WorldWideScience

Sample records for site characterization tool

  1. Immunological techniques as tools to characterize the subsurface microbial community at a trichloroethylene contaminated site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliermans, C.B.; Dougherty, J.M.; Franck, M.M.; McKinzey, P.C.; Hazen, T.C.

    1992-12-31

    Effective in situ bioremediation strategies require an understanding of the effects pollutants and remediation techniques have on subsurface microbial communities. Therefore, detailed characterization of a site`s microbial communities is important. Subsurface sediment borings and water samples were collected from a trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated site, before and after horizontal well in situ air stripping and bioventing, as well as during methane injection for stimulation of methane-utilizing microorganisms. Subsamples were processed for heterotrophic plate counts, acridine orange direct counts (AODC), community diversity, direct fluorescent antibodies (DFA) enumeration for several nitrogen-transforming bacteria, and Biolog {reg_sign} evaluation of enzyme activity in collected water samples. Plate counts were higher in near-surface depths than in the vadose zone sediment samples. During the in situ air stripping and bioventing, counts increased at or near the saturated zone, remained elevated throughout the aquifer, but did not change significantly after the air stripping. Sporadic increases in plate counts at different depths as well as increased diversity appeared to be linked to differing lithologies. AODCs were orders of magnitude higher than plate counts and remained relatively constant with depth except for slight increases near the surface depths and the capillary fringe. Nitrogen-transforming bacteria, as measured by serospecific DFA, were greatly affected both by the in situ air stripping and the methane injection. Biolog{reg_sign} activity appeared to increase with subsurface stimulation both by air and methane. The complexity of subsurface systems makes the use of selective monitoring tools imperative.

  2. Immunological techniques as tools to characterize the subsurface microbial community at a trichloroethylene contaminated site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliermans, C.B.; Dougherty, J.M.; Franck, M.M.; McKinzey, P.C.; Hazen, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    Effective in situ bioremediation strategies require an understanding of the effects pollutants and remediation techniques have on subsurface microbial communities. Therefore, detailed characterization of a site's microbial communities is important. Subsurface sediment borings and water samples were collected from a trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated site, before and after horizontal well in situ air stripping and bioventing, as well as during methane injection for stimulation of methane-utilizing microorganisms. Subsamples were processed for heterotrophic plate counts, acridine orange direct counts (AODC), community diversity, direct fluorescent antibodies (DFA) enumeration for several nitrogen-transforming bacteria, and Biolog [reg sign] evaluation of enzyme activity in collected water samples. Plate counts were higher in near-surface depths than in the vadose zone sediment samples. During the in situ air stripping and bioventing, counts increased at or near the saturated zone, remained elevated throughout the aquifer, but did not change significantly after the air stripping. Sporadic increases in plate counts at different depths as well as increased diversity appeared to be linked to differing lithologies. AODCs were orders of magnitude higher than plate counts and remained relatively constant with depth except for slight increases near the surface depths and the capillary fringe. Nitrogen-transforming bacteria, as measured by serospecific DFA, were greatly affected both by the in situ air stripping and the methane injection. Biolog[reg sign] activity appeared to increase with subsurface stimulation both by air and methane. The complexity of subsurface systems makes the use of selective monitoring tools imperative.

  3. Characterization and validation of new tools for measuring site-specific cardiac troponin I phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoemmes, Stephen F; Stutzke, Crystal A; Du, Yanmei; Browning, Michael D; Buttrick, Peter M; Walker, Lori A

    2014-01-31

    Phosphorylation of cardiac troponin I is a well established mechanism by which cardiac contractility is modulated. However, there are a number of phosphorylation sites on TnI which contribute singly or in combination to influence cardiac function. Accordingly, methods for accurately measuring site-specific TnI phosphorylation are needed. Currently, two strategies are employed: mass spectrometry, which is costly, difficult and has a low throughput; and Western blotting using phospho-specific antibodies, which is limited by the availability of reagents. In this report, we describe a cohort of new site-specific TnI phosphoantibodies, generated against physiologically relevant phosphorylation sites, that are superior to the current commercially available antibodies: to phospho-serine 22/23 which shows a >5-fold phospho-specificity for phosphorylated TnI; to phospho-serine 43, which has >3-fold phospho-specificity for phosphorylated TnI; and phospho-serine 150 which has >2-fold phospho-specificity for phosphorylated TnI. These new antibodies demonstrated greater sensitivity and specificity for the phosphorylated TnI than the most widely used commercially available reagents. For example, at a protein load of 20 μg of total cardiac extract, a commercially available antibody recognized both phosphorylated and dephosphorylated TnI to the same degree. At the same protein load our phospho-serine 22/23 antibody exhibited no cross-reactivity with dephosphorylated TnI. These new tools should allow a more accurate assessment and a better understanding of the role of TnI phosphorylation in the response of the heart to pathologic stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. FIGIFIGO as a tool to characterize and identify planetary analogue sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsevich, M.; Peltoniemi, J.; Hakala, T.; Muinonen, K.

    2014-07-01

    We present an overview of the Finnish Geodetic Institute's field goniospectrometer (FIGIFIGO) and highlight its usability to study extraterrestrial analogues on the Earth. The design concept of this custom-made instrument has been proved to have a number of advantages, such as a well-adopted user-friendly interface, a high level of automation, and excellent suitability for field measurements within a wide range of weather conditions. It is perfect for collection of reference data on a given target in natural undisturbed (and well-recorded for further data interpretation) conditions. The instrument communicates via a controlled computer with an implemented simple and user-friendly interface. This allows users to easily set up optional parameters at the beginning of the measurement series. Thus a number of details may be modified, such as the initial position of the sensor, the range and speed of further automated zenith turns, and length of the turnable arm holding the selected optics (including an option for a computer-turned linear polarizer) above the target. The assembly and operation of the instrument are fast and efficient in both laboratory and field conditions. It is battery powered and easily portable, including possible transportation by plane, car, boat, or sledge. The system includes a sky camera to detect the goniometer orientation and a pyranometer to monitor the actual illumination conditions. A fine-tune mirror is used for spatial correction of the optics footprint. Recent calibration of the system has significantly increased the measurement robustness and data reliability, and has provided the operators with information on how to operate the instrument in the most efficient and accurate way. Measurement campaigns are organized frequently and significant amount of reference data has been already collected. The identification of new planetary analogue sites and characterization of known ones using FIGIFIGO could offer new possibilities and provide

  5. Afraid to Start Because the Outcome is Uncertain?: Social Site Characterization as a Tool for Informing Public Engagement Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, S.; Greenberg, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of social site characterization as a parallel effort to technical site characterization to be used in evaluating and planning carbon dioxides capture and storage (CCS) projects. Social site characterization, much like technical site characterization, relies on a series of iterative investigations into public attitudes towards a CCS project and the factors that will shape those views. This paper also suggests ways it can be used to design approaches for actively engaging stakeholders and communities in the deployment of CCS projects. This work is informed by observing the site selection process for FutureGen and the implementation of research projects under the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Site characterization plan:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed

  7. Site characterization plan:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in acordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and eveloping a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing prinicples, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed. 880 refs., 130 figs., 25 tabs

  8. SNL-NUMO collaborative : development of a deterministic site characterization tool using multi-model ranking and inference.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, Matthew; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Arnold, Bill Walter; James, Scott Carlton; Gray, Genetha Anne; Ahlmann, Michael

    2008-08-01

    Uncertainty in site characterization arises from a lack of data and knowledge about a site and includes uncertainty in the boundary conditions, uncertainty in the characteristics, location, and behavior of major features within an investigation area (e.g., major faults as barriers or conduits), uncertainty in the geologic structure, as well as differences in numerical implementation (e.g., 2-D versus 3-D, finite difference versus finite element, grid resolution, deterministic versus stochastic, etc.). Since the true condition at a site can never be known, selection of the best conceptual model is very difficult. In addition, limiting the understanding to a single conceptualization too early in the process, or before data can support that conceptualization, may lead to confidence in a characterization that is unwarranted as well as to data collection efforts and field investigations that are misdirected and/or redundant. Using a series of numerical modeling experiments, this project examined the application and use of information criteria within the site characterization process. The numerical experiments are based on models of varying complexity that were developed to represent one of two synthetically developed groundwater sites; (1) a fully hypothetical site that represented a complex, multi-layer, multi-faulted site, and (2) a site that was based on the Horonobe site in northern Japan. Each of the synthetic sites were modeled in detail to provide increasingly informative 'field' data over successive iterations to the representing numerical models. The representing numerical models were calibrated to the synthetic site data and then ranked and compared using several different information criteria approaches. Results show, that for the early phases of site characterization, low-parameterized models ranked highest while more complex models generally ranked lowest. In addition, predictive capabilities were also better with the low-parameterized models. For

  9. SCP Tools user's guide: A knowledge base toolbox for documenting relationships among high-level issues and site studies planned for characterization of a repository site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korns, D.E.; Troy, K.S.

    1988-03-01

    This document describes a personal computer knowledge base system that ranges from issue identification to performance allocation of mined geologic disposal system site characteristics. With SCP Tools, a user can describe a system configuration, identify information needs and parameters and allocate performance of selected system characteristics. SCP Tools allows the user to define information needs for resolution of an issue; parameters required for an information need; measures of performance for parameters, and then link supporting parameters to performance parameters and performance parameters to performance measures. All this is done with computer tools that create non-redundant facts stored in a knowledge base. Unlike most information systems, the SCP Tools remember which facts were already collected, thus allowing greater flexibility and speed in appending facts and reducing the amount of hard disk storage

  10. Repository site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, J.W.; Pentz, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    The characterization of candidate repository sites has a number of programmatic objectives. Principal among these is the acquisition of data: a) to determine the suitability of a site relative to the DOE repository siting guidelines, b) to support model development and calculations to determine the suitability of a site relative to the post closure criteria of the NRC and EPA, c) to support the design of a disposal system, including the waste package and the engineered barrier system, as well as the shafts and underground openings of the repository. In meeting the gaols of site characterization, the authors have an obligation to conduct their investigations within an appropriate budget and schedule. This mandates that a well-constructed and systematic plan for field investigations be developed. Such a plan must fully account for the mechanisms which will control the radiologic performance in the repository. The plan must also flexibly and dynamically respond to the results of each step of field investigation, responding to the spatial variability of earth as well as to enhanced understandings of the performance of the disposal system. Such a plan must ensure that sufficient data are available to support the necessary probabilistic calculations of performance. This paper explores the planning for field data acquisition with specific reference to requirements for demonstrations of the acceptable performance for disposal systems

  11. Site characterization and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, O.; Eriksson, J.; Falk, L.; Sandberg, E.

    1988-04-01

    The borehole radar investigation program of the SCV-site (Site Characterization and Validation) has comprised single hole reflection measurements with centre frequencies of 22, 45, and 60 MHz. The radar range obtained in the single hole reflection measurements was approximately 100 m for the lower frequency (22 MHz) and about 60 m for the centre frequency 45 MHz. In the crosshole measurements transmitter-receiver separations from 60 to 200 m have been used. The radar investigations have given a three dimensional description of the structure at the SCV-site. A generalized model of the site has been produced which includes three major zones, four minor zones and a circular feature. These features are considered to be the most significant at the site. Smaller features than the ones included in the generalized model certainly exist but no additional features comparable to the three major zones are thought to exist. The results indicate that the zones are not homogeneous but rather that they are highly irregular containing parts of considerably increased fracturing and parts where their contrast to the background rock is quite small. The zones appear to be approximately planar at least at the scale of the site. At a smaller scale the zones can appear quite irregular. (authors)

  12. A Comprehensive Study of Neutralizing Antigenic Sites on the Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) Capsid by Constructing, Clustering, and Characterizing a Tool Box*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Min; Li, Xiao-Jing; Tang, Zi-Min; Yang, Fan; Wang, Si-Ling; Cai, Wei; Zhang, Ke; Xia, Ning-Shao; Zheng, Zi-Zheng

    2015-01-01

    The hepatitis E virus (HEV) ORF2 encodes a single structural capsid protein. The E2s domain (amino acids 459–606) of the capsid protein has been identified as the major immune target. All identified neutralizing epitopes are located on this domain; however, a comprehensive characterization of antigenic sites on the domain is lacking due to its high degree of conformation dependence. Here, we used the statistical software SPSS to analyze cELISA (competitive ELISA) data to classify monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which recognized conformational epitopes on E2s domain. Using this novel analysis method, we identified various conformational mAbs that recognized the E2s domain. These mAbs were distributed into 6 independent groups, suggesting the presence of at least 6 epitopes. Twelve representative mAbs covering the six groups were selected as a tool box to further map functional antigenic sites on the E2s domain. By combining functional and location information of the 12 representative mAbs, this study provided a complete picture of potential neutralizing epitope regions and immune-dominant determinants on E2s domain. One epitope region is located on top of the E2s domain close to the monomer interface; the other is located on the monomer side of the E2s dimer around the groove zone. Besides, two non-neutralizing epitopes were also identified on E2s domain that did not stimulate neutralizing antibodies. Our results help further the understanding of protective mechanisms induced by the HEV vaccine. Furthermore, the tool box with 12 representative mAbs will be useful for studying the HEV infection process. PMID:26085097

  13. Hanford site waste tank characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-08-01

    This paper describes the on-going work in the characterization of the Hanford-Site high-level waste tanks. The waste in these tanks was produced as part of the nuclear weapons materials processing mission that occupied the Hanford Site for the first 40 years of its existence. Detailed and defensible characterization of the tank wastes is required to guide retrieval, pretreatment, and disposal technology development, to address waste stability and reactivity concerns, and to satisfy the compliance criteria for the various regulatory agencies overseeing activities at the Hanford Site. The resulting Tank Characterization Reports fulfill these needs, as well as satisfy the tank waste characterization milestones in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order

  14. SitesIdentify: a protein functional site prediction tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doig Andrew J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of protein structures being deposited in the Protein Data Bank surpasses the capacity to experimentally characterise them and therefore computational methods to analyse these structures have become increasingly important. Identifying the region of the protein most likely to be involved in function is useful in order to gain information about its potential role. There are many available approaches to predict functional site, but many are not made available via a publicly-accessible application. Results Here we present a functional site prediction tool (SitesIdentify, based on combining sequence conservation information with geometry-based cleft identification, that is freely available via a web-server. We have shown that SitesIdentify compares favourably to other functional site prediction tools in a comparison of seven methods on a non-redundant set of 237 enzymes with annotated active sites. Conclusion SitesIdentify is able to produce comparable accuracy in predicting functional sites to its closest available counterpart, but in addition achieves improved accuracy for proteins with few characterised homologues. SitesIdentify is available via a webserver at http://www.manchester.ac.uk/bioinformatics/sitesidentify/

  15. Characterization of the porosity in Boom (Mol site, Belgium) and Opalinus (Mont Terri, Switzerland) clays - about the benefit of using ion beam milling tools and CRYO-SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desbois, G.; Houben, M.E.; Sholokhova, Y.; Urai, J.L.; Kukla, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    imaging of pore space at high resolution. The first of them is to use ion beam milling tools able to prepare smooth, damage free cross-sectioned surfaces. Two main ion source are available: (1) a broad ion beam (BIB, up to 3.5 mA) is suitable to produce large polished cross-sections area of few mm 2 , while the focused ion beam (FIB, 1 pA - 45 nA) is better used for fine and precise polished cross-sections area of about few μm 2 . The second alternative is to preserve the in-situ nanostructures of wet clay-stones by using cryogenic techniques in order to stabilize in-situ fluids at temperature of liquid nitrogen. A FIB/BIB-cryo- SEM instrument combines cryo-techniques to preserve wet samples, in-situ sample preparation by ion beam cross-sectioning (BIB or FIB) and observations of the stabilized microstructure at high resolution (SEM). Since the ion beam is directly embedded into the SEM, this instrument offers a unique way to get a direct access of the pore space in 3D by using a 'slice and view' procedure equivalent to nano-serial sectioning. This procedure allows us investigating the natural in-situ pore space as a 3D matrix. This contribution reports on a study of Boom and Opalinus clays from reference sites for research (respectively at Mol site, Belgium and Mont Terri, Switzerland) using cryo-SEM at cryogenic temperature, with ion beam cross-sectioning to prepare smooth, damage free surfaces. Pores commonly have crack-like tips, preferred orientation parallel to bedding and power law size distribution. We define a number of pore types depending on shape and location in the microstructure. 3-D reconstruction by serial cross-sectioning shows 3-D connectivity of the pore space and provide natural pore matrix for simulation of permeability using Lattice Boltzmann method. These findings offer a new insight into the morphology of pores and quantification of porosity down to nano-scale and provide the basis for microstructure-based models of transport in clays

  16. Social Networking Sites as a Learning Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Casado, Noelia; Cegarra Navarro, Juan Gabriel; Wensley, Anthony; Tomaseti-Solano, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Over the past few years, social networking sites (SNSs) have become very useful for firms, allowing companies to manage the customer-brand relationships. In this context, SNSs can be considered as a learning tool because of the brand knowledge that customers develop from these relationships. Because of the fact that knowledge in…

  17. Preliminary Site Characterization Report, Rulsion Site, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report is a summary of environmental information gathered during a review of the documents pertaining to Project Rulison and interviews with personnel who worked on the project. Project Rulison was part of Operation Plowshare (a program designed to explore peaceful uses for nuclear devices). The project consisted of detonating a 43-kiloton nuclear device on September 10, 1969, in western Colorado to stimulate natural gas production. Following the detonation, a reentry well was drilled and several gas production tests were conducted. The reentry well was shut-in after the last gas production test and was held in standby condition until the general cleanup was undertaken in 1972. A final cleanup was conducted after the emplacement and testing wells were plugged in 1976. However, some surface radiologic contamination resulted from decontamination of the drilling equipment and fallout from the gas flaring during drilling operations. With the exception of the drilling effluent pond, all surface contamination at the Rulison Site was removed during the cleanup operations. All mudpits and other excavations were backfilled, and both upper and lower drilling pads were leveled and dressed. This report provides information regarding known or suspected areas of contamination, previous cleanup activities, analytical results, a review of the regulatory status, the site`s physical environment, and future recommendations for Project Ruhson. Based on this research, several potential areas of contamination have been identified. These include the drilling effluent pond and mudpits used during drilling operations. In addition, contamination could migrate in the gas horizon.

  18. Comprehensive Characterization a Tidal Energy Site (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polagye, B. L.; Thomson, J. M.; Bassett, C. S.; Epler, J.; Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center

    2010-12-01

    Northern Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound, Washington is the proposed location of a pilot tidal energy project. Site-specific characterization of the physical and biological environment is required for device engineering and environmental analysis. However, the deep water and strong currents which make the site attractive for tidal energy development also pose unique challenges to collecting comprehensive information. This talk focuses on efforts to optimally site hydrokinetic turbines and estimate their acoustic impact, based on 18 months of field data collected to date. Additional characterization efforts being undertaken by the University of Washington branch of the Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center and its partners include marine mammal presence and behavior, water quality, seabed geology, and biofouling potential. Because kinetic power density varies with the cube of horizontal current velocity, an accurate map of spatial current variations is required to optimally site hydrokinetic turbines. Acoustic Doppler profilers deployed on the seabed show operationally meaningful variations in flow characteristics (e.g., power density, directionality, vertical shear) and tidal harmonic constituents over length scales of less than 100m. This is, in part, attributed to the proximity of this site to a headland. Because of these variations, interpolation between stationary measurement locations introduces potentially high uncertainty. The use of shipboard acoustic Doppler profilers is shown to be an effective tool for mapping peak currents and, combined with information from seabed profilers, may be able to resolve power density variations in the project area. Because noise levels from operating turbines are expected to exceed regulatory thresholds for incidental harassment of marine mammals known to be present in the project area, an estimate of the acoustic footprint is required to permit the pilot project. This requires site-specific descriptions of pre

  19. Geometrical characterization of micro end milling tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borsetto, Francesca; Bariani, Paolo; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2005-01-01

    Performance of the milling process is directly affected by the accuracy of tool geometry. Development of methods suitable for dimensional characterization of such tools, with low measurement uncertainties is therefore of relevance. The present article focuses on the geometrical characterization...... of a flat micro end milling tool with a nominal mill diameter of 200 microns. An experimental investigation was carried out involving two different non-contact systems...

  20. Double tracks test site characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the results of site characterization activities performed at the Double Tracks Test Site, located on Range 71 North, of the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR) in southern Nevada. Site characterization activities included reviewing historical data from the Double Tracks experiment, previous site investigation efforts, and recent site characterization data. The most recent site characterization activities were conducted in support of an interim corrective action to remediate the Double Tracks Test Site to an acceptable risk to human health and the environment. Site characterization was performed using a phased approach. First, previously collected data and historical records sere compiled and reviewed. Generalized scopes of work were then prepared to fill known data gaps. Field activities were conducted and the collected data were then reviewed to determine whether data gaps were filled and whether other areas needed to be investigated. Additional field efforts were then conducted, as required, to adequately characterize the site. Characterization of the Double Tracks Test Site was conducted in accordance with the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER)

  1. Structuring a cost-effective site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berven, B.A.; Little, C.A.; Swaja, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    Successful chemical and radiological site characterizations are complex activities which require meticulously detailed planning. Each layer of investigation is based upon previously generated information about the site. Baseline historical, physical, geological, and regulatory information is prerequisite for preliminary studies at a site. Preliminary studies then provide samples and measurements which define the identity of potential contaminants and define boundaries around the area to be investigated. The goal of a full site characterization is to accurately determine the extent and magnitude of contaminants and carefully define the site conditions such that the future movements of site contaminants can be assessed for potential exposure to human occupants and/or environmental impacts. Critical to this process is the selection of appropriate measurement and sampling methodology, selection and use of appropriate instrumentation and management/interpretation of site information. Site investigations require optimization between the need of information to maximize the understanding of site conditions and the cost of acquiring that information. 5 refs., 1 tab

  2. Management strategy for site characterization at candidate HLW repository sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a management strategy for HLW repository site characterization which is aimed at producing an optimal characterization trajectory for site suitability and licensing evaluations. The core feature of the strategy is a matrix of alternative performance targets and alternative information-level targets which can be used to allocate and justify program effort. Strategies for work concerning evaluation of expected and disrupted repository performance are distinguished, and the need for issue closure criteria is discussed

  3. Spin-labelled derivatives of cardiotonic steroids as tools for characterization of the extracellular entrance to the Na+ ,K+ -ATPase binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jin-Hua; Jiang, Ren-Wang; Andersen, Jacob Lauwring; Esmann, Mikael; Fedosova, Natalya U

    2018-04-24

    The information obtained from crystallized complexes of the Na + ,K + -ATPase with cardiotonic steroids (CTS) is not sufficient to explain differences in the inhibitory properties of CTS such as stereoselectivity of CTS-binding or effect of glycosylation on the preference to enzyme isoforms. The uncertainty is related to the spacial organization of the hydrophilic cavity at the entrance of the CTS-binding site. Therefore, there is a need to supplement the crystallographic description with data obtained in aqueous solution, where molecules have significant degree of flexibility. This work addresses the applicability of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) method for the purpose. We have designed and synthesized spin-labelled compounds based on the cinobufagin steroid core. The length of the spacer arms between the steroid core and the nitroxide group determines the position of the reporting group (N-O) confined to the binding site. High affinity to Na + ,K + -ATPase is inferred from their ability to inhibit enzymatic activity. The differences between the EPR spectra in the absence and presence of high ouabain concentrations identify the signature peaks originating from the fraction of the spin-labels bound within the ouabain site. The degree of perturbations of the EPR spectra depends on the length of the spacer arm. Docking of the compounds into the CTS-site suggests which elements of the protein structure might be responsible for interference with the spin-label (e.g. steric clashes or immobilization). Thus, the method is suitable for gathering information on the cavity leading to the CTS-binding site in Na + ,K + -ATPase in all conformations with high affinity to CTS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. A new site characterization and monitoring technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, B.J.; Bohne, D.A.; Lindstrom, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    New sensor technologies are being developed to meet the nation's environmental remediation and compliance programs. In 1993, the US Air Force Armstrong Laboratory and Loral Defense System, Eagan (formerly a division of Unisys Corporation) signed a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRDA) to commercialize fiber optic laser-induced fluorescence technology that had been developed with US Air Force funding at North Dakota State University (NDSU). A consortium consisting of the CRDA partners (USAF and Loral), Dakota Technologies, Inc., and NDSU submitted a proposal to the Advanced Research Projects Agency, Technology Reinvestment Project and won an award to fund the commercialization. The result, the Rapid Optical Screening Tool or ROST is a state-of-the-art laser spectroscopy system for analysis of aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and groundwater. With ROST, environmental investigators are able to find, classify, and map the distribution of many hazardous chemicals in the field instead of waiting for reports to come back from analytical laboratory. The research and development program leading to prototype laser spectrometers is summarized along with results from laboratory and field demonstrations illustrating system performance and benefits for site characterization. The technology has recently been demonstrated in Europe in Germany, the Netherlands, France and several sites in the United Kingdom having light, medium, and heavy aromatic hydrocarbon contamination from fuel spills and refinery or chemical plant operations

  5. Preliminary site characterization - final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, D.; Smith, L.B.

    1993-12-01

    This report summarizes the ecological unit reconnaissance conducted at the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pit(s) RCRA/CERCLA Unit (F-Area BRP) on August 30 and 31, 1993 as part of the RFI/RI baseline risk assessment for the waste unit The baseline risk assessment will assess the potential endangerment to human health and the environment associated with the unit and will be used to evaluate remediation criteria, if needed. The information presented in this report will be used in subsequent stages of the ecological risk assessment to refine the conceptual site model, assist in the selection of contaminants of concern, identify potential ecological receptors, and evaluate trophic relationships and other exposure pathways. The unit reconnaissance survey was conducted in accordance with Specification No. E-18272, Rev. 1 dated August 5, 1993, and the Draft {open_quotes}Ecological Risk Assessment Program Plan for Evaluation of Waste Sites on the Savannah River Site{close_quotes}. The objectives of the site reconnaissance were to: Assess the general characteristics of on-unit biological communities including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and any aquatic communities present. Determine the location, extent, and characteristics of on-unit ecological resources, such as forested areas and wetlands, that could serve as important wildlife habitat or provide other ecological functions. Identify any overt effects of contamination on biological communities. The field investigations included mapping and describing all wetland and terrestrial habitats; recording wildlife observations of birds, mammals, and reptiles; and investigating ecological resources in nearby downgradient and downstream areas which could be affected by mobile contaminants or future remedial actions. In preparation for the field investigation, existing unit information including aerial photographs and reports were reviewed to help identify and describe ecological resources at the waste unit.

  6. Preliminary site characterization - final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.; Smith, L.B.

    1993-12-01

    This report summarizes the ecological unit reconnaissance conducted at the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pit(s) RCRA/CERCLA Unit (F-Area BRP) on August 30 and 31, 1993 as part of the RFI/RI baseline risk assessment for the waste unit The baseline risk assessment will assess the potential endangerment to human health and the environment associated with the unit and will be used to evaluate remediation criteria, if needed. The information presented in this report will be used in subsequent stages of the ecological risk assessment to refine the conceptual site model, assist in the selection of contaminants of concern, identify potential ecological receptors, and evaluate trophic relationships and other exposure pathways. The unit reconnaissance survey was conducted in accordance with Specification No. E-18272, Rev. 1 dated August 5, 1993, and the Draft open-quotes Ecological Risk Assessment Program Plan for Evaluation of Waste Sites on the Savannah River Siteclose quotes. The objectives of the site reconnaissance were to: Assess the general characteristics of on-unit biological communities including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and any aquatic communities present. Determine the location, extent, and characteristics of on-unit ecological resources, such as forested areas and wetlands, that could serve as important wildlife habitat or provide other ecological functions. Identify any overt effects of contamination on biological communities. The field investigations included mapping and describing all wetland and terrestrial habitats; recording wildlife observations of birds, mammals, and reptiles; and investigating ecological resources in nearby downgradient and downstream areas which could be affected by mobile contaminants or future remedial actions. In preparation for the field investigation, existing unit information including aerial photographs and reports were reviewed to help identify and describe ecological resources at the waste unit

  7. Air quality measurements for site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, M.W.; Conklin, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    Effective and timely site characterization is an important part of selecting a site for low-level waste disposal. Parameters measured can be compared with pertinent regulatory requirements, used for a reference base, helpful in evaluating environmental impacts, utilized in documenting changes in control programs, of value in modeling studies and other data uses, and beneficial in providing relevant sampling and methodology training. This paper will focus on specific air quality measurements which should be an inherent part of the site characterization program. The program is designed to measure, quantify, and identify contributions from site uses (operational procedures), atmospheric fallout, natural radioactivity, and vicinity and regional applications of radionuclides. The recommended air quality measurements program will be described in association with a reference site developd by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Particular attention will be devoted to the type and quality of information which is needed, the scope of sampling and measurements, the frequency of measurements, locations and numbers of sampling stations, the period of time needed for site characterization, and the proper uses of the information once it has been obtained. Adequate characterization of the site will be most important in final site selection and in the operation of the site as to periodically assessing environmental impacts and helping guide any remedial control efforts designed to meet regulatory requirements

  8. Site characterization studies in the NWTS program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipler, D.; Evans, G.

    1980-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has the responsibility to identify sites and construct and operate facilities for the storage or isolation of spent fuel and/or reprocessing radioactive wastes from commercial nuclear power plants. The National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program has been initiated by the DOE to develop the technology and demonstrate the feasibility of burial and isolation of high level radioactive waste in deep geologic formations. The NTWS Program plan which sets forth the criteria, procedures, and other considerations required to characterize and select a site in a comprehensive stepwise manner is discussed. The plan is not specific to any given geologic medium but serves as a guide for site selection in any geohydrologic system deemed appropriate for consideration for a deep geologic repository. The plan will be used by all NWTS Project Offices in the conduct of their site characterization program. The plan will be updated, as warranted, to reflect technology development, National policies, rulemakings by regulatory agencies, and other changing political, social, and institutional considerations. Site characterization begins with the identification of regions believed to have suitable geologic, hydrologic, and environmental characteristics for repository siting. This is followed by an iterative process of data collection and analysis to identify areas and locations which appear most suitable for further investigations. In addition, screening studies of the DOE's nuclear complexes has led to the selection of the Nevada Test Site and the Hanford Site for further characterization studies. The site characterization process results in a number of candidate sites from which a site will be selected and proposed to the NRC for licensing

  9. Integrating Risk Analyses and Tools at the DOE Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LOBER, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    Risk assessment and environmental impact analysis at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State has made significant progress in refining the strategy for using risk analysis to support closing of several hundred waste sites plus 149 single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. A Single-Shell Tank System Closure Work Plan outlines the current basis for closing the single-shell tank systems. An analogous site approach has been developed to address closure of aggregated groups of similar waste sites. Because of the complexity, decision time frames, proximity of non-tank farm waste sites to tank farms, scale, and regulatory considerations, various projects are providing integrated assessments to support risk analyses and decision-making. Projects and the tools that are being developed and applied at Hanford to support retrieval and cleanup decisions include: (1) Life Cycle Model (LCM) and Risk Receptor Model (RRM)--A site-level set of tools to support strategic analyses through scoping level risk management to assess different alternatives and options for tank closure. (2) Systems Assessment Capability for Integrated Groundwater Nadose Zone (SAC) and the Site-Wide Groundwater Model (SWGM)--A site-wide groundwater modeling system coupled with a risk-based uncertainty analysis of inventory, vadose zone, groundwater, and river interactions for evaluating cumulative impacts from individual and aggregate waste sites. (3) Retrieval Performance Evaluation (RPE)--A site-specific, risk-based methodology developed to evaluate performance of waste retrieval, leak detection and closure on a tank-specific basis as a function of past tank Leaks, potential leakage during retrieval operations, and remaining residual waste inventories following completion of retrieval operations. (4) Field Investigation Report (FIR)--A corrective action program to investigate the nature and extent of past tank leaks through characterization activities and assess future impacts to

  10. Draft reclamation program plan for site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    As part of its obligations under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, as amended, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has developed an environmental program that is to be implemented during site characterization at the Yucca Mountain site. This site is proposed for the location of the nation's first high-level radioactive waste repository. A program for the reclamation of areas disturbed by site characterization is part of the overall environmental program for that site. This Reclamation Program Plan (RPP) describes the reclamation policy of the DOE for the Yucca Mountain site and presents an overview of the reclamation program. The RPP also provides an overview of the reclamation needs relative to site characterization; a review of legislation and requirements pertinent to reclamation; and a review of previous commitments made by the DOE to certain types of reclamation activities. The objective of the DOE reclamation program at Yucca Mountain is to return land disturbed by site-characterization activities to a stable ecological state with a form and productivity similar to the predisturbance state. The DOE will take all reasonable and necessary steps to achieve this objective. 19 refs., 2 tabs

  11. Plans for characterization of salt sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heim, G.E.; Matthews, S.C.; Kircher, J.F.; Kennedy, R.K.

    1983-01-01

    This basic salt site characterization program has been designed to provide the data required to support the design, performance assessment, and licensing of each of the principal project elements: the repository, the shafts, and the surface facilities. The work has been sequenced to meet the design and licensing schedule. It is anticipated that additional characterization activities will be performed to address site-specific considerations and to provide additional information to address questions which arise during the evaluation of characterization data. 3 figures, 3 tables

  12. Surface science tools for nanomaterials characterization

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Fourth volume of a 40volume series on nano science and nanotechnology, edited by the renowned scientist Challa S.S.R. Kumar. This handbook gives a comprehensive overview about Surface Science Tools for Nanomaterials Characterization. Modern applications and state-of-the-art techniques are covered and make this volume an essential reading for research scientists in academia and industry.

  13. Ames expedited site characterization demonstration at the former manufactured gas plant site, Marshalltown, Iowa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevolo, A.J.; Kjartanson, B.H.; Wonder, J.D.

    1996-03-01

    The goal of the Ames Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) project is to evaluate and promote both innovative technologies (IT) and state-of-the-practice technologies (SOPT) for site characterization and monitoring. In April and May 1994, the ESC project conducted site characterization, technology comparison, and stakeholder demonstration activities at a former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) owned by Iowa Electric Services (IES) Utilities, Inc., in Marshalltown, Iowa. Three areas of technology were fielded at the Marshalltown FMGP site: geophysical, analytical and data integration. The geophysical technologies are designed to assess the subsurface geological conditions so that the location, fate and transport of the target contaminants may be assessed and forecasted. The analytical technologies/methods are designed to detect and quantify the target contaminants. The data integration technology area consists of hardware and software systems designed to integrate all the site information compiled and collected into a conceptual site model on a daily basis at the site; this conceptual model then becomes the decision-support tool. Simultaneous fielding of different methods within each of the three areas of technology provided data for direct comparison of the technologies fielded, both SOPT and IT. This document reports the results of the site characterization, technology comparison, and ESC demonstration activities associated with the Marshalltown FMGP site. 124 figs., 27 tabs

  14. Session II-A. Site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntosh, W.

    1981-01-01

    Section II-A on Site Characterization consists of the following papers which describe the progress made during the past fiscal year toward identifying sites for high-level radioactive waste repositories in deep geologic formations: (1) progress in expanded studies for repository sites; (2) evaluation of geologic and hydrologic characteristics in the Basin and Range Province relative to high-level nuclear waste disposal; (3) siting progress: Permian region; (4) Paradox Basin site exploration: a progress report; (5) progress toward recommending a salt site for an exploratory shaft; (6) status of geologic investigations for nuclear waste disposal at the Nevada Test Site; (7) geohydrologic investigation of the Hanford Site, Washington: basalt waste isolation project. Highlights include: expanding studies in crystalline rocks, both in the Appalachian and Lake Superior regions; laying the ground work with the states in the Basin and Range Province to kick off a joint USGS-state province study; narrowing areas of the Permian and Paradox bedded salt regions to a few promising locations; issuing a Gulf Coast Salt Dome Evaluation report (ONWI-109) for public review and comment; narrowing the Nevada Test Site area and Hanford Site area to locations for detailed site investigations and exploratory shafts; progress in developing the subseabed and space disposals alternatives

  15. Site characterization in fractured crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Peter; Andersson, J.E.; Gustafsson, E.; Nordqvist, R.; Voss, C.

    1993-03-01

    This report concerns a study which is part of the SKI performance assessment project SITE-94. SITE-94 is a performance assessment of a hypothetical repository at a real site. The main objective of the project is to determine how site specific data should be assimilated into the performance assessment process and to evaluate how uncertainties inherent in site characterization will influence performance assessment results. Other important elements of SITE-94 are the development of a practical and defensible methodology for defining, constructing and analyzing scenarios, the development of approaches for treatment of uncertainties, evaluation of canister integrity, and the development and application of an appropriate Quality Assurance plan for Performance Assessments. (111 refs.)

  16. Probabilistic approaches for geotechnical site characterization and slope stability analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Zijun; Li, Dianqing

    2017-01-01

    This is the first book to revisit geotechnical site characterization from a probabilistic point of view and provide rational tools to probabilistically characterize geotechnical properties and underground stratigraphy using limited information obtained from a specific site. This book not only provides new probabilistic approaches for geotechnical site characterization and slope stability analysis, but also tackles the difficulties in practical implementation of these approaches. In addition, this book also develops efficient Monte Carlo simulation approaches for slope stability analysis and implements these approaches in a commonly available spreadsheet environment. These approaches and the software package are readily available to geotechnical practitioners and alleviate them from reliability computational algorithms. The readers will find useful information for a non-specialist to determine project-specific statistics of geotechnical properties and to perform probabilistic analysis of slope stability.

  17. Site characterization and petroleum hydrocarbon plume mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, K. [Harding Lawson Associates, Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a case study of site characterization and hydrocarbon contamination plume mapping/delineation in a gas processing plant in southern Mexico. The paper describes innovative and cost-effective use of passive (non-intrusive) and active (intrusive) techniques, including the use of compound-specific analytical methods for site characterization. The techniques used, on a demonstrative basis, include geophysical, geochemical, and borehole drilling. Geochemical techniques used to delineate the horizontal extent of hydrocarbon contamination at the site include soil gas surveys. The borehole drilling technique used to assess the vertical extent of contamination and confirm geophysical and geochemical data combines conventional hollow-stem auguring with direct push-probe using Geoprobe. Compound-specific analytical methods, such as hydrocarbon fingerprinting and a modified method for gasoline range organics, demonstrate the inherent merit and need for such analyses to properly characterize a site, while revealing the limitations of noncompound-specific total petroleum hydrocarbon analysis. The results indicate that the techniques used in tandem can properly delineate the nature and extent of contamination at a site; often supplement or complement data, while reducing the risk of errors and omissions during the assessment phase; and provide data constructively to focus site-specific remediation efforts. 7 figs.

  18. Bioavailability as a tool in site management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, J.; Naidu, R.

    2013-01-01

    Bioavailability can form the basis for describing potential risks that contaminants pose to the environment and human health, and for determining remedial options to reduce risks of contaminant dispersal and toxicity. In assessments of polluted sites, methods to measure bioavailability can lead to a

  19. Biological tracer for waste site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong-Gunderson, J.

    1995-01-01

    Remediating hazardous waste sites requires detailed site characterization. In groundwater remediation, characterizing the flow paths and velocity is a major objective. Various tracers have been used for measuring groundwater velocity and transport of contaminants, colloidal particles, and bacteria and nutrients. The conventional techniques use dissolved solutes, dyes. and gases to estimate subsurface transport pathways. These tracers can provide information on transport and diffusion into the matrix, but their estimates for groundwater flow through fractured regions are very conservative. Also, they do not have the same transport characteristics as bacteria and suspended colloid tracers, both of which must be characterized for effective in-place remediation. Bioremediation requires understanding bacterial transport and nutrient distribution throughout the acquifer, knowledge of contaminants s mobile colloidal particles is just essential

  20. Wind Energy Deployment Process and Siting Tools (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, S.

    2015-02-01

    Regardless of cost and performance, some wind projects cannot proceed to completion as a result of competing multiple uses or siting considerations. Wind energy siting issues must be better understood and quantified. DOE tasked NREL researchers with depicting the wind energy deployment process and researching development considerations. This presentation provides an overview of these findings and wind siting tools.

  1. Development of a site analysis tool for distributed wind projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Shawn [The Cadmus Group, Inc., Waltham MA (United States)

    2012-02-28

    The Cadmus Group, Inc., in collaboration with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Encraft, was awarded a grant from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a site analysis tool for distributed wind technologies. As the principal investigator for this project, Mr. Shawn Shaw was responsible for overall project management, direction, and technical approach. The product resulting from this project is the Distributed Wind Site Analysis Tool (DSAT), a software tool for analyzing proposed sites for distributed wind technology (DWT) systems. This user-friendly tool supports the long-term growth and stability of the DWT market by providing reliable, realistic estimates of site and system energy output and feasibility. DSAT-which is accessible online and requires no purchase or download of software-is available in two account types; Standard: This free account allows the user to analyze a limited number of sites and to produce a system performance report for each; and Professional: For a small annual fee users can analyze an unlimited number of sites, produce system performance reports, and generate other customizable reports containing key information such as visual influence and wind resources. The tool’s interactive maps allow users to create site models that incorporate the obstructions and terrain types present. Users can generate site reports immediately after entering the requisite site information. Ideally, this tool also educates users regarding good site selection and effective evaluation practices.

  2. Subsurface characterization and geohydrologic site evaluation West Chestnut Ridge site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The West Chestnut Ridge Site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is being considered for use as a repository for low-level radioactive waste. The purposes of this study were to provide a geohydrological characterization of the site for use in pathways analysis, and to provide preliminary geotechnical recommendations that would be used for development of a site utilization plan. Subsurface conditions were investigated at twenty locations and observation wells were installed. Field testing at each location included the Standard Penetration Test and permeability tests in soil and rock. A well pumping test was ocmpleted at one site. Laboratory testing included permeability, deformability, strength and compaction tests, as well as index and physical property tests. The field investigations showed that the subsurface conditions include residual soil overlying a weathered zone of dolomite which grades into relatively unweathered dolomite at depth. The thickness of residual soil is typically 80 ft (24 m) on the ridges, but can be as little as 10 ft (3 m) in the valleys. Trench excavations to depths of 30 ft (9 m) should not present serious slope stability problems above the water table. On-site soils can be used for liners or trench backfill but these soils may require moisture conditioning to achieve required densities. 19 figures, 8 tables

  3. Expedited site characterization. Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) has been developed, demonstrated, and deployed as a new time-saving, cost-effective approach for hazardous waste site investigations. ESC is an alternative approach that effectively shortens the length of the assessment period and may significantly reduce costs at many sites. It is not a specific technology or system but is a methodology for most effectively conducting a site characterization. The principal elements of ESC are: a field investigation conducted by an integrated team of experienced professionals working in the field at the same time, analysis, integration and initial validation of the characterization data as they are obtained in the field, and a dynamic work plan that enables the team to take advantage of new insights from recent data to adjust the work plan in the field. This report covers demonstrations that took place between 1989 and 1996. This paper gives a description of the technology and discusses its performance, applications, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned.

  4. Expedited site characterization. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) has been developed, demonstrated, and deployed as a new time-saving, cost-effective approach for hazardous waste site investigations. ESC is an alternative approach that effectively shortens the length of the assessment period and may significantly reduce costs at many sites. It is not a specific technology or system but is a methodology for most effectively conducting a site characterization. The principal elements of ESC are: a field investigation conducted by an integrated team of experienced professionals working in the field at the same time, analysis, integration and initial validation of the characterization data as they are obtained in the field, and a dynamic work plan that enables the team to take advantage of new insights from recent data to adjust the work plan in the field. This report covers demonstrations that took place between 1989 and 1996. This paper gives a description of the technology and discusses its performance, applications, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned

  5. Site characterization and validation - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, O.

    1992-04-01

    The central aims of the Site Characterization and Validation (SCV) project were to develop and apply; * an advanced site characterization methodology and * a methodology to validate the models used to describe groundwater flow and transport in fractured rock. The basic experiment within the SCV project was to predict the distribution of water flow and tracer transport through a volume of rock, before and after excavation of a sub-horizontal drift, and to compare these predictions with actual field measurements. A structured approach was developed to combine site characterization data into a geological and hydrogeological conceptual model of a site. The conceptual model was based on a binary description where the rock mass was divided into 'fracture zones' and 'averagely fractured rock'. This designation into categories was based on a Fracture Zone Index (FZI) derived from principal component analysis of single borehole data. The FZI was used to identify the location of fracture zones in the boreholes and the extent of the zones between the boreholes was obtained form remote sensing data (radar and seismics). The consistency of the geometric model thus defined, and its significance to the flow system, was verified by cross-hole hydraulic testing. The conceptual model of the SCV site contained three major and four minor fractures zones which were the principal hydraulic conduits at the site. The location and extent of the fracture zones were included explicitly in the flow and transport models. Four different numerical modelling approaches were pursued within the project; one porous medium approach, two discrete fracture approaches, and an equivalent discontinuum approach. A series of tracer tests was also included in the prediction-validation exercise. (120 refs.) (au)

  6. Site characterization plan: Gulf Coast salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    The National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for developing technology and providing facilities for safe, environmentally acceptable, permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation has been intensively investigating Gulf Coast Salt Dome Basin salt domes and bedded salt in Texas and Utah since 1978. In the Gulf Coast, the application of screening criteria in the region phase led to selection of eight domes for further study in the location phase. Further screening in the area phase identified four domes for more intensive study in the location phase: Oakwood Dome, Texas; Vacherie Dome, Louisiana; and Richton Dome and Cypress Creek Dome, Mississippi. For each dome, this Site Characterization Plan identifies specific hydrologic, geologic, tectonic, geochemical, and environmental key issues that are related to the DOE/NWTS screening criteria or affect the feasibility of constructing an exploratory shaft. The Site Characterization Plan outlines studies need to: (1) resolve issues sufficiently to allow one or more salt domes to be selected and compared to bedded salt sites in order to determine a prime salt site for an exploratory shaft; (2) conduct issue-related studies to provide a higher level of confidence that the preferred salt dome site is viable for construction of an exploratory shaft; and (3) provide a vehicle for state input to issues. Extensive references, 7 figures, 20 tables

  7. Site characterization report for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    This Site Characterization Report documents the results of the site screening process, the preliminary site characterization data, the technical issues that need to be addressed, and the plans for resolving these issues

  8. Tools for characterizing biomembranes : final LDRD report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Todd Michael; Stevens, Mark; Holland, Gregory P.; McIntyre, Sarah K.

    2007-10-01

    A suite of experimental nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy tools were developed to investigate lipid structure and dynamics in model membrane systems. By utilizing both multinuclear and multidimensional NMR experiments a range of different intra- and inter-molecular contacts were probed within the membranes. Examples on pure single component lipid membranes and on the canonical raft forming mixture of DOPC/SM/Chol are presented. A unique gel phase pretransition in SM was also identified and characterized using these NMR techniques. In addition molecular dynamics into the hydrogen bonding network unique to sphingomyelin containing membranes were evaluated as a function of temperature, and are discussed.

  9. Tools for DIY site-testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Federico; Rondanelli, Roberto; Abarca, Accel; Diaz, Marcos; Querel, Richard

    2012-09-01

    Our group has designed, sourced and constructed a radiosonde/ground-station pair using inexpensive opensource hardware. Based on the Arduino platform, the easy to build radiosonde allows the atmospheric science community to test and deploy instrumentation packages that can be fully customized to their individual sensing requirements. This sensing/transmitter package has been successfully deployed on a tethered-balloon, a weather balloon, a UAV airplane, and is currently being integrated into a UAV quadcopter and a student-built rocket. In this paper, the system, field measurements and potential applications will be described. As will the science drivers of having full control and open access to a measurement system in an age when commercial solutions have become popular but are restrictive in terms of proprietary sensor specifications, "black-box" calibration operations or data handling routines, etc. The ability to modify and experiment with both the hardware and software tools is an essential part of the scientific process. Without an understanding of the intrinsic biases or limitations in your instruments and system, it becomes difficult to improve them or advance the knowledge in any given field.

  10. Digital Discernment: An E-Commerce Web Site Evaluation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigman, Betsy Page; Boston, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    Students entering the business workforce today may well share some responsibility for developing, revising, or evaluating their company's Web site. They may lack the experience, however, to critique their employer's Web presence effectively. The purpose of developing Digital Discernment, an e-commerce Web site evaluation tool, was to prepare…

  11. Expedited Site Characterization: A rapid, cost-effective process for preremedial site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, J.C.; Walker, J.L.; Jennings, T.V.; Aggarwal, P.K.; Hastings, B.; Meyer, W.T.; Rose, C.M.; Rosignolo, C.L.

    1993-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a unique, cost- and time-effective, technically innovative process for preremedial site characterization, referred to as Expedited Site Characterization (ESC). The cost of the ESC field sampling process ranges from 1/10 to 1/5 of the cost of traditional site characterization. The time required for this ESC field activity is approximately 1/30 of that for current methods. Argonne's preremedial site investigations based on this approach have been accepted by the appropriate regulatory agencies. The ESC process is flexible and neither site nor contaminant dependent. The process has been successfully tested and applied in site investigations of multiple contaminated landfills in New Mexico (for the US Department of the Interior's Bureau of Land Management [BLM]) and at former grain storage facilities in Nebraska and Kansas, contaminated with carbon tetrachloride (for the Department of Agriculture's Commodity Credit Corporation [CCC/USDA]). A working demonstration of this process was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development as a model of the methodology needed to accelerate site characterizations at DOE facilities. This report describes the application of the process in New Mexico, Nebraska and Kansas

  12. Second ILAW Site Borehole Characterization Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reidel, S.P.

    2000-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Hanford Site has the most diverse and largest amounts of radioactive tank waste in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored at Hanford since 1944. Approximately 209,000 m 3 (54 Mgal) of waste are currently stored in 177 tanks. Vitrification and onsite disposal of low-activity tank waste (LAW) are embodied in the strategy described in the Tri-Party Agreement. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low- and high-level fractions, and then immobilized. The low-activity vitrified waste will be disposed of in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. This report is a plan to drill and characterize the second borehole for the Performance Assessment. The first characterization borehole was drilled in 1998. The plan describes data collection activities for determining physical and chemical properties of the vadose zone and saturated zone on the northeast side of the proposed disposal site. These data will then be used in the 2005 Performance Assessment

  13. A teleoperated system for remote site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandness, G.A.; Richardson, B.S.; Pence, J.

    1993-08-01

    The detection and characterization of buried objects and materials is an important first step in the restoration of burial sites containing chemical and radioactive waste materials at Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Defense (DOD) facilities. To address the need to minimize the exposure of on-site personnel to the hazards associated with such sites, the DOE Office of Technology Development and the US Army Environmental Center have jointly supported the development of the Remote Characterization System (RCS). One of the main components of the RCS is a small remotely driven survey vehicle that can transport various combinations of geophysical and radiological sensors. Currently implemented sensors include ground-penetrating radar, magnetometers, an electromagnetic induction sensor, and a sodium iodide radiation detector. The survey vehicle was constructed predominantly of non-metallic materials to minimize its effect on the operation of its geophysical sensors. The system operator controls the vehicle from a remote, truck-mounted, base station. Video images are transmitted to the base station by an radio link to give the operator necessary visual information. Vehicle control commands, tracking information, and sensor data are transmitted between the survey vehicle and the base station by means of a radio ethernet link. Precise vehicle tracking coordinates are provided by a differential Global Positioning System (GPS). The sensors are environmentally protected, internally cooled, and interchangeable based on mission requirements. To date, the RCS has been successfully tested at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

  14. Restructured site characterization program at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, J.R.; Vawter, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    During 1994 and the early part of 1995, the US Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Office (YMSCO) and its parent organization, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) underwent a significant restructuring. Senior Department officials provided the leadership to reorient the management, technical, programmatic, and public interaction approach to the US High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Program. The restructuring involved reorganizing the federal staff, conducting meaningful strategic planning, improving the management system, rationalizing contractor responsibilities, focusing upon major products, and increasing stakeholder involvement. The restructured program has prioritized technical and scientific activities toward meeting major regulatory milestones in a timely and cost-effective manner. This approach has raised concern among elements of technical, scientific, and oversight bodies that suitability and licensing decisions could be made without obtaining sufficient technical information for this first-of-its-kind endeavor. Other organizations, such as congressional committees, industrial groups, and rate payers believe characterization goals can be met in a timely manner and within the limitation of available funds. To balance these contrasting views in its decision making process, OCRWM management has made a special effort to communicate its strategy to oversight bodies, the scientific community and other stakeholders and to use external independent peer review as a key means of demonstrating scientific credibility. Site characterization of Yucca Mountain in Nevada is one of the key elements of the restructured program

  15. Analog site for fractured rock characterization. Annual report FY 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.C.S.; Loughty, C.; Faybishenko, B.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes the accomplishments of the Analog Site for Fracture Rock Characterization Project during fiscal year 1995. This project is designed to address the problem of characterizing contaminated fractured rock. In order to locate contaminant plumes, develop monitoring schemes, and predict future fate and transport, the project will address the following questions: What parts of the system control flow-geometry of a fracture network? What physical processes control flow and transport? What are the limits on measurements to determine the above? What instrumentation should be used? How should it be designed and implemented? How can field tests be designed to provide information for predicting behavior? What numerical models are good predictors of the behavior of the system? The answers to these question can be used to help plan drilling programs that are likely to intersect plumes and provide effective monitoring of plume movement. The work is done at an open-quotes analogueclose quotes site, i.e., a site that is not contaminated, but has similar geology to sites that are contaminated, in order to develop tools and techniques without the financial, time and legal burdens of a contaminated site. The idea is to develop conceptual models and investigations tools and methodology that will apply to the contaminated sites in the same geologic regimes. The Box Canyon site, chosen for most of this work represents a unique opportunity because the Canyon walls allow us to see a vertical plane through the rock. The work represents a collaboration between the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL), Stanford University (Stanford), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and Parsons Environmental Engineering (Parsons). LBL and Stanford bring extensive experience in research in fractured rock systems. INEL and Parsons bring significant experience with the contamination problem at INEL

  16. Hydrologic site characterization - the UMTRA project approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binkman, J.E.; Hoopes, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Standards (40 CFR 192) require site characterization of the hydrogeologic regime at and around each Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. Also, ''judgements on the possible need for remedial or protective actions for groundwater aquifers should be guided by relevant considerations described in EPA's hazardous waste management system (47 CFR 32274).'' To address those two sets of rules and regulations, a generic approach is being developed. Fourteen primary issues were determined. These issues can be grouped into those that can be determined by documentation of available information and present conditions, those that require extensive field investigations and those that require some form of predictive modeling. To address the various issues requires an integrated effort of hydrogeologists, environmental engineers or scientists and health physicists. In this paper, the approach to the resolution of these fourteen issues is described briefly

  17. Physical sampling for site and waste characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnough, T.L.

    1994-01-01

    Physical sampling plays a basic role in site and waste characterization program effort. The term ''physical sampling'' used here means collecting tangible, physical samples of soil, water, air, waste streams, or other materials. The industry defines the term ''physical sampling'' broadly to include measurements of physical conditions such as temperature, wind conditions, and pH which are also often taken in a sample collection effort. Most environmental compliance actions are supported by the results of taking, recording, and analyzing physical samples and the measuring of physical conditions taken in association with sample collecting

  18. Social network sites: Indispensable or optional social tools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shklovski, Irina

    2012-01-01

    Much research has enumerated potential benefits of online social network sites. Given the pervasiveness of these sites and the numbers of people that use them daily, both re-search and media tend to make the assumption that social network sites have become indispensible to their users. Based...... on the analysis of qualitative data from users of social network sites in Russia and Kazakhstan, this paper consid-ers under what conditions social network sites can become indispensable to their users and when these technologies remain on the periphery of life despite fulfilling useful func-tions. For some...... respondents, these sites had become indis-pensable tools as they were integrated into everyday rou-tines of communicating with emotionally important and proximal contacts and were often used for coordination of offline activities. For others social network sites remained spaces where they occasionally visited...

  19. Improving web site performance using commercially available analytical tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, James A

    2010-10-01

    It is easy to accurately measure web site usage and to quantify key parameters such as page views, site visits, and more complex variables using commercially available tools that analyze web site log files and search engine use. This information can be used strategically to guide the design or redesign of a web site (templates, look-and-feel, and navigation infrastructure) to improve overall usability. The data can also be used tactically to assess the popularity and use of new pages and modules that are added and to rectify problems that surface. This paper describes software tools used to: (1) inventory search terms that lead to available content; (2) propose synonyms for commonly used search terms; (3) evaluate the effectiveness of calls to action; (4) conduct path analyses to targeted content. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) uses SurfRay's Behavior Tracking software (Santa Clara CA, USA, and Copenhagen, Denmark) to capture and archive the search terms that have been entered into the site's Google Mini search engine. The AAOS also uses Unica's NetInsight program to analyze its web site log files. These tools provide the AAOS with information that quantifies how well its web sites are operating and insights for making improvements to them. Although it is easy to quantify many aspects of an association's web presence, it also takes human involvement to analyze the results and then recommend changes. Without a dedicated resource to do this, the work often is accomplished only sporadically and on an ad hoc basis.

  20. Radiological characterization and challenges at decommissioning sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Scott

    2002-01-01

    -1700 provides the review methodology that NRC staff follows when reviewing License Termination Plans submitted by decommissioning reactors. NRC has developed and implemented a dose-based cleanup standard. In addition, a comprehensive suite of guidance documents has been developed, enabling application of the new regulations to the characterization and cleanup of radioactively contaminated sites. As NRC and its licensees gain experience, we look forward to applying these new performance-based standards and implementing methodologies to their fullest potential in current and yet to be discovered decommissioning challenges

  1. Geoscientific Characterization of the Bruce Site, Tiverton, Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, K.; Jackson, R.; Avis, J.; Clark, I.; Jensen, M.

    2009-05-01

    Ontario Power Generation is proposing a Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for the long-term management of its Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste (L&ILW) within a Paleozoic-age sedimentary sequence beneath the Bruce site near Tiverton, Ontario, Canada. The concept envisions that the DGR would be excavated at a depth of approximately 680 m within the Ordovician Cobourg Formation, a massive, dense, low- permeability, argillaceous limestone. Characterization of the Bruce site for waste disposal is being conducted in accordance with a four year multi-phase Geoscientific Site Characterization Plan (GSCP). The GSCP, initially developed in 2006 and later revised in 2008 to account for acquired site knowledge based on successful completion of Phase I investigations, describes the tools and methods selected for geological, hydrogeological and geomechanical site characterization. The GSCP was developed, in part, on an assessment of geoscience data needs and collection methods, review of the results of detailed geoscientific studies completed in the same bedrock formations found off the Bruce site, and recent international experience in geoscientific characterization of similar sedimentary rocks for long-term radioactive waste management purposes. Field and laboratory work related to Phase 1 and Phase 2A are nearing completion and have focused on the drilling, testing and monitoring of four continuously cored vertical boreholes through Devonian, Silurian, Ordovician and Cambrian bedrock to depths of about 860 mBGS. Work in 2009 will focus on drilling and testing of inclined boreholes to assess presence of vertical structure. The available geological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical data indicate the presence of remarkably uniform and predictable geology, physical hydrogeologic and geochemical properties over well separation distances exceeding 1 km. The current data set including 2-D seismic reflection surveys, field and lab hydraulic testing, lab petrophysical and

  2. Site Characterization Of Borehole Disposal Facility (BOSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamarudin Samuding; Mohd Abd Wahab Yusof; Mohd Muzamil; Nazran Harun; Nurul Fairuz Diyana Bahrudin; Ismail, C. Mohamad; Kalam

    2014-01-01

    Site characterization study is one of the major components in assessing the potential site for borehole disposal facility. The main objectives of this study are to obtain the geology, geomorphology, hydrogeology and geochemistry information in order to understand the regional geological setting, its past evolution and likely future natural evolution over the assessment time frame. This study was focused on the geological information, borehole log and hydrogeological information. Geological information involve general geology, lineament, topography, structure geology, geological terrain. Whereas Borehole log information consists of lithology, soil and rock formation, gamma logging data and physical properties of soil and rock. Hydrogeological information was emphasized on the groundwater flow, physical parameter as well as geochemical data. Geological mapping shows the study area is underlain by metamorphic rock of the Kenny Hill Formation. Lithologically, it composed of psammitic schist of sandstone origin and phyllite. Based on the borehole log profile, the study area is covered by thick layer of residual soil and estimated not less than 10 m. Those foliated rocks tend to break or split along the foliation planes. The foliation or schistosity may also serve as conduit for groundwater migration. Main structural geology features in the study area trend predominantly in North to Northeast directions. Major fault, the UKM Fault trends in NE-SW direction about 0.5 km located to the east of the proposed borehole site. The groundwater flow direction is influenced by the structure and bedding of the rock formation. Whereas the groundwater flow velocity in the borehole ranges 2.15 - 5.24 x 10 -4 m/ sec. All the data that are obtained in this study is used to support the Safety Assessment and Safety Case report. (author)

  3. Preliminary siting characterization Salt Disposition Facility - Site B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, D.

    2000-01-01

    A siting and reconnaissance geotechnical program has been completed in S-Area at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. This program investigated the subsurface conditions for the area known as ''Salt Disposition Facility (SDF), Site B'' located northeast of H-Area and within the S-Area. Data acquired from the Site B investigation includes both field exploration and laboratory test data

  4. Final work plan: Expedited Site Characterization of the IES Industries, Inc., Site at Marshalltown, Iowa. Ames Expedited Site Characterization Project, Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-04

    The overall goal of the Ames Laboratory Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) project is to evaluate and promote both innovative and state-of-the-practice site characterization and/or monitoring technologies. This will be accomplished by fielding both types of technologies together in the context of an expedited site characterization. The first site will be at a former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) in Marshalltown, Iowa. The project will field three areas of technology: geophysical, analytical, and data fusion. Geophysical technologies are designed to understand the subsurface geology to help predict fate and transport of the target contaminants. Analytical technologies/methods are designed to detect and quantify the target contaminants. Data fusion technology consists of software systems designed to rapidly integrate or fuse all site information into a conceptual site model that then becomes the decision making tool for the site team to plan subsequent sampling activity. Not all of the contaminants present can be located at the action level. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the signature organics associated with the coal tar activities that took place at the site. As a result, PAHs were selected as the target compounds. Screening analytical instruments and nonintrusive geophysical techniques will be fielded to qualitatively map the spatial contaminant distribution. Soil gas surveys, immunoassay testing (IMA), innovative optical techniques, and passive organic sorbent sensors will be deployed along with the geophysical methods. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) instruments and a cone penetrometer system equipped with a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) probe will quantitatively map the action level edges of the PAH plume(s). Samples will be taken both by the cone penetrometer test system (CPT) and the Geoprobe {reg_sign} sampler system.

  5. Site characterization plan: Public Handbook, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada has been designated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, for detailed study as the candidate site for the first US geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The detailed study --- called ''site characterization'' --- will be conducted by the Department of Energy (DOE) to determine the suitability of the site for a repository and, if the site is suitable, to obtain from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission authorization to construct the repository. As part of the site characterization study, DOE has prepared a Site Characterization Plan (SCP) for the Yucca Mountain site. The Site Characterization Plan is a nine-volume document, approximately 6300 pages in length, which describes the activities that will be conducted to characterize the geologic, hydrologic, and other conditions relevant to the suitability of the site for a repository. Part 1 of this Handbook explains what site characterization is and how the Site Characterization Plan (Plan) relates to it. Part 2 tells how to locate subjects covered in the Plan. Another major purpose of this Handbook is to identify opportunities for public involement in the review of the Site Characterization Plan. DOE wants to be sure that the public has adequate opportunities to learn about the Plan and review the results of the subsequent technical studies. 14 refs

  6. NRC staff site characterization analysis of the Department of Energy`s Site Characterization Plan, Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-08-01

    This Site Characterization Analysis (SCA) documents the NRC staff`s concerns resulting from its review of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Site Characterization Plan (SCP) for the Yucca Mountain site in southern Nevada, which is the candidate site selected for characterization as the nation`s first geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. DOE`s SCP explains how DOE plans to obtain the information necessary to determine the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site for a repository. NRC`s specific objections related to the SCP, and major comments and recommendations on the various parts of DOE`s program, are presented in SCA Section 2, Director`s Comments and Recommendations. Section 3 contains summaries of the NRC staff`s concerns for each specific program, and Section 4 contains NRC staff point papers which set forth in greater detail particular staff concerns regarding DOE`s program. Appendix A presents NRC staff evaluations of those NRC staff Consultation Draft SCP concerns that NRC considers resolved on the basis of the SCP. This SCA fulfills NRC`s responsibilities with respect to DOE`s SCP as specified by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) and 10 CFR 60.18. 192 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. NRC staff site characterization analysis of the Department of Energy's Site Characterization Plan, Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    This Site Characterization Analysis (SCA) documents the NRC staff's concerns resulting from its review of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Site Characterization Plan (SCP) for the Yucca Mountain site in southern Nevada, which is the candidate site selected for characterization as the nation's first geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. DOE's SCP explains how DOE plans to obtain the information necessary to determine the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site for a repository. NRC's specific objections related to the SCP, and major comments and recommendations on the various parts of DOE's program, are presented in SCA Section 2, Director's Comments and Recommendations. Section 3 contains summaries of the NRC staff's concerns for each specific program, and Section 4 contains NRC staff point papers which set forth in greater detail particular staff concerns regarding DOE's program. Appendix A presents NRC staff evaluations of those NRC staff Consultation Draft SCP concerns that NRC considers resolved on the basis of the SCP. This SCA fulfills NRC's responsibilities with respect to DOE's SCP as specified by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) and 10 CFR 60.18. 192 refs., 2 tabs

  8. GEOMETRICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MICRO END MILLING TOOLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borsetto, Francesca; Bariani, Paolo

    The milling process is one of the most common metal removal operation used in industry. This machining process is well known since the beginning of last century and has experienced, along the years, many improvements of the basic technology, as concerns tools, machine tools, coolants/lubricants, ......The milling process is one of the most common metal removal operation used in industry. This machining process is well known since the beginning of last century and has experienced, along the years, many improvements of the basic technology, as concerns tools, machine tools, coolants....../lubricants, milling strategies and controls. Moreover the accuracy of tool geometry directly affects the performance of the milling process influencing the dimensional tolerances of the machined part, the surface topography, the chip formation, the cutting forces and the tool-life. The dimensions of certain...... geometrical details, as for instance the cutting edge radius, are determined by characteristics of the manufacturing process, tool material, coating etc. While for conventional size end mills the basic tool manufacturing process is well established, the reduction of the size of the tools required...

  9. Site characterization criteria (DOE-STD-1022-94) for natural phenomena hazards at DOE sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.C.; Ueng, T.S.; Boissonnade, A.C.

    1995-12-01

    This paper briefly summarizes requirements of site characterization for Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) at DOE sites. In order to comply with DOE Order 5480.28, site characterization criteria has been developed to provide site-specific information needed for development of NPH assessment criteria. Appropriate approaches are outlined to ensure that the current state-of-the-art methodologies and procedures are used in the site characterization. General and detailed site characterization requirements are provided in the areas of meteorology, hydrology, geology, seismology and geotechnical studies

  10. Evaluation of Phosphorus Site Assessment Tools: Lessons from the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpley, Andrew; Kleinman, Peter; Baffaut, Claire; Beegle, Doug; Bolster, Carl; Collick, Amy; Easton, Zachary; Lory, John; Nelson, Nathan; Osmond, Deanna; Radcliffe, David; Veith, Tamie; Weld, Jennifer

    2017-11-01

    Critical source area identification through phosphorus (P) site assessment is a fundamental part of modern nutrient management planning in the United States, yet there has been only sparse testing of the many versions of the P Index that now exist. Each P site assessment tool was developed to be applicable across a range of field conditions found in a given geographic area, making evaluation extremely difficult. In general, evaluation with in-field monitoring data has been limited, focusing primarily on corroborating manure and fertilizer "source" factors. Thus, a multiregional effort (Chesapeake Bay, Heartland, and Southern States) was undertaken to evaluate P Indices using a combination of limited field data, as well as output from simulation models (i.e., Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender, Annual P Loss Estimator, Soil and Water Assessment Tool [SWAT], and Texas Best Management Practice Evaluation Tool [TBET]) to compare against P Index ratings. These comparisons show promise for advancing the weighting and formulation of qualitative P Index components but require careful vetting of the simulation models. Differences among regional conclusions highlight model strengths and weaknesses. For example, the Southern States region found that, although models could simulate the effects of nutrient management on P runoff, they often more accurately predicted hydrology than total P loads. Furthermore, SWAT and TBET overpredicted particulate P and underpredicted dissolved P, resulting in correct total P predictions but for the wrong reasons. Experience in the United States supports expanded regional approaches to P site assessment, assuming closely coordinated efforts that engage science, policy, and implementation communities, but limited scientific validity exists for uniform national P site assessment tools at the present time. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  11. Remote controlled tool systems for nuclear sites have subsea applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bath, B.; Yemington, C.; Kuhta, B.

    1995-10-01

    Remotely operated underwater tool systems designed to operate in Nuclear Fuel Storage Basins can be applied to deep water, subsea oilfield applications. Spent nuclear fuel rods re stored underwater in large indoor swimming pool-like facilities where the water cover shields the workers from the radiation. This paper describes three specialized tooling systems that were designed and built by Sonsub for work at the Department of Energy's Hanford site. The Door Seal Tool removed an existing seal system, cleaned a 20 ft. tall, carbon steel, underwater hatch and installed a new stainless steel gasket surface with underwater epoxy. The Concrete Sampling Tool was built to take core samples from the vertical, concrete walls of the basins. The tool has three hydraulic drills with proprietary hollow core drill bits to cut and retrieve the concrete samples. The Rack Saw remotely attached itself to a structure, cut a variety of steel shapes and pipes, and retained the cut pieces for retrieval. All of these systems are remotely operated with onboard video cameras and debris collection systems. The methods and equipment proven in this application are available to refurbish sealing surfaces and to drill or sample concrete in offshore oil field applications

  12. Site characterization of the West Chestnut Ridge site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketelle, R.H.; Huff, D.D.

    1984-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of investigations performed to date on the West Chestnut Ridge Site, on the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation. The investigations performed include geomorphic observations, areal geologic mapping, surficial soil mapping, subsurface investigations, soil geochemical and mineralogical analyses, geohydrologic testing, groundwater fluctuation monitoring, and surface water discharge and precipitation monitoring. 33 references, 32 figures, 24 tables

  13. WHALE, a management tool for Tier-2 LCG sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, L. M.; Organtini, G.; Talamo, I. G.

    2012-12-01

    The LCG (Worldwide LHC Computing Grid) is a grid-based hierarchical computing distributed facility, composed of more than 140 computing centers, organized in 4 tiers, by size and offer of services. Every site, although indipendent for many technical choices, has to provide services with a well-defined set of interfaces. For this reason, different LCG sites need frequently to manage very similar situations, like jobs behaviour on the batch system, dataset transfers between sites, operating system and experiment software installation and configuration, monitoring of services. In this context we created WHALE (WHALE Handles Administration in an LCG Environment), a software actually used at the T2_IT_Rome site, an LCG Tier-2 for the CMS experiment. WHALE is a generic, site independent tool written in Python: it allows administrator to interact in a uniform and coherent way with several subsystems using a high level syntax which hides specific commands. The architecture of WHALE is based on the plugin concept and on the possibility of connecting the output of a plugin to the input of the next one, in a pipe-like system, giving the administrator the possibility of making complex functions by combining the simpler ones. The core of WHALE just handles the plugin orchestrations, while even the basic functions (eg. the WHALE activity logging) are performed by plugins, giving the capability to tune and possibly modify every component of the system. WHALE already provides many plugins useful for a LCG site and some more for a Tier-2 of the CMS experiment, especially in the field of job management, dataset transfer and analysis of performance results and availability tests (eg. Nagios tests, SAM tests). Thanks to its architecture and the provided plugins WHALE makes easy to perform tasks that, even if logically simple, are technically complex or tedious, like eg. closing all the worker nodes with a job-failure rate greater than a given threshold. Finally, thanks to the

  14. WHALE, a management tool for Tier-2 LCG sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barone, L M; Organtini, G; Talamo, I G

    2012-01-01

    The LCG (Worldwide LHC Computing Grid) is a grid-based hierarchical computing distributed facility, composed of more than 140 computing centers, organized in 4 tiers, by size and offer of services. Every site, although indipendent for many technical choices, has to provide services with a well-defined set of interfaces. For this reason, different LCG sites need frequently to manage very similar situations, like jobs behaviour on the batch system, dataset transfers between sites, operating system and experiment software installation and configuration, monitoring of services. In this context we created WHALE (WHALE Handles Administration in an LCG Environment), a software actually used at the T2 I T R ome site, an LCG Tier-2 for the CMS experiment. WHALE is a generic, site independent tool written in Python: it allows administrator to interact in a uniform and coherent way with several subsystems using a high level syntax which hides specific commands. The architecture of WHALE is based on the plugin concept and on the possibility of connecting the output of a plugin to the input of the next one, in a pipe-like system, giving the administrator the possibility of making complex functions by combining the simpler ones. The core of WHALE just handles the plugin orchestrations, while even the basic functions (eg. the WHALE activity logging) are performed by plugins, giving the capability to tune and possibly modify every component of the system. WHALE already provides many plugins useful for a LCG site and some more for a Tier-2 of the CMS experiment, especially in the field of job management, dataset transfer and analysis of performance results and availability tests (eg. Nagios tests, SAM tests). Thanks to its architecture and the provided plugins WHALE makes easy to perform tasks that, even if logically simple, are technically complex or tedious, like eg. closing all the worker nodes with a job-failure rate greater than a given threshold. Finally, thanks to the

  15. Paradox Basin site characterization report: preparation papers, Gibson Dome location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    This document contains Part C, Identification of Pertinent Issues, of the site characterization report. The site characterization report, preparation papers, includes a description of detailed field studies and efforts to collect data to resolve key geologic and environmental issues in the Gibson Dome location within the Paradox Basin Region of Utah

  16. Site characterization activities at Stripa and other Swedish projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstroehm, P.E.

    1991-01-01

    The Swedish research programme concerning spent nuclear fuel disposal aims for submitting a siting license application around the year 2000. An important step towards that goal will be the detailed characterization of at least two potential sites in late 1990s. In preparation for such characterization several research projects are conducted. One is the international Stripa Project that includes a site characterization and validation project for a small size granite rock body. The Stripa work also includes further development of instrumentation and measurement techniques. Another project is the Finnsjoen Fracture Zone Project, which is characterizing a subhorizontal zone at depths from 100 to 350 meters. The third project is the new Swedish Hard Rock Laboratory planned at the site of the Oskarshamn nuclear power plant. The preinvestigations and construction of this laboratory include major efforts in development, application and validation of site characterization methodology. (author) 6 figs., 9 refs

  17. Development of METAL-ACTIVE SITE and ZINCCLUSTER tool to predict active site pockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajitha, M; Sundar, K; Arul Mugilan, S; Arumugam, S

    2018-03-01

    The advent of whole genome sequencing leads to increasing number of proteins with known amino acid sequences. Despite many efforts, the number of proteins with resolved three dimensional structures is still low. One of the challenging tasks the structural biologists face is the prediction of the interaction of metal ion with any protein for which the structure is unknown. Based on the information available in Protein Data Bank, a site (METALACTIVE INTERACTION) has been generated which displays information for significant high preferential and low-preferential combination of endogenous ligands for 49 metal ions. User can also gain information about the residues present in the first and second coordination sphere as it plays a major role in maintaining the structure and function of metalloproteins in biological system. In this paper, a novel computational tool (ZINCCLUSTER) is developed, which can predict the zinc metal binding sites of proteins even if only the primary sequence is known. The purpose of this tool is to predict the active site cluster of an uncharacterized protein based on its primary sequence or a 3D structure. The tool can predict amino acids interacting with a metal or vice versa. This tool is based on the occurrence of significant triplets and it is tested to have higher prediction accuracy when compared to that of other available techniques. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Interdisciplinary hydrogeologic site characterization at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, W.L.; Wagoner, J.L.; Drellack, S.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site was established in 1950 as a continental area for testing nuclear devices. Hydrogeologic investigations began in earnest with the US Geological Survey mapping much of the area from 1960 to 1965. Since 1963, all nuclear detonations have been underground. Most tests are conducted in vertical shafts, but a small percentage are conducted in tunnels. The majority of detonation points are above the water table, primarily in volcanic rocks, but sometimes in alluvium. Hydrogeologic investigations began in earnest with the US Geological Survey's mapping of much of the NTS region from 1960 to 1965. Following the BANEBERRY test in December 1970, which produced an accidental release of radioactivity to the atmosphere, the US Department of Energy (then the Atomic Energy Commission) established the Containment Evaluation Panel (CEP). Results of interdisciplinary hydrogeologic investigations for each test location are included in a Containment Prospectus which is thoroughly reviewed by the CEP

  19. Socioeconomic monitoring and mitigation plan for site characterization: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The objective of the SMMP is to document compliance with the NWPA. In order to do so, a summary description of site characterization activities based on the consultation draft of the Site Characterization Plan and the final EA is provided. Subsequent chapters identify issues related to the potential for significant adverse impacts and the monitoring plans proposed to determine whether those impacts occur. Should monitoring confirm the potential for significant adverse impact, mitigative maesures will be developed. In the context of site characterization, mitigation is defined as those changes in site characterization activities that serve to avoid or minimize, to the maximum extent practicable, any significant adverse environmental impacts. Proposed site characterization activites involve a variety of surface and subsurface activities including site preparation, access road construction and improvment, exploratory drilling and testing, geophysical surveys, geological mapping, and construction of the exploratory shaft facility. It is not anticipated that any significant adverse socioeconomic impacts will result form any of the proposed site characterization activities. However, the assessment of impacts in the EA, especially impacts related to employment and population growth, was based on assumptions concerning activities and conditions during the site characterization phase

  20. Successful characterization of radioactive waste at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, M.B.; Miles, G.M.

    1995-01-01

    Characterization of the low-level radioactive waste generated by forty five independent operating facilities at The Savannah River Site (SRS) experienced a slow start. However, the site effectively accelerated waste characterization based on findings of an independent assessment that recommended several changes to the existing process. The new approach included the development of a generic waste characterization protocol and methodology and the formulation of a technical board to approve waste characterization. As a result, consistent, detailed characterization of waste streams from SRS facilities was achieved in six months

  1. Caracterização do solo de cobertura de aterros encerrados com ferramentas (geoestatísticas Characterization of soil covers in closed landfill sites with (geostatistical tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Samuel-Rosa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Inúmeros trabalhos abordam a elaboração de estratégias amostrais e a aplicação de ferramentas (geoestatísticas no estudo de atributos do solo. Entretanto, são escassos os trabalhos envolvendo a aplicação desta abordagem no monitoramento de solos construídos sobre aterros encerrados de resíduos sólidos urbanos. Este estudo mostra que a densidade amostral necessária para tornar possível o uso da geoestatística em tais casos, elevaria os custos operacionais. A melhor alternativa é a utilização dos métodos de estatística multivariada (análise de componentes principais e de agrupamento para definição de zonas homogêneas de manejo. Os atributos que melhor explicam a estrutura da variabilidade do solo construído são o teor de areia (ou argila, a saturação por bases e o pH, todos relacionados com a contaminação do solo com chorume e o adequado desenvolvimento da vegetação.Several studies address the development of sampling strategies and implementation of (geostatistical tools in the study of soil properties. However, there is a lack of studies in the application of such approach to monitor soil covers in closed landfill sites of urban solid waste. This study shows that the sampling density needed to make possible the use of geostatistics in such cases would raise operational costs. The best alternative is the use of multivariate statistics methods (principal components and cluster analysis to define homogeneous management zones. The soil attributes that best explain the structure of soil variability are sand (or clay content, base saturation and pH, all related with soil contamination by leachate and with the proper development of vegetation.

  2. Deska: Tool for Central Administration of a Grid Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundrát, Jan; Krejcová, Martina; Hubík, Tomáš; Kerpl, Lukáš

    2011-01-01

    Running a typical Tier-2 site requires mastering quite a few tools for fabric management. Keeping an inventory of installed HW machines, their roles and detailed information, from IP addresses to rack locations, is typically done using various in-house applications ranging from simple spreadsheets to web applications. Such solutions, whose documentation usually leaves much to be desired, typically do not prevent a significant duplication of information, and therefore the data therein quickly become obsolete. After having deployed Cfengine as one of a few sites in the WLCG environment, the Prague Tier-2 site set forth to further automate the fabric management, developing the Deska project. The aim of the system is to provide a central place to perform changes, from adding new machines or moving them between racks to changing their assigned service roles and additional metadata. The database provides an authoritative source of information from which all other systems and services (like DHCP servers, Ethernet switches or the Cfengine system) pull their data, using newly developed configuration adaptors. An easy-to-use command line interface modelled after the Cisco IOS-based switches was developed, enabling the data center administrators to easily change any information in an intuitive way. We provide an overview of the current status of the implementation and describe our design choices aimed at further reducing the system engineers' workload.

  3. Determination of import process during Yucca Mountain Site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, P.S.; Gwyn, D.W.; Wemheuer, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    Construction of an underground Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) for characterizing the Yucca Mountain site precedes the design of a potential repository, with site characterization testing and ESF construction conducted as parallel activities. As a result of this fact, a program is required to: (1) provide for inclusion of the underground excavation into a potential repository, (2) minimize the potential impact of ESF construction on site characterization test results, and (3) minimize the potential impact of ESF construction and site characterization testing on the waste isolation capabilities of the site. At Yucca Mountain, the Determination of Importance (DI) process fulfills these goals. This paper addresses the evolution of the DI process; describes how the DI process fits into design, testing, and construction programs: and discusses how the process is implemented through specification requirements

  4. Area 5 Site characterization project report, FY 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, W.; Tyler, S.; Chapman, J.; Miller, M.; Estrella, R.

    1994-09-01

    The Area 5 Site Characterization Project is designed to determine the suitability of the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) for disposal of low-level waste (LLW), mixed waste (MW) and transuranic waste (TRU). The Desert Research institute (DRI) has conducted this study for the Area 5 Site Characterization Project for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Waste Management Division (WMD). The purpose of DRI's Area 5 Site Characterization Project is to characterize important properties of the upper vadose zone which influence infiltration and redistribution of water and transport of solutes as well as to characterize the water quality and hydrologic conditions of the uppermost aquifer. This report describes methods and presents a summary of all data and results from laboratory physical and chemical testing from borehole samples through September 1994. DRI laboratories performed soil water content, soil water potential, soil bulk density, and soil water extract isotope analyses

  5. Ambient air monitoring to support HLW repository site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fransioli, P.M.; Dixon, W.R.

    1993-01-01

    Site characterization at the Yucca Mountain site includes an ambient air quality and meteorological monitoring program to provide information for environmental and site characterization issues. The program is designed to provide data for four basic purposes: Atmospheric dispersion calculations to estimate impacts of possible airborne releases of radiological material; Engineering design and extreme weather event characterization; Local climate studies for environmental impact analyses and climate characterization; and, Air quality permits required for site characterization work. The program is compiling a database that will provide the basis for analyses and reporting related to the purposes of the program. Except for reporting particulate matter and limited meteorological data to the State of Nevada for an air quality permit condition, the data have yet to be formally analyzed and reported

  6. Development of subsurface characterization method for decommissioning site remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sang Bum; Nam, Jong Soo; Choi, Yong Suk; Seo, Bum Kyoung; Moon, Jei Kwon; Choi, Jong Won [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In situ measurement of peak to valley method based on the ratio of counting rate between the full energy peak and Compton region was applied to identify the depth distribution of 137Cs. The In situ measurement and sampling results were applied to evaluate a residual radioactivity before and after remediation in decommissioning KRR site. Spatial analysis based on the Geostatistics method provides a reliable estimating the volume of contaminated soil with a graphical analysis, which was applied to the site characterization in the decommissioning KRR site. The in situ measurement and spatial analysis results for characterization of subsurface contamination are presented. The objective of a remedial action is to reduce risks to human health to acceptable levels by removing the source of contamination. Site characterization of the subsurface contamination is an important factor for planning and implementation of site remediation. Radiological survey and evaluation technology are required to ensure the reliability of the results, and the process must be easily applied during field measurements. In situ gamma-ray spectrometry is a powerful method for site characterization that can be used to identify the depth distribution and quantify radionuclides directly at the measurement site. The in situ measurement and Geostatistics method was applied to the site characterization for remediation and final status survey in decommissioning KRR site.

  7. International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO2Geological Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-02-23

    Several technological options have been proposed to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of CO{sub 2}. One proposed remedy is to separate and capture CO{sub 2} from fossil-fuel power plants and other stationary industrial sources and to inject the CO{sub 2} into deep subsurface formations for long-term storage and sequestration. Characterization of geologic formations for sequestration of large quantities of CO{sub 2} needs to be carefully considered to ensure that sites are suitable for long-term storage and that there will be no adverse impacts to human health or the environment. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (Final Draft, October 2005) states that ''Site characterization, selection and performance prediction are crucial for successful geological storage. Before selecting a site, the geological setting must be characterized to determine if the overlying cap rock will provide an effective seal, if there is a sufficiently voluminous and permeable storage formation, and whether any abandoned or active wells will compromise the integrity of the seal. Moreover, the availability of good site characterization data is critical for the reliability of models''. This International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO{sub 2} Geological Storage (CO2SC) addresses the particular issue of site characterization and site selection related to the geologic storage of carbon dioxide. Presentations and discussions cover the various aspects associated with characterization and selection of potential CO{sub 2} storage sites, with emphasis on advances in process understanding, development of measurement methods, identification of key site features and parameters, site characterization strategies, and case studies.

  8. The Exoplanet Characterization ToolKit (ExoCTK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Kevin; Fowler, Julia; Lewis, Nikole K.; Fraine, Jonathan; Pueyo, Laurent; Valenti, Jeff; Bruno, Giovanni; Filippazzo, Joseph; Hill, Matthew; Batalha, Natasha E.; Bushra, Rafia

    2018-01-01

    The success of exoplanet characterization depends critically on a patchwork of analysis tools and spectroscopic libraries that currently require extensive development and lack a centralized support system. Due to the complexity of spectroscopic analyses and initial time commitment required to become productive, there are currently a limited number of teams that are actively advancing the field. New teams with significant expertise, but without the proper tools, face prohibitively steep hills to climb before they can contribute. As a solution, we are developing an open-source, modular data analysis package in Python and a publicly facing web interface focused primarily on atmospheric characterization of exoplanets and exoplanet transit observation planning with JWST. The foundation of these software tools and libraries exist within pockets of the exoplanet community. Our project will gather these seedling tools and grow a robust, uniform, and well maintained exoplanet characterization toolkit.

  9. Seismic characterization of the NPP Krsko site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obreza, J.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of NPP Krsko PSA Project Update was the inclusion of plant changes (i.e. configuration/operational related) through the period January 1, 1993 till the OUTAGE99 (April 1999) into the integrated Internal/External Level 1/Level 2 NPP Krsko PSA RISK SPECTRUM model. NPP Krsko is located on seismotectonic plate. Highest earthquake was recorded in 1917 with magnitude 5.8 at a distance of 7-9 km. Site (founded) on Pliocene sediments which are as deep as several hundred meters. No surface faulting at the Krsko site has been observed and thus it is not to be expected. NPP Krsko is equipped with seismic instrumentation, which allows it to complete OBE (SSE). The seismic PSA successfully showed high seismic margin at Krsko plant. NPP Krsko seismic design is based on US regulations and standards

  10. The practical use of computer graphics techniques for site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tencer, B.; Newell, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe the approach utilized by Roy F. Weston, Inc. (WESTON) to analyze and characterize data relative to a specific site and the computerized graphical techniques developed to display site characterization data. These techniques reduce massive amounts of tabular data to a limited number of graphics easily understood by both the public and policy level decision makers. First, they describe the general design of the system; then the application of this system to a low level rad site followed by a description of an application to an uncontrolled hazardous waste site

  11. Nuclear waste: Status of DOE's nuclear waste site characterization activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Three potential nuclear waste repository sites have been selected to carry out characterization activities-the detailed geological testing to determine the suitability of each site as a repository. The sites are Hanford in south-central Washington State, Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada, and Deaf Smith in the Texas Panhandle. Two key issues affecting the total program are the estimations of the site characterization completion data and costs and DOE's relationship with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission which has been limited and its relations with affected states and Indian tribes which continue to be difficult

  12. Site characterization plan overview: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Consultation Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The consultation draft of the site characterization plan is a lengthy document that describes in considerable detail the program that will be conducted to characterize the geologic, hydrologic, and other conditions relevant to the suitability of the site for a repository. The overview presented here consists of brief summaries of important topics covered in the consultation draft of the site-characterization plan; it is not a substitute for the site-characterization plan. The arrangement of the overview is similar to that of the plan itself, with brief descriptions of the disposal system -- the site, the repository, and the waste package -- preceding the discussion of the characterization program to be carried out at the Yucca Mountain site. It is intended primarily for the management staff of organizations involved in the DOE's repository program -- staff who might wish to understand the general scope of the site-characterization program, the activities to be conducted, and the facilities to be constructed rather than the technical details of site characterization. 22 figs., 1 tab

  13. Communication tools between Grid virtual organisations, middleware deployers and sites

    CERN Document Server

    Dimou, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Grid Deployment suffers today from the difficulty to reach users and site administrators when a package or a configuration parameter changes. Release notes, twiki pages and news’ broadcasts are not efficient enough. The interest of using GGUS as an efficient and effective intra-project communication tool is the message to the user community presented here. The purpose of GGUS is to bring together End Users and Supporters in the Regions where the Grid is deployed and in operation. Today’s Grid usage is still very far from the simplicity and functionality of the web. While pressing for middleware usability, we try to turn the Global Grid User Support (GGUS) into the central tool for identifying areas in the support environment that need attention. To do this, we exploit GGUS' capacity to expand, by including new Support Units that follow the project's operational structure. Using tailored GGUS database searches we obtain concrete results that prove where we need to improve procedures, Service Level Agreemen...

  14. Characterization of the Hanford Site and environs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. (ed.)

    1991-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to site, construct, and operate a new production reactor (NPR) intended to produce materials for the US nuclear weapons program. The DOE has determined that this proposed action constitutes an action that may significantly affect the quality of the human environment; therefore, the DOE is preparing an environmental impact statement (EIS) to assess the potential impacts of the proposed action and reasonable alternatives on the human and natural environment. The NPR-EIS is being prepared in accordance with Section 102(2)(C) of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as implemented in regulations (40 CFR 1500--1508) promulgated by the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ). Information on the potentially affected environment at the Hanford Site and its environs was provided to ANL by PNL in various submissions during CY-1989, and some of that information was consolidated into this report, which is considered to be supporting documentation for the NPR-EIS. 93 refs., 35 figs., 46 tabs.

  15. Developing Hydrogeological Site Characterization Strategies based on Human Health Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, F.; Rubin, Y.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    In order to provide better sustainable groundwater quality management and minimize the impact of contamination in humans, improved understanding and quantification of the interaction between hydrogeological models, geological site information and human health are needed. Considering the joint influence of these components in the overall human health risk assessment and the corresponding sources of uncertainty aid decision makers to better allocate resources in data acquisition campaigns. This is important to (1) achieve remediation goals in a cost-effective manner, (2) protect human health and (3) keep water supplies clean in order to keep with quality standards. Such task is challenging since a full characterization of the subsurface is unfeasible due to financial and technological constraints. In addition, human exposure and physiological response to contamination are subject to uncertainty and variability. Normally, sampling strategies are developed with the goal of reducing uncertainty, but less often they are developed in the context of their impacts on the overall system uncertainty. Therefore, quantifying the impact from each of these components (hydrogeological, behavioral and physiological) in final human health risk prediction can provide guidance for decision makers to best allocate resources towards minimal prediction uncertainty. In this presentation, a multi-component human health risk-based framework is presented which allows decision makers to set priorities through an information entropy-based visualization tool. Results highlight the role of characteristic length-scales characterizing flow and transport in determining data needs within an integrated hydrogeological-health framework. Conditions where uncertainty reduction in human health risk predictions may benefit from better understanding of the health component, as opposed to a more detailed hydrogeological characterization, are also discussed. Finally, results illustrate how different dose

  16. Report of early site suitability evaluation of the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younker, J.L.; Andrews, W.B.; Fasano, G.A.; Herrington, C.C.; Mattson, S.R.; Murray, R.C. [Science Applications International Corp., Las Vegas, NV (United States); Ballou, L.B.; Revelli, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Ducharme, A.R.; Shephard, L.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dudley, W.W.; Hoxie, D.T. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Herbst, R.J.; Patera, E.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Judd, B.R. [Decision Analysis Co., Portola Valley, CA (United States); Docka, J.A.; Rickertsen, L.D. [Weston Technical Associates, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This study evaluated the technical suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential site for a mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of radioactive waste. The evaluation was conducted primarily to determine early in the site characterization program if there are any features or conditions at the site that indicate it is unsuitable for repository development. A secondary purpose was to determine the status of knowledge in the major technical areas that affect the suitability of the site. This early site suitability evaluation (ESSE) was conducted by a team of technical personnel at the request of the Associate Director of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Geologic Disposal, a unit within the DOE`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The Yucca Mountain site has been the subject of such evaluations for over a decade. In 1983, the site was evaluated as part of a screening process to identify potentially acceptable sites. The site was evaluated in greater detail and found suitable for site characterization as part of the Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE, 1986) required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA). Additional site data were compiled during the preparation of the Site Characterization Plan (SCP) (DOE, 1988a). This early site suitability evaluation has considered information that was used in preparing both-documents, along with recent information obtained since the EA and SCP were published. This body of information is referred to in this report as ``current information`` or ``available evidence.``

  17. Yucca Mountain Site characterization project bibliography, January--June 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    Following a reorganization of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management in 1990, the Yucca Mountain Project was renamed Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The title of this bibliography was also changed to Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Bibliography. Prior to August 5, 1988, this project was called the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. This bibliography contains information on this ongoing project that was added to the Department of Energy's Science and Technology Database from January 1, 1990, through December 31, 1991

  18. TWRS phase I privatization site environmental baseline and characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shade, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    This document provides a plan to characterize and develop an environmental baseline for the TWRS Phase I Privatization Site before construction begins. A site evaluation study selected the former Grout Disposal Area of the Grout Treatment Facility in the 200 East Area as the TWRS Phase I Demonstration Site. The site is generally clean and has not been used for previous activities other than the GTF. A DQO process was used to develop a Sampling and Analysis Plan that would allow comparison of site conditions during operations and after Phase I ends to the presently existing conditions and provide data for the development of a preoperational monitoring plan

  19. Minimally invasive three-dimensional site characterization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steedman, D.; Seusy, F.E.; Gibbons, J.; Bratton, J.L.

    1993-09-01

    This paper presents an improved for hazardous site characterization. The major components of the systems are: (1) an enhanced cone penetrometer test, (2) surface geophysical surveys and (3) a field database and visualization code. The objective of the effort was to develop a method of combining geophysical data with cone penetrometer data in the field to produce a synergistic effect. Various aspects of the method were tested at three sites. The results from each site are discussed and the data compared. This method allows the data to be interpreted more fully with greater certainty, is faster, cheaper and leads to a more accurate site characterization. Utilizing the cone penetrometer test rather than the standard drilling, sampling and laboratory testing reduces the workers exposure to hazardous materials and minimizes the hazardous material disposal problems. The technologies employed in this effort are, for the most part, state-of-the-art procedures. The approach of using data from various measurement systems to develop a synergistic effect was a unique contribution to environmental site characterization. The use of the cone penetrometer for providing ''ground truth'' data and as a platform for subsurface sensors in environmental site characterization represents a significant advancement in environmental site characterization

  20. Advances in characterizing ubiquitylation sites by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylvestersen, K.B.; Young, C.; Nielsen, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    of ubiquitylation is a two-fold challenge that involves the mapping of ubiquitylation sites and the determination of ubiquitin chain topology. This review focuses on the technical advances in the mass spectrometry-based characterization of ubiquitylation sites, which have recently involved the large...

  1. Measurement techniques for radiological characterization of contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, M

    1996-09-18

    Once the decision is taken to characterize a contaminated site, appropriate measurement techniques must be selected. The choice will depend on the available information, on the nature and extent of the contamination, as well as on available resources (staff and budget). Some techniques are described on the basis of examples of characterization projects (e.g. Olen area in Belgium).

  2. Protecting subcontractor personnel during hazardous waste site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankford, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper covers Industrial Hygiene involvement in the Site Characterization Program, focusing on the field oversight responsibilities. It discusses the different types and levels of protective equipment, gives an example of the type of situation that can arise from field characterization efforts, and gives a brief summary of health protection program elements. 3 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Protecting subcontractor personnel during hazardous waste site characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lankford, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper covers Industrial Hygiene involvement in the Site Characterization Program, focusing on the field oversight responsibilities. It discusses the different types and levels of protective equipment, gives an example of the type of situation that can arise from field characterization efforts, and gives a brief summary of health protection program elements. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Site Characterization and Preliminary Performance Assessment Calculation Applied To JAEA-Horonobe URL Site of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Doo Hyun; Hatanaka, Koichiro; Ishii, Eiichi

    2010-01-01

    JAEA-Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) is designed for research and development on high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository in sedimentary rock. For a potential HLW repository, understanding and implementing fracturing and faulting system, with data from the site characterization, into the performance assessment is essential because fracture and fault will be the major conductors or barriers for the groundwater flow and radionuclide release. The objectives are i) quantitative derivation of characteristics and correlation of fracturing/faulting system with geologic and geophysics data obtained from the site characterization, and ii) preliminary performance assessment calculation with characterized site information

  5. Site Characterization and Preliminary Performance Assessment Calculation Applied To JAEA-Horonobe URL Site of Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Doo Hyun [NE Union Hill Road, Suite 200, WA 98052 (United States); Hatanaka, Koichiro; Ishii, Eiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    JAEA-Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) is designed for research and development on high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository in sedimentary rock. For a potential HLW repository, understanding and implementing fracturing and faulting system, with data from the site characterization, into the performance assessment is essential because fracture and fault will be the major conductors or barriers for the groundwater flow and radionuclide release. The objectives are i) quantitative derivation of characteristics and correlation of fracturing/faulting system with geologic and geophysics data obtained from the site characterization, and ii) preliminary performance assessment calculation with characterized site information

  6. Gulf of Mexico miocene CO₂ site characterization mega transect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meckel, Timothy [Univ. of Austin, Austin, TX (United Staes); Trevino, Ramon [Univ. of Austin, Austin, TX (United Staes)

    2014-12-01

    m) of data allowed for the identification and mapping of unconformable surfaces including what is probably a surface associated with the last Pleistocene glacial lowstand. The identification of a previously unrecognized (in commercial seismic data) gas chimney that was clearly defined in the 2013 HR3D survey, indicates that HR3D surveys may be useful as both a characterization tool for the overburden of a potential carbon sequestration site and as an additional monitoring tool for future engineered injection sites. Geochemical modeling indicated that injection of CO₂ would result in minor dissolution of calcite, K-feldspar and albite. In addition, modeling of typical brines in Miocene age rocks indicate that approximately 5% of injection capacity would result from CO₂ dissolution into the brine. After extensive searches, no rock samples of the Marginulina A and Amphistegina B seals (“caprocks”) were obtained, but analyses of available core samples of other Miocene age mudrocks (seals or caprocks) indicate that they have sealing ability sufficient for potential CO2 storage in underlying sandstone units.

  7. Adaptive sampling program support for expedited site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.

    1993-01-01

    Expedited site characterizations offer substantial savings in time and money when assessing hazardous waste sites. Key to some of these savings is the ability to adapt a sampling program to the ''real-time'' data generated by an expedited site characterization. This paper presents a two-prong approach to supporting adaptive sampling programs: a specialized object-oriented database/geographical information system for data fusion, management and display; and combined Bayesian/geostatistical methods for contamination extent estimation and sample location selection

  8. Site characterization for hybrid system construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldana, R.; Miranda, U.; Medrano, M. C. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The basic reason to use alternative systems for electricity generation, in most cases, is the lack of electricity services, such as isolated rural communities which are located far away from the electric distribution line, and the cost of its extension is too expensive, while decentralized power systems can be an economic and appropriate solution to providing these services. Up to now there are several technological options for rural electrification using PV modules, wind plants, water-power plants, anaerobic digesters, or a combination of some of them, according to the availability of energetic resources. The applications include centralized or decentralized systems, autonomous or hybrid systems, isolated or interconnected to the electric line, etc. A particular hybrid system design can be done considering two general aspects, first it is necessary to know the electric consumption that will be supplied, taking into account present and future necessities and how local energetic resources are present in a selected site. Finally, also it is necessary to carry out an economic analysis to determine the cost of kilowatt-hour generated using local energetic resources and compare it with the cost of electricity produced by conventional power systems. [Espanol] La razon principal para el uso de sistemas alternativos de generacion de electricidad, en la mayoria de los casos, es la falta de servicios de electricidad, tal como en las comunidades rurales aisladas localizadas lejos de linea de distribucion electrica, donde el costo de su extension es demasiado caro, mientras que los sistemas descentralizados de energia pueden ser una solucion economica y adecuada para proporcionar estos servicios. Hasta ahora existen varias opciones tecnologicas para la electrificacion rural usando modulos fotovoltaicos, aerogeneradores, plantas hidroelectricas, digestores anaerobicos o una combinacion de algunos de ellos, de acuerdo con la disponibilidad de los recursos energeticos. Las

  9. Site characterization for hybrid system construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldana, R; Miranda, U; Medrano, M C [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The basic reason to use alternative systems for electricity generation, in most cases, is the lack of electricity services, such as isolated rural communities which are located far away from the electric distribution line, and the cost of its extension is too expensive, while decentralized power systems can be an economic and appropriate solution to providing these services. Up to now there are several technological options for rural electrification using PV modules, wind plants, water-power plants, anaerobic digesters, or a combination of some of them, according to the availability of energetic resources. The applications include centralized or decentralized systems, autonomous or hybrid systems, isolated or interconnected to the electric line, etc. A particular hybrid system design can be done considering two general aspects, first it is necessary to know the electric consumption that will be supplied, taking into account present and future necessities and how local energetic resources are present in a selected site. Finally, also it is necessary to carry out an economic analysis to determine the cost of kilowatt-hour generated using local energetic resources and compare it with the cost of electricity produced by conventional power systems. [Espanol] La razon principal para el uso de sistemas alternativos de generacion de electricidad, en la mayoria de los casos, es la falta de servicios de electricidad, tal como en las comunidades rurales aisladas localizadas lejos de linea de distribucion electrica, donde el costo de su extension es demasiado caro, mientras que los sistemas descentralizados de energia pueden ser una solucion economica y adecuada para proporcionar estos servicios. Hasta ahora existen varias opciones tecnologicas para la electrificacion rural usando modulos fotovoltaicos, aerogeneradores, plantas hidroelectricas, digestores anaerobicos o una combinacion de algunos de ellos, de acuerdo con la disponibilidad de los recursos energeticos. Las

  10. Characterization recommendations for waste sites at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlton, W.H.; Gordon, D.E.; Johnson, W.F.; Kaback, D.S.; Looney, B.B.; Nichols, R.L.; Shedrow, C.B.

    1987-11-01

    One hundred and sixty six disposal facilities that received or may have received waste materials resulting from operations at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) have been identified. These waste range from innocuous solid and liquid materials (e.g., wood piles) to process effluents that contain hazardous and/or radioactive constituents. The waste sites have been grouped into 45 categories according the the type of waste materials they received. Waste sites are located with SRP coordinates, a local Department of Energy (DOE) grid system whose grid north is 36 degrees 22 minutes west of true north. DOE policy is to close all waste sites at SRP in a manner consistent with protecting human health and environment and complying with applicable environmental regulations (DOE 1984). A uniform, explicit characterization program for SRP waste sites will provide a sound technical basis for developing closure plans. Several elements are summarized in the following individual sections including (1) a review of the history, geohydrology, and available characterization data for each waste site and (2) recommendations for additional characterization necessary to prepare a reasonable closure plan. Many waste sites have been fully characterized, while others have not been investigated at all. The approach used in this report is to evaluate available groundwater quality and site history data. For example, groundwater data are compared to review criteria to help determine what additional information is required. The review criteria are based on regulatory and DOE guidelines for acceptable concentrations of constituents in groundwater and soil

  11. Law enforcement tools available at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, K.J.

    2000-03-29

    A number of nuclear technologies developed and applied at the Savannah River Site in support of nuclear weapons material production and environmental remediation can be applied to problems in law enforcement. Techniques and equipment for high-sensitivity analyses of samples are available to identify and quantify trace elements and establish origins and histories of forensic evidence removed from crime scenes. While some of theses capabilities are available at local crime laboratories, state-of-the-art equipment and breakthroughs in analytical techniques are continually being developed at DOE laboratories. Extensive experience with the handling of radioactive samples at the DOE labs minimizes the chances of cross-contamination of evidence received from law enforcement. In addition to high-sensitivity analyses, many of the field techniques developed for use in a nuclear facility can assist law enforcement personnel in detecting illicit materials and operations, in retrieving of pertinent evidence and in surveying crime scenes. Some of these tools include chemical sniffers, hand-held detectors, thermal imaging, etc. In addition, mobile laboratories can be deployed to a crime scene to provide field screening of potential evidence. A variety of portable sensors can be deployed on vehicle, aerial, surface or submersible platforms to assist in the location of pertinent evidence or illicit operations. Several specific nuclear technologies available to law enforcement and their potential uses are discussed.

  12. Law enforcement tools available at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Beals, D.M.; Halverson, J.E.; Villa-Aleman, E.; Hayes, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    A number of nuclear technologies developed and applied at the Savannah River Site in support of nuclear weapons material production and environmental remediation can be applied to problems in law enforcement. Techniques and equipment for high-sensitivity analyses of samples are available to identify and quantify trace elements and establish origins and histories of forensic evidence removed from crime scenes. While some of these capabilities are available at local crime laboratories, state-of-the-art equipment and breakthroughs in analytical techniques are continually being developed at DOE laboratories. Extensive experience with the handling of radioactive samples at the DOE labs minimizes the chances of cross-contamination of evidence received from law enforcement. In addition to high-sensitivity analyses, many of the field techniques developed for use in a nuclear facility can assist law enforcement personnel in detecting illicit materials and operations, in retrieving of pertinent evidence and in surveying crime sciences. Some of these tools include chemical sniffers, hand-held detectors, thermal imaging, etc. In addition, mobile laboratories can be deployed to a crime scene to provide field screening of potential evidence. A variety of portable sensors can be deployed on vehicle, aerial, surface of submersible platforms to assist in the location of pertinent evidence or illicit operations. Several specific nuclear technologies available to law enforcement and their potential uses are discussed. (author)

  13. Designing chemical soil characterization programs for mixed waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, K.A. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project is a remedial action effort funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The Weldon Spring Site, a former uranium processing facility, is located in east-central Missouri on a portion of a former ordnance works facility which produced trinitrotoluene during World War II. As a result of both uranium and ordnance production, the soils have become both radiologically and chemically contaminated. As a part of site characterization efforts in support of the environmental documentation process, a chemical soil characterization program was developed. This program consisted of biased and unbiased sampling program which maximized areal coverage, provided a statistically sound data base and maintained cost effectiveness. This paper discusses how the general rationale and processes used at the Weldon Spring Site can be applied to other mixed and hazardous waste sites

  14. 1994 Characterization report for the state approved land disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, L.C.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of characterization activities at the proposed state-approved land disposal site (SALDS); it updates the original characterization report with studies completed since the first characterization report. The initial characterization report discusses studies from two characterization boreholes, 699-48-77A and 699-48-77B. This revision includes data from implementation of the Groundwater Monitoring Plan and the Aquifer Test Plan. The primary sources of data are two down-gradient groundwater monitoring wells, 699-48-77C and 699-48-77D, and aquifer testing of three zones in well 699-48-77C. The SALDS is located on the Hanford Site, approximately 183 m north of the 200 West Area on the north side of the 200 Areas Plateau. The SALDS is an infiltration basin proposed for disposal of treated effluents from the 200 Areas of Hanford

  15. Environmental Regulatory Compliance Plan for site: Draft characterization of the Yucca Mountain site:Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The objective of the EMMP is to document compliance with the NWPA. To do so, a summary description of site characterization activites is provided, based on the consultation draft of the SCP. Subsequent chpaters identify those technical areas having the potential to be impacted by site characterization activities and the monitoring plans proposed to identify whether those impacts acutally occur. Should monitoring confirm the potential for significant adverse impact, mitigative measures will be developed. In the context of site characterization, mitigation is defined as those changes in site characterization activities that serve to avoid or minimize, to the maximum extent practicle, any significant adverse environmental impacts. Although site characterization activies involve both surface and subsurface activities, it is the surface-based aspect of site characterization that is addressed in detailed by the EMMP. The schedule and duration of these activities is given in the consultation draft of the SCP. A breif summary of all proposed activities is given in the EMMP. 10 refs., 8 figs

  16. Site characterization quality assurance for the California LLRW Disposal Site Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanrahan, T.P.; Ench, J.E.; Serlin, C.L.; Bennett, C.B.

    1988-01-01

    In December of 1985 US Ecology was chosen as the license designee for the State of California's low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. In early 1987, three candidate sites were selected for characterization studies in preparation for identifying the preferred site. The geotechnical characterization activities along with studies of the ecological and archaeological attributes, as well as assessments of the socio-economic impacts and cultural resources all provide input towards selection of the proposed site. These technical studies in conjunction with comments from local citizen committees and other interested parties are used as a basis for determining the proposed site for which full site characterization as required by California licensing requirements are undertaken. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the program for Quality Assurance and Quality Control for the site characterization activities on the California LLRW Disposal Site Project. The focus is on three major perspectives: The composite QA Program and two of the primary characterization activities, the geotechnical and the meteorological investigations

  17. Detailed site characterization for final disposal of spent fuel in Finland - Case study Loviisa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anttila, P.; Ahokas, H.; Ruotsalainen, P.; Cosma, C.; Keskinen, J.; Hinkkanen, H.; Rouhiainen, P.; Oehberg, A.

    1998-01-01

    The spent fuel from the Finnish nuclear power plants will be disposed of in the Finnish bedrock. Pos iva Oy is responsible for the site selection programme carried out in accordance with the governmental decisions. Preliminary site investigations were made in five areas in 1987-1992. Based on the results, three areas, Romuvaara in Kuhmo, Kivetty in Aeaenekoski and Olkiluoto in Eurajoki, were selected for the detailed site characterization in 1993-2000. The final site will be selected by the end of the year 2000. The interim reporting of the detailed studies of the three areas was made in 1996. In 1997, the island of Haestholmen, as the host to the Loviisa NPP, was included as a fourth candidate site in the programme for the detailed site investigations. The goal is to characterize this site also in detail by the end of 2000 to attain the same level of knowledge as available from the three other sites. The background information existing from the studies made for the construction of the repository for the low-and intermediate-level wastes will create a good basis to reach the target. The research programme for the detailed site characterization has mainly been focused on groundwater flow and geochemistry due to their importance in terms of long-term safety of the repository. Equipment and methodology development by Posiva has introduced new tools that provide more accurate data on relevant parameters than the ones used in previous stages of site characterization. The programme also contains studies for additional information of the structural and geological properties of the bedrock towards the depth. Also predictive modelling has been made for evaluating the relevance of the assumptions made. The methods applied in the site characterization have comprised, e.g., geological mapping, deep core drilling, groundwater sampling and analyzing, hydraulic testing and geophysical measurements

  18. Detailed site characterization for final disposal of spent fuel in Finland - Case study Loviisa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anttila, P. [IVO Power Engineering Ltd. (Finland); Ahokas, H.; Ruotsalainen, P. [Fintact Oy (Finland); Cosma, C.; Keskinen, J. [Vibrometric Oy (Finland); Hinkkanen, H. [Posiva Oy (Finland); Rouhiainen, P. [PRG-Tec Oy (Finland); Oehberg, A. [Saanio and Riekkola Consulting Engineers (Finland)

    1998-09-01

    The spent fuel from the Finnish nuclear power plants will be disposed of in the Finnish bedrock. Pos iva Oy is responsible for the site selection programme carried out in accordance with the governmental decisions. Preliminary site investigations were made in five areas in 1987-1992. Based on the results, three areas, Romuvaara in Kuhmo, Kivetty in Aeaenekoski and Olkiluoto in Eurajoki, were selected for the detailed site characterization in 1993-2000. The final site will be selected by the end of the year 2000. The interim reporting of the detailed studies of the three areas was made in 1996. In 1997, the island of Haestholmen, as the host to the Loviisa NPP, was included as a fourth candidate site in the programme for the detailed site investigations. The goal is to characterize this site also in detail by the end of 2000 to attain the same level of knowledge as available from the three other sites. The background information existing from the studies made for the construction of the repository for the low-and intermediate-level wastes will create a good basis to reach the target. The research programme for the detailed site characterization has mainly been focused on groundwater flow and geochemistry due to their importance in terms of long-term safety of the repository. Equipment and methodology development by Posiva has introduced new tools that provide more accurate data on relevant parameters than the ones used in previous stages of site characterization. The programme also contains studies for additional information of the structural and geological properties of the bedrock towards the depth. Also predictive modelling has been made for evaluating the relevance of the assumptions made. The methods applied in the site characterization have comprised, e.g., geological mapping, deep core drilling, groundwater sampling and analyzing, hydraulic testing and geophysical measurements 23 refs, 4 figs

  19. TOMOGRAPHIC SITE CHARACTERIZATION USING CPT, ERT, AND GPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rexford M. Morey; Susanne M. Conklin; Stephen P. Farrington, P.E.; James D. Shinn II, P.E.

    1999-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the cleanup of inactive DOE sites and for bringing DOE sites and facilities into compliance with federal, state, and local laws and regulations. The DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) needs advanced technologies that can make environmental restoration and waste management operations more efficient and less costly. These techniques are required to better characterize the physical, hydrogeological, and chemical properties of the subsurface while minimizing and optimizing the use of boreholes and monitoring wells. Today the cone penetrometer technique (CPT) is demonstrating the value of a minimally invasive deployment system for site characterization. Applied Research Associates, Inc. is developing two new sensor packages for site characterization and monitoring. The two new methods are: (1) Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT); and (2) Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) Tomography. These sensor systems are now integrated with the CPT. The results of this program now make it possible to install ERT and GPR units by CPT methods and thereby reduce installation costs and total costs for ERT and GPR surveys. These two techniques can complement each other in regions of low resistivity where ERT is more effective and regions of high resistivity where GPR is more effective. The results show that CPT-installed GeoWells can be used for both ERT and GPR borehole tomographic subsurface imaging. These two imaging techniques can be used for environmental site characterization and monitoring have numerous and diverse applications within site cleanup and waste management operations.

  20. Environmental waste site characterization utilizing aerial photographs and satellite imagery: Three sites in New Mexico, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Eeckhout, E.; Pope, P.; Becker, N.; Wells, B.; Lewis, A.; David, N.

    1996-01-01

    The proper handling and characterization of past hazardous waste sites is becoming more and more important as world population extends into areas previously deemed undesirable. Historical photographs, past records, current aerial satellite imagery can play an important role in characterizing these sites. These data provide clear insight into defining problem areas which can be surface samples for further detail. Three such areas are discussed in this paper: (1) nuclear wastes buried in trenches at Los Alamos National Laboratory, (2) surface dumping at one site at Los Alamos National Laboratory, and (3) the historical development of a municipal landfill near Las Cruces, New Mexico

  1. Deriving a site characterization program from applicable regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voegele, M.D.; Younker, J.L.; Alexander, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    The process of deriving a site characterization program from the applicable regulations was approached by the DOE through the use of two basic organizing principles. One organizing principle is a hierarchical structure of questions about regulatory criteria related to the acquisition of site data. This set of questions is called an issues hierarchy, and it provides a topical organizing framework for developing a site characterization program. The second basic organizing principle used by the DOE and its contractors to develop a site characterization program is called performance allocation. For each issue in the issues hierarchy, a resolution strategy is developed. These strategies involve the identification of elements of the disposal system that are relevant to isolation and containment of waste or to radiological safety. It is then possible to identify performance measures and information needed from the site characterization program. This information, coupled with information about confidence in existing data and the confidence required in the data to be obtained, allows the development of testing strategies for field programs

  2. Soil characterization methods for unsaturated low-level waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierenga, P.J.; Young, M.H.; Hills, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    To support a license application for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), applicants must characterize the unsaturated zone and demonstrate that waste will not migrate from the facility boundary. This document provides a strategy for developing this characterization plan. It describes principles of contaminant flow and transport, site characterization and monitoring strategies, and data management. It also discusses methods and practices that are currently used to monitor properties and conditions in the soil profile, how these properties influence water and waste migration, and why they are important to the license application. The methods part of the document is divided into sections on laboratory and field-based properties, then further subdivided into the description of methods for determining 18 physical, flow, and transport properties. Because of the availability of detailed procedures in many texts and journal articles, the reader is often directed for details to the available literature. References are made to experiments performed at the Las Cruces Trench site, New Mexico, that support LLW site characterization activities. A major contribution from the Las Cruces study is the experience gained in handling data sets for site characterization and the subsequent use of these data sets in modeling studies

  3. Radiolabelling of phoneutria nigriventer spider toxin (Tx1): a tool to study its binding site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos; Diniz, Carlos Roberto; Nascimento, Marta Cordeiro; Lima, Maria Elena de

    1996-01-01

    The neurotoxin Tx1, isolated from the venom of the South American spider Phoneutria nigriventer produces tail elevation and spastic paralysis of posterior limbs after intracerebral ventricular injection in mice. Tx1 also produces ileum contraction in bioassay. We have investigated the binding of radioiodinated-Tx1 ( 125 I-Tx1) on the preparation of myenteric plexus-longitudinal muscle membrane from guinea pig ileum (MPLM) as a tool to characterize the interaction of this neurotoxin with its site. The neurotoxin Tx1 was radioiodinated with Na 125 I by the lactoperoxidase method. 125 I-Tx1 specifically binds to a single class of noninteracting binding sites of high affinity (Kd= 3.5 x 10 -10 M) and low capacity (1.2 pmol/mg protein). The specific binding increased in parallel with the protein concentration. In competition experiments the ligands of ionic channels used (sodium, potassium and calcium) did not affect the binding of 125 I-Tx1 to MPLM neither did the cholinergic ligands (hemicholinium-3, hexamethonium, d-tubocurarine and atropine). Another neurotoxin (Tx2-6, one of the isoforms of Tx2 pool) decreased toxin with MPLM and showed that toxin has a specific and saturable binding site in guinea pig ileum and this binding site appears to be related to the Tx2 site. (author)

  4. Site-characterization data needs for hydrogeological evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, J. [Clearwater Hardrock Consulting, Monmouth, ON (United States)

    1997-12-01

    A review of data utilization and data sufficiency for the multiple lines of hydrological analysis in the SITE-94 study yields insight regarding how site characterization relates to key uncertainties in geologic-barrier performance for performance assessment (PA). Significant uncertainties arise from (1) lack of data regarding interrelationships between hydraulic and transport properties in water-conducting features, (2) insufficient data to discriminate between different conceptual models for large-scale spatial correlation of hydraulic properties, and (3) inadequate determination of effective boundary conditions for site-scale models. For future site characterization in support of hydrological modelling for PA, recommendations that can be offered includes: (1) to develop methods for the evaluation of site-specific transport properties, particularly flow porosity, flow wetted surface, matrix diffusion coefficients, and possibly effective sorption coefficients, (2) to emphasize the use of multiple tracers and multiple scales of observation in pumping and tracer tests, in order to allow evaluation of the effects of scale and heterogeneity in hydrologic and transport properties, (3) to develop a structured, systematic approach to borehole investigations, sampling, and core logging, in order to ensure that the data thus gathered will support meaningful statistical analysis, and to ensure that the development of alternative conceptual models is supported, and finally (4) to improve documentation and checking of site-characterization data in order to avoid unnecessary introduction of uncertainty in PA. A full list of recommendations is given in Chapter 4 of this report. 31 refs.

  5. Site-characterization data needs for hydrogeological evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, J.

    1997-12-01

    A review of data utilization and data sufficiency for the multiple lines of hydrological analysis in the SITE-94 study yields insight regarding how site characterization relates to key uncertainties in geologic-barrier performance for performance assessment (PA). Significant uncertainties arise from (1) lack of data regarding interrelationships between hydraulic and transport properties in water-conducting features, (2) insufficient data to discriminate between different conceptual models for large-scale spatial correlation of hydraulic properties, and (3) inadequate determination of effective boundary conditions for site-scale models. For future site characterization in support of hydrological modelling for PA, recommendations that can be offered includes: (1) to develop methods for the evaluation of site-specific transport properties, particularly flow porosity, flow wetted surface, matrix diffusion coefficients, and possibly effective sorption coefficients, (2) to emphasize the use of multiple tracers and multiple scales of observation in pumping and tracer tests, in order to allow evaluation of the effects of scale and heterogeneity in hydrologic and transport properties, (3) to develop a structured, systematic approach to borehole investigations, sampling, and core logging, in order to ensure that the data thus gathered will support meaningful statistical analysis, and to ensure that the development of alternative conceptual models is supported, and finally (4) to improve documentation and checking of site-characterization data in order to avoid unnecessary introduction of uncertainty in PA. A full list of recommendations is given in Chapter 4 of this report

  6. High-level wastes: DOE names three sites for characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    DOE announced in May 1986 that there will be there site characterization studies made to determine suitability for a high-level radioactive waste repository. The studies will include several test drillings to the proposed disposal depths. Yucca Mountain, Nevada; Deaf Smith Country, Texas, and Hanford, Washington were identified as the study sites, and further studies for a second repository site in the East were postponed. The affected states all filed suits in federal circuit courts because they were given no advance warning of the announcement of their selection or the decision to suspend work on a second repository. Criticisms of the selection process include the narrowing or DOE options

  7. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. (ed.)

    1992-12-01

    This fifth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Information is presented on climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. Models are described that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. Federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable for the NEPA documents at the Hanford Site, are provided.

  8. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization. Revision 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. [ed.

    1992-12-01

    This fifth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Information is presented on climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. Models are described that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. Federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable for the NEPA documents at the Hanford Site, are provided.

  9. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushing, C.E.

    1992-12-01

    This fifth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Information is presented on climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. Models are described that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. Federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable for the NEPA documents at the Hanford Site, are provided

  10. Triad Issue Paper: Using Geophysical Tools to Develop the Conceptual Site Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    This technology bulletin explains how hazardous-waste site professionals can use geophysical tools to provide information about subsurface conditions to create a more representative conceptual site model (CSM).

  11. The site-characterization plan and its role in resolving siting and licensing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    As required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 10 CFR Part 60, the Department of Energy is preparing plans for conducting site characterization at three candidate sites. Prepared according to a detailed annotated outline that is based on the NRC's Regulatory Guide 4.17, these plans will present the information collected to date about the geologic, hydrologic, geochemical, geoengineering, and climatic conditions of each site; describe the design of the repository and the waste package; and discuss the site-characterization program. The most important portions of the plan will be the strategy for resolving siting and licensing issues and the description of the testing and analysis program to be followed in resolving these issues. The issues-resolution strategy consists of identifying issues and the associated information needs; allocating performance goals for various components of the repository system; developing a testing plan to gather the necessary information; gathering and analyzing the information; and documenting the results for use in site selection and licensing. The issues-resolution strategy will allow the Department to define all of the issues that must be resolved in order to demonstrate compliance with applicable regulations and to specify the information needed to resolve these issues. It will provide a consistent framework and establish priorities for the Department's site-characterization effort for the next several years

  12. 10 CFR 60.17 - Contents of site characterization plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN... radioactive waste; (iv) Plans to control any adverse impacts from such site characterization activities that...-level radioactive waste to be emplaced in such geologic repository, a description (to the extent...

  13. Leachate characterization of active and closed dump sites in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study characterizes the leachate quality of both active and closed dump sites in Port Harcourt City. Leachates were sampled from the base of the dum psites and analysed, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids were determined on the samples in-situ. While chloride, sulphate ...

  14. An object-oriented approach to site characterization decision support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.

    1995-01-01

    Effective decision support for site characterization is key to determining the nature and extent of contamination and the associated human and environmental risks. Site characterization data, however, present particular problems to technical analysts and decision-makers. Such data are four dimensional, incorporating temporal and spatial components. Their sheer volume can be daunting -- sites with hundreds of monitoring wells and thousands of samples sent for laboratory analyses are not uncommon. Data are derived from a variety of sources including laboratory analyses, non-intrusive geophysical surveys, historical information, bore logs, in-field estimates of key physical parameters such as aquifer transmissivity, soil moisture content, depth-to-water table, etc. Ultimately, decisions have to be made based on data that are always incomplete, often confusing, inaccurate, or inappropriate, and occasionally wrong. In response to this challenge, two approaches to environmental decision support have arisen, Data Quality Objectives (DQOS) and the Observational Approach (OA). DQOs establish criteria for data collection by clearly defining the decisions that need to be made, the uncertainty that can be tolerated, and the type and amount of data that needs to be collected to satisfy the uncertainty requirements. In practice, DQOs are typically based on statistical measures. The OA accepts the fact that the process of characterizing and remediating contaminated sites is always uncertain. Decision-making with the OA is based on what is known about a site, with contingencies developed for potential future deviations from the original assumptions about contamination nature, extent, and risks posed

  15. Environmental monitoring and mitigation plan for site characterization: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the EMMP is: to identify, in consultation with the affected states and Indian tribes, potentially significant adverse environmental impacts that could result from site characterization activities, to describe data collection methods that will be used to monitor any such identified impacts, and procedures for mitigating them. Chapter 2 of the EMMP provides an overview of the background and scope of the document. Chapter 3 of the EMMP provides a description of site characterization phase activities planned to assess the geologic condition of the site and construct the exploratory shafts and surface support facilities. The rationale for developing environmental monitoring studies is presented in Chapeter 4. Chapter 5 contains descriptions of the environmental monitoring and mitigation procedures whenever they are applicable. Additionally, in Chapter 6, the EMMP includes a procedure for modifying the monitoring and mitigation program and an approach for reporting monitoring results to interested parties. 21 figs., 10 tabs

  16. Draft site characterization analysis of the site characterization report for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project, Hanford, Washington Site. Main report and Appendices A through D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    On November 12, 1982, the US Department of Energy submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission the Site Characterization Report for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (DOE/RL 82-3). The Basalt Waste Isolation Project is located on DOE's Hanford Reservation in the State of Washington. NUREG-0960 contains the detailed analysis, by the NRC staff, of the site characterization report. Supporting technical material is contained in Appendices A through W

  17. Ecological sites: A useful tool for land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicia N. Struckhoff; Douglas Wallace; Fred. Young

    2017-01-01

    Developing ecological sites in Missouri is a multiagency, multidiscipline effort led by the Missouri Department of Conservation and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Natural Resources Conservation Service. The methodology developed in Missouri has recently served as a model for ecological site development across the country and has aided in an initiative to...

  18. A field guide for well site geologists: Cable tool drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, G.V.; Liikala, T.L.

    1987-12-01

    This field is intended for use by Pacific Northwest Laboratory well site geologists who are responsible for data collection during the drilling and construction of monitoring wells on the Hanford Site. This guide presents standardized methods for geologic sample collection and description, and well construction documentation. 5 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 9, Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules.

  20. Characterization of Rous sarcoma virus polyadenylation site use in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciolek, Nicole L.; McNally, Mark T.

    2008-01-01

    Polyadenylation of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) RNA is inefficient, as approximately 15% of RSV RNAs represent read-through transcripts that use a downstream cellular polyadenylation site (poly(A) site). Read-through transcription has implications for the virus and the host since it is associated with oncogene capture and tumor induction. To explore the basis of inefficient RSV RNA 3'-end formation, we characterized RSV polyadenylation in vitro using HeLa cell nuclear extracts and HEK293 whole cell extracts. RSV polyadenylation substrates composed of the natural 3' end of viral RNA and various lengths of upstream sequence showed little or no polyadenylation, indicating that the RSV poly(A) site is suboptimal. Efficiently used poly(A) sites often have identifiable upstream and downstream elements (USEs and DSEs) in close proximity to the conserved AAUAAA signal. The sequences upstream and downstream of the RSV poly(A) site deviate from those found in efficiently used poly(A) sites, which may explain inefficient RSV polyadenylation. To assess the quality of the RSV USEs and DSEs, the well-characterized SV40 late USEs and/or DSEs were substituted for the RSV elements and vice versa, which showed that the USEs and DSEs from RSV are suboptimal but functional. CstF interacted poorly with the RSV polyadenylation substrate, and the inactivity of the RSV poly(A) site was at least in part due to poor CstF binding since tethering CstF to the RSV substrate activated polyadenylation. Our data are consistent with poor polyadenylation factor binding sites in both the USE and DSE as the basis for inefficient use of the RSV poly(A) site and point to the importance of additional elements within RSV RNA in promoting 3' end formation

  1. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushing, C.E.; Baker, D.A.; Chamness, M.A.

    1994-08-01

    This sixth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Chapter 4.0 summarizes up-to-date information on climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. More detailed data are available from reference sources cited or from the authors; Chapter 5.0 has been significantly updated from the fifth revision. It describes models, including their principal underlying assumptions, that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions; The updated Chapter 6.0 provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site, following the structure of Chapter 4.0. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be utilized directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the Hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts

  2. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. [ed.; Baker, D.A.; Chamness, M.A. [and others

    1995-09-01

    This seventh revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Chapter 4.0 summarizes up-to-date information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, environmental monitoring, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. More detailed data are available from reference sources cited or from the authors. Chapter 5.0 was not updated from the sixth revision (1994). It describes models, including their principal underlying assumptions, that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. The updated Chapter 6.0 provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE Orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site, following the structure of Chapter 4.0. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be used directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the Hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts.

  3. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. [ed.; Baker, D.A.; Chamness, M.A. [and others

    1994-08-01

    This sixth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Chapter 4.0 summarizes up-to-date information on climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. More detailed data are available from reference sources cited or from the authors; Chapter 5.0 has been significantly updated from the fifth revision. It describes models, including their principal underlying assumptions, that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions; The updated Chapter 6.0 provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site, following the structure of Chapter 4.0. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be utilized directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the Hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts.

  4. Characterization of biogas bibliography measures on sites; Caracterisation des Biogaz bibliographie mesures sur sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulleau, J.

    2002-10-15

    The aim of this study is to define the pollutants emissions related to the combustion of biogas of different sources: motors, furnaces, flares...The project is presented in three parts: a bibliographic study on the chemical characterization of the biogas, a first series of measures on production sites and a second series of measures on a site of valorization and destruction of biogas. (A.L.B.)

  5. Expeditious Methods for Site Characterization and Risk Assessment at Department of Defense Hazardous Waste Sites in the Republic of Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hartman, Dean

    1999-01-01

    ...) with preferred innovative site characterization technologies and risk assessment methods to meet their needs in obtaining hazardous waste site data and then prioritizing those sites for remediation based upon risk...

  6. Characterization of radioactively contaminated sites for remediation purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    Characterization of the contaminated site is essential before embarking on a programme for its remediation and ultimate restoration. Reliable and suitable data must be obtained regarding the distribution and physical, chemical and nuclear properties of all radioactive contaminants. Characterization data is necessary for assessing the associated radiation risks and is used in support of the required engineering design and project planning for the environmental restoration. In addition, continuing characterization can provide information regarding efficiency of the cleanup methods and influence possible redirection of work efforts. Similarly, at the end of the remediation phase, characterization and ongoing monitoring can be used to demonstrate completion and success of the cleanup process. The suggested methodology represents a contribution attempting to solve the issue of preremediation characterization in a general manner. However, a number of difficulties might make this methodology unsuitable for general application across the diverse social, environmental and political systems in the IAEA Member States. This TECDOC covers the methodologies used to characterize radioactively contaminated sites for the purpose of remediating the potential sources of radiation exposure and assessing the hazards to human health and the environment

  7. Site characterization techniques used in environmental remediation activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    2000-01-01

    As a result of decades of nuclear energy research, weapons production, as well as ongoing operations, a significant amount of radioactive contamination has occurred throughout the United States Department of Energy (DOE) complex. DOE facility are in the process of assessing and potentially remediating various sites according to the regulations imposed by a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent order (FFA/CO) between DOE, the state in which the facility is located, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In support of these active site remediation efforts, the DOE has devoted considerable resources towards the development of innovative site characterization techniques that support environmental restoration activities. These resources and efforts have focused on various aspects of this complex problem. Research and technology development conducted at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has resulted in the ability and state-of-the-art equipment required to obtain real-time, densely spaced, in situ characterization data (i.e. detection, speciation, and location) of various radionuclides and contaminants. The Remedial Action Monitoring System (RAMS), developed by the INEEL, consists of enhanced sensor technology, measurement modeling and interpretation techniques, and a suite of deployment platforms which can be interchanged to directly support remedial cleanup and site verification operations. In situ characterization techniques have advanced to the point where they are being actively deployed in support of remedial operations. The INEEL has deployed its system at various DOE and international sites. The deployment of in situ characterization systems during environmental restoration operations has shown that this approach results in several significant benefits versus conventional sampling techniques. A flexible characterization system permits rapid modification to satisfy physical site conditions, available site resources

  8. Technical know-how of site descriptive modeling for site characterization - 59089

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Onoe, Hironori; Doke, Ryosuke; Niizato, Tadafumi; Yasue, Ken-ichi

    2012-01-01

    The site descriptive model covering the current status of characteristics of geological environment and the site evolution model for estimation of the long-term evolution of site conditions are used to integrate multi-disciplinary investigation results. It is important to evaluate uncertainties in the models, to specify issues regarding the uncertainties and to prioritize the resolution of specified issues, for the planning of site characterization. There is a large quantity of technical know-how in the modeling process. It is important to record the technical know-how with transparency and traceability, since site characterization projects generally need long duration. The transfer of the technical know-how accumulated in the research and development (R and D) phase to the implementation phase is equally important. The aim of this study is to support the planning of initial surface-based site characterizations based on the technical know-how accumulated from the underground research laboratory projects. These projects are broad scientific studies of the deep geological environment and provide a technical basis for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. In this study, a comprehensive task flow from acquisition of existing data to planning of field investigations through the modeling has been specified. Specific task flow and decision-making process to perform the tasks have been specified. (authors)

  9. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neitzel, D.A.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Fosmire, C.J.

    1997-08-01

    This ninth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Chapters 4 and 6 in Hanford Site-related NEPA documents. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological and historical resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site. Not all of the sections have been updated for this revision. The following lists the updated sections: climate and meteorology; ecology (threatened and endangered species section only); culture, archaeological, and historical resources; socioeconomics; all of Chapter 6

  10. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A. [ed.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Fosmire, C.J. [and others

    1997-08-01

    This ninth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Chapters 4 and 6 in Hanford Site-related NEPA documents. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological and historical resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site. Not all of the sections have been updated for this revision. The following lists the updated sections: climate and meteorology; ecology (threatened and endangered species section only); culture, archaeological, and historical resources; socioeconomics; all of Chapter 6.

  11. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    2000-01-01

    The Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) has been prepared for waste characterization activities to be conducted by the Transuranic (TRU) Project at the Hanford Site to meet requirements set forth in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, 4890139088-TSDF, Attachment B, including Attachments B1 through B6 (WAP) (DOE, 1999a). The QAPjP describes the waste characterization requirements and includes test methods, details of planned waste sampling and analysis, and a description of the waste characterization and verification process. In addition, the QAPjP includes a description of the quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) requirements for the waste characterization program. Before TRU waste is shipped to the WIPP site by the TRU Project, all applicable requirements of the QAPjP shall be implemented. Additional requirements necessary for transportation to waste disposal at WIPP can be found in the ''Quality Assurance Program Document'' (DOE 1999b) and HNF-2600, ''Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan.'' TRU mixed waste contains both TRU radioactive and hazardous components, as defined in the WLPP-WAP. The waste is designated and separately packaged as either contact-handled (CH) or remote-handled (RH), based on the radiological dose rate at the surface of the waste container. RH TRU wastes are not currently shipped to the WIPP facility

  12. Mixed waste characterization and certification at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, T.A.; Dodge, R.L.; Fitzsimmons, P.K.

    1988-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Project at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was recently granted interim status by the state of Nevada to receive mixed waste. The RCRA Part B permit application has been revised and submitted to the state. Preliminary indications are that the permit will be granted. In conjunction with revision of the Part B permit application, pertinent DOE guidelines governing waste acceptance criteria and waste characterization were also revised. The guidelines balance the need for full characterization of hazardous constituents with ALARA precepts. Because it is not always feasible to obtain a full chemical analysis without undue or unnecessary radiological exposure of personnel, process knowledge is considered an acceptable method of waste characterization. A balance of administrative controls and verification procedures, as well as careful documentation and high standards of quality assurance, are essential to the characterization and certification program developed for the NTS

  13. Mixed waste characterization and certification at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, T.A.; Dodge, R.L.; Fitzsimmons, P.K.

    1988-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Project (RWMP) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was recently granted interim status by the state of Nevada to receive mixed waste (MW). The RCRA Part B permit application has been revised and submitted to the state. Preliminary indications are that the permit will be granted. In conjunction with revision of the Part B Permit application, pertinent DOE guidelines governing waste acceptance criteria (WAC) and waste characterization were also revised. The guidelines balance the need for full characterization of hazardous constituents with as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) precepts. Because it is not always feasible to obtain a full chemical analysis without undue or unnecessary radiological exposure of personnel, process knowledge is considered an acceptable method of waste characterization. A balance of administrative controls and verification procedures, as well as careful documentation and high standards of quality assurance, are essential to the characterization and certification program developed for the NTS

  14. Coordinated site characterization and performance assessment - an iterative approach for the site evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, T.; Ericsson, L.O.; Thegerstroem, C.; Almen, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    SKB planning for siting a deep repository involves feasibility studies in 5-10 municipalities surface based characterization and drilling on two candidate sites and detailed characterization of one site including a shaft to proposed repository depth. The selection of a site or the detailed layout of the repository defines characteristics that might influence safety in a broad sense. There is a strong ling between the safety, technical (engineering) and functional aspects. The site selection will be based on general geoscientific information, i.e. mechanical stability, ground-water chemistry, slow ground-water movements and complicating factors like high potential for mineralization. The general layout of the repository in the actual geological structure of the site must be done with regard to a number of guidelines, e.g. to hydraulically separate the parts of the repository containing the spent nuclear fuel from those for other types of long lived waste and to separate the two stages of the spent fuel repository so they can be handled separately in the licensing process. When the various parts of the repository have been tentatively located the consequence of the multiple barrier principle is that the layout of the various parts should be made with the aim to utilize the available natural barrier system at the site as well as possible. (authors). 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neitzel, D.A.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Fosmire, C.J.; Fowler, R.A.

    1996-08-01

    This eighth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Chapters 4 and 6 in Hanford Site-related NEPA documents. Chapter 4 (Affected Environment) includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, historical, archaeological and cultural resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site. The following sections were updated in this revision: climate and meteorology; ecology (threatened and endangered species section only); historical; archaeological and cultural resources; and all of chapter 6. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be used directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts

  16. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A. [ed.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Fosmire, C.J.; Fowler, R.A. [and others

    1996-08-01

    This eighth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Chapters 4 and 6 in Hanford Site-related NEPA documents. Chapter 4 (Affected Environment) includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, historical, archaeological and cultural resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site. The following sections were updated in this revision: climate and meteorology; ecology (threatened and endangered species section only); historical; archaeological and cultural resources; and all of chapter 6. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be used directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts.

  17. Characterization of subsurface sediments at a site of gasoline contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, D.J.; Krauter, P.W.; Jovanovich, M.C.; Lee, K.; Nelson, S.C.; Noyes, C.

    1992-02-01

    The Dynamic Underground Stripping Project combines monitored steam injection and electrical heating to treat in situ a gasoline plume resulting from leakage of an underground storage tank. A preliminary field demonstration of this system was performed at an uncontaminated site (Clean Site) a few hundred feet away with similar geology to that at the Gasoline Spill (GS) area. This paper describes characterization efforts at both sites and highlights what we rearmed at the Clean Site that helped us plan our operations more effectively at the GS. To validate the success of the Dynamic Underground Stripping Project, we require a detailed understanding of the physical, geological, hydrological, chemical, and biological nature of the demonstration sites and how these parameters change as a result of the Dynamic Stripping processes. The characterization process should also provide data to estimate the masses of contaminants present and their spatial distribution before and after the remedial process to (1) aid in the planning for placement of injection and extraction wells, (2) provide physical data to develop conceptual models, (3) validate subsurface imaging techniques, and (4) confirm regulatory compliance

  18. Site characterization criteria (DOE-STD-1022-94) for natural phenomena hazards at DOE sites. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.C.; Ueng, Tzou-Shin; Boissonnade, A.C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper briefly summarizes requirements of site characterization for Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) at DOE sites. In order to comply with DOE Order 5480.28, site characterization criteria has been developed to provide site-specific information needed for development of NPH assessment criteria. Appropriate approaches are outlined to ensure that the current state-of-the-art methodologies and procedures are used in the site characterization. General and detailed site characterization requirements are provided in the areas of meteorology, hydrology, geology, seismology and geotechnical studies

  19. New software tool for dynamic radiological characterisation and monitoring in nuclear sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szoeke, Istvan; Louka, Michael N.; Mark, Niels K.; Bryntesen, Tom R.; Bratteli, Joachim; Edvardsen, Svein T.; Gustavsen, Morten A.; Toppe, Aleksander L.; Johnsen, Terje; Rindahl, Grete

    2012-01-01

    The Halden Reactor Project (HRP) is a jointly sponsored international cooperation, under the aegis of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development - Nuclear Energy Agency. Extensive and valuable guidance and tools, connected to safe and reliable operation of nuclear facilities, has been elaborated throughout the years within the frame of this programme. The HRP has particularly high level results in virtual-reality based tools for real-time areal and personal monitoring. The techniques, developed earlier, are now being supplemented to enhance the planning and monitoring capabilities, and support general radiological characterisation connected to nuclear sites and facilities. Due to the complexity and abundance of the input information required, software tools, dedicated to the radiological characterization of contaminated materials, buildings, land and groundwater, are applied to review, evaluate and visualize the data. Characterisation of the radiation situation in a realistic environment can be very complex, and efficient visualisation of the data to the user is not straight forward. The monitoring and planning tools elaborated in the frame of the HRP feature very sophisticated three-dimensional (3D) high definition visualisation and user interfaces to promote easy interpretation of the input data. The visualisation tools permit dynamic visualisation of radiation fields in virtual or augmented reality by various techniques and real-time personal monitoring of humanoid models. In addition new techniques are being elaborated to visualise the 3D distribution of activities in structures and materials. The dosimetric algorithms, feeding information to the visualisation and user interface of these planning tools, include deterministic radiation transport techniques suitable for fast photon dose estimates, in case physical and radio- and spectrometric characteristics of the gamma sources are known. The basic deterministic model, implemented in earlier

  20. The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site beryllium characterization project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrell, D.M.; Miller, J.R.; Allen, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    A site beryllium characterization project was completed at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in 1997. Information from historical reviews, previous sampling surveys, and a new sampling survey were used to establish a more comprehensive understanding of the locations and levels of beryllium contamination in 35 buildings. A feature of the sampling strategy was to test if process knowledge was a good predictor of where beryllium contamination could be found. Results revealed that this technique was effective at identifying where surface contamination levels might exceed the RFETS smear control level but that it was not effective in identifying where low concentrations of beryllium might be found

  1. A proposed descriptive methodology for environmental geologic (envirogeologic) site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, D.L.; Snyder, W.S.

    1994-01-01

    We propose a descriptive methodology for use in environmental geologic (envirogeologic) site characterization. The method uses traditional sedimentologic descriptions augmented by environmental data needs, and facies analysis. Most other environmental methodologies for soil and sediment characterization use soil engineering and engineering geology techniques that classify by texture and engineering properties. This technique is inadequate for envirogeologic characterization of sediments. In part, this inadequacy is due to differences in the grain-size between the Unified soil Classification and the Udden-Wentworth scales. Use of the soil grain-size classification could easily cause confusion when attempting to relate descriptions based on this classification to our basic understanding of sedimentary depositional systems. The proposed envirogeologic method uses descriptive parameters to characterize a sediment sample, suggests specific tests on samples for adequate characterization, and provides a guidelines for subsurface facies analysis, based on data retrieved from shallow boreholes, that will allow better predictive models to be developed. This methodology should allow for both a more complete site assessment, and provide sufficient data for selection of the appropriate remediation technology, including bioremediation. 50 refs

  2. Site study plan for borehole search and characterization, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This site study plan describes the Borehole Search and Characterization field activities to be conducted during the early stages of Site Characterization at the Deaf Smith County site, Texas. The field program has been designed to provide data useful in addressing information/data needs resulting from Federal/State/Local regulatory requirements and repository program requirements. Air and ground surveys, an extensive literature search, and landowner interviews will be conducted to locate wells within and adjacent to the proposed nuclear waste repository site in Deaf Smith County. Initially, the study will center around the planned Exploratory Shaft Facilities location and will expand outward from that location. Findings from this study may lead to preparation of a new site study plan to search suspected borehole locations, and excavate or reenter known boreholes for additional characterization or remedial action. The Salt Repository Project (SRP) Networks specify the schedule under which the program will operate. The Technical Field Services Contractor (TFSC) is responsible for conducting the field program. Data will be handled and reported in accordance with established SRP procedures. A quality assurance program will be utilized to assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that appropriate documentation is maintained. 13 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Your School's Web Site-A Powerful Tool for Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Say, Michael W.; Collier, Karen J.; Hoya, Charlotte, G.

    2001-01-01

    A successful marketing plan requires a conceptual framework, the ability to target an audience effectively, and the strategy for positioning the school organization appropriately. A website can be a powerful marketing tool if it focuses on what users want and provides it in an organized, accessible fashion. (MLH)

  4. Yucca Mountain Site characterization project bibliography, January--June 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, J.J.; Stephan, P.M.

    1991-09-01

    Following a reorganization of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management in 1990, the Yucca Mountain Project was renamed Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The title of this bibliography was also changed to Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Bibliography. Prior to August 5, 1988, this project was called the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. This bibliography contains information on this ongoing project that was added to the Department of Energy's Energy Science and Technology Database from January 1991 through June 1991. The bibliography is categorized by principal project participating organization. Participant-sponsored subcontractor reports, papers, and articles are included in the sponsoring organization's list. Another section contains information about publications on the Energy Science and Technology Database that were not sponsored by the project but have some relevance to it

  5. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project bibliography, January--June 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Following a reorganization of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management in 1990, the Yucca Mountain Project was renamed Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The title of this bibliography was also changed to Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Bibliography. Prior to August 5, 1988, this project was called the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. This bibliography contains information on this ongoing project that was added to the Department of Energy's Energy Science and Technology Database from January 1, 1993, through June 30, 1993. The bibliography is categorized by principal project participating organization. Participant-sponsored subcontractor reports, papers, and articles are included in the sponsoring organization's list. Another section contains information about publications on the Energy Science and Technology Database that were not sponsored by the project but have some relevance to it

  6. Software quality assurance on the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matras, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) has been involved over the years in the continuing struggle with establishing acceptable Software Quality Assurance (SQA) requirements for the development, modification, and acquisition of computer programs used to support the Mined Geologic Disposal System. These computer programs will be used to produce or manipulate data used directly in site characterization, design, analysis, performance assessment, and operation of repository structures, systems, and components. Scientists and engineers working on the project have claimed that the SQA requirements adopted by the project are too restrictive to allow them to perform their work. This paper will identify the source of the original SQA requirements adopted by the project. It will delineate the approach used by the project to identify concerns voiced by project engineers and scientists regarding the original SQA requirements. It will conclude with a discussion of methods used to address these problems in the rewrite of the original SQA requirements

  7. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Bibliography, July--December 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    Following a reorganization of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, the Yucca Mountain Project was renamed Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The title of this bibliography was also changed to Yucca Mountains Site Characterization Project Bibliography. Prior to August 5, 1988, this project was called the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. This bibliography contains information on this ongoing project that was added to the Department of Energy's Energy Science and Technology Database from July 1990 through December 1990. The bibliography is categorized by principal project participating organization. Participant-sponsored subcontractor reports, papers and articles are included in the sponsoring organizations list. Another section contains information about publications on the Energy Science and Technology Database that were not sponsored by the project but have some relevance to it

  8. Site characterization and validation - geophysical single hole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Per

    1989-05-01

    A total of 15 boreholes have been drilled for preliminary characterization of a previously unexplored site at the 360 and 385 m level in the Stripa mine. To adequately described the rock mass in the vicinity of these boreholes, a comprehensive program utilizing a large number of geophysical borehole methods has been carried out in 10 of these boreholes. The specific geophysical character of the rock mass and the major deformed units distinguished in the vicinity of the boreholes are recognized, and in certain cases also correlated between the boreholes. A general conclusion based on the geophysical logging results, made in this report, is that the preliminary predictions made in stage 2, of the site characterization and validation project (Olsson et.al, 1988), are adequate. The results from the geophysical logging can support the four predicted fracture/ fracture zones GHa, GHb, GA and GB whereas the predicted zones GC and GI are hard to confirm from the logging results. (author)

  9. Yucca Mountain Site characterization project bibliography, January--June 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    Following a reorganization of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management in 1990, the Yucca Mountain Project was renamed Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The title of this bibliography was also changed to Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Bibliography. Prior to August 5, 1988, this project was called the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. This bibliography contains information on this ongoing project that was added to the Department of Energy's Energy Science and Technology Database from January 1, 1992, through June 30, 1992. The bibliography is categorized by principal project participating organization. Participant-sponsored subcontractor resorts, papers, and articles are included in the sponsoring organization's list. Another section contains information about publications on the Energy Science and Technology Database that were not sponsored by the project but have some relevance to it

  10. Digital Capture and Fabrication Tools for Interpretation of Historic Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, A.; Glekas, E.

    2017-08-01

    Historic sites and the narratives they produce can have a lasting impact on the community through public engagement and education. However, when these sites are neglected and lost over time, opportunities to engage the public with the history of these places is lost with them. The interpretation of heritage that has been lost or forgotten is an emerging trend in humanities studies. This trend, in combination with technological advancements in digital media and representation, presents an innovative opportunity for historic preservation professionals to create new paths for public engagement. This paper discusses applications of photogrammetry, 3D modeling, and digital fabrication in digitally reconstructing interpretive models of the Larz Anderson Estate (now Larz Anderson Park). This site has changed dramatically through its transition from a private estate to a public park and recreation area, with few remnants of the original estate remaining extant. The above stated use of digital strategies aims to create digital and physical models of the estate's change over time, with the aim of interpreting the site's lost heritage for the public. Combining existing archival research and heritage documentation methods with these digital representation techniques tells the story of a place that no longer exists.

  11. A tool for identifying potential Eucalyptus nitens seed orchard sites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shy seed production in orchards of Eucalyptus nitens is a major barrier to the deployment of genetic gain in South African plantations. A machine learning method was used to identify optimal sites for the establishment of E. nitens seed orchards within the plantation forestry landscape of the summer rainfall region of South ...

  12. Site characterization and validation. Stage 2 - Preliminary predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, O.; Black, J.H.; Gale, J.E.; Holmes, D.C.

    1989-05-01

    The Site Characterization and Validation (SCV) project is designed to assess how well we can characterize a volume of rock prior to using it as a repository. The programme of work focuses on the validation of the techniques used in site characterization. The SCV project contains 5 stages of work arranged in two 'cycles' of data-gathering, prediction, and validation. The first stage of work has included drilling of 6 boreholes (N2, N3, N4, W1, W2 and V3) and measurements of geology, fracture characteristics, stess, single borehole geophysical logging, radar, seismics and hydrogeology. The rock at the SCV site is granite with small lithological variations. Based essentially on radar and seismic results 5 'fracture zones' have been identified, named GA, GB, GC, GH and GI. They all extend acroos the entire SCV site. They aer basically in in two groups (GA, GB, GC and GH, GI). The first group are aligned N40 degree E with a dip of 35 degree to the south. The second group are aligned approximately N10 degree W dipping 60 degree E. From the stochastic analysis of the joint data it was possible to identify three main fracture orientation clusters. The orientation of two of these clusters agree roughly with orientation of the main features. Cluster B has roughly the same orientation as GH and GI, while features GA, GB and GC have an orientation similar to the more loosely defined cluster C. The orientation of the third cluster (A) is northwest with a dip to northeast. It is found that 94% of all measured hydraulic transmissivity is accounted for by 4% of the tested rock, not all of this 'concentrated' transmissivity is with the major features defined by geophysics. When the hydraulic connections across the site are examied they show that there are several welldefined zones which permit rapid transmission of hydraulic signals. These are essentially from the northeast to the southwest. (66 figs., 21 tabs., 33 refs.)

  13. Selecting analytical tools for characterization of polymersomes in aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habel, Joachim Erich Otto; Ogbonna, Anayo; Larsen, Nanna

    2015-01-01

    /purification. Of the analytical methods tested, Cryo-transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) turned out to be advantageous for polymersomes with smaller diameter than 200 nm, whereas confocal microscopy is ideal for diameters >400 nm. Polymersomes in the intermediate diameter range can be characterized...... using freeze fracture Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (FF-Cryo-SEM) and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) provides reliable data on bilayer thickness and internal structure, Cryo-TEM on multilamellarity. Taken together, these tools are valuable...

  14. Technical data management at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statler, J.; Newbury, C.M.; Heitland, G.W.

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Energy/Office of Civilian Radioactive waste Management (DOE/OCRWM) is responsible for the characterization of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to determine its potential as a site of a high-level radioactive waste repository. The characterization of Yucca Mountain encompasses many diverse investigations, both onsite and in laboratories across the country. Investigations are being conducted of the geology, hydrology, mineralogy, paleoclimate, geotechnical properties, and archeology of the area, to name a few. Effective program management requires that data from site investigations be processed, interpreted and disseminated in a timely manner to support model development and validation, repository design, and performance assessment. The Program must also meet regulatory requirements for making the technical data accessible to a variety of external users throughout the life of the Project. Finally, the DOE/OCRWM must make available the data or its description and access location available for use in support of the license application and supporting documentation. To accomplish these objectives, scientific and engineering data, generated by site characterization activities, and technical data, generated by environmental and socioeconomic impact assessment activities, must be systematically identified, cataloged, stored and disseminated in a controlled manner

  15. Selecting analytical tools for characterization of polymersomes in aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habel, Joachim Erich Otto; Ogbonna, Anayo; Larsen, Nanna

    2015-01-01

    Selecting the appropriate analytical methods for characterizing the assembly and morphology of polymer-based vesicles, or polymersomes are required to reach their full potential in biotechnology. This work presents and compares 17 different techniques for their ability to adequately report size....../purification. Of the analytical methods tested, Cryo-transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) turned out to be advantageous for polymersomes with smaller diameter than 200 nm, whereas confocal microscopy is ideal for diameters >400 nm. Polymersomes in the intermediate diameter range can be characterized...... using freeze fracture Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (FF-Cryo-SEM) and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) provides reliable data on bilayer thickness and internal structure, Cryo-TEM on multilamellarity. Taken together, these tools are valuable...

  16. A method for evaluating the effectiveness of site characterization measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditmars, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    A quantitative approach for evaluating the effectiveness of site characterization measurement activities is developed and illustrated with an example application to hypothetical measurement schemes at a potential geologic repository site for radioactive waste. The method is a general one and could also be applied at sites for underground disposal of hazardous chemicals. The approach presumes that measurements will be undertaken to support predictions of the performance of some aspect of a constructed facility or natural system. It requires a quantitative performance objective, such as groundwater travel time or contaminant concentration, against which to compare predictions of performance. The approach recognizes that such predictions are uncertain because the measurements upon which they are based are uncertain. The effectiveness of measurement activities is quantified by a confidence index, β, that reflects the number of standard deviations separating the best estimate of performance from the predetermined performance objective. Measurements that reduce the uncertainty in predictions lead to increased values of β. 5 refs., 4 figs

  17. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project: Technical Data Catalog quarterly supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-31

    The March 21, 1993, Department of Energy (DOE)/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Site-Specific Procedural Agreement for Geologic Repository Site Investigation and Characterization Program requires the DOE to develop and maintain a catalog of data which will be updated and provided to the NRC at least quarterly. This catalog is to include a description of the data; the time (date), place, and method of acquisition; and where it may be examined. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Technical Data Catalog is published and distributed in accordance with the requirements of the Site-Specific Agreement. The YMP Technical Data Catalog is a report based on reference information contained in the YMP Automated Technical Data Tracking System (ATDT). The reference information is provided by Participants for data acquired or developed in support of the YMP. The Technical Data Catalog is updated quarterly and published in the month following the end of each quarter. A complete revision to the Catalog is published at the end of each fiscal year. Supplements to the end-of-year edition are published each quarter. These supplements provide information related to new data items not included in previous quarterly updates and data items affected by changes to previously published reference information. The Technical Data Catalog, dated September 30, 1993, should be retained as the baseline document for the supplements until the end-of-year revision is published and distributed in October 1994.

  18. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Technical Data Catalog (quarterly supplement)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The June 1, 1985, Department of Energy (DOE)/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Site-Specific Procedural Agreement for Geologic Repository Site Investigation and Characterization Program requires the DOE to develop and maintain a catalog of data which will be updated and provided to the NRC at least quarterly. This catalog is to include a description of the data; the time (date), place, and method of acquisition; and where it may be examined. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Technical Data Catalog is published and distributed in accordance with the requirements of the Site-Specific Agreement. The YMP Technical Data Catalog is a report based on reference information contained in the YMP Automated Technical Data Tracking System (ATDT). The reference information is provided by Participants for data acquired or developed in support of the YMP. The Technical Data Catalog is updated quarterly and published in the month following the end of each quarter. A complete revision to the Catalog is published at the end of each fiscal year. Supplements to the end-of-year edition are published each quarter. These supplements provide information related to new data items not included in previous quarterly updates and data items affected by changes to previously published reference information. The Technical Data Catalog, dated December 31, 1992, should be retained as the baseline document for the supplements until the end-of-year revision is published and distributed in October 1993

  19. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Technical Data Catalog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The June 1, 1985, Department of Energy (DOE)/Nuclear, Regulatory Commission (NRC) Site-Specific Procedural Agreement for Geologic Repository Site Investigation and Characterization Program requires the DOE to develop and maintain a catalog of data which will be updated and provided to the NRC at least quarterly. This catalog is to include a description of the data; the time (date), place, and method of acquisition; and where it may be examined. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Technical Data Catalog is published and distributed in accordance with the requirements of the Site-Specific Agreement. The YMP Technical Data Catalog is a report based on reference information contained in the YMP Automated Technical Data Tracking System (ATDT). The reference information is provided by Participants for data acquired or developed in support of the YMP. The Technical Data Catalog is updated quarterly and published in the month following the end of each quarter. Each new publication of the Technical Data Catalog supersedes the previous edition

  20. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project technical data catalog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The June 1, 1985, Department of Energy (DOE)/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Site-Specific Procedural Agreement for Geologic Repository Site Investigation and Characterization Program requires the DOE to develop and maintain a catalog of data which will be updated and provided to the NRC at least quarterly. This catalog is to include a description of the data; the time (date), place, and method of acquisition; and where it may be examined. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Technical Data Catalog is published and distributed in accordance with the requirements of the Site-Specific Agreement. The YMP Technical Data Catalog is a report based on reference information contained in the YMP Automated Technical Data Tracking System (ATDT). The reference information is provided by Participants for data acquired or developed in support of the YMP. The Technical Data Catalog is updated quarterly and published in the month following the end of each quarter. Each new publication of the Technical Data Catalog supersedes the previous edition

  1. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project technical data catalog: Quarterly supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE)/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Site-Specific Procedural Agreement for Geologic Repository Site Investigation and Characterization Program requires the DOE to develop and maintain a catalog of data which will be updated and provided to the NRC at least quarterly. This catalog is to include a description of the data; the time (date), place, and method of acquisition; and where the data may be examined. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Technical Data Catalog is published and distributed-in accordance with the requirements of the Site-Specific Agreement. The YMP Technical Data Catalog is a report based on reference information contained in the YMP Automated Technical Data Tracking System (ATDT). The reference information is provided by Participants for data acquired or developed in support of the YMP. The Technical Data Catalog is updated quarterly and distributed in the month following the end of each quarter. A complete revision to the catalog is published at the end of each fiscal year. Supplements to the end-of-year edition are published each quarter. These supplements provide information related to new data items not included in previous quarterly updates and data items affected by changes to previously published reference information. The Technical Data Catalog, dated September 30, 1994, should be retained as the baseline document for the supplements until the end-of-year revision is published and distributed in October 1995.

  2. Revised analysis of in-migrating workers during site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    The Deaf Smith Environmental Assessment's analysis of in-migrating workers and community service impacts was predicated on the assumption that a peak of approximately 480 workers would be needed on location to conduct site characterization activities. This analysis assumed that DOE's prime contractor(s) would have a limited staff in the area; the majority of the workers would be on site for the construction of the exploratory shaft and to conduct geologic and environmental studies. Since the time when the Environmental Assessment was prepared, the prime contractors [Battelle-ISSC and the Technical Field Service Contractor (TFSC)] were requested to move their offices to the site area. Therefore, many more administrative and technical workers would be expected to relocate in the Deaf Smith County regions. A change in the expected number of in-migrants could also change the expected nature of community service impacts. It is the purpose of this analysis to evaluate the site characterization workforce and thresholds for local community services. 22 refs., 24 tabs

  3. Site characterization investigations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketelle, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The geologic and geohydrologic characterization and assessment techniques currently used at ORNL are integrated into a systematic approach. The investigations are multi-faceted, and involve investigators with a variety of expertise. Characterization studies are designed to obtain the data requirements of pathways analysis and facility design in addition to the detailed site description. The approach effectively minimizes the redundancy and lack of coordination which often arise when the study is broken down into totally independent tasks. The geologic environment of the Oak Ridge Reservation is one of structural and stratigraphic complexity which requires a comprehensive and systematic approach to characterize. Recent characterization studies have included state-of-the-science techniques in the areas of unsaturated zone testing, geochemical tests to determine attenuation properties of soils, and numerical analyses of site performance. The results of these studies and analyses are changing the technology of shallow land burial by indicating that chemically stable waste forms are required to limit radionuclide migration to acceptable levels. 11 refs., 1 tab

  4. Characterization of reference and site specific humic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.I.; Buckau, G.

    1988-11-01

    As a contribution to the interlaboratory exercise for the complexation of humic acid and colloid generation (COCO-Club activities) in the CEC project MIRAGE-II, the characterization of selected humic acids have been carried out at TU Muenchen, regarding their elemental compositions, inorganic impurities, spectroscopic properties, size distributions and proton exchange capacities. The commercial humic acid (Na salt) from Aldrich Co. is purified to a protonated form and used as reference material. Furthermore two humic acids extracted from groundwaters from Gorleben (FRG) and Boom Clay (B) are purified to protonated forms and taken as site specific materials. These three humic acids, together with the original Na salt from Aldrich Co., are included in the present characterization exercise. The results of characterization provide basic knowledge supporting the forthcoming study of complexation of actinides and fission products with humic acid and their migration processes in the geosphere. (orig.)

  5. Characterization of reference and site specific human acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.I.; Buckau, G.

    1988-01-01

    As a part of the interlaboratory exercise for the complexation of humic acid and colloid generation (COCO-Club activities) in the CEC project MIRAGE-II, the characterization of humic acids have been carried out, as for their elemental compositions, inorganic impurities, spectroscopic properties, size distributions and proton exchange capacities. The commercial humic acid (Na salt) from Aldrich Co. is purified to a protonated form and used as a reference material, and the humic acid extracted from one of Gorleben groundwaters is also purified to a protonated form and taken as a site specific material. These two humic acids, together with the original Na salt from Aldrich Co., are included for the characterization exercise. The results of characterization provide a basic knowledge that supports the forthcoming study of complexation of humic acids with actinides and fission products in their migration processes in the geosphere. (orig.)

  6. Site Characterization Work Plan for the Gnome-Coach Site, New Mexico (Rev. 1, January 2002)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV)

    2002-01-14

    Project Gnome was the first nuclear experiment conducted under the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), predecessor to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Plowshare Program. The Plowshare Program focused on developing nuclear devices exclusively for peaceful purposes. The intent of the Gnome experiment was to evaluate the effects of a nuclear detonation in a salt medium. Historically, Project Gnome consisted of a single detonation of a nuclear device on December 10, 1961 with the Salado Formation. Since the Gnome detonation, the AEC/DOE has conducted surface restoration, site reconnaissance, and decontamination and decommissioning activities at the site. In addition, annual groundwater sampling is performed under a long-term hydrological monitoring program begun in 1972. Coach, an experiment to be located near the Gnome project, was initially scheduled for 1963. Although construction and rehabilitation were completed for Coach, the experiment was canceled and never executed. Known collectively as Project Gnome-Coach, the site is located approximately 25 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico, in Eddy County, and is comprised of nearly 680 acres, of which approximately 60 acres are disturbed from the combined AEC/DOE operations. The scope of this work plan is to document the environmental objectives and the proposed technical site investigation strategies that will be utilized for the site characterization of the project. The subsurface at the Gnome-Coach site has two contaminant sources that are fundamentally different in terms of both their stratigraphic location and release mechanism. The goal of this characterization is to collect data of sufficient quantity and quality to establish current site conditions and to use the data to identify and evaluate if further action is required to protect human health and the environment and achieve permanent closure of the site. The results of these activities will be presented in a subsequent corrective action decision document.

  7. Site Characterization Work Plan for Gnome-Coach Site, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    2001-02-13

    Project Gnome was the first nuclear experiment conducted under the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), predecessor to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Plowshare Program. Gnome was part of a joint government-industry experiment focused on developing nuclear devices exclusively for peaceful purposes. The intent of the Gnome experiment was to evaluate the effects of a nuclear detonation in a salt medium. Historically, Project Gnome consisted of a single detonation of a nuclear device on December 10, 1961. Since the Gnome detonation, the AEC/DOE has conducted surface restoration, site reconnaissance, and decontamination and decommissioning activities at the site. In addition, annual groundwater sampling is performed under a long-term hydrological monitoring program begun in 1980. Coach, an experiment to be located near the Gnome project, was initially scheduled for 1963. Although construction and rehabilitation were completed for Coach, the experiment was canceled and never executed. Known collectively as Project Gnome-Coach, the site is situated within the Salado Formation approximately 25 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico, in Eddy County, and is comprised of nearly 680 acres, of which 60 acres are disturbed from the combined AEC/DOE operations. The scope of this work plan is to document the environmental objectives and the proposed technical site investigation strategies that will be utilized for the site characterization of the project. The subsurface at the Gnome-Coach site has two contaminant sources that are fundamentally different in terms of both their stratigraphic location and release mechanism. The goal of this characterization is to collect data of sufficient quantity and quality to establish current site conditions and to use the data to identify and evaluate if further action is required to protect human health and the environment and achieve permanent closure of the site. The results of these activities will be presented in a subsequent corrective

  8. Site characterization plan overview: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    To help the public better understand both the SCP and the site characterization program, the DOE has prepared this overview and the SCP Public Handbook. The overview presents summaries of selected topics covered in the SCP; it is not a substitute for the SCP. The organization of the overview is similar to that of the SCP itself, with brief descriptions of the Yucca Mountain site, the repository, and the containers in which the waste would be packaged, followed by a discussion of the characterization program to be carried out at the Yucca Mountain site. This overview is intended primarily for those persons who want to understand the general scope and basis of the site-characterization program, the activities to be conducted, and the facilities to be constructed without spending the time necessary to become familiar with all of the technical details presented in the SCP. For the readers of the SCP, the overview will be useful as a general guide to the plan. The SCP Public Handbook is a short document that contains brief descriptions of the SCP process and the contents of the SCP. It also explains how the public can submit comments on the SCP and lists the libraries and reading rooms at which the SCP is available. 9 refs., 18 tabs.

  9. Site characterization plan overview: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada Reserch and Development Area, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    To help the public better understand both the SCP and the site characterization program, the DOE has prepared this overview and the SCP Public Handbook. The overview presents summaries of selected topics covered in the SCP; it is not a substitute for the SCP. The organization of the overview is similar to that of the SCP itself, with brief descriptions of the Yucca Mountain site, the repository, and the containers in which the waste would be packaged, followed by a discussion of the characterization program to be carried out at the Yucca Mountain site. This overview is intended primarily for those persons who want to understand the general scope and basis of the site-characterization program, the activities to be conducted, and the facilities to be constructed without spending the time necessary to become familiar with all of the technical details presented in the SCP. For the readers of the SCP, the overview will be useful as a general guide to the plan. The SCP Public Handbook is a short document that contains brief descriptions of the SCP process and the contents of the SCP. It also explains how the public can submit comments on the SCP and lists the libraries and reading rooms at which the SCP is available. 9 refs., 18 tabs

  10. Site characterization and monitoring data from Area 5 Pilot Wells, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The Special Projects Section (SPS) of Reynolds Electrical ampersand Engineering Co., Inc. (REECO) is responsible for characterizing the subsurface geology and hydrology of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Division, Waste Operations Branch. The three Pilot Wells that comprise the Pilot Well Project are an important part of the Area 5 Site Characterization Program designed to determine the suitability of the Area 5 RWMS for disposal of low-level waste (LLW), mixed waste (MW), and transuranic waste (TRU). The primary purpose of the Pilot Well Project is two-fold: first, to characterize important water quality and hydrologic properties of the uppermost aquifer; and second, to characterize the lithologic, stratigraphic, and hydrologic conditions which influence infiltration, redistribution, and percolation, and chemical transport through the thick vadose zone in the vicinity of the Area 5 RWMS. This report describes Pilot Well drilling and coring, geophysical logging, instrumentation and stemming, laboratory testing, and in situ testing and monitoring activities

  11. The Promise, Practice, and State of Planning Tools to Assess Site Vulnerability to Runoff Phosphorus Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, P J A; Sharpley, A N; Buda, A R; Easton, Z M; Lory, J A; Osmond, D L; Radcliffe, D E; Nelson, N O; Veith, T L; Doody, D G

    2017-11-01

    Over the past 20 yr, there has been a proliferation of phosphorus (P) site assessment tools for nutrient management planning, particularly in the United States. The 19 papers that make up this special section on P site assessment include decision support tools ranging from the P Index to fate-and-transport models to weather-forecast-based risk calculators. All require objective evaluation to ensure that they are effective in achieving intended benefits to protecting water quality. In the United States, efforts have been underway to compare, evaluate, and advance an array of P site assessment tools. Efforts to corroborate their performance using water quality monitoring data confirms previously documented discrepancies between different P site assessment tools but also highlights a surprisingly strong performance of many versions of the P Index as a predictor of water quality. At the same time, fate-and-transport models, often considered to be superior in their prediction of hydrology and water quality due to their complexity, reveal limitations when applied to site assessment. Indeed, one consistent theme from recent experience is the need to calibrate highly parameterized models. As P site assessment evolves, so too do routines representing important aspects of P cycling and transport. New classes of P site assessment tools are an opportunity to move P site assessment from general, strategic goals to web-based tools supporting daily, operational decisions. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  12. Baseline and premining geochemical characterization of mined sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2015-01-01

    A rational goal for environmental restoration of new, active, or inactive mine sites would be ‘natural background’ or the environmental conditions that existed before any mining activities or other related anthropogenic activities. In a strictly technical sense, there is no such thing as natural background (or entirely non-anthropogenic) existing today because there is no part of the planet earth that has not had at least some chemical disturbance from anthropogenic activities. Hence, the terms ‘baseline’ and ‘pre-mining’ are preferred to describe these conditions. Baseline conditions are those that existed at the time of the characterization which could be pre-mining, during mining, or post-mining. Protocols for geochemically characterizing pre-mining conditions are not well-documented for sites already mined but there are two approaches that seem most direct and least ambiguous. One is characterization of analog sites along with judicious application of geochemical modeling. The other is reactive-transport modeling (based on careful synoptic sampling with tracer-injection) and subtracting inputs from known mining and mineral processing. Several examples of acidic drainage are described from around the world documenting the range of water compositions produced from pyrite oxidation in the absence of mining. These analog sites provide insight to the processes forming mineralized waters in areas untouched by mining. Natural analog water-chemistry data is compared with the higher metal concentrations, metal fluxes, and weathering rates found in mined areas in the few places where comparisons are possible. The differences are generally 1–3 orders of magnitude higher for acid mine drainage.

  13. Hanford Site National Evnironmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. (ed.)

    1991-12-01

    This fourth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. In Chapter 4.0 are presented summations of up-to-date information about climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels. Chapter 5.0 describes models, including their principal assumptions, that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclides transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. Chapter 6.0 provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable for environmental impact statements for the Hanford Site, following the structure Chapter 4.0. NO conclusions or recommendations are given in this report.

  14. Hanford Site National Evnironmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. [ed.

    1991-12-01

    This fourth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. In Chapter 4.0 are presented summations of up-to-date information about climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels. Chapter 5.0 describes models, including their principal assumptions, that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclides transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. Chapter 6.0 provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable for environmental impact statements for the Hanford Site, following the structure Chapter 4.0. NO conclusions or recommendations are given in this report.

  15. Site characterization plan overview: reference repository location, Hanford Site, Washington: Consultation draft: Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 113)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    As part of the process for siting the nation's first geologic repository for radioactive waste, the Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing a site characterization plan for the Hanford site in Benton County, Washington. As a step in the preparation of that plan, the DOE has provided, for information and review, a consultation draft of the plan to the State of Washington, the affected Indian Tribes - the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, the Nez Perce Indian Tribe, and the Yakima Indian Nation - and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The Hanford site is one of three sites that the DOE currently plans to characterize;the other sites are the Deaf Smith County site in Texas and the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. After site characterization has been completed and its results evaluated, the DOE will identify from among the three characterized sites the site that is preferred for the repository. The overview presented here consists of brief summaries of important topics covered in the consulation draft of the site characterization plan;it is not a substitute for the site characterization plan. The arrangement of the overview is similar to that of the plan itself, with breif descriptions of the dispoal system - the site, the repository, and the waste package - preceding the discussion of the characterization program to be carried out at the Hanford site. It is intended primarily for the management staff of organizations involved in the DOE's repository program or other persons who might wish to understand the general scope of the site-characterization program, the activities to be conducted, and the facilities to be constructed rather than the technical details of site characterization

  16. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project exploratory studies facilities construction status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, J.N.; Leonard, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress to date on the construction planning and development of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Exploratory Studies Facilities (ESF). The purpose of the ESF is to determine early site suitability and to characterize the subsurface of the Yucca Mountain site to assess its suitability for a potential high level nuclear waste repository. The present ESF configuration concept is for two main ramps to be excavated by tunnel boring machines (TBM) from the surface to the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff Formation. From the main ramps, slightly above Topopah Spring level, supplemental ramps will be penetrated to the Calico Hills formation below the potential repository. There will be exploratory development drifts driven on both levels with the Main Test Area being located on the Topopah Spring level, which is the level of the proposed repository. The Calico Hills formation lies below the Topopah Spring member and is expected to provide the main geo-hydrologic barrier between the potential repository and the underlying saturated zones in the Crater Flat Tuff

  17. Physicochemical characterization of ceramics from Sao Paulo II archaeological site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Rogerio Baria

    2013-01-01

    Archaeometry is a consolidated field with a wide application of nuclear analytical techniques for the characterization, protection, and restoration of archaeological pieces. This project aimed at studying the elementary chemical composition of 70 ceramic fragments samples from Sao Paulo II archaeological site, located along the Solimoes River channel, next to Coari city, in Brazilian Amazon. The characterization of samples was performed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). By the determination of 24 elements in the ceramic fragments ( Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Sb, Sm. Rb, Se, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn), it was possible to define groups of samples regarding the similarity/dissimilarity in elementary chemical composition. For such a task, the multivariate statistical methods employed were cluster analysis (C A), principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA). Afterwards, seven ceramic fragments were selected based on the groups previously established, for the characterization of the site temporal horizon. Those ceramic fragments were analyzed by thermoluminescence (TL) and EPR for dating purposes. The firing temperatures were determined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique, in order to infer about some aspects of the ceramic manufacture employed by the ancient peoples that lived in Sao Paulo 11. By the results obtained in this study, it was possible to identify the quantity of clay sources employed by the ceramists and the age of the ceramic pieces. Therefore, the results of this research may contribute to the study on the occupation dynamics in the pre-colonial Brazilian Amazon. (author)

  18. Myth and Reality in Hydrogeological Site Characterization at DD and R Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, Yoram

    2008-01-01

    The science of hydrogeological site characterization has made significant progress over the last twenty years. Progress has been made in modeling of flow and transport in the heterogeneous subsurface, in understanding of the complex patterns of geological heterogeneity and in measurement technologies. Modeling of uncertainty has also advanced significantly, in recognition of the inherent limitations of subsurface characterization. Much less progress has been made in transforming this progress into practice, where characterization is determined to a large extent by regulations. Environmental regulations have not progressed as much as the science, for example, in recognizing uncertainty. As such, practitioners are less inclined to adopt advanced, science-based solutions, this opening the door for myths and conflicts. Myths develop where the science base is perceived to be weak, whereas conflicts arise in the face of a disconnect between the science and the regulations. Myths translate to ad-hoc solutions and misplaced empiricism, as well as to unjustified reliance on field experience, to the detriment of D and DR. This paper explores the roots for this situation and identifies ideas that may help in bridging the gap between research and applications. A rational approach for DD and R is needed that will encourage innovation in site characterization, reduce costs and accelerate completion. Such an approach needs to include several elements. DD and R regulations need to recognize the various aspects of uncertainty inherent to site characterization, and as such, should be formulated using probabilistic concepts. One of the immediate benefits will be in allowing a gradual approach for data acquisition in DD and R sites: decisions can be made even under the most severe data limitations, and can be modified as additional data become available. The definition of risk is another major element. There is no universal definition of risk or of a methodology to define risk

  19. Site characterization design and techniques used at the Southern Shipbuilding Corporation site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.P.; Geraghty, C.A.; Moore, G.W.; Mullins, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    The Southern Shipbuilding Corporation (SSC) site is an inactive barge/ship manufacturing and repair facility situated on approximately 54 acres in Slidell, St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana. Two unlined surface impoundments (North and South impoundments) are situated on the northwest portion of the site and are surrounded on three sides by Bayou Bonfouca. These impoundments are the sources of carcinogenic polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (CPAH) contamination at the site. Inadequate containment has resulted in the release of impoundment wastes into the bayou. To evaluate potential response alternatives for the site, an Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA) field investigation was conducted from July through October 1994. A two phase sampling approach was used in combination with innovative and traditional sampling techniques, field screening technologies, and exploitation of the visual characteristics of the waste to determine the extent of waste migration with limited off-site laboratory confirmation. A skid-mounted mobile drilling unit, secured to a specialized sampling platform designed for multiple applications, was used for collection of sediment cores from the bayou as well as tarry sludge cores from the impoundments. Field screening of core samples was accomplished on site using an organic vapor analyzer and a total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) field analyzer. Pollutants of concern include metals, cyanide, dioxin, and organic compounds. This paper presents details on the sampling design and characterization techniques used to accomplish the EE/CA field investigation

  20. Intra-annual wave resource characterization for energy exploitation: A new decision-aid tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carballo, R.; Sánchez, M.; Ramos, V.; Fraguela, J.A.; Iglesias, G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A decision-aid tool is developed for computing the monthly performance of WECs. • It allows the generation of high-resolution monthly characterization matrices. • The decision-aid tool is implemented to the Death Coast (N Spain). • The monthly matrices can be obtained at any coastal location within the Death Coast. • The tool is applied to a coastal location of a proposed wave farm. - Abstract: The wave energy resource is usually characterized by a significant variability throughout the year. In estimating the power performance of a Wave Energy Converter (WEC) it is fundamental to take into account this variability; indeed, an estimate based on mean annual values may well result in a wrong decision making. In this work, a novel decision-aid tool, iWEDGE (intra-annual Wave Energy Diagram GEnerator) is developed and implemented to a coastal region of interest, the Death Coast (Spain), one of the regions in Europe with the largest wave resource. Following a comprehensive procedure, and based on deep water wave data and high-resolution numerical modelling, this tool provides the monthly high-resolution characterization matrices (or energy diagrams) for any location of interest. In other words, the information required for the accurate computation of the intra-annual performance of any WEC at any location within the region covered is made available. Finally, an application of iWEDGE to the site of a proposed wave farm is presented. The results obtained highlight the importance of the decision-aid tool herein provided for wave energy exploitation

  1. Site investigation - equipment for geological, geophysical, hydrogeological and hydrochemical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almen, K.E.; Fridh, B.; Johansson, B.E.; Sehlstedt, M.

    1986-11-01

    The investigations are performed within a site investigation program. In total about 60,000 m of cored 56 mm boreholes have been drilled and investigated at eight study sites. A summarized description of the main investigation methods is included. Instruments for geophysical investigations contains equipment for ground measurements as well as for borehole logging. The Geophysical investigations including the borehole radar measurements, are indirect methods for the geological and hydrogeological characterization of the rock formation. Great effort has been laid on the development of hydrogeological instruments for hydraulic tests and groundwater head measurements. In order to obtain hydrochemical investigations with high quality, a complete system for sampling and analysis of ground water has been developed. (orig./PW)

  2. State of Nevada comments on the US Department of Energy site characterization plan, Yucca Mountain site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    In December 1988, the US Department of Energy issued a Site Characterization Plan (SCP) for the Yucca Mountain site, as required by Section 113 of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA). The purpose of site characterization is to develop sufficient information to support a determination of the suitability, or lack of suitability of the site to safely isolate high-level radioactive waste with reasonable certainty for thousands of years. The purpose of the Site Characterization Plan is to describe plans for obtaining sufficient information about the site, plans for mitigation of any adverse impacts occurring from site characterization activities, and plans for decontamination and decommissioning of the site if it is determined not to be suitable for a repository. Part I presents an overview of the State's comments. The overview takes the form of general concerns and comments organized by specific areas of concern. The overview does not follow the format of the SCP

  3. Uranium characterization at the St. Louis Airport Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilk, A.J.; Hubbard, C.W.; Bowyer, T.W.; Reiman, R.T.

    1995-05-01

    In support of the Department of Energy/Office of Technology Development's Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) project (coordinated by Ames Laboratory), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory demonstrated two complementary technologies at the St. Louis Airport (SLAP) site that have been designed and optimized for the rapid, in situ quantification of radionuclide contamination in surface soils. The sensors are optimized for the detection of high-energy beta particles or gamma rays emitted from the decay of specific radionuclides of interest. These technologies were demonstrated by measuring the beta and gamma fluxes at several locations within the SLAP site. Measurements were converted to average contamination levels, using detector calibrations performed with spiked samples (beta) or sealed sources (gamma). Additionally, subsurface activity levels were derived from discrete soil samples (provided by the ESC field crew) via gamma-ray spectrometry in a controlled laboratory setting. Since the beta and gamma sensor technologies are intrinsically sensitive to different types of radiation and activity distributions (i.e., surface and shallow subsurface, respectively), the data obtained from the two detectors provide complementary information about the distribution of the contamination. The results reported here suggest that a number of locations within the SLAP site have elevated levels of 211 U, and the differences between the beta and gamma activities indicate that the contamination is largely located near the surface of the soil

  4. The status of Yucca Mountain site characterization activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertz, Carl P.; Larkin, Erin L.; Hamner, Melissa

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is continuing its studies to determine if Yucca Mountain, Nevada, can safely isolate high-level nuclear waste for the next ten thousand years. As mandated by Congress in 1987, DOE is studying the rocks, the climate, and the water table at Yucca Mountain to ensure that the site is suitable before building a repository adopt 305 meters below the surface. Yucca Mountain, located 160.9 kilometers northwest of Las Vegas, lies on the western edge of the Nevada Test Site. Nevada and DOE have been in litigation over environmental permits needed to conduct studies, but recent court decisions have allowed limited new work to begin. This paper will examine progress made on the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) during 1991 and continuing into 1992, discuss the complex legal issues and describe new site drilling work. Design work on the underground exploratory studies facility (ESF) will also be discussed. (author)

  5. Goal-oriented Site Characterization in Hydrogeological Applications: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, W.; de Barros, F.; Rubin, Y.

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we address the importance of goal-oriented site characterization. Given the multiple sources of uncertainty in hydrogeological applications, information needs of modeling, prediction and decision support should be satisfied with efficient and rational field campaigns. In this work, we provide an overview of an optimal sampling design framework based on Bayesian decision theory, statistical parameter inference and Bayesian model averaging. It optimizes the field sampling campaign around decisions on environmental performance metrics (e.g., risk, arrival times, etc.) while accounting for parametric and model uncertainty in the geostatistical characterization, in forcing terms, and measurement error. The appealing aspects of the framework lie on its goal-oriented character and that it is directly linked to the confidence in a specified decision. We illustrate how these concepts could be applied in a human health risk problem where uncertainty from both hydrogeological and health parameters are accounted.

  6. Consultation draft: Site characterization plan overview, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 113)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing a site characterization plan for the candidate site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The DOE has provided, for information and review, a consultation draft of the plan to the State of Texas and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The site characterization plan is a lengthy document that describes in considerable detail the program that will be conducted to characterize the geologic, hydrologic, and other conditions relevant to the suitability of the site for a repository. The overview presented here consists of brief summaries of important topics covered in the consultation draft of the site characterization plan; it is not a substitute for the site characterization plan. The arrangement of the overview is similar to that of the plan itself, with brief descriptions of the repository system - the site, the repository, and the waste package - preceding the discussion of the characterization program to be carried out at the Deaf Smith County site. It is intended primarily for the management staff of organizations involved in the DOE's repository program or other persons who might wish to understand the general scope of the site-characterization program, the activities to be conducted, and the facilities to be constructed rather than the technical details of site characterization. 15 figs., 1 tab

  7. Assessment of multiple geophysical techniques for the characterization of municipal waste deposit sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaël, Dumont; Tanguy, Robert; Nicolas, Marck; Frédéric, Nguyen

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we tested the ability of geophysical methods to characterize a large technical landfill installed in a former sand quarry. The geophysical surveys specifically aimed at delimitating the deposit site horizontal extension, at estimating its thickness and at characterizing the waste material composition (the moisture content in the present case). The site delimitation was conducted with electromagnetic (in-phase and out-of-phase) and magnetic (vertical gradient and total field) methods that clearly showed the transition between the waste deposit and the host formation. Regarding waste deposit thickness evaluation, electrical resistivity tomography appeared inefficient on this particularly thick deposit site. Thus, we propose a combination of horizontal to vertical noise spectral ratio (HVNSR) and multichannel analysis of the surface waves (MASW), which successfully determined the approximate waste deposit thickness in our test landfill. However, ERT appeared to be an appropriate tool to characterize the moisture content of the waste, which is of prior information for the organic waste biodegradation process. The global multi-scale and multi-method geophysical survey offers precious information for site rehabilitation studies, water content mitigation processes for enhanced biodegradation or landfill mining operation planning.

  8. Integrating intrusive and nonintrusive characterization methods to achieve a conceptual site model for the SLDA FUSRAP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durham, L.A.; Peterson, J.M.; Frothingham, D.G.; Frederick, W.T.; Lenart, W.

    2008-01-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is addressing radiological contamination following Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements at the Shallow Land Disposal Area (SLDA) site, which is a radiologically contaminated property that is part of the Formerly utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The SLDA is an 18-hectare (44-acre) site in Parks township, Armstrong County, Pennsylvania, about 37 kilometers (23 miles) east-northeast of Pittsburgh. According to historical record, radioactive wastes were disposed of at the SLDA in a series of trenches by the Nuclear Materials and Equipment Company (NUMEC) in the 1960s. The wastes originated from the nearby Apollo nuclear fuel fabrication facility, which began operations under NUMEC in the late 1950s and fabricated enriched uranium into naval reactor fuel elements. It is believed that the waste materials were buried in a series of pits constructed adjacent to one another in accordance with an Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) regulation that has since been rescinded. A CERCLA remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process was completed for the SLDA site, and the results of the human health risk assessment indicated that the radiologically contaminated wastes could pose a risk to human health in the future. There are no historical records that provide the exact location of these pits. However, based on geophysical survey results conducted in the 1980s, these pits were defined by geophysical anomalies and were depicted on historical site drawings as trenches. At the SLDA site, a combination of investigative methods and tools was used in the RI/FS and site characterization activities. The SLDA site provides an excellent example of how historical documents and data, historical aerial photo analysis, physical sampling, and nonintrusive geophysical and gamma walkover surveys were used in combination to reduce the uncertainty in the location of the trenches. The

  9. CCS acceptability: social site characterization and advancing awareness at prospective storage sites in Poland and Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunsting, Suzanne; Mastop, Jessanne; Kaiser, Marta; Zimmer, Rene; Shackley, Simon; Mabon, Leslie; Howell, Rhys

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarizes the work on the social dimension conducted within the EU FP7 SiteChar project. The most important aim of the research was to advance public awareness and draw lessons for successful public engagement activities when developing a CO 2 storage permit application. To this end, social site characterization (e.g. representative surveys) and public participation activities (focus conference) were conducted at two prospective Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) sites: an onshore site in Poland and an offshore site in Scotland. The research consisted of four steps over a time period of 1.5 year, from early 2011 to mid-2012. The first step consisted of four related qualitative and quantitative research activities to provide a social characterization of the areas: desk research, stakeholder interviews, media analyses, and a survey among representative samples of the local community. The aim was to identify: - stakeholders or interested parties; - factors that may drive their perceptions of and attitudes towards CCS. Results were used to as input for the second step, in which a new format for public engagement named 'focus conferences' was tested at both sites involving a small sample of the local community. The third step consisted of making available generic as well as site-specific information to the general and local public, by: - setting up a bilingual set of information pages on the project web site suitable for a lay audience; - organizing information meetings at both sites that were open to all who took interest. The fourth step consisted of a second survey among a new representative sample of the local community. The survey was largely identical to the survey in step 1 to enable the monitoring of changes in awareness, knowledge and opinions over time. Results provide insight in the way local CCS plans may be perceived by the local stakeholders, how this can be reliably assessed at early stage without raising unnecessary concerns, and how

  10. PIXE as a characterization technique in the cutting tool industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freemantle, C.S.; Sacks, N.; Topic, M.; Pineda-Vargas, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    Two WC–Co powders have been analyzed using micro-PIXE to identify elemental concentration and distribution. A powder recycled primarily from used mining components and a powder produced exclusively from fresh raw materials was studied. Elemental mapping of major elements as well as impurities, within powder granule cross sections, was performed. Contaminants (e.g. Fe and Ni) from manufacturing processes, as well as trace impurities (e.g. Cr, Cl, Ca and S) from recycling were detected, quantified and compared. The extent of increased concentrations of impurities resulting from recycling were observed, demonstrating the potential for PIXE as a characterization tool for detecting trace elements in cemented carbides, allowing for future improvements in the manufacturing and recycling processes

  11. Micromechanical String Resonators: Analytical Tool for Thermal Characterization of Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bose, Sanjukta; Schmid, Silvan; Larsen, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Resonant microstrings show promise as a new analytical tool for thermal characterization of polymers with only few nanograms of sample. The detection of the glass transition temperature (Tg) of an amorphous poly(d,l-lactide) (PDLLA) and a semicrystalline poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) is investigated....... The polymers are spray coated on one side of the resonating microstrings. The resonance frequency and quality factor (Q) are measured simultaneously as a function of temperature. Change in the resonance frequency reflects a change in static tensile stress, which yields information about the Young’s modulus...... of the polymer, and a change in Q reflects the change in damping of the polymer-coated string. The frequency response of the microstring is validated with an analytical model. From the frequency independent tensile stress change, static Tg values of 40.6 and 57.6 °C were measured for PDLLA and PLLA, respectively...

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF NEW TOOL STEEL FOR ALUMINUM EXTRUSION DIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Britti Bacalhau

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum extrusion dies are an important segment of application on industrial tools steels, which are manufactured in steels based on AISI H13 steel. The main properties of steels applied to extrusion dies are: wear resistance, impact resistance and tempering resistance. The present work discusses the characteristics of a newly developed hot work steel to be used on aluminum extrusion dies. The effects of Cr and Mo contents with respect to tempering resistance and the Al addition on the nitriding response have been evaluated. From forged steel bars, Charpy impact test and characterization via EPMA have been conducted. The proposed contents of Cr, Mo, and Al have attributed to the new VEX grade a much better tempering resistance than H13, as well as a deeper and harder nitrided layer. Due to the unique characteristics, this new steel provides an interesting alternative to the aluminum extrusion companies to increase their competitiveness.

  13. PIXE as a characterization technique in the cutting tool industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freemantle, C.S., E-mail: chris@freemantle.co.za [School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering and DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, P/Bag 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Pilot Tools (Pty) (Ltd.), P.O. Box 27559, Benrose 2011 (South Africa); Sacks, N. [School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering and DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, P/Bag 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Topic, M. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Pineda-Vargas, C.A. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Faculty of Health and Wellness Sciences, CPUT, Bellville (South Africa)

    2014-01-01

    Two WC–Co powders have been analyzed using micro-PIXE to identify elemental concentration and distribution. A powder recycled primarily from used mining components and a powder produced exclusively from fresh raw materials was studied. Elemental mapping of major elements as well as impurities, within powder granule cross sections, was performed. Contaminants (e.g. Fe and Ni) from manufacturing processes, as well as trace impurities (e.g. Cr, Cl, Ca and S) from recycling were detected, quantified and compared. The extent of increased concentrations of impurities resulting from recycling were observed, demonstrating the potential for PIXE as a characterization tool for detecting trace elements in cemented carbides, allowing for future improvements in the manufacturing and recycling processes.

  14. Quantitative Framework and Management Expectation Tool for the Selection of Bioremediation Approaches at Chlorinated Solvent Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-19

    Bioremediation Approaches at Chlorinated Solvent Sites March 19, 2015 SERDP & ESTCP Webinar Series (#11) SERDP & ESTCP Webinar Series Welcome and...Expectation Tool for the Selection of Bioremediation Approaches at Chlorinated Solvent Sites Ms. Carmen Lebrón, Independent Consultant (20 minutes + Q&A) Dr...ESTCP Webinar Series Quantitative Framework and Management Expectation Tool for the Selection of Bioremediation Approaches at Chlorinated

  15. Evaluation of kriging techniques for high level radioactive waste repository site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doctor, P.G.

    1979-01-01

    Kriging is a statistical method for estimating functions that describe spatially distributed phenomena such as groundwater elevation and depth to basalt. It produces a contour model of the geologic formation of a potential site with an associated measure of uncertainty, and it can be used to optimize the selection of additional sampling locations. Kriging was applied to water potential data and top-of-basalt elevations from the Hanford site; the computer code BLUEPACK was used to perform the computations. The water potential contours were in close agreement with a hand-drawn contour map which is used as a standard. It is concluded that kriging can be a useful tool for geologic waste repository site characterization

  16. Innovative site characterization demonstration saves time and money

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floran, R.J.; Bujewski, G.E.; Johnson, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    A technology demonstration that optimizes sampling strategies and real-time data collection was carried out at the Kirtland Air Force Base RB-11 Radioactive Burial Site, Albuquerque, New Mexico in August 1994. The project, which was funded by the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), involved the application of a geostatistical-based open-quotes smart samplingclose quotes methodology and software with on-site field screening of soils for radiation, organic compounds and metals. The software, known as Plume trademark, was developed at Argonne National Laboratory as part of the DOE/OTD-funded Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID). The objective of the investigation was to compare an innovative Adaptive Sampling approach that stressed real-time decision-making with a conventional RCRA-driven site characterization carried out by the Air Force. The latter investigation used a standard drilling and sampling plan as mandated by the EPA. To make the comparison realistic, the same contractors and sampling equipment (Geoprobe reg-sign soil samplers) were used. In both investigations, soil samples were collected at several depths at numerous locations adjacent to burial trenches that contain low-level radioactive waste and animal carcasses. Neither study revealed the presence of contaminants appreciably above risk based action levels, indicating that minimal to no migration has occurred away from the trenches. The combination of Adaptive Sampling with field screening achieved a similar level of confidence compared to the RCRA investigation regarding the potential migration of contaminants at the site. By comparison, the Adaptive Sampling program drilled 28 locations (vs. 36 for the conventional investigation), collected 81 samples (vs. 163), and sent 15 samples (vs. 163) off-site for laboratory analysis. In addition, the field work took 3 1/2 days compared to 13 days for the RCRA investigation

  17. SiteFind: A software tool for introducing a restriction site as a marker for successful site-directed mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Paul M

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Site-directed mutagenesis is a widely-used technique for introducing mutations into a particular DNA sequence, often with the goal of creating a point mutation in the corresponding amino acid sequence but otherwise leaving the overall sequence undisturbed. However, this method provides no means for verifying its success other than sequencing the putative mutant construct: This can quickly become an expensive method for screening for successful mutations. An alternative to sequencing is to simultaneously introduce a restriction site near the point mutation in manner such that the restriction site has no effect on the translated amino acid sequence. Thus, the novel restriction site can be used as a marker for successful mutation which can be quickly and easily assessed. However, finding a restriction site that does not disturb the corresponding amino acid sequence is a time-consuming task even for experienced researchers. A fast and easy to use computer program is needed for this task. Results We wrote a computer program, called SiteFind, to help us design a restriction site within the mutation primers without changing the peptide sequence. Because of the redundancy of genetic code, a given peptide can be encoded by many different DNA sequences. Since the list of possible restriction sites for a given DNA sequence is not always obvious, SiteFind automates this task. The number of possible sequences a computer program must search through increases exponentially as the sequence length increases. SiteFind uses a novel "moving window" algorithm to reduce the number of possible sequences to be searched to a manageable level. The user enters a nucleotide sequence, specifies what amino acid residues should be changed in the mutation, and SiteFind generates a list of possible restriction sites and what nucleotides must be changed to introduce that site. As a demonstration of its use, we successfully generated a single point mutation

  18. Site characterization at the Rabbit Valley Geophysical Performance Evaluation Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppenjan, S.; Martinez, M.

    1994-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (US DOE) is developing a Geophysical Performance Evaluation Range (GPER) at Rabbit Valley located 30 miles west of Grand Junction, Colorado. The purpose of the range is to provide a test area for geophysical instruments and survey procedures. Assessment of equipment accuracy and resolution is accomplished through the use of static and dynamic physical models. These models include targets with fixed configurations and targets that can be re-configured to simulate specific specifications. Initial testing (1991) combined with the current tests at the Rabbit Valley GPER will establish baseline data and will provide performance criteria for the development of geophysical technologies and techniques. The US DOE's Special Technologies Laboratory (STL) staff has conducted a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey of the site with its stepped FM-CW GPR. Additionally, STL contracted several other geophysical tests. These include an airborne GPR survey incorporating a ''chirped'' FM-CW GPR system and a magnetic survey with a surfaced-towed magnetometer array unit Ground-based and aerial video and still frame pictures were also acquired. STL compiled and analyzed all of the geophysical maps and created a site characterization database. This paper discusses the results of the multi-sensor geophysical studies performed at Rabbit Valley and the future plans for the site

  19. Applicability of petroleum horizontal drilling technology to hazardous waste site characterization and remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goranson, C.

    1992-09-01

    Horizontal wells have the potential to become an important tool for use in characterization, remediation and monitoring operations at hazardous waste disposal, chemical manufacturing, refining and other sites where subsurface pollution may develop from operations or spills. Subsurface pollution of groundwater aquifers can occur at these sites by leakage of surface disposal ponds, surface storage tanks, underground storage tanks (UST), subsurface pipelines or leakage from surface operations. Characterization and remediation of aquifers at or near these sites requires drilling operations that are typically shallow, less than 500-feet in depth. Due to the shallow nature of polluted aquifers, waste site subsurface geologic formations frequently consist of unconsolidated materials. Fractured, jointed and/or layered high compressive strength formations or compacted caliche type formations can also be encountered. Some formations are unsaturated and have pore spaces that are only partially filled with water. Completely saturated underpressured aquifers may be encountered in areas where the static ground water levels are well below the ground surface. Each of these subsurface conditions can complicate the drilling and completion of wells needed for monitoring, characterization and remediation activities. This report describes some of the equipment that is available from petroleum drilling operations that has direct application to groundwater characterization and remediation activities. A brief discussion of petroleum directional and horizontal well drilling methodologies is given to allow the reader to gain an understanding of the equipment needed to drill and complete horizontal wells. Equipment used in river crossing drilling technology is also discussed. The final portion of this report is a description of the drilling equipment available and how it can be applied to groundwater characterization and remediation activities

  20. Roles of Historical Photography in Waste Site Characterization, Closure, and Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.

    1998-07-01

    Over 40,000 frames of vertical historical photography from 1938 to 1996 and over 10,000 frames of oblique photography from 1981 to 1991 of the 777-square kilometer Savannah River Site in south central South Carolina were reviewed, cataloged, and referenced utilizing ARCView and associated ArcInfo tools. This allows environmental reviews of over 400 potential waste units on the SRS to be conducted in a rapid fashion to support preparation of work plans, characterization, risk assessments, and closure of the waste units in a more cost effective manner

  1. In Situ Analytical Characterization of Contaminated Sites Using Nuclear Spectrometry Techniques. Review of Methodologies and Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Past and current human activities can result in the contamination of sites by radionuclides and heavy metals. The sources of contamination are various. The most important sources for radionuclide release include global fallout from nuclear testing, nuclear and radiological accidents, waste production from nuclear facilities, and activities involving naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Contamination of the environment by heavy metals mainly originates from industrial applications and mineralogical background concentration. Contamination of sites by radionuclides and heavy metals can present a risk to people and the environment. Therefore, the estimation of the contamination level and the identification of the source constitute important information for the national authorities with the responsibility to protect people and the environment from adverse health effects. In situ analytical techniques based on nuclear spectrometry are important tools for the characterization of contaminated sites. Much progress has been made in the design and implementation of portable systems for efficient and effective monitoring of radioactivity and heavy metals in the environment directly on-site. Accordingly, the IAEA organized a Technical Meeting to review the current status and trends of various applications of in situ nuclear spectrometry techniques for analytical characterization of contaminated sites and to support Member States in their national environmental monitoring programmes applying portable instrumentation. This publication represents a comprehensive review of the in situ gamma ray spectrometry and field portable X ray fluorescence analysis techniques for the characterization of contaminated sites. It includes papers on the use of these techniques, which provide useful background information for conducting similar studies, in the following Member States: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Czech Republic, Egypt, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania

  2. Electrochemical boriding and characterization of AISI D2 tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sista, V.; Kahvecioglu, O.; Eryilmaz, O.L.; Erdemir, A.; Timur, S.

    2011-01-01

    D2 is an air-hardening tool steel and due to its high chromium content provides very good protection against wear and oxidation, especially at elevated temperatures. Boriding of D2 steel can further enhance its surface mechanical and tribological properties. Unfortunately, it has been very difficult to achieve a very dense and uniformly thick boride layers on D2 steel using traditional boriding processes. In an attempt to overcome such a deficiency, we explored the suitability and potential usefulness of electrochemical boriding for achieving thick and hard boride layers on this tool steel in a molten borax electrolyte at 850, 900, 950 and 1000 °C for durations ranging from 15 min to 1 h. The microstructural characterization and phase analysis of the resultant boride layers were performed using optical, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. Our studies have confirmed that a single phase Fe 2 B layer or a composite layer consisting of FeB + Fe 2 B is feasible on the surface of D2 steel depending on the length of boriding time. The boride layers formed after shorter durations (i.e., 15 min) mainly consisted of Fe 2 B phase and was about 30 μm thick. The thickness of the layer formed in 60 min was about 60 μm and composed mainly of FeB and Fe 2 B. The cross sectional micro-hardness values of the boride layers varied between 14 and 22 GPa, depending on the phase composition.

  3. The application of GIS and remote sensing technologies for site characterization and environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durfee, R.C.; McCord, R.A.; Dobson, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental cleanup and restoration of hazardous waste sites are major activities at federal facilities around the US. Geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing technologies are very useful computer tools to aid in site characterization, monitoring, assessment, and remediation efforts. Results from applying three technologies are presented to demonstrate examples of site characterization and environmental assessment for a federal facility. The first technology involves the development and use of GIS within the comprehensive Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (OREIS) to integrate facility data, terrain models, aerial and satellite imagery, demographics, waste area information, and geographic data bases. The second technology presents 3-D subsurface analyses and displays of groundwater and contaminant measurements within waste areas. In the third application, aerial survey information is being used to characterize land cover and vegetative patterns, detect change, and study areas of previous waste activities and possible transport pathways. These computer technologies are required to manage, analyze, and display the large amounts of environmental and geographic data that must be handled in carrying out effective environmental restoration

  4. GENISES: A GIS Database for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckett, J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides a general description of the Geographic Nodal Information Study and Evaluation System (GENISES) database design. The GENISES database is the Geographic Information System (GIS) component of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Technical Database (TDB). The GENISES database has been developed and is maintained by EG ampersand G Energy Measurements, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (EG ampersand G/EM). As part of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) Site Characterization Technical Data Management System, GENISES provides a repository for geographically oriented technical data. The primary objective of the GENISES database is to support the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project with an effective tool for describing, analyzing, and archiving geo-referenced data. The database design provides the maximum efficiency in input/output, data analysis, data management and information display. This paper provides the systematic approach or plan for the GENISES database design and operation. The paper also discusses the techniques used for data normalization or the decomposition of complex data structures as they apply to GIS database. ARC/INFO and INGRES files are linked or joined by establishing ''relate'' fields through the common attribute names. Thus, through these keys, ARC can allow access to normalized INGRES files greatly reducing redundancy and the size of the database

  5. Waste site characterization and remediation: Problems in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalavapudi, M. [ENVIROSYS, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Iyengar, V. [Biomineral Sciences International Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Increased industrial activities in developing countries have degraded the environment, and the impact on the environment is further magnified because of an ever-increasing population, the prime receptors. Independent of the geographical location, it is possible to adopt effective strategies to solve environmental problems. In the United States, waste characterization and remediation practices are commonly used for quantifying toxic contaminants in air, water, and soil. Previously, such procedures were extraneous, ineffective, and cost-intensive. Reconciliation between the government and stakeholders, reinforced by valid data analysis and environmental exposure assessments, has allowed the {open_quotes}Brownfields{close_quotes} to be a successful approach. Certified reference materials and standard reference materials from the National Institute of Standards (NIST) are indispensable tools for solving environmental problems and help to validate data quality and the demands of legal metrology. Certified reference materials are commonly available, essential tools for developing good quality secondary and in-house reference materials that also enhance analytical quality. This paper cites examples of environmental conditions in developing countries, i.e., industrial pollution problems in India, polluted beaches in Brazil, and deteriorating air quality in countries, such as Korea, China, and Japan. The paper also highlights practical and effective approaches for remediating these problems. 23 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  6. A multidisciplinary fractured rock characterization study at Raymond field site, Raymond, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Freifeld, Barry; Cohen, Andrew; Cook, Paul; Vasco, Don; Grossenbacher, Ken

    2001-01-01

    A dedicated field site was developed and a suite of experiments were conducted in the Sierra Nevada foothills, near the town of Raymond, California to develop and test a multi-disciplinary approach to the characterization of groundwater flow and transport in fractured rocks. A wealth of geologic, hydrologic and geophysical data was collected at the site using a variety of unique tools. A cluster of nine approximately 90 m deep boreholes were drilled at the site in a V-shaped pattern with an angle of 60 degrees. The boreholes are spaced 7.5, 15, 30, and 60 meters from the central borehole. Various geophysical and hydrologic tests were conducted in and between these boreholes. Integration of cross-hole radar and seismic tomography, borehole flow surveys and images from a new digital borehole scanner indicated that groundwater flow is mainly confined to a few sub-horizontal fracture zones. A unique suite of hydraulic tests were conducted, in which three to four intervals in each of the nine boreholes were isolated using pneumatic packers. Some 130 injection tests were conducted, and more than 4,100 cross-hole transient pressure measurements were obtained. A computer algorithm was developed to analyze such massive interference data systematically. As a result of the analysis, an image of the fracture connections emerged, which is consistent with the geophysical data. High precision tiltmeters were effective in remotely characterizing the preferential flow path. Several radial convergent tracer tests were conducted by injecting a mixture of several conservative tracers and one sorbing tracer: deuterium, fluorescein, lithium bromide and polystyrene micro-spheres. Some differences between the breakthrough curves are observed, which may be due to possible differences among so-called 'conservative' tracers. Some characterization tools were found to be more effective than others in locating flowing fractures. However, no single tool was almighty. Characterization of

  7. Detailed imaging of flowing structures at depth using microseismicity: a tool for site investigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytharouli, S.; Lunn, R. J.; Shipton, Z. K.

    2011-12-01

    Field evidence shows that faults and fractures can act as focused pathways or barriers for fluid migration. This is an important property for modern engineering problems, e.g., CO2 sequestration, geological radioactive waste disposal, geothermal energy exploitation, land reclamation and remediation. For such applications the detailed characterization of the location, orientation and hydraulic properties of existing fractures is necessary. These investigations are expensive, requiring the hire of expensive equipment (excavator or drill rigs), which incur standing charges when not in use. In addition, they only provide information for discrete sample 'windows'. Non-intrusive methods have the ability to gather information across an entire area. Methods including electrical resistivity/conductivity and ground penetrating radar (GRP), have been used as tools for site investigations. Their imaging ability is often restricted due to unfavourable on-site conditions e.g. GRP is not useful in cases where a layer of clay or reinforced concrete is present. Our research has shown that high quality seismic data can be successfully used in the detailed imaging of sub-surface structures at depth; using induced microseismicity data recorded beneath the Açu reservoir in Brazil we identified orientations and values of average permeability of open shear fractures at depths up to 2.5km. Could microseismicity also provide information on the fracture width in terms of stress drops? First results from numerical simulations showed that higher stress drop values correspond to narrower fractures. These results were consistent with geological field observations. This study highlights the great potential of using microseismicity data as a supplementary tool for site investigation. Individual large-scale shear fractures in large rock volumes cannot currently be identified by any other geophysical dataset. The resolution of the method is restricted by the detection threshold of the local

  8. Genetic Characterization of a Panel of Diverse HIV-1 Isolates at Seven International Sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavna Hora

    Full Text Available HIV-1 subtypes and drug resistance are routinely tested by many international surveillance groups. However, results from different sites often vary. A systematic comparison of results from multiple sites is needed to determine whether a standardized protocol is required for consistent and accurate data analysis. A panel of well-characterized HIV-1 isolates (N = 50 from the External Quality Assurance Program Oversight Laboratory (EQAPOL was assembled for evaluation at seven international sites. This virus panel included seven subtypes, six circulating recombinant forms (CRFs, nine unique recombinant forms (URFs and three group O viruses. Seven viruses contained 10 major drug resistance mutations (DRMs. HIV-1 isolates were prepared at a concentration of 107 copies/ml and compiled into blinded panels. Subtypes and DRMs were determined with partial or full pol gene sequences by conventional Sanger sequencing and/or Next Generation Sequencing (NGS. Subtype and DRM results were reported and decoded for comparison with full-length genome sequences generated by EQAPOL. The partial pol gene was amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced for 89.4%-100% of group M viruses at six sites. Subtyping results of majority of the viruses (83%-97.9% were correctly determined for the partial pol sequences. All 10 major DRMs in seven isolates were detected at these six sites. The complete pol gene sequence was also obtained by NGS at one site. However, this method missed six group M viruses and sequences contained host chromosome fragments. Three group O viruses were only characterized with additional group O-specific RT-PCR primers employed by one site. These results indicate that PCR protocols and subtyping tools should be standardized to efficiently amplify diverse viruses and more consistently assign virus genotypes, which is critical for accurate global subtype and drug resistance surveillance. Targeted NGS analysis of partial pol sequences can serve as an alternative

  9. Wetlands Assessment for site characterization, Advanced Neutron Source (ANS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, M.C.; Socolof, M.L.

    1994-10-01

    This Wetlands Assessment has been prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy's (DOE) Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10 CFR 1022, Compliance with Floodplain/Wetlands Environmental Review Requirements, which established the policy and procedure for implementing Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands. The proposed action is to conduct characterization activities in or near wetlands at the ANS site. The proposed action will covered under a Categorical Exclusion, therefore this assessment is being prepared as a separate document [10 CFR 1022.12(c)]. The purpose of this Wetlands Assessment is to fulfill the requirements of 10 CFR 1022.12(a) by describing the project, discussing the effects of the proposed action upon the wetlands, and considering alternatives to the proposed action

  10. Site characterization and validation - geophysical single hole logging. Stage 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridh, B.

    1987-12-01

    Five 'boundary boreholes' have been drilled for preliminary characterization of a previously unexplored site at the 360 m level in the Stripa mine. Three of these boreholes are directed towards the North in the mine coordinate system, while two are directed towards the West. Furthermore, a vertical hole has been drilled at the end of the 3D-migration drift. To adequately describe the rock mass in the vicinity of these boreholes, a comprehensive program utilizing a large number of geophysical borehole methods has been carried out. The specific geophysical character of the rock mass and the major deformed units distinguished in the boreholes are recognized, and in certain cases also correlated between the boreholes. (orig.)

  11. Environmental Monitoring and Mitigation Plan for site characterization:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The DOE is committed to conduct its operations in an environmentally safe and sound manner, and will comply with the letter and the spirit of applicable environmental statues and regulations. This document - the NNWSI Project's Environmental Regulatory Compliance Plan (ERCP) - is one means of implementing the policy. The ERCP describes the plan by which the NNWSI Project Office will comply with applicable environmental statutes and regulations. The ERCP also discusses how DOE will address State and local environmental statues and regulations. To achieve the goals of DOE, the ERCP will be developed in phases. This version of the ERCP is the first phase in this development. It represents the NNWSI Project's understanding of environmental regulatory requirements for site characterization of Yucca Mountain. After consultation with appropriate Federal and State agencies, the ERCP will be updated to reflect the results of these consultations. 29 figs., 1 tab

  12. [Paleoclimatology studies for Yucca Mountain site characterization]. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report consists of two separate papers: Fernley Basin studies; and Influence of sediment supply and climate change on late Quaternary eolian accumulation patterns in the Mojave Desert. The first study involved geologic mapping of late Quaternary sediments and lacustrine features combined with precise control of elevations and descriptions of sediments for each of the major sedimentary units. The second paper documents the response of a major eolian sediment transport system in the east-central Mojave Desert: that which feeds the Kelso Dune field. Information from geomorphic, stratigraphic, and sedimentologic studies of eolian deposits and landforms is combined with luminescence dating of these deposits to develop a chronology of periods of eolian deposition. Both studies are related to site characterization studies of Yucca Mountain and the forecasting of rainfall patterns possible for the high-level radioactive waste repository lifetime

  13. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Waste Package Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison-Giesler, D.J.; Jardine, L.J.

    1991-02-01

    The goal of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) waste package program is to develop, confirm the effectiveness of, and document a design for a waste package and associated engineered barrier system (EBS) for spent nuclear fuel and solidified high-level nuclear waste (HLW) that meets the applicable regulatory requirements for a geologic repository. The Waste Package Plan describes the waste package program and establishes the technical approach against which overall progress can be measured. It provides guidance for execution and describes the essential elements of the program, including the objectives, technical plan, and management approach. The plan covers the time period up to the submission of a repository license application to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). 1 fig

  14. Characterization of Reconsolidated Crushed Salt from the BAMBUS Site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Francis D.

    2016-03-01

    Observational petrofabrics, thermal, mechanical, and hydrological measurements were made on reconsolidated salt samples extracted from the field site in which a study called Backfilling and Sealing of Underground Repositories for Radioactive Waste in Salt was conducted. Similar characterization was completed more than a decade ago, so this work furthers previous measurements after sustained consolidation in situ . Porosity determined by traditional point-counting on polished sections and helium porosimeter methods ranged from 20-25% with consolidation governed by brittle processes, as evidence of fluid-aided, grain-boundary processes was rarely observed. Thermal conductivity in the range of 2.3 W /( m * K ) is consistent for granular halite in this porosity range. Gas flow measurements yielded permeability of the order of 5e -13 m 2 . Pressure-sensitive compressive strengths at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 MPa confining pressure were 8, 9, and 14 MPa, respectively, with apparent elastic moduli increase with deformation.

  15. Joint inversion of geophysical data for site characterization and restoration monitoring. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berge, P.A.; Berryman, J.G.; Roberts, J.J.; Wildenschild, D.

    1998-01-01

    'The purpose of this project is to develop a computer code for joint inversion of seismic and electrical data, to improve underground imaging for site characterization and remediation monitoring. The computer code developed in this project will invert geophysical data to obtain direct estimates of porosity and saturation underground, rather than inverting for seismic velocity and electrical resistivity or other geophysical properties. This is intended to be a significant improvement in the state-of-the-art of underground imaging, since interpretation of data collected at a contaminated site would become much less subjective. Potential users include DOE scientists and engineers responsible for characterizing contaminated sites and monitoring remediation of contaminated sites. In this three-year project, the authors use a multi-phase approach consisting of theoretical and numerical code development, laboratory investigations, testing on available laboratory and borehole geophysics data sets, and a controlled field experiment, to develop practical tools for joint electrical and seismic data interpretation. This report summarizes work after about 1.7 years of a 3-year project. Progress on laboratory measurements is described first, followed by progress on developing algorithms for the inversion code to relate geophysical data to porosity and saturation.'

  16. Site characterization of ORNL D ampersand D facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelsey, A.P.; Mandry, G.J.; Haghighi, M.H.

    1994-01-01

    Site characterization for decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) planning purposes was done for two surplus facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in late 1993 and early 1994. This site characterization includes measurements of radiological and chemical contaminants, assessment of general structural conditions, and investigation of unknown conditions within the buildings. It will serve as input to decisions on D ampersand D engineering, D ampersand D task sequences, radiological and contamination control, and waste management. This paper presents the methods used to investigate these facilities and discusses the preliminary results as they apply to D ampersand D planning. Investigation methods include gross alpha, beta, and gamma surveys; directional gamma surveys; gamma spectroscopy; concrete coring; photography; and collection of soil and miscellaneous samples that are analyzed for radiological and chemical contaminants. Data will be analyzed using radiological models to sort sources and estimate exposure rates and waste volumes due to D ampersand D. The former Waste Evaporator Facility (WEF), consisting of two concrete cells and an operating gallery, once contained a liquid radwaste evaporator. Subsequently it was used for an incinerator experiment and as a dressing area for remediation work on an adjacent tank farm. The building has been partially decontaminated. Figure 1 is a photograph of the WEF. The Fission Product Pilot Plant (FPPP) is a small concrete building containing two cells. It was used to extract isotopes of ruthenium, strontium, cesium, cerium, and other elements from liquid waste. This facility is highly contaminated. In 1960 all doors into FPPP were sealed with concrete block and mortar, and concrete block shielding was added to the external walls making them up to five feet thick. Prior to this study, almost nothing was known about the interior of this building

  17. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site; to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. Chapter 3 summarizes present knowledge of the regional and site hydrologic systems. The purpose of the information presented is to (1) describe the hydrology based on available literature and preliminary site-exploration activities that have been or are being performed and (2) provide information to be used to develop the hydrologic aspects of the planned site characterization program. Chapter 4 contains geochemical information about the Yucca Mountain site. The chapter references plan for continued collection of geochemical data as a part of the site characterization program. Chapter 4 describes and evaluates data on the existing climate and site meterology, and outlines the suggested procedures to be used in developing and validating methods to predict future climatic variation. 534 refs., 100 figs., 72 tabs.

  18. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site; to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. Chapter 3 summarizes present knowledge of the regional and site hydrologic systems. The purpose of the information presented is to (1) describe the hydrology based on available literature and preliminary site-exploration activities that have been or are being performed and (2) provide information to be used to develop the hydrologic aspects of the planned site characterization program. Chapter 4 contains geochemical information about the Yucca Mountain site. The chapter references plan for continued collection of geochemical data as a part of the site characterization program. Chapter 4 describes and evaluates data on the existing climate and site meterology, and outlines the suggested procedures to be used in developing and validating methods to predict future climatic variation. 534 refs., 100 figs., 72 tabs

  19. Minimizing Characterization - Derived Waste at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Pelt, R. S.; Amidon, M. B.; Reboul, S. H.

    2002-02-25

    Environmental restoration activities at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS) utilize innovative site characterization approaches and technologies that minimize waste generation. Characterization is typically conducted in phases, first by collecting large quantities of inexpensive data, followed by targeted minimally invasive drilling to collect depth-discrete soil/groundwater data, and concluded with the installation of permanent multi-level groundwater monitoring wells. Waste-reducing characterization methods utilize non-traditional drilling practices (sonic drilling), minimally intrusive (geoprobe, cone penetrometer) and non-intrusive (3-D seismic, ground penetration radar, aerial monitoring) investigative tools. Various types of sensor probes (moisture sensors, gamma spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, laser induced and X-ray fluorescence) and hydrophobic membranes (FLUTe) are used in conjunction with depth-discrete sampling techniques to obtain high-resolution 3-D plume profiles. Groundwater monitoring (short/long-term) approaches utilize multi-level sampling technologies (Strata-Sampler, Cone-Sipper, Solinst Waterloo, Westbay) and low-cost diffusion samplers for seepline/surface water sampling. Upon collection of soil and groundwater data, information is portrayed in a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) format for interpretation and planning purposes. At the SRS, the use of non-traditional drilling methods and minimally/non intrusive investigation approaches along with in-situ sampling methods has minimized waste generation and improved the effectiveness and efficiency of characterization activities.

  20. Minimizing Characterization - Derived Waste at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Pelt, R. S.; Amidon, M. B.; Reboul, S. H.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental restoration activities at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS) utilize innovative site characterization approaches and technologies that minimize waste generation. Characterization is typically conducted in phases, first by collecting large quantities of inexpensive data, followed by targeted minimally invasive drilling to collect depth-discrete soil/groundwater data, and concluded with the installation of permanent multi-level groundwater monitoring wells. Waste-reducing characterization methods utilize non-traditional drilling practices (sonic drilling), minimally intrusive (geoprobe, cone penetrometer) and non-intrusive (3-D seismic, ground penetration radar, aerial monitoring) investigative tools. Various types of sensor probes (moisture sensors, gamma spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, laser induced and X-ray fluorescence) and hydrophobic membranes (FLUTe) are used in conjunction with depth-discrete sampling techniques to obtain high-resolution 3-D plume profiles. Groundwater monitoring (short/long-term) approaches utilize multi-level sampling technologies (Strata-Sampler, Cone-Sipper, Solinst Waterloo, Westbay) and low-cost diffusion samplers for seepline/surface water sampling. Upon collection of soil and groundwater data, information is portrayed in a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) format for interpretation and planning purposes. At the SRS, the use of non-traditional drilling methods and minimally/non intrusive investigation approaches along with in-situ sampling methods has minimized waste generation and improved the effectiveness and efficiency of characterization activities

  1. Osteopontin: A uranium phosphorylated binding-site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safi, Samir; Jeanson, Aurelie; Roques, Jerome; Simoni, Eric; Creff, Gaelle; Qi, Lei; Basset, Christian; Vidaud, Claude; Solari, Pier Lorenzo; Den Auwer, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Herein, we describe the structural investigation of one possible uranyl binding site inside a non structured protein. This approach couples spectroscopy, thermodynamics, and theoretical calculations (DFT) and studies the interaction of uranyl ions with a phospho-peptide, thus mimicking a possible osteopontin (OPN) hydroxyapatite growth-inhibition site. Although thermodynamical aspects were investigated by using time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), structural characterization was performed by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) at the U L(III)-edge combined with attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. From the vibrational and fluorescence spectra, several structural models of a UO 2 2+ /peptide complex were developed and subsequently refined by using theoretical calculations to fit the experimental EXAFS obtained. The structural effect of the pH value was also considered under acidic to moderately acidic conditions (pH 1.5-5.5). Most importantly, the uranyl/peptide coordination environment was similar to that of the native protein. (authors)

  2. Draft site characterization analysis of the site characterization report for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project, Hanford, Washington site. Appendices E through W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    Volume 2 contains Appendices E through W: potential for large-scale pump tests in the Grande Ronde; review of hydrochemical characterization related to flow system interpretation in Hanford basalts; limitations of packer-testing for head evaluation in Hanford basalts; hydrogeologic data integration for conceptual groundwater flow models; drilling mud effects on hydrogeologic testing; site issue analyses related to the nature at the present groundwater system at the Hanford site, Washington; structural and stratigraphic characteristics related to groundwater flow at the Hanford site, Washington; seismic hazard and some examples of hazard studies at Hanford; earthquake swarms in the Columbia Plateau; seismic ground motion at depth; failure modes for the metallic waste package component; degradation mechanisms of borosilicate glass; transport and retardation of radionuclides in the waste package; determination and interpretation of redox conditions and changes in underground high-level repositories; determination and interpretation of sorption data applied to radionuclide migration in underground repositories; solubility of radionuclide compounds presented in the BWIP site characterization report; and release rate from engineered system

  3. Site characterization data for Solid Waste Storage Area 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boegly, W.J. Jr.

    1984-12-01

    Currently, the only operating shallow land burial site for low-level radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is Solid Waste Storage Area No. 6 (SWSA-6). In 1984, the US Department of Energy (DOE) issued Order 5820.2, Radioactive Waste Management, which establishes policies and guidelines by which DOE manages its radioactive waste, waste by-products, and radioactively contaminated surplus facilities. The ORNL Operations Division has given high priority to characterization of SWSA-6 because of the need for continued operation under DOE 5820.2. The purpose of this report is to compile existing information on the geologic and hydrologic conditions in SWSA-6 for use in further studies related to assessing compliance with 5820.2. Burial operations in SWSA-6 began in 1969 on a limited scale, and full operation was initiated in 1973. Since that time, ca. 29,100 m 3 of low-level waste containing ca. 251,000 Ci of activity has been buried in SWSA-6. No transuranic waste has been disposed of in SWSA-6; rather this waste is retrievably stored in SWSA-5. Estimates of the remaining usable space in SWSA-6 vary; however, in 1982 sufficient useful land was reported for about 10 more years of operation. Analysis of the information available on SWSA-6 indicates that more information is required to evaluate the surface water hydrology, the geology at depths below the burial trenches, and the nature and extent of soils within the site. Also, a monitoring network will be required to allow detection of potential contaminant movement in groundwater. Although these are the most obvious needs, a number of specific measurements must be made to evaluate the spatial heterogeneity of the site and to provide background information for geohydrological modeling. Some indication of the nature of these measurements is included

  4. Characterization of site geochemistry in support of environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, D.E.; Conradson, S.D.; Tait, C.D.; Chisholm-Brause, C.J.; Berg, J.M.; Musgrave, J.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this analytical support task is to characterize the chemical speciation and physical properties of actinides and other toxic metals together with organic cocontaminants in contaminated soils at DOLE facilities. The target information for chemical speciation will be the oxidation state of the metal, the chemical structure and stoichiometry of the metal complexes, and the binding mechanism(s) of the metal complexes to the soil substrates. The physical state of the metal complexes in the soils is also important. We will determine if they exist as surface precipitates, mineral coatings, and/or clay adsorbates. The chemical speciation and physical state of the actinides and toxic metal define the chemistry of these contaminants as they presently exist at the DOE sites. This information is made available to parties involved in devising and implementing remediation strategies so that appropriate, efficient, timely, and cost-effective remediation technologies will be brought to bear on the problem. Speciation characterization is also undertaken following the application of remediation technologies. This information is made available to parties involved with risk assessment so that judgments concerning the extent of decontamination and the long-term stability of any remaining contamination can be made and documented on the basis of sound chemical data

  5. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Neavada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended and approved for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining hte geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare and environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed

  6. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended and approved by the President for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site; to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package; and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstate the suitability of the site for a repository, to desin the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next; it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed

  7. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended by the Secretary of Energy and approved by the President for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the requirements of the Nulcear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of the site characterization plan are oulined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed

  8. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  9. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Neavada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended and approved for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining hte geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare and environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  10. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended and approved by the President for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site; to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package; and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstate the suitability of the site for a repository, to desin the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next; it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  11. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended by the Secretary of Energy and approved by the President for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the requirements of the Nulcear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of the site characterization plan are oulined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  12. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in acordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and eveloping a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing prinicples, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed. 880 refs., 130 figs., 25 tabs.

  13. Site characterization and site response in Port-au-Prince, Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Susan E.; Yong, Alan K.; Altidor, Jean Robert; Anglade, Dieuseul; Given, Douglas D.; Mildor, Saint-Louis

    2011-01-01

    Waveform analysis of aftershocks of the Mw7.0 Haiti earthquake of 12 January 2010 reveals amplification of ground motions at sites within the Cul de Sac valley in which Port-au-Prince is situated. Relative to ground motions recorded at a hard-rock reference site, peak acceleration values are amplified by a factor of approximately 1.8 at sites on low-lying Mio-Pliocene deposits in central Port-au-Prince and by a factor of approximately 2.5–3 on a steep foothill ridge in the southern Port-au-Prince metropolitan region. The observed amplitude, predominant periods, variability, and polarization of amplification are consistent with predicted topographic amplification by a steep, narrow ridge. A swath of unusually high damage in this region corresponds with the extent of the ridge where high weak-motion amplifications are observed. We use ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) imagery to map local geomorphology, including characterization of both near-surface and of small-scale topographic structures that correspond to zones of inferred amplification.

  14. ASPECT (Automated System-level Performance Evaluation and Characterization Tool), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSCI has developed a suite of SAA tools and an analysis capability referred to as ASPECT (Automated System-level Performance Evaluation and Characterization Tool)....

  15. Characterization of polluted sites. Assessment of pollutant behaviour and transfer in mediums; Caracterisation des sites pollues. L`evaluation du comportement et du transfert des polluants dans les milieux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goubier, R. [Agence de l`Environnement et de la Maitrise de l`Energie, 75 - Paris (France); Chassagnac, T. [CSD Azur (France); Schlegel, T. [ATE, (France); Coste, B. [ANTEA, (France)

    1996-12-31

    After a presentation of methods and tools for the basic and extensive characterization of polluted sites and the study of evolution and transfer of current organic pollutants in the ground, the example of the rehabilitation of an old Rhone-Poulenc site (at Chauny, France) polluted with metals and arsenic, is described: soil and aquifer diagnosis, risk analysis and determination of migration schemes

  16. Characterization of polluted sites. Assessment of pollutant behaviour and transfer in mediums; Caracterisation des sites pollues. L`evaluation du comportement et du transfert des polluants dans les milieux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goubier, R [Agence de l` Environnement et de la Maitrise de l` Energie, 75 - Paris (France); Chassagnac, T [CSD Azur (France); Schlegel, T [ATE, (France); Coste, B [ANTEA, (France)

    1997-12-31

    After a presentation of methods and tools for the basic and extensive characterization of polluted sites and the study of evolution and transfer of current organic pollutants in the ground, the example of the rehabilitation of an old Rhone-Poulenc site (at Chauny, France) polluted with metals and arsenic, is described: soil and aquifer diagnosis, risk analysis and determination of migration schemes

  17. Patient-oriented interactive E-health tools on U.S. hospital Web sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Edgar; Chang, Chiu-Chi Angela

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide evidence for strategic planning regarding e-health development in U.S. hospitals. A content analysis of a representative sample of the U.S. hospital Web sites has revealed how U.S. hospitals have taken advantage of the 21 patient-oriented interactive tools identified in this study. Significant gaps between various types of hospitals have also been found. It is concluded that although the majority of the U.S. hospitals have adopted traditional functional tools, they need to make significant inroad in implementing the core e-business tools to serve their patients/users, making their Web sites more efficient marketing tools.

  18. Web-based Tool Identifies and Quantifies Potential Cost Savings Measures at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renevitz, Marisa J.; Peschong, Jon C.; Charboneau, Briant L.; Simpson, Brett C.

    2014-01-01

    The Technical Improvement system is an approachable web-based tool that is available to Hanford DOE staff, site contractors, and general support service contractors as part of the baseline optimization effort underway at the Hanford Site. Finding and implementing technical improvements are a large part of DOE's cost savings efforts. The Technical Improvement dashboard is a key tool for brainstorming and monitoring the progress of submitted baseline optimization and potential cost/schedule efficiencies. The dashboard is accessible to users over the Hanford Local Area Network (HLAN) and provides a highly visual and straightforward status to management on the ideas provided, alleviating the need for resource intensive weekly and monthly reviews

  19. Musite, a tool for global prediction of general and kinase-specific phosphorylation sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jianjiong; Thelen, Jay J; Dunker, A Keith; Xu, Dong

    2010-12-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is one of the most pervasive post-translational modifications, regulating diverse cellular processes in various organisms. High throughput experimental studies using mass spectrometry have identified many phosphorylation sites, primarily from eukaryotes. However, the vast majority of phosphorylation sites remain undiscovered, even in well studied systems. Because mass spectrometry-based experimental approaches for identifying phosphorylation events are costly, time-consuming, and biased toward abundant proteins and proteotypic peptides, in silico prediction of phosphorylation sites is potentially a useful alternative strategy for whole proteome annotation. Because of various limitations, current phosphorylation site prediction tools were not well designed for comprehensive assessment of proteomes. Here, we present a novel software tool, Musite, specifically designed for large scale predictions of both general and kinase-specific phosphorylation sites. We collected phosphoproteomics data in multiple organisms from several reliable sources and used them to train prediction models by a comprehensive machine-learning approach that integrates local sequence similarities to known phosphorylation sites, protein disorder scores, and amino acid frequencies. Application of Musite on several proteomes yielded tens of thousands of phosphorylation site predictions at a high stringency level. Cross-validation tests show that Musite achieves some improvement over existing tools in predicting general phosphorylation sites, and it is at least comparable with those for predicting kinase-specific phosphorylation sites. In Musite V1.0, we have trained general prediction models for six organisms and kinase-specific prediction models for 13 kinases or kinase families. Although the current pretrained models were not correlated with any particular cellular conditions, Musite provides a unique functionality for training customized prediction models

  20. A tool for calculating binding-site residues on proteins from PDB structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Jing

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the research on protein functional sites, researchers often need to identify binding-site residues on a protein. A commonly used strategy is to find a complex structure from the Protein Data Bank (PDB that consists of the protein of interest and its interacting partner(s and calculate binding-site residues based on the complex structure. However, since a protein may participate in multiple interactions, the binding-site residues calculated based on one complex structure usually do not reveal all binding sites on a protein. Thus, this requires researchers to find all PDB complexes that contain the protein of interest and combine the binding-site information gleaned from them. This process is very time-consuming. Especially, combing binding-site information obtained from different PDB structures requires tedious work to align protein sequences. The process becomes overwhelmingly difficult when researchers have a large set of proteins to analyze, which is usually the case in practice. Results In this study, we have developed a tool for calculating binding-site residues on proteins, TCBRP http://yanbioinformatics.cs.usu.edu:8080/ppbindingsubmit. For an input protein, TCBRP can quickly find all binding-site residues on the protein by automatically combining the information obtained from all PDB structures that consist of the protein of interest. Additionally, TCBRP presents the binding-site residues in different categories according to the interaction type. TCBRP also allows researchers to set the definition of binding-site residues. Conclusion The developed tool is very useful for the research on protein binding site analysis and prediction.

  1. Emerging site characterization technologies for volatile organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohay, V.J.; Last, G.V.

    1992-05-01

    A Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) expedited response action (ERA) has been initiated at Hanford Site's 200 West Area for the removal of carbon tetrachloride from the unsaturated soils. In coordination with the ERA, innovative technology demonstrations are being conducted as part of DOE's Volatile Organic Compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration in an effort to improve upon baseline technologies. Improved methods for accessing, sampling, and analyzing soil and soil-vapor contaminants is a high priority. Sonic drilling is being evaluated as an alternative to cable-tool drilling, while still providing the advantages of reliability, containment, and waste minimization. Applied Research Associates, Inc. used their cone penetrometer in the 200 West Area to install a permanent soil-gas monitoring probe and to collect soil-gas profile data. However, successful application of this technology will require the development of an improved ability to penetrate coarse gravel units. A Science and Engineering Associates Membrane Instrumentation and Sampling Technique (SEAMIST) system designed for collecting in situ soil samples and air permeability data in between drilling runs at variable depths is being tested in 200 West Area boreholes. Analytical technologies scheduled for testing include supercritical fluid extraction and analysis for non- and semi-volatile organic co-contaminants and an unsaturated flow apparatus developed by Washington State University for the measurement of transport parameters

  2. Computer-based tools for decision support at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doctor, P.G.; Mahaffey, J.A.; Cowley, P.J.; Freshley, M.D.; Hassig, N.L.; Brothers, J.W.; Glantz, C.S.; Strachan, D.M.

    1992-11-01

    To help integrate activities in the environmental restoration and waste management mission of the Hanford Site, the Hanford Integrated Planning Project (HIPP) was established and funded by the US Department of Energy. The project is divided into three key program elements, the first focusing on an explicit, defensible and comprehensive method for evaluating technical options. Based on the premise that computer technology can be used to support the decision-making process and facilitate integration among programs and activities, the Decision Support Tools Task was charged with assessing the status of computer technology for those purposes at the Site. The task addressed two types of tools: tools need to provide technical information and management support tools. Technical tools include performance and risk assessment models, information management systems, data and the computer infrastructure to supports models, data, and information management systems. Management decision support tools are used to synthesize information at a high' level to assist with making decisions. The major conclusions resulting from the assessment are that there is much technical information available, but it is not reaching the decision-makers in a form to be used. Many existing tools provide components that are needed to integrate site activities; however, some components are missing and, more importantly, the ''glue'' or connections to tie the components together to answer decision-makers questions is largely absent. Top priority should be given to decision support tools that support activities given in the TPA. Other decision tools are needed to facilitate and support the environmental restoration and waste management mission

  3. Computer-based tools for decision support at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doctor, P.G.; Mahaffey, J.A.; Cowley, P.J.; Freshley, M.D.; Hassig, N.L.; Brothers, J.W.; Glantz, C.S.; Strachan, D.M.

    1992-11-01

    To help integrate activities in the environmental restoration and waste management mission of the Hanford Site, the Hanford Integrated Planning Project (HIPP) was established and funded by the US Department of Energy. The project is divided into three key program elements, the first focusing on an explicit, defensible and comprehensive method for evaluating technical options. Based on the premise that computer technology can be used to support the decision-making process and facilitate integration among programs and activities, the Decision Support Tools Task was charged with assessing the status of computer technology for those purposes at the Site. The task addressed two types of tools: tools need to provide technical information and management support tools. Technical tools include performance and risk assessment models, information management systems, data and the computer infrastructure to supports models, data, and information management systems. Management decision support tools are used to synthesize information at a high' level to assist with making decisions. The major conclusions resulting from the assessment are that there is much technical information available, but it is not reaching the decision-makers in a form to be used. Many existing tools provide components that are needed to integrate site activities; however, some components are missing and, more importantly, the glue'' or connections to tie the components together to answer decision-makers questions is largely absent. Top priority should be given to decision support tools that support activities given in the TPA. Other decision tools are needed to facilitate and support the environmental restoration and waste management mission.

  4. Computer-based tools for decision support at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doctor, P.G.; Mahaffey, J.A.; Cowley, P.J.; Freshley, M.D.; Hassig, N.L.; Brothers, J.W.; Glantz, C.S.; Strachan, D.M.

    1992-11-01

    To help integrate activities in the environmental restoration and waste management mission of the Hanford Site, the Hanford Integrated Planning Project (HIPP) was established and funded by the US Department of Energy. The project is divided into three key program elements, the first focusing on an explicit, defensible and comprehensive method for evaluating technical options. Based on the premise that computer technology can be used to support the decision-making process and facilitate integration among programs and activities, the Decision Support Tools Task was charged with assessing the status of computer technology for those purposes at the Site. The task addressed two types of tools: tools need to provide technical information and management support tools. Technical tools include performance and risk assessment models, information management systems, data and the computer infrastructure to supports models, data, and information management systems. Management decision support tools are used to synthesize information at a high` level to assist with making decisions. The major conclusions resulting from the assessment are that there is much technical information available, but it is not reaching the decision-makers in a form to be used. Many existing tools provide components that are needed to integrate site activities; however, some components are missing and, more importantly, the ``glue`` or connections to tie the components together to answer decision-makers questions is largely absent. Top priority should be given to decision support tools that support activities given in the TPA. Other decision tools are needed to facilitate and support the environmental restoration and waste management mission.

  5. Site characterization and validation - Inflow to the validation drift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, W.G.C.; Black, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogeological experiments have had an essential role in the characterization of the drift site on the Stripa project. This report focuses on the methods employed and the results obtained from inflow experiments performed on the excavated drift in stage 5 of the SCV programme. Inflows were collected in sumps on the floor, in plastic sheeting on the upper walls and ceiling, and measured by means of differential humidity of ventilated air at the bulkhead. Detailed evaporation experiments were also undertaken on uncovered areas of the excavated drift. The inflow distribution was determined on the basis of a system of roughly equal sized grid rectangles. The results have highlighted the overriding importance of fractures in the supply of water to the drift site. The validation drift experiment has revealed that in excess of 99% of inflow comes from a 5 m section corresponding to the 'H' zone, and that as much as 57% was observed coming from a single grid square (267). There was considerable heterogeneity even within the 'H' zone, with 38% of such samples areas yielding no flow at all. Model predictions in stage 4 underestimated the very substantial declines in inflow observed in the validation drift when compared to the SDE; this was especially so in the 'good' rock areas. Increased drawdowns in the drift have generated less flow and reduced head responses in nearby boreholes by a similar proportion. This behaviour has been the focus for considerable study in the latter part of the SCV project, and a number of potential processes have been proposed. These include 'transience', stress redistribution resulting from the creation of the drift, chemical precipitation, blast-induced dynamic unloading and related gas intrusion, and degassing. (au)

  6. Enhanced Site Characterization of the 618-4 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Christopher J.; Last, George V.; Chien, Yi-Ju

    2001-09-25

    This report describes the results obtained from deployment of the Enhanced Site Characterization System (ESCS) at the Hanford Site's 618-4 Burial Ground. The objective of this deployment was to use advanced geostatistical methods to integrate and interpret geophysical and ground truth data, to map the physical types of waste materials present in unexcavated portions of the burial ground. One issue of particularly interest was the number of drums (containing depleted uranium metal shavings or uranium-oxide powder) remaining in the burial ground and still requiring removal.Fuzzy adaptive resonance theory (ART), a neural network classification method, was used to cluster the study area into 3 classes based on their geophysical signatures. Multivariate statistical analyses and discriminant function analysis (DFA) indicated that the drum area as well as a second area (the SW anomaly) had similar geophysical signatures that were different from the rest of the burial ground. Further analysis of the drum area suggested that as many as 770 drums to 850 drums may remain in that area. Similarities between the geophysical signatures of the drum area and the SW anomaly suggested that excavation of the SW anomaly area also proceed with caution.Deployment of the ESCS technology was successful in integrating multiple geophysical variables and grouping these observations into clusters that are relevant for planning further excavation of the buried ground. However, the success of the technology could not be fully evaluated because reliable ground truth data were not available to enable calibration of the different geophysical signatures against actual waste types.

  7. Potential Application of Environmental Noise Recordings in Geoarchaeological Site Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Luzio, E.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental noise recordings are commonly applied in seismic microzonation studies. By calculating the H/V spectral ratio, the fundamental frequency of soft terrains overlying a rigid bedrock can be determined (Nakamura (1989). In such a simple two-layer system, equation f = n Vs/4H (1) links the resonance frequency "f" to the thickness "H" and shear waves velocity "Vs "of the resonating layer. In recent years, this methodology has been applied generally to obtain information on the seismostratigraphy of an investigated site in different environmental context. In this work, its potential application in the characterization of archaeological features hosted in shallow geological levels is discussed. Field cases are identified in the Appia Antica archaeological site which is placed in central Italy. Here, acknowledged targets correspond to: i) empty tanks carved by the Romans into Cretaceous limestone in the IV-III cen. BC and ii): the basaltic stone paving of the ancient road track which is locally buried beneath colluvial deposits. Narrowly-spaced recordings of environmental noise were carried using a portable digital seismograph equipped with three electrodynamic orthogonal sensors (velocimeters) responding in the band 0.1 ÷1024 Hz and adopting a sampling frequency of 256 Hz.. Results are discussed in terms of absolute H/V values and related distribution maps in the very high-frequency interval of 10-40Hz. In the tanks hosting area, interpolation of H/V maximum values around 13Hz matches caves location and alignment, which is also evidenced by clear inversions (H/V<1) at lower frequencies (10-1Hz). Correlation between H/V peaks and the top surface of the buried stone paving along the prosecution of the road track is even more straightforward. Finally, the depth variations of the tank roofs and the basaltic paving were reconstructed combining in equation (1) results of noise recordings with borehole data and geophysical surveys (SASW analysis).

  8. Characterization of Coastal Hydraulics: Simple Tools and Sweat Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnis, D.; Fertenbaugh, C.; Orou-Pete, S.; Mullen, A.; Smith, C.; Silliman, S. E.; Yalo, N.; Boukari, M.

    2009-12-01

    . Further, continuing measurements using the “home-made” piezometers and permeameter are providing opportunities for temporal data sets that would not otherwise be possible within the project budget, including access (via boats) to data in regions that are flooded during select times of the year. Finally, initial analysis of the data collected to date show interesting relationships among the various parameters measured, with significant potential in these relationships to both guide the calibration of the numerical model and provide valuable insight into the temporal variability of this coastal system. Implications from this work are that relatively simple tools (developed using classic hydrologic techniques combined with innovative use of local supplies) and sweat equity can provide valuable, if not entirely perfect, field methods for characterization of complex hydrologic systems in the absence of high-budget research programs.

  9. A risk assessment tool for contaminated sites in low-permeability fractured media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia; Binning, Philip John; Jørgensen, Peter R.

    2011-01-01

    A risk assessment tool for contaminated sites in low-permeability fractured media is developed, based on simple transient and steady-state analytical solutions. The discrete fracture (DF) tool, which explicitly accounts for the transport along fractures, covers different source geometries...... and history (including secondary sources) and can be applied to a wide range of compounds. The tool successfully simulates published data from short duration column and field experiments. The use for risk assessment is illustrated by three typical risk assessment case studies, involving pesticides...

  10. Ground Characterization Studies in Canakkale Pilot Site of LIQUEFACT Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcep, F.; Oztoprak, S.; Aysal, N.; Bozbey, I.; Tezel, O.; Ozer, C.; Sargin, S.; Bekin, E.; Almasraf, M.; Cengiz Cinku, M.; Ozdemir, K.

    2017-12-01

    The our aim is to outline the ground characterisation studies in Canakkale test site. Study is based on the EU H2020 LIQUEFACT project entitled "Liquefact: Assessment and mitigation of liquefaction potential across Europe: a holistic approach to protect structures / infrastructures for improved resilience to earthquake-induced liquefaction disasters". Objectives and extent of ground characterization for Canakkale test site includes pre-existing soil investigation studies and complementary field studies. There were several SPT and geophysical tests carried out in the study area. Within the context of the complementary tests, six (6) study areas in the test site were chosen and complementary tests were carried out in these areas. In these areas, additional boreholes were opened and SPT tests were performed. It was decided that additional CPT (CPTU and SCPT) and Marchetti Dilatometer (DMT) tests should be carried out within the scope of the complementary testing. Seismic refraction, MASW and micro tremor measurements had been carried out in pre-existing studies. Shear wave velocities obtained from MASW measurements were evaluated to the most rigorous level. These tests were downhole seismic, PS-logging, seismic refraction, 2D-ReMi, MASW, micro tremor (H/V Nakamura method), 2D resistivity and resonance acoustic profiling (RAP). RAP is a new technique which will be explained briefly in the relevant section. Dynamic soil properties had not been measured in pre-existing studies, therefore these properties were investigated within the scope of the complementary tests. Selection of specific experimental tests of the complementary campaign was based on cost-benefit considerations Within the context of complementary field studies, dynamic soil properties were measured using resonant column and cyclic direct shear tests. Several sieve analyses and Atterberg Limits tests which were documented in the pre-existing studies were evaluated. In the complementary study carried out

  11. Characterization Plan for L/ILW Repository Candidate Sites in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, A.; Lokner, V.; Kucar-Dragicevic, S.; Subasic, D.

    1998-01-01

    There have been four preferred sites for L/ILW repository selected in the siting program in Croatia so far. According to the accepted and verified site selection procedure, these sites are suitable for a more detailed characterization, including also site specific field investigations. The aim of these investigations is to measure and calculate all needed site specific parameters important for performance of safety assessment, aiming eventually with selection of the final disposal site. Both Croatian and IAEA regulations referring to radwaste repository siting procedure have been briefly discussed. Detailed site investigations foreseen to be done in order to perform a successful site characterization, refer to the following main topics: geomorphology, lithostratigraphy, tectonics, seismicity, rock mechanics, surface-water hydrology, aquifer features and groundwater hydrology, rock and groundwater chemistry, and radionuclide transport modeling. All these issues are listed in suggested site characterization format. (author)

  12. An ArcGIS decision support tool for artificial reefs site selection (ArcGIS ARSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylianou, Stavros; Zodiatis, George

    2017-04-01

    Although the use and benefits of artificial reefs, both socio-economic and environmental, have been recognized with research and national development programmes worldwide their development is rarely subjected to a rigorous site selection process and the majority of the projects use the traditional (non-GIS) approach, based on trial and error mode. Recent studies have shown that the use of Geographic Information Systems, unlike to traditional methods, for the identification of suitable areas for artificial reefs siting seems to offer a number of distinct advantages minimizing possible errors, time and cost. A decision support tool (DSS) has been developed based on the existing knowledge, the multi-criteria decision analysis techniques and the GIS approach used in previous studies in order to help the stakeholders to identify the optimal locations for artificial reefs deployment on the basis of the physical, biological, oceanographic and socio-economic features of the sites. The tool provides to the users the ability to produce a final report with the results and suitability maps. The ArcGIS ARSS support tool runs within the existing ArcMap 10.2.x environment and for the development the VB .NET high level programming language has been used along with ArcObjects 10.2.x. Two local-scale case studies were conducted in order to test the application of the tool focusing on artificial reef siting. The results obtained from the case studies have shown that the tool can be successfully integrated within the site selection process in order to select objectively the optimal site for artificial reefs deployment.

  13. Characterization of Seismic Noise at Selected Non-Urban Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Field sites for seismic recordings: Scottish moor (upper left), Enfield, NH (upper right), and vicinity of Keele, England (bottom). ERDC...three sites. The sites are: a wind farm on a remote moor in Scotland, a ~13 acre field bounded by woods in a rural Enfield, NH neigh- borhood, and a site...in a rural Enfield, NH, neighborhood, and a site transitional from developed land to farmland within 1 km of the six-lane M6 motorway near Keele

  14. Critical review of decision support tools for sustainability assessment of site remediation options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huysegoms, Lies; Cappuyns, Valérie

    2017-07-01

    In Europe alone, there are more than 2,5 million potentially contaminated sites of which 14% are expected to require remediation. Contaminated soil and groundwater can cause damage to human health as well as to valuable ecosystems. Globally more attention has been paid to this problem of soil contamination in the past decades. For example, more than 58 000 sites have been remediated in Europe between 2006 and 2011. Together with this increase in remediation projects there has been a surge in the development of new remediation technologies and decision support tools to be able to match every site and its specific characteristics to the best possible remediation alternative. In the past years the development of decision support tools (DST) has evolved in a more sustainable direction. Several DSTs added the claim not only to denote effective or technologically and economically feasible remediation alternatives but also to point out the more or most sustainable remediation alternatives. These trends in the evaluation of site remediation options left users with a confusing clew of possibly applicable tools to assist them in decision making for contaminated site remediation. This review provides a structured overview on the extent decision support tools for contaminated site remediation, that claim to assist in choosing the most sustainable remediation alternative, actually include the different elements of sustainability proposed in our assessment framework. The review contains an in-depth analysis of thirteen tools specifically developed to assess the sustainability of site remediation alternatives. This analysis is based on six criteria derived from the definition of sustainable development of the Brundtland report. The six criteria were concretized by using the three pillars of sustainability, applied to site remediation according to the SuRF-UK framework, two criteria derived from Life Cycle Assessment and Cost-Benefit Analysis, and an 'User friendly' criterion

  15. Characterization of Active Site Residues of Nitroalkane Oxidase†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley, Michael P.; Fenny, Nana S.; Ali, Shah R.; Fitzpatrick, Paul F.

    2010-01-01

    The flavoenzyme nitroalkane oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of primary and secondary nitrolkanes to the corresponding aldehydes and ketones plus nitrite. The structure of the enzyme shows that Serl71 forms a hydrogen bond to the flavin N5, suggesting that it plays a role in catalysis. Cys397 and Tyr398 were previously identified by chemical modification as potential active site residues. To more directly probe the roles of these residues, the S171A, S171V, S171T, C397S, and Y398F enzymes have been characterized with nitroethane as substrate. The C397S and Y398 enzymes were less stable than the wild-type enzyme, and the C397S enzyme routinely contained a substoichiometric amount of FAD. Analysis of the steady-state kinetic parameters for the mutant enzymes, including deuterium isotope effects, establishes that all of the mutations result in decreases in the rate constants for removal of the substrate proton by ~5-fold and decreases in the rate constant for product release of ~2-fold. Only the S171V and S171T mutations alter the rate constant for flavin oxidation. These results establish that these residues are not involved in catalysis, but rather are required for maintaining the protein structure. PMID:20056514

  16. Characterization of active site residues of nitroalkane oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley, Michael P; Fenny, Nana S; Ali, Shah R; Fitzpatrick, Paul F

    2010-06-01

    The flavoenzyme nitroalkane oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of primary and secondary nitroalkanes to the corresponding aldehydes and ketones plus nitrite. The structure of the enzyme shows that Ser171 forms a hydrogen bond to the flavin N5, suggesting that it plays a role in catalysis. Cys397 and Tyr398 were previously identified by chemical modification as potential active site residues. To more directly probe the roles of these residues, the S171A, S171V, S171T, C397S, and Y398F enzymes have been characterized with nitroethane as substrate. The C397S and Y398 enzymes were less stable than the wild-type enzyme, and the C397S enzyme routinely contained a substoichiometric amount of FAD. Analysis of the steady-state kinetic parameters for the mutant enzymes, including deuterium isotope effects, establishes that all of the mutations result in decreases in the rate constants for removal of the substrate proton by approximately 5-fold and decreases in the rate constant for product release of approximately 2-fold. Only the S171V and S171T mutations alter the rate constant for flavin oxidation. These results establish that these residues are not involved in catalysis, but rather are required for maintaining the protein structure. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Prediction of flow and drawdown for the site characterization and validation site in the Stripa Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.C.S.; Mauldon, A.D.; Nelson, K.; Martel, S.; Fuller, P.; and Karasaki, K.

    1992-01-01

    Geophysical and hydrologic data from a location in the Stripa Mine in Sweden, called the Site Characterization and Validation (SCV) block, has been used to create a series of models for flow through the fracture network. The models can be characterized as ''equivalent discontinuum'' models. Equivalent discontinuum models are derived starting from a specified lattice or 6 ''template''. An inverse analysis called ''Simulated Annealing'' is used to make a random search through the elements of the lattice to find a configuration that can reproduce the measured responses. Evidence at Stripa points to hydrology which is dominated by fracture zones. These have been identified and located through extensive characterization efforts. Lattice templates were arranged to lie on the fracture zones identified by Black and Olsson. The fundamental goal of this project was to build a fracture flow model based an initial data set, and use this model to make predictions of the flow behavior during a new test. Then given data from the new test, predict a second test, etc. The first data set was an interference test called C1-2. Both a two-dimensional and a three-dimensional model were annealed to the C1-2 data and use this model to predict the behavior of the Simulated Drift Experiment (SDE). The SDE measured the flow into, and drawdown due to reducing the pressure in a group of 6 parallel boreholes. Then both the C1-2 and SDE data were used to predict the flow into and drawdown due to an excavation, the Validation Drift (VD), made through the boreholes. Finally, all the data was used to predict the hydrologic response to opening another hole, T1

  18. Empirical evaluation of cross-site reproducibility in radiomic features for characterizing prostate MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirra, Prathyush; Leo, Patrick; Yim, Michael; Bloch, B. Nicolas; Rastinehad, Ardeshir R.; Purysko, Andrei; Rosen, Mark; Madabhushi, Anant; Viswanath, Satish

    2018-02-01

    The recent advent of radiomics has enabled the development of prognostic and predictive tools which use routine imaging, but a key question that still remains is how reproducible these features may be across multiple sites and scanners. This is especially relevant in the context of MRI data, where signal intensity values lack tissue specific, quantitative meaning, as well as being dependent on acquisition parameters (magnetic field strength, image resolution, type of receiver coil). In this paper we present the first empirical study of the reproducibility of 5 different radiomic feature families in a multi-site setting; specifically, for characterizing prostate MRI appearance. Our cohort comprised 147 patient T2w MRI datasets from 4 different sites, all of which were first pre-processed to correct acquisition-related for artifacts such as bias field, differing voxel resolutions, as well as intensity drift (non-standardness). 406 3D voxel wise radiomic features were extracted and evaluated in a cross-site setting to determine how reproducible they were within a relatively homogeneous non-tumor tissue region; using 2 different measures of reproducibility: Multivariate Coefficient of Variation and Instability Score. Our results demonstrated that Haralick features were most reproducible between all 4 sites. By comparison, Laws features were among the least reproducible between sites, as well as performing highly variably across their entire parameter space. Similarly, the Gabor feature family demonstrated good cross-site reproducibility, but for certain parameter combinations alone. These trends indicate that despite extensive pre-processing, only a subset of radiomic features and associated parameters may be reproducible enough for use within radiomics-based machine learning classifier schemes.

  19. Preliminary site characterization at Beishan northwest China-A potential site for China's high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju; Su Rui; Xue Weiming; Zheng Hualing

    2004-01-01

    Chinese nuclear power plants,radioactive waste and radioactive waste disposal are introduced. Beishan region (Gansu province,Northwest China)for high-level radioactive waste repository and preliminary site characterization are also introduced. (Zhang chao)

  20. Application of new technologies for characterization of Hanford Site high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, W.I.

    1998-01-01

    To support remediation of Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tanks, new chemical and physical measurement technologies must be developed and deployed. This is a major task of the Chemistry Analysis Technology Support (CATS) group of the Hanford Corporation. New measurement methods are required for efficient and economical resolution of tank waste safety, waste retrieval, and disposal issues. These development and deployment activities are performed in cooperation with Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. This paper provides an overview of current analytical technologies in progress. The high-level waste at the Hanford Site is chemically complex because of the numerous processes used in past nuclear fuel reprocessing there, and a variety of technologies is required for effective characterization. Programmatic and laboratory operational needs drive the selection of new technologies for characterizing Hanford Site high-level waste, and these technologies are developed for deployment in laboratories, hot cells or in the field. New physical methods, such as the propagating reactive systems screening tool (PRSST) to measure the potential for self-propagating reactions in stored wastes, are being implemented. Technology for sampling and measuring gases trapped within the waste matrix is being used to evaluate flammability hazards associated with gas releases from stored wastes. Application of new inductively coupled plasma and laser ablation mass spectrometry systems at the Hanford Site's 222-S Laboratory will be described. A Raman spectroscopy probe mounted in a cone penetrometer to measure oxyanions in wastes or soils will be described. The Hanford Site has used large volumes of organic complexants and acids in processing waste, and capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) methods have been developed for determining several of the major organic components in complex waste tank matrices. The principles involved, system installation, and results from

  1. SafetyAnalyst : software tools for safety management of specific highway sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    SafetyAnalyst provides a set of software tools for use by state and local highway agencies for highway safety management. SafetyAnalyst can be used by highway agencies to improve their programming of site-specific highway safety improvements. SafetyA...

  2. Analysis of the portfolio of sites to characterize for selecting a nuclear repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeney, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has selected three sites, from five nominated, to characterize for a nuclear repository to permanently dispose of nuclear waste. This decision was made without the benefit of an analysis of this portfolio problem. This paper analyzes different portfolios of three sites for simultaneous characterization and strategies for sequential characterization. Characterization of each site, which involves significant subsurface excavation, is now estimated to cost $1 billion. Mainly because of the high characterization costs, sequential characterization strategies are identified which are the equivalent of $1.7-2.0 billion less expensive than the selected DOE simultaneous characterization of the three sites. If three sites are simultaneously characterized, one portfolio is estimated to be the equivalent of $100-400 million better than the selected DOE portfolio. Because of these potential savings and several other complicating factors that may influence the relative desirability of characterization strategies, a thorough analysis of characterization strategies that addresses the likelihood of finding disqualifying conditions during site characterization, uncertainties, and dependencies in forecast site repository costs, preclosure and postclosure health and safety impacts, potential delays of both sequential and simultaneous characterization strategies, and the environmental, socioeconomic, and health and safety impacts of characterization activities is recommended

  3. The ArcSDE GIS Dynamic Population Model Tool for Savannah River Site Emergency Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCLANE, TRACY; JONES, DWIGHT

    2005-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a 310-square-mile Department of Energy site located near Aiken, South Carolina. With a workforce of over 10,000 employees and subcontractors, SRS emergency personnel must be able to respond to an emergency event in a timely and effective manner, in order to ensure the safety and security of the Site. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) provides the technology needed to give managers and emergency personnel the information they need to make quick and effective decisions. In the event of a site evacuation, knowing the number of on-site personnel to evacuate from a given area is an essential piece of information for emergency staff. SRS has developed a GIS Dynamic Population Model Tool to quickly communicate real-time information that summarizes employee populations by facility area and building and then generates dynamic maps that illustrate output statistics

  4. Stone tool function at the paleolithic sites of Starosele and Buran Kaya III, Crimea: behavioral implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, B L; Kay, M; Marks, A E; Monigal, K

    2001-09-11

    Stone tools are often the most abundant type of cultural remains at Paleolithic sites, yet their function is often poorly understood. Investigations of stone tool function, including microscopic use-wear and residue analyses, were performed on a sample of artifacts from the Paleolithic sites of Starosele (40,000-80,000 years BP) and Buran Kaya III (32,000-37,000 years BP). The Middle Paleolithic levels at Starosele exhibit a typical variant of the local Micoquian Industry. The artifacts from Buran Kaya III most closely resemble an Early Streletskayan Industry associated with the early Upper Paleolithic. The results of the functional analyses suggest that hominids at both sites were exploiting woody and starchy plant material as well as birds and mammals. Both sites show evidence of hafting of a wide variety of tools and the possible use of projectile or thrusting spears. These analyses were performed by using two different techniques conducted by independent researchers. Combined residue and use-wear analyses suggest that both the Upper Paleolithic and Middle Paleolithic hominids at these sites were broad-based foragers capable of exploiting a wide range of resources.

  5. Web-site evaluation tools: a case study in reproductive health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Azam; Pournik, Omid; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Eslami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Internet forms an opportunity to inform, teach, and connect professionals and patients. However, much information on Internet is incomplete, inaccurate, or misleading, and not only in the medical domain. Because of the potential for damage from misleading and inaccurate health information, many organizations and individuals have published or implemented scoring tools for evaluating the appropriateness or quality of these resources. The objective of this study is to identify and summarize scoring tools that have evaluated web-sites providing reproductive health information in order to compare them and recommend an overarching evaluation tool. We searched Ovid MEDLINE(R) (1946 to July 2013) and OVID Embase (1980 to July 2013); and included English language studies that have evaluated the quality of websites providing reproductive health information. Studies only assessing the content of websites were excluded. We identified 5 scoring tools: 1-The HON (health on the net) Code of Conduct for medical and health Web sites, 2-Silberg scores, 3-Hogne Sandvik scale, 4-Jim Kapoun's Criteria for Evaluating Web Pages, and 5-The Health Information Technology Institute (HITI) criteria. We have compared these scales and identified 14 criteria: authorship, ownership, currency, objectivity/content, transparency/source, interactivity, privacy/ethics, financial disclosure, navigability/links, complementarity, advertising policy, design, quantity, and accessibility. We integrated these criteria and introduced a new tool with 10 criteria. Website evaluation tools differ in their evaluation criteria and there is a lack of consensus about which to use; therefore, an integrated easy to use set of criteria is needed.

  6. Site characterization report for the basalt waste isolation project. Volume III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    The reference location for a repository in basalt for the terminal storage of nuclear wastes on the Hanford Site and the candidate horizons within this reference repository location have been identified and the preliminary characterization work in support of the site screening process has been completed. Fifteen technical questions regarding the qualification of the site were identified to be addressed during the detailed site characterization phase of the US Department of Energy-National Waste Terminal Storage Program site selection process. Resolution of these questions will be provided in the final site characterization progress report, currently planned to be issued in 1987, and in the safety analysis report to be submitted with the License Application. The additional information needed to resolve these questions and the plans for obtaining the information have been identified. This Site Characterization Report documents the results of the site screening process, the preliminary site characterization data, the technical issues that need to be addressed, and the plans for resolving these issues. Volume 3 contains chapters 13 through 19: site issues and plans; geoengineering and repository design issues and plans; waste package and site geochemistry issues and plans; performance-assessment issues and plans; site characterization program; quality assurance; and identification of alternate sites

  7. PROSPER: an integrated feature-based tool for predicting protease substrate cleavage sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangning Song

    Full Text Available The ability to catalytically cleave protein substrates after synthesis is fundamental for all forms of life. Accordingly, site-specific proteolysis is one of the most important post-translational modifications. The key to understanding the physiological role of a protease is to identify its natural substrate(s. Knowledge of the substrate specificity of a protease can dramatically improve our ability to predict its target protein substrates, but this information must be utilized in an effective manner in order to efficiently identify protein substrates by in silico approaches. To address this problem, we present PROSPER, an integrated feature-based server for in silico identification of protease substrates and their cleavage sites for twenty-four different proteases. PROSPER utilizes established specificity information for these proteases (derived from the MEROPS database with a machine learning approach to predict protease cleavage sites by using different, but complementary sequence and structure characteristics. Features used by PROSPER include local amino acid sequence profile, predicted secondary structure, solvent accessibility and predicted native disorder. Thus, for proteases with known amino acid specificity, PROSPER provides a convenient, pre-prepared tool for use in identifying protein substrates for the enzymes. Systematic prediction analysis for the twenty-four proteases thus far included in the database revealed that the features we have included in the tool strongly improve performance in terms of cleavage site prediction, as evidenced by their contribution to performance improvement in terms of identifying known cleavage sites in substrates for these enzymes. In comparison with two state-of-the-art prediction tools, PoPS and SitePrediction, PROSPER achieves greater accuracy and coverage. To our knowledge, PROSPER is the first comprehensive server capable of predicting cleavage sites of multiple proteases within a single substrate

  8. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan required each US Department of Energy (DOE) site that characterizes transuranic waste to be sent the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan that addresses applicable requirements specified in the QAPP

  9. Characterization and hydrogeological modelling of a site for disposal of medium- and low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavie, J.; Peaudecerf, P.

    1993-01-01

    Characterization studies of the French low-and intermediate-level radwaste site in the Aube Department includes a significant hydrogeological appraisal element. These studies are based upon geological, hydrogeological, and hydrodynamic measurements. The data are compiled into a model of the ground water- body. Data collection is continuous. The hydrodynamic model and the transport model is regularly validated for ANDRA (French National Radioactive Waste Disposal Agency) with a reliable and up-dated tool

  10. Quantification of uncertain outcomes from site characterization: Insights from the ESF-AS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, W.J.; Parrish, D.K.; Beccue, P.C.

    1992-01-01

    As part of the Exploratory Studies Facility Alternatives Study (ESF-AS) the uncertain outcomes from site characterization were quantified using a probabilistic tree known as ''Nature's Tree.'' Nature's Tree distinguished the true characteristics of the Yucca Mountain site from the perceived characteristics deduced from testing. Bayesian probabilistic calculations converted probabilities in Nature's Tree to the probabilistic estimates required for the comparative analysis of Exploratory Studies Facility-repository options. Experts on characterization testing explicitly addressed several site characterization issues that are considered implicitly in many site characterization programs

  11. Rational Catalyst Design of Titanium-Silica Materials Aided by Site-Specific Titration Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Todd Robert

    Silica-supported titanium materials are widely used for thermocatalytic applications such as hydroxylation of alkanes and aromatics, oxidation of alcohols and ethers, ammoximation of carbonyls, and sulfoxidations, while Ti-based materials are widely studied for photocatalytic applications such as photo-oxidation of organic substrates and photo-reduction of CO 2. However, the underlying phenomena of how to synthesize, identify, and control the active structures in these materials is not well understood because of the narrow scope of previous work. Studies of titanium-based catalysts typically focus on materials where the metal is present as either highly-dispersed Ti cations or in bulk crystalline TiO2 form, neglecting the numerous and potentially useful intermediate structures. Furthermore, these works typically focus on a single synthesis technique and rely upon bulk characterization techniques to understand the materials. Here rigorous titanium-silica synthesis-structure-function relationships are established by examining several different synthetic method and utilizing characterization techniques that enable an atomic-level understanding of the materials. The materials studied span the range from isolated Ti cations to clustered TiOx domains, polymeric TiO x domains, anatase-like 2D TiO2 domains, and 3D crystalline TiO2. Tools to quantify accessible TiO x and tetrahedral Ti sites are developed, utilizing the selective titration of titanium with phenylphosphonic acid (PPA). Catalytic properties are probed with the photocatalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol and the thermocatalytic epoxidation of cis-cyclooctene with H2O2 . PPA titration data indicate that the rate of benzyl alcohol photo-oxidation is independent of titanium coordination, while the rate of alkene epoxidation with H2O2 is proportional to the number of tetrahedral titanium sites on the catalyst. PPA titration data also enables the estimation of TiO2 particle size and reveals an important distinction

  12. Characterization Report for the 92-Acre Area of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtel Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office manages two low-level Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site. The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste. This report summarizes characterization and monitoring work pertinent to the 92-Acre Area in the southeast part of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites. The decades of characterization and assessment work at the Area 5 RWMS indicate that the access controls, waste operation practices, site design, final cover design, site setting, and arid natural environment contribute to a containment system that meets regulatory requirements and performance objectives for the short- and long-term protection of the environment and public. The available characterization and Performance Assessment information is adequate to support design of the final cover and development of closure plans. No further characterization is warranted to demonstrate regulatory compliance. U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office is proceeding with the development of closure plans for the six closure units of the 92-Acre Area

  13. Characterization Report for the 92-Acre Area of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office manages two low-level Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site. The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste. This report summarizes characterization and monitoring work pertinent to the 92-Acre Area in the southeast part of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites. The decades of characterization and assessment work at the Area 5 RWMS indicate that the access controls, waste operation practices, site design, final cover design, site setting, and arid natural environment contribute to a containment system that meets regulatory requirements and performance objectives for the short- and long-term protection of the environment and public. The available characterization and Performance Assessment information is adequate to support design of the final cover and development of closure plans. No further characterization is warranted to demonstrate regulatory compliance. U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office is proceeding with the development of closure plans for the six closure units of the 92-Acre Area.

  14. Soil structural analysis tools and properties for Hanford site waste tank evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, C.J.; Holtz, R.D.; Wagenblast, G.R.; Weiner, E.D.; Marlow, R.S.

    1995-09-01

    As Hanford Site contractors address future structural demands on nuclear waste tanks, built as early as 1943, it is necessary to address their current safety margins and ensure safe margins are maintained. Although the current civil engineering practice guidelines for soil modeling are suitable as preliminary design tools, future demands potentially result in loads and modifications to the tanks that are outside the original design basis and current code based structural capabilities. For example, waste removal may include cutting a large hole in a tank. This report addresses both spring modeling of site soils and finite-element modeling of soils. Additionally seismic dynamic modeling of Hanford Site soils is also included. Of new and special interest is Section 2.2 that Professor Robert D. Holtz of the University of Washington wrote on plane strain soil testing versus triaxial testing with Hanford Site application to large buried waste tanks

  15. Soil structural analysis tools and properties for Hanford site waste tank evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, C.J.; Holtz, R.D.; Wagenblast, G.R.; Weiner, E.D.; Marlow, R.S.

    1995-09-01

    As Hanford Site contractors address future structural demands on nuclear waste tanks, built as early as 1943, it is necessary to address their current safety margins and ensure safe margins are maintained. Although the current civil engineering practice guidelines for soil modeling are suitable as preliminary design tools, future demands potentially result in loads and modifications to the tanks that are outside the original design basis and current code based structural capabilities. For example, waste removal may include cutting a large hole in a tank. This report addresses both spring modeling of site soils and finite-element modeling of soils. Additionally seismic dynamic modeling of Hanford Site soils is also included. Of new and special interest is Section 2.2 that Professor Robert D. Holtz of the University of Washington wrote on plane strain soil testing versus triaxial testing with Hanford Site application to large buried waste tanks.

  16. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neitzel, D.A.; Fosmire, C.J.; Fowler, R.A.

    1998-09-01

    This document describes the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment and is numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is presented in Hanford Site NEPA related documents. The document is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many NEPA documents that are being prepared by contractors. The two chapters in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered this way to correspond to the chapters where such information is presented in environmental impact statements (EISs) and other Site-related NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes the Hanford Site environment, and includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological and historical resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes applicable federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site

  17. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A. [ed.; Fosmire, C.J.; Fowler, R.A. [and others

    1998-09-01

    This document describes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site environment and is numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is presented in Hanford Site NEPA related documents. The document is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many NEPA documents that are being prepared by contractors. The two chapters in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered this way to correspond to the chapters where such information is presented in environmental impact statements (EISs) and other Site-related NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes the Hanford Site environment, and includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological and historical resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes applicable federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site.

  18. Seismic site-response characterization of high-velocity sites using advanced geophysical techniques: application to the NAGRA-Net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggi, V.; Burjanek, J.; Michel, C.; Fäh, D.

    2017-08-01

    The Swiss Seismological Service (SED) has recently finalised the installation of ten new seismological broadband stations in northern Switzerland. The project was led in cooperation with the National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra) and Swissnuclear to monitor micro seismicity at potential locations of nuclear-waste repositories. To further improve the quality and usability of the seismic recordings, an extensive characterization of the sites surrounding the installation area was performed following a standardised investigation protocol. State-of-the-art geophysical techniques have been used, including advanced active and passive seismic methods. The results of all analyses converged to the definition of a set of best-representative 1-D velocity profiles for each site, which are the input for the computation of engineering soil proxies (traveltime averaged velocity and quarter-wavelength parameters) and numerical amplification models. Computed site response is then validated through comparison with empirical site amplification, which is currently available for any station connected to the Swiss seismic networks. With the goal of a high-sensitivity network, most of the NAGRA stations have been installed on stiff-soil sites of rather high seismic velocity. Seismic characterization of such sites has always been considered challenging, due to lack of relevant velocity contrast and the large wavelengths required to investigate the frequency range of engineering interest. We describe how ambient vibration techniques can successfully be applied in these particular conditions, providing practical recommendations for best practice in seismic site characterization of high-velocity sites.

  19. A Bayesian sampling strategy for hazardous waste site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalski, J.R.

    1987-12-01

    Prior knowledge based on historical records or physical evidence often suggests the existence of a hazardous waste site. Initial surveys may provide additional or even conflicting evidence of site contamination. This article presents a Bayes sampling strategy that allocates sampling at a site using this prior knowledge. This sampling strategy minimizes the environmental risks of missing chemical or radionuclide hot spots at a waste site. The environmental risk is shown to be proportional to the size of the undetected hot spot or inversely proportional to the probability of hot spot detection. 12 refs., 2 figs

  20. Development of the remedial action priority system: An improved risk assessment tool for prioritizing hazardous and radioactive-mixed waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, G.; Strenge, D.L.; Steelman, B.L.; Hawley, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Remedial Action Priority System (RAPS) represents a methodology that prioritizes inactive hazardous and radioactive mixed-waste disposal sites in a scientific and objective manner based on limited site information. This methodology is intended to bridge the technology gap that exists between the initial site evaluation using the Hazard Ranking System (HRS) and the time-consuming process of actual field site characterization, assessment and remediation efforts. The HRS was designed as an initial screening tool to discriminate between hazardous waste sites that do not and those that are likely to power significant problems to human health, safety and/or the environment. The HRS is used by the U.S. EPA to identify sites for nomination to the National Priorities List (NPL). Because the HRS is not designed to evaluate sites containing radionuclides, a modified Hazard Ranking System (mHRS) addressing both hazardous and radioactive mixed wastes was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Neither the HRS nor the mHRS was designed to prioritize sites that are nominated to the NPL according to their potential risks. To provide DOE with a better management tool for prioritizing funding and human resource allocations for further investigations and possible remediations at its inactive waste sites, PNL is developing the risk assessment methodology called RAPS. Use of RAPS will help DOE ensure that those sites posing the highest potential risk are addressed first

  1. Collaborative Tools for e-Participation across Networks: The Comuno Networking Site for Public Governance and Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kaschesky

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents collaborative tools for public participation across multiple networking sites. The tools are part of the Comuno networking site for public governance and services, which is particularly targeted at the public sector (currently in alpha testing at http://comuno.org. The Broadcast tool allows cross-posting content from Comuno to a wide variety of other networking sites, such as Facebook or Twitter. The UserFeed and TopicFeed tools build RSS feeds from content published by a specific user or under a specific topic. The LifeStream tool gathers a user’s activities across multiple networking sites in the private account section at Comuno. These tools and related aspects of the Comuno networking site are discussed and presented in the context of deliberation and opinion-forming in a Swiss bilingual city.

  2. Tools and Methods for Risk Management in Multi-Site Engineering Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mingwei; Nemes, Laszlo; Reidsema, Carl; Ahmed, Ammar; Kayis, Berman

    In today's highly global business environment, engineering and manufacturing projects often involve two or more geographically dispersed units or departments, research centers or companies. This paper attempts to identify the requirements for risk management in a multi-site engineering project environment, and presents a review of the state-of-the-art tools and methods that can be used to manage risks in multi-site engineering projects. This leads to the development of a risk management roadmap, which will underpin the design and implementation of an intelligent risk mapping system.

  3. Geostatistics and GIS: tools for characterizing environmental contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, Shannon L; Curriero, Frank C; Shields, Timothy M; Glass, Gregory E; Strickland, Paul T; Breysse, Patrick N

    2004-08-01

    Geostatistics is a set of statistical techniques used in the analysis of georeferenced data that can be applied to environmental contamination and remediation studies. In this study, the 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE) contamination at a Superfund site in western Maryland is evaluated. Concern about the site and its future clean up has triggered interest within the community because residential development surrounds the area. Spatial statistical methods, of which geostatistics is a subset, are becoming increasingly popular, in part due to the availability of geographic information system (GIS) software in a variety of application packages. In this article, the joint use of ArcGIS software and the R statistical computing environment are demonstrated as an approach for comprehensive geostatistical analyses. The spatial regression method, kriging, is used to provide predictions of DDE levels at unsampled locations both within the site and the surrounding areas where residential development is ongoing.

  4. How to characterize a potential site for CO2 storage with sparse data coverage - a Danish onshore site case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Carsten Moller; Frykman, Peter; Dalhoff, Finn

    2015-01-01

    The paper demonstrates how a potential site for CO 2 storage can be evaluated up to a sufficient level of characterization for compiling a storage permit application, even if the site is only sparsely explored. The focus of the paper is on a risk driven characterization procedure. In the initial state of a site characterization process with sparse data coverage, the regional geological and stratigraphic understanding of the area of interest can help strengthen a first model construction for predictive modeling. Static and dynamic modeling in combination with a comprehensive risk assessment can guide the different elements needed to be evaluated for fulfilling a permit application. Several essential parameters must be evaluated; the storage capacity for the site must be acceptable for the project life of the operation, the trap configuration must be efficient to secure long term containment, the injectivity must be sufficient to secure a longstanding stable operation and finally a satisfactory and operational measuring strategy must be designed. The characterization procedure is demonstrated for a deep onshore aquifer in the northern part of Denmark, the Vedsted site. The site is an anticlinal structural closure in an Upper Triassic - Lower Jurassic sandstone formation at 1 800-1 900 m depth. (authors)

  5. Medipix2 as a tool for proton beam characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisogni, M. G.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Del Guerra, A.; Lojacono, P.; Piliero, M. A.; Romano, F.; Rosso, V.; Sipala, V.; Stefanini, A.

    2009-08-01

    Proton therapy is a technique used to deliver a highly accurate and effective dose for the treatment of a variety of tumor diseases. The possibility to have an instrument able to give online information could reduce the time necessary to characterize the proton beam. To this aim we propose a detection system for online proton beam characterization based on the Medipix2 chip. Medipix2 is a detection system based on a single event counter read-out chip, bump-bonded to silicon pixel detector. The read-out chip is a matrix of 256×256 cells, 55×55 μm 2 each. To demonstrate the capabilities of Medipix2 as a proton detector, we have used a 62 MeV flux proton beam at the CATANA beam line of the LNS-INFN laboratory. The measurements performed confirmed the good imaging performances of the Medipix2 system also for the characterization of proton beams.

  6. Medipix2 as a tool for proton beam characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisogni, M.G. [Department of Physics, University of Pisa and INFN Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Cirrone, G.A.P.; Cuttone, G. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Del Guerra, A. [Department of Physics, University of Pisa and INFN Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Lojacono, P. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Piliero, M.A. [Department of Physics, University of Pisa and INFN Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Romano, F. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Rosso, V. [Department of Physics, University of Pisa and INFN Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: valeria.rosso@pi.infn.it; Sipala, V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Catania and INFN Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Stefanini, A. [Department of Physics, University of Pisa and INFN Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (Italy)

    2009-08-01

    Proton therapy is a technique used to deliver a highly accurate and effective dose for the treatment of a variety of tumor diseases. The possibility to have an instrument able to give online information could reduce the time necessary to characterize the proton beam. To this aim we propose a detection system for online proton beam characterization based on the Medipix2 chip. Medipix2 is a detection system based on a single event counter read-out chip, bump-bonded to silicon pixel detector. The read-out chip is a matrix of 256x256 cells, 55x55 {mu}m{sup 2} each. To demonstrate the capabilities of Medipix2 as a proton detector, we have used a 62 MeV flux proton beam at the CATANA beam line of the LNS-INFN laboratory. The measurements performed confirmed the good imaging performances of the Medipix2 system also for the characterization of proton beams.

  7. Medipix2 as a tool for proton beam characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisogni, M.G.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Cuttone, G.; Del Guerra, A.; Lojacono, P.; Piliero, M.A.; Romano, F.; Rosso, V.; Sipala, V.; Stefanini, A.

    2009-01-01

    Proton therapy is a technique used to deliver a highly accurate and effective dose for the treatment of a variety of tumor diseases. The possibility to have an instrument able to give online information could reduce the time necessary to characterize the proton beam. To this aim we propose a detection system for online proton beam characterization based on the Medipix2 chip. Medipix2 is a detection system based on a single event counter read-out chip, bump-bonded to silicon pixel detector. The read-out chip is a matrix of 256x256 cells, 55x55 μm 2 each. To demonstrate the capabilities of Medipix2 as a proton detector, we have used a 62 MeV flux proton beam at the CATANA beam line of the LNS-INFN laboratory. The measurements performed confirmed the good imaging performances of the Medipix2 system also for the characterization of proton beams.

  8. Implementation of surgical quality improvement: auditing tool for surgical site infection prevention practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechenbleikner, Elizabeth M; Hobson, Deborah B; Bennett, Jennifer L; Wick, Elizabeth C

    2015-01-01

    Surgical site infections are a potentially preventable patient harm. Emerging evidence suggests that the implementation of evidence-based process measures for infection reduction is highly variable. The purpose of this work was to develop an auditing tool to assess compliance with infection-related process measures and establish a system for identifying and addressing defects in measure implementation. This was a retrospective cohort study using electronic medical records. We used the auditing tool to assess compliance with 10 process measures in a sample of colorectal surgery patients with and without postoperative infections at an academic medical center (January 2012 to March 2013). We investigated 59 patients with surgical site infections and 49 patients without surgical site infections. First, overall compliance rates for the 10 process measures were compared between patients with infection vs patients without infection to assess if compliance was lower among patients with surgical site infections. Then, because of the burden of data collection, the tool was used exclusively to evaluate quarterly compliance rates among patients with infection. The results were reviewed, and the key factors contributing to noncompliance were identified and addressed. Ninety percent of process measures had lower compliance rates among patients with infection. Detailed review of infection cases identified many defects that improved following the implementation of system-level changes: correct cefotetan redosing (education of anesthesia personnel), temperature at surgical incision >36.0°C (flags used to identify patients for preoperative warming), and the use of preoperative mechanical bowel preparation with oral antibiotics (laxative solutions and antibiotics distributed in clinic before surgery). Quarterly compliance improved for 80% of process measures by the end of the study period. This study was conducted on a small surgical cohort within a select subspecialty. The

  9. Development of software tools for supporting building clearance and site release at UKAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessop, G.; Pearl, M.

    2002-01-01

    UKAEA sites generally have complex histories and have been subject to a diverse range of nuclear operations. Most of the nuclear reactors, laboratories, workshops and other support facilities are now redundant and a programme of decommissioning works in accordance with IAEA guidance is in progress. Decommissioning is being carried out in phases with post- operative activities, care and maintenance and care and surveillance periods between stages to allow relatively short-lived radioactivity to decay. This reduces dose levels to personnel and minimises radioactive waste production. Following on from these stages is an end point phase which corresponds to the point at which the risks to human health and the environment are sufficiently low so that the buildings / land can be released for future use. Unconditional release corresponds to meeting the requirement for 'de-licensing'. Although reaching a de-licensable end point is the desired aim for UKAEA sites, it is recognised that this may take hundreds of years for parts of some UKAEA sites, or may never be attainable at a reasonable cost to the UK taxpayer. Thus on these sites, long term risk management systems are in place to minimise the impact on health, safety and the environment. In order to manage these short, medium and long term liabilities, UKAEA has developed a number of software tools based on good practice guidance. One of these tools in particular is being developed to address building clearance and site release. This tool, IMAGES (Information Management and Geographical Information System) integrates systematic data capture, with database management and spatial assessment (through a Geographical Information System). Details of IMAGES and its applications are discussed in the paper. This paper outlines the approach being adopted by UKAEA for building and site release and the integrated software system, IMAGES, being used to capture, collate, interpret and report results. The key to UKAEA's strategy for

  10. Fast-turnaround RCRA site characterization of former TA-42 at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, A.R.; Gainer, G.M.; Thomson, C.N.; Hutton, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the results of an accelerated characterization to evaluate contamination at the site of former Technical Area (TA)-42. This characterization supported the construction validation for the Nuclear Safeguards Technology Laboratory (NSTL), which will be constructed at the site

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF NEW TOOL STEEL FOR ALUMINUM EXTRUSION DIES

    OpenAIRE

    José Britti Bacalhau; Fernanda Moreno Rodrigues; Rafael Agnelli Mesquita

    2014-01-01

    Aluminum extrusion dies are an important segment of application on industrial tools steels, which are manufactured in steels based on AISI H13 steel. The main properties of steels applied to extrusion dies are: wear resistance, impact resistance and tempering resistance. The present work discusses the characteristics of a newly developed hot work steel to be used on aluminum extrusion dies. The effects of Cr and Mo contents with respect to tempering resistance and the Al addition ...

  12. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration site characterization plan. Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This plan presents the strategy for the characterization of the Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility at the Nevada Test Site which will be conducted for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, Environmental Restoration Division. The objectives of the planned activities are to: obtain sufficient, sample analytical data from which further assessment, remediation, and/or closure strategies may be developed for the site; obtain sufficient, sample analytical data for management of investigation-derived waste. The scope of the characterization may include surface radiation survey(s), surface soil sampling, subsurface soil boring (i.e., drilling), and sampling of soil in and around the pond; in situ sampling of the soil within subsurface soil borings; and sample analysis for both site characterization and waste management purposes

  13. Vadose zone characterization of highly radioactive contaminated soil at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckmaster, M.A.

    1993-05-01

    The Hanford Site in south-central Washington State contains over 1500 identified waste sites and numerous groundwater plumes that will be characterized and remediated over the next 30 years. As a result of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the US Department of Energy has initiated a remedial investigation/feasibility study at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 remedial investigation is the first Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 investigation on the Hanford Site that involves drilling into highly radioactive and chemically contaminated soils. The initial phase of site characterization was designed to assess the nature and extent of contamination associated with the source waste site within the 200-BP-1 operable unit. Characterization activities consisted of drilling and sampling the waste site, chemical and physical analysis of samples, and development of a conceptual vadose zone model. Predicted modeling concentrations compared favorably to analytical data collected during the initial characterization activities

  14. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 3, Part A: Chapters 6 and 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE's Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 218 figs., 50 tabs

  15. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 1, Part A: Chapters 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE's Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 750 refs., 123 figs., 42 tabs

  16. Site Characterization Plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 3, Part A: Chapters 6 and 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 218 figs., 50 tabs.

  17. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 1, Part A: Chapters 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 750 refs., 123 figs., 42 tabs.

  18. Continuous, environmental radon monitoring program at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, N.; Sorensen, C.D.; Tung, C.H.; Orchard, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    A continuous, environmental radon monitoring program has been established in support of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The monitoring program is to characterize the natural radon emissions at the YMP site, to understand the existing radon concentrations in the environmental background, and to assess and control the potential work exposure. Based upon a study of the monitoring results, this paper presents a preliminary understanding of the magnitudes, characteristics, and exposure levels of radon at the YMP site

  19. Preoperational baseline and site characterization report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility: Volume 1. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weekes, D.C.; Ford, B.H.; Jaeger, G.K.

    1996-09-01

    This site characterization report provides the results of the field data collection activities for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility site. Information gathered on the geology, hydrology, ecology, chemistry, and cultural resources of the area is presented. The Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility is located at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington

  20. Site suitability, selection and characterization: Branch technical position--Low-Level Waste Licensing Branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siefken, D.; Pangburn, G.; Pennifill, R.; Starmer, R.J.

    1982-04-01

    The staff provides an expanded interpretation of the site suitability requirements in the proposed rule 10 CFR Part 61, a description of the anticipated site selection process, and a detailed discussion of the site characterization program needed to support a license application and environmental report. The paper provides early-on guidance to prospective applicants in these three subject areas

  1. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. (ed.)

    1988-09-01

    This document describes the Hanford Site environment (Chapter 4) and contains data in Chapter 5 and 6 which will guide users in the preparation of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)-related documents. Many NEPA compliance documents have been prepared and are being prepared by site contractors for the US Department of Energy, and examination of these documents reveals inconsistencies in the amount of detail presented and the method of presentation. Thus, it seemed necessary to prepare a consistent description of the Hanford environment to be used in preparing Chapter 4 of environmental impact statements and other site-related NEPA documentation. The material in Chapter 5 is a guide to the models used, including critical assumptions incorporated in these models, in previous Hanford NEPA documents. The users will have to select those models appropriate for the proposed action. Chapter 6 is essentially a definitive NEPA Chapter 6, which describes the applicable laws, regulations, and DOE and state orders. In this document, a complete description of the environment is presented in Chapter 4 without excessive tabular data. For these data, sources are provided. Most subjects are divided into a general description of the characteristics of the Hanford Site, followed by site-specific information where it is available on the 100, 200, 300, and other Areas. This division will allow a person requiring information to go immediately to those sections of particular interest. However, site-specific information on each of these separate areas is not always complete or available. In this case, the general Hanford Site description should be used. 131 refs., 19 figs., 32 tabs.

  2. Initial Characterization of the Wave Resource at Several High Energy U.S. Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Dallman, Ann; Neary, Vincent S.

    2014-01-01

    Wave energy resource characterization efforts are critical for developing knowledge of the physical conditions experienced by wave energy converter (WEC) devices and arrays. Developers are lacking a consistent characterization of possible wave energy test sites, and therefore Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been tasked with developing a catalogue characterizing three high energy U.S. test sites. The initial results and framework for the catalogue are discussed in this paper. U.S. De...

  3. A Remote Characterization System for subsurface mapping of buried waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandness, G.A.; Bennett, D.W.; Martinson, L.

    1992-06-01

    This paper describes a development project that will provide new technology for characterizing hazardous waste burial sites. The project is a collaborative effort by five of the national laboratories, involving the development and demonstration of a remotely controlled site characterization system. The Remote Characterization System (RCS) includes a unique low-signature survey vehicle, a base station, radio telemetry data links, satellite-based vehicle tracking, stereo vision, and sensors for non-invasive inspection of the surface and subsurface

  4. Geographic Information System Tools for Management of US DOE Sites - 13489

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, Cliff; Pilz, Elaine; Pawel, Steve

    2013-01-01

    The DOE Office of Legacy Management (LM) uses a variety of GIS tools to support long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTS and M) activities at DOE closure sites. These geo-spatial applications provide access to data both for external public viewing and for internal analysis and decision making. LM uses a custom geo-spatial application called geo-spatial Environmental Mapping System (GEMS) that draws validated information from a database of 4.6 million analytical results and 232,000 water level measurements for 58 LTS and M sites. These data were collected from transferred sites over a period of 40 years. The database is used to capture and store historical environmental information such as analytical chemistry data, groundwater depths and elevations, well logs, well construction data, geo-referenced boundaries, site physical features, and sampling locations from LTS and M sites. Stakeholders, regulators, and project personnel can use this Web-based application and data to display information in several forms, such as a tabular report, a graph, and a geo-spatial display, or the data can be labeled or highlighted in a map view. Institutional controls, with their LTS and M requirements and documentation, have recently been incorporated into a prototype GEMS Web page for the Weldon Spring, Missouri, Site. LM uses multiple internal GIS viewers to help ensure the future protection of human health and the environment. For example, at the Rocky Flats, Colorado, Site, LM uses a GIS application to display real property interests on authoritative maps. Another project is used to facilitate discussions at stakeholder meetings for the Rocky Flats site's Original Landfill. The Uranium Leasing Program uses multiple interactive maps that assist in ongoing monitoring and the oversight of lease-holders' activities. (authors)

  5. Geographic Information System Tools for Management of US DOE Sites - 13489

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, Cliff [U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, 99 Research Park Road, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Pilz, Elaine [S.M. Stoller Corporation, 2597 Legacy Way, Grand Junction, CO 81503 (United States); Pawel, Steve [S.M. Stoller Corporation, 10995 Hamilton-Cleves Highway, Harrison, OH 45030 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The DOE Office of Legacy Management (LM) uses a variety of GIS tools to support long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTS and M) activities at DOE closure sites. These geo-spatial applications provide access to data both for external public viewing and for internal analysis and decision making. LM uses a custom geo-spatial application called geo-spatial Environmental Mapping System (GEMS) that draws validated information from a database of 4.6 million analytical results and 232,000 water level measurements for 58 LTS and M sites. These data were collected from transferred sites over a period of 40 years. The database is used to capture and store historical environmental information such as analytical chemistry data, groundwater depths and elevations, well logs, well construction data, geo-referenced boundaries, site physical features, and sampling locations from LTS and M sites. Stakeholders, regulators, and project personnel can use this Web-based application and data to display information in several forms, such as a tabular report, a graph, and a geo-spatial display, or the data can be labeled or highlighted in a map view. Institutional controls, with their LTS and M requirements and documentation, have recently been incorporated into a prototype GEMS Web page for the Weldon Spring, Missouri, Site. LM uses multiple internal GIS viewers to help ensure the future protection of human health and the environment. For example, at the Rocky Flats, Colorado, Site, LM uses a GIS application to display real property interests on authoritative maps. Another project is used to facilitate discussions at stakeholder meetings for the Rocky Flats site's Original Landfill. The Uranium Leasing Program uses multiple interactive maps that assist in ongoing monitoring and the oversight of lease-holders' activities. (authors)

  6. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohay, A.C.; Fosmire, C.J.; Neitzel, D.A.; Hoitink, D.J.; Harvey, D.W.; Antonio, E.J.; Wright, M.K.; Thorne, P.D.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Fowler, R.A.; Goodwin, S.M.; Poston, T.M.

    1999-09-28

    This document describes the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many NEPA documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No conclusions or recommendations are provided. This year's report is the eleventh revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the 12th revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA; SEPA and CERCLA documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is presented in environmental impact statements (EISs) and other Site-related NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological and historical resources, socioeconomic; occupational safety, and noise. Sources for extensive tabular data related to these topics are provided in the chapter. Most subjects are divided into a general description of the characteristics of the Hanford Site, followed by site-specific information, where available, of the 100,200,300, and other Areas. This division allows the reader to go directly to those sections of particular interest. When specific information on each of these separate areas is not complete or available, the general Hanford Site description should be used. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) is essentially a definitive NEPA Chapter 6.0, which describes applicable federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site. People preparing environmental assessments and EISs should also be cognizant of the document entitled ''Recommendations for the Preparation of Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact

  7. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Eschbach, Tara O.; Fowler, Richard A.; Goodwin, Shannon M.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Hoitink, Dana J.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast, Ellen L.; Rohay, Alan C.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2001-09-01

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the thirteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the fourteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  8. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Cannon, Sandra D.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Hoitink, Dana J.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.; Reidel, Steve P.; Rohay, Alan C.; Scott, Michael J.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2004-09-22

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the sixteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the seventeenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety and health, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  9. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization, Revision 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Burk, Kenneth W.; Cannon, Sandra D.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.; Reidel, Steve P.; Scott, Michael J.; Thorne, Paul D.; Woody, Dave M.

    2003-09-01

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the thirteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the fourteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  10. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Eschbach, Tara O.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Goodwin, Shannon M.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Hoitink, Dana J.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.; Rohay, Alan C.; Scott, Michael J.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2002-09-01

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the thirteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the fourteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  11. BIOMETRICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF TEST SITES FOR MAIZE BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domagoj Šimić

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Yield stability of genotypes and analysis of genotype×environment interaction (GEI as important objects in analyses of multienvironment trials are well documented in Croatia. However, little is known about suitability and biometrical characters of the sites where genotypes should be tested. Objectives of this study were in combined analysis of balanced maize trials i to compare test sites in joint linear regression analysis and ii to compare several stability models by clustering test sites in order to assess biometrical suitability of particular test sites. Partitioning of GEI sum of squares according to the symmetrical joint linear regression analysis revealed highly significant Tukey's test, heterogeneity of environmental regressions and residual deviations. Mean grain yields, within-macroenvironment error mean squares, and stability parameters varied considerably among 16 macroenvironments. The highest grain yields were recorded in Osijek in both years and in Varaždin in 1996, with more than 11 t ha-1 . It seems that Feričanci would be optimum test site with relatively high and consistent yield and high values of entry mean squares indicating satisfactory differentiation among cultivars. However, four clustering methods generally did not correspond. According to three out of four clustering methods, two macroenvironments of Feričanci provide similar results. Employing other methods such as shifted multiplicative models, which effectively eliminate significant rank-change interaction, appears to be more reasonable.

  12. Perspectives on innovative characterization and remediation technologies for contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalick, W.W. Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Contaminated soil and groundwater have been the subject of legislative attention in the U.S. for about 20 years. Major strides in implementing cleanup programs have been accomplished. From complex abandoned hazardous waste sites to underground petroleum storage tanks to (more recently) Brownfields redevelopment, much assessment and remediation work have been carried out. This paper describes some of the data on the kinds of contamination, media, and technologies deployed to deal with problems at these sites. In addition, it highlights technology partnerships that have evolved to demonstrate and verify site measurement and clean-up technologies and to assure a more robust set of clean-up options. Finally, the advent of the Internet has increased access to a considerable body of publicly available information on the cost and performance of these technologies that might be of interest. (author)

  13. Soil Characterization Database for the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remortel, R. D. Van; Lee, Y. J.; Snyder, K. E.

    2005-01-01

    Soils were characterized in an investigation at the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nevada. Data from the investigation are presented in four parameter groups: sample and site characteristics, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) particle size fractions, chemical parameters, and American Society for Testing Materials-Unified Soil Classification System (ASTM-USCS) particle size fractions. Spread-sheet workbooks based on these parameter groups are presented to evaluate data quality, conduct database updates, and set data structures and formats for later extraction and analysis. This document does not include analysis or interpretation of presented data

  14. Soil Characterization Database for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y. J.; Remortel, R. D. Van; Snyder, K. E.

    2005-01-01

    Soils were characterized in an investigation at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nevada. Data from the investigation are presented in four parameter groups: sample and site characteristics, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) particle size fractions, chemical parameters, and American Society for Testing Materials-Unified Soil Classification System (ASTM-USCS) particle size fractions. Spread-sheet workbooks based on these parameter groups are presented to evaluate data quality, conduct database updates,and set data structures and formats for later extraction and analysis. This document does not include analysis or interpretation of presented data

  15. HTP-OligoDesigner: An Online Primer Design Tool for High-Throughput Gene Cloning and Site-Directed Mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilo, Cesar M; Lima, Gustavo M A; Maluf, Fernando V; Guido, Rafael V C; Polikarpov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Following burgeoning genomic and transcriptomic sequencing data, biochemical and molecular biology groups worldwide are implementing high-throughput cloning and mutagenesis facilities in order to obtain a large number of soluble proteins for structural and functional characterization. Since manual primer design can be a time-consuming and error-generating step, particularly when working with hundreds of targets, the automation of primer design process becomes highly desirable. HTP-OligoDesigner was created to provide the scientific community with a simple and intuitive online primer design tool for both laboratory-scale and high-throughput projects of sequence-independent gene cloning and site-directed mutagenesis and a Tm calculator for quick queries.

  16. Scattered surface charge density: A tool for surface characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Naydenov, Borislav; Mantega, Mauro; Rungger, Ivan; Sanvito, Stefano; Boland, John J.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of nonlocal scanning tunneling spectroscopic measurements to characterize the local structure of adspecies in their states where they are significantly less perturbed by the probe, which is accomplished by mapping the amplitude and phase of the scattered surface charge density. As an example, we study single-H-atom adsorption on the n-type Si(100)-(4 × 2) surface, and demonstrate the existence of two different configurations that are distinguishable using the nonlocal approach and successfully corroborated by density functional theory. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  17. Scattered surface charge density: A tool for surface characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Naydenov, Borislav

    2011-11-28

    We demonstrate the use of nonlocal scanning tunneling spectroscopic measurements to characterize the local structure of adspecies in their states where they are significantly less perturbed by the probe, which is accomplished by mapping the amplitude and phase of the scattered surface charge density. As an example, we study single-H-atom adsorption on the n-type Si(100)-(4 × 2) surface, and demonstrate the existence of two different configurations that are distinguishable using the nonlocal approach and successfully corroborated by density functional theory. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  18. JASSA: a comprehensive tool for prediction of SUMOylation sites and SIMs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauclair, Guillaume; Bridier-Nahmias, Antoine; Zagury, Jean-François; Saïb, Ali; Zamborlini, Alessia

    2015-11-01

    Post-translational modification by the Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO) proteins, a process termed SUMOylation, is involved in many fundamental cellular processes. SUMO proteins are conjugated to a protein substrate, creating an interface for the recruitment of cofactors harboring SUMO-interacting motifs (SIMs). Mapping both SUMO-conjugation sites and SIMs is required to study the functional consequence of SUMOylation. To define the best candidate sites for experimental validation we designed JASSA, a Joint Analyzer of SUMOylation site and SIMs. JASSA is a predictor that uses a scoring system based on a Position Frequency Matrix derived from the alignment of experimental SUMOylation sites or SIMs. Compared with existing web-tools, JASSA displays on par or better performances. Novel features were implemented towards a better evaluation of the prediction, including identification of database hits matching the query sequence and representation of candidate sites within the secondary structural elements and/or the 3D fold of the protein of interest, retrievable from deposited PDB files. JASSA is freely accessible at http://www.jassa.fr/. Website is implemented in PHP and MySQL, with all major browsers supported. guillaume.beauclair@inserm.fr Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushing, C.E.

    1987-12-01

    In this document, a complete description of the environment is presented in Section 4 without extensive tabular data. For these data, sources are provided. Most subjects are divided into a general description of the characteristics of the Hanford Site, followed by site-specific information where it is available on the 100, 200, and 300 Areas. This division will allow a person requiring information to go immediately to those sections of particular interest. However, site-specific information on each of these separate areas is not always complete or available. In this case, the general Hanford Site description should be used. Certain subjects covered (e.g., threatened and endangered species, Tri-Cities populations) will be updated periodically and changes published annually. The updating also applies to the basic data when new information becomes available. To this end, Section 4 of this document is being made available in loose-leaf text and on an IBM-PC diskette in WordPerfect 4.2. 130 refs., 14 figs., 30 tabs

  20. Characterization of radionuclude behavior in low-level waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toste, A.P.; Kirby, L.J.; Robertson, D.E.; Abel, K.H.; Perkins, R.W.

    1982-10-01

    Our laboratory is investigating the subsurface migration of radionuclides in groundwater at the Maxey Flats, Kentucky, shallow land-burial site and at a low-level aqueous waste disposal facility. At Maxey Flats, radionuclide and tracer data indicate groundwater communication between a waste trench and an adjacent experimental study area. Areal distributions of radionuclides in surface soil confirm that contamination at Maxey Flats has been largely contained on site. Of the radionuclides detected in the surface soil, only 3 H and 60 Co concentrations appear to be derived from waste. Plutonium exists in the anoxic subsurface waters at Maxey Flats as a reduced, anionic complex; some of the plutonium appears to be complexed with EDTA, whereas organic acids seem to be associated with 137 Cs and 90 Sr. At the aqueous waste disposal site, 3 H and mainly anionic species of certain radionuclides, including 60 Co, 106 Ru, 99 Tc, 131 I, and traces of 238 239 240 Pu, appear to migrate from a trench through soil adjacent to the trench. Radionuclides in the particulate and cationic forms appear to be efficiently retained by the soil. In general, observations indicate that the physicochemical form of the radionuclides mediates their subsurface migration in groundwater at both waste disposal sites

  1. Characterization of the atmospheric pathway at hazardous waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droppo, J.G. Jr.; Buck, J.W.

    1988-10-01

    Evaluation of potential health effects for populations surrounding hazardous waste sites requires consideration of all potential contaminant transport pathways through groundwater, surface water, and the atmosphere. A comprehensive pathway model that includes emission, dispersion, and deposition computations has been developed as a component of the Remedial Action Priority System (RAPS). RAPS is designed to assess the relative potential risks associated with hazardous and radioactive mixed-waste disposal sites. The atmospheric component includes optional volatilization and suspension emission routines. Atmospheric transport, dispersion, and deposition are computed using relatively standard modeling techniques expanded to incorporate topographical influences. This sector-averaged Gaussian model accounts for local channeling, terrain heights, and terrain roughness effects. Long-term total deposition is computed for the terrain surrounding the hazardous waste site. An example is given of applications at a US Department of Energy site, where atmospheric emissions are potentially important. The multiple applications of RAPS have provided information on the relative importance of different constitutent transport pathways from a potential population risk basis. Our results show that the atmospheric pathway is often equally as important as other pathways such as groundwater and direct soil ingestion. 6 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Monitoring plan for characterization of the Building 3019 leak site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has established a Remedial Action Program to provide comprehensive management of areas where past research, development, and waste management activities have resulted in residual contamination of facilities or the environment. In the winter of 1985, elevated levels of strontium-90 were detected in White Oak Creek and the ORNL sewage treatment plant. A leak was subsequently identified in a low-level waste transfer line north of Building 3019. The period of leakage and the exact chemical composition of the effluent are unknown. Two dye tests conducted at the leak site have identified several possible pathways for contaminant migration. The discovery of a solution cavity in the Chickamauga bedrock underlying the leak site and the rapid appearance of dye in the sump at Building 3042 indicate the extension of the cavity system along strike to the east. This report outlines the available published and unpublished background information pertaining to the site and proposes a monitoring plan consisting of soil sample collection and monitor well installation to provide a preliminary assessment of the types and extent of contamination at the leak site. The plan is also designed to provide additional geologic and hydrologic data for evaluating possible contaminant migration pathways. 6 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  3. Characterization of Leachate at Simpang Renggam Landfill Site, Johor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zailani, L. W. M.; Amdan, N. S. M.; Zin, N. S. M.

    2018-04-01

    Nowadays, the world facing a major problem in managed solid waste due to the increasing of solid waste. Malaysia, one of the country also involves in this matter which is 296 landfills are open to overcome this problem. Currently, the best alternative option to manage solid waste is by using landfilling method because it has low costing advantages. The disadvantage of landfill method, it might cause a pollution by producing leachate that will give an effect to the ground and surface water resources. This study focuses on analysing the leachate composition at Simpang Renggam Landfill(SRL) site for seven parameters such as COD, BOD, SS, turbidity, pH, BOD5/COD, and ammonia (NH3-N). All the data obtained were compared with previous researcher and Malaysia Environmental Quality Act 1974. From the result, SRL site was categorized as partially stabilized leachate with the parameter of BOD5/COD > 0.1. The SRL site is recommended to use a physical-chemical method for a better treatment because the leachate composition is classified as old leachate and aerated lagoon method are not satisfied to be used in treating the aging leachate at SRL site.

  4. Site characterization and validation - Borehole radar investigations stage 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandberg, E.; Olsson, O.; Falk, L.

    1989-11-01

    The borehole radar investigation program Stage 3 of the SCV-site has comprised single hole reflection measurements with centre frequencies of 22 and 60 MHz. Single hole reflection measurement with both omni-directional and directional antennas have been performed in the boreholes C1, C2, C3 and the D-holes. Crosshole tomographic measurements as well as cross- hole reflection measurement have been made between the bore- holes C1-C2, W1-C1 and W1-C2. The range obtained in the single hole reflection measurements was approximately 100 m for the lower frequency and about 60-70 m for the centre frequency 60 MHz. In the crosshole measurements transmitter-receiver separations from 20 to 120 m have been used. The Stage 3 radar investigations have essentially confirmed the three dimensional description of the structures at the SCV-site. The conceptual model of the site which was produced based on the Stage 1 data included three major zones, two minor zones and a circular feature. The major features are considered to be the most significant at the site and are all observed in the Stage 3 boreholes close to their predicted locations. The circular feature has also been found in two of the additional tomograms at the predicted location. The results indicate that the zones are not homogeneous but rather that they are highly irregular containing parts of considerably increased fracturing and parts where their contrast to the background rock is quite small. The zones appear to be approximately planar at least at the scale of the site. At a smaller scale the zones can appear quite irregular

  5. Heuristic and probabilistic wind power availability estimation procedures: Improved tools for technology and site selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigim, K.A. [University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ont. (Canada). Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Parker, Paul [University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ont. (Canada). Department of Geography, Environmental Studies

    2007-04-15

    The paper describes two investigative procedures to estimate wind power from measured wind velocities. Wind velocity data are manipulated to visualize the site potential by investigating the probable wind power availability and its capacity to meet a targeted demand. The first procedure is an availability procedure that looks at the wind characteristics and its probable energy capturing profile. This profile of wind enables the probable maximum operating wind velocity profile for a selected wind turbine design to be predicted. The structured procedures allow for a consequent adjustment, sorting and grouping of the measured wind velocity data taken at different time intervals and hub heights. The second procedure is the adequacy procedure that investigates the probable degree of availability and the application consequences. Both procedures are programmed using MathCAD symbolic mathematical software. The math tool is used to generate a visual interpolation of the data as well as numerical results from extensive data sets that exceed the capacity of conventional spreadsheet tools. Two sites located in Southern Ontario, Canada are investigated using the procedures. Successful implementation of the procedures supports informed decision making where a hill site is shown to have much higher wind potential than that measured at the local airport. The process is suitable for a wide spectrum of users who are considering the energy potential for either a grid-tied or off-grid wind energy system. (author)

  6. Plans for characterization of salt sites in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heim, G.E.; Matthews, S.C.; Kircher, J.F.; Kennedy, R.K.

    1984-02-01

    The characterization plans presented in this paper are considered to be basic in nature and are the minimum program that meets project needs. The proposed basic program can be applied to any of the salt sites under consideration. It has been designed to provide the data required to support the design, performance assessment, and licensing of each of the principal project elements: the repository, the shafts, and the surface facilities. The work has been sequenced to meet the design and licensing schedule. It is anticipated that additional characterization activities will be performed to address site-specific considerations and to provide additional information to address questions which arise during the evaluation of characterization data. The information obtained during the characterization program will be incorporated into: the site characterization plan, the site recommendation report, the environmental impact statement, and the construction authorization application

  7. High-Throughput Tools for Characterization of Antibody Epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Anders

    mapping. In Chapter 1, it was examined whether combining phage display, a traditional epitope mapping approach, with HTS would improve the method. The developed approach was successfully used to map Ara h 1 epitopes in sera from patients with peanut allergy. Notably, the sera represented difficult...... proliferation advantages. Finally, in Chapter 4, a different emerging technology, next-generation peptide microarrays, was applied for epitope mapping of major peanut allergens using sera from allergic patients. New developments in the peptide microarray have enabled a greatly increased throughput....... In this study, these improvements were utilized to characterize epitopes at high resolution, i.e. determine the importance of each residue for antibody binding, for all major peanut allergens. Epitope reactivity among patients often converged on known epitope hotspots, however the binding patterns were somewhat...

  8. Site characterization report for the basalt waste isolation project. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    The reference location for a repository in basalt for the terminal storage of nuclear wastes on the Hanford Site and the candidate horizons within this reference repository location have been identified and the preliminary characterization work in support of the site screening process has been completed. Fifteen technical questions regarding the qualification of the site were identified to be addressed during the detailed site characterization phase of the US Department of Energy-National Waste Terminal Storage Program site selection process. Resolution of these questions will be provided in the final site characterization progress report, currently planned to be issued in 1987, and in the safety analysis report to be submitted with the License Application. The additional information needed to resolve these questions and the plans for obtaining the information have been identified. This Site Characterization Report documents the results of the site screening process, the preliminary site characterization data, the technical issues that need to be addressed, and the plans for resolving these issues. Volume 2 contains chapters 6 through 12: geochemistry; surface hydrology; climatology, meteorology, and air quality; environmental, land-use, and socioeconomic characteristics; repository design; waste package; and performance assessment

  9. Site characterization report for the basalt waste isolation project. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-11-01

    The reference location for a repository in basalt for the terminal storage of nuclear wastes on the Hanford Site and the candidate horizons within this reference repository location have been identified and the preliminary characterization work in support of the site screening process has been completed. Fifteen technical questions regarding the qualification of the site were identified to be addressed during the detailed site characterization phase of the US Department of Energy-National Waste Terminal Storage Program site selection process. Resolution of these questions will be provided in the final site characterization progress report, currently planned to be issued in 1987, and in the safety analysis report to be submitted with the License Application. The additional information needed to resolve these questions and the plans for obtaining the information have been identified. This Site Characterization Report documents the results of the site screening process, the preliminary site characterization data, the technical issues that need to be addressed, and the plans for resolving these issues. Volume 2 contains chapters 6 through 12: geochemistry; surface hydrology; climatology, meteorology, and air quality; environmental, land-use, and socioeconomic characteristics; repository design; waste package; and performance assessment.

  10. Summary of 1990 eolian characterization studies, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaylord, D.R.; Stetler, L.D.; Smith, G.D. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Mars, R.W. [Wyoming Univ., Laramie, WY (United States)

    1993-12-01

    A study of eolian activity was initiated to improve understanding of past climate change and the likely effect of wind on engineered protective barriers at the Hanford Site. Eolian features from a Holocene sand dune field located in the southeastern portion of the Hanford Site were investigated using a variety of field and laboratory techniques including stratigraphic examinations of hand-dug pits, textural and compositional analyses of dune sand and potential source detritus, and air photo interpretations. These investigations were undertaken to evaluate the provenance and eolian dynamics of the sand dunes. Interpretations of sand dune migration using archival air photo stereopairs document a 20% reduction in the volume of active sand dunes (measured from an approximate 15-km{sup 2} test area) between 1948 and 1987. Changes in annual precipitation appear to have influenced active dune migration strongly.

  11. Application of commercial exploration techniques to site selection and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, W.A.

    1987-01-01

    Since 1976 the U.S Department of Energy has conducted intensive geologic studies of the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in south-central Washington. With passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 the process of search for a geologically suitable waste repository site became more structured, and it has been subject to outside review by the state, affected Indian tribes and other federal agencies, notably the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the U.S Geological Survey. This paper contrasts the USDOE approach with that of the mining and petroleum industries, highlighting fundamental differences in philosophy and techniques. It is proposed that the principle of ''condemnation,'' which is fundamental in commercial exploration methods, could greatly benefit the USDOE siting program, which by comparison has been slow, costly and not very productive

  12. Concrete characterization for the 300 Area Solvent Evaporator Closure Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prignano, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the sampling activities undertaken and the analytical results obtained in a concrete sampling and analyses study performed for the 300 Area Solvent Evaporator (300 ASE) closure site. The 300 ASE is identified as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) unit that will be closed in accordance with the applicable laws and regulations. No constituents of concern were found in concentrations indicating contamination of the concrete by 300 ASE operations

  13. Site characterization requirements for nuclear-cratering design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terhune, R.W.; Carlson, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    A material properties measurement program for the design of large engineering nuclear-excavation projects by computer calculation is presented. Material properties of the site and their relative effect on crater size are analyzed and ordered in relation to their importance in determining the overall cratering efficiency. The measurement program includes both in situ logging and laboratory measurement of core samples, together with the reason for each measurement and its use in the calculations

  14. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration site characterization plan. Area 6 Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    This plan presents the strategy for the characterization of the Area 6 South and North Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEPs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to be conducted for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Environmental Restoration Division (ERD). The purposes of the planned activities are to: obtain sufficient, sample analytical data from which further assessment, remediation, and/or closure strategies may be developed for the site; obtain sufficient, sample analytical data for management of investigation-derived waste (IDW). The scope of the characterization may include excavation, drilling, and sampling of soil in and around both ponds; sampling of the excavated material; in situ sampling of the soil at the bottom and on the sides of the excavations as well as within subsurface borings; and conducting sample analysis for both characterization and waste management purposes. Contaminants of concern include RCRA-regulated VOCs and metals

  15. Characterization of atmospheric bioaerosols at 9 sites in Tijuana, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Lilia; Rodríguez, Guillermo; López, Jonathan; Castillo, J. E.; Molina, Luisa; Zavala, Miguel; Quintana, Penelope J. E.

    2014-10-01

    The atmosphere is not considered a habitat for microorganisms, but can exist in the atmosphere as bioaerosols. These microorganisms in the atmosphere have great environmental importance through their influence on physical processes such as ice nucleation and cloud droplet formation. Pathogenic airborne microorganisms may also have public health consequences. In this paper we analyze the microbial concentration in the air at three sites in Tijuana, Mexico border during the Cal-Mex 2010 air quality campaign and from nine sites over the following year. Samples were collected by impaction with the air analyzer Millipore M Air T, followed by incubation and counting as colony forming units (CFU) of viable colonies. Airborne microbial contamination average levels ranged from a low of 230 ± 130 CFU/m³ in the coastal reference site to an average of 40,100 ± 21,689 CFU/m³ in the Tijuana river valley. We found the highest microbial load in the summer and the lowest values in the winter. Potentially pathogenic bacteria were isolated from the samples, with Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis being most common. This work is the first evaluation of bioaerosols in Tijuana, Mexico.

  16. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, April 1, 1990--September 30, 1990, Number 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    In accordance with the requirements of Section 113(b)(3) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), as amended, the US Department of Energy has prepared this report on the progress of site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the period April 1 through September 30, 1990. This report is the third of a series of reports that are issued at intervals of approximately six months during site characterization. The report covers a number of new initiatives to improve the effectiveness of the site characterization program and covers continued efforts related to preparatory activities, study plans, and performance assessment. 85 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Site selection and characterization processes for deep geologic disposal of high level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costin, L.S.

    1997-10-01

    In this paper, the major elements of the site selection and characterization processes used in the US high level waste program are discussed. While much of the evolution of the site selection and characterization processes have been driven by the unique nature of the US program, these processes, which are well defined and documented, could be used as an initial basis for developing site screening, selection, and characterization programs in other countries. Thus, this paper focuses more on the process elements than the specific details of the US program

  18. Site selection and characterization processes for deep geologic disposal of high level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costin, L.S.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, the major elements of the site selection and characterization processes used in the U. S. high level waste program are discussed. While much of the evolution of the site selection and characterization processes have been driven by the unique nature of the U. S. program, these processes, which are well-defined and documented, could be used as an initial basis for developing site screening, selection, and characterization programs in other countries. Thus, this paper focuses more on the process elements than the specific details of the U. S. program. (author). 3 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  19. Site selection and characterization processes for deep geologic disposal of high level nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costin, L.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In this paper, the major elements of the site selection and characterization processes used in the U. S. high level waste program are discussed. While much of the evolution of the site selection and characterization processes have been driven by the unique nature of the U. S. program, these processes, which are well-defined and documented, could be used as an initial basis for developing site screening, selection, and characterization programs in other countries. Thus, this paper focuses more on the process elements than the specific details of the U. S. program. (author). 3 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  20. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, October 1, 1990--March 31, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    In accordance with the requirements of Section 113 (b) (3) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended (NWPA), the US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report on the progress of site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the period October 1, 1990, through March 31, 1991. This report is the fourth in a series of reports that are issued at intervals of approximately six months during site characterization. The report covers a number of initiatives to improve the effectiveness of the site characterization program, and covers continued efforts related to preparatory activities, Study Plans, and performance assessment

  1. Preliminary site characterization radiological monitoring plan for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project, Yucca Mountain Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    The activities described in this plan occur in the early phases of site characterization. This document presents the Preliminary Site Characterization Radiological Monitoring Plan (PSCRMP) for collecting and evaluating data in support of the NNWSI Project. The PSCRMP defines and identifies control procedures for the monitoring activities. The PSCRMP activity will utilize integrating radon monitoring devices, a continuous radon monitor, and a particulate air sampler. These instruments will be used to establish the baseline radioactivity and/or radioactivity released due to early site characterization activities. The sections that follow provide a general project description, the specifics of the monitoring program, and the practices that will be employed to ensure the validity of the collected data by integrating quality assurance into all activities. Section 2 of this document describes the regulatory base of this document. Section 3 describes the site characterization activities which may lead to release of radioactivity. Section 4 provides a description of the potential sources of radioactivity that site characterization could generate. Section 5 summarizes the sampling and monitoring methodology, which will be used to monitor the potential sources of radioactivity. The network of sampling and monitoring equipment is described in Section 6, and Section 7 summarizes the systems operation activities. The data reporting activities are described in Section 8. Finally, a description of the Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC) activities is provided in Section 9. Appendix A contains a summary of the procedures to be used in this program, and Appendix B contains technical specification on equipment and services. 20 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Matuyama-age lithic tools from the Sima del Elefante site, Atapuerca (northern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parés, Josep M; Pérez-González, Alfredo; Rosas, Antonio; Benito, A; Bermúdez de Castro, J M; Carbonell, E; Huguet, R

    2006-02-01

    Paleomagnetic results obtained from the sedimentary fill at the Sima del Elefante site in Atapuerca, Spain, reveal a geomagnetic reversal, interpreted as the Matuyama-Brunhes boundary (0.78 Ma). The uppermost lithostratigraphic units (E17 through E19), which contain Mode II and III archaeological assemblages, display normal polarity magnetization, whereas the six lowermost units (E9 through E16) yield negative latitudinal virtual geomagnetic pole positions. Units E9 through E13, all of which display reverse magnetic polarity, contain Mode I (Oldowan) lithic tools, testifying to the presence of humans in the early Pleistocene (0.78-1.77 Ma).

  3. Tus-Ter as a tool to study site-specific DNA replication perturbation in eukaryotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nicolai B; Hickson, Ian D; Mankouri, Hocine W

    2014-01-01

    The high-affinity binding of the Tus protein to specific 21-bp sequences, called Ter, causes site-specific, and polar, DNA replication fork arrest in E coli. The Tus-Ter complex serves to coordinate DNA replication with chromosome segregation in this organism. A number of recent and ongoing studies...... have demonstrated that Tus-Ter can be used as a heterologous tool to generate site-specific perturbation of DNA replication when reconstituted in eukaryotes. Here, we review these recent findings and explore the molecular mechanism by which Tus-Ter mediates replication fork (RF) arrest in the budding...... yeast, S. cerevisiae. We propose that Tus-Ter is a versatile, genetically tractable, and regulatable RF blocking system that can be utilized for disrupting DNA replication in a diverse range of host cells....

  4. Tus-Ter as a tool to study site-specific DNA replication perturbation in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Nicolai B; Hickson, Ian D; Mankouri, Hocine W

    2014-01-01

    The high-affinity binding of the Tus protein to specific 21-bp sequences, called Ter, causes site-specific, and polar, DNA replication fork arrest in E coli. The Tus-Ter complex serves to coordinate DNA replication with chromosome segregation in this organism. A number of recent and ongoing studies have demonstrated that Tus-Ter can be used as a heterologous tool to generate site-specific perturbation of DNA replication when reconstituted in eukaryotes. Here, we review these recent findings and explore the molecular mechanism by which Tus-Ter mediates replication fork (RF) arrest in the budding yeast, S. cerevisiae. We propose that Tus-Ter is a versatile, genetically tractable, and regulatable RF blocking system that can be utilized for disrupting DNA replication in a diverse range of host cells.

  5. Standardizing Exoplanet Analysis with the Exoplanet Characterization Tool Kit (ExoCTK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Julia; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Lewis, Nikole K.; Fraine, Jonathan D.; Pueyo, Laurent; Bruno, Giovanni; Filippazzo, Joe; Hill, Matthew; Batalha, Natasha; Wakeford, Hannah; Bushra, Rafia

    2018-06-01

    Exoplanet characterization depends critically on analysis tools, models, and spectral libraries that are constantly under development and have no single source nor sense of unified style or methods. The complexity of spectroscopic analysis and initial time commitment required to become competitive is prohibitive to new researchers entering the field, as well as a remaining obstacle for established groups hoping to contribute in a comparable manner to their peers. As a solution, we are developing an open-source, modular data analysis package in Python and a publicly facing web interface including tools that address atmospheric characterization, transit observation planning with JWST, JWST corongraphy simulations, limb darkening, forward modeling, and data reduction, as well as libraries of stellar, planet, and opacity models. The foundation of these software tools and libraries exist within pockets of the exoplanet community, but our project will gather these seedling tools and grow a robust, uniform, and well-maintained exoplanet characterization toolkit.

  6. Photoluminescence as a tool for characterizing point defects in semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshchikov, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Photoluminescence is one of the most powerful tools used to study optically-active point defects in semiconductors, especially in wide-bandgap materials. Gallium nitride (GaN) and zinc oxide (ZnO) have attracted considerable attention in the last two decades due to their prospects in optoelectronics applications, including blue and ultraviolet light-emitting devices. However, in spite of many years of extensive studies and a great number of publications on photoluminescence from GaN and ZnO, only a few defect-related luminescence bands are reliably identified. Among them are the Zn-related blue band in GaN, Cu-related green band and Li-related orange band in ZnO. Numerous suggestions for the identification of other luminescence bands, such as the yellow band in GaN, or green and yellow bands in ZnO, do not stand up under scrutiny. In these conditions, it is important to classify the defect-related luminescence bands and find their unique characteristics. In this presentation, we will review the origin of the major luminescence bands in GaN and ZnO. Through simulations of the temperature and excitation intensity dependences of photoluminescence and by employing phenomenological models we are able to obtain important characteristics of point defects such as carrier capture cross-sections for defects, concentrations of defects, and their charge states. These models are also used to find the absolute internal quantum efficiency of photoluminescence and obtain information about nonradiative defects. Results from photoluminescence measurements will be compared with results of the first-principle calculations, as well as with the experimental data obtained by other techniques such as positron annihilation spectroscopy, deep-level transient spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry.

  7. Instructions for the use of the methodological tools applicable to polluted sites and soils; Mode d'emploi des outils methodologiques applicables aux sites et sols pollues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The French policy in the domain of polluted sites and soils is based on a limited number of principles which are: the prevention of future pollutions, the identification of all possible potential risks, a well-suited treatment process which depends on the effective environmental impact and on the intended use of the site. This document aims at identifying the main questions raised by a given situation. It proposed useful methodological tools for the construction of answers to the problems encountered: 1 - general approach (main guidelines for the different steps of the management of a polluted site, different possible approaches); 2 - examples of application (industrial site in use, closing down of an industrial site, accidental situation (recent pollution), fortuitous discovery of a pollution on a site, pollutions with limited surface extension, site involved in a land transaction, polluted site with a sensible use, industrial waste lands). (J.S.)

  8. TXRF as a tool in complex particle characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, P.; Ortner, H.M.; Ebert, M.; Weinbruch, S.; Helas, G.

    2000-01-01

    Aerosol particles play an important role, e.g., for the formation of clouds, the radiation balance in the atmosphere, for the input of trace metals into the hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere. To obtain a more detailed picture of the composition (elements, compounds) of aerosols TXRF was applied for an elemental bulk determination and HRSEM for the characterization of individual particles. The aerosol was sampled in field experiments (NORDEX'96, LACE'98) by a 5-stage impactor on glassy carbon carriers. At first a qualitative analysis was performed by TXRF (Seifert Spectrace I: Z = 20-82; self-constructed instrument: Z = 8-23), secondly some thousands individual particles were studied by HRSEM (Philips XL 30 FEG), and finally all samples were measured again and evaluated quantitatively by TXRF after adding an internal standard solution. As a result nearly all particles (92-98 %) were associated to one of twelve groups: sea salt, aged sea salt, mixture of sea salt and alumosilicates, alumosilicates, Si-rich (quartz), metal oxides (Fe, Mn, Al, Ti, Pb), ammonium sulfate, calcium sulfate, soot, biological material, mixture of carbon and sulfate, and other carbon-dominated particles. A principal component analysis shows additionally the marine and continental character of all particles. The distribution of the twelve groups in the samples gives the possibility: to recognize the source apportionment and the routes (trajectories) of air parcels, to separate the natural and anthropogenic sources, and to calculate the real (scattering) and the imaginary (absorption) part of the refractive index of an aerosol. A comparison of the chemical composition of the aerosol with optical measurements (given in the literature) shows an increase of the absorption and scattering coefficients with the anthopogenic load of the atmosphere. (author)

  9. Site descriptive modeling as a part of site characterization in Sweden - Concluding the surface based investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan; Winberg, Anders; Skagius, Kristina; Stroem, Anders; Lindborg, Tobias

    2007-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., SKB, is currently finalizing its surface based site investigations for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel in the municipalities of Oestharmnar (the Forsmark area) and Oskarshamn (the Simpevar/Laxemar area). The investigation data are assessed into a Site Descriptive Model, constituting a synthesis of geology, rock mechanics, thermal properties, hydrogeology, hydro-geochemistry, transport properties and a surface system description. Site data constitute a wide range of different measurement results. These data both need to be checked for consistency and to be interpreted into a format more amenable for three-dimensional modeling. The three-dimensional modeling (i.e. estimating the distribution of parameter values in space) is made in a sequence where the geometrical framework is taken from the geological models and in turn used by the rock mechanics, thermal and hydrogeological modeling. These disciplines in turn are partly interrelated, and also provide feedback to the geological modeling, especially if the geological description appears unreasonable when assessed together with the other data. Procedures for assessing the uncertainties and the confidence in the modeling have been developed during the course of the site modeling. These assessments also provide key input to the completion of the site investigation program. (authors)

  10. Inclusion of social indicators in decision support tools for the selection of sustainable site remediation options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuyns, Valérie

    2016-12-15

    Sustainable remediation requires a balanced decision-making process in which environmental, economic and social aspects of different remediation options are all considered together and the optimum remediation solution is selected. More attention has been paid to the evaluation of environmental and economic aspects, in particular to reduce the human and environmental risks and the remediation costs, to the exclusion of social aspects of remediation. This paper investigates how social aspects are currently considered in sustainability assessments of remediation projects. A selection of decision support tools (DSTs), used for the sustainability assessment of a remediation project, is analyzed to define how social aspects are considered in those tools. The social indicator categories of the Sustainable Remediation Forum - United Kingdom (SuRF-UK), are used as a basis for this evaluation. The consideration of social aspects in the investigated decision support tools is limited, but a clear increase is noticed in more recently developed tools. Among the five social indicator categories defined by SuRF-UK to facilitate a holistic consideration of social aspects of a remediation project only "Human health and safety" is systematically taken into account. "Neighbourhood and locality" is also often addressed, mostly emphasizing the potential disturbance caused by the remediation activities. However, the evaluation of 'Ethics and Equality', Communities and community involvement', and 'Uncertainty and evidence' is often neglected. Nevertheless, concrete examples can be found in some of the investigated tools. Specific legislation, standard procedures, and guidelines that have to be followed in a region or country are mainly been set up in the context of protecting human and ecosystem health, safety and prevention of nuisance. However, they sometimes already include some of the aspects addressed by the social indicators. In this perspective the use of DST to evaluate the

  11. Site characterization and validation - hydrochemical investigations. Stage 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksoharju, M.

    1990-02-01

    The objective for the Stage 3 hydrochemical investigations was to classify groundwater and to determine the different flow paths within the investigated SCV-site by using water analyses from the C and D boreholes. The water was divided into three classes shallow (A), mixed (B) and deep groundwater (C) based on Cl and HCO 3 concentration. The local geohydrological situation in the SCV-site can be divided into a disturbed situation and an undisturbed situation. Opening of the boreholes and smapling causes a disturbance of hydrochemical conditions. Three water types were found in the important water conductors, the GB and the GH zones. Shallow water (A-type) is flowing downwards while deep groundwater (C-type) is flowing upwards driven by the pumping of the mine. Where the two water types meet a zone of approximately 30 m thickness with mixed (B-type) water is formed. The flow situation is revealed by the geohydrological measurements. At undisturbed conditions shallow water (A-type) is flowing down in the investigated zones. The B and C water types are then found at a deeper level than during disturbed conditions. A regional model can be constructed based on the described chemical and geohydrological investigations. Shallow water from the top and deep groundwater from below are drawn towards the mine by the pumping. Where these waters meet mixed water is formed. (orig./HP)

  12. Characterization of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockhold, M.L.; Fayler, M.J.; Gee, G.W.

    1988-07-01

    This report details some recent field measurements and compares predicted and measured values of hydraulic conductivities for three locations at the Hanford Site. Measurements from small (6-cm-dia) /open quotes/point/close quotes/ and large (2-m by 2-m) /open quotes/plot/close quotes/ areas utilized inflitration and drainage techniques to obtain in situ data for field-saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The Guelph permeameter was used for point sampling, and the unsteady drainage-flux method was used on plots for field-saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity measurements. Steady-state techniques were used to measure unsaturated hydraulic conductivities in small columns in the laboratory for one of the three soils tested to provide a comparison with data obtained from the field. Measured unsaturated hydraulic conductivities and those predicted from particle-size distribution and bulk density data agree within one-half to one and one-half orders of magnitude, depending on soil type. To use a particle-size distribution to estimate water retention characteristics and, subsequently, to predict unsaturated hydraulic conductivities, measurements of water-retention characteristics are necessary to determine a parameter value used in one of the models. No single method for measuring or calculating unsaturated hydraulic conductivities was found appropriate for all Hanford Site soils. Ideally, several methods should be used to take advantage of the strengths of each method, considering the data needs and resources available. 45 refs., 24 figs., 19 tabs

  13. Characterization of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockhold, M.L.; Fayler, M.J.; Gee, G.W.

    1988-07-01

    This report details some recent field measurements and compares predicted and measured values of hydraulic conductivities for three locations at the Hanford Site. Measurements from small (6-cm-dia) /open quotes/point/close quotes/ and large (2-m by 2-m) /open quotes/plot/close quotes/ areas utilized inflitration and drainage techniques to obtain in situ data for field-saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The Guelph permeameter was used for point sampling, and the unsteady drainage-flux method was used on plots for field-saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity measurements. Steady-state techniques were used to measure unsaturated hydraulic conductivities in small columns in the laboratory for one of the three soils tested to provide a comparison with data obtained from the field. Measured unsaturated hydraulic conductivities and those predicted from particle-size distribution and bulk density data agree within one-half to one and one-half orders of magnitude, depending on soil type. To use a particle-size distribution to estimate water retention characteristics and, subsequently, to predict unsaturated hydraulic conductivities, measurements of water-retention characteristics are necessary to determine a parameter value used in one of the models. No single method for measuring or calculating unsaturated hydraulic conductivities was found appropriate for all Hanford Site soils. Ideally, several methods should be used to take advantage of the strengths of each method, considering the data needs and resources available. 45 refs., 24 figs., 19 tabs.

  14. Site Characterization Work Plan for the Gnome-Coach Site, New Mexico (Rev. 1, January 2002); FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Project Gnome was the first nuclear experiment conducted under the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), predecessor to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Plowshare Program. The Plowshare Program focused on developing nuclear devices exclusively for peaceful purposes. The intent of the Gnome experiment was to evaluate the effects of a nuclear detonation in a salt medium. Historically, Project Gnome consisted of a single detonation of a nuclear device on December 10, 1961 with the Salado Formation. Since the Gnome detonation, the AEC/DOE has conducted surface restoration, site reconnaissance, and decontamination and decommissioning activities at the site. In addition, annual groundwater sampling is performed under a long-term hydrological monitoring program begun in 1972. Coach, an experiment to be located near the Gnome project, was initially scheduled for 1963. Although construction and rehabilitation were completed for Coach, the experiment was canceled and never executed. Known collectively as Project Gnome-Coach, the site is located approximately 25 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico, in Eddy County, and is comprised of nearly 680 acres, of which approximately 60 acres are disturbed from the combined AEC/DOE operations. The scope of this work plan is to document the environmental objectives and the proposed technical site investigation strategies that will be utilized for the site characterization of the project. The subsurface at the Gnome-Coach site has two contaminant sources that are fundamentally different in terms of both their stratigraphic location and release mechanism. The goal of this characterization is to collect data of sufficient quantity and quality to establish current site conditions and to use the data to identify and evaluate if further action is required to protect human health and the environment and achieve permanent closure of the site. The results of these activities will be presented in a subsequent corrective action decision document

  15. Field portable petroleum analysis for validation of the site characterization and analysis penetrometer system petroleum, oil and lubricant sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W.M.; Jones, P.; Porter, B.

    1995-01-01

    A petroleum, oil and lubricant (POL) sensor for the Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS) has been developed by the Tri-Services (e.g. Army, Navy and Air Force) to characterize the distribution of POL contaminants on military sites. The sensor is based on the detection of POL contaminants using a laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectrometer. The SCAPS POL sensor has been shown to be a valuable tool for the rapid screening of POL contamination in the subsurface. However, many factors can affect the LIF response of a particular fuel at a particular site. These include fuel type, age of spill (e.g. weathering) and soil type. The LIF sensor also detects fluorescence from any naturally occurring fluorophores, including humic substances and fluorescent minerals. These factors lead to the development of an independent procedure for the verification of the POL sensor response. This paper describes a field portable total recoverable petroleum hydrocarbon (TRPH) method based on EPA Method 418.1 and its application to on site validation of the SCAPS POL sensor response at a number of contaminated sites

  16. Preoperational baseline and site characterization report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. Volume 2, Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weekes, D.C.; Lindsey, K.A.; Ford, B.H.; Jaeger, G.K.

    1996-12-01

    This document is Volume 2 in a two-volume series that comprise the site characterization report, the Preoperational Baseline and Site Characterization Report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. Volume 1 contains data interpretation and information supporting the conclusions in the main text. This document presents original data in support of Volume 1 of the report. The following types of data are presented: well construction reports; borehole logs; borehole geophysical data; well development and pump installation; survey reports; preoperational baseline chemical data and aquifer test data. Five groundwater monitoring wells, six deep characterization boreholes, and two shallow characterization boreholes were drilled at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) site to directly investigate site-specific hydrogeologic conditions

  17. Identification and Characterization of Disturbed Alder Sites on Elmendorf Air Force Base, Alaska

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tande, Gerald

    2001-01-01

    Vegetation data were collected to identify and characterize disturbed alder (Alnus spp.) areas and provide an ArcView GIS layer for specific sites of alder encroachment likely due to human disturbance...

  18. An overview of geophysical technologies appropriate for characterization and monitoring at fractured-rock sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geophysical methods are used increasingly for characterization and monitoring at remediation sites in fractured-rock aquifers. The complex heterogeneity of fractured rock poses enormous challenges to groundwater remediation professionals, and new methods are needed to cost-effect...

  19. Geologic, geochemical, microbiologic, and hydrologic characterization at the In Situ Redox Manipulation Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeul, V.R.; Teel, S.S.; Amonette, J.E.

    1995-07-01

    This report documents results from characterization activities at the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) Field Test Site which is located within the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Information obtained during hydrogeologic characterization of the site included sediment physical properties, geochemical properties, microbiologic population data, and aquifer hydraulic properties. The purpose of obtaining this information was to improve the conceptual understanding of the hydrogeology beneath the ISRM test site and provide detailed, site specific hydrogeologic parameter estimates. The resulting characterization data will be incorporated into a numerical model developed to simulate the physical and chemical processes associated with the field experiment and aid in experiment design and interpretation

  20. Transport processes investigation: A necessary first step in site scale characterization plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roepke, C.; Glass, R.J.; Brainard, J.; Mann, M.; Kriel, K.; Holt, R.; Schwing, J.

    1995-01-01

    We propose an approach, which we call the Transport Processes Investigation or TPI, to identify and verify site-scale transport processes and their controls. The TPI aids in the formulation of an accurate conceptual model of flow and transport, an essential first step in the development of a cost effective site characterization strategy. The TPI is demonstrated in the highly complex vadose zone of glacial tills that underlie the Fernald Environmental Remediation Project (FEMP) in Fernald, Ohio. As a result of the TPI, we identify and verify the pertinent flow processes and their controls, such as extensive macropore and fracture flow through layered clays, which must be included in an accurate conceptual model of site-scale contaminant transport. We are able to conclude that the classical modeling and sampling methods employed in some site characterization programs will be insufficient to characterize contaminant concentrations or distributions at contaminated or hazardous waste facilities sited in such media

  1. Direct measurements of transport properties are essential for site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, J.; Conca, J.L.

    1994-08-01

    Direct measurements of transport parameters on subsurface sediments using, the UFA method provided detailed hydrostratigraphic mapping, and subsurface flux distributions at a mixed-waste disposal site at Hanford. Seven hundred unsaturated conductivity measurements on fifty samples were obtained in only six months total of UFA run time. These data are used to provide realistic information to conceptual models, predictive models and restoration strategies. The UFA instrument consists of an ultracentrifuge with a constant, ultralow flow pump that provides fluid to the sample surface through a rotating seal assembly and microdispersal system. Effluent from the sample is collected in a transparent, volumetrically-calibrated chamber at the bottom of the sample assembly. Using a strobe light, an observer can check the chamber while the sample is being centrifuged. Materials can be run in the UFA as recomposited samples or in situ samples can be subcored directly into the sample UFA chamber

  2. Site characterization field manual for near surface geologic disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCray, J.G.; Nowatzki, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    This field manual has been developed to aid states and regions to do a detailed characterization of a proposed near-surface low-level waste disposal site. The field manual is directed at planners, staff personnel and experts in one discipline to acquaint them with the requirements of other disciplines involved in site characterization. While it can provide a good review, it is not designed to tell experts how to do their job within their own discipline

  3. Assessment of remote sensing technologies to discover and characterize waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report presents details about waste management practices that are being developed using remote sensing techniques to characterize DOE waste sites. Once the sites and problems have been located and characterized and an achievable restoration and remediation program have been established, efforts to reclaim the environment will begin. Special problems to be considered are: concentrated waste forms in tanks and pits; soil and ground water contamination; ground safety hazards for workers; and requirement for long-term monitoring

  4. RelocaTE2: a high resolution transposable element insertion site mapping tool for population resequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinfeng Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Transposable element (TE polymorphisms are important components of population genetic variation. The functional impacts of TEs in gene regulation and generating genetic diversity have been observed in multiple species, but the frequency and magnitude of TE variation is under appreciated. Inexpensive and deep sequencing technology has made it affordable to apply population genetic methods to whole genomes with methods that identify single nucleotide and insertion/deletion polymorphisms. However, identifying TE polymorphisms, particularly transposition events or non-reference insertion sites can be challenging due to the repetitive nature of these sequences, which hamper both the sensitivity and specificity of analysis tools. Methods We have developed the tool RelocaTE2 for identification of TE insertion sites at high sensitivity and specificity. RelocaTE2 searches for known TE sequences in whole genome sequencing reads from second generation sequencing platforms such as Illumina. These sequence reads are used as seeds to pinpoint chromosome locations where TEs have transposed. RelocaTE2 detects target site duplication (TSD of TE insertions allowing it to report TE polymorphism loci with single base pair precision. Results and Discussion The performance of RelocaTE2 is evaluated using both simulated and real sequence data. RelocaTE2 demonstrate high level of sensitivity and specificity, particularly when the sequence coverage is not shallow. In comparison to other tools tested, RelocaTE2 achieves the best balance between sensitivity and specificity. In particular, RelocaTE2 performs best in prediction of TSDs for TE insertions. Even in highly repetitive regions, such as those tested on rice chromosome 4, RelocaTE2 is able to report up to 95% of simulated TE insertions with less than 0.1% false positive rate using 10-fold genome coverage resequencing data. RelocaTE2 provides a robust solution to identify TE insertion sites and can be

  5. Characterization and Remediation of Contaminated Sites:Modeling, Measurement and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, N. B.; Rao, P. C.; Poyer, I. C.; Christ, J. A.; Zhang, C. Y.; Jawitz, J. W.; Werth, C. J.; Annable, M. D.; Hatfield, K.

    2008-05-01

    The complexity of natural systems makes it impossible to estimate parameters at the required level of spatial and temporal detail. Thus, it becomes necessary to transition from spatially distributed parameters to spatially integrated parameters that are capable of adequately capturing the system dynamics, without always accounting for local process behavior. Contaminant flux across the source control plane is proposed as an integrated metric that captures source behavior and links it to plume dynamics. Contaminant fluxes were measured using an innovative technology, the passive flux meter at field sites contaminated with dense non-aqueous phase liquids or DNAPLs in the US and Australia. Flux distributions were observed to be positively or negatively correlated with the conductivity distribution, depending on the source characteristics of the site. The impact of partial source depletion on the mean contaminant flux and flux architecture was investigated in three-dimensional complex heterogeneous settings using the multiphase transport code UTCHEM and the reactive transport code ISCO3D. Source mass depletion reduced the mean contaminant flux approximately linearly, while the contaminant flux standard deviation reduced proportionally with the mean (i.e., coefficient of variation of flux distribution is constant with time). Similar analysis was performed using data from field sites, and the results confirmed the numerical simulations. The linearity of the mass depletion-flux reduction relationship indicates the ability to design remediation systems that deplete mass to achieve target reduction in source strength. Stability of the flux distribution indicates the ability to characterize the distributions in time once the initial distribution is known. Lagrangian techniques were used to predict contaminant flux behavior during source depletion in terms of the statistics of the hydrodynamic and DNAPL distribution. The advantage of the Lagrangian techniques lies in their

  6. Mobile laboratories: An innovative and efficient solution for radiological characterization of sites under or after decommissioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudeau, V; Daniel, B; Dubot, D

    2017-04-21

    During the operation and the decommissioning of a nuclear site the operator must assure the protection of the workers and the environment. It must furthermore identify and classify the various wastes, while optimizing the associated costs. At all stages of the decommissioning radiological measurements are performed to determine the initial situation, to monitor the demolition and clean-up, and to verify the final situation. Radiochemical analysis is crucial for the radiological evaluation process to optimize the clean-up operations and to the respect limits defined with the authorities. Even though these types of analysis are omnipresent in activities such as the exploitation, the monitoring, and the cleaning up of nuclear plants, some nuclear sites do not have their own radiochemical analysis laboratory. Mobile facilities can overcome this lack when nuclear facilities are dismantled, when contaminated sites are cleaned-up, or in a post-accident situation. The current operations for the characterization of radiological soils of CEA nuclear facilities, lead to a large increase of radiochemical analysis. To manage this high throughput of samples in a timely manner, the CEA has developed a new mobile laboratory for the clean-up of its soils, called SMaRT (Shelter for Monitoring and nucleAR chemisTry). This laboratory is dedicated to the preparation and the radiochemical analysis (alpha, beta, and gamma) of potentially contaminated samples. In this framework, CEA and Eichrom laboratories has signed a partnership agreement to extend the analytical capacities and bring on site optimized and validated methods for different problematic. Gamma-emitting radionuclides can usually be measured in situ as little or no sample preparation is required. Alpha and beta-emitting radionuclides are a different matter. Analytical chemistry laboratory facilities are required. Mobile and transportable laboratories equipped with the necessary tools can provide all that is needed. The main

  7. Comprehensive characterization and hazard assessment of the DOE-Niagara Falls storage site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, T.L.; Dettorre, J.F.; Jackson, D.R.; Ausmus, B.S.

    1981-06-01

    A comprehensive radioecological and nonradiological characterization and hazards assessment was conducted on DOE-Niagara Falls Storage Site. Pitchblende residues and other low-level nuclear waste have been stored on the site since 1944. The most highly radioactive residues were stored in four abandoned buildings, while other wastes were deposited in pits or piled on surface soils on the Site. Several ditches were constructed on the Site to facilitate drainage or excess precipitation. Results of the study will permit the US DOE to form an appropriate remedial action plan for the Site

  8. Site characterization and performance assessment for a low-level radioactive waste management site in the American Southwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shott, G.J.; Sully, M.J.; Muller, C.J.; Hammermeister, D.P.; Ginanni, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site located in southern Nevada, has been used for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste since 1961. The site is located in the Mohave Desert of the American Southwest, an extremely arid region receiving as little as 0.1 m/yr of precipitation. Site characterization studies have measured the physical, hydrologic, and geochemical properties of core samples collected from 10 shallow boreholes and 3 deep boreholes that extend through the unsaturated zone to the uppermost aquifer. Results indicate that the unsaturated zone consists of 240 m of dry alluvial sediments and is remarkably uniform with respect to most physical parameters. Measurements of saturated hydraulic conductivity with depth showed no evidence of trends, layering, or anisotropy. Parameters for hydraulic functions were not highly variable and exhibited little trend with depth. Water potential profiles indicate that water movement in the upper alluvium is upward, except immediately following a precipitation event. Below the evaporative zone, the liquid flux was downward and of the same order of magnitude as the upward thermal vapor flux induced by the geothermal gradient. The extreme climatic conditions at the site reduce or eliminate many radionuclide release and transport mechanisms. Downward transport of radionuclides to the uppermost aquifer appears unlikely under current climatic conditions. Important radionuclide transport pathways appear to be limited to upward diffusion and advection of gases and biologically-mediated transport. Conceptual models of disposal site performance have been developed based on site characterization studies. The limited transport pathways and limited land use potential of the site provide reasonable assurance that regulatory performance objectives can be met

  9. Geological characterization of contaminated sites near the city of Horsens, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Theis Raaschou; Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Thomsen, Peter

    characterization of three contaminated sites situated in urban and semi-urban areas around the city of Horsens in corporation with authorities. The existing data from the three field sites include lithological profiles from boreholes. In order to increase the data density, Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT...

  10. Environmental site characterization and remediation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamarre, A.L.; Ferry, R.A.

    1992-04-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a research and development laboratory owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and operated by the University of California. The Laboratory operates its Site 300 test facility in support of DOE's national defense programs. In support of activities, at the 300 Site numerous industrial fluids are used and various process or rinse waters and solid wastes are produced. Some of these materials are hazardous by current standards. HE rinse waters were previously discharged to inlined lagoons; they now are discharged to a permitted Class II surface impoundment Solid wastes have been deposited in nine landfills. Waste HE compounds are destroyed by open burning at a burn pit facility. As a result of these practices, environmental contaminants have been released to the soil and ground water

  11. A Prognostic Scoring Tool for Cesarean Organ/Space Surgical Site Infections: Derivation and Internal Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assawapalanggool, Srisuda; Kasatpibal, Nongyao; Sirichotiyakul, Supatra; Arora, Rajin; Suntornlimsiri, Watcharin

    Organ/space surgical site infections (SSIs) are serious complications after cesarean delivery. However, no scoring tool to predict these complications has yet been developed. This study sought to develop and validate a prognostic scoring tool for cesarean organ/space SSIs. Data for case and non-case of cesarean organ/space SSI between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 from a tertiary care hospital in Thailand were analyzed. Stepwise multivariable logistic regression was used to select the best predictor combination and their coefficients were transformed to a risk scoring tool. The likelihood ratio of positive for each risk category and the area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves were analyzed on total scores. Internal validation using bootstrap re-sampling was tested for reproducibility. The predictors of 243 organ/space SSIs from 4,988 eligible cesarean delivery cases comprised the presence of foul-smelling amniotic fluid (four points), vaginal examination five or more times before incision (two points), wound class III or greater (two points), being referred from local setting (two points), hemoglobin less than 11 g/dL (one point), and ethnic minorities (one point). The likelihood ratio of cesarean organ/space SSIs with 95% confidence interval among low (total score of 0-1 point), medium (total score of 2-5 points), and high risk (total score of ≥6 points) categories were 0.11 (0.07-0.19), 1.03 (0.89-1.18), and 13.25 (10.87-16.14), respectively. Both AUROCs of the derivation and validation data were comparable (87.57% versus 86.08%; p = 0.418). This scoring tool showed a high predictive ability regarding cesarean organ/space SSIs on the derivation data and reproducibility was demonstrated on internal validation. It could assist practitioners prioritize patient care and management depending on risk category and decrease SSI rates in cesarean deliveries.

  12. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization Qualit Assurance Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan required each U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site that characterizes transuranic waste to be sent the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan that addresses applicable requirements specified in the quality assurance project plan (QAPP)

  13. White Oak Creek Embayment site characterization and contaminant screening analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Ford, C.J.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    Analyses of sediment samples collected near the mouth of White Oak Creek during the summer of 1990 revealed 137 Cs concentrations [> 10 6 Bq/kg dry wt (> 10 4 pCi/g dry wt)] near the sediment surface. Available evidence indicates that these relatively high concentrations of 137 Cs now at the sediment surface were released from White Oak Dam in the mid-1950s and had accumulated at depositionalsites in the embayment. These accumulated sediments are being eroded and transported downstream primarily during winter low-water levels by flood events and by a combination of normal downstream flow and the water turbulence created by the release of water from Melton Hill Dam during hydropower generation cycles. This report provides a more thorough characterization of the extent of contamination in WOCE than was previously available. Environmental samples collected from WOCE were analyzed for organic, inorganic, and radiological contaminants in fish, water, and sediment. These results were used to conduct a human health effects screening analysis. Walkover radiation surveys conducted inside the fenced area surrounding the WOCE at summer-pool (741 ft MSL) and at winter-pool (733 ft MSL) level, indicated a maximum exposure rate of 3 mR h 1 1 m above the soil surface

  14. A survey of motif finding Web tools for detecting binding site motifs in ChIP-Seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ngoc Tam L; Huang, Chun-Hsi

    2014-02-20

    ChIP-Seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing) has provided the advantage for finding motifs as ChIP-Seq experiments narrow down the motif finding to binding site locations. Recent motif finding tools facilitate the motif detection by providing user-friendly Web interface. In this work, we reviewed nine motif finding Web tools that are capable for detecting binding site motifs in ChIP-Seq data. We showed each motif finding Web tool has its own advantages for detecting motifs that other tools may not discover. We recommended the users to use multiple motif finding Web tools that implement different algorithms for obtaining significant motifs, overlapping resemble motifs, and non-overlapping motifs. Finally, we provided our suggestions for future development of motif finding Web tool that better assists researchers for finding motifs in ChIP-Seq data.

  15. Third-generation site characterization: Cryogenic core collection, nuclear magnetic resonance, and electrical resistivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiaalhosseini, Saeed

    In modern contaminant hydrology, management of contaminated sites requires a holistic characterization of subsurface conditions. Delineation of contaminant distribution in all phases (i.e., aqueous, non-aqueous liquid, sorbed, and gas), as well as associated biogeochemical processes in a complex heterogeneous subsurface, is central to selecting effective remedies. Arguably, a factor contributing to the lack of success of managing contaminated sites effectively has been the limitations of site characterization methods that rely on monitoring wells and grab sediment samples. The overarching objective of this research is to advance a set of third-generation (3G) site characterization methods to overcome shortcomings of current site characterization techniques. 3G methods include 1) cryogenic core collection (C3) from unconsolidated geological subsurface to improve recovery of sediments and preserving key attributes, 2) high-throughput analysis (HTA) of frozen core in the laboratory to provide high-resolution, depth discrete data of subsurface conditions and processes, 3) resolution of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) distribution within the porous media using a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method, and 4) application of a complex resistivity method to track NAPL depletion in shallow geological formation over time. A series of controlled experiments were conducted to develop the C 3 tools and methods. The critical aspects of C3 are downhole circulation of liquid nitrogen via a cooling system, the strategic use of thermal insulation to focus cooling into the core, and the use of back pressure to optimize cooling. The C3 methods were applied at two contaminated sites: 1) F.E. Warren (FEW) Air Force Base near Cheyenne, WY and 2) a former refinery in the western U.S. The results indicated that the rate of core collection using the C3 methods is on the order of 30 foot/day. The C3 methods also improve core recovery and limits potential biases associated with flowing sands

  16. Combining ground penetrating radar and electromagnetic induction for industrial site characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Vijver, Ellen; Van Meirvenne, Marc; Saey, Timothy; De Smedt, Philippe; Delefortrie, Samuël; Seuntjens, Piet

    2014-05-01

    Industrial sites pose specific challenges to the conventional way of characterizing soil and groundwater properties through borehole drilling and well monitoring. The subsurface of old industrial sites typically exhibits a large heterogeneity resulting from various anthropogenic interventions, such as the dumping of construction and demolition debris and industrial waste. Also larger buried structures such as foundations, utility infrastructure and underground storage tanks are frequently present. Spills and leaks from industrial activities and leaching of buried waste may have caused additional soil and groundwater contamination. Trying to characterize such a spatially heterogeneous medium with a limited number of localized observations is often problematic. The deployment of mobile proximal soil sensors may be a useful tool to fill up the gaps in between the conventional observations, as these enable measuring soil properties in a non-destructive way. However, because the output of most soil sensors is affected by more than one soil property, the application of only one sensor is generally insufficient to discriminate between all contributing factors. To test a multi-sensor approach, we selected a study area which was part of a former manufactured gas plant site located in one of the seaport areas of Belgium. It has a surface area of 3400 m² and was the location of a phosphate production unit that was demolished at the end of the 1980s. Considering the long and complex history of the site we expected to find a typical "industrial" soil. Furthermore, the studied area was located between buildings of the present industry, entailing additional practical challenges such as the presence of active utilities and aboveground obstacles. The area was surveyed using two proximal soil sensors based on two different geophysical methods: ground penetrating radar (GPR), to image contrasts in dielectric permittivity, and electromagnetic induction (EMI), to measure the apparent

  17. Importance of geologic characterization of potential low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, C.P.; Berg, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    Using the example of the Geff Alternative Site in Wayne County, Illinois, for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste, this paper demonstrates, from a policy and public opinion perspective, the importance of accurately determining site stratigraphy. Complete and accurate characterization of geologic materials and determination of site stratigraphy at potential low-level waste disposal sites provides the frame-work for subsequent hydrologic and geochemical investigations. Proper geologic characterization is critical to determine the long-term site stability and the extent of interactions of groundwater between the site and its surroundings. Failure to adequately characterize site stratigraphy can lead to the incorrect evaluation of the geology of a site, which in turn may result in a lack of public confidence. A potential problem of lack of public confidence was alleviated as a result of the resolution and proper definition of the Geff Alternative Site stratigraphy. The integrity of the investigation was not questioned and public perception was not compromised. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  18. Radio-ecological characterization and radiological assessment in support of regulatory supervision of legacy sites in northwest Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneve, M K; Kiselev, M; Shandala, N K

    2014-05-01

    The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority has been implementing a regulatory cooperation program in the Russian Federation for over 10 years, as part of the Norwegian government's Plan of Action for enhancing nuclear and radiation safety in northwest Russia. The overall long-term objective has been the enhancement of safety culture and includes a special focus on regulatory supervision of nuclear legacy sites. The initial project outputs included appropriate regulatory threat assessments, to determine the hazardous situations and activities which are most in need of enhanced regulatory supervision. In turn, this has led to the development of new and updated norms and standards, and related regulatory procedures, necessary to address the often abnormal conditions at legacy sites. This paper presents the experience gained within the above program with regard to radio-ecological characterization of Sites of Temporary Storage for spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste at Andreeva Bay and Gremikha in the Kola Peninsula in northwest Russia. Such characterization is necessary to support assessments of the current radiological situation and to support prospective assessments of its evolution. Both types of assessments contribute to regulatory supervision of the sites. Accordingly, they include assessments to support development of regulatory standards and guidance concerning: control of radiation exposures to workers during remediation operations; emergency preparedness and response; planned radionuclide releases to the environment; development of site restoration plans, and waste treatment and disposal. Examples of characterization work are presented which relate to terrestrial and marine environments at Andreeva Bay. The use of this data in assessments is illustrated by means of the visualization and assessment tool (DATAMAP) developed as part of the regulatory cooperation program, specifically to help control radiation exposure in operations and to support

  19. Site characterization techniques used at a low-level waste shallow land burial field demonstration facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, E.C.; Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Rothschild, E.R.

    1984-07-01

    The Environmental Sciences Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been investigating improved shallow land burial technology for application in the humd eastern United States. As part of this effort, a field demonstration facility (Engineered Test Facility, or ETF) has been established in Solid Waste Storage Area 6 for purposes of investigatig the ability of two trench treatments (waste grouting prior to cover emplacement and waste isolation with trench liners) to prevent water-waste contact and thus minimize waste leaching. As part of the experimental plan, the ETF site has been characterized for purposes of constructing a hydrologic model. Site characterization is an extremely important component of the waste disposal site selection process; during these activities, potential problems, which might obviate the site from further consideration, may be found. This report describes the ETF site characterization program and identifies and, where appropriate, evaluates those tests that are of most value in model development. Specific areas covered include site geology, soils, and hydrology. Each of these areas is further divided into numerous subsections, making it easy for the reader to examine a single area of interest. Site characterization is a multidiscipliary endeavor with voluminous data, only portions of which are presented and analyzed here. The information in this report is similar to that which will be required of a low-level waste site developer in preparing a license application for a potential site in the humid East, (a discussion of licensing requirements is beyond its scope). Only data relevant to hydrologic model development are included, anticipating that many of these same characterization methods will be used at future disposal sites with similar water-related problems

  20. Site characterization techniques used at a low-level waste shallow land burial field demonstration facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, E.C.; Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Rothschild, E.R.; Spalding, B.P.; Vaughan, N.D.; Haase, C.S.; Huff, D.D.; Lee, S.Y.; Walls, E.C.; Newbold, J.D.

    1984-07-01

    The Environmental Sciences Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been investigating improved shallow land burial technology for application in the humd eastern United States. As part of this effort, a field demonstration facility (Engineered Test Facility, or ETF) has been established in Solid Waste Storage Area 6 for purposes of investigatig the ability of two trench treatments (waste grouting prior to cover emplacement and waste isolation with trench liners) to prevent water-waste contact and thus minimize waste leaching. As part of the experimental plan, the ETF site has been characterized for purposes of constructing a hydrologic model. Site characterization is an extremely important component of the waste disposal site selection process; during these activities, potential problems, which might obviate the site from further consideration, may be found. This report describes the ETF site characterization program and identifies and, where appropriate, evaluates those tests that are of most value in model development. Specific areas covered include site geology, soils, and hydrology. Each of these areas is further divided into numerous subsections, making it easy for the reader to examine a single area of interest. Site characterization is a multidiscipliary endeavor with voluminous data, only portions of which are presented and analyzed here. The information in this report is similar to that which will be required of a low-level waste site developer in preparing a license application for a potential site in the humid East, (a discussion of licensing requirements is beyond its scope). Only data relevant to hydrologic model development are included, anticipating that many of these same characterization methods will be used at future disposal sites with similar water-related problems.

  1. State of Nevada comments on the US Department of Energy site characterization plan, Yucca Mountain site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    The following document comprises a critical evaluation of the DOE's Site Characterization Plan (SCP). The comments address a number of issues related to the scientific methods involved in the proposed procedures of site characterization, the suitability and integration of the methods, and the validity of the approach taken by the DOE in the context of the NRC regulations. The SCP contains many improvements of the Draft Environmental Assessment (DEA) and the Environmental Assessment (EA), and fewer improvements of the SCP Consultation Draft. An obvious attempt has been made to address topics that were regarded in these previous reviews as deficiencies in the study program. For example, the activity and seismogenic potential of the Quaternary faults at Yucca Mountain are treated much more realistically than orignally proposed by the DOE, even though published data has not increased significantly since the DEA and EA were released. Water is now recognized as a resource, and faults and fault breccias are recognized as potential hosts for epithermal mineralization. There has, in addition, been considerable effort to incorporate a number of alternative conceptual models (involving both cross sections of Yucca Mountain and regional tectonic models) into the realm of tectonic hypotheses. There is a little doubt that the SCP proposes an exhaustive and wide-ranging scope of investigations for the purpose of site characterization, and that many of these investigations have been included by the DOE in response to critical reviews by external groups (such as the NRC and various State of Nevada agencies)

  2. Characterization of aerosol particles at the forested site in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimselyte, I.; Garbaras, A.; Kvietkus, K.; Remeikis, V.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM), especially fine particles (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 1 m, PM1), has been found to play an important role in global climate change, air quality, and human health. The continuous study of aerosol parameters is therefore imperative for better understanding the environmental effects of the atmospheric particles, as well as their sources, formation and transformation processes. The particle size distribution is particularly important, since this physical parameter determines the mass and number density, lifetime and atmospheric transport, or optical scattering behavior of the particles in the atmosphere (Jaenicke, 1998). Over the years several efforts have been made to improve the knowledge about the chemical composition of atmospheric particles as a function of size (Samara and Voutsa, 2005) and to characterize the relative contribution of different components to the fine particulate matter. It is well established that organic materials constitute a highly variable fraction of the atmospheric aerosol. This fraction is predominantly found in the fine size mode in concentrations ranging from 10 to 70% of the total dry fine particle mass (Middlebrook et al., 1998). Although organic compounds are major components of the fine particles, the composition, formation mechanism of organic aerosols are not well understood. This is because particulate organic matter is part of a complex atmospheric system with hundreds of different compounds, both natural and anthropogenic, covering a wide range of chemical properties. The aim of this study was to characterize the forest PM1, and investigate effects of air mass transport on the aerosol size distribution and chemical composition, estimate and provide insights into the sources and characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols through analysis ^13C/12C isotopic ratio as a function of the aerosol particles size. The measurements were performed at the Rugšteliškis integrated

  3. A decision support tool to prioritize risk management options for contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorvari, Jaana; Seppälä, Jyri

    2010-03-15

    The decisions on risk management (RM) of contaminated sites in Finland have typically been driven by practical factors such as time and money. However, RM is a multifaceted task that generally involves several additional determinants, e.g. performance and environmental effects of remediation methods, psychological and social factors. Therefore, we adopted a multi-criteria decision analysis approach and developed a decision support tool (DST) that is viable in decision-making in such a complex situation. The basic components of the DST are based on the Dutch REC system. However, our DST is more case-specific and allows the consideration of the type, magnitude and scale of contamination, land use, environmental conditions and socio-cultural aspects (e.g. loss of cultural heritage, image aspects). The construction of the DST was started by structuring the decision problem using a value tree. Based on this work we adopted the Multi-Attribute Value Theory (MAVT) for data aggregation. The final DST was demonstrated by two model sites for which the RM alternatives and site-specific data were created on the basis of factual remediation projects and by interviewing experts. The demonstration of the DST was carried out in a workshop where representatives of different stakeholders were requested to rank and weight the decision criteria involved. To get information on the consistency of the ranking of the RM alternatives, we used different weighting techniques (ratio estimation and pair-wise weighting) and alternative ways to treat individual respondents' weights in calculating the preference scores for each RM alternative. These dissimilar approaches resulted in some differences in the preference order of the RM alternatives. The demonstration showed that attention has to be paid to the proper description of the site, the principles of the procedure and the decision criteria. Nevertheless, the procedure proved to enable efficient communication between different stakeholders

  4. Geophysical methods for fracture characterization in and around potential sites for nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majer, E.L.; Lee, K.H.; Morrison, H.F.

    1992-08-01

    Historically, geophysical methods have been used extensively to successfully explore the subsurface for petroleum, gas, mineral, and geothermal resources. Their application, however, for site characterization, and monitoring the performance of near surface waste sites or repositories has been somewhat limited. Presented here is an overview of the geophysical methods that could contribute to defining the subsurface heterogeneity and extrapolating point measurements at the surface and in boreholes to volumetric descriptions in a fractured rock. In addition to site characterization a significant application of geophysical methods may be in performance assessment and in monitoring the repository to determine if the performance is as expected

  5. A new ground-penetrating radar system for remote site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, K.C.; Sandness, G.A.

    1994-08-01

    The cleanup of waste burial sites and military bombing ranges involves the risk of exposing field personnel to toxic chemicals, radioactive materials, or unexploded munitions. Time-consuming and costly measures are required to provide protection from those hazards. Therefore, there is a growing interest in developing remotely controlled sensors and sensor platforms that can be employed in site characterization surveys. A specialized ground-penetrating radar has been developed to operate on a remotely controlled vehicle for the non-intrusive subsurface characterization of buried waste sites. Improved radar circuits provide enhanced performance, and an embedded microprocessor dynamically optimizes operation. The radar unit is packaged to survive chemical contamination and decontamination

  6. Recent Experience Using Active Love Wave Techniques to Characterize Seismographic Station Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A. J.; Yong, A.; Salomone, L.

    2014-12-01

    Active-source Love waves recorded by the multi-channel analysis of surface wave (MASLW) technique were recently analyzed in two site characterization projects. Between 2010 and 2011, the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funded GEOVision to conduct geophysical investigations at 189 seismographic stations—185 in California and 4 in the Central Eastern U.S. (CEUS). The original project plan was to utilize active and passive Rayleigh wave-based techniques to obtain shear-wave velocity (VS) profiles to a minimum depth of 30 m and the time-averaged VS of the upper 30 meters (VS30). Early in the investigation it became evident that Rayleigh wave techniques, such as multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASRW), were not effective at characterizing all sites. Shear-wave seismic refraction and MASLW techniques were therefore applied. The MASLW technique was deployed at a total of 38 sites, in addition to other methods, and used as the primary technique to characterize 22 sites, 5 of which were also characterized using Rayleigh wave techniques. In 2012, the Electric Power Research Institute funded characterization of 33 CEUS station sites. Based on experience from the ARRA investigation, both MASRW and MASLW data were acquired by GEOVision at 24 CEUS sites—the remaining 9 sites and 2 overlapping sites were characterized by University of Texas, Austin. Of the 24 sites characterized by GEOVision, 16 were characterized using MASLW data, 4 using both MASLW and MASRW data and 4 using MASRW data. Love wave techniques were often found to perform better, or at least yield phase velocity data that could be more readily modeled using the fundamental mode assumption, at shallow rock sites, sites with steep velocity gradients, and, sites with a thin, low velocity, surficial soil layer overlying stiffer sediments. These types of velocity structure often excite dominant higher modes in Rayleigh wave data, but not in Love wave data. At such sites, it may be possible

  7. The MULTIMEDIA exposure model as a risk assessment tool at LUST sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    In the course of characterizing Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) sites in the Commonwealth, Virginia Department of Environmental Quality (VDEQ) regulations section 6.5.A.2.b of VR-680-13-02, requires that a risk assessment be performed which must address, among other issues, aqueous phase contaminant exposure levels to critical receptors. often, during the course of conducting such an assessment, the aqueous phase contaminant plume has not yet intercepted the critical down gradient receptor. Thus, the determination of the maximum potential exposure level to this receptor can only be made through the use of an appropriate fate and transport model. This paper focuses on an application of the saturated zone module of the USEPA's MULTIMEDIA Exposure Assessment model. The case study presented involves a LUST site in the Commonwealth, in which four critical receptors of leaded gasoline contaminated groundwater were identified. These receptors included three residential water wells and an intermittent stream. At this particular site, the aqueous phase contaminant plume had not yet reached any of the receptors; and the MULTIMEDIA model was employed to predict the steady-state aqueous phase concentrations with very favorable results

  8. Soil Characterization at the Linde FUSRAP Site and the Impact on Soil Volume Estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, J.; Kenna, T.; Pilon, R.

    2002-01-01

    The former Linde site in Tonawanda, New York is currently undergoing active remediation of Manhattan Engineering District's radiological contamination. This remediation is authorized under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The focus of this paper will be to describe the impact of soil characterization efforts as they relate to soil volume estimates and project cost estimates. An additional objective is to stimulate discussion about other characterization and modeling technologies, and to provide a ''Lessons Learned'' scenario to assist in future volume estimating at other FUSRAP sites. Initial soil characterization efforts at the Linde FUSRAP site in areas known to be contaminated or suspected to be contaminated were presented in the Remedial Investigation Report for the Tonawanda Site, dated February 1993. Results of those initial characterization efforts were the basis for soil volume estimates that were used to estimate and negotiate the current remediation contract. During the course of remediation, previously unidentified areas of contamination were discovered, and additional characterization was initiated. Additional test pit and geoprobe samples were obtained at over 500 locations, bringing the total to over 800 sample locations at the 135-acre site. New data continues to be collected on a routine basis during ongoing remedial actions

  9. Borehole Tool for the Comprehensive Characterization of Hydrate-bearing Sediments

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Sheng; Santamarina, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Reservoir characterization and simulation require reliable parameters to anticipate hydrate deposits responses and production rates. The acquisition of the required fundamental properties currently relies on wireline logging, pressure core testing, and/or laboratory ob-servations of synthesized specimens, which are challenged by testing capabilities and in-nate sampling disturbances. The project reviews hydrate-bearing sediments, properties, and inherent sampling effects, albeit lessen with the developments in pressure core technology, in order to develop robust correlations with index parameters. The resulting information is incorporated into a tool for optimal field characterization and parameter selection with un-certainty analyses. Ultimately, the project develops a borehole tool for the comprehensive characterization of hydrate-bearing sediments at in situ, with the design recognizing past developments and characterization experience and benefited from the inspiration of nature and sensor miniaturization.

  10. Borehole Tool for the Comprehensive Characterization of Hydrate-bearing Sediments

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Sheng

    2018-02-01

    Reservoir characterization and simulation require reliable parameters to anticipate hydrate deposits responses and production rates. The acquisition of the required fundamental properties currently relies on wireline logging, pressure core testing, and/or laboratory ob-servations of synthesized specimens, which are challenged by testing capabilities and in-nate sampling disturbances. The project reviews hydrate-bearing sediments, properties, and inherent sampling effects, albeit lessen with the developments in pressure core technology, in order to develop robust correlations with index parameters. The resulting information is incorporated into a tool for optimal field characterization and parameter selection with un-certainty analyses. Ultimately, the project develops a borehole tool for the comprehensive characterization of hydrate-bearing sediments at in situ, with the design recognizing past developments and characterization experience and benefited from the inspiration of nature and sensor miniaturization.

  11. Borehole Tool for the Comprehensive Characterization of Hydrate-bearing Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Sheng [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Santamarina, J. Carlos [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); King Abdullah Univ. of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-12-30

    Reservoir characterization and simulation require reliable parameters to anticipate hydrate deposits responses and production rates. The acquisition of the required fundamental properties currently relies on wireline logging, pressure core testing, and/or laboratory observations of synthesized specimens, which are challenged by testing capabilities and innate sampling disturbances. The project reviews hydrate-bearing sediments, properties, and inherent sampling effects, albeit lessen with the developments in pressure core technology, in order to develop robust correlations with index parameters. The resulting information is incorporated into a tool for optimal field characterization and parameter selection with uncertainty analyses. Ultimately, the project develops a borehole tool for the comprehensive characterization of hydrate-bearing sediments at in situ, with the design recognizing past developments and characterization experience and benefited from the inspiration of nature and sensor miniaturization.

  12. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, April 1, 1991--September 30, 1991, Number 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The Site Characterization Progress Report of Yucca Mountain (PR) presents brief summaries of the status of site characterization activities and cites the technical reports and research products that provide more detailed information on the activities. The report provides highlights of work started during the reporting period, work in progress, and work completed and documented during the reporting period. In addition, the report is the vehicle for the discussion of changes to the DOE's site characterization program resulting from ongoing collection and evaluation of site information; the development of repository and waste-package designs; the results of performance assessments; and any changes that occur in response to external comments. Information covered includes geochemistry, hydrology, geology, climate, and radiation dose estimate calculations

  13. Argonne's Expedited Site Characterization: An integrated approach to cost- and time-effective remedial investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, J.C.; Walker, J.L.; Aggarwal, P.K.; Meyer, W.T.

    1995-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a methodology for remedial site investigation that has proven to be both technically superior to and more cost- and time-effective than traditional methods. This methodology is referred to as the Argonne Expedited Site Characterization (ESC). Quality is the driving force within the process. The Argonne ESC process is abbreviated only in time and cost and never in terms of quality. More usable data are produced with the Argonne ESC process than with traditional site characterization methods that are based on statistical-grid sampling and multiple monitoring wells. This paper given an overview of the Argonne ESC process and compares it with traditional methods for site characterization. Two examples of implementation of the Argonne ESC process are discussed to illustrate the effectiveness of the process in CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) and RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) programs

  14. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, April 1, 1993--September 30, 1993, No. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    In accordance with requirements of Section 113(b)(3) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, and 10 CFR 60.18(g), the U.S. Department of Energy has prepared this report on the progress of site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the period April 1, 1993, through September 30, 1993. This report is the ninth in a series issued at intervals of approximately six months during site characterization of Yucca Mountain as a possible site for a geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Also included in this report are activities such as public outreach and international programs that are not formally part of the site characterization process. Information on these activities is provided to report on all aspects of the Yucca Mountain studies

  15. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, October 1, 1992--March 31, 1993, No. 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-08-01

    In accordance with requirements of Section 113(b)(3) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, and 10 CFR 60.18(g), the US Department of Energy has prepared this report on the progress of site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the period October 1, 1992, through March 31, 1993. This report is the eighth in a series issued at intervals of approximately six months during site characterization of Yucca Mountain as a possible site for a geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Also included in this report are activities such as public outreach and international programs that are not formally part of the site characterization process. Information on these activities is provided to report on all aspects of the Yucca Mountain studies.

  16. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, April 1, 1993--September 30, 1993, No. 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-02-01

    In accordance with requirements of Section 113(b)(3) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, and 10 CFR 60.18(g), the U.S. Department of Energy has prepared this report on the progress of site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the period April 1, 1993, through September 30, 1993. This report is the ninth in a series issued at intervals of approximately six months during site characterization of Yucca Mountain as a possible site for a geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Also included in this report are activities such as public outreach and international programs that are not formally part of the site characterization process. Information on these activities is provided to report on all aspects of the Yucca Mountain studies.

  17. Landfill Site Selection by AHP Based Multi-criteria Decision Making Tool: A Case Study in Kolkata, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Ankush; Hazra, Tumpa; Dutta, Amit

    2017-09-01

    This work presents a Multi-criteria Decision Making (MCDM) tool to select a landfill site from three candidate sites proposed for Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) area that complies with accessibility, receptor, environment, public acceptability, geological and economic criteria. Analytical Hierarchy Process has been used to solve the MCDM problem. Suitability of the three sites (viz. Natagachi, Gangajoara and Kharamba) as landfills as proposed by KMC has been checked by Landfill Site Sensitivity Index (LSSI) as well as Economic Viability Index (EVI). Land area availability for disposing huge quantity of Municipal Solid Waste for the design period has been checked. Analysis of the studied sites show that they are moderately suitable for landfill facility construction as both LSSI and EVI scores lay between 300 and 750. The proposed approach represents an effective MCDM tool for siting sanitary landfill in growing metropolitan cities of developing countries like India.

  18. Postclosure performance assessment of the SCP [Site Characterization Plan] conceptual design for horizontal emplacement: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This report is a preliminary postclosure performance assessment of the repository design specified in the Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design Report (SCP-CDR) for horizontal emplacement of high-level nuclear waste. At the time that these analyses were done, horizontal emplacement was the preferred orientation for the waste packages but vertical emplacement is now the reference design. This assessment consists of (1) a review of the regulatory requirements and strategy to demonstrate compliance with these requirements, (2) an analysis of the performance of the total repository system, (3) an analysis of the thermomechanical behavior of the repository, (4) an analysis of brine mobility in the repository, (5) an analysis of the waste package performance, (6) an analysis of the performance of seals, and (7) comments on the sensitivity of the various performance measures to uncertainties in the data and models. These are preliminary analyses and, in most cases, involve bounding calculations of the repository behavior. They have several purposes including (1) assessing how well this conceptual design ''measures up'' against requirements, (2) gaining experience in implementing the performance assessment strategy and tools and thereby learning where improvements are needed, (3) helping to identify needed data, and (4) helping to indicate required design modifications. 26 refs., 40 figs., 20 tabs

  19. Application of Microtremor Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (MHVSR) Analysis for Site Characterization: State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, S.; Cassidy, J. F.; Castellaro, S.; Cornou, C.; Crow, H.; Hunter, J. A.; Matsushima, S.; Sánchez-Sesma, F. J.; Yong, A.

    2018-03-01

    Nakamura (Q Rep Railway Tech Res Inst 30:25-33, 1989) popularized the application of the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) analysis of microtremor (seismic noise or ambient vibration) recordings to estimate the predominant frequency and amplification factor of earthquake shaking. During the following quarter century, popularity in the microtremor HVSR (MHVSR) method grew; studies have verified the stability of a site's MHVSR response over time and validated the MHVSR response with that of earthquake HVSR response. Today, MHVSR analysis is a popular reconnaissance tool used worldwide for seismic microzonation and earthquake site characterization in numerous regions, specifically, in the mapping of site period or fundamental frequency and inverted for shear-wave velocity depth profiles, respectively. However, the ubiquity of MHVSR analysis is predominantly a consequence of its ease in application rather than our full understanding of its theory. We present the state of the art in MHVSR analyses in terms of the development of its theoretical basis, current state of practice, and we comment on its future for applications in earthquake site characterization.

  20. Activity-Based Probes for Isoenzyme- and Site-Specific Functional Characterization of Glutathione S -Transferases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoddard, Ethan G. [Chemical Biology and Exposure; Killinger, Bryan J. [Chemical Biology and Exposure; Nair, Reji N. [Chemical Biology and Exposure; Sadler, Natalie C. [Chemical Biology and Exposure; Volk, Regan F. [Chemical Biology and Exposure; Purvine, Samuel O. [Chemical Biology and Exposure; Shukla, Anil K. [Chemical Biology and Exposure; Smith, Jordan N. [Chemical Biology and Exposure; Wright, Aaron T. [Chemical Biology and Exposure

    2017-11-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) comprise a highly diverse family of phase II drug metabolizing enzymes whose shared function is the conjugation of reduced glutathione to various endo- and xenobiotics. Although the conglomerate activity of these enzymes can be measured by colorimetric assays, measurement of the individual contribution from specific isoforms and their contribution to the detoxification of xenobiotics in complex biological samples has not been possible. For this reason, we have developed two activity-based probes that characterize active glutathione transferases in mammalian tissues. The GST active site is comprised of a glutathione binding “G site” and a distinct substrate binding “H site”. Therefore, we developed (1) a glutathione-based photoaffinity probe (GSH-ABP) to target the “G site”, and (2) a probe designed to mimic a substrate molecule and show “H site” activity (GST-ABP). The GSH-ABP features a photoreactive moiety for UV-induced covalent binding to GSTs and glutathione-binding enzymes. The GST-ABP is a derivative of a known mechanism-based GST inhibitor that binds within the active site and inhibits GST activity. Validation of probe targets and “G” and “H” site specificity was carried out using a series of competitors in liver homogenates. Herein, we present robust tools for the novel characterization of enzyme- and active site-specific GST activity in mammalian model systems.

  1. Development of the Remedial Action Priority System: an improved risk assessment tool for prioritizing hazardous and radioactive-mixed waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, G.; Strenge, D.L.; Steelman, B.L.; Hawley, K.A.

    1985-08-01

    The Remedial Action Priority System (RAPS) represents a methodology that prioritizes inactive hazardous and radioactive mixed-waste disposal sites in a scientific and objective manner based on limited site information. This methodology is intended to bridge the technology gap that exists between the initial site evaluation using the Hazard Ranking System (HRS) and the time-consuming process of actual field site characterization, assessment, and remediation efforts. The HRS was designed as an initial screening tool to discriminate between hazardous waste sites that do not and those that are likely to pose significant problems to human health, safety, and/or the environment. The HRS is used by the US Environmental Protection Agency to identify sites for nomination to the National Priorites List (NPL). Because the HRS is not designed to evaluate sites containing radionuclides, a modified Hazard Ranking System (mHRS) addressing both hazardous and radioactive mixed wastes was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Neither the HRS nor the mHRS was designed to prioritize sites that are nominated to the NPL according to their potential risks. 15 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  2. DECHEM: A remedial planning tool for metallic contaminants in soil at UMTRA Project sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    The DECHEM (DEcontamination of CHEMicals) method was developed for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project to guide characterization and remedial planning for metals contamination in soils. This is necessary because non-radiological hazardous constituents may be more mobile than radium-226 (Ra-226), and hence may migrate more deeply into subpile soils (beneath tailings that are to be relocated) or into adjacent contaminated soils at UMTRA Project sites. The result is that remedial action to the Ra-226 excavation limit, as specified in the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards, may not adequately remove hazardous non-radiological contamination. Unmitigated, these contaminants in soil may cause health risks because of their presence in resuspended particles, their uptake by crops or fodder their seepage into aquifers used for drinking water or other possible exposure pathways. The DECHEM method was developed in response to the need for advanced planning for the remediation of chemical contaminants at UMTRA Project sites, and includes the following elements: Establishment of acceptable exposure rates for humans to chemicals, based on EPA guidelines or other toxicological literature. Modeling of chemical migration through environmental pathways from a remediated UMTRA Project site to humans. Determination of allowable residual concentrations (i.e., cleanup guidelines) for chemicals in soils that results in doses to humans that are below established acceptable exposure rates. The initial development and application of the DECHEM method has focused upon hazardous metallic contaminants such as arsenic, lead, molybdenum, and selenium, which are known to occur in elevated concentrations at some UMTRA Project sites

  3. Molecular characterization of Fagaceae species using inter-primer binding site (iPBS) markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, João Paulo; Carvalho, Ana; Martín, Antonio; Lima-Brito, José

    2018-04-01

    Retrotransposons (RTNs) contribute for genome evolution, influencing its size and structure. We investigated the utility of the RTN-based markers inter-primer binding site (iPBS) for the molecular characterization of 25 Fagaceae species from genera Castanea, Fagus and Quercus. The assessment of genetic diversity, relationships and structure, as well as taxonomic classification of Fagaceae based on molecular data is important for definition of conservation, forestry management strategies and discrimination among natural hybrids and their parents since natural hybridization may increase with the climate changes. Here, iPBS primers designed by other authors were tested alone and combined. Some of them were discriminative, revealed polymorphism within and among taxa allowing the production of a total of 150 iPBS markers. In addition, several monomorphic iPBS markers were also amplified in each taxon. The UPGMA dendrogram based on the pooled iPBS data revealed 27% of genetic similarity among species. The individuals were clustered per genus and most of the oaks per infrageneric group corroborating the adopted taxonomy. Globally, the iPBS markers demonstrated suitability for DNA fingerprinting, determination of phylogenies and taxonomic discrimination in Fagaceae, and could constitute a useful and alternative tool for germplasm characterization, and for definition of conservation strategies and forestry management. Moreover, these markers would be useful for fingerprinting natural hybrids that share morphological similarities with their parents. Since iPBS markers could also enable insights about RTNs evolution, an eventual correlation among iPBS polymorphism, variability of RTN insertions and/or genome size in Fagaceae is discussed.

  4. West Siberian Basin hydrogeology: Site characterization of Mayak, Tomsk-7, and Krasnoyarsk-26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, K.A.; Foley, M.G.; Allen, E.A.; Alexander, L.J.; McKinley, M.I.

    1997-01-01

    The former Soviet Union has extensive defense-related nuclear production facilities that have released large amounts of hazardous and radioactive waste materials into the air, surface water, and ground water in areas surrounding the production sites. The key sites of concern are Mayak, Tomsk-7, and Krasnoyarsk-26, all located within the West siberian Basin. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), in cooperation with the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy (Minatom), has been conducted contaminant-migration studies of Mayak, Tomsk-7, and Krasnoyarsk-26 in Western Siberia since 1993. The intent of this program is to maximize use of US and Russian site characterization, contaminant transport modeling, and remediation technology for the benefit of DOE and Minatom site-cleanup activities. Site characterization activities conducted during FY 1996 comprised evaluating the existing database, developing methods for synthesizing missing data, and designing an effective means of data and technology transfer. Comparison of the database, most of the contents of which have been acquired remotely with contaminant transport modeling data requirements allowed the authors to evaluate the utility of data acquired remotely for modeling purposes, and to identify gaps in the characterization of Russian waste-disposal sites. Identifying these gaps led to the second activity, which was to develop methods for synthesizing missing data from an evaluation of existing data. The authors tested these methods by evaluating geologic fracturing at the Mayak site. The third activity was the development of an effective procedure for data and technology transfer. The goal was to provide the site characterization database to Russian modelers in such a way that the data were easily transported, viewed, and manipulated for use in their models. This report summarizes the results of the three site characterization activities performed during FY 1996

  5. Use of Historical Pump-and-Treat Data to Enhance Site Characterization and Remediation Performance Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusseau, Mark L

    2013-10-01

    Groundwater withdrawal and contaminant concentration data are routinely collected for pump-and-treat operations conducted at hazardous waste sites. These data sets can be mined to produce a wealth of information to support enhanced site characterization, optimization of remedial system operations, and improved decision making regarding long-term site management and closure. Methods that may be used to analyze and interpret pump-and-treat data to produce such assessments are presented, along with a brief illustration of their application to a site. The results presented herein illustrate that comprehensive analysis of pump-and-treat data is a powerful, cost-effective method for providing higher-resolution, value-added characterization of contaminated sites.

  6. Site characterization information needs for a high-level waste geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, D.C.; Nataraja, M.S.; Justus, P.S.

    1987-01-01

    At each of the three candidate sites recommended for site characterization for High-Level Waste Geologic Repository development, the DOE has proposed to conduct both surface-based testing and in situ exploration and testing at the depths that wastes would be emplaced. The basic information needs and consequently the planned surface-based and in situ testing program will be governed to a large extent by the amount of credit taken for individual components of the geologic repository in meeting the performance objectives and siting criteria. Therefore, identified information to be acquired from site characterization activities should be commensurate with DOE's assigned performance goals for the repository system components on a site-specific basis. Because of the uncertainties that are likely to be associated with initial assignment of performance goals, the information needs should be both reasonably and conservatively identified

  7. Limestone percussion tools from the late Early Pleistocene sites of Barranco León and Fuente Nueva 3 (Orce, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsky, Deborah; Vergès, Josep-María; Sala, Robert; Menéndez, Leticia; Toro-Moyano, Isidro

    2015-11-19

    In recent years, there is growing interest in the study of percussion scars and breakage patterns on hammerstones, cores and tools from Oldowan African and Eurasian lithic assemblages. Oldowan stone toolkits generally contain abundant small-sized flakes and their corresponding cores, and are characterized by their structural dichotomy of heavy- and light-duty tools. This paper explores the significance of the lesser known heavy-duty tool component, providing data from the late Lower Pleistocene sites of Barranco León and Fuente Nueva 3 (Orce, Spain), dated 1.4-1.2 Myr. Using quantitative and qualitative data from the large-sized limestone industries from these two major sites, we present a new methodology highlighting their morpho-technological features. In the light of the results, we discuss the shortfalls of extant classificatory methods for interpreting the role of percussive technology in early toolkits. This work is rooted in an experimental program designed to reproduce the wide range of percussion marks observed on the limestone artefacts from these two sites. A visual and descriptive reference is provided as an interpretative aid for future comparative research. Further experiments using a variety of materials and gestures are still needed before the elusive traces yield the secrets of the kinds of percussive activities carried out by hominins at these, and other, Oldowan sites. © 2015 The Author(s).

  8. Social Networking Site Usage Among Childhood Cancer Survivors - A Potential Tool for Research Recruitment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, Erica D.; Stolley, Melinda R.; Mensah, Edward K.; Sharp, Lisa K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The recent and rapid growth of social networking site (SNS) use presents a unique public health opportunity to develop effective strategies for the recruitment of hard-to-reach participants for cancer research studies. This survey investigated childhood cancer survivors’ reported use of SNS such as facebook or MySpace and their perceptions of using SNS, for recruitment into survivorship research. Methods Sixty White, Black and Hispanic, adult childhood cancer survivors (range 18 – 48 years of age) that were randomly selected from a larger childhood cancer study, the Chicago Healthy Living Study (CHLS), participated in this pilot survey. Telephone surveys were conducted to understand current SNS activity and attitudes towards using SNS as a cancer research recruitment tool. Results Seventy percent of participants reported SNS usage of which 80% were at least weekly users and 79 % reported positive attitudes towards the use of SNS as a recruitment tool for survivorship research. Conclusions and implications for cancer survivors The results of this pilot study revealed that SNS use was high and regular among the childhood cancer survivors sampled. Most had positive attitudes towards using SNS for recruitment of research. The results of this pilot survey suggest that SNS may offer an alternative approach for recruitment of childhood cancer survivors into research. PMID:24532046

  9. Social networking site usage among childhood cancer survivors--a potential tool for research recruitment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, Erica D; Stolley, Melinda R; Mensah, Edward K; Sharp, Lisa K

    2014-09-01

    The recent and rapid growth of social networking site (SNS) use presents a unique public health opportunity to develop effective strategies for the recruitment of hard-to-reach participants for cancer research studies. This survey investigated childhood cancer survivors' reported use of SNS such as Facebook or MySpace and their perceptions of using SNS, for recruitment into survivorship research. Sixty White, Black, and Hispanic adult childhood cancer survivors (range 18-48 years of age) that were randomly selected from a larger childhood cancer study, the Chicago Healthy Living Study, participated in this pilot survey. Telephone surveys were conducted to understand current SNS activity and attitudes towards using SNS as a cancer research recruitment tool. Seventy percent of participants reported SNS usage of which 80 % were at least weekly users and 79 % reported positive attitudes towards the use of SNS as a recruitment tool for survivorship research. The results of this pilot study revealed that SNS use was high and regular among the childhood cancer survivors sampled. Most had positive attitudes towards using SNS for recruitment of research. The results of this pilot survey suggest that SNS may offer an alternative approach for recruitment of childhood cancer survivors into research.

  10. Characterization Report Operational Closure Covers for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtel Nevada Geotechnical Sciences

    2005-01-01

    Bechtel Nevada (BN) manages two low-level Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). The Area 3 RWMS is located in south-central Yucca Flat and the Area 5 RWMS is located about 15 miles south, in north-central Frenchman Flat. Though located in two separate topographically closed basins, they are similar in climate and hydrogeologic setting. The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste, while the Area 3 RWMS uses subsidence craters formed from underground testing of nuclear weapons for the disposal of packaged and unpackaged bulk waste. Over the next several decades, most waste disposal units at both the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are anticipated to be closed. Closure of the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs will proceed through three phases: operational closure, final closure, and institutional control. Many waste disposal units at the Area 5RWMS are operationally closed and final closure has been placed on one unit at the Area 3 RWMS (U-3ax/bl). Because of the similarities between the two sites (e.g., type of wastes, environmental factors, operational closure cover designs, etc.), many characterization studies and data collected at the Area 3 RWMS are relevant and applicable to the Area 5 RWMS. For this reason, data and closure strategies from the Area 3 RWMS are referred to as applicable. This document is an interim Characterization Report - Operational Closure Covers, for the Area 5 RWMS. The report briefly describes the Area 5 RWMS and the physical environment where it is located, identifies the regulatory requirements, reviews the approach and schedule for closing, summarizes the monitoring programs, summarizes characterization studies and results, and then presents conclusions and recommendations

  11. Radio-ecological characterization and radiological assessment in support of regulatory supervision of legacy sites in northwest Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneve, M.K.; Kiselev, M.; Shandala, N.K.

    2014-01-01

    The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority has been implementing a regulatory cooperation program in the Russian Federation for over 10 years, as part of the Norwegian government's Plan of Action for enhancing nuclear and radiation safety in northwest Russia. The overall long-term objective has been the enhancement of safety culture and includes a special focus on regulatory supervision of nuclear legacy sites. The initial project outputs included appropriate regulatory threat assessments, to determine the hazardous situations and activities which are most in need of enhanced regulatory supervision. In turn, this has led to the development of new and updated norms and standards, and related regulatory procedures, necessary to address the often abnormal conditions at legacy sites. This paper presents the experience gained within the above program with regard to radio-ecological characterization of Sites of Temporary Storage for spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste at Andreeva Bay and Gremikha in the Kola Peninsula in northwest Russia. Such characterization is necessary to support assessments of the current radiological situation and to support prospective assessments of its evolution. Both types of assessments contribute to regulatory supervision of the sites. Accordingly, they include assessments to support development of regulatory standards and guidance concerning: control of radiation exposures to workers during remediation operations; emergency preparedness and response; planned radionuclide releases to the environment; development of site restoration plans, and waste treatment and disposal. Examples of characterization work are presented which relate to terrestrial and marine environments at Andreeva Bay. The use of this data in assessments is illustrated by means of the visualization and assessment tool (DATAMAP) developed as part of the regulatory cooperation program, specifically to help control radiation exposure in operations and to support

  12. Characterization of the geology, geochemistry, and microbiology of the radio frequency heating demonstration site at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy Dilek, C.A.; Jarosch, T.R.; Fliermans, C.B.; Looney, B.B.; Parker, W.H.

    1993-08-01

    The overall objective of the Integrated Demonstration Project for the Remediation of Organics at Nonarid Sites at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is to evaluate innovative remediation, characterization, and monitoring systems to facilitate restoration of contaminated sites. The first phase of the demonstration focused on the application and development of in situ air stripping technologies to remediate sediments and groundwater contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The second phase focused on the enhancement of the in situ air stripping process by adding selected nutrients to stimulate naturally occurring microorganisms that degrade VOCs. The purpose of the third phase was to evaluate the use of heating technologies [radio frequency (rf) and ohmic heating] to enhance the removal of contamination from clay layers where mass transfer is limited. The objective of this report is to document pretest and post-test data collected in support of the rf heating demonstration. The following data are discussed in this report: (1) a general description of the site including piezometers and sensors installed to monitor the remedial process; (2) stratigraphy, lithology, and a detailed geologic cross section of the study site; (3) tabulations of pretest and post-test moisture and VOC content of the sediments; (4) sampling and analysis procedures for sediment samples; (5) microbial abundance and diversity; (6) three-dimensional images of pretest and post-test contaminant distribution; (7) volumetric calculations

  13. Using the INEL site-specific plan as a community relations tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, Michael; Macdonald, Don; Couch, Brad; Reuel Smith, M.

    1992-01-01

    Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) activities have affected, or have the potential to affect the environment. For this reason) the issues surrounding INEL activities are of interest to a broad range of people. The preparation of the INEL Site-Specific Plan (SSP) reflects the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Field Office's (DOE-ID'S) initiative for open and clear communications with the public. The INEL SSP describes for the public DOE-ID'S plan to clean up inactive facilities and locations that were contaminated due to past waste management practices. It also discusses waste management strategies for avoiding future contamination by active operations. The SSP is an over-arching document and supplies 'the big picture' of environmental restoration and waste management activities to the public, including budget information and long-range plans. DOE-ID has been using the INEL Site-Specific Plan and its associated public comment period as a primary tool for public involvement and as way to get meaningful citizen input into DOE-ID planning. Public involvement in the INBL Site-Specific Plan has four main objectives: To inform public officials, Indian Tribes, interest groups, businesses, and individuals about current plans for environmental restoration and waste management activities at INEL; To ensure that public concerns and interests relating to environmental restoration and waste management are reflected in the SSP and DOE-ID planning; To provide flexibility so modifications can be made to DOE-ID plans and the SSP in response to changing concerns within the community, and; To ensure that DOE-ID and INEL contractors are given feedback regarding public interest in, and concerns about, the DOE-ID'S plans. To carry out these objectives, DOE-ID has implemented an aggressive public outreach effort that provides multiple opportunities for public participation in cleanup and waste management decisions. (author)

  14. Threatened and endangered wildlife species of the Hanford Site related to CERCLA characterization activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzner, R.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Weiss, S.G.; Stegen, J.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site has been placed on the National Priorities List, which requires that it be remediated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) or Superfund. Potentially contaminated areas of the Hanford Site were grouped into operable units, and detailed characterization and investigation plans were formulated. The DOE Richland Operations Office requested Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to conduct a biological assessment of the potential impact of these characterization activities on the threatened, endangered, and sensitive wildlife species of the Hanford Site. Additional direction for WHC compliances with wildlife protection can be found in the Environmental Compliance Manual. This document is intended to meet these requirements, in part, for the CERCLA characterization activities, as well as for other work comparable in scope. This report documents the biological assessment and describes the pertinent components of the Hanford Site as well as the planned characterization activities. Also provided are accounts of endangered, threatened, and federal candidate wildlife species on the Hanford Site and information as to how human disturbances can affect these species. Potential effects of the characterization activities are described with recommendations for mitigation measures.

  15. Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets; Part A, Characterization, decontamination, dismantlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, R.L. [ed.

    1993-02-26

    The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates environmental restoration and waste management problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remedial action, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. Volume 2 contains logic diagrams. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use. This report is part A of Volume 3 concerning characterization, decontamination, and dismantlement.

  16. Understanding brittle deformation at the Olkiluoto site. Literature compilation for site characterization and geological modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millnes, A.G.

    2006-07-01

    The present report arose from the belief that geological modelling at Olkiluoto, Finland, where an underground repository for spent nuclear fuel is at present under construction, could be significantly improved by an increased understanding of the phenomena being modelled, in conjunction with the more sophisticated data acquisition and processing methods which are now being introduced. Since the geological model is the necessary basis for the rock engineering and hydrological models, which in turn provide the foundation for identifying suitable rock volumes underground and for demonstrating longterm safety, its scientific basis is of critical importance. As a contribution to improving this scientific basis, the literature on brittle deformation in the Earth's crust has been reviewed, and key references chosen and arranged, with the particular geology of the Olkiluoto site in mind. The result is a compilation of scientific articles, reports and books on some of the key topics, which are of significance for an improved understanding of brittle deformation of hard, crystalline rocks, such as those typical for Olkiluoto. The report is subdivided into six Chapters, covering (1) background information, (2) important aspects of the fabric of intact rock, (3) fracture mechanics and brittle microtectonics, (4) fracture data acquisition and processing, for the statistical characterisation and modelling of fracture systems, (5) the characterisation of brittle deformation zones for deterministic modelling, and (6) the regional geological framework of the Olkiluoto site. The Chapters are subdivided into a number of Sections, and each Section into a number of Topics. The citations are mainly collected under each Topic, embedded in a short explanatory text or listed chronologically without comment. The systematic arrangement of Chapters, Sections and Topics is such that the Table of Contents can be used to focus quickly on the theme of interest without the necessity of looking

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF REMOTE HANFORD CONNECTOR GASKET REPLACEMENT TOOLING FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE'S DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krementz, D

    2007-01-01

    The Savannah River Site's (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) requested development of tooling for remote replacement of gaskets in mechanical Hanford connectors. The facility has compressed air supply, two master-slave manipulators (MSM's) and a lightweight robotic arm for operation of the remote tools. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed and tested multiple tools to perform the gasket replacement tasks. Separate pneumatic snap-ring removal tools that use the connector skirt as a reaction surface were developed for removal of the snap ring and spent gasket on both vertical and horizontal Hanford connectors. A pneumatic tool that clamps and centers on the jumper pipe ID was developed to simultaneously install the new gasket and snap ring. A pneumatic snap-ring-loading tool was developed that compresses the snap ring and places it in a groove in the installation tool. All of the tools are located on a custom work table with a pneumatic valve station that directs compressed air to the desired tool and vents the tools as needed. The entire system has been successfully tested using MSM's to manipulate the various tools. Deployment of the entire system is expected during FY08. The Hanford connector gasket replacement tooling has been successfully tested using MSM's to manipulate the various tools. Nitric acid is used in many of the decontamination processes performed in the REDC, where the tooling will be deployed. Although most of the tool components were fabricated/purchased with nitric acid and radioactive service in mind, some of the prototype parts must be replaced with parts that are more compatible with nitric acid/radioactive service. Several modifications to the various tools are needed to facilitate maintenance and replacement of failed components. Development of installation tools for replacement of 1-inch, 2-inch and multi-hole gaskets is being considered. Deployment of the existing system in the DWPF REDC is expected during FY

  18. Wave Resource Characterization at US Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Test Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallman, A.; Neary, V. S.

    2016-02-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Marine and Hydrokinetic energy (MHK) Program is supporting a diverse research and development portfolio intended to accelerate commercialization of the marine renewable industry by improving technology performance, reducing market barriers, and lowering the cost of energy. Wave resource characterization at potential and existing wave energy converter (WEC) test sites and deployment locations contributes to this DOE goal by providing a catalogue of wave energy resource characteristics, met-ocean data, and site infrastructure information, developed utilizing a consistent methodology. The purpose of the catalogue is to enable the comparison of resource characteristics among sites to facilitate the selection of test sites that are most suitable for a developer's device and that best meet their testing needs and objectives. It also provides inputs for the design of WEC test devices and planning WEC tests, including the planning of deployment and operations and maintenance. The first edition included three sites: the Pacific Marine Energy Center (PMEC) North Energy Test Site (NETS) offshore of Newport, Oregon, the Kaneohe Bay Naval Wave Energy Test Site (WETS) offshore of Oahu, HI, and a potential site offshore of Humboldt Bay, CA (Eureka, CA). The second edition was recently finished, which includes five additional sites: the Jennette's Pier Wave Energy Converter Test Site in North Carolina, the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Field Research Facility (FRF), the PMEC Lake Washington site, the proposed PMEC South Energy Test Site (SETS), and the proposed CalWave Central Coast WEC Test Site. The operational sea states are included according to the IEC Technical Specification on wave energy resource assessment and characterization, with additional information on extreme sea states, weather windows, and representative spectra. The methodology and a summary of results will be discussed.

  19. Post-decontamination and dismantlement (D ampersand D) characterization report for CFA-669 site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents results of post-decontamination and dismantling (D ampersand D) characterization surveys performed by EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc. (EG ampersand G Idaho), at Central Facilities Area (CFA)-669, which was the Hot Laundry Facility. The site was characterized to determine and document the radiological and chemical conditions of the site following D ampersand D and to determine if the site satisfies the release criteria. Constructed in 1950, CFA-669 served as the ''hot'' and ''cold'' laundry for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory site contractors until the boiler exploded in 1981. The building was shut down at that time. Before D ampersand D activities began in 1992, the facility was characterized and the results documented. D ampersand D activities were completed in July 1994. The post-D ampersand D radiological characterization consisted of radiation measurements and analyses of soil samples to identify man-made radionuclides and determine the specific activity of each sample. The chemical characterization consisted of toxicity characterization leaching procedure (TCLP) analysis for metals and for volatile and semivolatile organic contamination

  20. Characterization of Pu-contaminated soils from Nuclear Site 201 at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Tamura, T.; Larsen, I.L.

    1983-01-01

    Distribution and characteristics of Pu-bearing radioactive particles throughout five soil profiles from Nuclear Site (NS) 201 were investigated. Concentrations of 239 240 Pu and 241 Am decreased with depth and most of the contamination was contained in the top 5 cm except in profile 4 where it extended to 10 cm. The mean activity ratio of 239 240 Pu to 241 Am and its standard error were 5.8 +- 0.3 (N=42). Most of the total radioactivity of the soils was contributed by 0.25 to 2 mm sand size fraction which comprised 20 to 50% by weight of the soils. The radioactive particles in the 0.25 to 2 mm size fraction occurred as spherical glass particles or as glass coatings on sand particles. The glass coatings had gas voids in the matrix but were not as porous as the radioactive particles from NS 219. After impact grinding the >0.25-mm size fractions for one hour, 85% of the initial activity in a NS 201 sample remained with the particles on the 0.25 mm sieve, whereas in the NS 219 sample only 10% remained. The results show that the radioactive particles from NS 201 were much more stable against the impact grinding force than those from NS 219. Therefore, the NS 201 soils would be expected to have a lower probability of producing respirable-size radioactive particles by saltation during wind erosion. 19 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  1. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    Chapter six describes the basis for facility design, the completed facility conceptual design, the completed analytical work relating to the resolution of design issues, and future design-related work. The basis for design and the conceptual design information presented in this chapter meet the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, for a conceptual repository design that takes into account site-specific requirements. This information is presented to permit a critical evaluation of planned site characterization activities. Chapter seven describes waste package components, emplacement environment, design, and status of research and development that support the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) Project. The site characterization plan (SCP) discussion of waste package components is contained entirely within this chapter. The discussion of emplacement environment in this chapter is limited to considerations of the environment that influence, or which may influence, if perturbed, the waste packages and their performance (particularly hydrogeology, geochemistry, and borehole stability). The basis for conceptual waste package design as well as a description of the design is included in this chapter. The complete design will be reported in the advanced conceptual design (ACD) report and is not duplicated in the SCP. 367 refs., 173 figs., 68 tabs.

  2. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Chapter six describes the basis for facility design, the completed facility conceptual design, the completed analytical work relating to the resolution of design issues, and future design-related work. The basis for design and the conceptual design information presented in this chapter meet the requiremenrs of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, for a conceptual repository design that takes into account site-specific requirements. This information is presented to permit a critical evaluation of planned site characterization activities. Chapter seven describes waste package components, emplacement environment, design, and status of research and development that support the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) Project. The site characterization plan (SCP) discussion of waste package components is contained entirely within this chapter. The discussion of emplacement environment in this chapter is limited to considerations of the environment that influence, or which may influence, if perturbed, the waste packages and their performance (particularly hydrogeology, geochemistry, and borehole stability). The basis for conceptual waste package design as well as a description of the design is included in this chapter. The complete design will be reported in the advanced conceptual design (ACD) report and is not duplicated in the SCP. 367 refs., 173 figs., 68 tabs

  3. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration site characterization plan: Area 23, Building 650 Leachfield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This plan presents the strategy for the characterization of Corrective Action Unit 94, Area 23, Building 650 Leachfield. It is a land disposal unit, located southeast of Building 650, that was in operation from 1965 to October 1992, with an estimated annual discharge rate of less than 984 liters from designated sinks, floor drains, and emergency decontamination showers in Building 650. The objectives of the planned activities are to: obtain sufficient sample analytical data from which further assessment, remediation, and/or closure strategies may be developed for the site: and obtain sufficient sample analytical data for management of investigation-derived waste (IDW). All references to regulations in this plan are to the versions of the regulations that are current at the time of publication of this plan. The scope of the characterization will include subsurface soil boring (i.e., drilling), in situ sampling of the soil within subsurface soil borings, and sample analysis for both site characterization and waste management purposes

  4. Development and characterization of AlCrN coated Si3N4 ceramic cutting tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.V.C.; Nono, M.C.A.; Machado, J.P.B.; Silva, O.M.M.; Sa, F.C.L.

    2010-01-01

    Ceramic cutting tools are showing a growing market perspective in terms of application on machining operations due to their high hardness, wear resistance, and machining without a cutting fluid, therefore are good candidates for cast iron and Nickel superalloys machining. The objective of the present paper was the development of Si 3 N 4 based ceramic cutting insert, characterization of its physical and mechanical properties, and subsequent coating with AlCrN using a PVD method. The characterization of the coating was made using an optical profiler, XRD, AFM and microhardness tester. The results showed that the tool presented a fracture toughness of 6,43 MPa.m 1/2 and hardness of 16 GPa. The hardness reached 31 GPa after coating. The machining tests showed an improvement on work piece roughness when machining with coated insert, in comparison with the uncoated cutting tool. Probably this fact is related to hardness, roughness and topography of AlCrN. (author)

  5. Survey of geophysical techniques for site characterization in basalt, salt and tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.M.; Blackey, M.E.; Rice, J.E.; Murphy, V.J.; Levine, E.N.; Fisk, P.S.; Bromery, R.W.

    1987-07-01

    Geophysical techniques may help determine the nature and extent of faulting in the target areas, along with structural information that would be relevant to questions concerning the future integrity of a high-level-waste repository. Chapters focus on particular geophysical applications to four rock types - basalt, bedded salt, domal salt and tuff - characteristic of the sites originally proposed for site characterization. No one geophysical method can adequately characterize the geological structure beneath any site. The seismic reflection method, which is generally considered to be the most incisive of the geophysical techniques, has to date provided only marginal information on structure at the depth of the proposed repository at the Hanford, Washington, site, and no useful results at all at the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site. This result is partially due to geological complexity beneath these sites, but may also be partially attributed to the use of inappropriate acquisition and processing parameters. To adequately characterize a site using geophysics, modifications will have to be made to standard techniques to emphasize structural details at the depths of interest. 137 refs., 43 figs., 4 tabs

  6. A new spatial multi-criteria decision support tool for site selection for implementation of managed aquifer recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Azizur; Rusteberg, Bernd; Gogu, R C; Lobo Ferreira, J P; Sauter, Martin

    2012-05-30

    This study reports the development of a new spatial multi-criteria decision analysis (SMCDA) software tool for selecting suitable sites for Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) systems. The new SMCDA software tool functions based on the combination of existing multi-criteria evaluation methods with modern decision analysis techniques. More specifically, non-compensatory screening, criteria standardization and weighting, and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) have been combined with Weighted Linear Combination (WLC) and Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA). This SMCDA tool may be implemented with a wide range of decision maker's preferences. The tool's user-friendly interface helps guide the decision maker through the sequential steps for site selection, those steps namely being constraint mapping, criteria hierarchy, criteria standardization and weighting, and criteria overlay. The tool offers some predetermined default criteria and standard methods to increase the trade-off between ease-of-use and efficiency. Integrated into ArcGIS, the tool has the advantage of using GIS tools for spatial analysis, and herein data may be processed and displayed. The tool is non-site specific, adaptive, and comprehensive, and may be applied to any type of site-selection problem. For demonstrating the robustness of the new tool, a case study was planned and executed at Algarve Region, Portugal. The efficiency of the SMCDA tool in the decision making process for selecting suitable sites for MAR was also demonstrated. Specific aspects of the tool such as built-in default criteria, explicit decision steps, and flexibility in choosing different options were key features, which benefited the study. The new SMCDA tool can be augmented by groundwater flow and transport modeling so as to achieve a more comprehensive approach to the selection process for the best locations of the MAR infiltration basins, as well as the locations of recovery wells and areas of groundwater protection. The new spatial

  7. Nevada Test Site Perspective on Characterization and Loading of Legacy Transuranic Drums Utilizing the Central Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.G. Lahoud; J. F. Norton; I. L. Siddoway; L. W. Griswold

    2006-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) has successfully completed a multi-year effort to characterize and ship 1860 legacy transuranic (TRU) waste drums for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a permanent TRU disposal site. This has been a cooperative effort among the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), the U.S. Department of Energy, Carlsbad Field Office (DOE/CBFO), the NTS Management and Operations (M and O) contractor Bechtel Nevada (BN), and various contractors under the Central Characterization Project (CCP) umbrella. The success is due primarily to the diligence, perseverance, and hard work of each of the contractors, the DOE/CBFO, and NNSA/NSO, along with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Headquarters (DOE/HQ). This paper presents, from an NTS perspective, the challenges and successes of utilizing the CCP for obtaining a certified characterization program, sharing responsibilities for characterization, data validation, and loading of TRU waste with BN to achieve disposal at WIPP from a Small Quantity Site (SQS) such as the NTS. The challenges in this effort arose from two general sources. First, the arrangement of DOE/CBFO contractors under the CCP performing work and certifying waste at the NTS within a Hazard Category 2 (HazCat 2) non-reactor nuclear facility operated by BN, presented difficult challenges. The nuclear safety authorization basis, safety liability and responsibility, conduct of operations, allocation and scheduling of resources, and other issues were particularly demanding. The program-level and field coordination needed for the closely interrelated characterization tasks was extensive and required considerable effort by all parties. The second source of challenge was the legacy waste itself. None of the waste was generated at the NTS. The waste was generated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), Lynchburg, Rocky

  8. Site characterization in connection with the low level defense waste management site in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, C.; Davis, J.; French, R.; Raker, S.

    1984-09-01

    The Site Characterization Report for the Defense Low Level Waste Management Site (RWMS) in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site deals with the FY80-FY84 DRI activities. The areas that have been studied include geology, hydrology, unsaturated flow, soil and soil water chemistry, flood hazard, and economics-demographics. During this time the site characterization effort focussed on the following items as requested by NVO: geological and hydrological limitations to greater depth disposal of radioactive waste; potential for tectonic, seismic or volcanic activity (extent and frequency which these processes significantly affect the ability of the disposal operation to meet performance objectives); the possibility of groundwater intrusion into the waste zone, and its significance; topography of the RWMS with significance to drainage and flood potential (100-year flood plain, coastal high-hazard area or wetland); upstream drainage which may require modification to avoid erosion; population growth and future development; and the presence or absence of economically significant natural resources which, if exploited, would result in failure to meet performance objectives. The items mentioned above are dealt with in the description of activities and results in the body of the report. Extensive references, 32 figures, 20 tables

  9. Site characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.S.; Green, S.J.; Hustrulid, W.A. (comps.)

    1976-01-01

    The papers presented at the Conference discussed the topics of modelling and analysis, coal recovery, oil and gas applications, surface structures and slope stability, underground opening design, geothermal energy recovery, in-situ methods, near surface underground opening design, blasting design, rock mechanics, and ground support. Abstracts were prepared for selected papers. (JSR)

  10. State of Nevada comments on the US Department of Energy site characterization plan, Yucca Mountain site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    We find the Site Characterization Plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area (DOE/RW-0160) seriously deficient, in terms of establishing an investigative program to confidently characterize hydrogeologic and closely-related aspects of the proposed repository, in the vadose zone at Yucca Mountain. Most hydrogeological licensing criteria indirectly measure waste isolation provided by the geologic environment during pre- and post-closure conditions. We believe the Site Characterization Plan (SCP) generally fails to establish scientifically sound and feasible programs of investigation that will, in a timely and confident manner, resolve most of the hydrogeologic and geochemical licensing issues that have been recognized since the vadose-zone repository was first proposed at this location in 1982. The SCP generally fails in its responsibility because it does not objectively set aside the DOE conceptual model of a ''dry'' repository environment with extremely slow flow of water confined to the rock matrix. In the SCP, the DOE fails to establish a scientifically sound investigative program that seriously tests for hydrogeologic conditions based on the range of existing data and general knowledge. Rather, the DOE builds a probabilistic program upon a preconceived conceptual model, without designing a field-data collection program with the power to test the validity of the conceptual model. This is unacceptable in that the DOE program, as described in the SCP, plans to build numerical model after numerical model upon untested conceptual models, in attempts to ''resolve'' the fundamental licensing issues of waste isolation by the geologic barrier. If executed as planned, these analyses will have only a series of assumptions of their foundation and, therefore, can not resolve licensing issues. 12 refs., 3 figs

  11. Site characterization progress report, Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Number 19, April 1, 1998 - September 30, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    The nineteenth semiannual report of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) summarizes activities during the period from April 1, 1998, through September 30, 1998. Project activities are aimed at evaluating Yucca Mountain as a potential location for permanent geologic disposal of nuclear materials, as directed by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended (NWPA). The progress report documents activities this period that contribute to completing the Project's near-term programmatic and statutory objectives. These objectives include completing the Viability Assessment, the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), a possible US Department of Energy (DOE) Secretarial Site Recommendation to the President, and, if the site is suitable, submittal of a license application to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Project work this period continued to be concentrated in three integrated activities: site characterization, engineering design and construction, and performance assessment. Accomplishments this period and their relation to near-term objectives are briefly summarized

  12. Report of the Peer Review Panel on the early site suitability evaluation of the Potential Repository Site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Yucca mountain Site Characterization Project Office (YMPO) assigned Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), the Technical and Management Support Services (T&MSS) contractor to the YmPo, the task of conducting an Early Site Suitability Evaluation (ESSE) of the Yucca mountain site as a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository. First, the assignment called for the development of a method to evaluate a single site against the DOE General Guidelines for Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories, 10 CFR Part 960. Then, using this method, an evaluation team, the ESSE Core Team, of senior YMP scientists, engineers, and technical experts, evaluated new information obtained about the site since publication of the final Environmental Assessment (DOE, 1986) to determine if new suitability/unsuitability findings could be recommended. Finally, the Core Team identified further information and analyses needed to make final determinations for each of the guidelines. As part of the task, an independent peer review of the ESSE report has been conducted. Expertise was solicited that covered the entire spectrum of siting guidelines in 10 CFR Part 960 in order to provide a complete, in-depth critical review of the data evaluated and cited in the ESSE report, the methods used to evaluate the data, and the conclusions and recommendations offered by the report. Fourteen nationally recognized technical experts (Table 2) served on the Peer Review Panel. The comments from the Panel and the responses prepared by the ESSE Core Team, documented on formal Comment Response Forms, constitute the body of this document.

  13. Examination of CRISPR/Cas9 design tools and the effect of target site accessibility on Cas9 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ciaran M; Davis, Timothy H; Bao, Gang

    2018-04-01

    What is the topic of this review? In this review, we analyse the performance of recently described tools for CRISPR/Cas9 guide RNA design, in particular, design tools that predict CRISPR/Cas9 activity. What advances does it highlight? Recently, many tools designed to predict CRISPR/Cas9 activity have been reported. However, the majority of these tools lack experimental validation. Our analyses indicate that these tools have poor predictive power. Our preliminary results suggest that target site accessibility should be considered in order to develop better guide RNA design tools with improved predictive power. The recent adaptation of the clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system for targeted genome engineering has led to its widespread application in many fields worldwide. In order to gain a better understanding of the design rules of CRISPR/Cas9 systems, several groups have carried out large library-based screens leading to some insight into sequence preferences among highly active target sites. To facilitate CRISPR/Cas9 design, these studies have spawned a plethora of guide RNA (gRNA) design tools with algorithms based solely on direct or indirect sequence features. Here, we demonstrate that the predictive power of these tools is poor, suggesting that sequence features alone cannot accurately inform the cutting efficiency of a particular CRISPR/Cas9 gRNA design. Furthermore, we demonstrate that DNA target site accessibility influences the activity of CRISPR/Cas9. With further optimization, we hypothesize that it will be possible to increase the predictive power of gRNA design tools by including both sequence and target site accessibility metrics. © 2017 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  14. Site Characterization Work Plan for Gasbuggy, New Mexico (Rev.1, Jan. 2002)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV)

    2002-01-25

    Project Gasbuggy was the first of three joint government-industry experiments conducted to test the effectiveness of nuclear explosives to fracture deeply buried, low-permeability natural gas reservoirs to stimulate production. The scope of this work plan is to document the environmental objectives and the proposed technical site investigation strategies that will be utilized for the site characterization of the Project Gasbuggy Site. Its goal is the collection of data in sufficient quantity and quality to determine current site conditions, support a risk assessment for the site surfaces, and evaluate if further remedial action is required to achieve permanent closure of the site that is both protective of human health and the environment. The Gasbuggy Site is located approximately 55 air miles east of Farmington, New Mexico, in Rio Arriba County within the Carson National Forest in the northeast portion of the San Juan Basin. Historically, Project Gasbuggy consisted of the joint government-industry detonation of a nuclear device on December 10, 1967, followed by reentry drilling and gas production testing and project evaluation activities in post-detonation operations from 1967 to 1976. Based on historical documentation, no chemical release sites other than the mud pits were identified; additionally, there was no material buried at the Gasbuggy Site other than drilling fluids and construction debris. Although previous characterization and restoration activities including sensitive species surveys, cultural resources surveys, surface geophysical surveys, and limited soil sampling and analysis were performed in 1978 and again in 2000, no formal closure of the site was achieved. Also, these efforts did not adequately address the site's potential for chemical contamination at the surface/shallow subsurface ground levels or the subsurface hazards for potential migration outside of the current site subsurface intrusion restrictions. Additional investigation

  15. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada. October 1, 1996--March 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The report is the sixteenth in a series issued approximately every six months to report progress and results of site characterization activities being conducted to evaluate Yucca Mountain as a possible geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This report highlights work started, in progress, and completed during the reporting period. In addition, this report documents and discusses changes to the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Site Characterization Program (Program) resulting from the ongoing collection and evaluation of site information, systems analyses, development of repository and waste package designs, and results of performance assessment activities. Details on the activities summarized can be found in the numerous technical reports cited throughout the progress report. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (Project) activities this period focused on implementing the near-term objectives of the revised Program Plan issued last period. Near-term objectives of the revised Program Plan include updating the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) repository siting guidelines to be consistent with a more focused performance-driven program; supporting an assessment in 1998 of the viability of continuing with actions leading to the licensing of a repository; and if the site is suitable, submittal of a Secretarial site recommendation to the President in 2001 and license application the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 2002. During this reporting period, the Project developed and baselined its long-range plan in December 1996. That revision reflected the detailed fiscal year (FY) 1997 work scope and funding plan previously baselined at the end of FY 1996. Site characterization activities have been focused to answer the major open technical issues and to support the viability assessment.

  16. Assessment of remote sensing technologies to discover and characterize waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report presents details about waste management practices that are being developed using remote sensing techniques to characterize DOE waste sites. Once sites and problems have been located and an achievable restoration and remediation program have been established, efforts to reclaim the environment will begin. Special problems to be considered are: concentrated wastes in tanks and pits; soil and ground water contamination; ground safety hazards for workers; and requirements for long-term monitoring

  17. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada. October 1, 1996--March 31, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    The report is the sixteenth in a series issued approximately every six months to report progress and results of site characterization activities being conducted to evaluate Yucca Mountain as a possible geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This report highlights work started, in progress, and completed during the reporting period. In addition, this report documents and discusses changes to the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Site Characterization Program (Program) resulting from the ongoing collection and evaluation of site information, systems analyses, development of repository and waste package designs, and results of performance assessment activities. Details on the activities summarized can be found in the numerous technical reports cited throughout the progress report. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (Project) activities this period focused on implementing the near-term objectives of the revised Program Plan issued last period. Near-term objectives of the revised Program Plan include updating the US Department of Energy's (DOE) repository siting guidelines to be consistent with a more focused performance-driven program; supporting an assessment in 1998 of the viability of continuing with actions leading to the licensing of a repository; and if the site is suitable, submittal of a Secretarial site recommendation to the President in 2001 and license application the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 2002. During this reporting period, the Project developed and baselined its long-range plan in December 1996. That revision reflected the detailed fiscal year (FY) 1997 work scope and funding plan previously baselined at the end of FY 1996. Site characterization activities have been focused to answer the major open technical issues and to support the viability assessment

  18. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, October 1, 1993--March 31, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This report is the tenth in a series issued at intervals of approximately six months during site characterization of Yucca Mountain as a possible site for a geologic repository for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Also included in this report are descriptions of activities such as public outreach and international programs that are not formally part of the site characterization process. Information on these activities is provided to report on all aspects of the Yucca Mountain studies. The Executive Summary is intended to provide a summary of major decisions, activities, accomplishments, and issues of interest during the reporting period. Chapter 1, Introduction, provides background information to assist the reader in understanding the current status of the program. Chapter 2 provides specific detailed discussions of activities conducted during the current reporting period and has two major divisions. Section 2.1, Preparatory Activities, provides information on select preparatory activities necessary to conduct site characterization and design activities. Sections 2.2 through 2.8 provide specific details on studies and activities conducted during the reporting period and follow the original structure of the Department's 1988 Site Characterization Plan. Chapter 3 contains the current summary schedule, while Chapter 4 provides a description of the program outreach, including activities during the reporting period, in both the international program and public outreach. Chapter 5 presents an epilogue of significant events that occurred after the end of the reporting period

  19. Application of microtremor horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (MHVSR) analysis for site characterization: State of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, S.; Cassidy, J. F.; Castellaro, S.; Cornou, C.; Crow, H.; Hunter, J. A.; Matsushima, S.; Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.; Yong, Alan

    2018-01-01

    Nakamura (Q Rep Railway Tech Res Inst 30:25–33, 1989) popularized the application of the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) analysis of microtremor (seismic noise or ambient vibration) recordings to estimate the predominant frequency and amplification factor of earthquake shaking. During the following quarter century, popularity in the microtremor HVSR (MHVSR) method grew; studies have verified the stability of a site’s MHVSR response over time and validated the MHVSR response with that of earthquake HVSR response. Today, MHVSR analysis is a popular reconnaissance tool used worldwide for seismic microzonation and earthquake site characterization in numerous regions, specifically, in the mapping of site period or fundamental frequency and inverted for shear-wave velocity depth profiles, respectively. However, the ubiquity of MHVSR analysis is predominantly a consequence of its ease in application rather than our full understanding of its theory. We present the state of the art in MHVSR analyses in terms of the development of its theoretical basis, current state of practice, and we comment on its future for applications in earthquake site characterization.

  20. A correction in the CDM methodological tool for estimating methane emissions from solid waste disposal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M M O; van Elk, A G P; Romanel, C

    2015-12-01

    Solid waste disposal sites (SWDS) - especially landfills - are a significant source of methane, a greenhouse gas. Although having the potential to be captured and used as a fuel, most of the methane formed in SWDS is emitted to the atmosphere, mainly in developing countries. Methane emissions have to be estimated in national inventories. To help this task the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has published three sets of guidelines. In addition, the Kyoto Protocol established the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) to assist the developed countries to offset their own greenhouse gas emissions by assisting other countries to achieve sustainable development while reducing emissions. Based on methodologies provided by the IPCC regarding SWDS, the CDM Executive Board has issued a tool to be used by project developers for estimating baseline methane emissions in their project activities - on burning biogas from landfills or on preventing biomass to be landfilled and so avoiding methane emissions. Some inconsistencies in the first two IPCC guidelines have already been pointed out in an Annex of IPCC latest edition, although with hidden details. The CDM tool uses a model for methane estimation that takes on board parameters, factors and assumptions provided in the latest IPCC guidelines, while using in its core equation the one of the second IPCC edition with its shortcoming as well as allowing a misunderstanding of the time variable. Consequences of wrong ex-ante estimation of baseline emissions regarding CDM project activities can be of economical or environmental type. Example of the first type is the overestimation of 18% in an actual project on biogas from landfill in Brazil that harms its developers; of the second type, the overestimation of 35% in a project preventing municipal solid waste from being landfilled in China, which harms the environment, not for the project per se but for the undue generated carbon credits. In a simulated landfill - the same

  1. Atmospheric Characterization of the US Offshore Sites and Impact on Turbine Performance (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, Dhiraj [Alstom Renewable US LLC; Ehrmann, Robert [Alstom Renewable US LLC; Zuo, Delong [Texas Tech University; Xiao, Jingting [Texas Tech University

    2016-10-25

    Reliable, long term offshore atmospheric data is critical to development of the US offshore wind industry. There exists significant lack of meteorological, oceanographic, and geological data at potential US offshore sites. Assessment of wind resources at heights in the range of 25-200m is needed to understand and characterize offshore wind turbine performance. Data from the US Department of Energy owned WindSentinel buoy from two US offshore sites and one European site is analyzed. Low Level Jet (LLJ) phenomena and its potential impact on the performance of an offshore wind turbine is investigated.

  2. Site characterization progress report, April 1, 1994--September 30, 1994: Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Volume 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    The Civil Radioactive Waste Management Program was restructured to provide a new approach to the evaluation of the site for development as a repository and to its licensing. Funding was increased for FY 95, with most of the increase going to the Yucca Mountain site characterization project. During this period, significant progress was made in surface-based testing, advanced conceptual design, performance assessment, planning, licensing support system development activities, and construction of the Exploratory Studies Facility. The report is divided into the following sections: introduction, programmatic activities, site programs, repository design, waste package, performance assessment, and exploratory studies facility design/construction

  3. Surface and subsurface characterization of uranium contamination at the Fernald environmental management site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilk, A.J.; Perkins, R.W.; Abel, K.H.; Brodzinski, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    The past operations of uranium production and support facilities at several Department of Energy (DOE) sites have occasionally resulted in the local contamination of some surface and subsurface soils, and the three-dimensional distribution of the uranium at these sites must be thoroughly characterized before any effective remedial protocols can be established. To this end, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been tasked by the DOE's Office of Technology Development with adapting, developing, and demonstrating technologies for the measurement of uranium in surface and subsurface soils at the Fernald Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration site. These studies are detailed in this report

  4. Improving the effectiveness of ecological site descriptions: General state-and-transition models and the Ecosystem Dynamics Interpretive Tool (EDIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestelmeyer, Brandon T.; Williamson, Jeb C.; Talbot, Curtis J.; Cates, Greg W.; Duniway, Michael C.; Brown, Joel R.

    2016-01-01

    State-and-transition models (STMs) are useful tools for management, but they can be difficult to use and have limited content.STMs created for groups of related ecological sites could simplify and improve their utility. The amount of information linked to models can be increased using tables that communicate management interpretations and important within-group variability.We created a new web-based information system (the Ecosystem Dynamics Interpretive Tool) to house STMs, associated tabular information, and other ecological site data and descriptors.Fewer, more informative, better organized, and easily accessible STMs should increase the accessibility of science information.

  5. Site characterization and validation - drift and borehole fracture data. Stage 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, J.; Straahle, A.

    1988-09-01

    This report describes the procedures used in mapping fractures intersecting seven scanlines along the southern and eastern boundaries of the Site Characterization and Validation (SCV) site and the procedures used in logging and orienting the fractures intersecting the core from six 'boundary boreholes' that were drilled as part of the site characterization program for the SCV site at the 360 m level in the Stripa mine. Scanline mapping along the mine drifts provided a detailed description of the fracture geomentry on the boundaries of the SCV site. The cores from the boundary boreholes have been logged, reconstructed and oriented using a borehole Televiewer and a borehole TV camera and the true fracture orientations calcilated. This has provide additional data on the fracture geometry within the SCV site. The fractire data from both the scanlines and the core logging are presented in the appendices. In addition, an initial analysis has been completed of the fracture orientations, trace lengths and spacings. Based on the variation in fracture orientations over the SCV site, there are two strong subvertical fracture sets or or clusters and a poorly represented sub-horizontal fracture set. An empirical approach, based on the 'blind zone' concept has been used to correct for orientation bias and to predict the orientations of the fracture system that will be intersected by the C and D boreholes in stage III. (33 figs., 6 tabl., 19 refs.)

  6. Three-Dimensional High-Frequency Ultrasonography for Early Detection and Characterization of Embryo Implantation Site Development in the Mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C Peavey

    Full Text Available Ultrasonography is a powerful tool to non-invasively monitor in real time the development of the human fetus in utero. Although genetically engineered mice have served as valuable in vivo models to study both embryo implantation and pregnancy progression, such studies usually require sacrifice of parous mice for subsequent phenotypic analysis. To address this issue, we used three-dimensional (3-D reconstruction in silico of high-frequency ultrasound (HFUS imaging data for early detection and characterization of murine embryo implantation sites and their development in utero. With HFUS imaging followed by 3-D reconstruction, we were able to precisely quantify embryo implantation site number and embryonic developmental progression in pregnant C57BL6J/129S mice from as early as 5.5 days post coitus (d.p.c. through to 9.5 d.p.c. using a VisualSonics Vevo 2100 (MS550S transducer. In addition to measurements of implantation site number, location, volume and spacing, embryo viability via cardiac activity monitoring was also achieved. A total of 12 dams were imaged with HFUS with approximately 100 embryos examined per embryonic day. For the post-implantation period (5.5 to 8.5 d.p.c., 3-D reconstruction of the gravid uterus in mesh or solid overlay format enabled visual representation in silico of implantation site location, number, spacing distances, and site volume within each uterine horn. Therefore, this short technical report describes the feasibility of using 3-D HFUS imaging for early detection and analysis of post-implantation events in the pregnant mouse with the ability to longitudinally monitor the development of these early pregnancy events in a non-invasive manner. As genetically engineered mice continue to be used to characterize female reproductive phenotypes, we believe this reliable and non-invasive method to detect, quantify, and characterize early implantation events will prove to be an invaluable investigative tool for the study of

  7. SPATIALLY-EXPLICIT BAT IMPACT SCREENING TOOL FOR WIND TURBINE SITING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Versar, Inc.; Exponent, Inc.

    2013-10-28

    As the U.S. seeks to increase energy production from renewable energy sources, development of wind power resources continues to grow. One of the most important ecological issues restricting wind energy development, especially the siting of wind turbines, is the potential adverse effect on bats. High levels of bat fatality have been recorded at a number of wind energy facilities, especially in the eastern United States. The U.S. Department of Energy contracted with Versar, Inc., and Exponent to develop a spatially-explicit site screening tool to evaluate the mortality of bats resulting from interactions (collisions or barotrauma) with wind turbines. The resulting Bat Vulnerability Assessment Tool (BVAT) presented in this report integrates spatial information about turbine locations, bat habitat features, and bat behavior as it relates to possible interactions with turbines. A model demonstration was conducted that focuses on two bat species, the eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis) and the Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis). The eastern red bat is a relatively common tree-roosting species that ranges broadly during migration in the Eastern U.S., whereas the Indiana bat is regional species that migrates between a summer range and cave hibernacula. Moreover, Indiana bats are listed as endangered, and so the impacts to this species are of particular interest. The model demonstration used conditions at the Mountaineer Wind Energy Center (MWEC), which consists of 44 wind turbines arranged in a linear array near Thomas, West Virginia (Tucker County), to illustrate model functions and not to represent actual or potential impacts of the facility. The turbines at MWEC are erected on the ridge of Backbone Mountain with a nacelle height of 70 meters and a collision area of 72 meters (blade height) or 4,071 meters square. The habitat surrounding the turbines is an Appalachian mixed mesophytic forest. Model sensitivity runs showed that bat mortality in the model was most sensitive to

  8. Studies on site characterization methodologies for high level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju; Guo Yonghai; Chen Weiming

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the final achievement of the project 'Studies of Site-specific Geological Environment for High Level Waste Disposal and Performance Assessment Methodology, Part Ⅰ: Studies on Site Characterization Methodologies for High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal', which is a 'Key Scientific and Technological Pre-Research Project for National Defense' during 2001-2005. The study area is Beishan area, Gansu Province, NW China--the most potential s