ago and has mainly been carried out at Svaloev in co-operation with the institute of Genetics at the University of Lund. The collection has been produced from different Swedish high-yielding spring barley varieties, using the following mutagens: X-rays, neutrons, several organic chemical compounds such as ethyleneimine, several sulfonate derivatives and the inorganic chemical mutagen sodium azide. Nearly 10,000 barley mutants are stored in the Nordic Gene Bank and documented in databases developed by Udda Lundquist, Svaloev AB. The collection consists of the following nine categories with 94 different types of mutants: 1. Mutants with changes in the spike and spikelets; 2. Changes in culm length and culm composition; 3. Changes in growth types; 4. Physiological mutants; 5. Changes in awns; 6. Changes in seed size and shape; 7. Changes in leaf blades; 8. Changes in anthocyanin and colour; 9. Resistance to barley powdery mildew. Barley is one of the most thoroughly investigated crops in terms of induction of mutations and mutation genetics. So far, about half of the mutants stored at the Nordic Gene Bank, have been analysed genetically; They constitute, however, only a minority of the 94 different mutant types. The genetic analyses have given valuable insights into the mutation process but also into the genetic architecture of various characters. A number of mutants of two-row barley have been registered and commercially released. One of the earliest released, Mari, an early maturing, daylength neutral, straw stiff mutant, is still grown in Iceland. The Swedish mutation material has been used in Sweden, but also in other countries, such as Denmark, Germany, and USA, for various studies providing a better understanding of the barley genome. The collection will be immensely valuable for future molecular genetical analyses of clone mutant genes. (author)

  17. Structure of a PKA RIα Recurrent Acrodysostosis Mutant Explains Defective cAMP-Dependent Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruystens, Jessica Gh; Wu, Jian; Fortezzo, Audrey; Del Rio, Jason; Nielsen, Cole; Blumenthal, Donald K; Rock, Ruth; Stefan, Eduard; Taylor, Susan S

    2016-12-04

    Most disease-related mutations that impair cAMP protein kinase A (PKA) signaling are present within the regulatory (R) PKA RI alpha-subunit (RIα). Although mutations in the PRKAR1A gene are linked to Carney complex (CNC) disease and, more recently, to acrodysostosis-1 (ACRDYS1), the two diseases show contrasting phenotypes. While CNC mutations cause increased PKA activity, ACRDYS1 mutations result in decreased PKA activity and cAMP resistant holoenzymes. Mapping the ACRDYS1 disease mutations reveals their localization to the second of two tandem cAMP-binding (CNB) domains (CNB-B), and here, we characterize a recurrent deletion mutant where the last 14 residues are missing. The crystal structure of a monomeric form of this mutant (RIα92-365) bound to the catalytic (C)-subunit reveals the dysfunctional regions of the RIα subunit. Beyond the missing residues, the entire capping motif is disordered (residues 357-379) and explains the disrupted cAMP binding. Moreover, the effects of the mutation extend far beyond the CNB-B domain and include the active site and N-lobe of the C-subunit, which is in a partially open conformation with the C-tail disordered. A key residue that contributes to this crosstalk, D267, is altered in our structure, and we confirmed its functional importance by mutagenesis. In particular, the D267 interaction with Arg241, a residue shown earlier to be important for allosteric regulation, is disrupted, thereby strengthening the interaction of D267 with the C-subunit residue Arg194 at the R:C interface. We see here how the switch between active (cAMP-bound) and inactive (holoenzyme) conformations is perturbed and how the dynamically controlled crosstalk between the helical domains of the two CNB domains is necessary for the functional regulation of PKA activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 1p36 deletion syndrome: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan VK

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Valerie K Jordan,1 Hitisha P Zaveri,2 Daryl A Scott1,2 1Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA; 2Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Deletions of chromosome 1p36 affect approximately 1 in 5,000 newborns and are the most common terminal deletions in humans. Medical problems commonly caused by terminal deletions of 1p36 include developmental delay, intellectual disability, seizures, vision problems, hearing loss, short stature, distinctive facial features, brain anomalies, orofacial clefting, congenital heart defects, cardiomyopathy, and renal anomalies. Although 1p36 deletion syndrome is considered clinically recognizable, there is significant phenotypic variation among affected individuals. This variation is due, at least in part, to the genetic heterogeneity seen in 1p36 deletions which include terminal and interstitial deletions of varying lengths located throughout the 30 Mb of DNA that comprise chromosome 1p36. Array-based copy number variant analysis can easily identify genomic regions of 1p36 that are deleted in an affected individual. However, predicting the phenotype of an individual based solely on the location and extent of their 1p36 deletion remains a challenge since most of the genes that contribute to 1p36-related phenotypes have yet to be identified. In addition, haploinsufficiency of more than one gene may contribute to some phenotypes. In this article, we review recent successes in the effort to map and identify the genes and genomic regions that contribute to specific 1p36-related phenotypes. In particular, we highlight evidence implicating MMP23B, GABRD, SKI, PRDM16, KCNAB2, RERE, UBE4B, CASZ1, PDPN, SPEN, ECE1, HSPG2, and LUZP1 in various 1p36 deletion phenotypes. Keywords: chromosome 1p36, chromosome deletion, 1p36 deletion syndrome, monosomy 1p36

  19. Working-for-Food Behaviors: A Preclinical Study in Prader-Willi Mutant Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassi, Glenda; Maggi, Silvia; Balzani, Edoardo; Cosentini, Ilaria; Garcia-Garcia, Celina; Tucci, Valter

    2016-11-01

    Abnormal feeding behavior is one of the main symptoms of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). By studying a PWS mouse mutant line, which carries a paternally inherited deletion of the small nucleolar RNA 116 (Snord116), we observed significant changes in working-for-food behavioral responses at various timescales. In particular, we report that PWS mutant mice show a significant delay compared to wild-type littermate controls in responding to both hour-scale and seconds-to-minutes-scale time intervals. This timing shift in mutant mice is associated with better performance in the working-for-food task, and results in better decision making in these mutant mice. The results of our study reveal a novel aspect of the organization of feeding behavior, and advance the understanding of the interplay between the metabolic functions and cognitive mechanisms of PWS. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  20. Spontaneous and mutagen-induced deletions: mechanistic studies in Salmonella tester strain TA102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, D.E.; Marnett, L.J.; Ames, B.N.

    1984-01-01

    Salmonella tester strain TA102 carries the hisG428 ochre mutation on the multicopy plasmid pAQ1. DNA sequence analysis of 45 spontaneous revertants of hisG428 on the chromosome in the presence of pKM101 (strain TA103) indicates that hisG428 revertants fall into three major categories: (i) small, in-frame deletions (3 or 6 base pairs) that remove part or all of the ochre triplet; (ii) base substitution mutations at the ochre site; (iii) extragenic ochre suppressors. Deletion revertants are identified in a simple phenotypic screen by their resistance to the inhibitory histidine analog thiazolealanine, which feedback inhibits the wild-type hisG enzyme but not the enzyme resulting from the deletions. The effect of various genetic backgrounds on the generation of spontaneous deletion revertants was examined. The presence of a uvrB mutation or a recA mutation suppressed the generation of spontaneous deletion revertants to approximately 1/2.5. When hisG428 was in multiple copies on pAQ1, the frequency of spontaneous deletion revertants increased by 40-fold, which is the approximate copy number of pAQ1. Mutagenic agents that induce single-strand breaks in DNA (e.g., x-rays, bleomycin, and nalidixic acid) induced deletion revertants in TA102. These agents induced deletion revertants only in hisG428 on pAQ1 and only in the presence of pKM101. Deletion revertants were not induced by frameshift mutagens (i.e., ICR-191 and 9aminoacridine). These results indicate that different pathways exist for the generation of spontaneous and mutagen-induced deletion revertants of hisG428. 41 references, 2 figures, 3 tables

  1. Frataxin Directly Stimulates Mitochondrial Cysteine Desulfurase by Exposing Substrate-binding Sites, and a Mutant Fe-S Cluster Scaffold Protein with Frataxin-bypassing Ability Acts Similarly*♦

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Alok; Gordon, Donna M.; Pain, Jayashree; Stemmler, Timothy L.; Dancis, Andrew; Pain, Debkumar

    2013-01-01

    For iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster synthesis in mitochondria, the sulfur is derived from the amino acid cysteine by the cysteine desulfurase activity of Nfs1. The enzyme binds the substrate cysteine in the pyridoxal phosphate-containing site, and a persulfide is formed on the active site cysteine in a manner depending on the accessory protein Isd11. The persulfide is then transferred to the scaffold Isu, where it combines with iron to form the Fe-S cluster intermediate. Frataxin is implicated in the process, although it is unclear where and how, and deficiency causes Friedreich ataxia. Using purified proteins and isolated mitochondria, we show here that the yeast frataxin homolog (Yfh1) directly and specifically stimulates cysteine binding to Nfs1 by exposing substrate-binding sites. This novel function of frataxin does not require iron, Isu1, or Isd11. Once bound to Nfs1, the substrate cysteine is the source of the Nfs1 persulfide, but this step is independent of frataxin and strictly dependent on Isd11. Recently, a point mutation in Isu1 was found to bypass many frataxin functions. The data presented here show that the Isu1 suppressor mimics the frataxin effects on Nfs1, explaining the bypassing activity. We propose a regulatory mechanism for the Nfs1 persulfide-forming activity. Specifically, at least two separate conformational changes must occur in the enzyme for optimum activity as follows: one is mediated by frataxin interaction that exposes the “buried” substrate-binding sites, and the other is mediated by Isd11 interaction that brings the bound substrate cysteine and the active site cysteine in proximity for persulfide formation. PMID:24217246

  2. Mapping of the catalytic and epitopic sites of human CD38/NAD+ glycohydrolase to a functional domain in the carboxyl terminus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, S; Kukimoto, I; Kontani, K; Inoue, S; Kanda, Y; Malavasi, F; Katada, T

    1997-01-15

    We reported that 1) ecto-NAD+ glycohydrolase (NADase) activity induced upon differentiation of HL-60 cells is localized on the extracellular carboxyl-terminal side of CD38 and that 2) CD38 ligation by specific mAbs is followed by protein tyrosine phosphorylation in the cells. The strategy selected for identifying the relevant catalytic domains of the molecule relies upon the production in COS-7 cells of carboxyl-terminal deletion mutants of CD38. The mutants with fewer than 15 amino acids deleted at the carboxyl terminus of the 300-amino acid wild-type molecule maintained NADase activity, whereas those with more than 27 amino acids deleted did not. The general inference is that the carboxyl-terminal 273-285 sequence bears the site of enzyme activity. Introduction of site-directed mutation of a conserved cysteine residue (Cys275), located in the 273-285 sequence, completely abolished NADase activity. The second issue resolved in this work is the definition of an epitope of the agonistic anti-CD38 mAbs. To this aim, a panel of selected anti-CD38 mAbs was tested using these mutants and various CD38 fragments as the target in immunoblot analyses. All of the epitopes recognized by mAbs inducing protein tyrosine phosphorylation were mapped on an identical site containing the carboxyl-terminal sequence of 273-285. The conclusion is that the discrete carboxyl-terminal sequence identified in the present study not only plays a key role in its ecto-NADase activity, but actually constitutes the epitopes exploited by the agonistic anti-CD38 mAbs for transmembrane signaling.

  3. Mouse Rad1 deletion enhances susceptibility for skin tumor development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiangyuan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cells are constantly exposed to stresses from cellular metabolites as well as environmental genotoxins. DNA damage caused by these genotoxins can be efficiently fixed by DNA repair in cooperation with cell cycle checkpoints. Unrepaired DNA lesions can lead to cell death, gene mutation and cancer. The Rad1 protein, evolutionarily conserved from yeast to humans, exists in cells as monomer as well as a component in the 9-1-1 protein complex. Rad1 plays crucial roles in DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint control, but its contribution to carcinogenesis is unknown. Results To address this question, we constructed mice with a deletion of Mrad1. Matings between heterozygous Mrad1 mutant mice produced Mrad1+/+ and Mrad1+/- but no Mrad1-/- progeny, suggesting the Mrad1 null is embryonic lethal. Mrad1+/- mice demonstrated no overt abnormalities up to one and half years of age. DMBA-TPA combinational treatment was used to induce tumors on mouse skin. Tumors were larger, more numerous, and appeared earlier on the skin of Mrad1+/- mice compared to Mrad1+/+ animals. Keratinocytes isolated from Mrad1+/- mice had significantly more spontaneous DNA double strand breaks, proliferated slower and had slightly enhanced spontaneous apoptosis than Mrad1+/+ control cells. Conclusion These data suggest that Mrad1 is important for preventing tumor development, probably through maintaining genomic integrity. The effects of heterozygous deletion of Mrad1 on proliferation and apoptosis of keratinocytes is different from those resulted from Mrad9 heterozygous deletion (from our previous study, suggesting that Mrad1 also functions independent of Mrad9 besides its role in the Mrad9-Mrad1-Mhus1 complex in mouse cells.

  4. Deletions induced by gamma rays in the genome of Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raha, Manidipa; Hutchinson, Franklin

    1991-01-01

    An Escherichia coli lysogen was constructed with a lambda phage bearing a lacZ gene surrounded by about 100 x 10 3 base-pairs of dispensable DNA. The lacZ mutants induced by gamma rays in this lysogen were more than 10% large deletions, ranging in size from 0.6 x 10 -3 to 70 x 10 3 base-pairs. These deletions were centered, not on lacZ, but on a ColE1 origin of DNA replication located 1.2 x 10 3 bases downstream from lacZ, suggesting that this origin of replication was involved in the process by which deletions were formed. In agreement with this hypothesis, a lysogen of the same phage without the ColE1 origin showed a very much lower percentage of radiation-induced deletions, as did a second lysogen of a lambda phage without any known plasmid origin of replication. Indirect evidence is presented for radiation-induced deletions centered on the lambda origin of DNA replication in a lysogen. (author)

  5. Altered Ultrasonic Vocalization and Impaired Learning and Memory in Angelman Syndrome Mouse Model with a Large Maternal Deletion from Ube3a to Gabrb3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yong-hui; Pan, Yanzhen; Zhu, Li; Landa, Luis; Yoo, Jong; Spencer, Corinne; Lorenzo, Isabel; Brilliant, Murray; Noebels, Jeffrey; Beaudet, Arthur L.

    2010-01-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurobehavioral disorder associated with mental retardation, absence of language development, characteristic electroencephalography (EEG) abnormalities and epilepsy, happy disposition, movement or balance disorders, and autistic behaviors. The molecular defects underlying AS are heterogeneous, including large maternal deletions of chromosome 15q11–q13 (70%), paternal uniparental disomy (UPD) of chromosome 15 (5%), imprinting mutations (rare), and mutations in the E6-AP ubiquitin ligase gene UBE3A (15%). Although patients with UBE3A mutations have a wide spectrum of neurological phenotypes, their features are usually milder than AS patients with deletions of 15q11–q13. Using a chromosomal engineering strategy, we generated mutant mice with a 1.6-Mb chromosomal deletion from Ube3a to Gabrb3, which inactivated the Ube3a and Gabrb3 genes and deleted the Atp10a gene. Homozygous deletion mutant mice died in the perinatal period due to a cleft palate resulting from the null mutation in Gabrb3 gene. Mice with a maternal deletion (m−/p+) were viable and did not have any obvious developmental defects. Expression analysis of the maternal and paternal deletion mice confirmed that the Ube3a gene is maternally expressed in brain, and showed that the Atp10a and Gabrb3 genes are biallelically expressed in all brain sub-regions studied. Maternal (m−/p+), but not paternal (m+/p−), deletion mice had increased spontaneous seizure activity and abnormal EEG. Extensive behavioral analyses revealed significant impairment in motor function, learning and memory tasks, and anxiety-related measures assayed in the light-dark box in maternal deletion but not paternal deletion mice. Ultrasonic vocalization (USV) recording in newborns revealed that maternal deletion pups emitted significantly more USVs than wild-type littermates. The increased USV in maternal deletion mice suggests abnormal signaling behavior between mothers and pups that may reflect abnormal

  6. Altered ultrasonic vocalization and impaired learning and memory in Angelman syndrome mouse model with a large maternal deletion from Ube3a to Gabrb3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Hui Jiang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Angelman syndrome (AS is a neurobehavioral disorder associated with mental retardation, absence of language development, characteristic electroencephalography (EEG abnormalities and epilepsy, happy disposition, movement or balance disorders, and autistic behaviors. The molecular defects underlying AS are heterogeneous, including large maternal deletions of chromosome 15q11-q13 (70%, paternal uniparental disomy (UPD of chromosome 15 (5%, imprinting mutations (rare, and mutations in the E6-AP ubiquitin ligase gene UBE3A (15%. Although patients with UBE3A mutations have a wide spectrum of neurological phenotypes, their features are usually milder than AS patients with deletions of 15q11-q13. Using a chromosomal engineering strategy, we generated mutant mice with a 1.6-Mb chromosomal deletion from Ube3a to Gabrb3, which inactivated the Ube3a and Gabrb3 genes and deleted the Atp10a gene. Homozygous deletion mutant mice died in the perinatal period due to a cleft palate resulting from the null mutation in Gabrb3 gene. Mice with a maternal deletion (m-/p+ were viable and did not have any obvious developmental defects. Expression analysis of the maternal and paternal deletion mice confirmed that the Ube3a gene is maternally expressed in brain, and showed that the Atp10a and Gabrb3 genes are biallelically expressed in all brain sub-regions studied. Maternal (m-/p+, but not paternal (m+/p-, deletion mice had increased spontaneous seizure activity and abnormal EEG. Extensive behavioral analyses revealed significant impairment in motor function, learning and memory tasks, and anxiety-related measures assayed in the light-dark box in maternal deletion but not paternal deletion mice. Ultrasonic vocalization (USV recording in newborns revealed that maternal deletion pups emitted significantly more USVs than wild-type littermates. The increased USV in maternal deletion mice suggests abnormal signaling behavior between mothers and pups that may reflect abnormal

  7. Allosteric Mutant IDH1 Inhibitors Reveal Mechanisms for IDH1 Mutant and Isoform Selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Xiaoling; Baird, Daniel; Bowen, Kimberly; Capka, Vladimir; Chen, Jinyun; Chenail, Gregg; Cho, YoungShin; Dooley, Julia; Farsidjani, Ali; Fortin, Pascal; Kohls, Darcy; Kulathila, Raviraj; Lin, Fallon; McKay, Daniel; Rodrigues, Lindsey; Sage, David; Touré, B. Barry; van der Plas, Simon; Wright, Kirk; Xu, Ming; Yin, Hong; Levell, Julian; Pagliarini, Raymond A. (Novartis)

    2017-03-01

    Oncogenic IDH1 and IDH2 mutations contribute to cancer via production of R-2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG). Here, we characterize two structurally distinct mutant- and isoform-selective IDH1 inhibitors that inhibit 2-HG production. Both bind to an allosteric pocket on IDH1, yet shape it differently, highlighting the plasticity of this site. Oncogenic IDH1R132H mutation destabilizes an IDH1 “regulatory segment,” which otherwise restricts compound access to the allosteric pocket. Regulatory segment destabilization in wild-type IDH1 promotes inhibitor binding, suggesting that destabilization is critical for mutant selectivity. We also report crystal structures of oncogenic IDH2 mutant isoforms, highlighting the fact that the analogous segment of IDH2 is not similarly destabilized. This intrinsic stability of IDH2 may contribute to observed inhibitor IDH1 isoform selectivity. Moreover, discrete residues in the IDH1 allosteric pocket that differ from IDH2 may also guide IDH1 isoform selectivity. These data provide a deeper understanding of how IDH1 inhibitors achieve mutant and isoform selectivity.

  8. 78 FR 68823 - Procurement List Deletions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ...'Day Act (41 U.S.C. 8501-8506) in connection with the products and services deleted from the... Center, Chicago, IL. Service Type/Location: Janitorial/Custodial Service, Gamelin USARC, 10 Asylum Road... COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Deletions...

  9. Mutants of alfalfa mosaic virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roosien, J.

    1983-01-01

    In this thesis the isolation and characterization of a number of mutants of alfalfa mosaic virus, a plant virus with a coat protein dependent genome, is described. Thermo-sensitive (ts) mutants were selected since, at least theoretically, ts mutations can be present in all virus coded functions. It was found that a high percentage of spontaneous mutants, isolated because of their aberrant symptoms, were ts. The majority of these isolates could grow at the non-permissive temperature in the presence of a single wild type (wt) component. To increase the mutation rate virus preparations were treated with several mutagens. After nitrous acid treatment or irradiation with ultraviolet light, an increase in the level of mutations was observed. UV irradiation was preferred since it did not require large amounts of purified viral components. During the preliminary characterization of potential ts mutants the author also obtained one structural and several symptom mutants which were analysed further (chapter 7, 8 and 9). The properties of the ts mutants are described in chapter 3-7. (Auth.)

  10. Complete auxotrophy for unsaturated fatty acids requires deletion of two sets of genes in Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Capua, Cecilia B; Doprado, Mariana; Belardinelli, Juan Manuel; Morbidoni, Héctor R

    2017-10-01

    The synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids in Mycobacterium smegmatis is poorly characterized. Bioinformatic analysis revealed four putative fatty acid desaturases in its genome, one of which, MSMEG_1886, is highly homologous to desA3, the only palmitoyl/stearoyl desaturase present in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome. A MSMEG_1886 deletion mutant was partially auxotrophic for oleic acid and viable at 37°C and 25°C, although with a long lag phase in liquid medium. Fatty acid analysis suggested that MSMEG_1886 is a palmitoyl/stearoyl desaturase, as the synthesis of palmitoleic acid was abrogated, while oleic acid contents dropped by half in the mutant. Deletion of the operon MSMEG_1741-1743 (highly homologous to a Pseudomonas aeruginosa acyl-CoA desaturase) had little effect on growth of the parental strain; however the double mutant MSMEG_1886-MSMEG_1741-1743 strictly required oleic acid for growth. The ΔMSMEG_1886-ΔMSMEG_1741 double mutant was able to grow (poorly but better than the ΔMSMEG_1886 single mutant) in solid and liquid media devoid of oleic acid, suggesting a repressor role for ΔMSMEG_1741. Fatty acid analysis of the described mutants suggested that MSMEG_1742-43 desaturates C18:0 and C24:0 fatty acids. Thus, although the M. smegmatis desA3 homologue is the major player in unsaturated fatty acid synthesis, a second set of genes is also involved. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Seven gene deletions in seven days

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann Jensen, Sheila; Lennen, Rebecca; Herrgard, Markus

    2015-01-01

    genes and a rhamnose inducible flippase recombinase was constructed to facilitate fast marker-free deletions. To further speed up the procedure, we integrated the arabinose inducible lambda Red recombineering genes and the rhamnose inducible FLP into the genome of E. coli K-12 MG1655. This system...... in which four to seven genes were deleted in E. coli W and E. coli K-12. The growth rate of an E. coli K-12 quintuple deletion strain was significantly improved in the presence of high concentrations of acetate and NaCl. In conclusion, we have generated a method that enables efficient and simultaneous...... deletion of multiple genes in several E. coli variants. The method enables deletion of up to seven genes in as little as seven days....

  12. Probabilistic cloning and deleting of quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yuan; Zhang Shengyu; Ying Mingsheng

    2002-01-01

    We construct a probabilistic cloning and deleting machine which, taking several copies of an input quantum state, can output a linear superposition of multiple cloning and deleting states. Since the machine can perform cloning and deleting in a single unitary evolution, the probabilistic cloning and other cloning machines proposed in the previous literature can be thought of as special cases of our machine. A sufficient and necessary condition for successful cloning and deleting is presented, and it requires that the copies of an arbitrarily presumed number of the input states are linearly independent. This simply generalizes some results for cloning. We also derive an upper bound for the success probability of the cloning and deleting machine

  13. Deletion of the GPG motif in the HIV type 1 V3 loop does not abrogate infection in all cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, J; Palm, A; Wu, Y; Sandin, S; Höglund, S; Vahlne, A

    2000-01-01

    The three amino acids glycine, proline, and glycine (GPG) constitute a conserved motif at the center of the V3 loop of HIV-1 surface glycoprotein 120. It has been indicated that deletion of this GPG motif is lethal for viral infectivity and abrogates the ability of the virus to form syncytia. In the present work, we studied the effects of GPG deletion on viral infectivity, cell tropism, syncytium formation, and initiation of apoptosis by constructing a mutant provirus based on the infectious clone pBRu-2. Successful infection and replication of GPG-deleted virus were detected in MT-2 cells, although the mutant virus showed lower infectivity. Infection could also be observed in the C8166, C91-PL, Molt-3, and THP-1 cell lines, and in PBMC-derived dendritic cells (DCs), but not in CEM-SS, HUT78, H9, Jurkat, and U937 cell lines or in PBMCs. Mutant virus also induced syncytia and apoptosis in the MT-2 cells. An intact GPG motif is probably necessary for unimpaired induction of fusion in some HIV-1-permissive cells. However, once the virus enters the cells, the GPG sequence does not seem to be indispensable for syncytium formation or apoptosis induction in MT-2 cells. Our data also imply that cell surface molecules other than CD4 and CXCR4 may be involved in entry of the GPG-deleted virus.

  14. Establishment of markerless gene deletion tools in thermophilic Bacillus smithii and construction of multiple mutant strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, E.F.; Weijer, van de A.H.P.; Vlist, L.; Vos, de W.M.; Oost, van der J.; Kranenburg, van R.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microbial conversion of biomass to fuels or chemicals is an attractive alternative for fossil-based fuels and chemicals. Thermophilic microorganisms have several operational advantages as a production host over mesophilic organisms, such as low cooling costs, reduced contamination risks

  15. PRRSV strain VR-2332 Nsp2 deletion mutants attenuate clinical symptoms in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    PRRSV nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) contains a N-terminal cysteine proteinase (PL2) domain, a middle hypervariable region and C-terminal putative transmembrane domain. Prior studies had shown that as much as 403 amino acids could be removed from the hypervariable region without losing virus viabil...

  16. Phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthetase-independent NAD de novo synthesis in Escherichia coli: a new phenotype of phosphate regulon mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    1996-01-01

    reaction, an enzyme of the NAD de novo pathway. Several NAD-independent mutants of a host from which prs had been deleted were isolated; all of them were shown to have lesions in the pstSCAB-phoU operon, in which mutations lead to derepression of the Pho regulon. In addition NAD-independent growth...

  17. Site-specific binding of viral plus single-stranded RNA to replicase-containing open virus-like particles of yeast.

    OpenAIRE

    Esteban, R; Fujimura, T; Wickner, R B

    1988-01-01

    X double-stranded RNA is a deletion mutant of L-A double-stranded RNA and is encapsidated in viral particles by the L-A-encoded major coat protein. X double-stranded RNA has all the cis sites necessary to be transcribed, encapsidated, and replicated. We have cloned X double-stranded RNA and sequenced it. The complete X double-stranded RNA sequence deduced indicates that the first 25 bases of the X plus-strand 5' end originated from the 5' end of the L-A plus strand and that most, if not all, ...

  18. Generating Bona Fide Mammalian Prions with Internal Deletions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Montesino, Carola; Sizun, Christina; Moudjou, Mohammed; Herzog, Laetitia; Reine, Fabienne; Chapuis, Jérôme; Ciric, Danica; Igel-Egalon, Angelique; Laude, Hubert; Béringue, Vincent; Rezaei, Human; Dron, Michel

    2016-08-01

    Mammalian prions are PrP proteins with altered structures causing transmissible fatal neurodegenerative diseases. They are self-perpetuating through formation of beta-sheet-rich assemblies that seed conformational change of cellular PrP. Pathological PrP usually forms an insoluble protease-resistant core exhibiting beta-sheet structures but no more alpha-helical content, loosing the three alpha-helices contained in the correctly folded PrP. The lack of a high-resolution prion structure makes it difficult to understand the dynamics of conversion and to identify elements of the protein involved in this process. To determine whether completeness of residues within the protease-resistant domain is required for prions, we performed serial deletions in the helix H2 C terminus of ovine PrP, since this region has previously shown some tolerance to sequence changes without preventing prion replication. Deletions of either four or five residues essentially preserved the overall PrP structure and mutant PrP expressed in RK13 cells were efficiently converted into bona fide prions upon challenge by three different prion strains. Remarkably, deletions in PrP facilitated the replication of two strains that otherwise do not replicate in this cellular context. Prions with internal deletion were self-propagating and de novo infectious for naive homologous and wild-type PrP-expressing cells. Moreover, they caused transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in mice, with similar biochemical signatures and neuropathologies other than the original strains. Prion convertibility and transfer of strain-specific information are thus preserved despite shortening of an alpha-helix in PrP and removal of residues within prions. These findings provide new insights into sequence/structure/infectivity relationship for prions. Prions are misfolded PrP proteins that convert the normal protein into a replicate of their own abnormal form. They are responsible for invariably fatal neurodegenerative

  19. Characterization of Genomic Deletion Efficiency Mediated by Clustered Regularly Interspaced Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 Nuclease System in Mammalian Cells*♦

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canver, Matthew C.; Bauer, Daniel E.; Dass, Abhishek; Yien, Yvette Y.; Chung, Jacky; Masuda, Takeshi; Maeda, Takahiro; Paw, Barry H.; Orkin, Stuart H.

    2014-01-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) 9 nuclease system has provided a powerful tool for genome engineering. Double strand breaks may trigger nonhomologous end joining repair, leading to frameshift mutations, or homology-directed repair using an extrachromosomal template. Alternatively, genomic deletions may be produced by a pair of double strand breaks. The efficiency of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genomic deletions has not been systematically explored. Here, we present a methodology for the production of deletions in mammalian cells, ranging from 1.3 kb to greater than 1 Mb. We observed a high frequency of intended genomic deletions. Nondeleted alleles are nonetheless often edited with inversions or small insertion/deletions produced at CRISPR recognition sites. Deleted alleles also typically include small insertion/deletions at predicted deletion junctions. We retrieved cells with biallelic deletion at a frequency exceeding that of probabilistic expectation. We demonstrate an inverse relationship between deletion frequency and deletion size. This work suggests that CRISPR/Cas9 is a robust system to produce a spectrum of genomic deletions to allow investigation of genes and genetic elements. PMID:24907273

  20. Characterization of genomic deletion efficiency mediated by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 nuclease system in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canver, Matthew C; Bauer, Daniel E; Dass, Abhishek; Yien, Yvette Y; Chung, Jacky; Masuda, Takeshi; Maeda, Takahiro; Paw, Barry H; Orkin, Stuart H

    2014-08-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short [corrected] palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) 9 nuclease system has provided a powerful tool for genome engineering. Double strand breaks may trigger nonhomologous end joining repair, leading to frameshift mutations, or homology-directed repair using an extrachromosomal template. Alternatively, genomic deletions may be produced by a pair of double strand breaks. The efficiency of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genomic deletions has not been systematically explored. Here, we present a methodology for the production of deletions in mammalian cells, ranging from 1.3 kb to greater than 1 Mb. We observed a high frequency of intended genomic deletions. Nondeleted alleles are nonetheless often edited with inversions or small insertion/deletions produced at CRISPR recognition sites. Deleted alleles also typically include small insertion/deletions at predicted deletion junctions. We retrieved cells with biallelic deletion at a frequency exceeding that of probabilistic expectation. We demonstrate an inverse relationship between deletion frequency and deletion size. This work suggests that CRISPR/Cas9 is a robust system to produce a spectrum of genomic deletions to allow investigation of genes and genetic elements. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Towards a Systems Approach in the Genetic Analysis of Archaea: Accelerating Mutant Construction and Phenotypic Analysis in Haloferax volcanii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian K. Blaby

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the availability of a genome sequence and increasingly sophisticated genetic tools, Haloferax volcanii is becoming a model for both Archaea and halophiles. In order for H. volcanii to reach a status equivalent to Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, or Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a gene knockout collection needs to be constructed in order to identify the archaeal essential gene set and enable systematic phenotype screens. A streamlined gene-deletion protocol adapted for potential automation was implemented and used to generate 22 H. volcanii deletion strains and identify several potentially essential genes. These gene deletion mutants, generated in this and previous studies, were then analyzed in a high-throughput fashion to measure growth rates in different media and temperature conditions. We conclude that these high-throughput methods are suitable for a rapid investigation of an H. volcanii mutant library and suggest that they should form the basis of a larger genome-wide experiment.

  2. Gene expression patterns of chicken neuregulin 3 in association with copy number variation and frameshift deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Hideaki; Aoya, Daiki; Takeuchi, Hiro-Aki; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2017-07-21

    Neuregulin 3 (NRG3) plays a key role in central nervous system development and is a strong candidate for human mental disorders. Thus, genetic variation in NRG3 may have some impact on a variety of phenotypes in non-mammalian vertebrates. Recently, genome-wide screening for short insertions and deletions in chicken (Gallus gallus) genomes has provided useful information about structural variation in functionally important genes. NRG3 is one such gene that has a putative frameshift deletion in exon 2, resulting in premature termination of translation. Our aims were to characterize the structure of chicken NRG3 and to compare expression patterns between NRG3 isoforms. Depending on the presence or absence of the 2-bp deletion in chicken NRG3, 3 breeds (red junglefowl [RJF], Boris Brown [BB], and Hinai-jidori [HJ]) were genotyped using flanking primers. In the commercial breeds (BB and HJ), approximately 45% of individuals had at least one exon 2 allele with the 2-bp deletion, whereas there was no deletion allele in RJF. The lack of a homozygous mutant indicated the existence of duplicated NRG3 segments in the chicken genome. Indeed, highly conserved elements consisting of exon 1, intron 1, exon 2, and part of intron 2 were found in the reference RJF genome, and quantitative PCR detected copy number variation (CNV) between breeds as well as between individuals. The copy number of conserved elements was significantly higher in chicks harboring the 2-bp deletion in exon 2. We identified 7 novel transcript variants using total mRNA isolated from the amygdala. Novel isoforms were found to lack the exon 2 cassette, which probably harbored the premature termination codon. The relative transcription levels of the newly identified isoforms were almost the same between chick groups with and without the 2-bp deletion, while chicks with the deletion showed significant suppression of the expression of previously reported isoforms. A putative frameshift deletion and CNV in chicken

  3. Postnatal Deletion of Wnt7a Inhibits Uterine Gland Morphogenesis and Compromises Adult Fertility in Mice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Kathrin A.; Filant, Justyna; Hayashi, Kanako; Rucker, Edmund B.; Song, Gwonhwa; Deng, Jian Min; Behringer, Richard R.; DeMayo, Franco J.; Lydon, John; Jeong, Jae-Wook; Spencer, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    The success of postnatal uterine morphogenesis dictates, in part, the embryotrophic potential and functional capacity of the adult uterus. The definitive role of Wnt7a in postnatal uterine development and adult function requires a conditional knockout, because global deletion disrupts müllerian duct patterning, specification, and cell fate in the fetus. The Wnt7a-null uterus appears to be posteriorized because of developmental defects in the embryo, as evidenced by the stratified luminal epithelium that is normally found in the vagina and the presence of short and uncoiled oviducts. To understand the biological role of WNT7A after birth and allow tissue-selective deletion of Wnt7a, we generated loxP-flanked exon 2 mice and conditionally deleted Wnt7a after birth in the uterus by crossing them with PgrCre mice. Morphological examination revealed no obvious differences in the vagina, cervix, oviduct, or ovary. The uteri of Wnt7a mutant mice contained no endometrial glands, whereas all other uterine cell types appeared to be normal. Postnatal differentiation of endometrial glands was observed in control mice, but not in mutant mice, between Postnatal Days 3 and 12. Expression of morphoregulatory genes, particularly Foxa2, Hoxa10, Hoxa11, Msx1, and Wnt16, was disrupted in the Wnt7a mutant uteri. Conditional Wnt7a mutant mice were not fertile. Although embryos were present in uteri of mutant mice on Day 3.5 of pregnancy, blastocyst implantation was not observed on Day 5.5. Furthermore, expression of several genes (Foxa2, Lif, Msx1, and Wnt16) was reduced or absent in adult Wnt7a-deleted uteri on Day 3.5 postmating. These results indicate that WNT7A plays a critical role in postnatal uterine gland morphogenesis and function, which are important for blastocyst implantation and fertility in the adult uterus. PMID:21508348

  4. Genetics Home Reference: distal 18q deletion syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions Distal 18q deletion syndrome Distal 18q deletion syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Distal 18q deletion syndrome is a chromosomal condition that occurs when ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: proximal 18q deletion syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions Proximal 18q deletion syndrome Proximal 18q deletion syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Proximal 18q deletion syndrome is a chromosomal condition that occurs when ...

  6. Absence of the 9-bp deletion of mitochondrial DNA in pre-Hispanic inhabitants of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarchi, D A; Panzetta-Dutari, G M; Colantonio, S E; Marcellino, A J

    2001-08-01

    We investigated the incidence of the Region V mitochondrial DNA 9-base-pair (bp) deletion from human remains recovered from several archaeological sites and contexts throughout Argentina. Of the 34 samples analyzed, 24 yielded DNA extractions that gave clear amplification results. All of the individuals carried two repeats of the 9 bp, one of which has been shown to be deleted in some individuals of Asian origin and defines mitochondrial lineage B. Although most of the modern Amerindian groups in the region exhibit the deletion in high frequencies, the absence of the 9-bp deletion among ancient populations of South America seems to be the rule rather than the exception, as was reported by several studies involving extinct populations. The evidence gathered until now suggests that the earliest settlers of this region of South America did not carry mitochondrial lineage B.

  7. Cloning-free genome engineering in Sinorhizobium meliloti advances applications of Cre/loxP site-specific recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döhlemann, Johannes; Brennecke, Meike; Becker, Anke

    2016-09-10

    The soil-dwelling α-proteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti serves as model for studies of symbiotic nitrogen fixation, a highly important process in sustainable agriculture. Here, we report advancements of the genetic toolbox accelerating genome editing in S. meliloti. The hsdMSR operon encodes a type-I restriction-modification (R-M) system. Transformation of S. meliloti is counteracted by the restriction endonuclease HsdR degrading DNA which lacks the appropriate methylation pattern. We provide a stable S. meliloti hsdR deletion mutant showing enhanced transformation with Escherichia coli-derived plasmid DNA and demonstrate that using an E. coli plasmid donor, expressing S. meliloti methyl transferase genes, is an alternative strategy of increasing the transformation efficiency of S. meliloti. Furthermore, we devise a novel cloning-free genome editing (CFGE) method for S. meliloti, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Xanthomonas campestris, and demonstrate the applicability of this method for intricate applications of the Cre/lox recombination system in S. meliloti. An enhanced Cre/lox system, allowing for serial deletions of large genomic regions, was established. An assay of lox spacer mutants identified a set of lox sites mediating specific recombination. The availability of several non-promiscuous Cre recognition sites enables simultaneous specific Cre/lox recombination events. CFGE combined with Cre/lox recombination is put forward as powerful approach for targeted genome editing, involving serial steps of manipulation to expedite the genetic accessibility of S. meliloti as chassis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Structural and dynamic changes associated with beneficial engineered single-amino-acid deletion mutations in enhanced green fluorescent protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpino, James A J; Rizkallah, Pierre J; Jones, D Dafydd

    2014-08-01

    Single-amino-acid deletions are a common part of the natural evolutionary landscape but are rarely sampled during protein engineering owing to limited and prejudiced molecular understanding of mutations that shorten the protein backbone. Single-amino-acid deletion variants of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) have been identified by directed evolution with the beneficial effect of imparting increased cellular fluorescence. Biophysical characterization revealed that increased functional protein production and not changes to the fluorescence parameters was the mechanism that was likely to be responsible. The structure EGFP(D190Δ) containing a deletion within a loop revealed propagated changes only after the deleted residue. The structure of EGFP(A227Δ) revealed that a `flipping' mechanism was used to adjust for residue deletion at the end of a β-strand, with amino acids C-terminal to the deletion site repositioning to take the place of the deleted amino acid. In both variants new networks of short-range and long-range interactions are generated while maintaining the integrity of the hydrophobic core. Both deletion variants also displayed significant local and long-range changes in dynamics, as evident by changes in B factors compared with EGFP. Rather than being detrimental, deletion mutations can introduce beneficial structural effects through altering core protein properties, folding and dynamics, as well as function.

  9. A New Intergenic α-Globin Deletion (α-αΔ125) Found in a Kabyle Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amrathlal Rabbind; Lacan, Philippe; Cadet, Estelle; Bignet, Patricia; Dumesnil, Cécile; Vannier, Jean-Pierre; Joly, Philippe; Rochette, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    We have identified a deletion of 125 bp (α-α(Δ125)) (NG_000006.1: g.37040_37164del) in the α-globin gene cluster in a Kabyle population. A combination of singlex and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays have been used to identify the molecular defect. Sequencing of the abnormal PCR amplification product revealed a novel α1-globin promoter deletion. The endpoints of the deletion were characterized by sequencing the deletion junctions of the mutated allele. The observed deletion was located 378 bp upstream of the α1-globin gene transcription initiation site and leaves the α2 gene intact. In some patients, the α-α(Δ125) deletion was shown to segregate with Hb S (HBB: c.20A>T) and/or Hb C (HBB: c.19G>A) or a β-thalassemic allele. The α-α(Δ125) deletion has no discernible effect on red cell indices when inherited with no other abnormal globin genes. The family study demonstrated that the deletion is heritable. This is the only example of an intergenic α2-α1 non coding DNA deletion, leaving the α2-globin gene and the α1 coding part intact.

  10. Inducement and identification of an endosperm mutant in maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results indicate that the combination of 20 Gy of gamma-ray and 1 mmol/L of NaN3 is the most effective for mutation inducement of maize calli. Three endosperm mutant lines with “super sweet” phenotype were derived from the mutated offspring. By complementation test and DNA sequence analysis, their mutation site ...

  11. Engineering of specific uranyl-coordination sites in the calcium-binding motif of Calmodulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beccia, M.; Pardoux, R.; Sauge-Merle, S.; Bremond, N.; Lemaire, D.; Berthomieu, C.; Delangle, P.; Guilbaud, P.

    2014-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows: Characterization of heavy metals interactions with proteins is fundamental for understanding the molecular factors and mechanisms governing ions toxicity and speciation in cells. This line of research will also help in developing new molecules able to selectively and efficiently bind toxic metal ions, which could find application for bio-detection or bioremediation purposes. We have used the regulatory calcium-binding protein Calmodulin (CaM) from A. thaliana as a structural model and, starting from it, we have designed various mutants by site-directed mutagenesis. We have analysed thermodynamics of uranyl ion binding to both sites I and II of CaM N-terminal domain and we have identified structural factors governing this interaction. Selectivity for uranyl ion has been tested by studying reactions of the investigated peptides with Ca 2+ , in the same conditions used for UO 2 2+ . Spectro-fluorimetric titrations and FTIR analysis have shown that the affinity for uranyl increases by phosphorylation of a threonine in site I, especially approaching the physiological pH, where the phospho-threonine side chain is deprotonated. Based on structural models obtained by Molecular Dynamics, we tested the effect of a two residues deletion on site I properties. We obtained an almost two orders of magnitude increase in affinity for uranyl, with a sub-nanomolar dissociation constant for the uranyl complex with the non phosphorylated peptide, and an improved uranyl/calcium selectivity. Allosteric effects depending on Ca 2+ and UO 2 2+ binding have been investigated by comparing thermodynamic parameters obtained for mutants having both sites I and II able to chelate metal ions with those of mutants consisting of just one active site

  12. The deleted in brachydactyly B domain of ROR2 is required for receptor activation by recruitment of Src.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Akbarzadeh

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The transmembrane receptor 'ROR2' resembles members of the receptor tyrosine kinase family of signalling receptors in sequence but its' signal transduction mechanisms remain enigmatic. This problem has particular importance because mutations in ROR2 are associated with two human skeletal dysmorphology syndromes, recessive Robinow Syndrome (RS and dominant acting Brachydactyly type B (BDB. Here we show, using a constitutive dimerisation approach, that ROR2 exhibits dimerisation-induced tyrosine kinase activity and the ROR2 C-terminal domain, which is deleted in BDB, is required for recruitment and activation of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Src. Native ROR2 phosphorylation is induced by the ligand Wnt5a and is blocked by pharmacological inhibition of Src kinase activity. Eight sites of Src-mediated ROR2 phosphorylation have been identified by mass spectrometry. Activation via tyrosine phosphorylation of ROR2 receptor leads to its internalisation into Rab5 positive endosomes. These findings show that BDB mutant receptors are defective in kinase activation as a result of failure to recruit Src.

  13. Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    we have developed models of mutant ER driven cancer in which to characterize gene expression. Specifically, tetracycline inducible MCF7 cells that...expression profiling. Figure 1: Degradation of WT and mutant ER with ARN810. MCF7 cells stably transfected with tet-inducible WT and mutant...mutant ER. MCF7 cells stably transfected with tet- inducible WT and mutant ER are treated for 24 hours with estradiol and gene expression profiling

  14. Mechanistic studies on β-ketoacyl thiolase from Zoogloea ramigera: Identification of the active-site nucleophile as Cys89, its mutation to Ser89, and kinetic and thermodynamic characterization of wild-type and mutant enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, S.; Mayerl, F.; Walsh, C.T.; Peoples, O.P.; Masamune, S.; Sinskey, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    Thiolase proceeds via covalent catalysis involving an acetyl-S-enzyme. The active-site thiol nucleophile is identified as Cys 89 by acetylation with [ 14 C]acetyl-CoA, rapid denaturation, tryptic digestion, and sequencing of the labeled peptide. The native acetyl enzyme is labile to hydrolytic decomposition with t 1/2 of 2 min at pH 7, 25 degree C. Cys 89 has been converted to the alternate nucleophile Ser 89 by mutagenesis and the C89S enzyme overproduced, purified, and assessed for activity. The Ser 89 enzyme retains 1% of the V max of the Cys 89 enzyme in the direction of acetoacetyl-CoA thiolytic cleavage and 0.05% of the V max in the condensation of two acetyl-CoA molecules. A covalent acetyl-O-enzyme intermediate is detected on incubation with [ 14 C]acetyl-CoA and isolation of the labeled Ser 89 -containing tryptic peptide. Comparisons of the Cys 89 and Ser 89 enzymes have been made for kinetic and thermodynamic stability of the acetyl enzyme intermediates both by isolation and by analysis of [ 32 P]CoASH/acetyl-CoA partial reactions and for rate-limiting steps in catalysis with trideuterioacetyl-CoA

  15. Deletion of the putative antioxidant noxR1 does not alter the virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, G R; Ehrt, S; Riley, L W; Dale, J W; McFadden, J

    2000-01-01

    The cloned M. tuberculosis noxR1 gene has been shown to confer resistance to reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) and reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) upon Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium smegmatis. To investigate the role of noxR1 in resistance to RNI and virulence of M. tuberculosis. The noxR1 gene was deleted from M. bovis BCG and M. tuberculosis H37Rv by allelic exchange. The mutants were compared to wild type strains with respect to resistance to chemically generated RNI. The virulence of the M. tuberculosis mutant was investigated in a murine model of infection. The NoxR1 mutants grew normally in Sautons and 7H9 broths. The BCG mutant demonstrated decreased resistance to in vitro generated RNI compared to the wild type. Resistance to RNI could be restored to the mutant by reintroduction of the noxR1 locus on a replicating plasmid. However, deletion of noxR1 from M. tuberculosis H37Rv did not result in decreased resistance to RNI nor a difference in growth and survival of the bacterium during murine infection. The noxR1 gene locus in M. bovis BCG bestows ability to resist RNI generated in vitro. In M. tuberculosis H37Rv, however, noxR1 is either not involved in RNI resistance and virulence or is better compensated for by other mechanisms. 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  16. Naturally Occurring Deletional Mutation in the C-Terminal Cytoplasmic Tail of CCR5 Affects Surface Trafficking of CCR5

    OpenAIRE

    Shioda, Tatsuo; Nakayama, Emi E.; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Xin, Xiaomi; Liu, Huanliang; Kawana-Tachikawa, Ai; Kato, Atsushi; Sakai, Yuko; Nagai, Yoshiyuki; Iwamoto, Aikichi

    2001-01-01

    CCR5 is an essential coreceptor for the cellular entry of R5 strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). CCR5-893(−) is a single-nucleotide deletion mutation which is observed exclusively in Asians (M. A. Ansari-Lari, et al., Nat. Genet. 16:221–222, 1997). This mutant gene produces a CCR5 which lacks the entire C-terminal cytoplasmic tail. To assess the effect of CCR5-893(−) on HIV-1 infection, we generated a recombinant Sendai virus expressing the mutant CCR5 and compared its HIV...

  17. Single-Cell Microfluidics to Study the Effects of Genome Deletion on Bacterial Growth Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaofei; Couto, Jillian M; Glidle, Andrew; Song, Yanqing; Sloan, William; Yin, Huabing

    2017-12-15

    By directly monitoring single cell growth in a microfluidic platform, we interrogated genome-deletion effects in Escherichia coli strains. We compared the growth dynamics of a wild type strain with a clean genome strain, and their derived mutants at the single-cell level. A decreased average growth rate and extended average lag time were found for the clean genome strain, compared to those of the wild type strain. Direct correlation between the growth rate and lag time of individual cells showed that the clean genome population was more heterogeneous. Cell culturability (the ratio of growing cells to the sum of growing and nongrowing cells) of the clean genome population was also lower. Interestingly, after the random mutations induced by a glucose starvation treatment, for the clean genome population mutants that had survived the competition of chemostat culture, each parameter markedly improved (i.e., the average growth rate and cell culturability increased, and the lag time and heterogeneity decreased). However, this effect was not seen in the wild type strain; the wild type mutants cultured in a chemostat retained a high diversity of growth phenotypes. These results suggest that quasi-essential genes that were deleted in the clean genome might be required to retain a diversity of growth characteristics at the individual cell level under environmental stress. These observations highlight that single-cell microfluidics can reveal subtle individual cellular responses, enabling in-depth understanding of the population.

  18. A novel large deletion of the ICR1 region including H19 and putative enhancer elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryssira, Helen; Amenta, Stella; Kanber, Deniz; Sofocleous, Christalena; Lykopoulou, Evangelia; Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christina; Cerrato, Flavia; Lüdecke, Hermann-Josef; Bens, Susanne; Riccio, Andrea; Buiting, Karin

    2015-05-06

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a rare pediatric overgrowth disorder with a variable clinical phenotype caused by deregulation affecting imprinted genes in the chromosomal region 11p15. Alterations of the imprinting control region 1 (ICR1) at the IGF2/H19 locus resulting in biallelic expression of IGF2 and biallelic silencing of H19 account for approximately 10% of patients with BWS. The majority of these patients have epimutations of the ICR1 without detectable DNA sequence changes. Only a few patients were found to have deletions. Most of these deletions are small affecting different parts of the ICR1 differentially methylated region (ICR1-DMR) removing target sequences for CTCF. Only a very few deletions reported so far include the H19 gene in addition to the CTCF binding sites. None of these deletions include IGF2. A male patient was born with hypotonia, facial dysmorphisms and hypoglycemia suggestive of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Using methylation-specific (MS)-MLPA (Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification) we have identified a maternally inherited large deletion of the ICR1 region in a patient and his mother. The deletion results in a variable clinical expression with a classical BWS in the mother and a more severe presentation of BWS in her son. By genome-wide SNP array analysis the deletion was found to span ~100 kb genomic DNA including the ICR1DMR, H19, two adjacent non-imprinted genes and two of three predicted enhancer elements downstream to H19. Methylation analysis by deep bisulfite next generation sequencing revealed hypermethylation of the maternal allele at the IGF2 locus in both, mother and child, although IGF2 is not affected by the deletion. We here report on a novel large familial deletion of the ICR1 region in a BWS family. Due to the deletion of the ICR1-DMR CTCF binding cannot take place and the residual enhancer elements have access to the IGF2 promoters. The aberrant methylation (hypermethylation) of the maternal IGF2

  19. Wild Accessions and Mutant Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Sandal, Niels Nørgaard

    2014-01-01

    Lotus japonicus, Lotus burttii, and Lotus filicaulis are species of Lotus genus that are utilized for molecular genetic analysis such as the construction of a linkage map and QTL analysis. Among them, a number of mutants have been isolated from two wild accessions: L. japonicus Gifu B-129...

  20. components in induced sorghum mutants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (1984) evaluated induced mutation and hybridisation methods for producing genetic variability in 15 quantitative characters of sorghum. Their results showed large variability in grain yield, plant maturity, plant height and panicles length. Selected mutants with favorable properties can be directly combined in varietal hybrids.

  1. Metabolic Engineering of Light and Dark Biochemical Pathways in Wild-Type and Mutant Strains of Synechocystis PCC 6803 for Maximal, 24-Hour Production of Hydrogen Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ely, Roger L.; Chaplen, Frank W.R.

    2014-03-11

    This project used the cyanobacterial species Synechocystis PCC 6803 to pursue two lines of inquiry, with each line addressing one of the two main factors affecting hydrogen (H2) production in Synechocystis PCC 6803: NADPH availability and O2 sensitivity. H2 production in Synechocystis PCC 6803 requires a very high NADPH:NADP+ ratio, that is, the NADP pool must be highly reduced, which can be problematic because several metabolic pathways potentially can act to raise or lower NADPH levels. Also, though the [NiFe]-hydrogenase in PCC 6803 is constitutively expressed, it is reversibly inactivated at very low O2 concentrations. Largely because of this O2 sensitivity and the requirement for high NADPH levels, a major portion of overall H2 production occurs under anoxic conditions in the dark, supported by breakdown of glycogen or other organic substrates accumulated during photosynthesis. Also, other factors, such as N or S limitation, pH changes, presence of other substances, or deletion of particular respiratory components, can affect light or dark H2 production. Therefore, in the first line of inquiry, under a number of culture conditions with wild type (WT) Synechocystis PCC 6803 cells and a mutant with impaired type I NADPH-dehydrogenase (NDH-1) function, we used H2 production profiling and metabolic flux analysis, with and without specific inhibitors, to examine systematically the pathways involved in light and dark H2 production. Results from this work provided rational bases for metabolic engineering to maximize photobiological H2 production on a 24-hour basis. In the second line of inquiry, we used site-directed mutagenesis to create mutants with hydrogenase enzymes exhibiting greater O2 tolerance. The research addressed the following four tasks: 1. Evaluate the effects of various culture conditions (N, S, or P limitation; light/dark; pH; exogenous organic carbon) on H2 production profiles of WT cells and an NDH-1 mutant; 2. Conduct metabolic flux analyses for

  2. Skin fibroblasts from a D-deletion type retinoblastoma patient are abnormally X-ray sensitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weichselbaum, R.R.; Nove, J.; Little, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is a rare malignant eye tumour that appears either spontaneously or in genetically predisposed persons. The latter group is composed of persons who inherit the tumour with a dominant mode of transmission (the familial type) and those who have a deletion in the long arm of chromosome 13 referred to as the D-deletion type. When this deletion is present it is observed in many somatic cells and is often associated with structural defects. Survivors of the genetic forms of retinoblastoma have an increased risk of the development of cancers at other sites. A single genetic locus is unlikely to predispose many somatic cells to tumour formation unless a fundamental molecular defect, possibly related to DNA repair, is present. In order to investigate this hypothesis a study was made of the in vitro X-ray sensitivity of skin fibroblasts derived from three retinoblastoma patients, comprising a pair of twins with the familial type accompanied by no gross chromosome abnormalities, and a patient with the D-deletion type. It was found that fibroblasts derived from the D-deletion patient were significantly more radiosensitive than those from the other two patients. X-ray survival curves are shown. It is concluded that skin fibroblasts derived from a patient with the D-deletion variant of retinoblastoma are abnormally radiosensitive. Future investigations may indicate a specific defect in molecular repair of DNA that will explain the predisposition of these patients to the development of other tumours. (U.K.)

  3. 19 CFR 142.49 - Deletion of C-4 Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Entry filers may delete C-4 Codes from Line Release by notifying the port director in writing on a Deletion Data Loading Sheet. Such notification shall state the C-4 Code which is to be deleted, the port... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Line Release § 142.49 Deletion of C-4 Code. (a) By Customs. A port...

  4. 78 FR 17641 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition and Deletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Addition and Deletion AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Addition to and Deletion from the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add a..., Washington, DC Deletion The following product is proposed for deletion from the Procurement List: Product...

  5. 46 CFR 67.171 - Deletion; requirement and procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deletion; requirement and procedure. 67.171 Section 67...; Requirement for Exchange, Replacement, Deletion, Cancellation § 67.171 Deletion; requirement and procedure. (a... provided in § 67.161, and the vessel is subject to deletion from the roll of actively documented vessels...

  6. 78 FR 54871 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... Additions and Deletion AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to and deletions from the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add... by the Defense Commissary Agency. Deletion The following product is proposed for deletion from the...

  7. Polymyxin resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa phoQ mutants is dependent on additional two-component regulatory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutu, Alina D; Sgambati, Nicole; Strasbourger, Pnina; Brannon, Mark K; Jacobs, Michael A; Haugen, Eric; Kaul, Rajinder K; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Høiby, Niels; Moskowitz, Samuel M

    2013-05-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa can develop resistance to polymyxin as a consequence of mutations in the PhoPQ regulatory system, mediated by covalent lipid A modification. Transposon mutagenesis of a polymyxin-resistant phoQ mutant defined 41 novel loci required for resistance, including two regulatory systems, ColRS and CprRS. Deletion of the colRS genes, individually or in tandem, abrogated the polymyxin resistance of a ΔphoQ mutant, as did individual or tandem deletion of cprRS. Individual deletion of colR or colS in a ΔphoQ mutant also suppressed 4-amino-L-arabinose addition to lipid A, consistent with the known role of this modification in polymyxin resistance. Surprisingly, tandem deletion of colRS or cprRS in the ΔphoQ mutant or individual deletion of cprR or cprS failed to suppress 4-amino-L-arabinose addition to lipid A, indicating that this modification alone is not sufficient for PhoPQ-mediated polymyxin resistance in P. aeruginosa. Episomal expression of colRS or cprRS in tandem or of cprR individually complemented the Pm resistance phenotype in the ΔphoQ mutant, while episomal expression of colR, colS, or cprS individually did not. Highly polymyxin-resistant phoQ mutants of P. aeruginosa isolated from polymyxin-treated cystic fibrosis patients harbored mutant alleles of colRS and cprS; when expressed in a ΔphoQ background, these mutant alleles enhanced polymyxin resistance. These results define ColRS and CprRS as two-component systems regulating polymyxin resistance in P. aeruginosa, indicate that addition of 4-amino-L-arabinose to lipid A is not the only PhoPQ-regulated biochemical mechanism required for resistance, and demonstrate that colRS and cprS mutations can contribute to high-level clinical resistance.

  8. Association between BIM deletion polymorphism and clinical outcome of EGFR-mutated NSCLC patient with EGFR-TKI therapy: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ji-Yong; Yan, Hai-Jun; Gu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    BIM deletion polymorphism was deemed to be associated with downregulation of BIM, resulting in a decreased apoptosis induced by epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) in EGFR mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, accumulating evidences concerning the association between BIM deletion polymorphism and efficacy of EGFR-TKI and survival in EGFR-mutation-driven NSCLC patient reported contradictory results. A meta-analysis was conducted by combing six original eligible studies including 871 NSCLC patients. Our study showed that BIM deletion polymorphism was significantly associated with poor response to EGFR-TKI therapy in mutant EGFRNSCLC patients (P(h) = 0.309, P(z) = 0.001, OR = 0.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.23-0.67). Disease control rate (DCR) in mutant EGFRNSCLC patient with treatment of EGFR-TKI was significantly decreased in patients with BIM deletion polymorphism comparing to patients harbored BIM wild variant (P(h) = 0.583, P(Z) = 0.007, OR = 0.46, 95%CI = 0.25-0.85). EGFR mutation-derived NSCLC patient carrying BIM deletion polymorphism had a shorter progression-free survival (PFS; P(h) deletion polymorphism might be a cause that contributes to primary EGFR-TKI resistance, and it could be used as a genetic predictor for EGFR-TKI outcome and an independent prognostic factor of EGFR mutation-driven NSCLC patient.

  9. Induced High Lysine Mutants in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doll, Hans; Køie, B.; Eggum, B. O.

    1974-01-01

    variety. Comparisons of six high lysine mutants with the parent variety showed that grain yield and seed size of the mutants are reduced between 10 and 30 per cent. However, the most promising mutant had the lowest reduction in grain yield, and the absolute lysine yield of this mutant was some 30 per cent...... above that of the parent variety. Feeding tests with rats revealed substantial increases in the biological value of the high lysine mutant protein. Also the net protein utilization was improved but less so because of a somewhat reduced digestibility of the mutant protein....

  10. A Small Indel Mutant Mouse Model of Epidermolytic Palmoplantar Keratoderma and Its Application to Mutant-specific shRNA Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Su Lyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma (EPPK is a relatively common autosomal-dominant skin disorder caused by mutations in the keratin 9 gene (KRT9, with few therapeutic options for the affected so far. Here, we report a knock-in transgenic mouse model that carried a small insertion–deletion (indel mutant of Krt9, c.434delAinsGGCT (p.Tyr144delinsTrpLeu, corresponding to the human mutation KRT9/c.500delAinsGGCT (p.Tyr167delinsTrpLeu, which resulted in a human EPPK-like phenotype in the weight-stress areas of the fore- and hind-paws of both Krt9+/mut and Krt9mut/mut mice. The phenotype confirmed that EPPK is a dominant-negative condition, such that mice heterozygotic for the K9-mutant allele (Krt9+/mut showed a clear EPPK-like phenotype. Then, we developed a mutant-specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA therapy for EPPK mice. Mutant-specific shRNAs were systematically identified in vitro using a luciferase reporter gene assay and delivered into Krt9+/mut mice. shRNA-mediated knockdown of mutant protein resulted in almost normal morphology and functions of the skin, whereas the same shRNA had a negligible effect in wild-type K9 mice. Our results suggest that EPPK can be treated by gene therapy, and this has significant implications for future clinical application.

  11. Characterization of Brucella abortus mutant strain Δ22915, a potential vaccine candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yanqing; Tian, Mingxing; Li, Peng; Liu, Jiameng; Ding, Chan; Yu, Shengqing

    2017-04-04

    Brucellosis, caused by Brucella spp., is an important zoonosis worldwide. Vaccination is an effective strategy for protection against Brucella infection in livestock in developing countries and in wildlife in developed countries. However, current vaccine strains including S19 and RB51 are pathogenic to humans and pregnant animals, limiting their use. In this study, we constructed the Brucella abortus (B. abortus) S2308 mutant strain Δ22915, in which the putative lytic transglycosylase gene BAB_RS22915 was deleted. The biological properties of mutant strain Δ22915 were characterized and protection of mice against virulent S2308 challenge was evaluated. The mutant strain Δ22915 showed reduced survival within RAW264.7 cells and survival in vivo in mice. In addition, the mutant strain Δ22915 failed to escape fusion with lysosomes within host cells, and caused no observable pathological damage. RNA-seq analysis indicated that four genes associated with amino acid/nucleotide transport and metabolism were significantly upregulated in mutant strain Δ22915. Furthermore, inoculation of ∆22915 at 10 5 colony forming units induced effective host immune responses and long-term protection of BALB/c mice. Therefore, mutant strain ∆22915 could be used as a novel vaccine candidate in the future to protect animals against B. abortus infection.

  12. Identification of the crp gene in avian Pasteurella multocida and evaluation of the effects of crp deletion on its phenotype, virulence and immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinxin; Liu, Qing; Xiao, Kangpeng; Hu, Yunlong; Liu, Xueyan; Li, Yanyan; Kong, Qingke

    2016-06-24

    Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) is an important veterinary pathogen that can cause severe diseases in a wide range of mammals and birds. The global regulator crp gene has been found to regulate the virulence of some bacteria, and crp mutants have been demonstrated to be effective attenuated vaccines against Salmonella enterica and Yersinia enterocolitica. Here, we first characterized the crp gene in P. multocida, and we report the effects of a crp deletion. The P. multocida crp mutant exhibited a similar lipopolysaccharide and outer membrane protein profile but displayed defective growth and serum complement resistance in vitro compared with the parent strain. Furthermore, crp deletion decreased virulence but did not result in full attenuation. The 50 % lethal dose (LD50) of the Δcrp mutant was 85-fold higher than that of the parent strain for intranasal infection. Transcriptome sequencing analysis showed that 92 genes were up-regulated and 94 genes were down-regulated in the absence of the crp gene. Finally, we found that intranasal immunization with the Δcrp mutant triggered both systematic and mucosal antibody responses and conferred 60 % protection against virulent P. multocida challenge in ducks. The deletion of the crp gene has an inhibitory effect on bacterial growth and bacterial resistance to serum complement in vitro. The P. multocida crp mutant was attenuated and conferred moderate protection in ducks. This work affords a platform for analyzing the function of crp and aiding the formulation of a novel vaccine against P. multocida.

  13. Headbobber: a combined morphogenetic and cochleosaccular mouse model to study 10qter deletions in human deafness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Buniello

    Full Text Available The recessive mouse mutant headbobber (hb displays the characteristic behavioural traits associated with vestibular defects including headbobbing, circling and deafness. This mutation was caused by the insertion of a transgene into distal chromosome 7 affecting expression of native genes. We show that the inner ear of hb/hb mutants lacks semicircular canals and cristae, and the saccule and utricle are fused together in a single utriculosaccular sac. Moreover, we detect severe abnormalities of the cochlear sensory hair cells, the stria vascularis looks severely disorganised, Reissner's membrane is collapsed and no endocochlear potential is detected. Myo7a and Kcnj10 expression analysis show a lack of the melanocyte-like intermediate cells in hb/hb stria vascularis, which can explain the absence of endocochlear potential. We use Trp2 as a marker of melanoblasts migrating from the neural crest at E12.5 and show that they do not interdigitate into the developing strial epithelium, associated with abnormal persistence of the basal lamina in the hb/hb cochlea. We perform array CGH, deep sequencing as well as an extensive expression analysis of candidate genes in the headbobber region of hb/hb and littermate controls, and conclude that the headbobber phenotype is caused by: 1 effect of a 648 kb deletion on distal Chr7, resulting in the loss of three protein coding genes (Gpr26, Cpmx2 and Chst15 with expression in the inner ear but unknown function; and 2 indirect, long range effect of the deletion on the expression of neighboring genes on Chr7, associated with downregulation of Hmx3, Hmx2 and Nkx1.2 homeobox transcription factors. Interestingly, deletions of the orthologous region in humans, affecting the same genes, have been reported in nineteen patients with common features including sensorineural hearing loss and vestibular problems. Therefore, we propose that headbobber is a useful model to gain insight into the mechanisms underlying deafness in

  14. RIM genes differentially contribute to organizing presynaptic release sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeser, Pascal S; Deng, Lunbin; Fan, Mingming; Südhof, Thomas C

    2012-07-17

    Tight coupling of Ca(2+) channels to the presynaptic active zone is critical for fast synchronous neurotransmitter release. RIMs are multidomain proteins that tether Ca(2+) channels to active zones, dock and prime synaptic vesicles for release, and mediate presynaptic plasticity. Here, we use conditional knockout mice targeting all RIM isoforms expressed by the Rims1 and Rims2 genes to examine the contributions and mechanism of action of different RIMs in neurotransmitter release. We show that acute single deletions of each Rims gene decreased release and impaired vesicle priming but did not alter the extracellular Ca(2+)-responsiveness of release (which for Rims gene mutants is a measure of presynaptic Ca(2+) influx). Moreover, single deletions did not affect the synchronization of release (which depends on the close proximity of Ca(2+) channels to release sites). In contrast, deletion of both Rims genes severely impaired the Ca(2+) responsiveness and synchronization of release. RIM proteins may act on Ca(2+) channels in two modes: They tether Ca(2+) channels to active zones, and they directly modulate Ca(2+)-channel inactivation. The first mechanism is essential for localizing presynaptic Ca(2+) influx to nerve terminals, but the role of the second mechanism remains unknown. Strikingly, we find that although the RIM2 C(2)B domain by itself significantly decreased Ca(2+)-channel inactivation in transfected HEK293 cells, it did not rescue any aspect of the RIM knockout phenotype in cultured neurons. Thus, RIMs primarily act in release as physical Ca(2+)-channel tethers and not as Ca(2+)-channel modulators. Different RIM proteins compensate for each other in recruiting Ca(2+) channels to active zones, but contribute independently and incrementally to vesicle priming.

  15. Physical mapping of chromosome 8p22 markers and their homozygous deletion in a metastatic prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bova, G.S.; Pin, S.S.; Isaacs, W.B. [Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)]|[Brady Urological Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

    1996-07-01

    Numerous studies have implicated the short arm of chromosome 8 as the site of one or more tumor suppressor genes inactivated in carcinogenesis of the prostate, colon, lung, and liver. Previously, we identified a homozygous deletion on chromosome 8p22 in a metastatic prostate cancer. To map this homozygous deletion physically, long-range restriction mapping was performed using yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) spanning approximately 2 Mb of chromosome band 8p22. Subcloned genomic DNA and cDNA probes isolated by hybrid capture from these YACs were mapped in relation to one another, reinforcing map integrity. Mapped single-copy probes from the region were then applied to DNA isolated from a metastatic prostate cancer containing a chromosome 8p22 homozygous deletion and indicated that its deletion spans 730-970 kb. Candidate genes PRLTS (PDGF-receptor {beta}-like tumor suppressor) and CTSB (cathepsin B) are located outside the region of homozygous deletion. Genethon marker D8S549 is located approximately at the center of this region of homozygous deletion. Two new microsatellite polymorphisms, D8S1991 and D8S1992, also located within the region of homozygous deletion on chromosome 8p22, are described. Physical mapping places cosmid CI8-2644 telomeric to MSR (macrophage scavenger receptor), the reverse of a previously published map, altering the interpretation of published deletion studies. This work should prove helpful in the identification of candidate tumor suppressor genes in this region. 47 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Rapid deletion production in fungi via Agrobacterium mediated transformation of OSCAR deletion contructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precise deletion of gene(s) of interest, while leaving the rest of the genome unchanged, provides the ideal product to determine that particular gene’s function in the living organism. In this protocol we describe the OSCAR method of precise and rapid deletion plasmid construction. OSCAR relies on t...

  17. Splice, insertion-deletion and nonsense mutations that perturb the phenylalanine hydroxylase transcript cause phenylketonuria in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashyam, Murali D; Chaudhary, Ajay K; Kiran, Manjari; Nagarajaram, Hampapathalu A; Devi, Radha Rama; Ranganath, Prajnya; Dalal, Ashwin; Bashyam, Leena; Gupta, Neerja; Kabra, Madhulika; Muranjan, Mamta; Puri, Ratna D; Verma, Ishwar C; Nampoothiri, Sheela; Kadandale, Jayarama S

    2014-03-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by mutational inactivation of the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene. Missense mutations are the most common PAH mutation type detected in PKU patients worldwide. We performed PAH mutation analysis in 27 suspected Indian PKU families (including 7 from our previous study) followed by structure and function analysis of specific missense and splice/insertion-deletion/nonsense mutations, respectively. Of the 27 families, disease-causing mutations were detected in 25. A total of 20 different mutations were identified of which 7 "unique" mutations accounted for 13 of 25 mutation positive families. The unique mutations detected exclusively in Indian PKU patients included three recurrent mutations detected in three families each. The 20 mutations included only 5 missense mutations in addition to 5 splice, 4 each nonsense and insertion-deletion mutations, a silent variant in coding region and a 3'UTR mutation. One deletion and two nonsense mutations were characterized to confirm significant reduction in mutant transcript levels possibly through activation of nonsense mediated decay. All missense mutations affected conserved amino acid residues and sequence and structure analysis suggested significant perturbations in the enzyme activity of respective mutant proteins. This is probably the first report of identification of a significantly low proportion of missense PAH mutations from PKU families and together with the presence of a high proportion of splice, insertion-deletion, and nonsense mutations, points to a unique PAH mutation profile in Indian PKU patients. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. First report of a healthy Indian heterozygous for delta 32 mutant of HIV-1 co-receptor-CCR5 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, S; Goila, R; Shahi, S; Banerjea, A

    1998-01-30

    The beta-chemokine receptor, CCR5, is a major co-receptor for macrophage tropic non-syncytia-inducing isolates of HIV-1. Recently a 32 bp homozygous deletion in the coding region of CCR5 has been reported in a very small percentage (heritage with varying frequencies (13-20%). However, when a large number of the non-Caucasian population (261 Africans and 423 Asians) were screened for the presence of this deleted allele, not a single case of either homozygous or heterozygous mutant for delta 32 allele of CCR5 was detected. We screened 100 normal individuals and found a single heterozygous case with an identical 32 bp deletion in CCR5 gene reported earlier, the rest possessed wild-type alleles. This deleted gene was inherited in Mendelian fashion among the family members of this individual. Thus, the frequency of this deleted allele in India among unrelated normal individuals is likely to be very low (< 1%). We observed a moderate transdominant effect of this mutant allele in a fusion assay. Finally, we show a significant inhibition of fusion of cell membranes when the 176-bp region of CCR5 was used as an antisense.

  19. A cataract-causing connexin 50 mutant is mislocalized to the ER due to loss of the fourth transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somaraju Chalasani, Madhavi Latha; Muppirala, Madhavi; G Ponnam, Surya Prakash; Kannabiran, Chitra; Swarup, Ghanshyam

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the eye lens gap junction protein connexin 50 cause cataract. Earlier we identified a frameshift mutant of connexin 50 (c.670insA; p.Thr203AsnfsX47) in a family with autosomal recessive cataract. The mutant protein is smaller and contains 46 aberrant amino acids at the C-terminus after amino acid 202. Here, we have analysed this frameshift mutant and observed that it localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) but not in the plasma membrane. Moreover, overexpression of the mutant resulted in disintegration of the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC), reduction in the level of ERGIC-53 protein and breakdown of the Golgi in many cells. Overexpression of the frameshift mutant partially inhibited the transport of wild type connexin 50 to the plasma membrane. A deletion mutant lacking the aberrant sequence showed predominant localization in the ER and inhibited anterograde protein transport suggesting, therefore, that the aberrant sequence is not responsible for improper localization of the frameshift mutant. Further deletion analysis showed that the fourth transmembrane domain and a membrane proximal region (231-294 amino acids) of the cytoplasmic domain are needed for transport from the ER and localization to the plasma membrane. Our results show that a frameshift mutant of connexin 50 mislocalizes to the ER and causes disintegration of the ERGIC and Golgi. We have also identified a sequence of connexin 50 crucial for transport from the ER and localization to the plasma membrane.

  20. Somatic mosaicism for a DMD gene deletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Kayoko; Ikeya, Kiyoko; Kondo, Eri [Tokyo Women`s Medical College (Japan)] [and others

    1995-03-13

    Mosaicism is a mixed state, with two cell populations of different genetic origins caused by a cell mutation occurring after fertilization. In the present case, DNA analysis of lymphocytes led to a DMD diagnosis before death. Postmortem immunocytochemical and DNA analysis showed somatic mosaicism. At age 18 years, blood lymphocyte DNA analysis showed a DMD gene deletion, upstream from exon 7 to the 5{prime} end containing both muscle and brain promoters. As the patient`s mother and elder sister had no deletions, he was considered to have a new mutation. Immunocytochemical studies of postmortem tissues showed that dystrophin was absent from the tongue, deltoid, intercostal, psoas and rectus femoris muscles, but there was a mix of dystrophin-positive and negative fibers in the rectus abdominis, cardiac, temporalis and sternocleidomastoid muscles. All diaphragm cells were dystrophin positive. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification from all tissues except the temporalis and sternocleidomastoid muscles, diaphragm and kidney, in which no deletion was found, showed the deletion from at least exon 6 to the 5{prime} end containing both muscle and brain promoters. In this case, a genomic deletion of the DMD gene contributed to the formation of tissues derived from both ectoderm and endoderm, and cells of mesodermal origin showed genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity. Our results indicate a mutation of the present case may have occurred just before the period of germ layer formation. 34 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Markerless deletion of putative alanine dehydrogenase genes in Bacillus licheniformis using a codBA-based counterselection technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostner, David; Rachinger, Michael; Liebl, Wolfgang; Ehrenreich, Armin

    2017-11-01

    Bacillus licheniformis strains are used for the large-scale production of industrial exoenzymes from proteinaceous substrates, but details of the amino acid metabolism involved are largely unknown. In this study, two chromosomal genes putatively involved in amino acid metabolism of B. licheniformis were deleted to clarify their role. For this, a convenient counterselection system for markerless in-frame deletions was developed for B. licheniformis. A deletion plasmid containing up- and downstream DNA segments of the chromosomal deletion target was conjugated to B. licheniformis and integrated into the genome by homologous recombination. Thereafter, the counterselection was done by using a codBA cassette. The presence of cytosine deaminase and cytosine permease exerted a conditionally lethal phenotype on B. licheniformis cells in the presence of the cytosine analogue 5-fluorocytosine. Thereby clones were selected that lost the integrated vector sequence and the anticipated deletion target after a second recombination step. This method allows the construction of markerless mutants in Bacillus strains in iterative cycles. B. licheniformis MW3 derivatives lacking either one of the ORFs BL03009 or BL00190, encoding a putative alanine dehydrogenase and a similar putative enzyme, respectively, retained the ability to grow in minimal medium supplemented with alanine as the carbon source. In the double deletion mutant MW3 ΔBL03009 ΔBL00190, however, growth on alanine was completely abolished. These data indicate that the two encoded enzymes are paralogues fulfilling mutually replaceable functions in alanine utilization, and suggest that in B. licheniformis MW3 alanine utilization is initiated by direct oxidative transamination to pyruvate and ammonium.

  2. Characterization of a mutant glucose isomerase from Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Heng; Shen, Dong; Wu, Xue-Qiang; Liu, Zhi-Wei; Yang, Qi-He

    2014-10-01

    A series of site-directed mutant glucose isomerase at tryptophan 139 from Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum strain B6A were purified to gel electrophoretic homogeneity, and the biochemical properties were determined. W139F mutation is the most efficient mutant derivative with a tenfold increase in its catalytic efficiency toward glucose compared with the native GI. With a maximal activity at 80 °C of 59.58 U/mg on glucose, this mutant derivative is the most active type ever reported. The enzyme activity was maximal at 90 °C and like other glucose isomerase, this mutant enzyme required Co(2+) or Mg(2+) for enzyme activity and thermal stability (stable for 20 h at 80 °C in the absence of substrate). Its optimum pH was around 7.0, and it had 86 % of its maximum activity at pH 6.0 incubated for 12 h at 60 °C. This enzyme was determined as thermostable and weak-acid stable. These findings indicated that the mutant GI W139F from T. saccharolyticum strain B6A is appropriate for use as a potential candidate for high-fructose corn syrup producing enzyme.

  3. New traits in crops produced by genome editing techniques based on deletions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Schaart, J.G.; Lotz, L.A.P.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    One of the most promising New Plant Breeding Techniques is genome editing (also called gene editing) with the help of a programmable site-directed nuclease (SDN). In this review, we focus on SDN-1, which is the generation of small deletions or insertions (indels) at a precisely defined location in

  4. Mutant genes in pea breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiecicki, W.K.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Mutations of genes Dpo (dehiscing pods) and A (anthocyanin synthesis) played a role in pea domestication. A number of other genes were important in cultivar development for 3 types of usage (dry seeds, green vegetable types, fodder), e.g. fn, fna, le, p, v, fas and af. New genes (induced and spontaneous), are important for present ideotypes and are registered by the Pisum Genetics Association (PGA). Comparison of a pea variety ideotype with the variation available in gene banks shows that breeders need 'new' features. In mutation induction experiments, genotype, mutagen and method of treatment (e.g. combined or fractionated doses) are varied for broadening the mutation spectrum and selecting more genes of agronomic value. New genes are genetically analysed. In Poland, some mutant varieties with the gene afila were registered, controlling lodging by a shorter stem and a higher number of internodes. Really non-lodging pea varieties could strongly increase seed yield. But the probability of detecting a major gene for lodging resistance is low. Therefore, mutant genes with smaller influence on plant architecture are sought, to combine their effect by crossing. Promising seem to be the genes rogue, reductus and arthritic as well as a number of mutant genes not yet genetically identified. The gene det for terminal inflorescence - similarly to Vicia faba - changes plant development. Utilisation of assimilates and ripening should be better. Improvement of harvest index should give higher seed yield. A number of genes controlling disease resistance are well known (eg. Fw, Fnw, En, mo and sbm). Important in mass screening of resistance are closely linked gene markers. Pea gene banks collect respective lines, but mutants induced in highly productive cultivars would be better. Inducing gene markers sometimes seems to be easier than transfer by crossing. Mutation induction in pea breeding is probably more important because a high number of monogenic features are

  5. Saint Louis Encephalitis Temperature-Sensitive Mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    group II contains two mutants and group III contains three mutants. Examination of the ability of mutants to grow at 300C, 40 C or 37 C indicates that...importance. Information from studies with Poliovirus has shown that the use of live attenuated virus vaccines result in longer lasting, more effec- tive...sensitive mutant to grow at internal body temperature may have a significant effect on the ability of the virus to induce a protective immune response or

  6. Biochemical Analysis of Two Single Mutants that Give Rise to a Polymorphic G6PD A-Double Mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Jiovany Ramírez-Nava

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD is a key regulatory enzyme that plays a crucial role in the regulation of cellular energy and redox balance. Mutations in the gene encoding G6PD cause the most common enzymopathy that drives hereditary nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. To gain insights into the effects of mutations in G6PD enzyme efficiency, we have investigated the biochemical, kinetic, and structural changes of three clinical G6PD variants, the single mutations G6PD A+ (Asn126AspD and G6PD Nefza (Leu323Pro, and the double mutant G6PD A− (Asn126Asp + Leu323Pro. The mutants showed lower residual activity (≤50% of WT G6PD and displayed important kinetic changes. Although all Class III mutants were located in different regions of the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme and were not close to the active site, these mutants had a deleterious effect over catalytic activity and structural stability. The results indicated that the G6PD Nefza mutation was mainly responsible for the functional and structural alterations observed in the double mutant G6PD A−. Moreover, our study suggests that the G6PD Nefza and G6PD A− mutations affect enzyme functions in a similar fashion to those reported for Class I mutations.

  7. Biochemical Analysis of Two Single Mutants that Give Rise to a Polymorphic G6PD A-Double Mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Nava, Edson Jiovany; González-Valdez, Abigail; Vanoye-Carlo, America; Hernández-Ochoa, Beatriz; Sierra-Palacios, Edgar; Hernández-Pineda, Jessica; Rodríguez-Bustamante, Eduardo; Arreguin-Espinosa, Roberto; Oria-Hernández, Jesús; Reyes-Vivas, Horacio; Marcial-Quino, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a key regulatory enzyme that plays a crucial role in the regulation of cellular energy and redox balance. Mutations in the gene encoding G6PD cause the most common enzymopathy that drives hereditary nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. To gain insights into the effects of mutations in G6PD enzyme efficiency, we have investigated the biochemical, kinetic, and structural changes of three clinical G6PD variants, the single mutations G6PD A+ (Asn126AspD) and G6PD Nefza (Leu323Pro), and the double mutant G6PD A− (Asn126Asp + Leu323Pro). The mutants showed lower residual activity (≤50% of WT G6PD) and displayed important kinetic changes. Although all Class III mutants were located in different regions of the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme and were not close to the active site, these mutants had a deleterious effect over catalytic activity and structural stability. The results indicated that the G6PD Nefza mutation was mainly responsible for the functional and structural alterations observed in the double mutant G6PD A−. Moreover, our study suggests that the G6PD Nefza and G6PD A− mutations affect enzyme functions in a similar fashion to those reported for Class I mutations. PMID:29072585

  8. Metabolic responses to pyruvate kinase deletion in lysine producing Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wittmann Christoph

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyruvate kinase is an important element in flux control of the intermediate metabolism. It catalyzes the irreversible conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate into pyruvate and is under allosteric control. In Corynebacterium glutamicum, this enzyme was regarded as promising target for improved production of lysine, one of the major amino acids in animal nutrition. In pyruvate kinase deficient strains the required equimolar ratio of the two lysine precursors oxaloacetate and pyruvate can be achieved through concerted action of the phosphotransferase system (PTS and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, whereby a reduced amount of carbon may be lost as CO2 due to reduced flux into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle. In previous studies, deletion of pyruvate kinase in lysine-producing C. glutamicum, however, did not yield a clear picture and the exact metabolic consequences are not fully understood. Results In this work, deletion of the pyk gene, encoding pyruvate kinase, was carried out in the lysine-producing strain C. glutamicum lysCfbr, expressing a feedback resistant aspartokinase, to investigate the cellular response to deletion of this central glycolytic enzyme. Pyk deletion was achieved by allelic replacement, verified by PCR analysis and the lack of in vitro enzyme activity. The deletion mutant showed an overall growth behavior (specific growth rate, glucose uptake rate, biomass yield which was very similar to that of the parent strain, but differed in slightly reduced lysine formation, increased formation of the overflow metabolites dihydroxyacetone and glycerol and in metabolic fluxes around the pyruvate node. The latter involved a flux shift from pyruvate carboxylase (PC to PEPC, by which the cell maintained anaplerotic supply of the TCA cycle. This created a metabolic by-pass from PEP to pyruvate via malic enzyme demonstrating its contribution to metabolic flexibility of C. glutamicum on glucose. Conclusion The metabolic

  9. 9q22 Deletion - First Familial Case

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    Yamamoto Toshiyuki

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only 29 cases of constitutional 9q22 deletions have been published and all have been sporadic. Most associate with Gorlin syndrome or nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, MIM #109400 due to haploinsufficiency of the PTCH1 gene (MIM *601309. Methods and Results We report two mentally retarded female siblings and their cognitively normal father, all carrying a similar 5.3 Mb microdeletion at 9q22.2q22.32, detected by array CGH (244 K. The deletion does not involve the PTCH1 gene, but instead 30 other gene,s including the ROR2 gene (MIM *602337 which causing both brachydactyly type 1 (MIM #113000 and Robinow syndrome (MIM #268310, and the immunologically active SYK gene (MIM *600085. The deletion in the father was de novo and FISH analysis of blood lymphocytes did not suggest mosaicism. All three patients share similar mild dysmorphic features with downslanting palpebral fissures, narrow, high bridged nose with small nares, long, deeply grooved philtrum, ears with broad helix and uplifted lobuli, and small toenails. All have significant dysarthria and suffer from continuous middle ear and upper respiratory infections. The father also has a funnel chest and unilateral hypoplastic kidney but the daughters have no malformations. Conclusions This is the first report of a familial constitutional 9q22 deletion and the first deletion studied by array-CGH which does not involve the PTCH1 gene. The phenotype and penetrance are variable and the deletion found in the cognitively normal normal father poses a challenge in genetic counseling.

  10. Prion propagation in cells expressing PrP glycosylation mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamat, Muhammad K; Dron, Michel; Chapuis, Jérôme; Langevin, Christelle; Laude, Hubert

    2011-04-01

    Infection by prions involves conversion of a host-encoded cell surface protein (PrP(C)) to a disease-related isoform (PrP(Sc)). PrP(C) carries two glycosylation sites variably occupied by complex N-glycans, which have been suggested by previous studies to influence the susceptibility to these diseases and to determine characteristics of prion strains. We used the Rov cell system, which is susceptible to sheep prions, to generate a series of PrP(C) glycosylation mutants with mutations at one or both attachment sites. We examined their subcellular trafficking and ability to convert into PrP(Sc) and to sustain stable prion propagation in the absence of wild-type PrP. The susceptibility to infection of mutants monoglycosylated at either site differed dramatically depending on the amino acid substitution. Aglycosylated double mutants showed overaccumulation in the Golgi compartment and failed to be infected. Introduction of an ectopic glycosylation site near the N terminus fully restored cell surface expression of PrP but not convertibility into PrP(Sc), while PrP(C) with three glycosylation sites conferred cell permissiveness to infection similarly to the wild type. In contrast, predominantly aglycosylated molecules with nonmutated N-glycosylation sequons, produced in cells expressing glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchorless PrP(C), were able to form infectious PrP(Sc). Together our findings suggest that glycosylation is important for efficient trafficking of anchored PrP to the cell surface and sustained prion propagation. However, properly trafficked glycosylation mutants were not necessarily prone to conversion, thus making it difficult in such studies to discern whether the amino acid changes or glycan chain removal most influences the permissiveness to prion infection.

  11. An extra early mutant of pigeonpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravikesavan, R.; Kalaimagal, T.; Rathnaswamy, R.

    2001-01-01

    The redgram (Cajanus cajan (L.) Huth) variety 'Prabhat DT' was gamma irradiated with 100, 200, 300 and 400 Gy doses. Several mutants have been identified viz., extra early mutants, monostem mutants, obcordifoliate mutants and bi-stigmatic mutants. The extra early mutant was obtained when treated with 100 Gy dose. The mutant was selfed and forwarded from M 2 to M 4 generation. In the M 4 generation the mutant line was raised along with the parental variety. Normal cultural practices were followed and the biometrical observations were recorded. It was observed that for the characters viz., total number of branches per plant, number of pods per plants, seeds per pod, 100 seed weight and seed yield per plant there was no difference between the mutant and parent variety. Whereas, regarding the days to flowering and maturity the mutants were earlier than the parents. The observation was recorded from two hundred plants each. The mutant gives the same yield in 90 days as that of the parent variety in 107 days, which make it an economic mutant

  12. Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…

  13. Sexual dimorphism in white campion: deletion on the Y chromosome results in a floral asexual phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farbos, I.; Veuskens, J.; Vyskot, B.; Oliveira, M.; Hinnisdaels, S.; Aghmir, A.; Mouras, A.; Negrutiu, I.

    1999-01-01

    White campion is a dioecious plant with heteromorphic X and Y sex chromosomes. In male plants, a filamentous structure replaces the pistil, while in female plants the stamens degenerate early in flower development. Asexual (asx) mutants, cumulating the two developmental defects that characterize the sexual dimorphism in this species, were produced by gamma ray irradiation of pollen and screening in the M1 generation. The mutants harbor a novel type of mutation affecting an early function in sporogenous/parietal cell differentiation within the anther. The function is called stamen-promoting function (SPF). The mutants are shown to result from interstitial deletions on the Y chromosome. We present evidence that such deletions tentatively cover the central domain on the (p)-arm of the Y chromosome (Y2 region). By comparing stamen development in wild-type female and asx mutant flowers we show that they share the same block in anther development, which results in the production of vestigial anthers. The data suggest that the SPF, a key function(s) controlling the sporogenous/parietal specialization in premeiotic anthers, is genuinely missing in females (XX constitution). We argue that this is the earliest function in the male program that is Y-linked and is likely responsible for ''male dimorphism'' (sexual dimorphism in the third floral whorl) in white campion. More generally, the reported results improve our knowledge of the structural and functional organization of the Y chromosome and favor the view that sex determination in this species results primarily from a trigger signal on the Y chromosome (Y1 region) that suppresses female development. The default state is therefore the ancestral hermaphroditic state

  14. Deletion 22q13.3 syndrome

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    Phelan Mary C

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The deletion 22q13.3 syndrome (deletion 22q13 syndrome or Phelan-McDermid syndrome is a chromosome microdeletion syndrome characterized by neonatal hypotonia, global developmental delay, normal to accelerated growth, absent to severely delayed speech, and minor dysmorphic features. The deletion occurs with equal frequency in males and females and has been reported in mosaic and non-mosaic forms. Due to lack of clinical recognition and often insufficient laboratory testing, the syndrome is under-diagnosed and its true incidence remains unknown. Common physical traits include long eye lashes, large or unusual ears, relatively large hands, dysplastic toenails, full brow, dolicocephaly, full cheeks, bulbous nose, and pointed chin. Behavior is autistic-like with decreased perception of pain and habitual chewing or mouthing. The loss of 22q13.3 can result from simple deletion, translocation, ring chromosome formation and less common structural changes affecting the long arm of chromosome 22, specifically the region containing the SHANK3 gene. The diagnosis of deletion 22q13 syndrome should be considered in all cases of hypotonia of unknown etiology and in individuals with absent speech. Although the deletion can sometimes be detected by high resolution chromosome analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH or array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH is recommended for confirmation. Differential diagnosis includes syndromes associated with hypotonia, developmental delay, speech delay and/or autistic-like affect (Prader-Willi, Angelman, Williams, Smith-Magenis, Fragile X, Sotos, FG, trichorhinophalangeal and velocardiofacial syndromes, autism spectrum disorders, cerebral palsy. Genetic counseling is recommended and parental laboratory studies should be considered to identify cryptic rearrangements and detect parental mosaicism. Prenatal diagnosis should be offered for future pregnancies in those families with inherited rearrangements

  15. Some analogies between quantum cloning and quantum deleting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Daowen

    2002-01-01

    We further verify the impossibility of deleting an arbitrary unknown quantum state, and also show it is impossible to delete two nonorthogonal quantum states as a consequence of unitarity of quantum mechanics. A quantum approximate (deterministic) deleting machine and a probabilistic (exact) deleting machine are constructed. The estimation for the global fidelity characterizing the efficiency of the quantum approximate deleting is given. We then demonstrate that unknown nonorthogonal states chosen from a set with their multiple copies can evolve into a linear superposition of multiple deletions and failure branches by a unitary process if and only if the states are linearly independent. It is notable that the proof for necessity is somewhat different from Pati's [Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2849 (1999)]. Another deleting machine for the input states that are unnecessarily linearly independent is also presented. The bounds on the success probabilities of these deleting machines are derived. So we expound some preliminary analogies between quantum cloning and deleting

  16. TagSmart: analysis and visualization for yeast mutant fitness data measured by tag microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Dan

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A nearly complete collection of gene-deletion mutants (96% of annotated open reading frames of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been systematically constructed. Tag microarrays are widely used to measure the fitness of each mutant in a mutant mixture. The tag array experiments can have a complex experimental design, such as time course measurements and drug treatment with multiple dosages. Results TagSmart is a web application for analysis and visualization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant fitness data measured by tag microarrays. It implements a robust statistical approach to assess the concentration differences among S. cerevisiae mutant strains. It also provides an interactive environment for data analysis and visualization. TagSmart has the following advantages over previously described analysis procedures: 1 it is user-friendly software rather than merely a description of analytical procedure; 2 It can handle complicated experimental designs, such as multiple time points and treatment with multiple dosages; 3 it has higher sensitivity and specificity; 4 It allows users to mask out "bad" tags in the analysis. Two biological tests were performed to illustrate the performance of TagSmart. First, we generated titration mixtures of mutant strains, in which the relative concentration of each strain was controlled. We used tag microarrays to measure the numbers of tag copies in each titration mixture. The data was analyzed with TagSmart and the result showed high precision and recall. Second, TagSmart was applied to a dataset in which heterozygous deletion strain mixture pools were treated with a new drug, Cincreasin. TagSmart identified 53 mutant strains as sensitive to Cincreasin treatment. We individually tested each identified mutant, and found 52 out of the 53 predicted mutants were indeed sensitive to Cincreasin. Conclusion TagSmart is provided "as is" to analyze tag array data produced by Affymetrix and Agilent

  17. Variable immune deficiency related to deletion size in chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Blaine; Ruffner, Melanie; McDonald McGinn, Donna M; Sullivan, Kathleen E

    2018-01-17

    The clinical features of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome include virtually every organ of the body. This review will focus on the immune system and the differences related to deletion breakpoints. A hypoplastic thymus was one of the first features described in this syndrome and low T cell counts, as a consequence of thymic hypoplasia, are the most commonly described immunologic feature. These are most prominently seen in early childhood and can be associated with increased persistence of viruses. Later in life, evidence of T cell exhaustion may be seen and secondary deficiencies of antibody function have been described. The relationship of the immunodeficiency to the deletion breakpoints has been understudied due to the infrequent analysis of people carrying smaller deletions. This manuscript will review the immune deficiency in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and describe differences in the T cell counts related to the deletion breakpoints. Distal, non-TBX1 inclusive deletions, were found to be associated with better T cell counts. Another new finding is the relative preservation of T cell counts in those patients with a 22q11.2 duplication. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A mouse model for dominant collagen VI disorders: heterozygous deletion of Col6a3 Exon 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Te-Cheng; Zhang, Rui-Zhu; Arita, Machiko; Bogdanovich, Sasha; Adams, Sheila M; Gara, Sudheer Kumar; Wagener, Raimund; Khurana, Tejvior S; Birk, David E; Chu, Mon-Li

    2014-04-11

    Dominant and recessive mutations in collagen VI genes, COL6A1, COL6A2, and COL6A3, cause a continuous spectrum of disorders characterized by muscle weakness and connective tissue abnormalities ranging from the severe Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy to the mild Bethlem myopathy. Herein, we report the development of a mouse model for dominant collagen VI disorders by deleting exon 16 in the Col6a3 gene. The resulting heterozygous mouse, Col6a3(+/d16), produced comparable amounts of normal Col6a3 mRNA and a mutant transcript with an in-frame deletion of 54 bp of triple-helical coding sequences, thus mimicking the most common molecular defect found in dominant Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy patients. Biosynthetic studies of mutant fibroblasts indicated that the mutant α3(VI) collagen protein was produced and exerted a dominant-negative effect on collagen VI microfibrillar assembly. The distribution of the α3(VI)-like chains of collagen VI was not altered in mutant mice during development. The Col6a3(+/d16) mice developed histopathologic signs of myopathy and showed ultrastructural alterations of mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum in muscle and abnormal collagen fibrils in tendons. The Col6a3(+/d16) mice displayed compromised muscle contractile functions and thereby provide an essential preclinical platform for developing treatment strategies for dominant collagen VI disorders.

  19. Establishment of Homozygote Mutant Human Embryonic Stem Cells by Parthenogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epsztejn-Litman, Silvina; Cohen-Hadad, Yaara; Aharoni, Shira; Altarescu, Gheona; Renbaum, Paul; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Schonberger, Oshrat; Eldar-Geva, Talia; Zeligson, Sharon; Eiges, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    We report on the derivation of a diploid 46(XX) human embryonic stem cell (HESC) line that is homozygous for the common deletion associated with Spinal muscular atrophy type 1 (SMA) from a pathenogenetic embryo. By characterizing the methylation status of three different imprinted loci (MEST, SNRPN and H19), monitoring the expression of two parentally imprinted genes (SNRPN and H19) and carrying out genome-wide SNP analysis, we provide evidence that this cell line was established from the activation of a mutant oocyte by diploidization of the entire genome. Therefore, our SMA parthenogenetic HESC (pHESC) line provides a proof-of-principle for the establishment of diseased HESC lines without the need for gene manipulation. As mutant oocytes are easily obtained and readily available during preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) cycles, this approach should provide a powerful tool for disease modelling and is especially advantageous since it can be used to induce large or complex mutations in HESCs, including gross DNA alterations and chromosomal rearrangements, which are otherwise hard to achieve.

  20. Identification and Characterization of Spontaneous Auxotrophic Mutants in Fusarium langsethiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Gavrilova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of 49 strains of Fusarium langsethiae originating from northern Europe (Russia, Finland, Sweden, UK, Norway, and Latvia revealed the presence of spontaneous auxotrophic mutants that reflect natural intraspecific diversity. Our investigations detected that 49.0% of F. langsethiae strains were auxotrophic mutants for biotin, and 8.2% of the strains required thiamine as a growth factor. They failed to grow on vitamin-free media. For both prototrophic and auxotrophic strains, no growth defect was observed in rich organic media. Without essential vitamins, a significant reduction in the growth of the auxotrophic strains results in a decrease of the formation of T-2 toxin and diacetoxyscirpenol. In addition, all analysed F. langsethiae strains were distinguished into two subgroups based on PCR product sizes. According to our results, 26 and 23 strains of F. langsethiae belong to subgroups I and II respectively. We determined that the deletion in the intergenic spacer (IGS region of the rDNA of F. langsethiae belonging to subgroup II is linked with temperature sensitivity and causes a decrease in strain growth at 30 °C. Four thiamine auxotrophic strains were found in subgroup I, while 21 biotin auxotrophic strains were detected in subgroups II. To the best of our knowledge, the spontaneous mutations in F. langsethiae observed in the present work have not been previously reported.

  1. Phenotypic variability in Angelman syndrome: comparison among different deletion classes and between deletion and UPD subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Monica Castro; Kok, Fernando; Otto, Paulo Alberto; Koiffmann, Celia Priszkulnik

    2004-12-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) can result from either a 15q11-q13 deletion (del), paternal uniparental disomy (UPD), imprinting, or UBE3A mutations. Here, we describe the phenotypic and behavioral variability detected in 49 patients with different classes of deletions and nine patients with UPD. Diagnosis was made by methylation pattern analysis of exon 1 of the SNRPN-SNURF gene and by microsatellite profiling of loci within and outside the 15q11-q13 region. There were no major phenotypic differences between the two main classes (BP1-BP3; BP2-BP3) of AS deletion patients, except for the absence of vocalization, more prevalent in patients with BP1-BP3 deletions, and for the age of sitting without support, which was lower in patients with BP2-BP3 deletions. Our data suggest that gene deletions (NIPA1, NIPA2, CYF1P1, GCP5) mapped to the region between breakpoints BP1 and BP2 may be involved in the severity of speech impairment, since all BP1-BP3 deletion patients showed complete absence of vocalization, while 38.1% of the BP2-BP3 deletion patients were able to pronounce syllabic sounds, with doubtful meaning. Compared to UPD patients, deletion patients presented a higher incidence of swallowing disorders (73.9% del x 22.2% UPD) and hypotonia (73.3% del x 28.57% UPD). In addition, children with UPD showed better physical growth, fewer or no seizures, a lower incidence of microcephaly, less ataxia and higher cognitive skills. As a consequence of their milder or less typical phenotype, AS may remain undiagnosed, leading to an overall underdiagnosis of the disease.

  2. Enhancers of Conidiation Mutants in Aspergillus Nidulans

    OpenAIRE

    Gems, D. H.; Clutterbuck, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    Mutants at a number of loci, designated sthenyo, have been isolated as enhancers of the oligoconidial mutations at the medA locus. Two loci have been mapped: sthA on linkage group I, and sthB on linkage group V. Two probable alleles have been identified at each locus but two further mutants were unlinked to either sthA or sthB. Neither sthA nor sthB mutants have conspicuous effects on morphology on their own, nor could the sthA1 sthB2 double mutant be distinguished from wild type. Mutants at ...

  3. Dwarf mutant of rice variety Seratus Malam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugiono, P. S.; Soemanggono, A.M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Seeds of 'Seratus Malam', a local tall upland variety with long panicles and high yield potential were irradiated with 10-50 krad gamma rays in 1983. From 50,000 M 2 plants, 130 semidwarf mutants and 1 dwarf mutant were selected. The dwarf mutant M-362 was obtained from the 10 krad treatment. The mutant shows about 50% reduction in plant height, but also in number of productive tillers. Thus the yield per plant is also significantly less. However, the mutant gene is not allelic to DGWG and therefore may be useful in cross breeding. (author)

  4. Comprehensive detection of diverse exon 19 deletion mutations of EGFR in lung Cancer by a single probe set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jin Ho; Jo, Seong-Min; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2015-12-15

    Detection of exon 19 deletion mutation of EGFR, one of the most frequently occurring mutations in lung cancer, provides the crucial information for diagnosis and treatment guideline in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, we demonstrate a simple and efficient method to detect various exon 19 deletion mutations of EGFR using a single probe set comprising of an oligo-quencher (oligo-Q) and a molecular beacon (MB). While the MB hybridizes to both the wild and mutant target DNA, the oligo-Q only binds to the wild target DNA, leading to a fluorescent signal in case of deletion mutation. This enables the comprehensive detection of the diverse exon 19 deletion mutations using a single probe set. We demonstrated the utility and efficiency of the approach by detecting the frequent exon 19 deletion mutations of EGFR through a real-time PCR and in situ fluorescence imaging. Our approach enabled the detection of genomic DNA as low as 0.02 ng, showing a detection limit of 2% in a heterogeneous DNA mixture, and could be used for detecting mutations in a single cell level. The present MB and oligo-Q dual probe system can be used for diagnosis and treatment guideline in NSCLC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. aroA-Deficient Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Is More Than a Metabolically Attenuated Mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, Michael; Kocijancic, Dino; Rohde, Manfred; Eckweiler, Denitsa; Bielecka, Agata; Bueno, Emilio; Cava, Felipe; Abraham, Wolf-Rainer; Curtiss, Roy; Häussler, Susanne; Erhardt, Marc; Weiss, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recombinant attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains are believed to act as powerful live vaccine carriers that are able to elicit protection against various pathogens. Auxotrophic mutations, such as a deletion of aroA, are commonly introduced into such bacteria for attenuation without incapacitating immunostimulation. In this study, we describe the surprising finding that deletion of aroA dramatically increased the virulence of attenuated Salmonella in mouse models. Mutant bacteria lacking aroA elicited increased levels of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) after systemic application. A detailed genetic and phenotypic characterization in combination with transcriptomic and metabolic profiling demonstrated that ΔaroA mutants display pleiotropic alterations in cellular physiology and lipid and amino acid metabolism, as well as increased sensitivity to penicillin, complement, and phagocytic uptake. In concert with other immunomodulating mutations, deletion of aroA affected flagellin phase variation and gene expression of the virulence-associated genes arnT and ansB. Finally, ΔaroA strains displayed significantly improved tumor therapeutic activity. These results highlight the importance of a functional shikimate pathway to control homeostatic bacterial physiology. They further highlight the great potential of ΔaroA-attenuated Salmonella for the development of vaccines and cancer therapies with important implications for host-pathogen interactions and translational medicine. PMID:27601574

  6. The different phenotypes of phot- photosynthetic deficient mutants in Euglena gracilis: the frequency of production by ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas, Paul; Heizmann, Philippe; Nigon, Victor

    1982-01-01

    In Euglena gracilis, pigment-less mutants appear spontaneously with a frequency of about 2-5x10 -3 . Ultraviolet-irradiation increases the proportion of chlorophyll-less colonies to an upper limit where green colonies represent 4x10 -4 of the surviving ones. This limit might indicate the occurrence of processes involving repair of the chloroplastic DNA. Most of the photosynthetic-deficient (phot - ) mutants induced by ultraviolet irradiation are characterized by the presence of a reduced number of chloroplast DNA molecules showing deletions (phi - class). Most of the phi - mutants present the phenotype phi - chlo - car - , where neither chlorophyll nor carotenoids are obvious: the phi - chlo - car + mutants, devoid of chlorophyll but containing carotenoids, are obtained among the phi - strains with a frequency lower than 10 -3 . The phot - mutants which belong to the cp - class are characterized by the maintenance of a great number of chloroplastic DNA molecules, where large deletions are absent: their occurrence after ultraviolet irradiation is low [fr

  7. Nature of frequent deletions in CEBPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Ota; Kostecka, Arnost; Provaznikova, Dana; Krasna, Blazena; Brezinova, Jana; Filkukova, Jitka; Kotlin, Roman; Kouba, Michal; Kobylka, Petr; Neuwirtova, Radana; Jonasova, Anna; Caniga, Miroslav; Schwarz, Jiri; Markova, Jana; Maaloufova, Jacqueline; Sponerova, Dana; Novakova, Ludmila; Cermak, Jaroslav

    2009-01-01

    C/EBPalpha (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha) belongs to the family of leucine zipper transcription factors and is necessary for transcriptional control of granulocyte, adipocyte and hepatocyte differentiation, glucose metabolism and lung development. C/EBPalpha is encoded by an intronless gene. CEBPA mutations cause a myeloid differentiation block and were detected in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), multiple myeloma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) patients. In this study we identified in 41 individuals from 824 screened individuals (290 AML patients, 382 MDS patients, 56 NHL patients and 96 healthy individuals) a single class of 23 deletions in CEBPA gene which involved a direct repeat of at least 2 bp. These mutations are characterised by the loss of one of two same repeats at the ends of deleted sequence. Three most frequent repeats included in these deletions in CEBPA gene are CGCGAG (493-498_865-870), GCCAAGCAGC (508-517_907-916) and GG (486-487_885-886), all according to GenBank accession no. NM_004364.2. A mechanism for deletion formation between two repetitive sequences can be recombination events in the repair process. Double-stranded cut in DNA can initiate these recombination events of adjacent DNA sequences.

  8. Obtaining a Proportional Allocation by Deleting Items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorn, B.; de Haan, R.; Schlotter, I.; Röthe, J.

    2017-01-01

    We consider the following control problem on fair allocation of indivisible goods. Given a set I of items and a set of agents, each having strict linear preference over the items, we ask for a minimum subset of the items whose deletion guarantees the existence of a proportional allocation in the

  9. 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDonald-McGinn, Donna M.; Sullivan, Kathleen E.; Marino, Bruno; Philip, Nicole; Swillen, Ann; Vorstman, Jacob A S; Zackai, Elaine H.; Emanuel, Beverly S.; Vermeesch, Joris R.; Morrow, Bernice E.; Scambler, Peter J.; Bassett, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most common chromosomal microdeletion disorder, estimated to result mainly from de novo non-homologous meiotic recombination events occurring in approximately 1 in every 1,000 fetuses. The first description in the English language of the constellation of

  10. Sequence analysis of 17 NRXN1 deletions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeffding, Louise Kristine Enggaard; Hansen, Thomas; Ingason, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    into the molecular mechanisms governing such genomic rearrangements may increase our understanding of disease pathology and evolutionary processes. Here we analyse 17 carriers of non-recurrent deletions in the NRXN1 gene, which have been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, e.g. schizophrenia, autism...

  11. Union-Find with Constant Time Deletions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Thorup, Mikkel; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2014-01-01

    operations performed, and α_M/N_(n) is a functional inverse of Ackermann’s function. They left open the question whether delete operations can be implemented more efficiently than find operations, for example, in o(log n) worst-case time. We resolve this open problem by presenting a relatively simple...

  12. Type I oculocutaneous albinism (OCA1) associated with a large deletion of the tyrosinase (TYR) gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spritz, R.A.; Wick, P.A.; Holmes, S.A.; Schnur, R.E. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)]|[Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    OCA1 is an autosomal recessive disorder in which the biosynthesis of melanin is reduced or absent in skin, hair, and eyes, due to deficient enzymatic activity of tyrosinase. TYR consists of 5 exons spanning over 65 kb at 11q14-q21. Analyses of TYR in >400 unrelated patients with OCA1 have identified more than 50 different point mutations; however, no large deletions have been detected. Here we report a large deletion of TYR in a Caucasian boy with OCA1B. Simultaneous SSCP/heteroduplex screening and DNA sequence analysis indicated that the patient was apparently homozygous for a previously described TYR mutation, adjacent to the 3` splice site of IVS2 (-7, t{r_arrow}a). To distinguish between possible gene deletion vs. maternal uniparental isodisomy, we characterized several chromosome 11 polymorphisms. Maternal uniparental isodisomy was excluded by the patient`s heterozygosity for alleles at D11S35 (11q21-122) and HBG2 (11p15.5). In addition, the patient failed to inherit paternal alleles at an MboI RFLP in exon 1 of TYR and at a TaqI RFLP in the promoter region of the gene. To detect a possible submicroscopic deletion, we performed quantitative Southern blot hybridization using a full length TYR cDNA. Compared with controls, both the patient and his father appeared deleted for two or three TYR-derived PstI fragments; the two TYRL-derived fragments appeared normal. These data indicate that the patient and his father have a partial TYR deletion, including at least exons 1, 2, and IVS2. Based on the organization of the gene, this deletion is at least 50 kb in size. The patient is thus hemizygous for the maternally-inherited mutation in IVS2, accounting for his OCA1B phenotype.

  13. Complete genomic sequences, a key residue in the spike protein and deletions in nonstructural protein 3b of US strains of the virulent and attenuated coronaviruses, transmissible gastroenteritis virus and porcine respiratory coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinsheng; Hasoksuz, Mustafa; Spiro, David; Halpin, Rebecca; Wang, Shiliang; Stollar, Sarah; Janies, Daniel; Hadya, Nagesh; Tang, Yuxin; Ghedin, Elodie; Saif, Linda

    2007-02-20

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) isolates that have been adapted to passage in cell culture maintain their infectivity in vitro but may lose their pathogenicity in vivo. To better understand the genomic mechanisms for viral attenuation, we sequenced the complete genomes of two virulent TGEV strains and their attenuated counterparts: virulent TGEV Miller M6 and attenuated TGEV Miller M60 and virulent TGEV Purdue and attenuated TGEV Purdue P115, together with the ISU-1 strain of porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV-ISU-1), a naturally occurring TGEV deletion mutant with an altered respiratory tropism and reduced virulence. Pairwise comparison at both the nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) levels between virulent and attenuated TGEV strains identified a common change in nt 1753 of the spike gene, resulting in a serine to alanine mutation at aa position 585 of the spike proteins of the attenuated TGEV strains. Alanine was also present in this protein in PRCV-ISU-1. Particularly noteworthy, the serine to alanine mutation resides in the region of the major antigenic site A/B (aa 506-706) that elicits neutralizing antibodies and within the domain mediating the cell surface receptor aminopeptidase N binding (aa 522-744). Comparison of the predicted polypeptide products of ORF3b showed significant deletions in the naturally attenuated PRCV-ISU-1 and TGEV Miller M60; these deletions occurred at a common break point, suggesting a related mechanism of recombination that may affect viral virulence or tropism. Sequence comparisons at both genomic and protein levels indicated that PRCV-ISU-1 had a closer relationship with TGEV Miller strains than Purdue strains. Phylogenetic analyses showed that virulence is an evolutionarily labile trait in TGEV and that TGEV strains as a group share a common ancestor with PRCV.

  14. Effect of 5'-flanking sequence deletions on expression of the human insulin gene in transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromont-Racine, M; Bucchini, D; Madsen, O

    1990-01-01

    Expression of the human insulin gene was examined in transgenic mouse lines carrying the gene with various lengths of DNA sequences 5' to the transcription start site (+1). Expression of the transgene was demonstrated by 1) the presence of human C-peptide in urine, 2) the presence of specific......, and -168 allowed correct initiation of the transcripts and cell specificity of expression, while quantitative expression gradually decreased. Deletion to -58 completely abolished the expression of the gene. The amount of human product that in mice harboring the longest fragment contributes up to 50......% of the total insulin does not alter the normal proportion of mice insulins I and II. These results suggest that expression of the human insulin gene in vivo results from the cooperation of several cis-regulatory elements present in the various deleted fragments. With none of the deletions used, expression...

  15. Partial Gene Deletions of PMP22 Causing Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Mi Cho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP is an autosomal neuropathy that is commonly caused by a reciprocal 1.5 Mb deletion on chromosome 17p11.2, at the site of the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22 gene. Other patients with similar phenotypes have been shown to harbor point mutations or small deletions, although there is some clinical variation across these patients. In this report, we describe a case of HNPP with copy number changes in exon or promoter regions of PMP22. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe analysis revealed an exon 1b deletion in the patient, who had been diagnosed with HNPP in the first decade of life using molecular analysis.

  16. Leishmania infantum HSP70-II null mutant as candidate vaccine against leishmaniasis: a preliminary evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fresno Manuel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral leishmaniasis is the most severe form of leishmaniasis and no effective vaccine exists. The use of live attenuated vaccines is emerging as a promising vaccination strategy. Results In this study, we tested the ability of a Leishmania infantum deletion mutant, lacking both HSP70-II alleles (ΔHSP70-II, to provide protection against Leishmania infection in the L. major-BALB/c infection model. Administration of the mutant line by either intraperitoneal, intravenous or subcutaneous route invariably leads to the production of high levels of NO and the development in mice of type 1 immune responses, as determined by analysis of anti-Leishmania IgG subclasses. In addition, we have shown that ΔHSP70-II would be a safe live vaccine as immunodeficient SCID mice, and hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus, infected with mutant parasites did not develop any sign of pathology. Conclusions The results suggest that the ΔHSP70-II mutant is a promising and safe vaccine, but further studies in more appropriate animal models (hamsters and dogs are needed to appraise whether this attenuate mutant would be useful as vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis.

  17. Construction of Comprehensive Dosage-Matching Core Histone Mutant Libraries forSaccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shuangying; Liu, Yan; Wang, Ann; Qin, Yiran; Luo, Maoguo; Wu, Qingyu; Boeke, Jef D; Dai, Junbiao

    2017-12-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains two genes for each core histone, which are presented as pairs under the control of a divergent promoter, i.e. , HHT1-HHF1 , HHT2-HHF2 , HTA1-HTB1 and HTA2-HTB2 HHT1-HHF1 , and HHT2-HHF2 encode histone H3 and H4 with identical amino acid sequences but under the control of differently regulated promoters. Previous mutagenesis studies were carried out by deleting one pair and mutating the other one. Here, we present the design and construction of three additional libraries covering HTA1-HTB1 , HTA2-HTB2 , and HHT1-HHF1 respectively. Together with the previously described library of HHT2-HHF2 mutants, a systematic and complete collection of mutants for each of the eight core S. cerevisiae histone genes becomes available. Each designed mutant was incorporated into the genome, generating three more corresponding libraries of yeast strains. We demonstrated that, although, under normal growth conditions, strains with single-copy integrated histone genes lacked phenotypes, in some growth conditions, growth deficiencies were observed. Specifically, we showed that addition of a second copy of the mutant histone gene could rescue the lethality in some previously known mutants that cannot survive with a single copy. This resource enables systematic studies of function of each nucleosome residue in plasmid, single-copy, and double-copy integrated formats. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  18. Leishmania infantum HSP70-II null mutant as candidate vaccine against leishmaniasis: a preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión, Javier; Folgueira, Cristina; Soto, Manuel; Fresno, Manuel; Requena, Jose M

    2011-07-27

    Visceral leishmaniasis is the most severe form of leishmaniasis and no effective vaccine exists. The use of live attenuated vaccines is emerging as a promising vaccination strategy. In this study, we tested the ability of a Leishmania infantum deletion mutant, lacking both HSP70-II alleles (ΔHSP70-II), to provide protection against Leishmania infection in the L. major-BALB/c infection model. Administration of the mutant line by either intraperitoneal, intravenous or subcutaneous route invariably leads to the production of high levels of NO and the development in mice of type 1 immune responses, as determined by analysis of anti-Leishmania IgG subclasses. In addition, we have shown that ΔHSP70-II would be a safe live vaccine as immunodeficient SCID mice, and hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), infected with mutant parasites did not develop any sign of pathology. The results suggest that the ΔHSP70-II mutant is a promising and safe vaccine, but further studies in more appropriate animal models (hamsters and dogs) are needed to appraise whether this attenuate mutant would be useful as vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis.

  19. PNRI mutant variety: Cordyline 'Afable'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurigue, Fernando B.

    2012-01-01

    Cordyline 'Afable', registered by the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute as NSIC 2009 Or-83, is an induced mutant developed from Cordyline 'Kiwi' by treating stem cuttings with acute gamma radiation from a Cobalt-60 source. The new mutant is identical to Cordyline 'Kiwi' in growth habit but differs in foliage color, and exhibits field resistance to Phytophthora sp., a fungus that causes leaf blight and rot in Ti plants. Results of this mutation breeding experiment showed that leaf color was altered by gamma irradiation and resistance to fungal diseases was improved. It also demonstrated how mutations that occur in nature may be generated artificially. Propagation of cordyline 'Afable' is true-to-type by vegetative propagation methods, such as separation of suckers and offshoots, shoot tip cutting, and top cutting. Aside from landscaping material, terrarium or dish-garden plant, it is ideal as containerized plant for indoor and outdoor use. The leaves or shoots may be harvested as cut foliage for flower arrangements. (author)

  20. Polymyxin resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa phoQ mutants is dependent on additional two-component regulatory systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutu, Alina D; Sgambati, Nicole; Strasbourger, Pnina

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa can develop resistance to polymyxin as a consequence of mutations in the PhoPQ regulatory system, mediated by covalent lipid A modification. Transposon mutagenesis of a polymyxin-resistant phoQ mutant defined 41 novel loci required for resistance, including two regulatory s......, indicate that addition of 4-amino-L-arabinose to lipid A is not the only PhoPQ-regulated biochemical mechanism required for resistance, and demonstrate that colRS and cprS mutations can contribute to high-level clinical resistance....... with the known role of this modification in polymyxin resistance. Surprisingly, tandem deletion of colRS or cprRS in the ΔphoQ mutant or individual deletion of cprR or cprS failed to suppress 4-amino-L-arabinose addition to lipid A, indicating that this modification alone is not sufficient for Pho...

  1. Resolving the Enigma of the Clonal Expansion of mtDNA Deletions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Kowald

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are cell organelles that are special since they contain their own genetic material in the form of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA. Damage and mutations of mtDNA are not only involved in several inherited human diseases but are also widely thought to play an important role during aging. In both cases, point mutations or large deletions accumulate inside cells, leading to functional impairment once a certain threshold has been surpassed. In most cases, it is a single type of mutant that clonally expands and out-competes the wild type mtDNA, with different mutant molecules being amplified in different cells. The challenge is to explain where the selection advantage for the accumulation comes from, why such a large range of different deletions seem to possess this advantage, and how this process can scale to species with different lifespans such as those of rats and man. From this perspective, we provide an overview of current ideas, present an update of our own proposal, and discuss the wider relevance of the phenomenon for aging.

  2. Conditional deletion of WT1 in the septum transversum mesenchyme causes congenital diaphragmatic hernia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Rita; Cañete, Ana; Cano, Elena; Ariza, Laura; Rojas, Anabel; Muñoz-Chápuli, Ramon

    2016-09-19

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a severe birth defect. Wt1-null mouse embryos develop CDH but the mechanisms regulated by WT1 are unknown. We have generated a murine model with conditional deletion of WT1 in the lateral plate mesoderm, using the G2 enhancer of the Gata4 gene as a driver. 80% of G2-Gata4(Cre);Wt1(fl/fl) embryos developed typical Bochdalek-type CDH. We show that the posthepatic mesenchymal plate coelomic epithelium gives rise to a mesenchyme that populates the pleuroperitoneal folds isolating the pleural cavities before the migration of the somitic myoblasts. This process fails when Wt1 is deleted from this area. Mutant embryos show Raldh2 downregulation in the lateral mesoderm, but not in the intermediate mesoderm. The mutant phenotype was partially rescued by retinoic acid treatment of the pregnant females. Replacement of intermediate by lateral mesoderm recapitulates the evolutionary origin of the diaphragm in mammals. CDH might thus be viewed as an evolutionary atavism.

  3. A Tool for Multiple Targeted Genome Deletions that Is Precise, Scar-Free, and Suitable for Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrey, Wayne; Riley, Michael C; Young, Michael; King, Ross D; Oliver, Stephen G; Clare, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Many advances in synthetic biology require the removal of a large number of genomic elements from a genome. Most existing deletion methods leave behind markers, and as there are a limited number of markers, such methods can only be applied a fixed number of times. Deletion methods that recycle markers generally are either imprecise (remove untargeted sequences), or leave scar sequences which can cause genome instability and rearrangements. No existing marker recycling method is automation-friendly. We have developed a novel openly available deletion tool that consists of: 1) a method for deleting genomic elements that can be repeatedly used without limit, is precise, scar-free, and suitable for automation; and 2) software to design the method's primers. Our tool is sequence agnostic and could be used to delete large numbers of coding sequences, promoter regions, transcription factor binding sites, terminators, etc in a single genome. We have validated our tool on the deletion of non-essential open reading frames (ORFs) from S. cerevisiae. The tool is applicable to arbitrary genomes, and we provide primer sequences for the deletion of: 90% of the ORFs from the S. cerevisiae genome, 88% of the ORFs from S. pombe genome, and 85% of the ORFs from the L. lactis genome.

  4. Gamma ray induced mutants in Coleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasudevan, K.; Jos, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    The germplasm collection of Chinese potato (Coleus parviflorus Benth) contains almost no variation for yield contributing traits. The crop does not produce seeds. Treatment of underground tubers with 1 kR, 2 kR, 3 kR and 4 kR gamma rays resulted in 50 morphologically different mutants which are maintained as mutant clones. In the M 1 V 1 generation, suspected mutant sprouts, were carefully removed and grown separately. The most interesting mutant types are the following: (i) erect mutant with spoon shaped light green leaves, 30 cm long inflorescences against 20 cm in the control, cylindrical tubers measuring ca. 7.0 cm long and 3 cm girth against 4 cm and 2.5 cm in the control (ii) early mutants 1 and 2, one having less leaf serration, the other having light green small leaves and dwarf type (iii) fleshy leaf mutant, dark green, thick and smooth leaves. Control plants spread almost in 1 m 2 area and bear tubers from the nodes of branches. In the early mutants tuber formation is mainly restricted to the base of the plant, which makes harvest easier. The crop usually matures within 150 - 160 days, the early mutants are ready for harvest 100 days after planting. As the mutants are less spreading, the yield could be increased by closer spacing

  5. Application of the systematic “DAmP” approach to create a partially defective C. albicans mutant

    OpenAIRE

    Finkel, JS; Yudanin, N; Nett, JE; Andes, DR; Mitchell, AP

    2011-01-01

    An understanding of gene function often relies upon creating multiple kinds of alleles. Functional analysis in Candida albicans, a major fungal pathogen, has generally included characterization of mutant strains with insertion or deletion alleles and over-expression alleles. Here we use in C. albicans another type of allele that has been employed effectively in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a “Decreased Abundance by mRNA Perturbation” (DAmP) allele (Yan et al., 2008). DAmP alleles...

  6. Combinational deletion of three membrane protein-encoding genes highly attenuates yersinia pestis while retaining immunogenicity in a mouse model of pneumonic plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiner, Bethany L; Sha, Jian; Kirtley, Michelle L; Erova, Tatiana E; Popov, Vsevolod L; Baze, Wallace B; van Lier, Christina J; Ponnusamy, Duraisamy; Andersson, Jourdan A; Motin, Vladimir L; Chauhan, Sadhana; Chopra, Ashok K

    2015-04-01

    Previously, we showed that deletion of genes encoding Braun lipoprotein (Lpp) and MsbB attenuated Yersinia pestis CO92 in mouse and rat models of bubonic and pneumonic plague. While Lpp activates Toll-like receptor 2, the MsbB acyltransferase modifies lipopolysaccharide. Here, we deleted the ail gene (encoding the attachment-invasion locus) from wild-type (WT) strain CO92 or its lpp single and Δlpp ΔmsbB double mutants. While the Δail single mutant was minimally attenuated compared to the WT bacterium in a mouse model of pneumonic plague, the Δlpp Δail double mutant and the Δlpp ΔmsbB Δail triple mutant were increasingly attenuated, with the latter being unable to kill mice at a 50% lethal dose (LD50) equivalent to 6,800 LD50s of WT CO92. The mutant-infected animals developed balanced TH1- and TH2-based immune responses based on antibody isotyping. The triple mutant was cleared from mouse organs rapidly, with concurrent decreases in the production of various cytokines and histopathological lesions. When surviving animals infected with increasing doses of the triple mutant were subsequently challenged on day 24 with the bioluminescent WT CO92 strain (20 to 28 LD50s), 40 to 70% of the mice survived, with efficient clearing of the invading pathogen, as visualized in real time by in vivo imaging. The rapid clearance of the triple mutant, compared to that of WT CO92, from animals was related to the decreased adherence and invasion of human-derived HeLa and A549 alveolar epithelial cells and to its inability to survive intracellularly in these cells as well as in MH-S murine alveolar and primary human macrophages. An early burst of cytokine production in macrophages elicited by the triple mutant compared to WT CO92 and the mutant's sensitivity to the bactericidal effect of human serum would further augment bacterial clearance. Together, deletion of the ail gene from the Δlpp ΔmsbB double mutant severely attenuated Y. pestis CO92 to evoke pneumonic plague in a

  7. Combinational Deletion of Three Membrane Protein-Encoding Genes Highly Attenuates Yersinia pestis while Retaining Immunogenicity in a Mouse Model of Pneumonic Plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiner, Bethany L.; Kirtley, Michelle L.; Erova, Tatiana E.; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Baze, Wallace B.; van Lier, Christina J.; Ponnusamy, Duraisamy; Andersson, Jourdan A.; Motin, Vladimir L.; Chauhan, Sadhana

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we showed that deletion of genes encoding Braun lipoprotein (Lpp) and MsbB attenuated Yersinia pestis CO92 in mouse and rat models of bubonic and pneumonic plague. While Lpp activates Toll-like receptor 2, the MsbB acyltransferase modifies lipopolysaccharide. Here, we deleted the ail gene (encoding the attachment-invasion locus) from wild-type (WT) strain CO92 or its lpp single and Δlpp ΔmsbB double mutants. While the Δail single mutant was minimally attenuated compared to the WT bacterium in a mouse model of pneumonic plague, the Δlpp Δail double mutant and the Δlpp ΔmsbB Δail triple mutant were increasingly attenuated, with the latter being unable to kill mice at a 50% lethal dose (LD50) equivalent to 6,800 LD50s of WT CO92. The mutant-infected animals developed balanced TH1- and TH2-based immune responses based on antibody isotyping. The triple mutant was cleared from mouse organs rapidly, with concurrent decreases in the production of various cytokines and histopathological lesions. When surviving animals infected with increasing doses of the triple mutant were subsequently challenged on day 24 with the bioluminescent WT CO92 strain (20 to 28 LD50s), 40 to 70% of the mice survived, with efficient clearing of the invading pathogen, as visualized in real time by in vivo imaging. The rapid clearance of the triple mutant, compared to that of WT CO92, from animals was related to the decreased adherence and invasion of human-derived HeLa and A549 alveolar epithelial cells and to its inability to survive intracellularly in these cells as well as in MH-S murine alveolar and primary human macrophages. An early burst of cytokine production in macrophages elicited by the triple mutant compared to WT CO92 and the mutant's sensitivity to the bactericidal effect of human serum would further augment bacterial clearance. Together, deletion of the ail gene from the Δlpp ΔmsbB double mutant severely attenuated Y. pestis CO92 to evoke pneumonic plague in a

  8. The high-throughput yeast deletion fitness data and the theories of dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, F; Gallet, R; Martin, G; Lenormand, T

    2012-05-01

    The development of high-throughput fitness measurement methods provides unprecedented power to test evolutionary theories. However, with this comes new challenges regarding data quality and data analysis. We illustrate this by reanalysing the fitness distribution in several environments of yeast mutants (homo- and heterozygous) from the yeast deletion project. Originally created to study functional properties of genes, evolutionary biologists took advantage of this database to study evolutionary questions, such as dominance for fitness of mutations. We uncover several problems in this data set strongly affecting these questions that have remained unnoticed despite the numerous studies based on it. High-throughput methodologies are necessarily challenging, both experimentally and for data analysis: our point is not to criticize these approaches, but to pinpoint these challenges and to propose several improvements that may help avoid several shortcomings. Further, in the light of this finding, we question the conclusions regarding theories of dominance that have been made using this data set. We show that the data on deletion of small effects are not sufficiently reliable to be informative on this question. On the other hand, deletions of large effect exhibit no correlation between homo- and heterozygous fitness effects, a pattern that sheds new light on the h-s correlation issue, with several consequences for the debate over the different theories of dominance. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  9. [Genetic diagnosis for a family without exonic deletions and duplications of dystrophin gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Hou, Qiaofang; Wu, Dong; Wang, Hongdan; Liu, Hongyan; Yang, Yangli; Zhang, Chaoyang; Ding, Xuebing; Liao, Shixiu

    2015-02-01

    To conduct genetic diagnosis for a family in which no exonic deletions and duplications of the dystrophin gene were detected. Potential exonic deletions and duplications of the dystrophin gene were initially analyzed with using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Subsequently, all of the 79 exons of the dystrophin gene of the proband and a pregnant woman from the family were analyzed with PCR amplification and DNA sequencing. Following identification of the causative mutation, prenatal diagnosis was provided. MLPA analysis had detected no exonic deletions and duplications of the dystrophin gene. Sequence analysis has identified a C>T mutation on the 22nd nucleotide position of the 70th exon of the dystrophin gene (c.10108 C>T), which has replaced the codon CGA to a stop codon (TGA). The patient's mother and sister were both heterozygous for the same mutation. Upon prenatal diagnosis, the fetus was found to be positive for the Y chromosome sex-determining gene (SRY) and has carried above mutation. The result of short tandem repeat linkage analysis also confirmed that the fetus has inherited the mutant X chromosome. The causative mutation of the dystrophin gene has been discovered in an affected family, which has enabled prenatal diagnosis of the disease.

  10. Sharing mutants and experimental information prepublication using FgMutantDb (https://scabusa.org/FgMutantDb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Thomas T; Basenko, Evelina; Harb, Omar; Brown, Neil A; Urban, Martin; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E; Bregitzer, Phil P

    2018-02-02

    There is no comprehensive storage for generated mutants of Fusarium graminearum or data associated with these mutants. Instead, researchers relied on several independent and non-integrated databases. FgMutantDb was designed as a simple spreadsheet that is accessible globally on the web that will function as a centralized source of information on F. graminearum mutants. FgMutantDb aids in the maintenance and sharing of mutants within a research community. It will serve also as a platform for disseminating prepublication results as well as negative results that often go unreported. Additionally, the highly curated information on mutants in FgMutantDb will be shared with other databases (FungiDB, Ensembl, PhytoPath, and PHI-base) through updating reports. Here we describe the creation and potential usefulness of FgMutantDb to the F. graminearum research community, and provide a tutorial on its use. This type of database could be easily emulated for other fungal species. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Asc1 supports cell-wall integrity near bud sites by a Pkc1 independent mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Melamed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The yeast ribosomal protein Asc1 is a WD-protein family member. Its mammalian ortholog, RACK1 was initially discovered as a receptor for activated protein C kinase (PKC that functions to maintain the active conformation of PKC and to support its movement to target sites. In the budding yeast though, a connection between Asc1p and the PKC signaling pathway has never been reported. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study we found that asc1-deletion mutant (asc1Delta presents some of the hallmarks of PKC signaling mutants. These include an increased sensitivity to staurosporine, a specific Pkc1p inhibitor, and susceptibility to cell-wall perturbing treatments such as hypotonic- and heat shock conditions and zymolase treatment. Microscopic analysis of asc1Delta cells revealed cell-wall invaginations near bud sites after exposure to hypotonic conditions, and the dynamic of cells' survival after this stress further supports the involvement of Asc1p in maintaining the cell-wall integrity during the mid-to late stages of bud formation. Genetic interactions between asc1 and pkc1 reveal synergistic sensitivities of a double-knock out mutant (asc1Delta/pkc1Delta to cell-wall stress conditions, and high basal level of PKC signaling in asc1Delta. Furthermore, Asc1p has no effect on the cellular distribution or redistribution of Pkc1p at optimal or at cell-wall stress conditions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our data support the idea that unlike its mammalian orthologs, Asc1p acts remotely from Pkc1p, to regulate the integrity of the cell-wall. We speculate that its role is exerted through translation regulation of bud-site related mRNAs during cells' growth.

  12. Insulator dysfunction and oncogene activation in IDH mutant gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavahan, William A; Drier, Yotam; Liau, Brian B; Gillespie, Shawn M; Venteicher, Andrew S; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat O; Suvà, Mario L; Bernstein, Bradley E

    2016-01-07

    Gain-of-function IDH mutations are initiating events that define major clinical and prognostic classes of gliomas. Mutant IDH protein produces a new onco-metabolite, 2-hydroxyglutarate, which interferes with iron-dependent hydroxylases, including the TET family of 5'-methylcytosine hydroxylases. TET enzymes catalyse a key step in the removal of DNA methylation. IDH mutant gliomas thus manifest a CpG island methylator phenotype (G-CIMP), although the functional importance of this altered epigenetic state remains unclear. Here we show that human IDH mutant gliomas exhibit hypermethylation at cohesin and CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-binding sites, compromising binding of this methylation-sensitive insulator protein. Reduced CTCF binding is associated with loss of insulation between topological domains and aberrant gene activation. We specifically demonstrate that loss of CTCF at a domain boundary permits a constitutive enhancer to interact aberrantly with the receptor tyrosine kinase gene PDGFRA, a prominent glioma oncogene. Treatment of IDH mutant gliomaspheres with a demethylating agent partially restores insulator function and downregulates PDGFRA. Conversely, CRISPR-mediated disruption of the CTCF motif in IDH wild-type gliomaspheres upregulates PDGFRA and increases proliferation. Our study suggests that IDH mutations promote gliomagenesis by disrupting chromosomal topology and allowing aberrant regulatory interactions that induce oncogene expression.

  13. Officially released mutant varieties - the FAO/IAEA Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maluszynski, M.; Nichterlein, K.; Zanten, L. van; Ahloowalia, B.S.

    2000-01-01

    In the approximately 70 year-old history of induced mutations, there are many examples on the development of new and valuable alteration in plant characters significantly contributing to increased yield potential of specific crops. However, knowledge on the success of induced mutations in crop improvement among geneticists and breeders is usually limited to species of their interest. The present paper contains a comprehensive list of officially released mutant varieties, based on information from plant breeders. The number of mutant varieties officially released and recorded in the FAO/IAEA Mutant Varieties Database before the end of 2000 is 2,252. Almost half of these varieties have been released during the last 15 years. Considering a significant delay in the dissemination of information on newly released varieties and difficulties in the collection of such data, there has been a renaissance in the use of mutation techniques in crop improvement. At the demand of geneticists, plant breeders, and more recently molecular geneticists, for information on released mutant varieties of specific crops, the MVD was transferred to the web site of the FAO/IAEA Joint Division. The MVD will be available on our web pages early in 2001. (author)

  14. Isolation and characterisation of a dwarf rice mutant exhibiting defective gibberellins biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, S H; Gururani, M A; Lee, J W; Ahn, B-O; Chun, S-C

    2014-03-01

    We have isolated a severe dwarf mutant derived from a Ds (Dissociation) insertion mutant rice (Oryza sativa var. japonica c.v. Dongjin). This severe dwarf phenotype, has short and dark green leaves, reduced shoot growth early in the seedling stage, and later severe dwarfism with failure to initiate flowering. When treated with bioactive GA3 , mutants are restored to the normal wild-type phenotype. Reverse transcription PCR analyses of 22 candidate genes related to the gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis pathway revealed that among 22 candidate genes tested, a dwarf mutant transcript was not expressed only in one OsKS2 gene. Genetic analysis revealed that the severe dwarf phenotype was controlled by recessive mutation of a single nuclear gene. The putative OsKS2 gene was a chromosome 4-located ent-kaurene synthase (KS), encoding the enzyme that catalyses an early step of the GA biosynthesis pathway. Sequence analysis revealed that osks2 carried a 1-bp deletion in the ORF region of OsKS2, which led to a loss-of-function mutation. The expression pattern of OsKS2 in wild-type cv Dongjin, showed that it is expressed in all organs, most prominently in the stem and floral organs. Morphological characteristics of the dwarf mutant showed dramatic modifications in internal structure and external morphology. We propose that dwarfism in this mutant is caused by a point mutation in OsKS2, which plays a significant role in growth and development of higher plants. Further investigation on OsKS2 and other OsKS-like proteins is underway and may yield better understanding of the putative role of OsKS in severe dwarf mutants. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  15. 78 FR 29119 - Procurement List; Additions and Deletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... and Deletion AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to and Deletion from the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds products and services to the... Activity: Washington Headquarters Services (WHS), Acquisition Directorate, Washington, DC. Deletion On 4/5...

  16. 75 FR 41451 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

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  17. Genetics Home Reference: 2q37 deletion syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions 2q37 deletion syndrome 2q37 deletion syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description 2q37 deletion syndrome is a condition that can affect many ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: 1p36 deletion syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions 1p36 deletion syndrome 1p36 deletion syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description 1p36 deletion syndrome is a disorder that typically causes severe ...

  19. 5 CFR 1631.17 - Deletion of exempted information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

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  20. 75 FR 56995 - Procurement List Proposed Additions and Deletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

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  1. 5 CFR 2502.18 - Deletion of exempted information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

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  2. 78 FR 75912 - Procurement List; Addition and Deletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

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  3. 78 FR 27369 - Procurement List; Additions and Deletion

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    2013-05-10

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  4. Genetics Home Reference: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions 22q11.2 deletion syndrome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (which is also known by several other ...

  5. 75 FR 7450 - Procurement List: Proposed Addition and Deletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... Addition and Deletion AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed addition to and deletion from Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add to the... W6BA ACA, FT CARSON, COLORADO. Deletion Regulatory Flexibility Act Certification I certify that the...

  6. 77 FR 20795 - Procurement List Proposed Addition and Deletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

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  7. 36 CFR 1275.58 - Deletion of restricted portions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deletion of restricted... HISTORICAL MATERIALS OF THE NIXON ADMINISTRATION Access by the Public § 1275.58 Deletion of restricted... materials after the deletion of the portions which are restricted under this § 1275.50 or § 1275.52. ...

  8. Characterization of five partial deletions of the factor VIII gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssoufian, H.; Antonarakis, S.E.; Aronis, S.; Tsiftis, G.; Phillips, D.G.; Kazazian, H.H. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Hemophilia A is an X-linked disorder of coagulation caused by a deficiency of factor VIII. By using cloned DNA probes, the authors have characterized the following five different partial deletions of the factor VIII gene from a panel of 83 patients with hemophilia A: (i) a 7-kilobase (kb) deletion that eliminates exon 6; (ii) a 2.5-kb deletion that eliminates 5' sequences of exon 14; (iii) a deletion of at least 7 kb that eliminates exons 24 and 25; (iv) a deletion of at least 16 kb that eliminates exons 23-25; and (v) a 5.5-kb deletion that eliminates exon 22. The first four deletions are associated with severe hemophilia A. By contrast, the last deletion is associated with moderate disease, possibly because of in-frame splicing from adjacent exons. None of those patients with partial gene deletions had circulating inhibitors to factor VIII. One deletion occurred de novo in a germ cell of the maternal grandmother, while a second deletion occurred in a germ cell of the maternal grandfather. These observations demonstrate that de novo deletions of X-linked genes can occur in either male or female gametes

  9. 75 FR 69638 - Procurement List; Additions and Deletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... and Deletion AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to and deletion from the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds products and a service to the...), DENVER, CO. Deletion On 9/17/2010 (75 FR 56995-56996), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are...

  10. 76 FR 60810 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... Additions and Deletion AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to and Deletion from the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add... Activity: Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office, Idaho Falls, ID. DELETION Regulatory Flexibility...

  11. 44 CFR 5.27 - Deletion of identifying details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deletion of identifying... Availability of General Agency Information, Rules, Orders, Policies, and Similar Material § 5.27 Deletion of..., interpretation, or staff manual or instruction. However, the justification for each deletion will be explained...

  12. 29 CFR 1610.20 - Deletion of exempted matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deletion of exempted matters. 1610.20 Section 1610.20 Labor... Production or Disclosure Under 5 U.S.C. 552 § 1610.20 Deletion of exempted matters. Where requested records... the remainder of the records, they shall be disclosed by the Commission with deletions. To each such...

  13. 75 FR 41449 - Procurement List Additions and Deletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... and Deletion AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to and deletion from the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds products and services to the... of the Air Force, FA6643 HQ AFRES LGC, Robins AFB, GA Deletion On 5/28/2010 (75 FR 29994-29995), the...

  14. 49 CFR 7.6 - Deletion of identifying detail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deletion of identifying detail. 7.6 Section 7.6... To Be Made Public by DOT § 7.6 Deletion of identifying detail. Whenever it is determined to be... the deletion will accompany the record published or made available for inspection. ...

  15. 76 FR 5142 - Procurement List; Additions and Deletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... and Deletion AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to and deletion from the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds services to the Procurement.... Contracting Activity: Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, Jamaica, NY. Deletion On...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: 22q13.3 deletion syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions 22q13.3 deletion syndrome 22q13.3 deletion syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description 22q13.3 deletion syndrome , which is also commonly known as Phelan- ...

  17. Mutants for plant height in hexaploid triticale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, V.R.K.; Gupta, P.K.

    1988-01-01

    Full text: Four hexaploid triticale varieties namely Beagle, Coorong, TL 419 and Welsh were subjected to gamma rays (100 Gy, 200 Gy, 300 Gy) and to aqueous solution of EMS (0.5%, (8h, 12h, 16h). In all four varieties, three types of mutants for plant height were observed: Semidwarf - the mutant plants are 20-25 cm shorter than the shortest plant in the control. Dwarf - mutant plants grow up to 40-60 cm. Stunted - mutant plants grow up to 10-20 cm. The segregation pattern suggests that semidwarf mutants are quantitatively inherited, showing continuous segregation in M 3 , M 4 and M 5 , whereas dwarf and stunted are monogenic recessive. They showed true breeding in M 3 and later generations. The semi-dwarf, dwarf and stunted mutants can be used as initial material for development of new varieties with short straw and resistance to lodging. (author)

  18. Identification of the second mutation of BADH2 gene derived from rice mutant lines induced by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I Ishak

    2016-01-01

    The BADH2 gene acts as suppressor of 2-acetyl-1-pyrolline (2AP) biosynthesis in plants. 2AP is the volatile compound which provides fragrance in rice. Biosynthesis of 2AP occurs when BADH2 loses its function as suppressor gene. Aromatic rice cultivars naturally incur mutation of BADH2 gene at 8 bp. In this experiment, aromatic mutant rice lines derived from irradiation of Sintanur cultivar by gamma rays with dose of 100 Gy were studied in molecular level. These mutant lines were characterized at the M10 plantgeneration under the assumption that genetically these aromatic mutant rice lines were homozygotic. Several primers related to aroma in rice have been used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a thermal cycler instrument. Gel electrophoreses were carried out using 1.5% agarose in TAE buffer. DNA fragments at 254 bp and 355 bp (base pair) were taken and amplified by primer for nucleotide sequencing of these fragments. Molecular identification and characterization after electrophoresis showed that the mutant line from AR1020 can be differentiated from AR.1080 at 254 bp. Nucleotide sequence data from of these DNA fragments showed that point mutations (deletions and substitutions) occurred at the BADH2 gene in exon 7; those are called second mutation and were caused by gamma rays effects. The Sintanur variety was used as check cultivar and its DNA sequence was compared to that of the AR.1020 mutant line. The results from both DNA sequences (from cv. Sintanur and AR.1020) derived from fragments at 254 bp show that point mutations occurred within exon 7 and earlier stop codon occurred in the AR.1020 mutant rice line. Further, the use of EA primer in PCR resulted in detection of deletion and substitution of nucleotides in the AR.1020 mutant line. (author)

  19. The Site-Directed A184S Mutation in the HTH Domain of the Global Regulator IrrE Enhances Deinococcus radiodurans R1 Tolerance to UV Radiation and MMC Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Zhou, Zhengfu; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Zhen; Song, Yuan; Lu, Wei; Lin, Min; Chen, Ming

    2015-12-28

    IrrE is a highly conserved global regulator in the Deinococcus genus and contributes to survival from high doses of UV radiation, ionizing radiation, and desiccation. Drad-IrrE and Dgob-IrrE from Deinococcus radiodurans and Deinococcus gobiensis I-0 each share 66% sequence identity. However, Dgob-IrrE showed a stronger protection phenotype against UV radiation than Drad- IrrE in the D. radiodurans irrE-deletion mutant (ΔirrE), which may be due to amino acid residues differences around the DNA-binding HTH domain. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to generate a Drad-IrrE A184S single mutant, which has been characterized and compared with the ΔirrE mutant complemented strain with Drad-irrE, designated ΔirrE-E. The effects of the A184S mutation following UV radiation and mitomycin C (MMC) shock were determined. The A184S mutant displayed significantly increased resistance to UV radiation and MMC shock. The corresponding A184 site in Dgob-IrrE was inversely mutated, generating the S131A mutant, which exhibited a loss of resistance against UV radiation, MMC shock, and desiccation. qPCR analysis revealed that critical genes in the DNA repair system, such as recA, pprA, uvrA, and ddrB, were remarkably induced after UV radiation and MMC shock in the ΔirrE-IE and A184S mutants. These data suggested that A184S improves the ability against UV radiation and MMC shock, providing new insights into the modification of IrrE. We speculated that the serine residue may determine the efficiency of DNA binding, leading to the increased expression of IrrE-dependent genes important for protection against DNA damage.

  20. Gamma ray induced mutants in Colocasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasudevan, K.; Jos, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    Presented are selected treatments with 250 r, 500 r and 1000 r gamma rays Colocasia mutants with changes in morphological and yield characters. Results from a preliminary yield trial of four mutants with its control variety C 9 are presented. The mutant's characteristics are (i) erect and narrow leaf (ii) cup shaped leaf, dwarf, matures within 120 days against 180 days in control (iii) narrow and thicker leaves, colour of lamina chalky and pale green (iv) vigorous

  1. Secretion and activation of the Serratia marcescens hemolysin by structurally defined ShlB mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Avijit; Könninger, Ulrich; Selvam, Arun; Braun, Volkmar

    2014-05-01

    The ShlA hemolysin of Serratia marcescens is secreted across the outer membrane by the ShlB protein; ShlB belongs to the two-partner secretion system (type Vb), a subfamily of the Omp85 outer membrane protein assembly and secretion superfamily. During secretion, ShlA is converted from an inactive non-hemolytic form into an active hemolytic form. The structure of ShlB is predicted to consist of the N-terminal α-helix H1, followed by the two polypeptide-transport-associated domains POTRA P1 and P2, and the β-barrel of 16 β-strands. H1 is inserted into the pore of the β-barrel in the outer membrane; P1 and P2 are located in the periplasm. To obtain insights into the secretion and activation of ShlA by ShlB, we isolated ShlB mutants impaired in secretion and/or activation. The triple H1 P1 P2 mutant did not secrete ShlA. The P1 and P2 deletion derivatives secreted reduced amounts of ShlA, of which P1 showed some hemolysis, whereas P2 was inactive. Deletion of loop 6 (L6), which is conserved among exporters of the Omp85 family, compromised activation but retained low secretion. Secretion-negative mutants generated by random mutagenesis were located in loop 6. The inactive secreted ShlA derivatives were complemented in vitro to active ShlA by an N-terminal ShlA fragment (ShlA242) secreted by ShlB. Deletion of H1 did not impair secretion of hemolytic ShlA. The study defines domains of ShlB which are important for ShlA secretion and activation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Probabilistic phylogenetic inference with insertions and deletions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Rivas

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental task in sequence analysis is to calculate the probability of a multiple alignment given a phylogenetic tree relating the sequences and an evolutionary model describing how sequences change over time. However, the most widely used phylogenetic models only account for residue substitution events. We describe a probabilistic model of a multiple sequence alignment that accounts for insertion and deletion events in addition to substitutions, given a phylogenetic tree, using a rate matrix augmented by the gap character. Starting from a continuous Markov process, we construct a non-reversible generative (birth-death evolutionary model for insertions and deletions. The model assumes that insertion and deletion events occur one residue at a time. We apply this model to phylogenetic tree inference by extending the program dnaml in phylip. Using standard benchmarking methods on simulated data and a new "concordance test" benchmark on real ribosomal RNA alignments, we show that the extended program dnamlepsilon improves accuracy relative to the usual approach of ignoring gaps, while retaining the computational efficiency of the Felsenstein peeling algorithm.

  3. Exploring the molecular origins of protein dynamics in the active site of human carbonic anhydrase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Sarah E; Bandaria, Jigar N; Fox, Michelle; Vanderah, Elizabeth; Kohen, Amnon; Cheatum, Christopher M

    2009-08-20

    We present three-pulse vibrational echo measurements of azide ion bound to the active site Zn of human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) and of two separate active-site mutants Thr199 --> Ala (T199A) and Leu198 --> Phe (L198F). Because structural motions of the protein active site influence the frequency of bound ligands, the differences in the time scales of the frequency-frequency correlation functions (FFCFs) obtained from global fits to each set of data allow us to make inferences about the time scales of the active site dynamics of HCA II. Surprisingly, the deletion of a potential electrostatic interaction in results in very little change in the FFCF, but the insertion of the bulky phenylalanine ring in causes much faster dynamics. We conclude that the fast, sub-picosecond time scale in the correlation function is attributable to hydrogen bond dynamics, and the slow, apparently static contribution is due to the conformational flexibility of Zn-bound azide in the active site.

  4. Decreased production of higher alcohols by Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Chinese rice wine fermentation by deletion of Bat aminotransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cui-Ying; Qi, Ya-Nan; Ma, Hong-Xia; Li, Wei; Dai, Long-Hai; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2015-04-01

    An appropriate level of higher alcohols produced by yeast during the fermentation is one of the most important factors influencing Chinese rice wine quality. In this study, BAT1 and BAT2 single- and double-gene-deletion mutant strains were constructed from an industrial yeast strain RY1 to decrease higher alcohols during Chinese rice wine fermentation. The results showed that the BAT2 single-gene-deletion mutant strain produced best improvement in the production of higher alcohols while remaining showed normal growth and fermentation characteristics. Furthermore, a BAT2 single-gene-deletion diploid engineered strain RY1-Δbat2 was constructed and produced low levels of isobutanol and isoamylol (isoamyl alcohol and active amyl alcohol) in simulated fermentation of Chinese rice wine, 92.40 and 303.31 mg/L, respectively, which were 33.00 and 14.20 % lower than those of the parental strain RY1. The differences in fermentation performance between RY1-Δbat2 and RY1 were minor. Therefore, construction of this yeast strain is important in future development in Chinese wine industry and provides insights on generating yeast strains for other fermented alcoholic beverages.

  5. High integrin αVβ6affinity reached by hybrid domain deletion slows ligand-binding on-rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xianchi; Zhao, Bo; Lin, Fu-Yang; Lu, Chafen; Rogers, Bruce N; Springer, Timothy A

    2018-02-13

    The role of the hybrid domain in integrin affinity regulation is unknown, as is whether the kinetics of ligand binding is modulated by integrin affinity state. Here, we compare cell surface and soluble integrin α V β 6 truncation mutants for ligand-binding affinity, kinetics, and thermodynamics. Removal of the integrin transmembrane/cytoplasmic domains or lower legs has little effect on α V β 6 affinity, in contrast to β 1 integrins. In integrin opening, rearrangement at the interface between the βI and hybrid domains is linked to remodeling at the ligand-binding site at the opposite end of the βI domain, which greatly increases in affinity in the open conformation. The larger size of the βI-hybrid interface in the closed state suggests that the hybrid domain stabilizes closing. In agreement, deletion of the hybrid domain raised affinity by 50-fold. Surface plasmon resonance and isothermal titration calorimetry gave similar results and the latter revealed tradeoffs between enthalpy and entropy not apparent from affinity. At extremely high affinity reached in Mn 2+ with hybrid domain truncation, α V β 6 on-rate for both pro-TGF-β1 and fibronectin declined. The results suggest that the open conformation of α V β 6 has lower on-rate than the closed conformation, correlate with constriction of the ligand-binding pocket in open α V β 6 structures, and suggest that the extended-closed conformation is kinetically selected for ligand binding. Subsequent transition to the extended-open conformation is stabilized by its much higher affinity for ligand and would also be stabilized by force exerted across ligand-bound integrins by the actin cytoskeleton.

  6. Genome-Wide Mapping of Binding Sites Reveals Multiple Biological Functions of the Transcription Factor Cst6p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Guodong; Bergenholm, David; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    In the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the transcription factor Cst6p has been reported to play important roles in several biological processes. However, the genome-wide targets of Cst6p and its physiological functions remain unknown. Here, we mapped the genome-wide binding sites of Cst6p...... of transcription factors. In the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the transcription factor Cst6p has been reported to regulate several biological processes, while its genome-wide targets remain unknown. Here, we mapped the genome-wide binding sites of Cst6p at high resolution. We show that the binding...... at high resolution. Cst6p binds to the promoter regions of 59 genes with various biological functions when cells are grown on ethanol but hardly binds to the promoter at any gene when cells are grown on glucose. The retarded growth of the CST6 deletion mutant on ethanol is attributed to the markedly...

  7. Fshb-iCre mice are efficient and specific Cre deleters for the gonadotrope lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huizhen; Hastings, Richard; Miller, William L; Kumar, T Rajendra

    2016-01-05

    Genetic analysis of development and function of the gonadotrope cell lineage within mouse anterior pituitary has been greatly facilitated by at least three currently available Cre strains in which Cre was either knocked into the Gnrhr locus or expressed as a transgene from Cga and Lhb promoters. However, in each case there are some limitations including CRE expression in thyrotropes within pituitary or ectopic expression outside of pituitary, for example in some populations of neurons or gonads. Hence, these Cre strains often pose problems with regard to undesirable deletion of alleles in non-gonadotrope cells, fertility and germline transmission of mutant alleles. Here, we describe generation and characterization of a new Fshb-iCre deleter strain using 4.7 kb of ovine Fshb promoter regulatory sequences driving iCre expression exclusively in the gonadotrope lineage within anterior pituitary. Fshb-iCre mice develop normally, display no ectopic CRE expression in gonads and are fertile. When crossed onto a loxP recombination-mediated red to green color switch reporter mouse genetic background, in vivo CRE recombinase activity is detectable in gonadotropes at more than 95% efficiency and the GFP-tagged gonadotropes readily purified by fluorescence activated cell sorting. We demonstrate the applicability of this Fshb-iCre deleter strain in a mouse model in which Dicer is efficiently and selectively deleted in gonadotropes. We further show that loss of DICER-dependent miRNAs in gonadotropes leads to profound suppression of gonadotropins resulting in male and female infertility. Thus, Fshb-iCre mice serve as a new genetic tool to efficiently manipulate gonadotrope-specific gene expression in vivo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Systematic gene deletions evidences that laccases are involved in several stages of wood degradation in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ning; Chapeland-Leclerc, Florence; Silar, Philippe; Ruprich-Robert, Gwenaël

    2014-01-01

    Transformation of plant biomass into biofuels may supply environmentally friendly alternative biological sources of energy. Laccases are supposed to be involved in the lysis of lignin, a prerequisite step for efficient breakdown of cellulose into fermentable sugars. The role in development and plant biomass degradation of the nine canonical laccases belonging to three different subfamilies and one related multicopper oxidase of the Ascomycota fungus Podospora anserina was investigated by targeted gene deletion. The 10 genes were inactivated singly, and multiple mutants were constructed by genetic crosses. lac6(Δ), lac8(Δ) and mco(Δ) mutants were significantly reduced in their ability to grow on lignin-containing materials, but also on cellulose and plastic. Furthermore, lac8(Δ), lac7(Δ), mco(Δ) and lac6(Δ) mutants were defective towards resistance to phenolic substrates and H2 O2 , which may also impact lignocellulose breakdown. Double and multiple mutants were generally more affected than single mutants, evidencing redundancy of function among laccases. Our study provides the first genetic evidences that laccases are major actors of wood utilization in a fungus and that they have multiple roles during this process apart from participation in lignin lysis. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Large Genomic Deletions in CACNA1A Cause Episodic Ataxia Type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijun eWan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Episodic ataxia (EA syndromes are heritable diseases characterized by dramatic episodes of imbalance and incoordination. Episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2, the most common and the best characterized subtype, is caused by mostly nonsense, splice site, small indel and sometimes missense mutations in CACNA1A. Direct sequencing of CACNA1A fails to identify mutations in some patients with EA2-like features, possibly due to incomplete interrogation of CACNA1A or defects in other EA genes not yet defined. Previous reports described genomic deletions between 4-40kb in EA2. In 47 subjects with EA (26 with EA2-like features who tested negative for mutations in the known EA genes, we used Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA to analyze CACNA1A for exonic copy number variations. Breakpoints were further defined by long-range PCR. We identified distinct multi-exonic deletions in three probands with classic EA2-like features: episodes of prolonged vertigo and ataxia triggered by stress and fatigue, interictal nystagmus, with onset during infancy or early childhood. The breakpoints in all three probands are located in Alu sequences, indicating errors in homologous recombination of Alu sequences as the underlying mechanism. The smallest deletion spanned exons 39 and 40, while the largest deletion spanned 200kb, missing all but the first three exons. One deletion involving exons 39 through 47 arose spontaneously. The search for mutations in CACNA1A appears most fruitful in EA patients with interictal nystagmus and onset early in life. The finding of large heterozygous deletions suggests haploinsufficiency as a possible pathomechanism of EA2.

  10. Development of an Improved System for the Generation of Knockout Mutants of Amycolatopsis sp. Strain ATCC 39116

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Florian; Pupkes, Hilke

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Gram-positive actinomycete Amycolatopsis sp. strain ATCC 39116 is used for the industrial production of natural vanillin. Previously, the only gene deletion performed in this strain targeted the gene vdh, coding for a vanillin dehydrogenase. The generation of this mutant suffered from a high number of illegitimate recombinations and a low rate of homologous recombination. To alleviate this, we constructed an optimized deletion system based on a modified suicide vector. Thereby, we were able to increase the rate of homologous integration from less than 1% of the analyzed clones to 20% or 50%, depending on the targeted gene. We were furthermore able to reduce the screening effort needed to identify homogenotes through the use of the rpsL gene from Saccharopolyspora erythraea, which confers streptomycin sensitivity on clones still carrying the suicide vector. The new suicide vector is p6SUI5ERPSL, and its applicability was demonstrated by the deletion of three Amycolatopsis gene clusters. The deletion of the first of the gene clusters, coding for an aldehyde oxidase (yagRST), led to no altered phenotype compared to the parent strain; deletion of the second, coding for a vanillic acid decarboxylase (vdcBCD), led to a phenotype that was strongly impaired in its growth with vanillic acid as the sole carbon source and also unable to form guaiacol; and deletion of the third, coding for a vanillate demethylase (vanAB), led to only a negligible impact in comparison. Therefore, we showed that decarboxylation of vanillic acid is the main degradation pathway in Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 while the demethylation plays only a minor role and does not compensate the deletion of vdcBCD. IMPORTANCE Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 is an important microorganism used for the production of natural vanillin from ferulic acid. In contrast to this importance, it has previously been shown that this strain is hard to manipulate on a genetic level. We therefore generated an

  11. The effect of waaL genes deletion from Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 genome on bacteria LPS’ phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchenko J. I.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To estimate WaaL ligase contribution in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS phenotype profile formation of Y. enterocolitica O:3 (YeO3 bacteria. Methods. The waaL-knock-out mutants were created by an allelic exchange strategy. The LPS phenotypes of created mutants were visualized by silver-stained DOC-PAGE and immunoblotting with specific outer core (core oligosaccharide, hexasaccharide, OC and O-polysaccharide (OPS or O-Ag monoclonal antibodies. Results. Deletion of waaLOS gene from YeO3 genome has a marked effect on OC ligation in either single or double mutants. The waaLPS deletion has an opposite effect on the OPS ligation – barely detected increasing of OPS bands. Conclusions. The LPS ligases of YeO3 exhibit relaxed donor substrate specificity. Under given conditions the effect of WaaLOS ligase is more significant for OC and OPS ligation onto lipid A than that of WaaLPS.

  12. A new and efficient approach for construction of uridine/uracil auxotrophic mutants in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khuyen Thi; Ho, Quynh Ngoc; Do, Loc Thi Binh Xuan; Mai, Linh Thi Dam; Pham, Duc-Ngoc; Tran, Huyen Thi Thanh; Le, Diep Hong; Nguyen, Huy Quang; Tran, Van-Tuan

    2017-06-01

    Aspergillus oryzae is a filamentous fungus widely used in food industry and as a microbial cell factory for recombinant protein production. Due to the inherent resistance of A. oryzae to common antifungal compounds, genetic transformation of this mold usually requires auxotrophic mutants. In this study, we show that Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) method is very efficient for deletion of the pyrG gene in different Aspergillus oryzae wild-type strains to generate uridine/uracil auxotrophic mutants. Our data indicated that all the obtained uridine/uracil auxotrophic transformants, which are 5- fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA) resistant, exist as the pyrG deletion mutants. Using these auxotrophic mutants and the pyrG selectable marker for genetic transformation via A. tumefaciens, we could get about 1060 transformants per 10 6 fungal spores. In addition, these A. oryzae mutants were also used successfully for expression of the DsRed fluorescent reporter gene under control of the A. oryzae amyB promoter by the ATMT method, which resulted in obvious red transformants on agar plates. Our work provides a new and effective approach for constructing the uridine/uracil auxotrophic mutants in the importantly industrial fungus A. oryzae. This strategy appears to be applicable to other filamentous fungi to develop similar genetic transformation systems based on auxotrophic/nutritional markers for food-grade recombinant applications.

  13. Flocculation phenomenon of a mutant flocculent Saccharomyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The flocculation mechanism of a stable mutant flocculent yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae KRM-1 was quantitatively investigated for potential industrial interest. It was found that the mutant flocculent strain was NewFlo phenotype by means of sugar inhibition test. The flocculation was completely inhibited by treatment ...

  14. Generation and characterization of pigment mutants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compared to the wild CC-124, these mutants are characterized by a decrease in chlorophyll a & b content and an increase in carotenoids. The lowest decrease in chlorophyll a was 3 to 4 folds, while the highest increase in carotenoids was 2 to 4 folds. The result of bio-test, using the resulting pigment mutant of C. reinhardtii ...

  15. A sialidase mutant displaying trans-sialidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Gastón; Ratier, Laura; Amaya, María Fernanda; Nguyen, Tong; Alzari, Pedro M; Frasch, Alberto Carlos C

    2005-01-28

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease, expresses a modified sialidase, the trans-sialidase, which transfers sialic acid from host glycoconjugates to beta-galactose present in parasite mucins. Another American trypanosome, Trypanosoma rangeli, expresses a homologous protein that has sialidase activity but is devoid of transglycosidase activity. Based on the recently determined structures of T.rangeli sialidase (TrSA) and T.cruzi trans-sialidase (TcTS), we have now constructed mutants of TrSA with the aim of studying the relevant residues in transfer activity. Five mutations, Met96-Val, Ala98-Pro, Ser120-Tyr, Gly249-Tyr and Gln284-Pro, were enough to obtain a sialidase mutant (TrSA(5mut)) with trans-sialidase activity; and a sixth mutation increased the activity to about 10% that of wild-type TcTS. The crystal structure of TrSA(5mut) revealed the formation of a trans-sialidase-like binding site for the acceptor galactose, primarily defined by the phenol group of Tyr120 and the indole ring of Trp313, which adopts a new conformation, similar to that in TcTS, induced by the Gln284-Pro mutation. The transition state analogue 2,3-didehydro-2-deoxy-N-acetylneuraminic acid (DANA), which inhibits sialidases but is a poor inhibitor of trans-sialidase, was used to probe the active site conformation of mutant enzymes. The results show that the presence of a sugar acceptor binding-site, the fine-tuning of protein-substrate interactions and the flexibility of crucial active site residues are all important to achieve transglycosidase activity from the TrSA sialidase scaffold.

  16. Submicroscopic deletions at 22q11.2: Variability of the clinical picture and delineation of a commonly deleted region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, E.A.; Shaffer, L.G.; Greenberg, F. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1995-03-27

    DiGeorge anomaly (DGA) and velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) are frequently associated with monosomy of chromosome region 22q11. Most patients have a submicroscopic deletion, recently estimated to be at least 1-2 Mb. It is not clear whether individuals who present with only some of the features of these conditions have the deletion, and if so, whether the size of the deletion varies from those with more classic phenotypes. We have used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to assess the deletion status of 85 individuals referred to us for molecular analysis, with a wide range of DGA-like or VCFS-like clinical features. The test probe used was the cosmid sc11.1, which detects two loci about 2 Mb apart in 22q11.2. Twenty-four patients carried the deletion. Of the deleted patients, most had classic DGA or VCFS phenotypes, but 6 deleted patients had mild phenotypes, including 2 with minor facial anomalies and velopharyngeal incompetence as the only presenting signs. Despite the great phenotypic variability among the deleted patients, none had a deletion smaller than the 2-Mb region defined by sc11.1. Smaller deletions were not detected in patients with particularly suggestive phenotypes who were not deleted for sc11.1, even when tested with two other probes from the DGA/VCFS region. 24 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Los mutantes de la escuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Armando Jaramillo-Ocampo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo muestra los resultados parciales del estudio “Juegos en el recreo escolar: un escenario para la formación ciudadana”, cuya pretensión fue comprender los imaginarios sociales de juego en el recreo escolar y su relación con la convivencia social desde la proximidad del enfoque de complementariedad y el diseño de investigación emergente, planteado por Murcia y Jaramillo (2008. Se presentan los desarrollos logrados en dos categorías centrales del estudio: el patio y el cuerpo; dos categorías que mutan constantemente como entidades vivas en la escuela, hacia la configuración de sujetos que reconocen en el otro y lo otro su posibilidad. La escuela viva, donde es posible “ser en relación con”… se reduce a un espacio temporal y físico, limitado por la campana, “el recreo”. El texto muestra, desde la voz de los actores, esa vida que se da y se quita en la escuela y que se posiciona como una más de las imposiciones normalizadas para controlar. Reconoce, finalmente, una propuesta desde la posibilidad que estos dos mutantes propician para una escuela libre y dinámica.

  18. Interstitial deletion 11(p11.12p11.2) and analphoid marker formation results in inherited Potocki-Shaffer syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Louise; Wakui, Keiko; Sue, Whey-Chen; Su, Mei-Hsu; Shaffer, Lisa G; Kuo, Pao-Lin

    2005-03-01

    We report a family with inherited Potocki-Shaffer syndrome. The phenotypically normal mother has an interstitial deletion of 11(p11.12p11.2) with neocentric marker chromosome formation. The marker chromosome contains the deleted material on 11p11.2 and is likely a ring. The patient inherited a maternal deleted chromosome 11 but not the marker chromosome, thus resulting in an unbalanced karyotype along with the phenotype of Potocki-Shaffer syndrome. The deleted region in our case-11p11.12p11.2-is a newly reported site of constitutional neocentromere formation. This is also the first report describing deletion of 11p11.12-p11.2 and neocentromere formation resulting in inherited Potocki-Shaffer syndrome. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Isolation and genetic analysis of extragenic suppressors of the hyper-deletion phenotype of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae hpr1 {Delta} mutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Rosa, H.; Aguilera, A. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)

    1995-01-01

    The HPR1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisae is involved in maintaining low levels of deletions between DNA repeats. To understand how deletions initiate in the absence of the Hpr1 protein and the mechanisms of recombination leading to deletions in S. cerevisiae, we have isolated mutations as suppressors of the hyper-deletion phenotype of the hpr1{Delta} mutation. The mutations defined five different genes called HRS for hyper-recombination suppression. They suppress the hyper-deletion phenotype of hpr1{Delta} strains for three direct repeat systems tested. The mutations eliminated the hyper-deletion phenotype of hpr1{Delta} strains either completely (hrs1-1 and hrs2-1) or significantly (hrs3-1, hrs4-1 and hrs5-1). None of the mutations has a clear effect on the levels of spontaneous and double-strand break-induced deletions. Among other characteristics we have found are the following: (1) one mutation, hrs1-1, reduces the frequency of deletions in rad52-1 strains 20-fold, suggesting that the HRS1 gene is involved in the formation of RAD52-independent deletions; (2) the hrs2-1 hpr1{Delta} mutant is sensitive to methyl-methane-sulfonate and the single mutants hpr1{Delta} and hrs2-1 are resistant, which suggests that the HPR1 and HRS2 proteins may have redundant DNA repair functions; (3) the hrs4-1 mutation confers a hyper-mutator phenotype and (4) the phenotype of lack of activation of gene expression observed in hpr1{Delta} strains is only partially suppressed by the hrs2-1 mutation, which suggests that the possible functions of the Hpr1 protein in gene expression and recombination repair can be separated. We discuss the possible relationship between the HPR1 and the HRS genes and their involvement in initiation of the events responsible for deletion formation. 36 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Loss of BRCA1 or BRCA2 markedly increases the rate of base substitution mutagenesis and has distinct effects on genomic deletions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamborszky, J.; Szikriszt, B.; Gervai, J. Z.

    2017-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes increase the risk of cancer. Owing to their function in homologous recombination repair, much research has focused on the unstable genomic phenotype of BRCA1/2 mutant cells manifest mainly as large-scale rearrangements. We use