WorldWideScience

Sample records for site characterization studies

  1. [Paleoclimatology studies for Yucca Mountain site characterization]. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-03

    This report consists of two separate papers: Fernley Basin studies; and Influence of sediment supply and climate change on late Quaternary eolian accumulation patterns in the Mojave Desert. The first study involved geologic mapping of late Quaternary sediments and lacustrine features combined with precise control of elevations and descriptions of sediments for each of the major sedimentary units. The second paper documents the response of a major eolian sediment transport system in the east-central Mojave Desert: that which feeds the Kelso Dune field. Information from geomorphic, stratigraphic, and sedimentologic studies of eolian deposits and landforms is combined with luminescence dating of these deposits to develop a chronology of periods of eolian deposition. Both studies are related to site characterization studies of Yucca Mountain and the forecasting of rainfall patterns possible for the high-level radioactive waste repository lifetime.

  2. Bioremediation demonstration on Kwajalein Island: Site characterization and on-site biotreatability studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegrist, R.L.; Korte, N.E.; Pickering, D.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Phelps, T.J. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States))

    1991-09-01

    An environmental study was conducted during February 1991 on Kwajalein Island, a US Army Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) Base in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). This study was undertaken for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP) acting in behalf of USAKA. The purpose of the study was to determine if selected locations for new construction on Kwajalein Island were contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons as suspected and, if so, whether bioremediation appeared to be a feasible technology for environmental restoration. Two different sites were evaluated: (1) the site planned freshwater production facility and (2) a site adjacent to an aboveground diesel fuel storage tank. Within the proposed construction zone for the freshwater production facility (a.k.a desalination plant), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) where either absent or at low levels. Characterization data for another potential construction site adjacent to an aboveground diesel fuel storage tank southeast of the old diesel power plant revealed high concentrations of diesel fuel in the soil and groundwater beneath the site. Results of this investigation indicate that there are petroleum-contaminated soils on Kwajalein Island and bioremediation appears to be a viable environmental restoration technique. Further experimentation and field demonstration are required to determine the design and operating conditions that provide for optimum biodegradation and restoration of the petroleum-contaminated soils. 17 refs., 7 figs., 26 figs.

  3. Summary of 1990 eolian characterization studies, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaylord, D.R.; Stetler, L.D.; Smith, G.D. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Mars, R.W. [Wyoming Univ., Laramie, WY (United States)

    1993-12-01

    A study of eolian activity was initiated to improve understanding of past climate change and the likely effect of wind on engineered protective barriers at the Hanford Site. Eolian features from a Holocene sand dune field located in the southeastern portion of the Hanford Site were investigated using a variety of field and laboratory techniques including stratigraphic examinations of hand-dug pits, textural and compositional analyses of dune sand and potential source detritus, and air photo interpretations. These investigations were undertaken to evaluate the provenance and eolian dynamics of the sand dunes. Interpretations of sand dune migration using archival air photo stereopairs document a 20% reduction in the volume of active sand dunes (measured from an approximate 15-km{sup 2} test area) between 1948 and 1987. Changes in annual precipitation appear to have influenced active dune migration strongly.

  4. Site characterization handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-06-01

    This Handbook discusses both management and technical elements that should be considered in developing a comprehensive site characterization program. Management elements typical of any project of a comparable magnitude and complexity are combined with a discussion of strategies specific to site characterization. Information specific to the technical elements involved in site characterization is based on guidance published by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with respect to licensing requirements for LLW disposal facilities. The objective of this Handbook is to provide a reference for both NRC Agreement States and non-Agreement States for use in developing a comprehensive site characterization program that meets the specific objectives of the State and/or site developer/licensee. Each site characterization program will vary depending on the objectives, licensing requirements, schedules/budgets, physical characteristics of the site, proposed facility design, and the specific concerns raised by government agencies and the public. Therefore, the Handbook is not a prescriptive guide to site characterization. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Site characterization techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1995-01-01

    Geoelectrical methods have been used since the 1920's to search for metallic ore deposits. During the last decade, traditional mining geophysical techniques have been adapted for environmental site characterization. Geoelectrical geophysics is now a well developed engineering specialty, with different methods to focus both on a range of targets and on depths below the surface. Most methods have also been adapted to borehole measurements.

  6. Geotechnical characterization of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Volume 1, Data summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechtel, C.E.; Lin, Ming; Martin, E. [Agapito Associates, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States); Kessel, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the results of geological and geotechnical characterization of the Miocene volcanic tuff rocks of the Timber Mountain and Paintbrush groups that the tunnel boring machine will encounter during excavation of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) North Ramp. The is being constructed by the DOE as part of the Yucca Mountain Project site characterization activities. The purpose of these activities is to evaluate the feasibility of locating a potential high-level nuclear waste repository on lands adjacent to the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This report was prepared as part of the Soil and Rock Properties Studies in accordance with the 8.3.1.14.2 Study Plan. This report is volume 1 of the data summary.

  7. Initial source and site characterization studies for the U.C. Santa Barbara campus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, R.; Nicholson, C.; Steidl, J.; Gurrola, L.; Alex, C.; Cochran, E.; Ely, G.; Tyler, T. [University of California, Santa Barbara (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The University of California Campus-Laboratory Collaboration (CLC) project is an integrated 3 year effort involving Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and four UC campuses - Los Angeles (UCLA), Riverside (UCR), Santa Barbara (UCSB), and San Diego (UCSD) - plus additional collaborators at San Diego State University (SDSU), at Los Alamos National Laboratory and in industry. The primary purpose of the project is to estimate potential ground motions from large earthquakes and to predict site-specific ground motions for one critical structure on each campus. This project thus combines the disciplines of geology, seismology, geodesy, soil dynamics, and earthquake engineering into a fully integrated approach. Once completed, the CLC project will provide a template to evaluate other buildings at each of the four UC campuses, as well as provide a methodology for evaluating seismic hazards at other critical sites in California, including other UC locations at risk from large earthquakes. Another important objective of the CLC project is the education of students and other professional in the application of this integrated, multidisciplinary, state-of-the-art approach to the assessment of earthquake hazard. For each campus targeted by the CLC project, the seismic hazard study will consist of four phases: Phase I - Initial source and site characterization, Phase II - Drilling, logging, seismic monitoring, and laboratory dynamic soil testing, Phase III - Modeling of predicted site-specific earthquake ground motions, and Phase IV - Calculations of 3D building response. This report cover Phase I for the UCSB campus and incudes results up through March 1997.

  8. Status of volcanism studies for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowe, B.; Perry, F.; Murrell, M.; Poths, J.; Valentine, G.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Wells, S. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Bowker, L.; Finnegan, K. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Geissman, J.; McFadden, L.

    1995-02-01

    Chapter 1 introduces the volcanism issue for the Yucca Mountain site and provides the reader with an overview of the organization, content, and significant conclusions of this report. The risk of future basaltic volcanism is the primary topic of concern including both events that intersect a potential repository and events that occur near or within the waste isolation system of a repository. Chapter 2 describes the volcanic history of the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) and emphasizes the Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic record, the interval of primary concern for volcanic risk assessment. The Lathrop Wells volcanic center is described in detail because it is the youngest basalt center in the YMR. Chapter 3 describes the tectonic setting of the YMR and presents and assesses the significance of multiple alternative tectonic models. Geophysical data are described for the YMR and are used as an aid to understand the distribution of basaltic volcanic centers. Chapter 4 discusses the petrologic and geochemical features of basaltic volcanism in the YMR, the southern Great Basin and the Basin and Range province. The long time of activity and characteristic small volume of the Postcaldera basalt of the YMR result in one of the lowest eruptive rates in a volcanic field in the southwest United States. Chapter 5 summarizes current concepts of the segregation, ascent, and eruption of basalt magma. Chapter 6 summarizes the history of volcanism studies (1979 through early 1994), including work for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project and overview studies by the state of Nevada and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Chapter 7 summarizes probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment using a three-part conditional probability model. Chapter 8 describes remaining volcanism work judged to be needed to complete characterization studies for the YMR. Chapter 9 summarizes the conclusions of this volcanism status report.

  9. Natural phenomena hazards site characterization criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    The criteria and recommendations in this standard shall apply to site characterization for the purpose of mitigating Natural Phenomena Hazards (wind, floods, landslide, earthquake, volcano, etc.) in all DOE facilities covered by DOE Order 5480.28. Criteria for site characterization not related to NPH are not included unless necessary for clarification. General and detailed site characterization requirements are provided in areas of meteorology, hydrology, geology, seismology, and geotechnical studies.

  10. A multidisciplinary fractured rock characterization study at Raymond field site, Raymond, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasaki, K.; Freifeld, B.; Cohen, A.; Grossenbacher, K.; Cook, P.; Vasco, D.

    2000-09-01

    A dedicated field site was developed and a suite of experiments were conducted in the Sierra Nevada foothills, near the town of Raymond, CA to develop and test a multi-disciplinary approach to the characterization of groundwater flow and transport in fractured rocks. A wealth of geologic, hydrologic and geophysical data was collected at the site using a variety of unique tools. A cluster of nine approximately 90 m deep boreholes were drilled at the site in a V-shaped pattern with an angle of 60°. The boreholes are spaced 7.5, 15, 30 and 60 m from the central borehole. Various geophysical and hydrologic tests were conducted in and between these boreholes. Integration of cross-hole radar and seismic tomography, borehole flow surveys and images from a new digital borehole scanner indicated that groundwater flow is mainly confined to a few sub-horizontal fracture zones. A unique suite of hydraulic tests were conducted, in which three to four intervals in each of the nine boreholes were isolated using pneumatic packers. Some 130 injection tests were conducted, and more than 4100 cross-hole transient pressure measurements were obtained. A computer algorithm was developed to analyze such massive interference data systematically. As a result of the analysis, an image of the fracture connections emerged, which is consistent with the geophysical data. High precision tiltmeters were effective in remotely characterizing the preferential flow path. Several radial convergent tracer tests were conducted by injecting a mixture of several conservative tracers and one sorbing tracer: deuterium, fluorescein, lithium bromide and polystyrene micro-spheres. Some differences between the breakthrough curves are observed, which may be due to possible differences among so-called "conservative" tracers. Some characterization tools were found to be more effective than others in locating flowing fractures. However, no single tool was almighty. Characterization of fractured rock is extremely

  11. SNF Site Characterization Data: C.Jarvis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Site characterization parameters (canopy density, litter components, soil characterization: color, moisture, components) for selected sites within the Superior...

  12. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) additional geologic site characterization studies, Bayou Choctaw salt dome, Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, J.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Magorian, T.R. [Magorian (Thomas R.), Amherst, NY (United States); Byrne, K.O.; Denzler, S. [Acres International Corp., Amherst, NY (United States)

    1993-09-01

    This report revises and updates the geologic site characterization report that was published in 1980. Revised structure maps and sections show interpretative differences in the dome shape and caprock structural contours, especially a major east-west trending shear zone, not mapped in the 1980 report. Excessive gas influx in Caverns 18 and 20 may be associated with this shear zone. Subsidence values at Bayou Choctaw are among the lowest in the SPR system, averaging only about 10 mm/yr but measurement and interpretation issues persist, as observed values often approximate measurement accuracy. Periodic, temporary flooding is a continuing concern because of the low site elevation (less than 10 ft), and this may intensify as future subsidence lowers the surface even further. Cavern 4 was re-sonared in 1992 and the profiles suggest that significant change has not occurred since 1980, thereby reducing the uncertainty of possible overburden collapse -- as occurred at Cavern 7 in 1954. Other potential integrity issues persist, such as the proximity of Cavern 20 to the dome edge, and the narrow web separating Caverns 15 and 17. Injection wells have been used for the disposal of brine but have been only marginally effective thus far; recompletions into more permeable lower Pleistocene gravels may be a practical way of increasing injection capacity and brinefield efficiency. Cavern storage space is limited on this already crowded dome, but 15 MMBBL could be gained by enlarging Cavern 19 and by constructing a new cavern beneath and slightly north of abandoned Cavern 13. Environmental issues center on the low site elevation: the backswamp environment combined with the potential for periodic flooding create conditions that will require continuing surveillance.

  13. Evaluation of the effects of underground water usage and spillage in the Exploratory Studies Facility; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, E.; Sobolik, S.R.

    1993-12-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is studying Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada as a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository. Analyses reported herein were performed to support the design of site characterization activities so that these activities will have a minimal impact on the ability of the site to isolate waste and a minimal impact on underground tests performed as part of the characterization process. These analyses examine the effect of water to be used in the underground construction and testing activities for the Exploratory Studies Facility on in situ conditions. Underground activities and events where water will be used include construction, expected but unplanned spills, and fire protection. The models used predict that, if the current requirements in the Exploratory Studies Facility Design Requirements are observed, water that is imbibed into the tunnel wall rock in the Topopah Springs welded tuff can be removed over the preclosure time period by routine or corrective ventilation, and also that water imbibed into the Paintbrush Tuff nonwelded tuff will not reach the potential waste storage area.

  14. Geotechnical characterization of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Volume 2, NRG corehole data appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechtel, C.E.; Lin, Ming; Martin, E. [Agapito Associates, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States); Kessel, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the results of the geological and geotechnical characterization of the Miocene volcanic tuff rocks of the Timber Mountain and Paintbrush groups that the tunnel boring machine will encounter during excavations of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) North Ramp. The information in this report was developed to support the design of the ESF North Ramp. The ESF is being constructed by the DOE as part of the Yucca Mountain Project site characterization activities. The purpose of these activities is to evaluate the potential to locate the national high-level nuclear waste repository on land within and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. This report was prepared as part of the Soil and Rock Properties Studies in accordance with the 8.3.1.14.2 Study Plan to Provide Soil and Rock Properties. This is volume 2 which contains NRG Corehole Data for each of the NRG Holes.

  15. SYSTHESIS OF VOLCANISM STUDIES FOR THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE CHARACTERIZATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, F. V.; Crowe, G. A.; Valentine, G. A.; Bowker, L. M.

    1997-09-23

    This report synthesizes the results of volcanism studies conducted by scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and collaborating institutions on behalf of the Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Project. Chapter 1 introduces the volcanism issue for the Yucca Mountain site and provides the reader with an overview of the organization, content, and significant conclusions of this report. The hazard of future basaltic volcanism is the primary topic of concern including both events that intersect a potential repository and events that occur near or within the waste isolation system of a repository. Future volcanic events cannot be predicted with certainty but instead are estimated using formal methods of probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment (PVHA). Chapter 2 describes the volcanic history of the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) and emphasizes the Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic record, the interval of primary concern for volcanic risk assessment. The distribution, eruptive history, and geochronology of Plio-Quaternary basalt centers are described by individual center emphasizing the younger postcaldera basalt (<5 Ma). The Lathrop Wells volcanic center is described in detail because it is the youngest basalt center in the YMR. The age of the Lathrop Wells center is now confidently determined to be about 75 thousand years old. Chapter 3 describes the tectonic setting of the YMR and presents and assesses the significance of multiple alternative tectonic models. The distribution of Pliocene and Quaternary basaltic volcanic centers is evaluated with respect to tectonic models for detachment, caldera, regional and local rifting, and the Walker Lane structural zone. Geophysical data are described for the YMR and are used as an aid to understand the distribution of past basaltic volcanic centers and possible future magmatic processes. Chapter 4 discusses the petrologic and geochemical features of basaltic volcanism in the YMR, the southern Great Basin and the

  16. Numerical studies of rock-gas flow in Yucca Mountain; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, B.; Amter, S.; Lu, Ning [Disposal Safety, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-02-01

    A computer model (TGIF -- Thermal Gradient Induced Flow) of two-dimensional, steady-state rock-gas flow driven by temperature and humidity differences is described. The model solves for the ``fresh-water head,`` a concept that has been used in models of variable-density water flow but has not previously been applied to gas flow. With this approach, the model can accurately simulate the flows driven by small differences in temperature. The unsaturated tuffs of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, are being studied as a potential site for a repository for high-level nuclear waste. Using the TGIF model, preliminary calculations of rock-gas flow in Yucca Mountain are made for four east-west cross-sections through the mountain. Calculations are made for three repository temperatures and for several assumptions about a possible semi-confining layer above the repository. The gas-flow simulations are then used to calculate travel-time distributions for air and for radioactive carbon-14 dioxide from the repository to the ground surface.

  17. Innovations in Site Characterization Case Study: Site Cleanup of the Wenatchee Tree Fruit Test Plot Site Using a Dynamic Work Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Wenatchee Tree Fruit Research and Extension Center site contained soils contaminated with organochlorine pesticides, organophosphorus pesticides, and other pesticides due to agriculture-related research activities conducted from 1966 until...

  18. Preliminary Site Characterization Report, Rulsion Site, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report is a summary of environmental information gathered during a review of the documents pertaining to Project Rulison and interviews with personnel who worked on the project. Project Rulison was part of Operation Plowshare (a program designed to explore peaceful uses for nuclear devices). The project consisted of detonating a 43-kiloton nuclear device on September 10, 1969, in western Colorado to stimulate natural gas production. Following the detonation, a reentry well was drilled and several gas production tests were conducted. The reentry well was shut-in after the last gas production test and was held in standby condition until the general cleanup was undertaken in 1972. A final cleanup was conducted after the emplacement and testing wells were plugged in 1976. However, some surface radiologic contamination resulted from decontamination of the drilling equipment and fallout from the gas flaring during drilling operations. With the exception of the drilling effluent pond, all surface contamination at the Rulison Site was removed during the cleanup operations. All mudpits and other excavations were backfilled, and both upper and lower drilling pads were leveled and dressed. This report provides information regarding known or suspected areas of contamination, previous cleanup activities, analytical results, a review of the regulatory status, the site`s physical environment, and future recommendations for Project Ruhson. Based on this research, several potential areas of contamination have been identified. These include the drilling effluent pond and mudpits used during drilling operations. In addition, contamination could migrate in the gas horizon.

  19. Site characterization and petroleum hydrocarbon plume mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, K. [Harding Lawson Associates, Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a case study of site characterization and hydrocarbon contamination plume mapping/delineation in a gas processing plant in southern Mexico. The paper describes innovative and cost-effective use of passive (non-intrusive) and active (intrusive) techniques, including the use of compound-specific analytical methods for site characterization. The techniques used, on a demonstrative basis, include geophysical, geochemical, and borehole drilling. Geochemical techniques used to delineate the horizontal extent of hydrocarbon contamination at the site include soil gas surveys. The borehole drilling technique used to assess the vertical extent of contamination and confirm geophysical and geochemical data combines conventional hollow-stem auguring with direct push-probe using Geoprobe. Compound-specific analytical methods, such as hydrocarbon fingerprinting and a modified method for gasoline range organics, demonstrate the inherent merit and need for such analyses to properly characterize a site, while revealing the limitations of noncompound-specific total petroleum hydrocarbon analysis. The results indicate that the techniques used in tandem can properly delineate the nature and extent of contamination at a site; often supplement or complement data, while reducing the risk of errors and omissions during the assessment phase; and provide data constructively to focus site-specific remediation efforts. 7 figs.

  20. Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity studies of heterodinuclear complexes modeling active sites in purple acid phospatases.

    OpenAIRE

    Jarenmark, Martin; Haukka, Matti; Demeshko, Serhiy; Tuczek, Felix; Zuppiroli, Luca; Meyer, Franc; Nordlander, Ebbe

    2011-01-01

    To model the heterodinuclear active sites in plant purple acid phosphatases, a mononuclear synthon, [Fe(III)(H(2)IPCPMP)(Cl(2))][PF(6)] (1), has been generated in situ from the ligand 2-(N-isopropyl-N-((2-pyridyl)methyl)aminomethyl)-6-(N-(carboxylmethyl)-N-((2-pyridyl)methyl)amino methyl)-4-methylphenol (IPCPMP) and used to synthesize heterodinuclear complexes of the formulas [Fe(III)M(II)(IPCPMP)(OAc)(2)(CH(3)OH)][PF(6)] (M = Zn (2), Co (3), Ni (4), Mn (5)), [Fe(III)Zn(II)(IPCPMP)(mpdp)][PF(...

  1. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) additional geologic site characterization studies, Bryan Mound Salt Dome, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, J.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Magorian, T.R.; Ahmad, S. [Acres International Corp., Amherst, NY (United States)

    1994-11-01

    This report revises the original report that was published in 1980. Some of the topics covered in the earlier report were provisional and it is now practicable to reexamine them using new or revised geotechnical data and that obtained from SPR cavern operations, which involves 16 new caverns. Revised structure maps and sections show interpretative differences as compared with the 1980 report and more definition in the dome shape and caprock structural contours, especially a major southeast-northwest trending anomalous zone. The original interpretation was of westward tilt of the dome, this revision shows a tilt to the southeast, consistent with other gravity and seismic data. This interpretation refines the evaluation of additional cavern space, by adding more salt buffer and allowing several more caverns. Additional storage space is constrained on this nearly full dome because of low-lying peripheral wetlands, but 60 MMBBL or more of additional volume could be gained in six or more new caverns. Subsidence values at Bryan Mound are among the lowest in the SPR system, averaging about 11 mm/yr (0.4 in/yr), but measurement and interpretation issues persist, as observed values are about the same as survey measurement accuracy. Periodic flooding is a continuing threat because of the coastal proximity and because peripheral portions of the site are at elevations less than 15 ft. This threat may increase slightly as future subsidence lowers the surface, but the amount is apt to be small. Caprock integrity may be affected by structural features, especially the faulting associated with anomalous zones. Injection wells have not been used extensively at Bryan Mound, but could be a practicable solution to future brine disposal needs. Environmental issues center on the areas of low elevation that are below 15 feet above mean sea level: the coastal proximity and lowland environment combined with the potential for flooding create conditions that require continuing surveillance.

  2. MRS system study for the repository: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project; Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinagra, T.A. [Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA); Harig, R. [Parsons, Brinckerhoff, Quade and Douglas, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA)

    1990-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), has initiated a waste management system study to identify the impacts of the presence or absence of a monitored retrievable storage facility (hereinafter referred to as ``MRS``) on system costs and program schedules. To support this study, life-cycle cost estimates and construction schedules have been prepared for the surface and underground facilities and operations geologic nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Nine different operating scenarios (cases) have been identified by OCRWM for inclusion in this study. For each case, the following items are determined: the repository design and construction costs, operating costs, closure and decommissioning costs, required staffing, construction schedules, uncertainties associated with the costs and schedules, and shipping cask and disposal container throughputs. This document contains A-D.

  3. Double tracks test site characterization report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the results of site characterization activities performed at the Double Tracks Test Site, located on Range 71 North, of the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR) in southern Nevada. Site characterization activities included reviewing historical data from the Double Tracks experiment, previous site investigation efforts, and recent site characterization data. The most recent site characterization activities were conducted in support of an interim corrective action to remediate the Double Tracks Test Site to an acceptable risk to human health and the environment. Site characterization was performed using a phased approach. First, previously collected data and historical records sere compiled and reviewed. Generalized scopes of work were then prepared to fill known data gaps. Field activities were conducted and the collected data were then reviewed to determine whether data gaps were filled and whether other areas needed to be investigated. Additional field efforts were then conducted, as required, to adequately characterize the site. Characterization of the Double Tracks Test Site was conducted in accordance with the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER).

  4. Preliminary site characterization - final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, D.; Smith, L.B.

    1993-12-01

    This report summarizes the ecological unit reconnaissance conducted at the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pit(s) RCRA/CERCLA Unit (F-Area BRP) on August 30 and 31, 1993 as part of the RFI/RI baseline risk assessment for the waste unit The baseline risk assessment will assess the potential endangerment to human health and the environment associated with the unit and will be used to evaluate remediation criteria, if needed. The information presented in this report will be used in subsequent stages of the ecological risk assessment to refine the conceptual site model, assist in the selection of contaminants of concern, identify potential ecological receptors, and evaluate trophic relationships and other exposure pathways. The unit reconnaissance survey was conducted in accordance with Specification No. E-18272, Rev. 1 dated August 5, 1993, and the Draft {open_quotes}Ecological Risk Assessment Program Plan for Evaluation of Waste Sites on the Savannah River Site{close_quotes}. The objectives of the site reconnaissance were to: Assess the general characteristics of on-unit biological communities including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and any aquatic communities present. Determine the location, extent, and characteristics of on-unit ecological resources, such as forested areas and wetlands, that could serve as important wildlife habitat or provide other ecological functions. Identify any overt effects of contamination on biological communities. The field investigations included mapping and describing all wetland and terrestrial habitats; recording wildlife observations of birds, mammals, and reptiles; and investigating ecological resources in nearby downgradient and downstream areas which could be affected by mobile contaminants or future remedial actions. In preparation for the field investigation, existing unit information including aerial photographs and reports were reviewed to help identify and describe ecological resources at the waste unit.

  5. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the National Park Service: Fort Vancouver National Historic Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-03-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (ITSNA) to collect data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect data to validate the use of advanced electric drive vehicle transportation. This report focuses on the Fort Vancouver National Historic Site (FVNHS) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of electric vehicles (EVs) into the agencies’ fleet. Individual observations of the selected vehicles provided the basis for recommendations related to EV adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles) could fulfill the mission requirements. FVNHS identified three vehicles in its fleet for consideration. While the FVNHS vehicles conduct many different missions, only two (i.e., support and pool missions) were selected by agency management to be part of this fleet evaluation. The logged vehicles included a pickup truck and a minivan. This report will show that BEVs and PHEVs are capable of performing the required missions and providing an alternative vehicle for both mission categories, because each has sufficient range for individual trips and time available each day for charging to accommodate multiple trips per day. These charging events could occur at the vehicle’s home base, high-use work areas, or in intermediate areas along routes that the vehicles frequently travel. Replacement of vehicles in the current fleet would result in

  6. Stochastic Indicators for Waste Site Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakos, George; Hristopulos, Dionissios T.

    1996-08-01

    Site characterization is an important prerequisite of risk assessment and remediation strategies. Evaluation of the health effects of groundwater and soil contamination depends on the adequate analysis of spatial heterogeneity, exceedance levels, and uncertainties. In this work we formulate and calculate stochastic indicators that provide a rigorous characterization of exposure levels in sites with heterogeneous contaminant distributions and offer valuable information for a cost-effective cleanup analysis. These site indicators are general and can be used for different types and distributions of groundwater and soil contaminants. Important properties of the stochastic indicators are examined which can evaluate the potential for contamination at large scales, and improve understanding of threatened and damaged ecosystems. Analytically tractable formulas are derived that allow the practical estimation of site indicators on the basis of experimental data. Scale and modeling effects on contaminant level analysis are examined in terms of the stochastic indicators. Site cleanup costs depend directly on inferred characteristics of the stochastic indicators, which thus can play an important role in waste site management. Applications are discussed that offer insight regarding certain aspects of stochastic site characterization. Analytical methods of site characterization are compared to numerical simulations. It is shown that the latter can provide a practical alternative to the former, but they could lead to inaccurate results if they are not interpreted carefully.

  7. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this surveillance was to determine traceability of various pieces of the study to one another and to any standards that may be used; as well as record keeping quality and the use of good laboratory practices. The specific goals of the surveillance were to assure that the scientific work be documented sufficiently that it could be continued by another scientist in the absence of the originator; and be repeated at another time with the same results. The results of the surveillance indicate that these goals are basically being met. Some concerns were raised by myself and were met with a positive attitude and eagerness to improve the study documentation. Actions required to improve the study record keeping and documentation are detailed in the Summary and listed in Corrective actions. A brief follow-up assessment will be scheduled to review the adequacy and effectiveness of the actions taken for this project.

  8. Characterizing of a Mid-Latitude Ice-Rich Landing Site on Mars to Enable in Situ Habitability Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, J.; Schurmeier, L. R.; Wilhelm, M.; Stoker, C.; McKay, C.; Davila, A.; Marinova, M.; Karcz, J.; Smith, H.

    2012-01-01

    We suggest an ice-rich landing site at 188.5E 46.16N within Amazonis Planitia as a candidate location to support a Mars lander mission equipped to study past habitability and regions capable of preserving the physical and chemical signs of life and organic matter. Studies of the ice-rich subsurface on Mars are critical for several reasons. The subsurface environment provides protection from radiation to shield organic and biologic compounds from destruction. The ice-rich substrate is also ideal for preserving organic and biologic molecules and provides a source of H2O for biologic activity. Examination of martian ground ice can test several hypotheses such as: 1) whether ground ice supports habitable conditions, 2) that ground ice can preserve and accumulate organic compounds, and 3) that ice contains biomolecules evident of past or present biological activity on Mars. This Amazonis site, located near the successful Viking Lander 2, shows indirect evidence of subsurface ice (ubiquitous defined polygonal ground, gamma ray spectrometer hydrogen signature, and numerical modeling of ice stability) and direct evidence of exposed subsurface ice. This site also provides surface conditions favorable to a safe landing including no boulders, low rock density, minimal rough topography, and few craters.

  9. International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO2Geological Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-02-23

    Several technological options have been proposed to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of CO{sub 2}. One proposed remedy is to separate and capture CO{sub 2} from fossil-fuel power plants and other stationary industrial sources and to inject the CO{sub 2} into deep subsurface formations for long-term storage and sequestration. Characterization of geologic formations for sequestration of large quantities of CO{sub 2} needs to be carefully considered to ensure that sites are suitable for long-term storage and that there will be no adverse impacts to human health or the environment. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (Final Draft, October 2005) states that ''Site characterization, selection and performance prediction are crucial for successful geological storage. Before selecting a site, the geological setting must be characterized to determine if the overlying cap rock will provide an effective seal, if there is a sufficiently voluminous and permeable storage formation, and whether any abandoned or active wells will compromise the integrity of the seal. Moreover, the availability of good site characterization data is critical for the reliability of models''. This International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO{sub 2} Geological Storage (CO2SC) addresses the particular issue of site characterization and site selection related to the geologic storage of carbon dioxide. Presentations and discussions cover the various aspects associated with characterization and selection of potential CO{sub 2} storage sites, with emphasis on advances in process understanding, development of measurement methods, identification of key site features and parameters, site characterization strategies, and case studies.

  10. Identification and characterization of conservative organic tracers for use as hydrologic tracers for the Yucca Mountain site characterization study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stetzenbach, K.; Farnham, I.

    1996-06-01

    Extensive tracer testing is expected to take place at the C-well complex in the Nevada Test Site as part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The C-well complex consists of one pumping well, C3, and two injection wells, C1 and C2 into which tracer will be introduced. The goal of this research was to provide USGS with numerous tracers to completed these tests. Several classes of fluorinated organic acids have been evaluated. These include numerous isomers of fluorinated benzoic acids, cinnamic acids, and salicylic acids. Also several derivatives of 2-hydroxy nicotinic acid (pyridone) have been tested. The stability of these compounds was determined using batch and column tests. Ames testing (mutagenicity/carcinogenicity) was conducted on the fluorinated benzoic acids and a literature review of toxicity of the fluorobenzoates and three perfluoro aliphatic acids was prepared. Solubilities were measured and method development work was performed to optimize the detection of these compounds. A Quality Assurance (QA) Program was developed under existing DOE and USGS guidelines. The program includes QA procedures and technical standard operating procedures. A tracer test, using sodium iodide, was performed at the C-well complex. HRC chemists performed analyses on site, to provide real time data for the USGS hydrologists and in the laboratories at UNLV. Over 2,500 analyses were performed. This report provides the results of the laboratory experiments and literature reviews used to evaluate the potential tracers and reports on the results of the iodide C-well tracer test.

  11. Report of early site suitability evaluation of the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younker, J.L.; Andrews, W.B.; Fasano, G.A.; Herrington, C.C.; Mattson, S.R.; Murray, R.C. [Science Applications International Corp., Las Vegas, NV (United States); Ballou, L.B.; Revelli, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Ducharme, A.R.; Shephard, L.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dudley, W.W.; Hoxie, D.T. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Herbst, R.J.; Patera, E.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Judd, B.R. [Decision Analysis Co., Portola Valley, CA (United States); Docka, J.A.; Rickertsen, L.D. [Weston Technical Associates, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This study evaluated the technical suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential site for a mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of radioactive waste. The evaluation was conducted primarily to determine early in the site characterization program if there are any features or conditions at the site that indicate it is unsuitable for repository development. A secondary purpose was to determine the status of knowledge in the major technical areas that affect the suitability of the site. This early site suitability evaluation (ESSE) was conducted by a team of technical personnel at the request of the Associate Director of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Geologic Disposal, a unit within the DOE`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The Yucca Mountain site has been the subject of such evaluations for over a decade. In 1983, the site was evaluated as part of a screening process to identify potentially acceptable sites. The site was evaluated in greater detail and found suitable for site characterization as part of the Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE, 1986) required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA). Additional site data were compiled during the preparation of the Site Characterization Plan (SCP) (DOE, 1988a). This early site suitability evaluation has considered information that was used in preparing both-documents, along with recent information obtained since the EA and SCP were published. This body of information is referred to in this report as ``current information`` or ``available evidence.``

  12. Leachate characterization of active and closed dump sites in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... such as air, soil, surface and ground water. The knowledge of the composition of leachates is important to determine the dump sites that require immediate remediation attention and their effective treatment approach. This study characterizes the leachate quality of both active and closed dump sites in Port Harcourt City.

  13. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gertz, C.P.; Bartlett, J.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) and establish an approved YMP baseline against which overall YMP progress and management effectiveness shall be measured. For the sake of brevity, this document will be referred to as the Project Plan throughout this document. This Project Plan only addresses activities up to the submittal of the repository license application (LA) to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A new Project Plan will be submitted to establish the technical, cost, and schedule baselines for the final design and construction phase of development extending through the start of repository operations, assuming that the site is determined to be suitable.

  14. Site Characterization Progress Report No.20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE

    1999-10-01

    This is the 20th progress report issued by the U.S. Department of Energy. This report provides a summary-level discussion of Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project progress. Accomplishments this period are presented in a format that identifies important progress achieved and conveys how that progress supports the near-term objectives in the U.S. Department of Energy's schedule. Greater detail is documented in the cited references and in deliverables listed in Appendix A to this report. Readers may request specific U.S. Department of Energy-approved program documents that are listed in Section 7, References, and Appendix A by contacting the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Information Line at 1-800-225-6972. This document provides a discussion of recently completed and ongoing activities conducted by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project during the six-month reporting period from October 1, 1998, through March 31, 1999. Some information presented herein is by necessity preliminary, because some deliverables and reports that support the discussions have not been finalized. Projected future deliverables and reports are listed in Appendix B and are noted in the text as works in progress. Appendix C lists the status of milestone reports referenced in previous progress reports. A glossary of Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project-specific terms used in this report is given in Appendix D.

  15. Site characterization plan thermal goals reevaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-09-08

    The Site Characterization Plan (SCP) (DOE, 1988) attempted to define surrogate criteria that could be used to establish potential repository performance. These criteria or SCP thermal goals were developed from knowledge existing at the time and, as a reference case, emphasized performance for waste emplacement in a vertical borehole. Since that time, new knowledge has become available and some additional analyses of thermal loading have been performed. Additionally, other emplacement modes such as in-drift emplacement are being considered to accommodate larger waste packages. New concepts such as ``extended hot`` are also being considered as possible methods to achieve improved waste isolation. Thus it became clear that the thermal goals established in the SCP should be reevaluated. A Working Group was formed to reassess the SCP thermal goals to determine whether each goal was still valid, if there were goals that needed to be added, and what if any effort was needed to reduce the uncertainty associated with a particular goal. The objectives of the effort were to: (1) provide thermal goals that would support the FY 1993 Thermal Loading Systems Study; (2) help focus the planned testing and analysis efforts; and (3) acquire data that potentially could be used to initiate a change to the project technical baseline. Sixteen thermal goals were evaluated; fifteen were from various sections of the SCP; one goal was added, and another was split into two to include in-drift emplacement. The group`s findings and recommendations are presented.

  16. SWiFT site atmospheric characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, Christopher Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ennis, Brandon Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Historical meteorological tall tower data are analyzed from the Texas Tech University 200 m tower to characterize the atmospheric trends of the Scaled Wind Farm Technologies (SWiFT) site. In this report the data are analyzed to reveal bulk atmospheric trends, temporal trends and correlations of atmospheric variables. Through this analysis for the SWiFT turbines the site International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) classification is determined to be class III-C. Averages and distributions of atmospheric variables are shown, revealing large fluctuations and the importance of understanding the actual site trends as opposed to simply using averages. The site is significantly directional with the average wind speed from the south, and particularly so in summer and fall. Site temporal trends are analyzed from both seasonal (time of the year) to daily (hour of the day) perspectives. Atmospheric stability is seen to vary most with time of day and less with time of year. Turbulence intensity is highly correlated with stability, and typical daytime unstable conditions see double the level of turbulence intensity versus that experienced during the average stable night. Shear, veer and atmospheric stability correlations are shown, where shear and veer are both highest for stable atmospheric conditions. An analysis of the Texas Tech University tower anemometer measurements is performed which reveals the extent of the tower shadow effects and sonic tilt misalignment.

  17. Pressure monitoring and characterization of external sources of contamination at the site of the payment drinking water epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besner, Marie-Claude; Broséus, Romain; Lavoie, Jean; Giovanni, George Di; Payment, Pierre; Prévost, Michèle

    2010-01-01

    The 1990s epidemiological studies by Payment and colleagues suggested that an increase in gastrointestinal illnesses observed in the population consuming tap water from a system meeting all water quality regulations might be associated with distribution system deficiencies. In the current study, the vulnerability of this distribution system to microbial intrusion was assessed by characterizing potential sources of contamination near pipelines and monitoring the frequency and magnitude of negative pressures. Bacterial indicators of fecal contamination were recovered more frequently in the water from flooded air-valve vaults than in the soil or water from pipe trenches. The level of fecal contamination in these various sources was more similar to levels from river water rather than wastewater. Because of its configuration, this distribution system is vulnerable to negative pressures when pressure values out of the treatment plant reach or drop below 172 kPa (25 psi), which occurred nine times during a monitoring period of 17 months. The results from this investigation suggest that this distribution system is vulnerable to contamination by intrusion. Comparison of the frequency of occurrence of negative pressure events and repair rates with data from other distribution systems suggests that the system studied by Payment and colleagues is not atypical.

  18. Overburden characterization and post-burn study of the Hanna IV, underground coal gasification site, Wyoming, and comparison to other Wyoming UCG sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcouiller, B.A.; Burns, L.K.; Ethridge, F.G.

    1984-11-01

    Analysis of 21 post-burn cores taken from the Hanna IV UCG site allows 96 m (315 ft) of overburden to be subdivided into four local stratigraphic units. The 7.6 m (25 ft) thick Hanna No. 1 coal seam is overlain by a laterally discontinuous, 3.3 m (11 ft) thick shaley mudstone (Unit A') in part of the Hanna IV site. A more widespread, 30 m (90 ft) thick well-indurated sandstone (Unit A) overlies the A' unit. Unit A is the roof rock for both of the Hanna IV cavities. Overlying Unit A is a 33 m (108 ft) thick sequence of mudstone and claystone (Unit B), and the uppermost unit at the Hanna IV site (Unit C) is a coarse-grained sandstone that ranges in thickness from 40 to 67 m (131 to 220 ft). Two elliptical cavities were formed during the two phases of the Hanna IV experiment. The larger cavity, Hanna IVa, is 45 x 15 m in plan and has a maximum height of 18 m (59 ft) from the base of the coal seam to the top of the cavity; the Hanna IVb cavity is 40 x 15 m in plan and has a maximum height of 11 m (36 ft) from the base of the coal seam to the top of the cavity. Geotechnical tests indicated that the Hanna IV overburden rocks were moderately strong to strong, based on the empirical classification of Broch and Franklin (1972), and a positive, linear correlation exists between rock strength and volume percent calcite cement. There is an inverse linear correlation between rock strength and porosity for the Hanna IV overburden rocks. 28 refs., 34 figs., 13 tabs..

  19. Determining the Performance of an Arid Zone Radioactive Waste Site Through Site Characterization, Modeling, and Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. L. Dozier; D. G. Levitt; M. J. Sully; and C. F. Lohrstorfer

    1999-03-09

    A strategy of site characterization, modeling, and monitoring are used to evaluate the performance of an interim cover at a low-level radioactive waste management site. The soil water migration papthway must be evaluated to assure the long-term isolation of low-level radioactive waste. Water balance studies using precision weighing lysimeters have been conducted for five years near the radioactive waste site ath the Nevada Test Site. The numerical flow models UNSAT-H and HYDRUS-2D were tested using the weighing lysimeter data and then used to evaluate various cover design issues including cover thickness, presence of vegetation, and monitoring system design.

  20. Characterization of biogas bibliography measures on sites; Caracterisation des Biogaz bibliographie mesures sur sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulleau, J.

    2002-10-15

    The aim of this study is to define the pollutants emissions related to the combustion of biogas of different sources: motors, furnaces, flares...The project is presented in three parts: a bibliographic study on the chemical characterization of the biogas, a first series of measures on production sites and a second series of measures on a site of valorization and destruction of biogas. (A.L.B.)

  1. Characterization of the beta-lactam binding site of penicillin acylase of Escherichia coli by structural and site-directed mutagenesis studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkema, WBL; Hensgens, CMH; Kroezinga, EH; de Vries, E; Floris, R; van der Laan, JM; Dijkstra, BW; Janssen, DB

    2000-01-01

    The binding of penicillin to penicillin acylase was studied by X-ray crystallography, The structure of the enzyme-substrate complex was determined after soaking crystals of an inactive beta N241A penicillin acylase mutant with penicillin G, Binding of the substrate induces a conformational change,

  2. Site productivity and diversity of the Middle Mountain long-term soil productivity study, West Virginia: Pre-experimental site characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Beth. Adams

    2018-01-01

    To better understand the impacts of a changing environment and interactions with forest management options for forest resources, including soil, large long-term experiments are required. Such experiments require careful documentation of reference or pre-experimental conditions. This publication describes the Middle Mountain Long-term Soil Productivity (LTSP) Study,...

  3. Attachment sites of the coracoclavicular ligaments are characterized by fibrocartilage differentiation: a study on human cadaveric tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockert, B; Braunstein, V; Sprecher, C; Shinohara, Y; Kirchhoff, C; Milz, S

    2012-02-01

    We analyzed the immunohistochemical labeling patterns of the extracellular matrix of the coracoclavicular ligaments (CCL) in order to relate the molecular composition of the attachment sites to their mechanical environment. Ligaments were exposed from 12 fresh-frozen human cadaveric samples (four males, mean age: 48.6 ± 12.1 years). Cryosection of methanol-fixed and decalcified tissue was cut and sections were labeled with a panel of monoclonal antibodies directed against collagens, proteoglycans and proteins of vascular components. Attachment sites of both ligaments showed characteristic fibrocartilaginous labeling of collagen type II, aggrecan and link protein in all samples. Labeling for type II collagen was most conspicuous at the insertion of the coracoid process. Morphometry of adjacent samples revealed a fibrocartilage zone of 10-15% in relationship with the ligament proper, where labeling for type II collagen, aggrecan and link protein was negative. The presence of fibrocartilage at both entheses of the trapezoid and conoid ligament suggests that the CCL complex is subject to shear/compression forces. A variable fibrocartilage differentiation at the entheses of both ligaments may be related to the marked change in loading and insertion angle that the ligaments undergo during shoulder movement. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Site Characterization of Italian Strong Motion Recording Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scasserra, Giuseppe; Stewart, Jonathan P.; Kayen, Robert E.; Lanzo, Giuseppe

    2008-07-01

    A dataset of site conditions at 101 Italian ground motion stations with recorded motions has been compiled that includes geologic characteristics and seismic velocities. Geologic characterization is derived principally from local geologic investigations by ENEL that include detailed mapping and cross sections. For sites lacking such detailed geologic characterization, the geology maps of the by Servizio Geologico d'Italia are used. Seismic velocities are extracted from the literature and the files of consulting engineers, geologists and public agencies for 33 sites. Data sources utilized include post earthquake site investigations (Friuli and Irpinia events), microzonation studies, and miscellaneous investigations performed by researchers or consulting engineers/geologists. Additional seismic velocities are measured by the authors using the controlled source spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) method for 18 sites that recorded the 1997-1998 Umbria Marche earthquake sequence. The compiled velocity measurements provide data for 51 of the 101 sites. For the remaining sites, the average seismic velocity in the upper 30 m (Vs30) is estimated using a hybrid approach. For young Quaternary alluvium, Vs30 an existing empirical relationship for California sites by Wills and Clahan (2006) is used, which we justify by validating this relationship against Italian data. For Tertiary Limestone and Italian Mesozoic rocks, empirical estimates of Vs30 are developed using the available data. This work is also presented in Scasserra et al. (2008: JEE, in review).

  5. Preliminary siting characterization Salt Disposition Facility - Site B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyatt, D.

    2000-01-04

    A siting and reconnaissance geotechnical program has been completed in S-Area at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. This program investigated the subsurface conditions for the area known as ``Salt Disposition Facility (SDF), Site B'' located northeast of H-Area and within the S-Area. Data acquired from the Site B investigation includes both field exploration and laboratory test data.

  6. NRC staff site characterization analysis of the Department of Energy`s Site Characterization Plan, Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-08-01

    This Site Characterization Analysis (SCA) documents the NRC staff`s concerns resulting from its review of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Site Characterization Plan (SCP) for the Yucca Mountain site in southern Nevada, which is the candidate site selected for characterization as the nation`s first geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. DOE`s SCP explains how DOE plans to obtain the information necessary to determine the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site for a repository. NRC`s specific objections related to the SCP, and major comments and recommendations on the various parts of DOE`s program, are presented in SCA Section 2, Director`s Comments and Recommendations. Section 3 contains summaries of the NRC staff`s concerns for each specific program, and Section 4 contains NRC staff point papers which set forth in greater detail particular staff concerns regarding DOE`s program. Appendix A presents NRC staff evaluations of those NRC staff Consultation Draft SCP concerns that NRC considers resolved on the basis of the SCP. This SCA fulfills NRC`s responsibilities with respect to DOE`s SCP as specified by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) and 10 CFR 60.18. 192 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. Annual report on paleoclimate studies for the Yucca Mountain project site characterization conducted by the Desert Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The prospect that Yucca Mountain may become a repository for high-level radionuclides with especially long half-lives means that the intended waste containment area must be well beyond the reach of the hydrologic system for at least ten millennia. Through the integration of several avenues of paleoclimatic proxy data, the authors intend to arrive at definite conclusions regarding rates of change, and extremes and stabilities of past climate regimes. These will in turn lead to rough estimates of: the amounts of rainfall available for recharge during past periods of effectively wetter climate, and the durations and frequencies of recharge periods. The paper gives summaries of the following studies: Late Quaternary and Holocene climate derived from vegetation history and plant cellulose stable isotope records from the Great basin of western North America; Accomplishments of paleofaunal studies, 1993--1994; Geomorphology studies in the Great Basin; Alluvial fan response to climatic change, Buena Vista Valley, central Nevada; Sedimentology, stratigraphy, and chronology of lacustrine deposition in the Fernley Basin, west-central Nevada; Tree-rings, lake chronologies, alluvial sequences and climate--Implications for Great Basin paleoenvironmental studies; Stable isotopic validation studies--Fossil snails; and Late Pleistocene and Holocene eolian activity in the Mojave Desert.

  8. [Environmental characterization of the National Contaminated Sites in SENTIERI project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musmeci, L; Bellino, M; Falleni, F; Piccardi, A

    2011-01-01

    The concept of "polluted site" was firstly introduced in Italy with the definition of "environmental high risk areas" (Rule 349/86). Later, the decree 471/99 stated that a site is considered polluted if the concentration of even just one index pollutant in anyone of the matrices (soil or subsoil, surface or ground waters) exceeds the allowable threshold limit concentration. The boundaries of Italian polluted sites (IPS) were defined (Decree 152/06) on the basis of health, environmental and social criteria. SENTIERI Project includes 44 out of the 57 sites comprised in the "National environmental remediation program"; they correspond to the largest national industrial agglomerates. For each site, characterization data were collected, classified and arranged in tables. A great part of collected data came also from the environmental remediation programmes planned for the sites. These plans show that characterization and risk assessment activities were mainly undertaken for private industrial areas, as they were considered source of pollution. On the other hand, municipal and/or green and agricultural areas included in IPSs were poorly studied. Therefore, it is difficult to assess the exposure of the populations living inside and/or near the IPSs. The most probable population exposure come from the contamination of ground waters utilized for irrigation, or industrial emissions. For a description of SENTIERI, refer to the 2010 Supplement of Epidemiology & Prevention devoted to SENTIERI Project.

  9. Characterization of the Source Physics Experiment Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, A. J.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Broome, S. T.; Townsend, M.; Abbott, R. E.; Snelson, C. M.; Cogbill, A. H.; Conklin, G.; Mitra, G.; Sabbeth, L.

    2012-12-01

    Designed to improve long-range treaty monitoring capabilities, the Source Physics Experiments, conducted at the Nevada National Security Site, also provide an opportunity to advance near-field monitoring and field-based investigations of suspected underground test locations. In particular, features associated with underground testing can be evaluated using Source Physics Experiment activities as analogs, linking on-site inspections with remote sensing technologies. Following a calibration shot (SPE 1), SPE 2 (10/2011) and SPE 3 (07/2012) were performed in the same emplacement hole with 1.0 ton of explosives at 150 ft depth. Because one of the goals of the Source Physics Experiments is to determine damage effects on seismic wave propagation and improve modeling capabilities, a key component in the predictive component and ultimate validation of the models is a full understanding of the intervening geology between the source and instrumented bore holes. Ground-based LIDAR and fracture mapping, mechanical properties determined via laboratory testing of rock core, discontinuity analysis and optical microscopy of the core rocks were performed prior to and following each experiment. In addition, gravity and magnetic data were collected between SPE 2 and 3. The source region of the explosions was also characterized using cross-borehole seismic tomography and vertical seismic profiling utilizing two sets of two boreholes within 40 meters of ground zero. The two sets of boreholes are co-linear with the explosives hole in two directions. Results of the LIDAR collects from both SPE 2 and 3 indicate a permanent ground displacement of up to several centimeters aligning along the projected surface traces of two faults observed in the core and fractures mapped at the surface. Laboratory testing and optical work show a difference in the characteristics of the rocks below and above 40 feet and within the fault zones.The estimated near-surface densities from the gravity survey show

  10. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-09-09

    The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan required each US Department of Energy (DOE) site that characterizes transuranic waste to be sent the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan that addresses applicable requirements specified in the QAPP.

  11. Quantification of uncertain outcomes from site characterization: Insights from the ESF-AS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, W.J.; Parrish, D.K. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Beccue, P.C. [Applied Decision Analysis, Inc., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1992-01-01

    As part of the Exploratory Studies Facility Alternatives Study (ESF-AS) the uncertain outcomes from site characterization were quantified using a probabilistic tree known as ``Nature`s Tree.`` Nature`s Tree distinguished the true characteristics of the Yucca Mountain site from the perceived characteristics deduced from testing. Bayesian probabilistic calculations converted probabilities in Nature`s Tree to the probabilistic estimates required for the comparative analysis of Exploratory Studies Facility-repository options. Experts on characterization testing explicitly addressed several site characterization issues that are considered implicitly in many site characterization programs.

  12. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site; to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. Chapter 3 summarizes present knowledge of the regional and site hydrologic systems. The purpose of the information presented is to (1) describe the hydrology based on available literature and preliminary site-exploration activities that have been or are being performed and (2) provide information to be used to develop the hydrologic aspects of the planned site characterization program. Chapter 4 contains geochemical information about the Yucca Mountain site. The chapter references plan for continued collection of geochemical data as a part of the site characterization program. Chapter 4 describes and evaluates data on the existing climate and site meterology, and outlines the suggested procedures to be used in developing and validating methods to predict future climatic variation. 534 refs., 100 figs., 72 tabs.

  13. Geological characterization of contaminated sites in urban areas (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Theis Raaschou; Nissen, Randi Warncke; Poulsen, Søren Erbs

    In Denmark, contaminations from industry and farming represent a significant threat to groundwater resources. Hence there is a focus on identifying and locating these contaminated places. Once located, contaminations are mapped and monitored and remediation efforts are undertaken. Remediation is ......, can minimize the uncertainties on predictions of the fate of the contaminant. Based on the work, we were able to pinpoint the best strategies and solutions for future remediation efforts at the two sites....... in the projections on the fate of the contaminant. From two contaminated sites located around the city of Horsens, Denmark we carry out a geological characterization. The two sites are situated in urban areas. Existing data from the two field sites includes only lithological profiles from boreholes. In order...... geological models of the two sites were constructed. The 3D geological models will serve as a basis for simulating groundwater flow and contaminant transport at the field sites. The study demonstrates how detailed information about the geological setting in conjunction with contaminant transport modelling...

  14. Determination and characterization of site-specific N-glycosylation using MALDI-Qq-TOF tandem mass spectrometry: case study with a plant protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykova, Natalia V; Rampitsch, Christof; Krokhin, Oleg; Standing, Kenneth G; Ens, Werner

    2006-02-15

    MALDI tandem mass spectrometry analysis on a hybrid quadrupole-quadrupole time-of-flight (Qq-TOF) instrument was used in combination with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, proteolytic digestion, and liquid chromatography for identification and structural characterization of glycosylation in a novel glycoprotein, pathogenesis-related subtilisin-like proteinase P69B from tomato. Glycopeptide fractions from microcolumn reversed-phase HPLC deposited on MALDI targets were identified from MS by their specific m/z spacing patterns (203, 162, 146 u) between glycoforms. In most cases, MS/MS spectra of [M + H]+ ions of glycopeptides featured peaks useful for determining sugar compositions, peptide sequences, and thus probable glycosylation sites. Furthermore, peptide-related product ions could readily be used in database search procedures to identify the glycoprotein. Four out of five predicted glycosylation sites were biologically relevant and occupied by five N-linked glycan side chains each. In addition, the fragmentation efficiency allowed detection of further modification of methionine-containing glycoforms with either oxidized or iodoacetamide alkylated methionine. The high resolution furnished by MALDI-Qq-TOF allowed rapid and sensitive structural characterization of site-specific N-glycosylation from a limited quantity of material and revealed heterogeneity at different levels, including different glycan side-chain modifications, and heterogeneity of oligosaccharide structures on the same glycosylation site.

  15. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in acordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and eveloping a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing prinicples, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed. 880 refs., 130 figs., 25 tabs.

  16. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  17. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended by the Secretary of Energy and approved by the President for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the requirements of the Nulcear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of the site characterization plan are oulined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  18. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended and approved by the President for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site; to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package; and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstate the suitability of the site for a repository, to desin the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next; it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  19. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Neavada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended and approved for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining hte geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare and environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  20. Measurement Sets and Sites Commonly Used for Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Holekamp, Kara; Ryan, Robert; Sellers, Richard; Davis, Bruce; Zanoni, Vicki

    2002-01-01

    Scientists at NASA's Earth Science Applications Directorate are creating a well-characterized Verification & Validation (V&V) site at the Stennis Space Center. This site enables the in-flight characterization of remote sensing systems and the data they acquire. The data are predominantly acquired by commercial, high spatial resolution satellite systems, such as IKONOS and QuickBird 2, and airborne systems. The smaller scale of these newer high resolution remote sensing systems allows scientists to characterize the geometric, spatial, and radiometric data properties using a single V&V site. The targets and techniques used to characterize data from these newer systems can differ significantly from the techniques used to characterize data from the earlier, coarser spatial resolution systems. Scientists are also using the SSC V&V site to characterize thermal infrared systems and active LIDAR systems. SSC employs geodetic targets, edge targets, radiometric tarps, and thermal calibration ponds to characterize remote sensing data products. This paper presents a proposed set of required measurements for visible through long-wave infrared remote sensing systems and a description of the Stennis characterization. Other topics discussed include: 1) The use of ancillary atmospheric and solar measurements taken at SSC that support various characterizations; 2) Additional sites used for radiometric, geometric, and spatial characterization in the continental United States; 3) The need for a standardized technique to be adopted by CEOS and other organizations.

  1. Measurement Sets and Sites Commonly used for Characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Holekamp, Kara; Ryan, Robert; Blonski, Slawomir; Sellers, Richard; Davis, Bruce; Zanoni, Vicki

    2002-01-01

    Scientists with NASA's Earth Science Applications Directorate are creating a well-characterized Verification & Validation (V&V) site at the Stennis Space Center (SSC). This site enables the in-flight characterization of remote sensing systems and the data that they require. The data are predominantly acquired by commercial, high-spatial resolution satellite systems, such as IKONOS and QuickBird 2, and airborne systems. The smaller scale of these newer high-resolution remote sensing systems allows scientists to characterize the geometric, spatial, and radiometric data properties using a single V&V site. The targets and techniques used to characterize data from these newer systems can differ significantly from the earlier, coarser spatial resolution systems. Scientists are also using the SSC V&V site to characterize thermal infrared systems and active Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems. SSC employs geodetic targets, edge targets, radiometric tarps, and thermal calibration ponds to characterize remote sensing data products. This paper presents a proposed set of required measurements for visible-through-longwave infrared remote sensing systems, and a description of the Stennis characterization. Other topics discussed inslude: 1) use of ancillary atmospheric and solar measurements taken at SSC that support various characterizations, 2) other sites used for radiometric, geometric, and spatial characterization in the continental United States,a nd 3) the need for a standardized technique to be adopted by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) and other organizations.

  2. Characterization of the Hanford Site and environs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. (ed.)

    1991-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to site, construct, and operate a new production reactor (NPR) intended to produce materials for the US nuclear weapons program. The DOE has determined that this proposed action constitutes an action that may significantly affect the quality of the human environment; therefore, the DOE is preparing an environmental impact statement (EIS) to assess the potential impacts of the proposed action and reasonable alternatives on the human and natural environment. The NPR-EIS is being prepared in accordance with Section 102(2)(C) of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as implemented in regulations (40 CFR 1500--1508) promulgated by the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ). Information on the potentially affected environment at the Hanford Site and its environs was provided to ANL by PNL in various submissions during CY-1989, and some of that information was consolidated into this report, which is considered to be supporting documentation for the NPR-EIS. 93 refs., 35 figs., 46 tabs.

  3. Advances in characterizing ubiquitylation sites by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylvestersen, K.B.; Young, C.; Nielsen, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    The attachment of one or more ubiquitin moieties to proteins plays a central regulatory mechanism in eukaryotic cells. Protein ubiquitylation regulates numerous cellular processes, including protein degradation, signal transduction, DNA repair and cell division. The characterization...... of ubiquitylation is a two-fold challenge that involves the mapping of ubiquitylation sites and the determination of ubiquitin chain topology. This review focuses on the technical advances in the mass spectrometry-based characterization of ubiquitylation sites, which have recently involved the large...

  4. A radiological characterization of remediated tank battery sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, M B; Scott, L M; Zrake, S J

    1995-03-01

    Tank battery sites have historically been used for the initial processing of crude oil which separates water and sediment from the produced oil. Typically, one or more producing wells is connected to a tank battery site consisting of storage and separation tanks. Historical operating practices also included a production holding pit for increased separation of oil, water, and sediment. The sediment remaining in the pit is composed of an oily, viscous material called sludge. Under certain circumstances, this sludge may contain naturally occurring radioactive material. The methodology required for reclamation of the production holding pits consisted of removal of soil and sludge from the pits with controlled land-spreading to achieve biodegradation of the hydrocarbons. The purpose of this study was to perform a radiological characterization on representative tank battery sites that had been reclaimed in the above fashion. The average gamma radiation exposure rates encountered ranged from 2.1-7.2 pC kg-1 s-1. The average concentration of 226Ra for the tank battery sites ranged from 0.5-2.3, 0.5-2.8, and 0.3-3.2 Bq g-1 for soil depths of 0-15, 15-30, and 30-51 cm, respectively. Average radon flux measurements ranged from 29.7-211.8 mBq m-2 s-1. Measurements of the radon emanation coefficient of NORM ranged from 3-7%.

  5. Protecting subcontractor personnel during hazardous waste site characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lankford, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper covers Industrial Hygiene involvement in the Site Characterization Program, focusing on the field oversight responsibilities. It discusses the different types and levels of protective equipment, gives an example of the type of situation that can arise from field characterization efforts, and gives a brief summary of health protection program elements. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Measurement techniques for radiological characterization of contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, M.

    1996-09-18

    Once the decision is taken to characterize a contaminated site, appropriate measurement techniques must be selected. The choice will depend on the available information, on the nature and extent of the contamination, as well as on available resources (staff and budget). Some techniques are described on the basis of examples of characterization projects (e.g. Olen area in Belgium).

  7. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-12-14

    The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan required each U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site that characterizes transuranic waste to be sent the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan that addresses applicable requirements specified in the quality assurance project plan (QAPP).

  8. Site Characterization Plan: Uranium Stabilization through Polyphosphate Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeul, Vince R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Williams, Bruce A.; Williams, Mark D.

    2006-12-01

    An initial feasibility study of options to treat the uranium plume at the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit considered hydraulic containment, slurry wall containment, and groundwater extraction as potential remedial action technologies. None were selected for interim action, and reduction of contamination levels by natural processes was considered a viable alternative while source removal actions continued. Subsequent planning for a Phase III feasibility study focused on methods that would reduce the concentration of uranium in the aquifer, including multiple methods to immobilize uranium using chemical-based technologies. Based on an initial technology screening, the polyphosphate technology was identified as the best candidate to treat the for further evaluation and selected for treatability testing. The overall objective of the polyphosphate treatability test is to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to treat uranium contaminated groundwater in situ. The objective of the work elements included in this site characterization plan is to collect site-specific characterization data that will be needed to design and implement a field-scale demonstration of the technology.

  9. Site characterization for hybrid system construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldana, R.; Miranda, U.; Medrano, M. C. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The basic reason to use alternative systems for electricity generation, in most cases, is the lack of electricity services, such as isolated rural communities which are located far away from the electric distribution line, and the cost of its extension is too expensive, while decentralized power systems can be an economic and appropriate solution to providing these services. Up to now there are several technological options for rural electrification using PV modules, wind plants, water-power plants, anaerobic digesters, or a combination of some of them, according to the availability of energetic resources. The applications include centralized or decentralized systems, autonomous or hybrid systems, isolated or interconnected to the electric line, etc. A particular hybrid system design can be done considering two general aspects, first it is necessary to know the electric consumption that will be supplied, taking into account present and future necessities and how local energetic resources are present in a selected site. Finally, also it is necessary to carry out an economic analysis to determine the cost of kilowatt-hour generated using local energetic resources and compare it with the cost of electricity produced by conventional power systems. [Espanol] La razon principal para el uso de sistemas alternativos de generacion de electricidad, en la mayoria de los casos, es la falta de servicios de electricidad, tal como en las comunidades rurales aisladas localizadas lejos de linea de distribucion electrica, donde el costo de su extension es demasiado caro, mientras que los sistemas descentralizados de energia pueden ser una solucion economica y adecuada para proporcionar estos servicios. Hasta ahora existen varias opciones tecnologicas para la electrificacion rural usando modulos fotovoltaicos, aerogeneradores, plantas hidroelectricas, digestores anaerobicos o una combinacion de algunos de ellos, de acuerdo con la disponibilidad de los recursos energeticos. Las

  10. Ames expedited site characterization demonstration at the former manufactured gas plant site, Marshalltown, Iowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevolo, A.J.; Kjartanson, B.H.; Wonder, J.D.

    1996-03-01

    The goal of the Ames Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) project is to evaluate and promote both innovative technologies (IT) and state-of-the-practice technologies (SOPT) for site characterization and monitoring. In April and May 1994, the ESC project conducted site characterization, technology comparison, and stakeholder demonstration activities at a former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) owned by Iowa Electric Services (IES) Utilities, Inc., in Marshalltown, Iowa. Three areas of technology were fielded at the Marshalltown FMGP site: geophysical, analytical and data integration. The geophysical technologies are designed to assess the subsurface geological conditions so that the location, fate and transport of the target contaminants may be assessed and forecasted. The analytical technologies/methods are designed to detect and quantify the target contaminants. The data integration technology area consists of hardware and software systems designed to integrate all the site information compiled and collected into a conceptual site model on a daily basis at the site; this conceptual model then becomes the decision-support tool. Simultaneous fielding of different methods within each of the three areas of technology provided data for direct comparison of the technologies fielded, both SOPT and IT. This document reports the results of the site characterization, technology comparison, and ESC demonstration activities associated with the Marshalltown FMGP site. 124 figs., 27 tabs.

  11. The Underground Test Area Project of the Nevada Test Site: Building Confidence in Groundwater Flow and Transport Models at Pahute Mesa Through Focused Characterization Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawloski, G A; Wurtz, J; Drellack, S L

    2009-12-29

    Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Test Site contains about 8.0E+07 curies of radioactivity caused by underground nuclear testing. The Underground Test Area Subproject has entered Phase II of data acquisition, analysis, and modeling to determine the risk to receptors from radioactivity in the groundwater, establish a groundwater monitoring network, and provide regulatory closure. Evaluation of radionuclide contamination at Pahute Mesa is particularly difficult due to the complex stratigraphy and structure caused by multiple calderas in the Southwestern Nevada Volcanic Field and overprinting of Basin and Range faulting. Included in overall Phase II goals is the need to reduce the uncertainty and improve confidence in modeling results. New characterization efforts are underway, and results from the first year of a three-year well drilling plan are presented.

  12. Characterization recommendations for waste sites at the Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, W.H.; Gordon, D.E.; Johnson, W.F.; Kaback, D.S.; Looney, B.B.; Nichols, R.L.; Shedrow, C.B.

    1987-11-01

    One hundred and sixty six disposal facilities that received or may have received waste materials resulting from operations at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) have been identified. These waste range from innocuous solid and liquid materials (e.g., wood piles) to process effluents that contain hazardous and/or radioactive constituents. The waste sites have been grouped into 45 categories according the the type of waste materials they received. Waste sites are located with SRP coordinates, a local Department of Energy (DOE) grid system whose grid north is 36 degrees 22 minutes west of true north. DOE policy is to close all waste sites at SRP in a manner consistent with protecting human health and environment and complying with applicable environmental regulations (DOE 1984). A uniform, explicit characterization program for SRP waste sites will provide a sound technical basis for developing closure plans. Several elements are summarized in the following individual sections including (1) a review of the history, geohydrology, and available characterization data for each waste site and (2) recommendations for additional characterization necessary to prepare a reasonable closure plan. Many waste sites have been fully characterized, while others have not been investigated at all. The approach used in this report is to evaluate available groundwater quality and site history data. For example, groundwater data are compared to review criteria to help determine what additional information is required. The review criteria are based on regulatory and DOE guidelines for acceptable concentrations of constituents in groundwater and soil.

  13. Local Site Characterization Using HVSR, ReMi, and SPAC, Study Case: Soccer Field At Autonomous University of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upegui Botero, F. M.; Rojas Mercedes, N.; Huerta-Lopez, C.; Martinez-Cruzado, J. A.; Suárez, L.; Lopez, A. M.; Huerfano Moreno, V.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquake effects are frequently quantified by the energy liberated at the source, and the degree of damage produced in urban areas. The damage of historic events such as the Mw=8.3, September 19, 1985 Mexico City Earthquake was dominated by the amplification of seismic waves due to local site conditions. The assessment of local site effects can be carried out with site response analyses in order to determine the properties of the subsoil such as the dominant period, and the Vs30. The evaluation of the aforementioned properties is through the analysis of ground motion. However, in locations with low seismicity, the most convenient method to assess the site effect is the analysis of ambient vibration measurements. The Spatial Auto Correlation method (SPAC) can be used to determine a Vs30 model from ambient vibration measurements using a triangular array of sensors. Refraction Microtremor (ReMi) considers the phase velocity of the Rayleigh waves can be separated of apparent velocities; the aim of the ReMI method is to obtain the Vs30 model. The HVSR technique or Nakamura's method has been adopted to obtain the resonant frequency of the site from the calculation of ratio between the Fourier amplitude spectra or PSD spectrum of the horizontal and vertical components of ambient vibration. The aim of this work is to compare the results using different techniques to assess local site conditions in the urban area of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. The data used was collected during the Pan-American Advance Studies Institute (PASI), Workshop held in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic from July 14 to 25, 2013. The PASI was sponsored by IRIS Consortium, NSF and DOE. Results obtained using SPAC, and ReMi, show a comparable model of surface waves velocities. In addition to the above, the HVSR method is combined with the stiffness matrices method for layered soils to calculate a model of velocities and the predominant period on the site. As part of this work a comparison with

  14. ELT Site Characterization for AO, the Tools and the Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarazin, M.

    2011-09-01

    With the choice of the sites of the three main ELT projects worldwide, an unprecedentedly large site characterization effort is coming to an end. During the past decade more than 20 summits have been studied by the site survey teams of E-ELT, GMT and TMT projects. Other institutions have provided support or funding (NOAO, EU-FP6) so that close to one hundred scientists, engineers and students have been involved in this search for top quality observing conditions. For the first time also, the various project have deployed a very uniform instrumentation suite, often using similar measurement methods (DIMM) and even in some cases identical instruments (MASS). The consequence is that the core of the collected database is directly usable and could be made available to the community in its original state. The various teams have also maintained close contact during the whole process and new instruments were developed on the fly to solve the remaining unknowns. After sharing the tools and ideas, the time of sharing data has come and a review is proposed of what has been achieved and what is now available.

  15. Probabilistic approaches for geotechnical site characterization and slope stability analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Zijun; Li, Dianqing

    2017-01-01

    This is the first book to revisit geotechnical site characterization from a probabilistic point of view and provide rational tools to probabilistically characterize geotechnical properties and underground stratigraphy using limited information obtained from a specific site. This book not only provides new probabilistic approaches for geotechnical site characterization and slope stability analysis, but also tackles the difficulties in practical implementation of these approaches. In addition, this book also develops efficient Monte Carlo simulation approaches for slope stability analysis and implements these approaches in a commonly available spreadsheet environment. These approaches and the software package are readily available to geotechnical practitioners and alleviate them from reliability computational algorithms. The readers will find useful information for a non-specialist to determine project-specific statistics of geotechnical properties and to perform probabilistic analysis of slope stability.

  16. Site characterization data from the Area 5 science boreholes, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blout, D.O.; Hammermeister, P.; Zukosky, K.A.

    1995-02-01

    The Science Borehole Project consists of eight boreholes that were drilled (from 45.7 m [150 ft] to 83.8 m [275 ft] depth) in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, on behalf of the US Department of Energy. These boreholes are part of the Area 5 Site Characterization Program developed to meet data needs associated with regulatory requirements applicable to the disposal of low-level and mixed waste at this site. This series of boreholes was specifically designed to characterize parameters controlling near-surface gas transport and to monitor changes in these and liquid flow-related parameters over time. These boreholes are located along the four sides of the approximately 2.6-km{sup 2} (1-mi{sup 2}) Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site to provide reasonable spatial coverage for sampling and characterization. Laboratory testing results of samples taken from core and drill cuttings are reported.

  17. Site Characterization for a Deep Borehole Field Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, K. L.; Hardin, E. L.; Freeze, G. A.; Sassani, D.; Brady, P. V.

    2015-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy is at the beginning of 5-year Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT) to investigate the feasibility of constructing and characterizing two boreholes in crystalline basement rock to a depth of 5 km (16,400 ft). The concept of deep borehole disposal for radioactive waste has some advantages over mined repositories, including incremental construction and loading, the enhanced natural barriers provided by deep continental crystalline basement, and reduced site characterization. Site characterization efforts need to determine an eligible site that does not have the following disqualifying characteristics: greater than 2 km to crystalline basement, upward vertical fluid potential gradients, presence of economically exploitable natural resources, presence of high permeability connection to the shallow subsurface, and significant probability of future seismic or volcanic activity. Site characterization activities for the DBFT will include geomechanical (i.e., rock in situ stress state, and fluid pressure), geological (i.e., rock and fracture infill lithology), hydrological (i.e., quantity of fluid, fluid convection properties, and solute transport mechanisms), and geochemical (i.e., rock-water interaction and natural tracers) aspects. Both direct (i.e., sampling and in situ testing) and indirect (i.e., borehole geophysical) methods are planned for efficient and effective characterization of these site aspects and physical processes. Borehole-based characterization will be used to determine the variability of system state (i.e., stress, pressure, temperature, and chemistry) with depth, and interpretation of material and system parameters relevant to numerical site simulation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE

  18. Tomographic Site Characterization Using CPT, ERT, and GPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rexford M. Morey

    1997-05-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the cleanup of inactive DOE sites and for bringing DOE sites and facilities into compliance with federal, state and local laws and regulations. The DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) needs advanced technologies that can make environmental restoration and waste management operations more efficient and less costly. These techniques are required to better characterize the physical, hydrogeological, and chemical properties of the subsurface while minimizing and optimizing the use of boreholes and monitoring wells. Today the cone penetrometer technique (CPT) is demonstrating the value of a minimally invasive deployment system fix site characterization. Applied Research Associates is developing two new sensor packages for site characterization and monitoring. The two new methods are: . Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and . Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) Tomography. These sensor systems are now integrated with the Cone Penetrometer Technique (CPT). The results of this program now make it possible to install ERT and GPR units by CPT methods and thereby reduce installation costs and total costs for ERT and GPR surveys. These two techniques can complement each other in regions of low resistivity where ERT is more effective and regions of high resistivity where GPR is more effective. The results show that CPT-installed GeoWells can be used in both ERT and GPR borehole tomographic subsurface imaging. These two imaging techniques can be used for environmental site characterization and environmental remediation monitoring. Technologies used for site characterization and monitoring have numerous and diverse applications within site clean-up and waste management operations.

  19. Gulf of Mexico miocene CO₂ site characterization mega transect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meckel, Timothy [Univ. of Austin, Austin, TX (United Staes); Trevino, Ramon [Univ. of Austin, Austin, TX (United Staes)

    2014-12-01

    This project characterized the Miocene-age sub-seafloor stratigraphy in the near-offshore portion of the Gulf of Mexico adjacent to the Texas coast. The large number of industrial sources of carbon dioxide (CO₂) in coastal counties and the high density of onshore urbanization and environmentally sensitive areas make this offshore region extremely attractive for long-term storage of carbon dioxide emissions from industrial sources (CCS). The study leverages dense existing geologic data from decades of hydrocarbon exploration in and around the study area to characterize the regional geology for suitability and storage capacity. Primary products of the study include: regional static storage capacity estimates, sequestration “leads” and prospects with associated dynamic capacity estimates, experimental studies of CO₂-brine-rock interaction, best practices for site characterization, a large-format ‘Atlas’ of sequestration for the study area, and characterization of potential fluid migration pathways for reducing storage risks utilizing novel high-resolution 3D (HR3D) seismic surveys. In addition, three subcontracted studies address source-to-sink matching optimization, offshore well bore management and environmental aspects. The various geologic data and interpretations are integrated and summarized in a series of cross-sections and maps, which represent a primary resource for any near-term commercial deployment of CCS in the area. The regional study characterized and mapped important geologic features (e.g., Clemente-Tomas fault zone, the regionally extensive Marginulina A and Amphistegina B confining systems, etc.) that provided an important context for regional static capacity estimates and specific sequestration prospects of the study. A static capacity estimate of the majority of the Study area (14,467 mi2) was estimated at 86 metric Gigatonnes. While local capacity estimates are likely to be lower due to reservoir-scale characteristics, the

  20. Site Characterization Work Plan for Gasbuggy, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    2000-12-14

    Project Gasbuggy was the first of three joint government-industry experiments conducted to test the effectiveness of nuclear explosives to fracture deeply buried, low-permeability natural gas reservoirs to stimulate production. The scope of this work plan is to document the environmental objectives and the proposed technical site investigation strategies that will be utilized for the site characterization of the Project Gasbuggy Site. Its goal is the collection of data in sufficient quantity and quality to determine current site conditions, support a risk assessment for the site surfaces, and evaluate if further remedial action is required to achieve permanent closure of the site that is both protective of human health and the environment. The Gasbuggy Site is located approximately 55 air miles east of Farmington, New Mexico, in Rio Arriba County within the Carson National Forest in the northeast portion of the San Juan Basin. Historically, Project Gasbuggy consisted of the joint government-industry detonation of a nuclear device on December 10, 1967, followed by reentry drilling and gas production testing and project evaluation activities in post-detonation operations from 1967 to 1976. Based on historical documentation, no chemical release sites other than the mud pits were identified; additionally, there was no material buried at the Gasbuggy Site other than drilling fluids and construction debris. Although previous characterization and restoration activities including sensitive species surveys, cultural resources surveys, surface geophysical surveys, and limited soil sampling and analysis were performed in 1978 and again in 2000, no formal closure of the site was achieved. Also, these efforts did not adequately address the site's potential for chemical contamination at the surface/shallow subsurface ground levels or the subsurface hazards for potential migration outside of the current site subsurface intrusion restrictions. Additional investigation

  1. Atmospheric emission characterization of Marcellus shale natural gas development sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, J Douglas; Floerchinger, Cody; Fortner, Edward C; Wormhoudt, Joda; Massoli, Paola; Knighton, W Berk; Herndon, Scott C; Kolb, Charles E; Knipping, Eladio; Shaw, Stephanie L; DeCarlo, Peter F

    2015-06-02

    Limited direct measurements of criteria pollutants emissions and precursors, as well as natural gas constituents, from Marcellus shale gas development activities contribute to uncertainty about their atmospheric impact. Real-time measurements were made with the Aerodyne Research Inc. Mobile Laboratory to characterize emission rates of atmospheric pollutants. Sites investigated include production well pads, a well pad with a drill rig, a well completion, and compressor stations. Tracer release ratio methods were used to estimate emission rates. A first-order correction factor was developed to account for errors introduced by fenceline tracer release. In contrast to observations from other shale plays, elevated volatile organic compounds, other than CH4 and C2H6, were generally not observed at the investigated sites. Elevated submicrometer particle mass concentrations were also generally not observed. Emission rates from compressor stations ranged from 0.006 to 0.162 tons per day (tpd) for NOx, 0.029 to 0.426 tpd for CO, and 67.9 to 371 tpd for CO2. CH4 and C2H6 emission rates from compressor stations ranged from 0.411 to 4.936 tpd and 0.023 to 0.062 tpd, respectively. Although limited in sample size, this study provides emission rate estimates for some processes in a newly developed natural gas resource and contributes valuable comparisons to other shale gas studies.

  2. Hydrogeological-Geophysical Methods for Subsurface Site Characterization - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, Yoram

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this research project is to increase water savings and show better ecological control of natural vegetation by developing hydrogeological-geophysical methods for characterizing the permeability and content of water in soil. The ground penetrating radar (GPR) tool was developed and used as the surface geophysical method for monitoring water content. Initial results using the tool suggest that surface GPR is a viable technique for obtaining precision volumetric water content profile estimates, and that laboratory-derived petrophysical relationships could be applied to field-scale GPR data. A field-scale bacterial transport study was conducted within an uncontaminated sandy Pleistocene aquifer to evaluate the importance of heterogeneity in controlling the transport of bacteria. Geochemical, hydrological, geological, and geophysical data were collected to characterize the site prior to and after chemical and bacterial injection experiments. Study results shows that, even within the fairly uniform shallow marine deposits of the narrow channel focus area, heterogeneity existed that influenced the chemical tracer transport over lateral distances of a few meters and vertical distances of less than a half meter. The interpretation of data suggest that the incorporation of geophysical data with limited hydrological data may provide valuable information about the stratigraphy, log conductivity values, and the spatial correlation structure of log conductivity, which have traditionally been obtainable only by performing extensive and intrusive hydrological sampling.

  3. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization. Revision 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. [ed.

    1992-12-01

    This fifth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Information is presented on climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. Models are described that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. Federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable for the NEPA documents at the Hanford Site, are provided.

  4. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. (ed.)

    1992-12-01

    This fifth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Information is presented on climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. Models are described that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. Federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable for the NEPA documents at the Hanford Site, are provided.

  5. Validation of mismatch negativity and P3a for use in multi-site studies of schizophrenia: characterization of demographic, clinical, cognitive, and functional correlates in COGS-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Gregory A; Swerdlow, Neal R; Thomas, Michael L; Calkins, Monica E; Green, Michael F; Greenwood, Tiffany A; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C; Lazzeroni, Laura C; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Pela, Marlena; Radant, Allen D; Seidman, Larry J; Sharp, Richard F; Siever, Larry J; Silverman, Jeremy M; Sprock, Joyce; Stone, William S; Sugar, Catherine A; Tsuang, Debby W; Tsuang, Ming T; Braff, David L; Turetsky, Bruce I

    2015-04-01

    Mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a are auditory event-related potential (ERP) components that show robust deficits in schizophrenia (SZ) patients and exhibit qualities of endophenotypes, including substantial heritability, test-retest reliability, and trait-like stability. These measures also fulfill criteria for use as cognition and function-linked biomarkers in outcome studies, but have not yet been validated for use in large-scale multi-site clinical studies. This study tested the feasibility of adding MMN and P3a to the ongoing Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS) study. The extent to which demographic, clinical, cognitive, and functional characteristics contribute to variability in MMN and P3a amplitudes was also examined. Participants (HCS n=824, SZ n=966) underwent testing at 5 geographically distributed COGS laboratories. Valid ERP recordings were obtained from 91% of HCS and 91% of SZ patients. Highly significant MMN (d=0.96) and P3a (d=0.93) amplitude reductions were observed in SZ patients, comparable in magnitude to those observed in single-lab studies with no appreciable differences across laboratories. Demographic characteristics accounted for 26% and 18% of the variance in MMN and P3a amplitudes, respectively. Significant relationships were observed among demographically-adjusted MMN and P3a measures and medication status as well as several clinical, cognitive, and functional characteristics of the SZ patients. This study demonstrates that MMN and P3a ERP biomarkers can be feasibly used in multi-site clinical studies. As with many clinical tests of brain function, demographic factors contribute to MMN and P3a amplitudes and should be carefully considered in future biomarker-informed clinical studies. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, October 1, 1990--March 31, 1991; Number 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-10-01

    In accordance with the requirements of Section 113 (b) (3) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended (NWPA), the US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report on the progress of site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the period October 1, 1990, through March 31, 1991. This report is the fourth in a series of reports that are issued at intervals of approximately six months during site characterization. The report covers a number of initiatives to improve the effectiveness of the site characterization program, and covers continued efforts related to preparatory activities, Study Plans, and performance assessment.

  7. Site characterization of the national seismic network of Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoni, Paola; Pacor, Francesca; Cultrera, Giovanna; Casale, Paolo; Cara, Fabrizio; Di Giulio, Giuseppe; Famiani, Daniela; Ladina, Chiara; PIschiutta, Marta; Quintiliani, Matteo

    2017-04-01

    The national seismic network of Italy (Rete Sismica Nazionale, RSN) run by Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) consists of more than 400 seismic stations connected in real time to the institute data center in order to locate earthquakes for civil defense purposes. A critical issue in the performance of a network is the characterization of site condition at the recording stations. Recently INGV has started addressing this subject through the revision of all available geological and geophysical data, the acquisition of new information by means of ad-hoc field measurements and the analysis of seismic waveforms. The main effort is towards building a database, integrated with the other INGV infrastructures, designed to archive homogeneous parameters through the seismic network useful for a complete site characterization, including housing, geological, seismological and geotechnical features as well as the site class according to the European and Italian building codes. Here we present the ongoing INGV activities.

  8. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 9, Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules.

  9. Site study plan for Transportation, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Preliminary draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-06-01

    This site study plan describes transportation field studies to be conducted during the characterization of the Deaf Smith County, Texas, site for the US Department of Energy's Salt Repository Project. The studies are needed to identify and assess potential project impacts to transportation infrastructure and systems in the project vicinity and along potential transportation routes to the site across the State of Texas. The studies are also needed to locate and design project transportation facilities, and to evaluate and design impact mitigation. After identifying the transportation information requirements needed to comply with Federal, State, and local regulations and repository program requirements, the site study plan describes the study design and rationale, the field data collection procedures and equipment, the data analysis methods and application of results, the data management strategy, the schedule of field activities, the management of the study, and the study's quality assurance program. The field data collection activities are organized into programs for the characterization of site vicinity rail corridors and highway corridors, characterization of alternative statewide transportation routes, monitoring of site characterization effects on transportation, characterization of aircraft overflight patterns and hazardous material transportation patterns, and assessment of emergency response preparedness along alternative statewide transportation routes. 34 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND SELECTION GUIDELINES FOR GEOLOGICAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedmann, S J

    2007-08-31

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is a key technology pathway to substantial reduction of greenhouse gas emissions for the state of California and the western region. Current estimates suggest that the sequestration resource of the state is large, and could safely and effectively accept all of the emissions from large CO2 point sources for many decades and store them indefinitely. This process requires suitable sites to sequester large volumes of CO2 for long periods of time. Site characterization is the first step in this process, and the state will ultimately face regulatory, legal, and technical questions as commercial CCS projects develop and commence operations. The most important aspects of site characterizations are injectivity, capacity, and effectiveness. A site can accept at a high rate a large volume of CO2 and store it for a long time is likely to serve as a good site for geological carbon sequestration. At present, there are many conventional technologies and approaches that can be used to estimate, quantify, calculate, and assess the viability of a sequestration site. Any regulatory framework would need to rely on conventional, easily executed, repeatable methods to inform the site selection and permitting process. The most important targets for long-term storage are deep saline formations and depleted oil and gas fields. The primary CO2 storage mechanisms for these targets are well understood enough to plan operations and simulate injection and long-term fate of CO2. There is also a strong understanding of potential geological and engineering hazards for CCS. These hazards are potential pathway to CO2 leakage, which could conceivably result in negative consequences to health and the environmental. The risks of these effects are difficult to quantify; however, the hazards themselves are sufficiently well understood to identify, delineate, and manage those risks effectively. The primary hazard elements are wells and faults, but may include other

  11. Studies of the biogenic amine transporters. VI. Characterization of a novel cocaine binding site, identified with [125I]RTI-55, in membranes prepared from whole rat brain minus caudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, R B; Silverthorn, M L; Baumann, M H; Goodman, C B; Cadet, J L; Matecka, D; Rice, K C; Carroll, F I; Wang, J B; Uhl, G R

    1995-07-01

    Previous studies showed that the cocaine analog [125I]RTI-55 labels dopamine and serotonergic (5-HT) biogenic amine transporters (BATs) with high affinity. Here we characterized [125I]RTI-55 binding to membranes prepared from whole rat brain minus the caudate nuclei. Paroxetine (50 nM) was used to block [125I]RTI-55 binding to 5-HT transporter sites. Initial experiments identified drugs that displaced [125I]RTI-55 binding with moderately low slope factors. Binding surface analysis of the interaction of 3 beta-(4-chlorophenyl)tropan-2 beta-carboxylic acid phenyl ester hydrochloride (RTI-113) and 3 beta-(4-iodophenyl)tropan-2 beta-carboxylic acid phenyl ester hydrochloride (RTI-122) with [125I]RTI-55 binding sites readily resolved two binding sites for [125I]RTI-55 with Kd values of 0.44 nM and 17 nM and Bmax values of 31 and 245 fmol/mg protein. Potent 5-HT and noradrenergic uptake inhibitors had low affinity for both sites. Whereas cocaine, CFT and WIN35,065-2 were 6.0-, 25- and 14-fold selective for the first site, benztropine, PCP and the novel pyrrole, (+-)-(2RS,3aSR,8bRS)-1,2,3,3a,4,8b-hexahydro- 2-benzyl-1-methylindeno-[1,2-b]pyrrole resorcylate [(+-)-HBMP, formerly called (+-)-RTI-4793-14], were moderately selective for the second site. A single binding site with the characteristics of site 1 was resolved using COS cells transiently expressing the cloned rat dopamine transporter. Lesion studies with 6-hydroxydopamine and 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine were conducted to test the hypothesis that site 1 and site 2 are physically distinct. The data showed that these neurotoxins differentially decreased [125I]RTI-55 binding to sites 1 and 2. The differential distribution of sites 1 and 2 in rat brain provides further support for this hypothesis. Viewed collectively, these data show that [125I]RTI-55 labels a novel binding site in rat brain membranes, termed DATsite2, which is not associated with the classic dopamine, serotonin or norepinephrine transporters.

  12. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. [ed.; Baker, D.A.; Chamness, M.A. [and others

    1994-08-01

    This sixth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Chapter 4.0 summarizes up-to-date information on climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. More detailed data are available from reference sources cited or from the authors; Chapter 5.0 has been significantly updated from the fifth revision. It describes models, including their principal underlying assumptions, that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions; The updated Chapter 6.0 provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site, following the structure of Chapter 4.0. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be utilized directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the Hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts.

  13. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. [ed.; Baker, D.A.; Chamness, M.A. [and others

    1995-09-01

    This seventh revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Chapter 4.0 summarizes up-to-date information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, environmental monitoring, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. More detailed data are available from reference sources cited or from the authors. Chapter 5.0 was not updated from the sixth revision (1994). It describes models, including their principal underlying assumptions, that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. The updated Chapter 6.0 provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE Orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site, following the structure of Chapter 4.0. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be used directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the Hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts.

  14. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A. [ed.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Fosmire, C.J. [and others

    1997-08-01

    This ninth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Chapters 4 and 6 in Hanford Site-related NEPA documents. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological and historical resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site. Not all of the sections have been updated for this revision. The following lists the updated sections: climate and meteorology; ecology (threatened and endangered species section only); culture, archaeological, and historical resources; socioeconomics; all of Chapter 6.

  15. Molecular Docking Study Characterization of Rare Flavonoids at the Nac-Binding Site of the First Bromodomain of BRD4 (BRD4 BD1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik Dhananjayan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ε-N-Acetylation of lysine residues (Kac is one of the most frequently occurring posttranslational modifications (PTMs which control gene transcription and a vast array of diverse cellular functions. Bromodomains are epigenetic regulators involved in posttranslational modification. In silico docking studies were carried out to evaluate the binding potential of selected rare flavonoids on to Nac binding site of BD1 domain of BRD4 BET family proteins. Rare flavonoids like 3-O-acetylpinobanksin, naringenin triacetate, and kaempferol tetraacetate were found to occupy the WPF shelf and at the same time they exhibited a better binding affinity with multiple crystal structures of first bromodomain BRD4 (BRD4 BD1 when compared with the known inhibitors.

  16. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    2000-12-06

    The Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) has been prepared for waste characterization activities to be conducted by the Transuranic (TRU) Project at the Hanford Site to meet requirements set forth in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, 4890139088-TSDF, Attachment B, including Attachments B1 through B6 (WAP) (DOE, 1999a). The QAPjP describes the waste characterization requirements and includes test methods, details of planned waste sampling and analysis, and a description of the waste characterization and verification process. In addition, the QAPjP includes a description of the quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) requirements for the waste characterization program. Before TRU waste is shipped to the WIPP site by the TRU Project, all applicable requirements of the QAPjP shall be implemented. Additional requirements necessary for transportation to waste disposal at WIPP can be found in the ''Quality Assurance Program Document'' (DOE 1999b) and HNF-2600, ''Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan.'' TRU mixed waste contains both TRU radioactive and hazardous components, as defined in the WLPP-WAP. The waste is designated and separately packaged as either contact-handled (CH) or remote-handled (RH), based on the radiological dose rate at the surface of the waste container. RH TRU wastes are not currently shipped to the WIPP facility.

  17. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A. [ed.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Fosmire, C.J.; Fowler, R.A. [and others

    1996-08-01

    This eighth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Chapters 4 and 6 in Hanford Site-related NEPA documents. Chapter 4 (Affected Environment) includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, historical, archaeological and cultural resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site. The following sections were updated in this revision: climate and meteorology; ecology (threatened and endangered species section only); historical; archaeological and cultural resources; and all of chapter 6. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be used directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts.

  18. Site locality identification study: Hanford Site. Volume II. Data cataloging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    Data compilation and cataloging for the candidate site locality identification study were conducted in order to provide a retrievable data cataloging system for the present siting study and future site evaluation and licensng processes. This task occurred concurrently with and also independently of other tasks of the candidate site locality identification study. Work in this task provided the data utilized primarily in the development and application of screening and ranking processes to identify candidate site localities on the Hanford Site. The overall approach included two steps: (1) data acquisition and screening; and (2) data compilation and cataloging. Data acquisition and screening formed the basis for preliminary review of data sources with respect to their probable utilization in the candidate site locality identification study and review with respect to the level of completeness and detail of the data. The important working assumption was that the data to be used in the study be based on existing and available published and unpublished literature. The data compilation and cataloging provided the basic product of the Task; a retrievable data cataloging system in the form of an annotated reference list and key word index and an index of compiled data. The annotated reference list and key word index are cross referenced and can be used to trace and retrieve the data sources utilized in the candidate site locality identification study.

  19. Analog site for fractured rock characterization. Annual report FY 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, J.C.S.; Loughty, C.; Faybishenko, B. [and others

    1995-10-01

    This report describes the accomplishments of the Analog Site for Fracture Rock Characterization Project during fiscal year 1995. This project is designed to address the problem of characterizing contaminated fractured rock. In order to locate contaminant plumes, develop monitoring schemes, and predict future fate and transport, the project will address the following questions: What parts of the system control flow-geometry of a fracture network? What physical processes control flow and transport? What are the limits on measurements to determine the above? What instrumentation should be used? How should it be designed and implemented? How can field tests be designed to provide information for predicting behavior? What numerical models are good predictors of the behavior of the system? The answers to these question can be used to help plan drilling programs that are likely to intersect plumes and provide effective monitoring of plume movement. The work is done at an {open_quotes}analogue{close_quotes} site, i.e., a site that is not contaminated, but has similar geology to sites that are contaminated, in order to develop tools and techniques without the financial, time and legal burdens of a contaminated site. The idea is to develop conceptual models and investigations tools and methodology that will apply to the contaminated sites in the same geologic regimes. The Box Canyon site, chosen for most of this work represents a unique opportunity because the Canyon walls allow us to see a vertical plane through the rock. The work represents a collaboration between the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL), Stanford University (Stanford), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and Parsons Environmental Engineering (Parsons). LBL and Stanford bring extensive experience in research in fractured rock systems. INEL and Parsons bring significant experience with the contamination problem at INEL.

  20. Expedited Site Characterization geophysics: Geophysical methods and tools for site characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, N.E.

    1994-03-01

    This report covers five classes of geophysical technologies: Magnetics; Electrical/electromagnetic; Seismic reflection; Gamma-ray spectrometry; and Metal-specific spectrometry. Except for radiometry, no other classes of geophysical tedmologies are specific for direct detection of the types of contaminants present at the selected sites. For each of the five classes covered, the report gives a general description of the methodology, its field use, and its general applicability to the ESC Project. In addition, the report gives a sample of the most promising instruments available for each class, including the following information: Hardware/software attributes; Purchase and rental costs; Survey rate and operating costs; and Other applicable information based on case history and field evaluations.

  1. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project: Technical Data Catalog quarterly supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-31

    The March 21, 1993, Department of Energy (DOE)/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Site-Specific Procedural Agreement for Geologic Repository Site Investigation and Characterization Program requires the DOE to develop and maintain a catalog of data which will be updated and provided to the NRC at least quarterly. This catalog is to include a description of the data; the time (date), place, and method of acquisition; and where it may be examined. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Technical Data Catalog is published and distributed in accordance with the requirements of the Site-Specific Agreement. The YMP Technical Data Catalog is a report based on reference information contained in the YMP Automated Technical Data Tracking System (ATDT). The reference information is provided by Participants for data acquired or developed in support of the YMP. The Technical Data Catalog is updated quarterly and published in the month following the end of each quarter. A complete revision to the Catalog is published at the end of each fiscal year. Supplements to the end-of-year edition are published each quarter. These supplements provide information related to new data items not included in previous quarterly updates and data items affected by changes to previously published reference information. The Technical Data Catalog, dated September 30, 1993, should be retained as the baseline document for the supplements until the end-of-year revision is published and distributed in October 1994.

  2. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project technical data catalog: Quarterly supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE)/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Site-Specific Procedural Agreement for Geologic Repository Site Investigation and Characterization Program requires the DOE to develop and maintain a catalog of data which will be updated and provided to the NRC at least quarterly. This catalog is to include a description of the data; the time (date), place, and method of acquisition; and where the data may be examined. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Technical Data Catalog is published and distributed-in accordance with the requirements of the Site-Specific Agreement. The YMP Technical Data Catalog is a report based on reference information contained in the YMP Automated Technical Data Tracking System (ATDT). The reference information is provided by Participants for data acquired or developed in support of the YMP. The Technical Data Catalog is updated quarterly and distributed in the month following the end of each quarter. A complete revision to the catalog is published at the end of each fiscal year. Supplements to the end-of-year edition are published each quarter. These supplements provide information related to new data items not included in previous quarterly updates and data items affected by changes to previously published reference information. The Technical Data Catalog, dated September 30, 1994, should be retained as the baseline document for the supplements until the end-of-year revision is published and distributed in October 1995.

  3. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project technical data catalog quarterly supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE)/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Site-Specific Procedural Agreement for Geologic Repository Site Investigation and Characterization Program requires the DOE to develop and maintain a catalog of data which will be updated and provided to the NRC at least quarterly. This catalog is to include a description of the data; the time (date), place, and method of acquisition; and where the data may be examined. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Technical Data Catalog is published and distributed in accordance with t requirements of the Site-Specific Agreement. The YMP Technical Data Catalog is a report based on reference information contained in the YMP Automated Technical Data Tracking System (ATDT). The reference information is provided by Participants for data acquired or developed in support of the YMP. The Technical Data Catalog is updated quarterly and distributed in the month following the end of each quarter. A complete revision to the catalog is published at the end of each fiscal year. Supplements to the end-of-year edition are published each quarter. These supplements provide information related to new data items not included in previous quarterly updates and data items affected by changes to@ previously published reference information. The Technical Data Catalog, dated September 30, 1994, should be retained as the baseline document for the supplements until the end-of-year revision is published and distributed in October 1995.

  4. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Technical Data Catalog (Quarterly supplement)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The March 21, 1993, Department of Energy (DOE)/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Site-Specific Procedural Agreement for Geologic Repository Site Investigation and Characterization Program requires the DOE to develop and maintain a catalog of data which will be updated and provided to the NRC at least quarterly. This catalog is to include a description of the data; the time (date), place, and method of acquisition; and where it may be examined. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Technical Data Catalog is published and distributed in accordance with the requirements of the Site-Specific Agreement. The YMP Technical Data Catalog is a report based on reference information contained in the YMP Automated Technical Data Tracking System (ATDT). The reference information is provided by Participants for data acquired or developed in support of the YMP. The Technical Data Catalog is updated quarterly and published in the month following the end of each quarter. A complete revision to the Catalog is published at the end of each fiscal year. Supplements to the end-of-year edition are published each quarter. These supplements provide information related to new data items not included in previous quarterly updates and data items affected by changes to previously published reference information. The Technical Data Catalog, dated September 30, 1993, should be retained as the baseline document for the supplements until the end-of-year revision is published and distributed in October 1994.

  5. Site Characterization Work Plan for Gnome-Coach Site, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    2001-02-13

    Project Gnome was the first nuclear experiment conducted under the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), predecessor to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Plowshare Program. Gnome was part of a joint government-industry experiment focused on developing nuclear devices exclusively for peaceful purposes. The intent of the Gnome experiment was to evaluate the effects of a nuclear detonation in a salt medium. Historically, Project Gnome consisted of a single detonation of a nuclear device on December 10, 1961. Since the Gnome detonation, the AEC/DOE has conducted surface restoration, site reconnaissance, and decontamination and decommissioning activities at the site. In addition, annual groundwater sampling is performed under a long-term hydrological monitoring program begun in 1980. Coach, an experiment to be located near the Gnome project, was initially scheduled for 1963. Although construction and rehabilitation were completed for Coach, the experiment was canceled and never executed. Known collectively as Project Gnome-Coach, the site is situated within the Salado Formation approximately 25 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico, in Eddy County, and is comprised of nearly 680 acres, of which 60 acres are disturbed from the combined AEC/DOE operations. The scope of this work plan is to document the environmental objectives and the proposed technical site investigation strategies that will be utilized for the site characterization of the project. The subsurface at the Gnome-Coach site has two contaminant sources that are fundamentally different in terms of both their stratigraphic location and release mechanism. The goal of this characterization is to collect data of sufficient quantity and quality to establish current site conditions and to use the data to identify and evaluate if further action is required to protect human health and the environment and achieve permanent closure of the site. The results of these activities will be presented in a subsequent corrective

  6. Site Characterization Work Plan for the Gnome-Coach Site, New Mexico (Rev. 1, January 2002)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV)

    2002-01-14

    Project Gnome was the first nuclear experiment conducted under the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), predecessor to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Plowshare Program. The Plowshare Program focused on developing nuclear devices exclusively for peaceful purposes. The intent of the Gnome experiment was to evaluate the effects of a nuclear detonation in a salt medium. Historically, Project Gnome consisted of a single detonation of a nuclear device on December 10, 1961 with the Salado Formation. Since the Gnome detonation, the AEC/DOE has conducted surface restoration, site reconnaissance, and decontamination and decommissioning activities at the site. In addition, annual groundwater sampling is performed under a long-term hydrological monitoring program begun in 1972. Coach, an experiment to be located near the Gnome project, was initially scheduled for 1963. Although construction and rehabilitation were completed for Coach, the experiment was canceled and never executed. Known collectively as Project Gnome-Coach, the site is located approximately 25 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico, in Eddy County, and is comprised of nearly 680 acres, of which approximately 60 acres are disturbed from the combined AEC/DOE operations. The scope of this work plan is to document the environmental objectives and the proposed technical site investigation strategies that will be utilized for the site characterization of the project. The subsurface at the Gnome-Coach site has two contaminant sources that are fundamentally different in terms of both their stratigraphic location and release mechanism. The goal of this characterization is to collect data of sufficient quantity and quality to establish current site conditions and to use the data to identify and evaluate if further action is required to protect human health and the environment and achieve permanent closure of the site. The results of these activities will be presented in a subsequent corrective action decision document.

  7. Site characterization and monitoring data from Area 5 Pilot Wells, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-02-01

    The Special Projects Section (SPS) of Reynolds Electrical & Engineering Co., Inc. (REECO) is responsible for characterizing the subsurface geology and hydrology of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Division, Waste Operations Branch. The three Pilot Wells that comprise the Pilot Well Project are an important part of the Area 5 Site Characterization Program designed to determine the suitability of the Area 5 RWMS for disposal of low-level waste (LLW), mixed waste (MW), and transuranic waste (TRU). The primary purpose of the Pilot Well Project is two-fold: first, to characterize important water quality and hydrologic properties of the uppermost aquifer; and second, to characterize the lithologic, stratigraphic, and hydrologic conditions which influence infiltration, redistribution, and percolation, and chemical transport through the thick vadose zone in the vicinity of the Area 5 RWMS. This report describes Pilot Well drilling and coring, geophysical logging, instrumentation and stemming, laboratory testing, and in situ testing and monitoring activities.

  8. FY 93 site characterization status report and data package for the carbon tetrachloride site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohay, V.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-09-28

    This report provides the status and accomplishments from fiscal year site characterization activities conducted as part of the 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action and the Volatile Organic Compounds - Arid Integrated Demonstration. The report includes or references all available raw data collected as part of these tasks. During fiscal year 1993, the 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action and the Volatile Organic Compounds - Arid Integrated Demonstration programs focused on the carbon tetrachloride plume in the unsaturated zone underlying the 200 West Area at the Hanford Site in southeast Washington.

  9. Hanford Site National Evnironmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. (ed.)

    1991-12-01

    This fourth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. In Chapter 4.0 are presented summations of up-to-date information about climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels. Chapter 5.0 describes models, including their principal assumptions, that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclides transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. Chapter 6.0 provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable for environmental impact statements for the Hanford Site, following the structure Chapter 4.0. NO conclusions or recommendations are given in this report.

  10. Hanford Site National Evnironmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. [ed.

    1991-12-01

    This fourth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. In Chapter 4.0 are presented summations of up-to-date information about climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels. Chapter 5.0 describes models, including their principal assumptions, that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclides transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. Chapter 6.0 provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable for environmental impact statements for the Hanford Site, following the structure Chapter 4.0. NO conclusions or recommendations are given in this report.

  11. Characterization of a human coagulation factor Xa-binding site on Viperidae snake venom phospholipases A2 by affinity binding studies and molecular bioinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowda Veerabasappa T

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The snake venom group IIA secreted phospholipases A2 (SVPLA2, present in the Viperidae snake family exhibit a wide range of toxic and pharmacological effects. They exert their different functions by catalyzing the hydrolysis of phospholipids (PL at the membrane/water interface and by highly specific direct binding to: (i presynaptic membrane-bound or intracellular receptors; (ii natural PLA2-inhibitors from snake serum; and (iii coagulation factors present in human blood. Results Using surface plasmon resonance (SPR protein-protein interaction measurements and an in vitro biological test of inhibition of prothrombinase activity, we identify a number of Viperidae venom SVPLA2s that inhibit blood coagulation through direct binding to human blood coagulation factor Xa (FXa via a non-catalytic, PL-independent mechanism. We classify the SVPLA2s in four groups, depending on the strength of their binding. Molecular electrostatic potentials calculated at the surface of 3D homology-modeling models show a correlation with inhibition of prothrombinase activity. In addition, molecular docking simulations between SVPLA2 and FXa guided by the experimental data identify the potential FXa binding site on the SVPLA2s. This site is composed of the following regions: helices A and B, the Ca2+ loop, the helix C-β-wing loop, and the C-terminal fragment. Some of the SVPLA2 binding site residues belong also to the interfacial binding site (IBS. The interface in FXa involves both, the light and heavy chains. Conclusion We have experimentally identified several strong FXa-binding SVPLA2s that disrupt the function of the coagulation cascade by interacting with FXa by the non-catalytic PL-independent mechanism. By theoretical methods we mapped the interaction sites on both, the SVPLA2s and FXa. Our findings may lead to the design of novel, non-competitive FXa inhibitors.

  12. Characterization of a human coagulation factor Xa-binding site on Viperidae snake venom phospholipases A2 by affinity binding studies and molecular bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Grazyna; Gowda, Veerabasappa T; Maroun, Rachid C

    2007-12-06

    The snake venom group IIA secreted phospholipases A2 (SVPLA2), present in the Viperidae snake family exhibit a wide range of toxic and pharmacological effects. They exert their different functions by catalyzing the hydrolysis of phospholipids (PL) at the membrane/water interface and by highly specific direct binding to: (i) presynaptic membrane-bound or intracellular receptors; (ii) natural PLA2-inhibitors from snake serum; and (iii) coagulation factors present in human blood. Using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) protein-protein interaction measurements and an in vitro biological test of inhibition of prothrombinase activity, we identify a number of Viperidae venom SVPLA2s that inhibit blood coagulation through direct binding to human blood coagulation factor Xa (FXa) via a non-catalytic, PL-independent mechanism. We classify the SVPLA2s in four groups, depending on the strength of their binding. Molecular electrostatic potentials calculated at the surface of 3D homology-modeling models show a correlation with inhibition of prothrombinase activity. In addition, molecular docking simulations between SVPLA2 and FXa guided by the experimental data identify the potential FXa binding site on the SVPLA2s. This site is composed of the following regions: helices A and B, the Ca2+ loop, the helix C-beta-wing loop, and the C-terminal fragment. Some of the SVPLA2 binding site residues belong also to the interfacial binding site (IBS). The interface in FXa involves both, the light and heavy chains. We have experimentally identified several strong FXa-binding SVPLA2s that disrupt the function of the coagulation cascade by interacting with FXa by the non-catalytic PL-independent mechanism. By theoretical methods we mapped the interaction sites on both, the SVPLA2s and FXa. Our findings may lead to the design of novel, non-competitive FXa inhibitors.

  13. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, April 1, 1993--September 30, 1993, No. 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-02-01

    In accordance with requirements of Section 113(b)(3) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, and 10 CFR 60.18(g), the U.S. Department of Energy has prepared this report on the progress of site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the period April 1, 1993, through September 30, 1993. This report is the ninth in a series issued at intervals of approximately six months during site characterization of Yucca Mountain as a possible site for a geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Also included in this report are activities such as public outreach and international programs that are not formally part of the site characterization process. Information on these activities is provided to report on all aspects of the Yucca Mountain studies.

  14. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, October 1, 1992--March 31, 1993, No. 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-08-01

    In accordance with requirements of Section 113(b)(3) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, and 10 CFR 60.18(g), the US Department of Energy has prepared this report on the progress of site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the period October 1, 1992, through March 31, 1993. This report is the eighth in a series issued at intervals of approximately six months during site characterization of Yucca Mountain as a possible site for a geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Also included in this report are activities such as public outreach and international programs that are not formally part of the site characterization process. Information on these activities is provided to report on all aspects of the Yucca Mountain studies.

  15. A potential Italian CCS site: site characterization and monitoring of Sulcis Basin (Sardinia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiara Tartarello, Maria; Bigi, Sabina; Beaubien, Stanley Eugene; De Angelis, Davide; Graziani, Stefano; Lombardi, Salvatore; Sacco, Pietro; Ruggiero, Livio

    2017-04-01

    The Sulcis Basin is an area situated in SW Sardinia (Italy) and is a potential site for the implementation of CCS in Italy. In fact, in the last years many studies were conducted to characterize the area and to define the baseline. The "Miliolitico" has been identified as the potential reservoir and is composed by fractured carbonate, while the "Produttivo Fm.", a sequence of clay, coal and marl, is the caprock. Above the "Produttivo Fm." there is a thick volcanic sequence (more than 800 m) that could be considered also a secondary caprock. In the area of Matzaccara, the "Miliolitico" is below an alluvial plain and it is estimates that could reach a depth of more than 800 m. To characterize the reservoir-caprock system there were conducted an extensive structural-geological survey, and more in detail a fracture analysis on all the Formation at the outcrop. With regard to the faults, it has been examined their architecture, and in particular the conduit-barrier behaviors. Moreover, to evaluate the theoretical capacity of the potential reservoir, we built a Discrete Fracture Model, using the fracture data collected at outcrop. So, we estimate a secondary porosity of about 3%. As regards to the definition of geochemical baseline, it has been conducted both discontinuous and continuous monitoring of CO2 and other gases. More in details, there were carried out a regional and a detailed survey, measuring the concentration and the flux of CO2. in that manner, it has been possible to identify potential migration pathways along faults and to define the position of continuous monitoring station. We developed small, low-power consuming, low-cost pCO2 "GasPro", to measure the CO2 both in soil and water. In the next months, it is planned to extend the monitoring network and to inject a little quantity of CO2 along a fault in the Matzaccara plain.

  16. In-Situ Biological Degradation Test at Kelly Air Force Base. Volume 1. Site Characterization, Laboratory Studies and Treatment System Design and Installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    Buidin 54 - 2 Leon Creeko / 𔃾 I4 5 / Uname cc L 109 Drainage ,~0 . 60’ oo ud 5 Monitoring Well 0 Borehole Figure 1. Site Topography Including Borehole...101 .359 .3*3 .290 M2 &Vchod AlkMe 103* .0se .052 .067 sbol Aiim. 107 .166 .1*6 .156 gsrtood Aiim. 10* .2M .235 .261 br~ vih AlkWW 1010 M19 .176 .16

  17. Site characterization data for Solid Waste Storage Area 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boegly, W.J. Jr.

    1984-12-01

    Currently, the only operating shallow land burial site for low-level radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is Solid Waste Storage Area No. 6 (SWSA-6). In 1984, the US Department of Energy (DOE) issued Order 5820.2, Radioactive Waste Management, which establishes policies and guidelines by which DOE manages its radioactive waste, waste by-products, and radioactively contaminated surplus facilities. The ORNL Operations Division has given high priority to characterization of SWSA-6 because of the need for continued operation under DOE 5820.2. The purpose of this report is to compile existing information on the geologic and hydrologic cond

  18. Information needs for characterization of high-level waste repository sites in six geologic media. Volume 2. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-05-01

    Volume II contains appendices for the following: (1) remote sensing and surface mapping techniques; (2) subsurface mapping methods for site characterization; (3) gravity technique; (4) audio-frequency magnetotelluric technique; (5) seismic refraction technique; (6) direct-current electrical resistivity method; (7) magnetic technique; (8) seismic reflection technique; (9) seismic crosshole method; (10) mechanical downhole seismic velocity survey method; (11) borehole geophysical logging techniques; (12) drilling and coring methods for precharacterization studies; (13) subsurface drilling methods for site characterization; (14) geomechanical/thermomechanical techniques for precharacterization studies; (15)geomechanical/thermal techniques for site characterization studies; (16) exploratory geochemical techniques for precharacterization studies; (17) geochemical techniques for site characterization; (18) hydrologic techniques for precharacterization studies; (19) hydrologic techniques for site characterization; and (20) seismological techniques.

  19. CCS Acceptability: Social Site Characterization and Advancing Awareness at Prospective Storage Sites in Poland and Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunsting Suzanne

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the work on the social dimension conducted within the EU FP7 SiteChar project. The most important aim of the research was to advance public awareness and draw lessons for successful public engagement activities when developing a CO2 storage permit application. To this end, social site characterization (e.g. representative surveys and public participation activities (focus conference were conducted at two prospective Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS sites: an onshore site in Poland and an offshore site in Scotland. The research consisted of four steps over a time period of 1.5 year, from early 2011 to mid-2012. The first step consisted of four related qualitative and quantitative research activities to provide a social characterization of the areas: desk research, stakeholder interviews, media analyses, and a survey among representative samples of the local community. The aim was to identify: stakeholders or interested parties; factors that may drive their perceptions of and attitudes towards CCS. Results were used to as input for the second step, in which a new format for public engagement named ‘focus conferences’ was tested at both sites involving a small sample of the local community. The third step consisted of making available generic as well as site-specific information to the general and local public, by: setting up a bilingual set of information pages on the project website suitable for a lay audience; organizing information meetings at both sites that were open to all who took interest. The fourth step consisted of a second survey among a new representative sample of the local community. The survey was largely identical to the survey in step 1 to enable the monitoring of changes in awareness, knowledge and opinions over time. Results provide insight in the way local CCS plans may be perceived by the local stakeholders, how this can be reliably assessed at early stage without raising unnecessary concerns, and how

  20. Hydrogeologic characterization of an arid zone Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginanni, J.M.; O`Neill, L.J. [USDOE Nevada Operations Office, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Hammermeister, D.P.; Blout, D.O.; Dozier, B.L.; Sully, M.J.; Johnejack, K.R.; Emer, D.F. [Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Co., Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States); Tyler, S.W. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.

    1994-06-01

    An in-depth subsurface site characterization and monitoring program for the soil water migration pathway has been planned, implemented, and completed to satisfy data requirements for a waiver from groundwater monitoring, for an exemption from liner leachate collections systems, and for different regulatory driven performance assessments. A traditional scientific approach has been taken to focus characterization and monitoring efforts. This involved developing a conceptual model of the hydrogeologic system and defining and testing hypotheses about this model. Specific hypotheses tested included: that the system was hydrologically heterogenous and anisotropic, and that recharge was very low or negligible. Mineralogical, physical, and hydrologic data collected to test hypotheses has shown the hydrologic system to be remarkably homogenous and isotropic rather than heterogenous and anisotropic. Both hydrodynamic and environmental tracer approaches for estimating recharge have led to the conclusion that recharge from the Area 5 RWMS is not occurring in the upper region of the vadose zone, and that recharge at depth is extremely small or negligible. This demonstration of ``no migration of hazardous constituents to the water table satisfies a key requirement for both the groundwater monitoring waiver and the exemption from liner leachate collection systems. Data obtained from testing hypotheses concerning the soil water migration pathway have been used to refine the conceptual model of the hydrogeologic system of the site. These data suggest that the soil gas and atmospheric air pathways may be more important for transporting contaminants to the accessible environment than the soil water pathway. New hypotheses have been developed about these pathways, and characterization and monitoring activities designed to collect data to test these hypotheses.

  1. Stereoselectivity of supported alkene metathesis catalysts: a goal and a tool to characterize active sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Copéret

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stereoselectivity in alkene metathesis is a challenge and can be used as a tool to study active sites under working conditions. This review describes the stereochemical relevance and problems in alkene metathesis (kinetic vs. thermodynamic issues, the use of (E/Z ratio at low conversions as a tool to characterize active sites of heterogeneous catalysts and finally to propose strategies to improve catalysts based on the current state of the art.

  2. Report of JLC site study group

    CERN Document Server

    Hasegawa, T; Yamashita, S

    2003-01-01

    This study group selected some good sites for construction of JLC (Electron-Positron Linear Collider) on the basis of investigation of data and field survey. The aims, activity, use of underground of private land, conditions of site, selection of site at present and future, summary and proposal are reported. 9 sites (Hidaka, Kitakami, Murayama, Abukuma, Kitaibaraki, Aichi and Gifu, Takamatsu, Hiroshima and Seburi range) are selected for the construction on the basis of firm ground and 4 sites (Okinawa, Harima, Tsukuba and Mutsuogawara) for development and researches. 9 sites area consists of plutonic rock or old strata of Paleozoic era. Many problems in each site are reported. There are three following proposals; 1) the self-governing communities of the sites have to understand JLC and start to construct it by information, 2) a site evaluation committee consists of specialist of civil engineering, building, social and natural environment and disaster prevention and 3) the vibration test should be carried out ...

  3. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, October 1, 1993--March 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    This report is the tenth in a series issued at intervals of approximately six months during site characterization of Yucca Mountain as a possible site for a geologic repository for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Also included in this report are descriptions of activities such as public outreach and international programs that are not formally part of the site characterization process. Information on these activities is provided to report on all aspects of the Yucca Mountain studies. The Executive Summary is intended to provide a summary of major decisions, activities, accomplishments, and issues of interest during the reporting period. Chapter 1, Introduction, provides background information to assist the reader in understanding the current status of the program. Chapter 2 provides specific detailed discussions of activities conducted during the current reporting period and has two major divisions. Section 2.1, Preparatory Activities, provides information on select preparatory activities necessary to conduct site characterization and design activities. Sections 2.2 through 2.8 provide specific details on studies and activities conducted during the reporting period and follow the original structure of the Department`s 1988 Site Characterization Plan. Chapter 3 contains the current summary schedule, while Chapter 4 provides a description of the program outreach, including activities during the reporting period, in both the international program and public outreach. Chapter 5 presents an epilogue of significant events that occurred after the end of the reporting period.

  4. Wetlands Assessment for site characterization, Advanced Neutron Source (ANS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, M.C.; Socolof, M.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Energy Div.; Rosensteel, B.; Awl, D. [JAYCOR, Vienna, VA (United States)

    1994-10-01

    This Wetlands Assessment has been prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10 CFR 1022, Compliance with Floodplain/Wetlands Environmental Review Requirements, which established the policy and procedure for implementing Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands. The proposed action is to conduct characterization activities in or near wetlands at the ANS site. The proposed action will covered under a Categorical Exclusion, therefore this assessment is being prepared as a separate document [10 CFR 1022.12(c)]. The purpose of this Wetlands Assessment is to fulfill the requirements of 10 CFR 1022.12(a) by describing the project, discussing the effects of the proposed action upon the wetlands, and considering alternatives to the proposed action.

  5. Site characterization and site response in Port-au-Prince, Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Susan E.; Yong, Alan K.; Altidor, Jean Robert; Anglade, Dieuseul; Given, Douglas D.; Mildor, Saint-Louis

    2011-01-01

    Waveform analysis of aftershocks of the Mw7.0 Haiti earthquake of 12 January 2010 reveals amplification of ground motions at sites within the Cul de Sac valley in which Port-au-Prince is situated. Relative to ground motions recorded at a hard-rock reference site, peak acceleration values are amplified by a factor of approximately 1.8 at sites on low-lying Mio-Pliocene deposits in central Port-au-Prince and by a factor of approximately 2.5–3 on a steep foothill ridge in the southern Port-au-Prince metropolitan region. The observed amplitude, predominant periods, variability, and polarization of amplification are consistent with predicted topographic amplification by a steep, narrow ridge. A swath of unusually high damage in this region corresponds with the extent of the ridge where high weak-motion amplifications are observed. We use ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) imagery to map local geomorphology, including characterization of both near-surface and of small-scale topographic structures that correspond to zones of inferred amplification.

  6. Characterization ReportOperational Closure Covers for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada Geotechnical Sciences

    2005-06-01

    Bechtel Nevada (BN) manages two low-level Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). The Area 3 RWMS is located in south-central Yucca Flat and the Area 5 RWMS is located about 15 miles south, in north-central Frenchman Flat. Though located in two separate topographically closed basins, they are similar in climate and hydrogeologic setting. The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste, while the Area 3 RWMS uses subsidence craters formed from underground testing of nuclear weapons for the disposal of packaged and unpackaged bulk waste. Over the next several decades, most waste disposal units at both the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are anticipated to be closed. Closure of the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs will proceed through three phases: operational closure, final closure, and institutional control. Many waste disposal units at the Area 5RWMS are operationally closed and final closure has been placed on one unit at the Area 3 RWMS (U-3ax/bl). Because of the similarities between the two sites (e.g., type of wastes, environmental factors, operational closure cover designs, etc.), many characterization studies and data collected at the Area 3 RWMS are relevant and applicable to the Area 5 RWMS. For this reason, data and closure strategies from the Area 3 RWMS are referred to as applicable. This document is an interim Characterization Report – Operational Closure Covers, for the Area 5 RWMS. The report briefly describes the Area 5 RWMS and the physical environment where it is located, identifies the regulatory requirements, reviews the approach and schedule for closing, summarizes the monitoring programs, summarizes characterization studies and results, and then presents conclusions and recommendations.

  7. Advanced airborne geophysics for site and watershed characterization and remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, B.; Hodges, G. [Fugro Airborne Surveys, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2007-04-01

    Airborne geophysics systems now have the ability to make accurately map the conductivity of the earth's subsurface. This article provided details of various site characterization surveys conducted using helicopter electromagnetic (HEM) surveys. Recent improvements in computer software, the use of global positioning systems (GPS), lasers, and fiber optics have increased the ability of HEM systems to accurately map ground conditions. Airborne electromagnetic survey techniques were used to characterize the geological features and lithology of the Sulphur Bank Mercury Mine (SBMM) on the eastern shore of Clear Lake in California. Natural conduits for the movement of groundwater were identified. Data showed that acidic water and mercury from the mine were contaminating the lake. The data showed good agreement with results obtained from previous conventional geologic and hydrologic investigations. HEM surveys were also used to characterize conductive mine pools and groundwater plumes at areas in the eastern United States that contained abandoned surface and underground coal mines. HEM was used to delineate source areas and flow paths for acidic, metal-containing groundwater, and data obtained from the surveys were used to plan mitigation activities. The survey identified 11 mine pools, as well as flooded workings that had previously not been mapped. HEM surveys were also used to map water-bearing fractures in areas of crystalline bedrock in drought-ridden regions in Brazil. Information from the surveys was used to locate drill targets for water wells. A test survey was used to identify wellheads leaking methane in a privately-owned gas field in Wyoming. Five methane leakage plumes were detected as a result of the survey. HEM geophysical surveys have also been used to map conductivity variations due to changes in water salinity at the Biscayne aquifer in the Florida everglades. It was concluded that airborne and HEM surveys provide significant cost savings when

  8. Developing Hydrogeological Site Characterization Strategies based on Human Health Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, F.; Rubin, Y.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    In order to provide better sustainable groundwater quality management and minimize the impact of contamination in humans, improved understanding and quantification of the interaction between hydrogeological models, geological site information and human health are needed. Considering the joint influence of these components in the overall human health risk assessment and the corresponding sources of uncertainty aid decision makers to better allocate resources in data acquisition campaigns. This is important to (1) achieve remediation goals in a cost-effective manner, (2) protect human health and (3) keep water supplies clean in order to keep with quality standards. Such task is challenging since a full characterization of the subsurface is unfeasible due to financial and technological constraints. In addition, human exposure and physiological response to contamination are subject to uncertainty and variability. Normally, sampling strategies are developed with the goal of reducing uncertainty, but less often they are developed in the context of their impacts on the overall system uncertainty. Therefore, quantifying the impact from each of these components (hydrogeological, behavioral and physiological) in final human health risk prediction can provide guidance for decision makers to best allocate resources towards minimal prediction uncertainty. In this presentation, a multi-component human health risk-based framework is presented which allows decision makers to set priorities through an information entropy-based visualization tool. Results highlight the role of characteristic length-scales characterizing flow and transport in determining data needs within an integrated hydrogeological-health framework. Conditions where uncertainty reduction in human health risk predictions may benefit from better understanding of the health component, as opposed to a more detailed hydrogeological characterization, are also discussed. Finally, results illustrate how different dose

  9. Environmental and geologic site characterization: A case study of Monte Argentario promontory; Recupero geologico-ambientale: un esempio rappresentativo di studio sul promontorio di Monte Argentario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriola, L.; Cautilli, F.; Polizzano, C.; Tassoni, E. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Ambiente

    1996-12-01

    The topic discussed in this report can be inserted within the context of studies carried out by ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) on the Monte Argentario. These studies showed a noteworthy group of geological phenomena and the need to promote articulate and differentiated interventions for which professionalism and operative capability are absolutely indispensable, qualities which are typical of a body such as ENEA. The ENEA has therefore set up a method of intervention which represents a cultural instrument necessary if one is to have the correct approach to environmental problems connected to sliding movements. The topics dealt with in the present technical report represent the summary of different investigations carried out on the promontory. The report mainly provides a classification of sliding movements and the works usually carried out to improve areas of the territory which show elevated levels of degradation and slope instability, for each coastal areas of the promontory, detailed conceptual indications are provided regarding the works required with the scope of lessening the present risks in the above mentioned areas.

  10. Characterization of the geology, geochemistry, and microbiology of the radio frequency heating demonstration site at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy Dilek, C.A.; Jarosch, T.R.; Fliermans, C.B.; Looney, B.B.; Parker, W.H.

    1993-08-01

    The overall objective of the Integrated Demonstration Project for the Remediation of Organics at Nonarid Sites at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is to evaluate innovative remediation, characterization, and monitoring systems to facilitate restoration of contaminated sites. The first phase of the demonstration focused on the application and development of in situ air stripping technologies to remediate sediments and groundwater contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The second phase focused on the enhancement of the in situ air stripping process by adding selected nutrients to stimulate naturally occurring microorganisms that degrade VOCs. The purpose of the third phase was to evaluate the use of heating technologies [radio frequency (rf) and ohmic heating] to enhance the removal of contamination from clay layers where mass transfer is limited. The objective of this report is to document pretest and post-test data collected in support of the rf heating demonstration. The following data are discussed in this report: (1) a general description of the site including piezometers and sensors installed to monitor the remedial process; (2) stratigraphy, lithology, and a detailed geologic cross section of the study site; (3) tabulations of pretest and post-test moisture and VOC content of the sediments; (4) sampling and analysis procedures for sediment samples; (5) microbial abundance and diversity; (6) three-dimensional images of pretest and post-test contaminant distribution; (7) volumetric calculations.

  11. Herbicide Orange Site Characterization Study, Eglin AFB

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    were able to adequately judge stress. Cool isotonic drinks and shade were provided during rest breaks. No significant heat stress uroblenms were...analyses were performed and reported for a variety of quality assurance criteria. Samples were composited for a radial sampling grid, with sampling plots...Label and Identification Format ...................... 20 8 TCDD Concentration of Composited Surface Samples and Replicated Locations

  12. Seismic Hazard Characterization at the DOE Savannah River Site (SRS): Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savy, J.B.

    1994-06-24

    The purpose of the Seismic Hazard Characterization project for the Savannah River Site (SRS-SHC) is to develop estimates of the seismic hazard for several locations within the SRS. Given the differences in the geology and geotechnical characteristics at each location, the estimates of the seismic hazard are to allow for the specific local conditions at each site. Characterization of seismic hazard is a critical factor for the design of new facilities as well as for the review and potential retrofit of existing facilities at SRS. The scope of the SRS seismic hazard characterization reported in this document is limited to the Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA). The goal of the project is to provide seismic hazard estimates based on a state-of-the-art method which is consistent with developments and findings of several ongoing studies which are deemed to bring improvements in the state of the seismic hazard analyses.

  13. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) geological site characterization report, Big Hill Salt Dome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, R.J.; Ortiz, T.S.; Magorian, T.R.

    1981-09-01

    Geological and geophysical analyses of the Big Hill Salt Dome were performed to determine the suitability of this site for use in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Development of 140 million barrels (MMB) of storage capacity in the Big Hill Salt Dome is planned as part of the SPR expansion to achieve 750 MMB of storage capacity. Objectives of the study were to: (1) Acquire, evaluate, and interpret existing data pertinent to geological characterization of the Big Hill Dome; (2) Characterize the surface and near-surface geology and hydrology; (3) Characterize the geology and hydrology of the overlying cap rock; (4) Define the geometry and geology of the dome; (5) Determine the feasibility of locating and constructing 14 10-MMB storage caverns in the south portion of the dome; and (6) Assess the effects of natural hazards on the SPR site. Recommendations are included. (DMC)

  14. Comprehensive characterization of atmospheric organic carbon at a forested site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, James F.; Day, Douglas A.; Palm, Brett B.; Yatavelli, Reddy L. N.; Chan, Arthur W. H.; Kaser, Lisa; Cappellin, Luca; Hayes, Patrick L.; Cross, Eben S.; Carrasquillo, Anthony J.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Stark, Harald; Zhao, Yunliang; Hohaus, Thorsten; Smith, James N.; Hansel, Armin; Karl, Thomas; Goldstein, Allen H.; Guenther, Alex; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Thornton, Joel A.; Heald, Colette L.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Kroll, Jesse H.

    2017-10-01

    Atmospheric organic compounds are central to key chemical processes that influence air quality, ecological health, and climate. However, longstanding difficulties in predicting important quantities such as organic aerosol formation and oxidant lifetimes indicate that our understanding of atmospheric organic chemistry is fundamentally incomplete, probably due in part to the presence of organic species that are unmeasured using standard analytical techniques. Here we present measurements of a wide range of atmospheric organic compounds--including previously unmeasured species--taken concurrently at a single site (a ponderosa pine forest during summertime) by five state-of-the-art mass spectrometric instruments. The combined data set provides a comprehensive characterization of atmospheric organic carbon, covering a wide range in chemical properties (volatility, oxidation state, and molecular size), and exhibiting no obvious measurement gaps. This enables the first construction of a measurement-based local organic budget, highlighting the high emission, deposition, and oxidation fluxes in this environment. Moreover, previously unmeasured species, including semivolatile and intermediate-volatility organic species (S/IVOCs), account for one-third of the total organic carbon, and (within error) provide closure on both OH reactivity and potential secondary organic aerosol formation.

  15. Assessment of multiple geophysical techniques for the characterization of municipal waste deposit sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaël, Dumont; Tanguy, Robert; Nicolas, Marck; Frédéric, Nguyen

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we tested the ability of geophysical methods to characterize a large technical landfill installed in a former sand quarry. The geophysical surveys specifically aimed at delimitating the deposit site horizontal extension, at estimating its thickness and at characterizing the waste material composition (the moisture content in the present case). The site delimitation was conducted with electromagnetic (in-phase and out-of-phase) and magnetic (vertical gradient and total field) methods that clearly showed the transition between the waste deposit and the host formation. Regarding waste deposit thickness evaluation, electrical resistivity tomography appeared inefficient on this particularly thick deposit site. Thus, we propose a combination of horizontal to vertical noise spectral ratio (HVNSR) and multichannel analysis of the surface waves (MASW), which successfully determined the approximate waste deposit thickness in our test landfill. However, ERT appeared to be an appropriate tool to characterize the moisture content of the waste, which is of prior information for the organic waste biodegradation process. The global multi-scale and multi-method geophysical survey offers precious information for site rehabilitation studies, water content mitigation processes for enhanced biodegradation or landfill mining operation planning.

  16. Stochastic fuzzy environmental risk characterization of uncertainty and variability in risk assessments: A case study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil at a petroleum-contaminated site in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Yan [MOE Key Laboratory of Regional Energy Systems Optimization, Resources and Environmental Research Academy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environment Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Wang, Zesen [MOE Key Laboratory of Regional Energy Systems Optimization, Resources and Environmental Research Academy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Wen, Jingya [MOE Key Laboratory of Regional Energy Systems Optimization, Resources and Environmental Research Academy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Institute of Hydropower and Environment Research, Beijing 100012 (China); Li, Yu, E-mail: liyuxx8@hotmail.com [MOE Key Laboratory of Regional Energy Systems Optimization, Resources and Environmental Research Academy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2016-10-05

    Highlights: • Deal with environmental quality guidelines absence in risk characterization. • Quantitative represention of uncertainty from environmental quality guidelines. • Quantitative represention of variability from contaminant exposure concentrations. • Establishment of stochastic-fuzzy environmental risk characterization approach framework. - Abstract: Better decisions are made using risk assessment models when uncertainty and variability are explicitly acknowledged. Uncertainty caused by a lack of uniform and scientifically supported environmental quality guidelines and variability in the degree of exposure of environmental systems to contaminants are here incorporated in a stochastic fuzzy environmental risk characterization (SFERC) approach. The approach is based on quotient probability distribution and environmental risk level fuzzy membership function methods. The SFERC framework was used to characterize the environmental risks posed by 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil at a typical petroleum-contaminated site in China. This relied on integrating data from the literature and field and laboratory experiments. The environmental risk levels posed by the PAHs under four risk scenarios were determined using the SFERC approach, using “residential land” and “industrial land” environmental quality guidelines under “loose” and “strict” strictness parameters. The results showed that environmental risks posed by PAHs in soil are primarily caused by oil exploitation, traffic emissions, and coal combustion. The SFERC approach is an effective tool for characterizing uncertainty and variability in environmental risk assessments and for managing contaminated sites.

  17. Innovations in Site Characterization: Streamlining Cleanup at Vapor Intrusion and Product Removal Sites Using the Triad Approach: Hartford Plume Site, Hartford, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Hartford Plume Site case study provides a detailed example of the strategies and technologies used at the site that are available to environmental practitioners to use at large and small hydrocarbon sites.

  18. Characterization Report for the 92-Acre Area of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office manages two low-level Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site. The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste. This report summarizes characterization and monitoring work pertinent to the 92-Acre Area in the southeast part of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites. The decades of characterization and assessment work at the Area 5 RWMS indicate that the access controls, waste operation practices, site design, final cover design, site setting, and arid natural environment contribute to a containment system that meets regulatory requirements and performance objectives for the short- and long-term protection of the environment and public. The available characterization and Performance Assessment information is adequate to support design of the final cover and development of closure plans. No further characterization is warranted to demonstrate regulatory compliance. U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office is proceeding with the development of closure plans for the six closure units of the 92-Acre Area.

  19. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A. [ed.; Fosmire, C.J.; Fowler, R.A. [and others

    1998-09-01

    This document describes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site environment and is numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is presented in Hanford Site NEPA related documents. The document is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many NEPA documents that are being prepared by contractors. The two chapters in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered this way to correspond to the chapters where such information is presented in environmental impact statements (EISs) and other Site-related NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes the Hanford Site environment, and includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological and historical resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes applicable federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site.

  20. Seismic site-response characterization of high-velocity sites using advanced geophysical techniques: application to the NAGRA-Net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggi, V.; Burjanek, J.; Michel, C.; Fäh, D.

    2017-08-01

    The Swiss Seismological Service (SED) has recently finalised the installation of ten new seismological broadband stations in northern Switzerland. The project was led in cooperation with the National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra) and Swissnuclear to monitor micro seismicity at potential locations of nuclear-waste repositories. To further improve the quality and usability of the seismic recordings, an extensive characterization of the sites surrounding the installation area was performed following a standardised investigation protocol. State-of-the-art geophysical techniques have been used, including advanced active and passive seismic methods. The results of all analyses converged to the definition of a set of best-representative 1-D velocity profiles for each site, which are the input for the computation of engineering soil proxies (traveltime averaged velocity and quarter-wavelength parameters) and numerical amplification models. Computed site response is then validated through comparison with empirical site amplification, which is currently available for any station connected to the Swiss seismic networks. With the goal of a high-sensitivity network, most of the NAGRA stations have been installed on stiff-soil sites of rather high seismic velocity. Seismic characterization of such sites has always been considered challenging, due to lack of relevant velocity contrast and the large wavelengths required to investigate the frequency range of engineering interest. We describe how ambient vibration techniques can successfully be applied in these particular conditions, providing practical recommendations for best practice in seismic site characterization of high-velocity sites.

  1. Site characterization investigations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [Shallow land burial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketelle, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The geologic and geohydrologic characterization and assessment techniques currently used at ORNL are integrated into a systematic approach. The investigations are multi-faceted, and involve investigators with a variety of expertise. Characterization studies are designed to obtain the data requirements of pathways analysis and facility design in addition to the detailed site description. The approach effectively minimizes the redundancy and lack of coordination which often arise when the study is broken down into totally independent tasks. The geologic environment of the Oak Ridge Reservation is one of structural and stratigraphic complexity which requires a comprehensive and systematic approach to characterize. Recent characterization studies have included state-of-the-science techniques in the areas of unsaturated zone testing, geochemical tests to determine attenuation properties of soils, and numerical analyses of site performance. The results of these studies and analyses are changing the technology of shallow land burial by indicating that chemically stable waste forms are required to limit radionuclide migration to acceptable levels. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korinko, P.

    2013-01-24

    A task was undertaken to characterize glovebox gloves that are currently used in the facilities at Savannah River Site (SRS) as well as some experimental and advanced compound gloves that have been proposed for use. Gloves from four manufacturers were tested for permeation in hydrogen and air, thermal stability, tensile properties, puncture resistance and dynamic mechanical response. The gloves were compared to each other within the type and also to the butyl rubber glove that is widely used at the SRS. The permeation testing demonstrated that the butyl compounds from three of the vendors behaved similarly and exhibited hydrogen permeabilities of .52‐.84 x10{sup ‐7} cc H{sub 2}*cm / (cm{sup 2}*atm). The Viton glove performed at the lower edge of this bound, while the more advanced composite gloves exhibited permeabilities greater than a factor of two compared to butyl. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to determine the amount of material lost under slightly aggressive conditions. Glove losses are important since they can affect the life of glovebox stripper systems. During testing at 90, 120, and 150°C, the samples lost most of the mass in the initial 60 minutes of thermal exposure and as expected increasing the temperature increased the mass loss and shortened the time to achieve a steady state loss. The ranking from worst to best was Jung butyl‐Hypalon with 12.9 %, Piercan Hypalon with 11.4 %, and Jung butyl‐Viton with 5.2% mass loss all at approximately 140°C. The smallest mass losses were experienced by the Jung Viton and the Piercan polyurethane. Tensile properties were measured using a standard dog bone style test. The butyl rubber exhibited tensile strengths of 11‐15 MPa and elongations or 660‐843%. Gloves made from other compounds exhibited lower tensile strengths (5 MPa Viton) to much higher tensile strengths (49 MPa Urethane) with a comparable range of elongation. The puncture resistance of the gloves was measured

  3. How to Characterize a Potential Site for CO2 Storage with Sparse Data Coverage – a Danish Onshore Site Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Carsten Møller

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper demonstrates how a potential site for CO2 storage can be evaluated up to a sufficient level of characterization for compiling a storage permit application, even if the site is only sparsely explored. The focus of the paper is on a risk driven characterization procedure. In the initial state of a site characterization process with sparse data coverage, the regional geological and stratigraphic understanding of the area of interest can help strengthen a first model construction for predictive modeling. Static and dynamic modeling in combination with a comprehensive risk assessment can guide the different elements needed to be evaluated for fulfilling a permit application. Several essential parameters must be evaluated; the storage capacity for the site must be acceptable for the project life of the operation, the trap configuration must be efficient to secure long term containment, the injectivity must be sufficient to secure a longstanding stable operation and finally a satisfactory and operational measuring strategy must be designed. The characterization procedure is demonstrated for a deep onshore aquifer in the northern part of Denmark, the Vedsted site. The site is an anticlinal structural closure in an Upper Triassic – Lower Jurassic sandstone formation at 1 800-1 900 m depth.

  4. Study of ceramics from circular archaeological sites of Amazonic Basin by geochemical methods: dating and characterization; Estudo de ceramicas de sitios arqueologicos circulares da Bacia Amazonica por meio de metodos geoquimicos: datacao e caracterizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicoli, Ieda Gomes

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this work is to examine by means of characterization and dating pottery recently discovery inside archaeological sites recognized with circular earth structure in Acre State - Brazil which may contribute to the research in the reconstruction of part of the pre-history of the Amazonic Basin. These sites are located mainly in the Hydrographic Basin of High Purus River. Three of them were strategic chosen which provide the ceramics: Lobao, in Sena Madureira County at north; Alto Alegre, in Rio Branco County at east and Xipamanu I, in Xapuri County at south. The X-ray diffraction mineral analysis made possible to identify two types of crystal structures of ceramic minerals: quartz and M-Kaolinite. Neutron activation analysis in conjunction with multivariate statistical methods were applied for the ceramic characterization and classification. An homogeneous group was established by all sherds collected from Alto Alegre and was distinct from all the other two groups analyzed. Some of the sherds collected from Xipamanu I appeared in Lobao's urns, probably because they had the same fabrication process. The Lobao's urns presented a homogeneous group. Geochronology of these materials was carried out by Thermoluminescence. The Xipamanu I was the oldest site and Lobao the youngest. The average age of Xipamanu I and Alto Alegre were 2600 and 2070 years respectively. The average age of of occupation was 400 years to Alto Alegre and 970 years to Xipamanu I. The most probably date for Lobao was 1880 years. (author)

  5. Topographical survey and soil characterization of a candidate site for Radioactive Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peconick, Diva Godoi de O.; Mourao, Rogerio P., E-mail: godiva@cdtn.br, E-mail: mouraor@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nucelar (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Brazil has already initiated the establishment of a national near-surface repository for the low- and intermediate short-lived radioactive wastes generated within its territory. With two nuclear power plants in operation and a third one under construction, five active nuclear research institutes and another one planned for the intermediate future, operational constraints and social pressure built up for a disposal solution for such a waste category. The Brazilian Nuclear Commission CNEN was tasked at designing, building and commissioning this repository, which implies, among other activities, finding a suitable place for the facility. After an initial technical desk job, a federal land, not far from the NPPs, was appointed and in situ studies for the site characterization were started. This paper describes the topographical survey and soil drilling campaign carried out for the initial evaluation of the feasibility of the site vis-a-vis the applicable national regulations for site selection and disposal facilities licensing. (author)

  6. Studies of the biogenic amine transporters. VII. Characterization of a novel cocaine binding site identified with [125I]RTI-55 in membranes prepared from human, monkey and guinea pig caudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, R B; Silverthorn, M L; Glowa, J R; Matecka, D; Rice, K C; Carroll, F I; Partilla, J S; Uhl, G R; Vandenbergh, D J; Dersch, C M

    1998-04-01

    [125I]RTI-55 is a cocaine analog with high affinity for dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) transporters. Quantitative ligand binding studies revealed a novel high affinity [125I]RTI-55 binding site assayed under 5-HT transporter (SERT) conditions which has low affinity for almost all classic biogenic amine transporter ligands, including high affinity 5-HT transporter inhibitors such as paroxetine, but which retains high affinity for cocaine analogs. This site, termed SERT(site2) for its detection under 5-HT transporter conditions (not for an association with the SERT) occurs in monkey caudate, human caudate, and guinea pig caudate membranes, but not in rat caudate membranes. SERT(site2) is distinguished from the DA transporter (DAT) and SERT by several criteria, including a distinct ligand-selectivity profile, the inability to detect SERT(site2) in cells stably expressing the cloned human DAT, and insensitivity to irreversible ligands which inhibit [125I]RTI-55 binding to the DAT and SERT. Perhaps the most striking finding about SERT(site2) is that a wide range of representative antidepressant agents have very low affinity for SERT(site2). The affinity of cocaine for this site is not very different from the concentration cocaine achieves in the brain at pharmacological doses. Viewed collectively with the observation that ligands with high affinity for SERT(site2) are mostly cocaine analogs, these data lead us to speculate that actions of cocaine which differ from those of classic biogenic amine uptake inhibitors may be mediated in part via SERT(site2).

  7. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 1, Part A: Chapters 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 750 refs., 123 figs., 42 tabs.

  8. Site Characterization Plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 3, Part A: Chapters 6 and 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 218 figs., 50 tabs.

  9. Interim site characterization report and ground-water monitoring program for the Hanford site solid waste landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruland, R.M.; Hagan, R.A.; Cline, C.S.; Bates, D.J.; Evans, J.C.; Aaberg, R.L.

    1989-07-01

    Federal and state regulations governing the operation of landfills require utilization of ground-water monitoring systems to determine whether or not landfill operations impact ground water at the point of compliance (ground water beneath the perimeter of the facility). A detection-level ground-water monitoring system was designed, installed, and initiated at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). Chlorinated hydrocarbons were detected at the beginning of the ground-water monitoring program and continue to be detected more than 1 year later. The most probable source of the chlorinated hydrocarbons is washwater discharged to the SWL between 1985 and 1987. This is an interim report and includes data from the characterization work that was performed during well installation in 1987, such as field observations, sediment studies, and geophysical logging results, and data from analyses of ground-water samples collected in 1987 and 1988, such as field parameter measurements and chemical analyses. 38 refs., 27 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. (ed.)

    1988-09-01

    This document describes the Hanford Site environment (Chapter 4) and contains data in Chapter 5 and 6 which will guide users in the preparation of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)-related documents. Many NEPA compliance documents have been prepared and are being prepared by site contractors for the US Department of Energy, and examination of these documents reveals inconsistencies in the amount of detail presented and the method of presentation. Thus, it seemed necessary to prepare a consistent description of the Hanford environment to be used in preparing Chapter 4 of environmental impact statements and other site-related NEPA documentation. The material in Chapter 5 is a guide to the models used, including critical assumptions incorporated in these models, in previous Hanford NEPA documents. The users will have to select those models appropriate for the proposed action. Chapter 6 is essentially a definitive NEPA Chapter 6, which describes the applicable laws, regulations, and DOE and state orders. In this document, a complete description of the environment is presented in Chapter 4 without excessive tabular data. For these data, sources are provided. Most subjects are divided into a general description of the characteristics of the Hanford Site, followed by site-specific information where it is available on the 100, 200, 300, and other Areas. This division will allow a person requiring information to go immediately to those sections of particular interest. However, site-specific information on each of these separate areas is not always complete or available. In this case, the general Hanford Site description should be used. 131 refs., 19 figs., 32 tabs.

  11. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohay, A.C.; Fosmire, C.J.; Neitzel, D.A.; Hoitink, D.J.; Harvey, D.W.; Antonio, E.J.; Wright, M.K.; Thorne, P.D.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Fowler, R.A.; Goodwin, S.M.; Poston, T.M.

    1999-09-28

    This document describes the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many NEPA documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No conclusions or recommendations are provided. This year's report is the eleventh revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the 12th revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA; SEPA and CERCLA documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is presented in environmental impact statements (EISs) and other Site-related NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological and historical resources, socioeconomic; occupational safety, and noise. Sources for extensive tabular data related to these topics are provided in the chapter. Most subjects are divided into a general description of the characteristics of the Hanford Site, followed by site-specific information, where available, of the 100,200,300, and other Areas. This division allows the reader to go directly to those sections of particular interest. When specific information on each of these separate areas is not complete or available, the general Hanford Site description should be used. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) is essentially a definitive NEPA Chapter 6.0, which describes applicable federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site. People preparing environmental assessments and EISs should also be cognizant of the document entitled ''Recommendations for the Preparation of Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact

  12. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Eschbach, Tara O.; Fowler, Richard A.; Goodwin, Shannon M.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Hoitink, Dana J.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast, Ellen L.; Rohay, Alan C.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2001-09-01

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the thirteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the fourteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  13. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Cannon, Sandra D.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Hoitink, Dana J.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.; Reidel, Steve P.; Rohay, Alan C.; Scott, Michael J.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2004-09-22

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the sixteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the seventeenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety and health, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  14. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Eschbach, Tara O.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Goodwin, Shannon M.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Hoitink, Dana J.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.; Rohay, Alan C.; Scott, Michael J.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2002-09-01

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the thirteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the fourteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  15. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization, Revision 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Burk, Kenneth W.; Cannon, Sandra D.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.; Reidel, Steve P.; Scott, Michael J.; Thorne, Paul D.; Woody, Dave M.

    2003-09-01

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the thirteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the fourteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  16. Site Characterization Data from the U3ax/bl Exploratory Boreholes at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2005-08-01

    This report provides qualitative analyses and preliminary interpretations of hydrogeologic data obtained from two 45-degree, slanted exploratory boreholes drilled within the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site. Borehole UE-3bl-D1 was drilled beneath the U3ax/bl mixed waste disposal unit, and Borehole UE-3bl-U1 was drilled in undisturbed alluvium adjacent to the disposal unit. The U3ax/bl disposal unit is located within two conjoined subsidence craters, U3ax and U3bl, which were created by underground nuclear testing. Data from these boreholes were collected to support site characterization activities for the U3ax/bl disposal unit and the entire Area 3 RWMS. Site characterization at disposal units within the Area 3 RWMS must address the possibility that subsidence craters and associated disturbed alluvium of the chimneys beneath the craters might serve as pathways for contaminant migration. The two boreholes were drilled and sampled to compare hydrogeologic properties of alluvium below the waste disposal unit with those of adjacent undisturbed alluvium. Whether Borehole UE-3bl-D1 actually penetrated the chimney of the U3bl crater is uncertain. Analyses of core samples showed little difference in hydrogeologic properties between the two boreholes. Important findings of this study include the following: No hazardous or radioactive constituents of waste disposal concern were found in the samples obtained from either borehole. No significant differences in physical and hydrogeologic properties between boreholes is evident, and no evidence of significant trends with depth for any of these properties was observed. The values observed are typical of sandy materials. The alluvium is dry, with volumetric water content ranging from 5.6 to 16.2 percent. Both boreholes exhibit a slight increase in water content with depth, the only such trend observed. Water potential measurements on core samples from both boreholes show a large positive

  17. Geomorphological and geophysical investigations for the characterization of the Roman Carsulae site (Tiber basin, Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottari, C.; Aringoli, D.; Carluccio, R.; Castellano, C.; D'Ajello Caracciolo, F.; Gasperini, M.; Materazzi, M.; Nicolosi, I.; Pambianchi, G.; Pieruccini, P.; Sepe, V.; Urbini, S.; Varazi, F.

    2017-08-01

    This paper aims to bring to light the possible linkage between karstic phenomena and the human occupation of the Roman site of Carsulae (Tiber basin, Central Italy). Dolines are a typical morphological expression of karst rocks' dissolution and collapse and, usually, they represent a potential hazard for human activities and, in particular, in the care and maintenance of cultural heritage sites. In this study, we observed that the development of a subsidence doline caused severe damage to some archaeological structures at the Carsulae monumental site. According to the results obtained in our investigation, three sites at least with karst dissolution phenomena in the shallow calcareous tufa layer have been identified. One of them subsided probably in Roman times and produced a sharp deformation of the decumanus. In order to understand the evolution of this territory an integrated geomorphological and geophysical survey was carried out. The combination between the information derived from different geophysical techniques, such as: Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), Frequency-Domain Electromagnetism (FDEM), and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) clearly pointed out that the calcareous tufa layer is characterized by an irregular geometry and this resulted in the investigated area being affected by karst dissolution in several parts. Four boreholes opportunely located, provided direct information about the depth and the alteration of the calcareous tufa basement and precious calibration data for the geophysical methods. This study contributes to improving our knowledge on the evolution of the Carsulae archaeological site providing a new insight into the adaptation of ancient human societies in this problematic territory.

  18. Simulations & Case Studies. [SITE 2002 Section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Cathy R., Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on simulations and case studies from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2002 conference: "3-D Virtual Classroom Technology" (Kimberly Arseneau Miller, Angela Glod); "Simulated Lesson Design Studios" (Willis Copeland); "Lights, Camera, Integration: Presentation Programs and…

  19. Characterization of aerosol particles at the forested site in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimselyte, I.; Garbaras, A.; Kvietkus, K.; Remeikis, V.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM), especially fine particles (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 1 m, PM1), has been found to play an important role in global climate change, air quality, and human health. The continuous study of aerosol parameters is therefore imperative for better understanding the environmental effects of the atmospheric particles, as well as their sources, formation and transformation processes. The particle size distribution is particularly important, since this physical parameter determines the mass and number density, lifetime and atmospheric transport, or optical scattering behavior of the particles in the atmosphere (Jaenicke, 1998). Over the years several efforts have been made to improve the knowledge about the chemical composition of atmospheric particles as a function of size (Samara and Voutsa, 2005) and to characterize the relative contribution of different components to the fine particulate matter. It is well established that organic materials constitute a highly variable fraction of the atmospheric aerosol. This fraction is predominantly found in the fine size mode in concentrations ranging from 10 to 70% of the total dry fine particle mass (Middlebrook et al., 1998). Although organic compounds are major components of the fine particles, the composition, formation mechanism of organic aerosols are not well understood. This is because particulate organic matter is part of a complex atmospheric system with hundreds of different compounds, both natural and anthropogenic, covering a wide range of chemical properties. The aim of this study was to characterize the forest PM1, and investigate effects of air mass transport on the aerosol size distribution and chemical composition, estimate and provide insights into the sources and characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols through analysis ^13C/12C isotopic ratio as a function of the aerosol particles size. The measurements were performed at the Rugšteliškis integrated

  20. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Joanne P.; Burk, Kenneth W.; Chamness, Mickie A.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Kennedy, Ellen P.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Scott, Michael J.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2007-09-27

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site for the many environmental documents being prepared by DOE contractors concerning the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). No statements regarding significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year’s report is the eighteen revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the nineteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. Two chapters are included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6), numbered to correspond to chapters typically presented in environmental impact statements (EISs) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology; air quality; geology; hydrology; ecology; cultural, archaeological, and historical resources; socioeconomics; noise; and occupational health and safety. Sources for extensive tabular data related to these topics are provided in the chapter. When possible, subjects are divided into a general description of the characteristics of the Hanford Site, followed by site-specific information, where available, for the 100, 200, 300 and other areas. This division allows the reader to go directly to those sections of particular interest. When specific information on each of these separate areas is not complete or available, the general Hanford Site description should be used. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities. Information in Chapter 6 can be adapted and supplemented with

  1. Characterization of the Copper(II) Binding Sites in Human Carbonic Anhydrase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, Whitnee L.; Song, He; Farquhar, Erik R.; Fitzkee, Nicholas C.; Emerson, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Human carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a well-studied, robust, mononuclear Zn-containing metalloprotein that serves as an excellent biological ligand system to study the thermodynamics associated with metal ion coordination chemistry in aqueous solution. The apo-form of human carbonic anhydrase II (CA) binds two equivalents of copper(II) with high affinity. The Cu2+ ions bind independently forming two non-coupled type-II copper centers in CA (CuA and CuB). However, the location and coordination mode of the CuA site in solution is unclear, compared to the CuB site that has been well characterized. Using paramagnetic NMR techniques and X-ray absorption spectroscopy we have identified an N-terminal Cu2+ binding location and collected information on the coordination mode of the CuA site in CA, which is consistent with a four to five coordinate N-terminal Cu2+ binding site reminiscent to a number of N-terminal copper(II) binding sites including the copper(II)-ATCUN and copper(II)-beta-amyloid complexes. Additionally, we report a more detailed analysis of the thermodynamics associated with copper(II) binding to CA. Although we are still unable to fully deconvolute Cu2+ binding data to the high-affinity CuA site, we have derived pH- and buffer-independent values for the thermodynamics parameters K and ΔH associated with Cu2+ binding to the CuB site of CA to be 2 × 109 and −17.4 kcal/mol, respectively. PMID:26010488

  2. Information needs for characterization of high-level waste repository sites in six geologic media. Volume 1. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-05-01

    Evaluation of the geologic isolation of radioactive materials from the biosphere requires an intimate knowledge of site geologic conditions, which is gained through precharacterization and site characterization studies. This report presents the results of an intensive literature review, analysis and compilation to delineate the information needs, applicable techniques and evaluation criteria for programs to adequately characterize a site in six geologic media. These media, in order of presentation, are: granite, shale, basalt, tuff, bedded salt and dome salt. Guidelines are presented to assess the efficacy (application, effectiveness, and resolution) of currently used exploratory and testing techniques for precharacterization or characterization of a site. These guidelines include the reliability, accuracy and resolution of techniques deemed acceptable, as well as cost estimates of various field and laboratory techniques used to obtain the necessary information. Guidelines presented do not assess the relative suitability of media. 351 refs., 10 figs., 31 tabs.

  3. Molecular characterization of the microsomal tamoxifen binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedjouar, Blandine; de Médina, Philippe; Oulad-Abdelghani, Mustapha; Payré, Bruno; Silvente-Poirot, Sandrine; Favre, Gilles; Faye, Jean-Charles; Poirot, Marc

    2004-08-06

    Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor modulator widely used for the prophylactic treatment of breast cancer. In addition to the estrogen receptor (ER), tamoxifen binds with high affinity to the microsomal antiestrogen binding site (AEBS), which is involved in ER-independent effects of tamoxifen. In the present study, we investigate the modulation of the biosynthesis of cholesterol in tumor cell lines by AEBS ligands. As a consequence of the treatment with the antitumoral drugs tamoxifen or PBPE, a selective AEBS ligand, we show that tumor cells produced a significant concentration- and time-dependent accumulation of cholesterol precursors. Sterols have been purified by HPLC and gas chromatography, and their chemical structures determined by mass spectrometric analysis. The major metabolites identified were 5alpha-cholest-8-en-3beta-ol for tamoxifen treatment and 5alpha-cholest-8-en-3beta-ol and cholesta-5,7-dien-3beta-ol, for PBPE treatment, suggesting that these AEBS ligands affect at least two enzymatic steps: the 3beta-hydroxysterol-Delta8-Delta7-isomerase and the 3beta-hydroxysterol-Delta7-reductase. Steroidal antiestrogens such as ICI 182,780 and RU 58,668 did not affect these enzymatic steps, because they do not bind to the AEBS. Transient co-expression of human 3beta-hydroxysterol-Delta8-Delta7-isomerase and 3beta-hydroxysterol-Delta7-reductase and immunoprecipitation experiments showed that both enzymes were required to reconstitute the AEBS in mammalian cells. Altogether, these data provide strong evidence that the AEBS is a hetero-oligomeric complex including 3beta-hydroxysterol-Delta8-Delta7-isomerase and the 3beta-hydroxysterol-Delta7-reductase as subunits that are necessary and sufficient for tamoxifen binding in mammary cells. Furthermore, because selective AEBS ligands are antitumoral compounds, these data suggest a link between cholesterol metabolism at a post-lanosterol step and tumor growth control. These data afford both the identification

  4. Characterization of a novel phosphorylation site in the sodium-chloride cotransporter, NCC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaek, L L; Assentoft, Mette; Pedersen, Nis Borbye

    2012-01-01

    The sodium-chloride cotransporter, NCC, is essential for renal electrolyte balance. NCC function can be modulated by protein phosphorylation. In this study, we characterized the role and physiological regulation of a novel phosphorylation site in NCC at Ser124 (S124). Novel phospho-specific antib......The sodium-chloride cotransporter, NCC, is essential for renal electrolyte balance. NCC function can be modulated by protein phosphorylation. In this study, we characterized the role and physiological regulation of a novel phosphorylation site in NCC at Ser124 (S124). Novel phospho......DAVP significantly increased pS124-NCC abundance, with no changes in total NCC plasma membrane abundance. pS124-NCC levels also increased in abundance in rats after stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system by dietary low sodium intake. In contrast to other NCC phosphorylation sites, the STE20/SPS1......-related proline-alanine-rich kinase and oxidative stress-response kinases (SPAK and OSR1) were not able to phosphorylate NCC at S124. Protein kinase arrays identified multiple kinases that were able to bind to the region surrounding S124. Four of these kinases (IRAK2, CDK6/Cyclin D1, NLK and m...

  5. Site characterization plan for groundwater in Waste Area Grouping 1 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R.R.; Curtis, A.H.; Houlberg, L.M.; Purucker, S.T.; Singer, M.L.; Tardiff, M.F.; Wolf, D.A.

    1994-07-01

    The Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is undergoing a site characterization to identify environmental contamination that may be present. This document, Site Characterization Report for Groundwater in Waste Area Grouping I at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, identifies areas of concern with respect to WAG 1 groundwater and presents the rationale, justification, and objectives for conducting this continuing site characterization. This report summarizes the operations that have taken place at each of the areas of concern in WAG 1, summarizes previous characterization studies that have been performed, presents interpretations of previously collected data and information, identifies contaminants of concern, and presents an action plan for further site investigations and early actions that will lead to identification of contaminant sources, their major groundwater pathways, and reduced off-site migration of contaminated groundwater to surface water. Site characterization Activities performed to date at WAG I have indicated that groundwater contamination, principally radiological contamination, is widespread. An extensive network of underground pipelines and utilities have contributed to the dispersal of contaminants to an unknown extent. The general absence of radiological contamination in surface water at the perimeter of WAG 1 is attributed to the presence of pipelines and underground waste storage tank sumps and dry wells distributed throughout WAG 1 which remove more than about 40 million gal of contaminated groundwater per year.

  6. Site characterization report for the basalt waste isolation project. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-11-01

    The reference location for a repository in basalt for the terminal storage of nuclear wastes on the Hanford Site and the candidate horizons within this reference repository location have been identified and the preliminary characterization work in support of the site screening process has been completed. Fifteen technical questions regarding the qualification of the site were identified to be addressed during the detailed site characterization phase of the US Department of Energy-National Waste Terminal Storage Program site selection process. Resolution of these questions will be provided in the final site characterization progress report, currently planned to be issued in 1987, and in the safety analysis report to be submitted with the License Application. The additional information needed to resolve these questions and the plans for obtaining the information have been identified. This Site Characterization Report documents the results of the site screening process, the preliminary site characterization data, the technical issues that need to be addressed, and the plans for resolving these issues. Volume 2 contains chapters 6 through 12: geochemistry; surface hydrology; climatology, meteorology, and air quality; environmental, land-use, and socioeconomic characteristics; repository design; waste package; and performance assessment.

  7. Technical Data Catalog: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Quarterly supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-30

    This report presents reference information contained in the Yucca Mountain Project Automated Technical Data Tracking System. The Department of Energy is seeking to design and maintain a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. However, before this repository can be built, the DOE must first do a comprehensive site evaluation. This evaluation is subject to many regulations. This report fulfills the reporting requirements of the Site-Specific Procedural Agreement for Geologic Repository to develop and maintain a catalog of data which will be updated and provided to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission on a quarterly basis. This catalog contains: description of data; time, place, and method of acquisition; and where data may be examined.

  8. Interpreting and Responding to Intensified Site Characterization Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Phase 1 7 , 0 0 0 u g T C E / L 1 0 0 u g T C E / L transmissive pore fraction static pore fraction 2005 Aquifer conditions Alluvial fan Groundwater... dynamic groundwater monitoring) Questions and Discussion Beaver Island, Michigan Impacts and Opportunities • Contaminant mass transport is often...mappings to be successful, however: Low-K zones cannot be treated to compliance. Dynamic groundwater monitoring is a potential solution: Separate site

  9. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration site characterization plan. Area 6 Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    This plan presents the strategy for the characterization of the Area 6 South and North Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEPs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to be conducted for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Environmental Restoration Division (ERD). The purposes of the planned activities are to: obtain sufficient, sample analytical data from which further assessment, remediation, and/or closure strategies may be developed for the site; obtain sufficient, sample analytical data for management of investigation-derived waste (IDW). The scope of the characterization may include excavation, drilling, and sampling of soil in and around both ponds; sampling of the excavated material; in situ sampling of the soil at the bottom and on the sides of the excavations as well as within subsurface borings; and conducting sample analysis for both characterization and waste management purposes. Contaminants of concern include RCRA-regulated VOCs and metals.

  10. Functional Characterization of APOBEC-1 Complementation Factor Phosphorylation Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, David M.; Galloway, Chad A.; MacElrevey, Celeste; Sowden, Mark P.; Wedekind, Joseph E.; Smith, Harold C.

    2007-01-01

    ApoB mRNA editing involves site-specific deamination of cytidine 6666 producing an in-frame translation stop codon. Editing minimally requires APOBEC-1 and APOBEC-1 complementation factor (ACF). Metabolic stimulation of apoB mRNA editing in hepatocytes is associated with serine phosphorylation of ACF localized to editing competent, nuclear 27S editosomes. We demonstrate that activation of protein kinase C (PKC) stimulated editing and enhanced ACF phosphorylation in rat primary hepatocytes. Conversely, activation of protein kinase A (PKA) had no effect on editing. Recombinant PKC efficiently phosphorylated purified ACF64 protein in vitro, whereas PKA did not. Mutagenesis of predicted PKC phosphorylation sites S154 and S368 to alanine inhibited ethanol-stimulated induction of editing suggesting that these sites function in the metabolic regulation of editing. Consistent with this interpretation, substitution of S154 and S368 with aspartic acid stimulated editing to levels comparable to ethanol treatment in control McArdle RH7777 cells. These data suggest that phosphorylation of ACF by PKC may be a key regulatory mechanism of apoB mRNA editing in rat hepatocytes. PMID:17229474

  11. Characterization of atmospheric bioaerosols at 9 sites in Tijuana, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Lilia; Rodríguez, Guillermo; López, Jonathan; Castillo, J. E.; Molina, Luisa; Zavala, Miguel; Quintana, Penelope J. E.

    2014-10-01

    The atmosphere is not considered a habitat for microorganisms, but can exist in the atmosphere as bioaerosols. These microorganisms in the atmosphere have great environmental importance through their influence on physical processes such as ice nucleation and cloud droplet formation. Pathogenic airborne microorganisms may also have public health consequences. In this paper we analyze the microbial concentration in the air at three sites in Tijuana, Mexico border during the Cal-Mex 2010 air quality campaign and from nine sites over the following year. Samples were collected by impaction with the air analyzer Millipore M Air T, followed by incubation and counting as colony forming units (CFU) of viable colonies. Airborne microbial contamination average levels ranged from a low of 230 ± 130 CFU/m³ in the coastal reference site to an average of 40,100 ± 21,689 CFU/m³ in the Tijuana river valley. We found the highest microbial load in the summer and the lowest values in the winter. Potentially pathogenic bacteria were isolated from the samples, with Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis being most common. This work is the first evaluation of bioaerosols in Tijuana, Mexico.

  12. Characterization and identification of ubiquitin conjugation sites with E3 ligase recognition specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van-Nui; Huang, Kai-Yao; Huang, Chien-Hsun; Chang, Tzu-Hao; Bretaña, Neil; Lai, K; Weng, Julia; Lee, Tzong-Yi

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, ubiquitin-conjugation is an important mechanism underlying proteasome-mediated degradation of proteins, and as such, plays an essential role in the regulation of many cellular processes. In the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, E3 ligases play important roles by recognizing a specific protein substrate and catalyzing the attachment of ubiquitin to a lysine (K) residue. As more and more experimental data on ubiquitin conjugation sites become available, it becomes possible to develop prediction models that can be scaled to big data. However, no development that focuses on the investigation of ubiquitinated substrate specificities has existed. Herein, we present an approach that exploits an iteratively statistical method to identify ubiquitin conjugation sites with substrate site specificities. In this investigation, totally 6259 experimentally validated ubiquitinated proteins were obtained from dbPTM. After having filtered out homologous fragments with 40% sequence identity, the training data set contained 2658 ubiquitination sites (positive data) and 5532 non-ubiquitinated sites (negative data). Due to the difficulty in characterizing the substrate site specificities of E3 ligases by conventional sequence logo analysis, a recursively statistical method has been applied to obtain significant conserved motifs. The profile hidden Markov model (profile HMM) was adopted to construct the predictive models learned from the identified substrate motifs. A five-fold cross validation was then used to evaluate the predictive model, achieving sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 73.07%, 65.46%, and 67.93%, respectively. Additionally, an independent testing set, completely blind to the training data of the predictive model, was used to demonstrate that the proposed method could provide a promising accuracy (76.13%) and outperform other ubiquitination site prediction tool. A case study demonstrated the effectiveness of the characterized substrate motifs for

  13. Site Characterization for the MBCE/DIRT II Battlefield Environment Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    study was performed by Messrs. Carlos Lebron , Billy Helmuth, and Douglas Rockett under the tech- nical supervision of Mr. James B. Mason, Project...LEVEL;!;v *-" MISCELLANEOUS PAPER EL-81-B SITE CHARACTERIZATION FOR THE 00 MBCE/DIRT I! BATTLEFIELD ENVIRONMENT TESTS n by n James B. Mason and...GRANT NUMBER(e) James B./Mason Katherine S.gLong / 4S 1.a- -0 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS ,0. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK U. S. Army

  14. Preliminary site characterization summary and engineering evaluation/cost analysis for Site 2, New Fuel Farm, Naval Air Station Fallon, Fallon, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronk, T.A.; Smuin, D.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Schlosser, R.M. (Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States))

    1991-09-01

    This report addresses subsurface contamination associated with Site 2, the New Fuel Farm at Naval Air Station Fallon (NAS Fallon), Nevada and is an integral part of Phase 2 of the Installation Restoration Program (IR Program) currently underway at the facility. This report: (1) reviews and assesses environmental information characterizing Site 2; (2) determine if site-characterization information is sufficient to design and evaluate removal actions; and, (3) investigates, develops, and describes any removal actions deemed feasible. Previous environmental investigations at Site 2 indicate the presence of floating product (primarily JP-5, jet fuel) on the water table underlying the facility. While the extent of floating-produce plumes has been characterized, the degree of associated soil and groundwater contamination remains uncertain. A comprehensive characterization of soil and groundwater contamination will be completed as the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study progresses. Corrective actions are recommended at this time to remove free-phase floating product. Implementing these removal actions will also provide additional information which will be used to direct further investigations of the extent, mobility, and potential environmental threat from soil and groundwater contaminants at this side.

  15. An overview of geophysical technologies appropriate for characterization and monitoring at fractured-rock sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geophysical methods are used increasingly for characterization and monitoring at remediation sites in fractured-rock aquifers. The complex heterogeneity of fractured rock poses enormous challenges to groundwater remediation professionals, and new methods are needed to cost-effect...

  16. Studies on Labour Safety in Construction Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchana, S; Sivaprakash, P; Joseph, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Construction industry has accomplished extensive growth worldwide particularly in past few decades. For a construction project to be successful, safety of the structures as well as that of the personnel is of utmost importance. The safety issues are to be considered right from the design stage till the completion and handing over of the structure. Construction industry employs skilled and unskilled labourers subject to construction site accidents and health risks. A proper coordination between contractors, clients, and workforce is needed for safe work conditions which are very much lacking in Indian construction companies. Though labour safety laws are available, the numerous accidents taking place at construction sites are continuing. Management commitment towards health and safety of the workers is also lagging. A detailed literature study was carried out to understand the causes of accidents, preventive measures, and development of safe work environment. This paper presents the results of a questionnaire survey, which was distributed among various categories of construction workers in Kerala region. The paper examines and discusses in detail the total working hours, work shifts, nativity of the workers, number of accidents, and type of injuries taking place in small and large construction sites.

  17. Studies on Labour Safety in Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kanchana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction industry has accomplished extensive growth worldwide particularly in past few decades. For a construction project to be successful, safety of the structures as well as that of the personnel is of utmost importance. The safety issues are to be considered right from the design stage till the completion and handing over of the structure. Construction industry employs skilled and unskilled labourers subject to construction site accidents and health risks. A proper coordination between contractors, clients, and workforce is needed for safe work conditions which are very much lacking in Indian construction companies. Though labour safety laws are available, the numerous accidents taking place at construction sites are continuing. Management commitment towards health and safety of the workers is also lagging. A detailed literature study was carried out to understand the causes of accidents, preventive measures, and development of safe work environment. This paper presents the results of a questionnaire survey, which was distributed among various categories of construction workers in Kerala region. The paper examines and discusses in detail the total working hours, work shifts, nativity of the workers, number of accidents, and type of injuries taking place in small and large construction sites.

  18. Characterizing the Mineralogy of Potential Lunar Landing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Carle; Head, James W., III; Mustard, Jack; Boardman, Joe; Buratti, Bonnie; Clark, Roger; Green, Rob; Head, James W, III; McCord, Thomas B.; Mustard, Jack; hide

    2006-01-01

    Many processes active on the early Moon are common to most terrestrial planets, including the record of early and late impact bombardment. The Moon's surface provides a record of the earliest era of terrestrial planet evolution, and the type and composition of minerals that comprise a planetary surface are a direct result of the initial composition and subsequent thermal and physical processing. Lunar mineralogy seen today is thus a direct record of the early evolution of the lunar crust and subsequent geologic processes. Specifically, the distribution and concentration of specific minerals is closely tied to magma ocean products, lenses of intruded or remelted plutons, basaltic volcanism and fire-fountaining, and any process (e.g. cratering) that might redistribute or transform primary and secondary lunar crustal materials. The association of several lunar minerals with key geologic processes is illustrated in Figure 1. The geologic history of potential landing sites on the Moon can be read from the character and context of local mineralogy.

  19. Geological site characterization for the proposed Mixed Waste Disposal Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reneau, S.L.; Raymond, R. Jr. [eds.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents the results of geological site characterization studies conducted from 1992 to 1994 on Pajarito Mesa for a proposed Los Alamos National Laboratory Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (MWDF). The MWDF is being designed to receive mixed waste (waste containing both hazardous and radioactive components) generated during Environmental Restoration Project cleanup activities at Los Alamos. As of 1995, there is no Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted disposal site for mixed waste at the Laboratory, and construction of the MWDF would provide an alternative to transport of this material to an off-site location. A 2.5 km long part of Pajarito Mesa was originally considered for the MWDF, extending from an elevation of about 2150 to 2225 m (7060 to 7300 ft) in Technical Areas (TAs) 15, 36, and 67 in the central part of the Laboratory, and planning was later concentrated on the western area in TA-67. The mesa top lies about 60 to 75 m (200 to 250 ft) above the floor of Pajarito Canyon on the north, and about 30 m (100 ft) above the floor of Threemile Canyon on the south. The main aquifer used as a water supply for the Laboratory and for Los Alamos County lies at an estimated depth of about 335 m (1100 ft) below the mesa. The chapters of this report focus on surface and near-surface geological studies that provide a basic framework for siting of the MWDF and for conducting future performance assessments, including fulfillment of specific regulatory requirements. This work includes detailed studies of the stratigraphy, mineralogy, and chemistry of the bedrock at Pajarito Mesa by Broxton and others, studies of the geological structure and of mesa-top soils and surficial deposits by Reneau and others, geologic mapping and studies of fracture characteristics by Vaniman and Chipera, and studies of potential landsliding and rockfall along the mesa-edge by Reneau.

  20. Waste site characterization and remediation: Problems in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalavapudi, M. [ENVIROSYS, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Iyengar, V. [Biomineral Sciences International Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Increased industrial activities in developing countries have degraded the environment, and the impact on the environment is further magnified because of an ever-increasing population, the prime receptors. Independent of the geographical location, it is possible to adopt effective strategies to solve environmental problems. In the United States, waste characterization and remediation practices are commonly used for quantifying toxic contaminants in air, water, and soil. Previously, such procedures were extraneous, ineffective, and cost-intensive. Reconciliation between the government and stakeholders, reinforced by valid data analysis and environmental exposure assessments, has allowed the {open_quotes}Brownfields{close_quotes} to be a successful approach. Certified reference materials and standard reference materials from the National Institute of Standards (NIST) are indispensable tools for solving environmental problems and help to validate data quality and the demands of legal metrology. Certified reference materials are commonly available, essential tools for developing good quality secondary and in-house reference materials that also enhance analytical quality. This paper cites examples of environmental conditions in developing countries, i.e., industrial pollution problems in India, polluted beaches in Brazil, and deteriorating air quality in countries, such as Korea, China, and Japan. The paper also highlights practical and effective approaches for remediating these problems. 23 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  1. White Oak Creek Embayment site characterization and contaminant screening analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Ford, C.J.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    Analyses of sediment samples collected near the mouth of White Oak Creek during the summer of 1990 revealed [sup 137]Cs concentrations [> 10[sup 6] Bq/kg dry wt (> 10[sup 4] pCi/g dry wt)] near the sediment surface. Available evidence indicates that these relatively high concentrations of [sup 137]Cs now at the sediment surface were released from White Oak Dam in the mid-1950s and had accumulated at depositionalsites in the embayment. These accumulated sediments are being eroded and transported downstream primarily during winter low-water levels by flood events and by a combination of normal downstream flow and the water turbulence created by the release of water from Melton Hill Dam during hydropower generation cycles. This report provides a more thorough characterization of the extent of contamination in WOCE than was previously available. Environmental samples collected from WOCE were analyzed for organic, inorganic, and radiological contaminants in fish, water, and sediment. These results were used to conduct a human health effects screening analysis. Walkover radiation surveys conducted inside the fenced area surrounding the WOCE at summer-pool (741 ft MSL) and at winter-pool (733 ft MSL) level, indicated a maximum exposure rate of 3 mR h[sup 1] 1 m above the soil surface.

  2. Use of Electrical Conductivity Logging to Characterize the Geological Context of Releases at UST Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk is the combination of hazard and exposure. Risk characterization at UST release sites has traditionally emphasized hazard (presence of residual fuel) with little attention to exposure. Exposure characterization often limited to a one-dimensional model such as the RBCA equa...

  3. Site characterization techniques used at a low-level waste shallow land burial field demonstration facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, E.C.; Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Rothschild, E.R.; Spalding, B.P.; Vaughan, N.D.; Haase, C.S.; Huff, D.D.; Lee, S.Y.; Walls, E.C.; Newbold, J.D.

    1984-07-01

    The Environmental Sciences Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been investigating improved shallow land burial technology for application in the humd eastern United States. As part of this effort, a field demonstration facility (Engineered Test Facility, or ETF) has been established in Solid Waste Storage Area 6 for purposes of investigatig the ability of two trench treatments (waste grouting prior to cover emplacement and waste isolation with trench liners) to prevent water-waste contact and thus minimize waste leaching. As part of the experimental plan, the ETF site has been characterized for purposes of constructing a hydrologic model. Site characterization is an extremely important component of the waste disposal site selection process; during these activities, potential problems, which might obviate the site from further consideration, may be found. This report describes the ETF site characterization program and identifies and, where appropriate, evaluates those tests that are of most value in model development. Specific areas covered include site geology, soils, and hydrology. Each of these areas is further divided into numerous subsections, making it easy for the reader to examine a single area of interest. Site characterization is a multidiscipliary endeavor with voluminous data, only portions of which are presented and analyzed here. The information in this report is similar to that which will be required of a low-level waste site developer in preparing a license application for a potential site in the humid East, (a discussion of licensing requirements is beyond its scope). Only data relevant to hydrologic model development are included, anticipating that many of these same characterization methods will be used at future disposal sites with similar water-related problems.

  4. Drift design methodology and preliminary application for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, M.P. [Agapito (J.F.T.) and Associates, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States); Bauer, S.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1991-12-01

    Excavation stability in an underground nuclear waste repository is required during construction, emplacement, retrieval (if required), and closure phases to ensure worker health and safety, and to prevent development of potential pathways for radionuclide migration in the post-closure period. Stable excavations are developed by appropriate excavation procedures, design of the room shape, design and installation of rock support reinforcement systems, and implementation of appropriate monitoring and maintenance programs. In addition to the loads imposed by the in situ stress field, the repository drifts will be impacted by thermal loads developed after waste emplacement and, periodically, by seismic loads from naturally occurring earthquakes and underground nuclear events. A priori evaluation of stability is required for design of the ground support system, to confirm that the thermal loads are reasonable, and to support the license application process. In this report, a design methodology for assessing drift stability is presented. This is based on site conditions, together with empirical and analytical methods. Analytical numerical methods are emphasized at this time because empirical data are unavailable for excavations in welded tuff either at elevated temperatures or under seismic loads. The analytical methodology incorporates analysis of rock masses that are systematically jointed, randomly jointed, and sparsely jointed. In situ thermal and seismic loads are considered. Methods of evaluating the analytical results and estimating ground support requirements for all the full range of expected ground conditions are outlines. The results of a preliminary application of the methodology using the limited available data are presented. 26 figs., 55 tabs.

  5. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, April 1, 1992--September 30, 1992, Number 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-01

    In accordance with section 113(b)(3) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended (NWPA), the Department has prepared the seventh in a series of reports on the progress of site characterization at the Yucca Mountain candidate site. The Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program made significant progress during the reporting period at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Several important advances were made in the surface-based testing program including: initiation of borehole drilling utilizing the new, state-of-the-art LM-300 drill rig which employs dry drilling and coring techniques; neutron access borehole drilling to evaluate infiltration processes; excavations to aid geologic mapping; and trenching in Midway Valley to study Quaternary faulting. A Floodplain Assessment and Statement of Findings was published in the Federal Register which concluded there would be no significant impact nor cumulative impacts on floodplains resulting from Exploratory Studies Facility activities. The National Academy of Sciences` National Research Council released its report entitled ``Ground Water at Yucca Mountain: How High Can It Rise?`` which concluded that none of the evidence cited as proof of groundwater upwelling in and around Yucca Mountain could be reasonably attributed to that process and that significant water table excursions to the repository design level are not shown by the geologic record. The June 29, 1992, earthquake near Yucca Mountain provided scientists with a wealth of information relevant to understanding the neotectonics of the area and the geometry of faults at depth. Early findings suggest that accelerations recorded were well within proposed design limits for the surface waste handling facilities.

  6. Technical data base quarterly report, April--June 1992; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-09-01

    The acquisition and development of technical data are activities that provide the information base from which the Yucca mountain Site will be characterized and may P-ventually be licensed as a high-level waste repository. The Project Technical Data Base (TDB) is the repository for the regional and site-specific technical data required in intermediate and license application analyses and models. The TDB Quarterly Report provides the mechanism for identifying technical data currently available from the Project TDB. Due to the variety of scientific information generated by YMP activities, the Project TDB consists of three components, each designed to store specific types of data. The Site and Engineering Properties Data Base (SEPDB) maintains technical data best stored in a tabular format. The Geographic Nodal Information Study and Evaluation System (GENISES), which is the Geographic Information System (GIS) component of the Project TDB, maintains spatial or map-like data. The Geologic and Engineering Materials Bibliography of Chemical Species (GEMBOCHS) data base maintains thermodynamic/geochemical data needed to support geochemical reaction models involving the waste package and repository geochemical environment. Each of these data bases are addressed independently within the TDB Quarterly Report.

  7. Sustainable Diagnostic Tools for Site Characterization and Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, E. M.; Roll, I. B.; Supowit, S. D.; Halden, R. U.

    2016-12-01

    Three submersible diagnostic tools were developed to enable more precise and cost-effective means of sampling environmental waters and assessing remedial strategies. The In Situ Sampler (IS2) and In Situ Sampler for Biphasic Water Monitoring (IS2B), designed for sampling groundwater or simultaneous pore- and surface water, use affordable off-the-shelf solid phase extraction technology, applicable to a broad range of organic and inorganic contaminants. Flow-through design reduces hazardous waste generation, transportation costs, and carbon footprint by 90-98% compared to traditional methods. The IS2 is ideal for dynamic groundwater systems where discrete sampling may fail to capture temporal variations, leading to inaccurate assessment of exposure and risk. A 28-day sampling event in a Cr(VI)-impacted aquifer captured previously undetected tidally-induced fluctuations, while improving the reporting limit 8-fold. The IS2B elucidates contaminant partitioning and bioavailability, and was validated in a wetland-shallow aquifer system with the pesticide fipronil. Concentrations of total fipronil-related compounds were statistically indistinguishable from those determined by conventional techniques (p > 0.2), ranging from 9.9 ± 4.6 to 18.1 ± 4.6 ng/L in surface water and 9.1 ± 3.0 to 12.6 ± 2.1 ng/L in porewater. For groundwater remedial testing, the In Situ Microcosm Array (ISMA) was developed to integrate laboratory column treatability studies with pilot-scale field-testing, thus minimizing costs associated with sequential lab and field analyses. In situ operation maintains (geo)chemical and microbial groundwater parameters often destroyed by extraction and laboratory storage. Onboard effluent capture permits the deployment well to return to monitoring status immediately after instrument removal. All tools employ reusable internal components and may be operated by solar power. Case study results highlight the capabilities and application range of the each technology.

  8. Threatened and endangered wildlife species of the Hanford Site related to CERCLA characterization activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzner, R.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Weiss, S.G.; Stegen, J.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site has been placed on the National Priorities List, which requires that it be remediated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) or Superfund. Potentially contaminated areas of the Hanford Site were grouped into operable units, and detailed characterization and investigation plans were formulated. The DOE Richland Operations Office requested Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to conduct a biological assessment of the potential impact of these characterization activities on the threatened, endangered, and sensitive wildlife species of the Hanford Site. Additional direction for WHC compliances with wildlife protection can be found in the Environmental Compliance Manual. This document is intended to meet these requirements, in part, for the CERCLA characterization activities, as well as for other work comparable in scope. This report documents the biological assessment and describes the pertinent components of the Hanford Site as well as the planned characterization activities. Also provided are accounts of endangered, threatened, and federal candidate wildlife species on the Hanford Site and information as to how human disturbances can affect these species. Potential effects of the characterization activities are described with recommendations for mitigation measures.

  9. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    Chapter six describes the basis for facility design, the completed facility conceptual design, the completed analytical work relating to the resolution of design issues, and future design-related work. The basis for design and the conceptual design information presented in this chapter meet the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, for a conceptual repository design that takes into account site-specific requirements. This information is presented to permit a critical evaluation of planned site characterization activities. Chapter seven describes waste package components, emplacement environment, design, and status of research and development that support the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) Project. The site characterization plan (SCP) discussion of waste package components is contained entirely within this chapter. The discussion of emplacement environment in this chapter is limited to considerations of the environment that influence, or which may influence, if perturbed, the waste packages and their performance (particularly hydrogeology, geochemistry, and borehole stability). The basis for conceptual waste package design as well as a description of the design is included in this chapter. The complete design will be reported in the advanced conceptual design (ACD) report and is not duplicated in the SCP. 367 refs., 173 figs., 68 tabs.

  10. Site characterization in central Italy: the case of the Amatrice (IT.AMT) accelerometric station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudiosi, Iolanda; Vignaroli, Gianluca; Pacor, Francesca; Bordoni, Paola; Mancini, Marco; Moscatelli, Massimiliano; Milana, Giuliano; GeoRAN-INGV working Group

    2017-04-01

    GeoRAN - INGV working group: G. P. Cavinato, G. Cosentino, S. Giallini, F. Polpetta, R. Razzano, M. Simionato, P. Sirianni (1); S. Amoroso, A. Bucci, E. D'Alema, M. D'Amico, F. Cara, S. Carannante, R. Cogliano, G. Cultrera, G. Di Giulio, D. Di Naccio, D. Famiani, C. Felicetta, A. Fodarella, G. Franceschina, G. Lanzano, S. Lovati, L. Luzi, C. Mascandola, M. Massa, A. Mercuri, D. Picaredda, M. Pischiutta, S. Pucillo, R. Puglia, G. Riccio, M. Vassallo (2) During the Mw 6.0 Amatrice earthquake, which struck Central Italy on the 24th August 2016, the accelerometric station AMT, located at about 10km from the epicentre recorded the highest values of the ground motion (Peak Ground Acceleration of the east component reached 0.87 g). To understand the role played by the site effects in the ground motion observed at AMT, we performed a detailed geological - geotechnical characterization of the site. First, geological field investigations were carried out and used to define a detailed geological cross-section intercepting AMT station. Then, aiming at constraining the Vs model, a continuous coring borehole was drilled close to the AMT site and a down-hole test was consequently executed in order to define the shear-wave velocity profile. In addition, MASW and several noise measurements were realized for better constraining the model and evaluating any eventual geological variability along the cross-section. Finally, numerical analyses of seismic site response were carried out using both 1D and 2D approaches including linear equivalent models. In parallel, several analysis were also performed on seismic records, to infer empirical amplification functions, used to compare the results of the numerical simulations This study was partially supported by the Italian Department of Civil Protection (DPC) of the Presidency of Council of Ministers. The INGV-CNR IGAG collaboration made possible the realization of this multidisciplinary study, which includes detailed seismological

  11. Characterization of Pu-contaminated soils from Nuclear Site 201 at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.Y.; Tamura, T.; Larsen, I.L.

    1983-01-01

    Distribution and characteristics of Pu-bearing radioactive particles throughout five soil profiles from Nuclear Site (NS) 201 were investigated. Concentrations of /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu and /sup 241/Am decreased with depth and most of the contamination was contained in the top 5 cm except in profile 4 where it extended to 10 cm. The mean activity ratio of /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu to /sup 241/Am and its standard error were 5.8 +- 0.3 (N=42). Most of the total radioactivity of the soils was contributed by 0.25 to 2 mm sand size fraction which comprised 20 to 50% by weight of the soils. The radioactive particles in the 0.25 to 2 mm size fraction occurred as spherical glass particles or as glass coatings on sand particles. The glass coatings had gas voids in the matrix but were not as porous as the radioactive particles from NS 219. After impact grinding the >0.25-mm size fractions for one hour, 85% of the initial activity in a NS 201 sample remained with the particles on the 0.25 mm sieve, whereas in the NS 219 sample only 10% remained. The results show that the radioactive particles from NS 201 were much more stable against the impact grinding force than those from NS 219. Therefore, the NS 201 soils would be expected to have a lower probability of producing respirable-size radioactive particles by saltation during wind erosion. 19 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  12. Cross validation of geotechnical and geophysical site characterization methods: near surface data from selected accelerometric stations in Crete (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loupasakis, C.; Tsangaratos, P.; Rozos, D.; Rondoyianni, Th.; Vafidis, A.; Kritikakis, G.; Steiakakis, M.; Agioutantis, Z.; Savvaidis, A.; Soupios, P.; Papadopoulos, I.; Papadopoulos, N.; Sarris, A.; Mangriotis, M.-D.; Dikmen, U.

    2015-06-01

    The specification of the near surface ground conditions is highly important for the design of civil constructions. These conditions determine primarily the ability of the foundation formations to bear loads, the stress - strain relations and the corresponding settlements, as well as the soil amplification and corresponding peak ground motion in case of dynamic loading. The static and dynamic geotechnical parameters as well as the ground-type/soil-category can be determined by combining geotechnical and geophysical methods, such as engineering geological surface mapping, geotechnical drilling, in situ and laboratory testing and geophysical investigations. The above mentioned methods were combined, through the Thalis ″Geo-Characterization″ project, for the site characterization in selected sites of the Hellenic Accelerometric Network (HAN) in the area of Crete Island. The combination of the geotechnical and geophysical methods in thirteen (13) sites provided sufficient information about their limitations, setting up the minimum tests requirements in relation to the type of the geological formations. The reduced accuracy of the surface mapping in urban sites, the uncertainties introduced by the geophysical survey in sites with complex geology and the 1D data provided by the geotechnical drills are some of the causes affecting the right order and the quantity of the necessary investigation methods. Through this study the gradual improvement on the accuracy of site characterization data is going to be presented by providing characteristic examples from a total number of thirteen sites. Selected examples present sufficiently the ability, the limitations and the right order of the investigation methods.

  13. Biopsy site selfies--a quality improvement pilot study to assist with correct surgical site identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhawan, Rajiv I; Lee, Erica H; Nehal, Kishwer S

    2015-04-01

    Determining the biopsy site location of a skin cancer before treatment is often challenging. To study the implementation and effectiveness of biopsy site selfies as a quality improvement measure for correct surgical site identification. In the first phase, the ability of dermatologic surgeon and patient to definitively identify the biopsy site and whether photography was needed to ensure site agreement were recorded. In the second phase, patients were requested to take biopsy site selfies, and after implementation, similar data were collected including whether a biopsy site selfie was helpful for definitive site identification. In the first phase, the physician and patient were unable to identify the biopsy site 17.6% (49/278) and 25.5% (71/278) of cases, respectively. A photograph was needed in 22.7% of cases (63/278). After implementation of biopsy site selfies, the physician and patient were unable to identify the biopsy site 17.4% (23/132) and 15.2% (20/132) of cases, respectively. Biopsy site selfies were available for 64.1% of cases for which no internal image was available and critical for site identification in 21.4% of these cases. Biopsy site selfies has proven to be helpful for correct surgical site identification by both the physician and the patient and may also provide further reassurance and confidence for patients.

  14. Report of the Peer Review Panel on the early site suitability evaluation of the Potential Repository Site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Yucca mountain Site Characterization Project Office (YMPO) assigned Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), the Technical and Management Support Services (T&MSS) contractor to the YmPo, the task of conducting an Early Site Suitability Evaluation (ESSE) of the Yucca mountain site as a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository. First, the assignment called for the development of a method to evaluate a single site against the DOE General Guidelines for Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories, 10 CFR Part 960. Then, using this method, an evaluation team, the ESSE Core Team, of senior YMP scientists, engineers, and technical experts, evaluated new information obtained about the site since publication of the final Environmental Assessment (DOE, 1986) to determine if new suitability/unsuitability findings could be recommended. Finally, the Core Team identified further information and analyses needed to make final determinations for each of the guidelines. As part of the task, an independent peer review of the ESSE report has been conducted. Expertise was solicited that covered the entire spectrum of siting guidelines in 10 CFR Part 960 in order to provide a complete, in-depth critical review of the data evaluated and cited in the ESSE report, the methods used to evaluate the data, and the conclusions and recommendations offered by the report. Fourteen nationally recognized technical experts (Table 2) served on the Peer Review Panel. The comments from the Panel and the responses prepared by the ESSE Core Team, documented on formal Comment Response Forms, constitute the body of this document.

  15. Site characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.S.; Green, S.J.; Hustrulid, W.A. (comps.)

    1976-01-01

    The papers presented at the Conference discussed the topics of modelling and analysis, coal recovery, oil and gas applications, surface structures and slope stability, underground opening design, geothermal energy recovery, in-situ methods, near surface underground opening design, blasting design, rock mechanics, and ground support. Abstracts were prepared for selected papers. (JSR)

  16. Site characterization progress report, Yucca Mountain, Nevada: Number 19, April 1, 1998--September 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-06-01

    The nineteenth semiannual report of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) summarizes activities during the period from April 1, 1998, through September 30, 1998. Project activities are aimed at evaluating Yucca Mountain as a potential location for permanent geologic disposal of nuclear materials, as directed by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended (NWPA). The progress report documents activities this period that contribute to completing the Project`s near-term programmatic and statutory objectives. These objectives include completing the Viability Assessment, the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), a possible US Department of Energy (DOE) Secretarial Site Recommendation to the President, and, if the site is suitable, submittal of a license application to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Project work this period continued to be concentrated in three integrated activities: site characterization, engineering design and construction, and performance assessment. Accomplishments this period and their relation to near-term objectives are briefly summarized.

  17. Estimation of the limitations for surficial water addition above a potential high level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fewell, M.E.; Sobolik, S.R.; Gauthier, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is studying Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada as a potential site for a high-level nuclear waste repository. Site characterization includes surface-based and underground testing. Analyses have been performed to design site characterization activities with minimal impact on the ability of the site to isolate waste, and on tests performed as part of the characterization process. One activity of site characterization is the construction of an Exploratory Studies Facility, consisting of underground shafts, drifts, and ramps, and the accompanying surface pad facility and roads. The information in this report addresses the following topics: (1) a discussion of the potential effects of surface construction water on repository-performance, and on surface and underground experiments; (2) one-dimensional numerical calculations predicting the maximum allowable amount of water that may infiltrate the surface of the mountain without affecting repository performance; and (3) two-dimensional numerical calculations of the movement of that amount of surface water and how the water may affect repository performance and experiments. The results contained herein should be used with other site data and scientific/engineering judgement in determining controls on water usage at Yucca Mountain. This document contains information that has been used in preparing Appendix I of the Exploratory Studies Facility Design Requirements document for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project.

  18. Site Characterization Work Plan for Gasbuggy, New Mexico (Rev.1, Jan. 2002)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV)

    2002-01-25

    Project Gasbuggy was the first of three joint government-industry experiments conducted to test the effectiveness of nuclear explosives to fracture deeply buried, low-permeability natural gas reservoirs to stimulate production. The scope of this work plan is to document the environmental objectives and the proposed technical site investigation strategies that will be utilized for the site characterization of the Project Gasbuggy Site. Its goal is the collection of data in sufficient quantity and quality to determine current site conditions, support a risk assessment for the site surfaces, and evaluate if further remedial action is required to achieve permanent closure of the site that is both protective of human health and the environment. The Gasbuggy Site is located approximately 55 air miles east of Farmington, New Mexico, in Rio Arriba County within the Carson National Forest in the northeast portion of the San Juan Basin. Historically, Project Gasbuggy consisted of the joint government-industry detonation of a nuclear device on December 10, 1967, followed by reentry drilling and gas production testing and project evaluation activities in post-detonation operations from 1967 to 1976. Based on historical documentation, no chemical release sites other than the mud pits were identified; additionally, there was no material buried at the Gasbuggy Site other than drilling fluids and construction debris. Although previous characterization and restoration activities including sensitive species surveys, cultural resources surveys, surface geophysical surveys, and limited soil sampling and analysis were performed in 1978 and again in 2000, no formal closure of the site was achieved. Also, these efforts did not adequately address the site's potential for chemical contamination at the surface/shallow subsurface ground levels or the subsurface hazards for potential migration outside of the current site subsurface intrusion restrictions. Additional investigation

  19. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada. October 1, 1996--March 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The report is the sixteenth in a series issued approximately every six months to report progress and results of site characterization activities being conducted to evaluate Yucca Mountain as a possible geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This report highlights work started, in progress, and completed during the reporting period. In addition, this report documents and discusses changes to the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Site Characterization Program (Program) resulting from the ongoing collection and evaluation of site information, systems analyses, development of repository and waste package designs, and results of performance assessment activities. Details on the activities summarized can be found in the numerous technical reports cited throughout the progress report. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (Project) activities this period focused on implementing the near-term objectives of the revised Program Plan issued last period. Near-term objectives of the revised Program Plan include updating the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) repository siting guidelines to be consistent with a more focused performance-driven program; supporting an assessment in 1998 of the viability of continuing with actions leading to the licensing of a repository; and if the site is suitable, submittal of a Secretarial site recommendation to the President in 2001 and license application the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 2002. During this reporting period, the Project developed and baselined its long-range plan in December 1996. That revision reflected the detailed fiscal year (FY) 1997 work scope and funding plan previously baselined at the end of FY 1996. Site characterization activities have been focused to answer the major open technical issues and to support the viability assessment.

  20. Argonne National Laboratory Expedited Site Characterization: First International Symposium on Integrated Technical Approaches to Site Characterization - Proceedings Volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-08

    Laboratory applications for the analysis of PCBS (polychlorinated biphenyls) in environmental matrices such as soil/sediment/sludge and oil/waste oil were evaluated for potential reduction in waste, source reduction, and alternative techniques for final determination. As a consequence, new procedures were studied for solvent substitution, miniaturization of extraction and cleanups, minimization of reagent consumption, reduction of cost per analysis, and reduction of time. These new procedures provide adequate data that meet all the performance requirements for the determination of PCBS. Use of the new procedures reduced costs for all sample preparation techniques. Time and cost were also reduced by combining the new sample preparation procedures with the power of fast gas chromatography. Separation of Aroclor 1254 was achieved in less than 6 min by using DB-1 and SPB-608 columns. With the greatly shortened run times, reproducibility can be tested quickly and consequently with low cost. With performance-based methodology, the applications presented here can be applied now, without waiting for regulatory approval.

  1. Atomistic characterization of the active-site solvation dynamics of a model photocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Driel, Tim B.; Kjær, Kasper S.; Hartsock, Robert W.; Dohn, Asmus O.; Harlang, Tobias; Chollet, Matthieu; Christensen, Morten; Gawelda, Wojciech; Henriksen, Niels E.; Kim, Jong Goo; Haldrup, Kristoffer; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Ihee, Hyotcherl; Kim, Jeongho; Lemke, Henrik; Sun, Zheng; Sundström, Villy; Zhang, Wenkai; Zhu, Diling; Møller, Klaus B.; Nielsen, Martin M.; Gaffney, Kelly J.

    2016-11-01

    The interactions between the reactive excited state of molecular photocatalysts and surrounding solvent dictate reaction mechanisms and pathways, but are not readily accessible to conventional optical spectroscopic techniques. Here we report an investigation of the structural and solvation dynamics following excitation of a model photocatalytic molecular system [Ir2(dimen)4]2+, where dimen is para-diisocyanomenthane. The time-dependent structural changes in this model photocatalyst, as well as the changes in the solvation shell structure, have been measured with ultrafast diffuse X-ray scattering and simulated with Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics. Both methods provide direct access to the solute-solvent pair distribution function, enabling the solvation dynamics around the catalytically active iridium sites to be robustly characterized. Our results provide evidence for the coordination of the iridium atoms by the acetonitrile solvent and demonstrate the viability of using diffuse X-ray scattering at free-electron laser sources for studying the dynamics of photocatalysis.

  2. Area 5 Site Characterization Project: Report of hydraulic property analysis through August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrella, R.; Tyler, S.; Chapman, J.; Miller, M.

    1993-12-01

    The Area 5 Site Characterization Project is designed to determine the suitability of the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) for disposal of low-level waste (LLW), mixed waste (MW) and transuranic waste (TRU). The Desert Research Institute (DRI) has supported the Area 5 Site Characterization Project for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Division (ERWM), Waste Operations Branch (WOB). The purpose of DRI`s Area 5 Site Characterization project is to characterize important properties of the upper vadose zone which influence infiltration and redistribution of water and transport of solutes as well as to characterize the water quality and hydrologic conditions of the uppermost aquifer. This report describes methods and presents a summary of all data and results from laboratory physical and chemical testing from Pilot Wells and Science Trench borehole samples through August 1993. DRI laboratories performed soil water content, soil water potential, soil bulk density, soil water extract isotope analyses and soil water chemistry analyses.

  3. Characterization of Microbial Communities in Subsurface Nuclear Blast Cavities of the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Duane; Russell, Chuck; Marshall, Matthew; Czerwinski, Ken; Daly, Michael J; Zavarin, Mavrik

    2008-02-08

    This exploratory research project is designed to test fundamental hypotheses concerning the possible existence and nature of indigenous microbial populations in Nevada Test Site (NTS) subsurface nuclear blast cavities. Although subsurface microbiological studies have been performed at the NTS in the past, radioactive zones have yet to be addressed. Nuclear blast zone microbiology is a completely new field and our team is well-positioned to collect and analyze samples that have never before been available to microbiologists. Relevant samples are now being obtained by incorporating microbiological collections into an ongoing annual hot well sampling program being conducted by other agencies. A combination of cultivation-based and molecular microbial detection protocols is being utilized at multiple locations to survey for uncultivable microorganisms and to develop a culture collection which will be characterized for radionuclide- and metal-reduction capabilities. Given that redox manipulations mediated by microorganisms can impact the mobility of DOE contaminants, a positive outcome from this work would have significant implications for management strategies at this and other DOE sites. A primary objective of the project has been the establishment of the regulatory and technical framework necessary to enable our acquisition of samples. Thus, much of our activity in the first phase of this work has involved the development an approved Field Area Work Plan (FAWP), Radiological Work Permit (RWP), and other documentation required for radiological work at the NTS. We have also invested significant time into ensuring that all personnel possess the required training (e.g. Radworker II and 40 hr. HAZWOPER) for access to the hot well sampling sites. Laboratory facilities, required for field processing of radioactive samples as well as DNA extraction and other manipulations, have been secured both the NTS (Mercury, NV) and UNLV. Although our year-1 field work was delayed due

  4. Third-generation site characterization: Cryogenic core collection, nuclear magnetic resonance, and electrical resistivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiaalhosseini, Saeed

    . HTA of frozen core was employed at the former refinery and FEW. Porosity and fluid saturations (i.e., aqueous, non-aqueous liquid, and gas) from the former refinery indicate that given in situ freezing, the results are not biased by drainage of pore fluids from the core during sample collection. At FEW, a comparison between the results of HTA of the frozen core collected in 2014 and the results of site characterization using unfrozen core, (second-generation (2G) methods) at the same locations (performed in 2010) indicate consistently higher contaminant concentrations using C 3. Many factors contribute to the higher quantification of contaminant concentrations using C3. The most significant factor is the preservation of the sediment attributes, in particular, pore fluids and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in comparison to the unfrozen conventional sediment core. The NMR study was performed on laboratory-fabricated sediment core to resolve NAPL distribution within the porous media qualitatively and quantitatively. The fabricated core consisted of Colorado silica sand saturated with deionized water and trichloroethylene (TCE). The cores were scanned with a BRUKER small-animal scanner (2.3 Tesla, 100 MHz) at 20 °C and while the core was frozen at -25 °C. The acquired images indicated that freezing the water within the core suppressed the NMR signals of water-bound hydrogen. The hydrogen associated with TCE was still detectable since the TCE was in its liquid state (melting point of TCE is -73 °C). Therefore, qualitative detection of TCE within the sediment core was performed via the NMR scanning by freezing the water. A one-dimensional NMR scanning method was used for quantification of TCE mass distribution within the frozen core. However, the results indicated inconsistency in estimating the total TCE mass within the porous media. Downhole NMR logging was performed at the former refinery in the western U.S. to detect NAPL and to discriminate NAPL from water in the

  5. Characterization of DNA binding sites of the ComE response regulator from Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, David C I; Downey, Jennifer S; Ayala, Eduardo A; Kreth, Jens; Mair, Richard; Senadheera, Dilani B; Qi, Fengxia; Cvitkovitch, Dennis G; Shi, Wenyuan; Goodman, Steven D

    2011-07-01

    In Streptococcus mutans, both competence and bacteriocin production are controlled by ComC and the ComED two-component signal transduction system. Recent studies of S. mutans suggested that purified ComE binds to two 11-bp direct repeats in the nlmC-comC promoter region, where ComE activates nlmC and represses comC. In this work, quantitative binding studies and DNase I footprinting analysis were performed to calculate the equilibrium dissociation constant and further characterize the binding site of ComE. We found that ComE protects sequences inclusive of both direct repeats, has an equilibrium dissociation constant in the nanomolar range, and binds to these two direct repeats cooperatively. Furthermore, similar direct repeats were found upstream of cslAB, comED, comX, ftf, vicRKX, gtfD, gtfB, gtfC, and gbpB. Quantitative binding studies were performed on each of these sequences and showed that only cslAB has a similar specificity and high affinity for ComE as that seen with the upstream region of comC. A mutational analysis of the binding sequences showed that ComE does not require both repeats to bind DNA with high affinity, suggesting that single site sequences in the genome may be targets for ComE-mediated regulation. Based on the mutational analysis and DNase I footprinting analysis, we propose a consensus ComE binding site, TCBTAAAYSGT.

  6. Characterization of the Adeno-Associated Virus 1 and 6 Sialic Acid Binding Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lin-Ya; Patel, Ami; Ng, Robert; Miller, Edward Blake; Halder, Sujata; McKenna, Robert; Asokan, Aravind; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis

    2016-06-01

    The adeno-associated viruses (AAVs), which are being developed as gene delivery vectors, display differential cell surface glycan binding and subsequent tissue tropisms. For AAV serotype 1 (AAV1), the first viral vector approved as a gene therapy treatment, and its closely related AAV6, sialic acid (SIA) serves as their primary cellular surface receptor. Toward characterizing the SIA binding site(s), the structure of the AAV1-SIA complex was determined by X-ray crystallography to 3.0 Å. Density consistent with SIA was observed in a pocket located at the base of capsid protrusions surrounding icosahedral 3-fold axes. Site-directed mutagenesis substitution of the amino acids forming this pocket with structurally equivalent residues from AAV2, a heparan sulfate binding serotype, followed by cell binding and transduction assays, further mapped the critical residues conferring SIA binding to AAV1 and AAV6. For both viruses five of the six binding pocket residues mutated (N447S, V473D, N500E, T502S, and W503A) abolished SIA binding, whereas S472R increased binding. All six mutations abolished or decreased transduction by at least 50% in AAV1. Surprisingly, the T502S substitution did not affect transduction efficiency of wild-type AAV6. Furthermore, three of the AAV1 SIA binding site mutants-S472R, V473D, and N500E-escaped recognition by the anti-AAV1 capsid antibody ADK1a. These observations demonstrate that common key capsid surface residues dictate both virus binding and entry processes, as well as antigenic reactivity. This study identifies an important functional capsid surface "hot spot" dictating receptor attachment, transduction efficiency, and antigenicity which could prove useful for vector engineering. The adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector gene delivery system has shown promise in several clinical trials and an AAV1-based vector has been approved as the first gene therapy treatment. However, limitations still exist with respect to transduction efficiency and

  7. Monitoring CCS Sites: Lessons Learned Studying Natural Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartarello, M. C.; Beaubien, S. E.; Graziani, S.; Lombardi, S.; Ruggiero, L.

    2016-12-01

    Monitoring is one of the most important aspects of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), both for early recognition of leaks from the reservoir and for public safety. Natural analogues could be useful to understand the potential impact of a leakage on the local ecosystem and to develop new techniques of monitoring. These sites, called also "natural laboratories", are characterized by natural, geologically-produced CO2 constantly leaking from the seafloor or from the groundsurface. In the last 10 years, our group as partner of some EC funded projects focused on CCS (NASCENT (2000-2003), CO2GeoNet (2004-2009), CO2ReMoVe (2006-2011), RISCS (2010-2013), and ECO2 (2011-2015)), studied gas migration mechanisms in these "natural laboratories", applying near-surface geochemistry to monitoring. This method provides one of the most powerful tools to assess whether a CCS site is leaking and, if it is, to quantify that leakage. This is because rather than being a remote method that estimates amounts based on proxy associations, such as some geophysical tools, it is an exact measurement of the item of interest (in this case CO2) in the accessible biosphere where there is concern regarding its potential impact. In particular, we have been studied two sites in Italy, characterized by significant emissions of CO2, related to volcanic emissions: the Latera Caldera (in Central Italy) and the offshore emissions near Panarea Island. We combined continuous and discontinuous monitoring, structural surveys and gas flux measurements. The results show a strong correlation between fault architecture and leakage rates. Moreover, the monitoring of an area for long periods allows defining the baseline, which is the fluctuation of gas concentrations both spatially and temporally as a function of biological, chemical, geological, land-use and meteorological processes.

  8. Detailed Geophysical Fault Characterization in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asch, Theodore H.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Burton, Bethany L.; Wallin, Erin L.

    2009-01-01

    Yucca Flat is a topographic and structural basin in the northeastern part of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada. Between the years 1951 and 1992, 659 underground nuclear tests took place in Yucca Flat; most were conducted in large, vertical excavations that penetrated alluvium and the underlying Cenozoic volcanic rocks. Radioactive and other potential chemical contaminants at the NTS are the subject of a long-term program of investigation and remediation by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office, under its Environmental Restoration Program. As part of the program, the DOE seeks to assess the extent of contamination and to evaluate the potential risks to humans and the environment from byproducts of weapons testing. To accomplish this objective, the DOE Environmental Restoration Program is constructing and calibrating a ground-water flow model to predict hydrologic flow in Yucca Flat as part of an effort to quantify the subsurface hydrology of the Nevada Test Site. A necessary part of calibrating and evaluating a model of the flow system is an understanding of the location and characteristics of faults that may influence ground-water flow. In addition, knowledge of fault-zone architecture and physical properties is a fundamental component of the containment of the contamination from underground nuclear tests, should such testing ever resume at the Nevada Test Site. The goal of the present investigation is to develop a detailed understanding of the geometry and physical properties of fault zones in Yucca Flat. This study was designed to investigate faults in greater detail and to characterize fault geometry, the presence of fault splays, and the fault-zone width. Integrated geological and geophysical studies have been designed and implemented to work toward this goal. This report describes the geophysical surveys conducted near two drill holes in Yucca Flat, the data analyses performed, and the

  9. Geological characterization of contaminated sites near the city of Horsens, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Theis Raaschou; Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Thomsen, Peter

    Keywords: geological modelling, urban area, contaminant transport In Denmark, contaminations from industry, farming and households represent a significant threat to groundwater resources since water treatment in Denmark relies solely on two simple steps: 1) oxygenation of the source water and 2) ...... were able to pinpoint the best strategies and solutions for future remediation efforts at the three sites.......) filtration by means of water saturated, rapid biofilters. Consequently, there is a focus on identifying and locating contaminated sites on a national level. Insufficient knowledge about the geology and hydrology at the sites poses a significant challenge for remediation efforts. The lack of information about...... characterization of three contaminated sites situated in urban and semi-urban areas around the city of Horsens in corporation with authorities. The existing data from the three field sites include lithological profiles from boreholes. In order to increase the data density, Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT...

  10. Methods to characterize environmental settings of stream and groundwater sampling sites for National Water-Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagaki, Naomi; Hitt, Kerie J.; Price, Curtis V.; Falcone, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of natural and anthropogenic features that define the environmental settings of sampling sites for streams and groundwater, including drainage basins and groundwater study areas, is an essential component of water-quality and ecological investigations being conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program. Quantitative characterization of environmental settings, combined with physical, chemical, and biological data collected at sampling sites, contributes to understanding the status of, and influences on, water-quality and ecological conditions. To support studies for the National Water-Quality Assessment program, a geographic information system (GIS) was used to develop a standard set of methods to consistently characterize the sites, drainage basins, and groundwater study areas across the nation. This report describes three methods used for characterization-simple overlay, area-weighted areal interpolation, and land-cover-weighted areal interpolation-and their appropriate applications to geographic analyses that have different objectives and data constraints. In addition, this document records the GIS thematic datasets that are used for the Program's national design and data analyses.

  11. Characterization of dFOXO binding sites upstream of the Insulin Receptor P2 promoter across the Drosophila phylogeny.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorcas J Orengo

    Full Text Available The insulin/TOR signal transduction pathway plays a critical role in determining such important traits as body and organ size, metabolic homeostasis and life span. Although this pathway is highly conserved across the animal kingdom, the affected traits can exhibit important differences even between closely related species. Evolutionary studies of regulatory regions require the reliable identification of transcription factor binding sites. Here we have focused on the Insulin Receptor (InR expression from its P2 promoter in the Drosophila genus, which in D. melanogaster is up-regulated by hypophosphorylated Drosophila FOXO (dFOXO. We have finely characterized this transcription factor binding sites in vitro along the 1.3 kb region upstream of the InR P2 promoter in five Drosophila species. Moreover, we have tested the effect of mutations in the characterized dFOXO sites of D. melanogaster in transgenic flies. The number of experimentally established binding sites varies across the 1.3 kb region of any particular species, and their distribution also differs among species. In D. melanogaster, InR expression from P2 is differentially affected by dFOXO binding sites at the proximal and distal halves of the species 1.3 kb fragment. The observed uneven distribution of binding sites across this fragment might underlie their differential contribution to regulate InR transcription.

  12. Journal of Development and Communication Studies: Site Map

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Development and Communication Studies: Site Map. Journal Home > About the Journal > Journal of Development and Communication Studies: Site Map. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Characterization of the Inner Knot of the Crab: the Site of the Gamma-ray Flares?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most intriguing recent discoveries has been the detection of powerful gamma-ray flares from the Crab Nebula. Such events, with a recurrence time of about once per year, can be so dramatic to make the system the brightest source in the gamma-ray sky as occurred, e.g. in April 2011. These flares challenge our understanding of how pulsar wind nebulae work and defy current astrophysical models for particle acceleration. We present here our study of the inner knot located within a fraction of an arcsecond from the pulsar with the aim of characterizing the feature and asking if this might be the site of the origin of the gamma-ray flares. We took data using Keck, HST, and Chandra obtained as part of our multi-wavelength campaign to identify the source of the enigmatic flares. We set an upper limit as to the gamma-ray flux from the knot. We also find that the dimensions, surface brightness, flux, etc. of the optical and infrared knot are all correlated with distance from the pulsar. This distance, in turn, varies with time. In addition to this most thorough characterization of the inner knot's properties, we examine the hypothesis that the knot may be the site of the flares by examining the knot separation versus the Fermi/LAT gamma-ray flux. Finally, as part of this research, we make use of a new approach employing singular value decomposition (SVD) for analyzing time series of images and compare the approach to more traditional methods. Our conclusions are only refined but not impacted by using the new approach.

  14. Characterization of polluted sites. Assessment of pollutant behaviour and transfer in mediums; Caracterisation des sites pollues. L`evaluation du comportement et du transfert des polluants dans les milieux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goubier, R. [Agence de l`Environnement et de la Maitrise de l`Energie, 75 - Paris (France); Chassagnac, T. [CSD Azur (France); Schlegel, T. [ATE, (France); Coste, B. [ANTEA, (France)

    1996-12-31

    After a presentation of methods and tools for the basic and extensive characterization of polluted sites and the study of evolution and transfer of current organic pollutants in the ground, the example of the rehabilitation of an old Rhone-Poulenc site (at Chauny, France) polluted with metals and arsenic, is described: soil and aquifer diagnosis, risk analysis and determination of migration schemes

  15. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, April 1, 1990--September 30, 1990, Number 3; Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 113)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-01

    In accordance with the requirements of Section 113(b)(3) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), as amended, the US Department of Energy has prepared this report on the progress of site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the period April 1 through September 30, 1990. This report is the third of a series of reports that are issued at intervals of approximately six months during site characterization. The report covers a number of new initiatives to improve the effectiveness of the site characterization program and covers continued efforts related to preparatory activities, study plans, and performance assessment. 85 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Statistical analysis of hydrologic data for Yucca Mountain; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, B.M.; Hall, I.J.; Peters, R.R.; Easterling, R.G.; Klavetter, E.A.

    1992-02-01

    The geologic formations in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain are currently being studied as the host rock for a potential radioactive waste repository. Data from several drill holes have been collected to provide the preliminary information needed for planning site characterization for the Yucca Mountain Project. Hydrologic properties have been measured on the core samples and the variables analyzed here are thought to be important in the determination of groundwater travel times. This report presents a statistical analysis of four hydrologic variables: saturated-matrix hydraulic conductivity, maximum moisture content, suction head, and calculated groundwater travel time. It is important to modelers to have as much information about the distribution of values of these variables as can be obtained from the data. The approach taken in this investigation is to (1) identify regions at the Yucca Mountain site that, according to the data, are distinctly different; (2) estimate the means and variances within these regions; (3) examine the relationships among the variables; and (4) investigate alternative statistical methods that might be applicable when more data become available. The five different functional stratigraphic units at three different locations are compared and grouped into relatively homogeneous regions. Within these regions, the expected values and variances associated with core samples of different sizes are estimated. The results provide a rough estimate of the distribution of hydrologic variables for small core sections within each region.

  17. Los Alamos National Laboratory Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project 1995 quality program status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolivar, S.L.

    1996-07-01

    This status report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project`s (YMP`s) quality assurance program for January 1 to September 30, 1995. The report includes major sections on program activities and trend analysis.

  18. Distance learning and its application to the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, J.; Sizemore, J. [SAIC, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of distance learning, which is used to exchange information via electronic media with real time interaction. Issues concerning policy, funding, legislation, accessibility, and programming are outlined. Possible applications for education, business, and federal projects, with a focus on the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, are also discussed.

  19. Integrated Methods for Site Characterization and Conceptual Model Development for a Contaminated Fractured-Bedrock Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. D.; Kastrinos, J. R.; Haeni, F. P.

    2005-12-01

    A multi-disciplined and team-based approach was used to integrate geophysical, hydrologic, and chemical data to characterize lithology, fractures, and hydraulic properties of fractured crystalline bedrock and to determine the nature and extent of ground-water contamination from a landfill and former chemical-waste disposal pits at the University of Connecticut. Detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in domestic bedrock wells in the mid-1980s led to this investigation, in which a team comprised of hydrologists, engineers, geophysicists, geologists, chemists, toxicologists, and community-involvement personnel collected, analyzed, and evaluated data; developed and refined a conceptual model of the ground-water flow and contaminant distribution at the site; and evaluated alternatives and implemented a final remediation plan. The characterization phase began in 1999 and the remediation phase is currently ongoing. An integrated and iterative approach of using multiple methods in phases was important for corroborating the interpretation of individual methods and essential for guiding the design and implementation of additional testing at the site. The use of geophysical data early in the investigation allowed the study team to obtain detailed subsurface information using a minimum of boreholes. Surface geophysical methods were used to target potential discharge of contaminants from the landfill for further investigation. Borehole geophysical methods were used to investigate the anomalies identified by surface geophysical methods, the location and orientation of fractures that intersect and surround each well, the direction and magnitude of ambient flow in the wells, and the transmissive fractures that could provide pathways for contaminant migration. Borehole geophysical and hydraulic data were used to design discrete-zone monitoring systems for the collection of hydraulic head and chemical data and to prevent cross contamination through the boreholes. The results

  20. Near-surface test facility. Phase I. Geologic site characterization report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moak, D.J.; Wintczak, T.M.

    1980-08-01

    The report is a description of the geology and characterization of the rock mass of the area in which the Phase I qualification tests at the Near-Surface Test Facility (NSTF) are being performed. The NSTF is located on Gable Mountain within the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. It is located in the entablature of the Pomona Member, an upper flow in the Columbia River Basalt Group, and is approximately 150 feet (47.5 meters) below the surface. Core logging from the instrument boreholes coupled with joint mapping, statistics, and other test data provided the basis for a detailed characterization of the 16-foot x 20-foot x 28-foot (5-meter x 6-meter x 9-meter) rock masses surrounding Full-Scale Heater Tests No. 1 and No. 2. The Pomona entablature contains three joint sets delineated by their degree of dip, each with apertures averaging 0.25 millimeter and having no preferred strike orientation. Although joint frequencies in the study area exceed 4 joints per foot (13 per meter), the rock-mass classification rating is good.

  1. Radioecological characterization of a uranium mining site located in a semi-arid region in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Horst M. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Environmental Impact Assessment, Av. Salvador Allende s/n - Recreio, 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) and University of Central Florida (United States)]. E-mail: monkenhorst@yahoo.com.br; Lamego Simoes Filho, F. Fernando [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Environmental Impact Assessment, Av. Salvador Allende s/n - Recreio, 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Perez, Valeska [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (Brazil); Franklin, Mariza Ramalho [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Environmental Impact Assessment, Av. Salvador Allende s/n - Recreio, 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Gomiero, Luiz Alberto [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The work presents the radioecological characterization of the new Brazilian uranium mining and milling site located in a semi-arid region of the country. The process characterization demonstrated that in heap leach plants most of the {sup 226}Ra remains in the leached ore. Despite the potential higher availability of radium isotopes in the soils of the studied region the lack of precipitation in that area reduces the leaching/mobilization of the radionuclides. High {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra concentrations were found in manioc while {sup 21}Pb was significant in pasture. It was suggested that a range from 10{sup -3} to 10{sup -1} may conveniently encompass most of the transfer factors (TF) values for soil/plant systems (i.e. involving different cultures, different soils and natural radionuclides). Impacts due to aerial transportation of aerosols and radon generated in the mining were proved to be minimal and restricted to an area not greater than 15 km{sup 2}. Finally, uranium complexation by carbonates was shown to be the main mechanism responding for the elevated radionuclide concentration in groundwater.

  2. Characterization of change in the Harike wetland, a Ramsar site in India, using landsat satellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabwoga, Samson Okongo; Thukral, Ashwani Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The increasing population in the developing countries has rendered wetlands vulnerable to land use changes. Remote sensing offers a rapid and efficient means of data acquisition of ecosystems in time and space. The present study was undertaken to identify changes in the Harike wetland, a Ramsar site in the state of Punjab, India; and identify causal factors, as well as vulnerable areas threatened from the land cover changes. Unsupervised classification and post-classification change detection techniques were applied to Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data of 16-10-1989, 22-10-2000 and 26-10-2010. Images were classified into five land cover classes (1) Waterbody, (2) Wetland I, (3) Wetland II, (4) Barren land and (5) Agricultural land. Land cover change is characterized mainly by a decrease in the wetland area, as indicated by decrease in wetland vegetation and an increase in non-wetland areas, characterized by increasing agricultural and barren land areas. Overall, the wetland shrunk by 13% from 1989 to 2010, with the north-eastern side experiencing maximum shrinkage. The wetland needs immediate reclamation to check it from further shrinkage so as to save its biodiversity.

  3. Worker Environment Beryllium Characterization Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environment, Safety, Health & Quality

    2009-12-28

    This report summarizes the conclusion of regular monitoring of occupied buildings at the Nevada Test Site and North Las Vegas facility to determine the extent of beryllium (Be) contamination in accordance with Judgment of Needs 6 of the August 14, 2003, “Minnema Report.”

  4. Geoelectrical characterization of a site with hydrocarbon contamination caused by pipeline leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado-Rodriguez, Omar; Shevnin, Vladimir; Ochoa-Valdes, Jesus [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ryjov, Albert [Moscow State Geological Prospecting Academy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-01-15

    Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) method is used extensively in environmental impact studies including hydrocarbon contamination. In this work, the results of the geoelectrical characterization of a contaminated site caused by pipeline leakage are presented. Geoelectrical study was performed with multi-electrode technology and 2D profile data interpretation. VES results from six parallel profiles were presented in resistivity sections and maps. Layered model of the site was found including aquifer and aquitard layers. Although the contamination grade of the site is low, we found two contaminated zones into sandy aquifer. Aquifer and aquitard were characterized by its resistivity, clay content, porosity and cation exchange capacity values. Recalculation of resistivity data into petrophysical sections and maps was performed by an inversion algorithm taking into account pore water salinity. Petrophysical parameters for uncontaminated areas estimated from resistivity are close to real values; meanwhile, in contaminated zones petrophysical parameters have anomalous values. Similar effects of contamination influence on petrophysical parameters were found in laboratory by resistivity measurements made at clean and contaminated sand samplers. [Spanish] El metodo Sondeo Electrico Vertical (SEV) es ampliamente utilizado en estudios de impacto ambiental incluyendo el caso de contaminacion por hidrocarburos. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de la caracterizacion geoelectrica de un sitio contaminado por hidrocarburos relacionado con una fuga en linea de ducto. El estudio geoelectrico fue realizado utilizando el metodo SEV en la variante de tomografia, realizandose una interpretacion 2D de los datos observados. Seis perfiles paralelos de SEV fueron medidos y presentados sus resultados en secciones y mapas. Se determino un modelo estratificado que incluye acuitardo y acuifero. Aunque el grado de contaminacion en este sitio es bajo fue posible localizar dos zonas

  5. Treatability studies to improve site remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J.J. [Golder Associates, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    The approaches used in technology selection and treatability testing to support site bioremediation plans were described. It was suggested that inappropriate technologies, without prior testing could create more problems than originally existed. Inexpensive testing can avoid these problems. The following treatability tests were recommended to be performed prior to the use of any remediation technology: respirometry tests, bioslurry tests, soil plan tests, abiotic losses tests, and other specialized testing. Characteristic features of these tests, as well as their costs and scheduling parameters, were summarized. Depending on the complexity of the site, proper remedial design can require a collaborative effort of geologists, hydrologists, agronomists, chemists, biologists, and engineers. 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  6. Report on expedited site characterization of the Central Nevada Test Area, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuhr, L. [Technos Inc., Miami, FL (United States); Wonder, J.D.; Bevolo, A.J. [Ames Lab., IA (United States)

    1997-09-01

    This report documents data collection, results, and interpretation of the expedited site characterization (ESC) pilot project conducted from September 1996 to June 1997 at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA), Nye County, Nevada. Characterization activities were limited to surface sites associated with deep well drilling and ancillary operations at or near three emplacement well areas. Environmental issues related to the underground nuclear detonation (Project Faultless) and hydrologic monitoring wells were not addressed as a part of this project. The CNTA was divided into four functional areas for the purpose of this investigation and report. These areas include the vicinity of three emplacement wells (UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4) and one mud waste drilling mud collection location (Central Mud Pit; CMP). Each of these areas contain multiple, potentially contaminated features, identified either from historic information, on-site inspections, or existing data. These individual features are referred to hereafter as ``sites.`` The project scope of work involved site reconnaissance, establishment of local grid systems, site mapping and surveying, geophysical measurements, and collection and chemical analysis of soil and drilling mud samples. Section 2.0 through Section 4.0 of this report provide essential background information about the site, project, and details of how the ESC method was applied at CNTA. Detailed discussion of the scope of work is provided in Section 5.0, including procedures used and locations and quantities of measurements obtained. Results and interpretations for each of the four functional areas are discussed separately in Sections 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, and 9.0. These sections provide a chronological presentation of data collected and results obtained, followed by interpretation on a site-by-site basis. Key data is presented in the individual sections. The comprehensive set of data is contained in appendices.

  7. Conversion of the Bayou Choctaw geological site characterization report to a three-dimensional model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua S. (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Rautman, Christopher Arthur

    2004-02-01

    The geologic model implicit in the original site characterization report for the Bayou Choctaw Strategic Petroleum Reserve Site near Baton Rouge, Louisiana, has been converted to a numerical, computer-based three-dimensional model. The original site characterization model was successfully converted with minimal modifications and use of new information. The geometries of the salt diapir, selected adjacent sedimentary horizons, and a number of faults have been modeled. Models of a partial set of the several storage caverns that have been solution-mined within the salt mass are also included. Collectively, the converted model appears to be a relatively realistic representation of the geology of the Bayou Choctaw site as known from existing data. A small number of geometric inconsistencies and other problems inherent in 2-D vs. 3-D modeling have been noted. Most of the major inconsistencies involve faults inferred from drill hole data only. Modem computer software allows visualization of the resulting site model and its component submodels with a degree of detail and flexibility that was not possible with conventional, two-dimensional and paper-based geologic maps and cross sections. The enhanced visualizations may be of particular value in conveying geologic concepts involved in the Bayou Choctaw Strategic Petroleum Reserve site to a lay audience. A Microsoft WindowsTM PC-based viewer and user-manipulable model files illustrating selected features of the converted model are included in this report.

  8. Engineered materials characterization report for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Volume 2, Design data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konynenburg, R.A.; McCright, R.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Roy, A.K. [B and W Fuel Co., Lynchburg, VA (United States); Jones, D.A. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Engineered Materials Characterization Report which presents the design data for candidate materials needed in fabricating different components for both large and medium multi-purpose canister (MPC) disposal containers, waste packages for containing uncanistered spent fuel (UCF), and defense high-level waste (HLW) glass disposal containers. The UCF waste package consists of a disposal container with a basket therein. It is assumed that the waste packages will incorporate all-metallic multibarrier disposal containers to accommodate medium and large MPCs, ULCF, and HLW glass canisters. Unless otherwise specified, the disposal container designs incorporate an outer corrosion-allowance metal barrier over an inner corrosion-resistant metal barrier. The corrosion-allowance barrier, which will be thicker than the inner corrosion-resistant barrier, is designed to undergo corrosion-induced degradation at a very low rate, thus providing the inner barrier protection from the near-field environment for a prolonged service period.

  9. Geological characterization and solute transport model investigations of contaminated sites in urban areas (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Theis Raaschou; Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Thomsen, Peter

    In Denmark, contaminations from industry and farming represent a significant threat to groundwater resources. On a national level, there is a focus on identifying and locating these contaminated sites. Once located, contaminations are mapped and monitored and remediation efforts are undertaken. R...... the uncertainties of projections on the fate of the contaminant. Based on the work, we were able to pinpoint the best strategies and solutions for future remediation efforts at the two sites.......In Denmark, contaminations from industry and farming represent a significant threat to groundwater resources. On a national level, there is a focus on identifying and locating these contaminated sites. Once located, contaminations are mapped and monitored and remediation efforts are undertaken...... efforts are often challenged by logistics. The general lack of knowledge about theses contaminations introduces significant uncertainties in the projections on the fate of the contaminant. We carry out a geological characterization of two contaminated sites situated in urban areas. The existing data from...

  10. Application of PIXE to the characterization of vitreous dacites from archaeolgical sites in the Atacama region in northern Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, J.R.; Cancino, S. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Nunoa, Santiago 1 (Chile); Miranda, P. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Nunoa, Santiago 1 (Chile)], E-mail: pjmirand@gmail.com; Dinator, M.I. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Nunoa, Santiago 1 (Chile); Seelenfreund, A. [Universidad Academia de Humanismo Cristiano, Condell 343, Providencia, Santiago (Chile)

    2007-11-15

    Geochemical characterization studies using PIXE were carried out on 21 vitreous dacite artifacts from early formative archaeological sites in the Atacama region, in northern Chile, and on 13 samples taken from two potential volcanic sources located within the region. Performing statistical analyses it was possible to obtain elemental concentration patterns for the archaeological samples of this material and match some of these artifacts with the geological source samples.

  11. Characterization and design of the FutureGen 2.0 carbon storage site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, Tyler; Bonneville, Alain; Sullivan, Charlotte; Kelley, Mark; Appriou, Delphine; Vermeul, Vince; White, Signe; Zhang, Fred; Bjornstad, Bruce; Cornet, Francois; Gerst, Jacqueline; Gupta, Neeraj; Hund, Gretchen; Horner, Jake; Last, George; Lanigan, Dave; Oostrom, Mart; McNeil, Caitlin; Moody, Mark; Rockhold, Mark; Elliott, Mike; Spane, Frank; Strickland, Chris; Swartz, Lucy; Thorne, Paul; Brown, Christopher; Hoffmann, Jeffrey; Humphreys, Kenneth

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the FutureGen 2.0 Project was to demonstrate, at the commercial scale, the technical feasibility of implementing carbon capture and storage (CCS) in a deep saline formation in Illinois, USA. Over approximately 5 years, the FutureGen Alliance conducted a detailed site-selection process and identified a site for carbon sequestration storage in Morgan County, Illinois. The storage site was fully characterized, including the collection of seismic data and the drilling and characterization of a stratigraphic borehole. The characterization data provided critical input for developing a site-specific conceptual model and subsequent numerical modeling simulations. The modeling simulations, coupled with the upstream designs of the pipeline and power plant supported the development of a detailed 90 percent design that included the injection wells and associated control and monitoring infrastructure. Collectively, all these data were used by the FutureGen Alliance to develop the required documentation to support the applications for four underground injection control (UIC) permits (one for each proposed well). In August 2014, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued four, first-of-their-kind, Class VI UIC permits for carbon sequestration in the United States to the FutureGen Alliance. The information and data generated under this project have been made publically available through reports and publications, including this journal and others.

  12. Characterization of lithium coordination sites with magic-angle spinning NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimovich, A.; Goldbourt, A.

    2015-05-01

    Lithium, in the form of lithium carbonate, is one of the most common drugs for bipolar disorder. Lithium is also considered to have an effect on many other cellular processes hence it possesses additional therapeutic as well as side effects. In order to quantitatively characterize the binding mode of lithium, it is required to identify the interacting species and measure their distances from the metal center. Here we use magic-angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR to study the binding site of lithium in complex with glycine and water (LiGlyW). Such a compound is a good enzyme mimetic since lithium is four-coordinated to one water molecule and three carboxylic groups. Distance measurements to carbons are performed using a 2D transferred echo double resonance (TEDOR) MAS solid-state NMR experiment, and water binding is probed by heteronuclear high-resolution proton-lithium and proton-carbon correlation (wPMLG-HETCOR) experiments. Both HETCOR experiments separate the main complex from impurities and non-specifically bound lithium species, demonstrating the sensitivity of the method to probe the species in the binding site. Optimizations of the TEDOR pulse scheme in the case of a quadrupolar nucleus with a small quadrupole coupling constant show that it is most efficient when pulses are positioned on the spin-1/2 (carbon-13) nucleus. Since the intensity of the TEDOR signal is not normalized, careful data analysis that considers both intensity and dipolar oscillations has to be performed. Nevertheless we show that accurate distances can be extracted for both carbons of the bound glycine and that these distances are consistent with the X-ray data and with lithium in a tetrahedral environment. The lithium environment in the complex is very similar to the binding site in inositol monophosphatase, an enzyme associated with bipolar disorder and the putative target for lithium therapy. A 2D TEDOR experiment applied to the bacterial SuhB gene product of this enzyme was designed

  13. Magnetic resonance spectral characterization of the heme active site of Coprinus cinereus peroxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukat, G.S.; Rodgers, K.R.; Jabro, M.N.; Goff, H.M. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (USA))

    1989-04-18

    Examination of the peroxidase isolated from the inkcap Basidiomycete Coprinus cinereus shows that the 42,000-dalton enzyme contains a protoheme IX prosthetic group. Reactivity assays and the electronic absorption spectra of native Coprinus peroxidase and several of its ligand complexes indicate that this enzyme has characteristics similar to those reported for horseradish peroxidase. In this paper, the authors characterize the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-oxidized forms of Coprinus peroxidase compounds I, II, and III by electronic absorption and magnetic resonance spectroscopies. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of this Coprinus peroxidase indicate the presence of high-spin Fe(III) in the native protein and a number of differences between the heme site of Coprinus peroxidase and horseradish peroxidase. Carbon-13 (of the ferrous CO adduct) and nitrogen-15 (of the cyanide complex) NMR studies together with proton NMR studies of the native and cyanide-complexed Caprinus peroxidase are consistent with coordination of a proximal histidine ligand. The EPR spectrum of the ferrous NO complex is also reported. Protein reconstitution with deuterated hemin has facilitated the assignment of the heme methyl resonances in the proton NMR spectrum.

  14. Characterization of the Adeno-Associated Virus 1 and 6 Sialic Acid Binding Site

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Lin-Ya; Patel, Ami; Ng, Robert; Miller, Edward Blake; Halder, Sujata; McKenna, Robert; Asokan, Aravind; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis

    2016-01-01

    The adeno-associated viruses (AAVs), which are being developed as gene delivery vectors, display differential cell surface glycan binding and subsequent tissue tropisms. For AAV serotype 1 (AAV1), the first viral vector approved as a gene therapy treatment, and its closely related AAV6, sialic acid (SIA) serves as their primary cellular surface receptor. Toward characterizing the SIA binding site(s), the structure of the AAV1-SIA complex was determined by X-ray crystallography to 3.0 Å. Densi...

  15. Molecular characterization and patient outcome of melanoma nodal metastases and an unknown primary site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gos, Aleksandra; Jurkowska, Monika; van Akkooi, Alexander; Robert, Caroline; Kosela-Paterczyk, Hanna; Koljenović, Senada; Kamsukom, Nyam; Michej, Wanda; Jeziorski, Arkadiusz; Pluta, Piotr; Verhoef, Cornelis; Siedlecki, Janusz A; Eggermont, Alexander M M; Rutkowski, Piotr

    2014-12-01

    Melanoma of unknown primary site (MUP) is not a completely understood entity with nodal metastases as the most common first clinical manifestation. The aim of this multicentric study was to assess frequency and type of oncogenic BRAF/NRAS/KIT mutations in MUP with clinically detected nodal metastases in relation to clinicopathologic features and outcome. We analyzed series of 103 MUP patients (period: 1992-2010) after therapeutic lymphadenectomy (LND): 40 axillary, 47 groin, 16 cervical, none treated with BRAF inhibitors. We performed molecular characterization of BRAF/NRAS/KIT mutational status in nodal metastases using direct sequencing of respective coding sequences. Median follow-up time was 53 months. BRAF mutations were detected in 55 cases (53 %) (51 V600E, 93 %; 4 others, 7 %), and mutually exclusive NRAS mutations were found in 14 cases (14 %) (7 p.Q61R, 4 p.Q61K, 2 p.Q61H, 1 p.Q13R). We have not detected any mutations in KIT. The 5-year overall survival (OS) was 34 %; median was 24 months. We have not found significant correlation between mutational status (BRAF/NRAS) and OS; however, for BRAF or NRAS mutated melanomas we observed significantly shorter disease-free survival (DFS) when compared with wild-type melanoma patients (p = .04; 5-year DFS, 18 vs 19 vs 31 %, respectively). The most important factor influencing OS was number of metastatic lymph nodes >1 (p = .03). Our large study on molecular characterization of MUP with nodal metastases showed that MUPs had molecular features similar to sporadic non-chronic-sun-damaged melanomas. BRAF/NRAS mutational status had negative impact on DFS in this group of patients. These observations might have potential implication for molecular-targeted therapy in MUPs.

  16. Web Site Projects Evaluation: A Case Study of Romanian Faculties of Economics Web Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    vultur, Sidonia Otilia; Marincas, Delia Adriana

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, an evaluation of web sites regarded like projects is discussed. We give an overview of the Web Assessment Index (WAI), by presenting a web sites of Romanian Faculties of Economics case study. The WAI contains five categories: accessibility, access speed, navigability, content and reliability. We analyzed and presented a detailed…

  17. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project bibliography, January--June 1995. Supplement 4, Add.3: An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephan, P.M. [ed.

    1996-01-01

    Following a reorganization of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management in 1990, the Yucca Mountain Project was renamed Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The title of this bibliography was also changed to Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Bibliography. Prior to August 5, 1988, this project was called the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. This bibliography contains information on this ongoing project that was added to the Department of Energy`s Energy Science and Technology Database from January 1, 1995, through June 30, 1995. The bibliography is categorized by principal project participating organization. Participant-sponsored subcontractor reports, papers, and articles are included in the sponsoring organization`s list. Another section contains information about publications on the Energy Science and Technology Database that were not sponsored by the project but have some relevance to it.

  18. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Bibliography, January--June 1993. An update: Supplement 4, Addendum 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephan, P.M. [ed.

    1995-01-01

    Following a reorganization of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management in 1990, the Yucca Mountain Project was renamed Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The title of this bibliography was also changed to Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Bibliography. Prior to August 5, 1988, this project was called the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. This bibliography contains information on this ongoing project that was added to the Department of Energy`s Energy Science and Technology Database from January 1, 1994 through June 30, 1994. The bibliography is categorized by principal project participating organization. Participant-sponsored subcontractor reports, papers,and articles are included in the sponsoring organization`s list. Another section contains information about publications on the Energy Science and Technology Database that were not sponsored by the project but have some relevance to it.

  19. Further characterization of the combining sites of Bandeiraea (Griffonia) simplicifolia lectin-I, isolectin A(4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, A M; Wu, J H; Chen, Y Y; Song, S C; Kabat, E A

    1999-11-01

    Bandeiraea (Griffonia) simplicifolia lectin-I, isolectin A(4)(GS I-A(4)), which is cytotoxic to the human colon cancer cell lines, is one of two lectin families derived from its seed extract. It contains only a homo-oligomer of subunit A, and is most specific for GalNAcalpha1-->. In order to elucidate the GS I-A(4)-glycoconjugate interactions in greater detail, the combining site of this lectin was further characterized by enzyme linked lectino-sorbent assay (ELLSA) and by inhibition of lectin-glycoprotein interactions. This study has demonstrated that the Tn-containing glycoproteins tested, consisting of mammalian salivary glycoproteins (armadillo, asialo-hamster sublingual, asialo-ovine, -bovine, and -porcine submandibular), are bound strongly by GS I-A(4.)Among monovalent inhibitors so far tested, p-NO2-phenylalphaGalNAc is the most potent, suggesting that hydrophobic forces are important in the interaction of this lectin. GS I-A(4)is able to accommodate the monosaccharide GalNAc at the nonreducing end of oligosaccharides. This suggests that the combining site of the lectin is a shallow cavity. Among oligosaccharides and monosaccharides tested as inhibitors of the binding of GS I-A(4), the hierarchy of potencies are: GalNAcalpha1-->3GalNAcbeta1-->3Galalpha1-->4Galbeta 1-->4Glc (Forssman pentasaccharide) > GalNAcalpha1-->3(LFucalpha1-->2)Gal (blood group A)()> GalNAc > Galalpha1-->4Gal > Galalpha1-->3Gal (blood group B-like)> Gal.

  20. Los Alamos National Laboratory Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project 1994 quality program status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolivar, S.L.

    1996-03-01

    This status report is for calendar year 1994. It summarizes the annual activities and accomplishments of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP or Project) quality assurance program. By identifying the accomplishments of the quality program, a baseline is established that will assist in decision making, improve administrative controls and predictability, and allow us to annually identify adverse trends and to evaluate improvements. This is the fourth annual status report.

  1. Site Characterization for AAH/HELLFIRE Battlefield Obscuration Validation Tests at Redstone Arsenal, Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    Link, Chief, Environmental Constraints Group. The work was performed by Messrs. James Mason and Carlos Lebron , EL. This report was prepared by the...PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AU THOR(.) 9. CONTRACT OR" GRANT NUMBER(e.) James B. Mason, Katherine S. Long Intra-Army order No. SOXl 9. PERFORMING...reproduced below. Mason. James B. Site characterization for AAII/IELLFIRE Battlefield Obscuration Validation Tests at Redstone Arsenal / t. by James B. Mason

  2. Tunable mechanical monolithic sensors for large band low frequency monitoring and characterization of sites and structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, F.; Giordano, G.; Acernese, F.; Romano, R.

    2016-10-01

    Among the different mechanical architectures present in literature, the Watts linkage is one of the most promising ones for the implementation of a new class of mechanical accelerometers (horizontal, vertical and angular). In this paper, we present monolithic implementations of uniaxial and triaxial mechanical seismometers and accelerometers based on the UNISA Folded Pendulum mechanical configuration, optimized for low frequency characterization of sites (including underground sites) and structures as inertial sensor (seismometer). This mechanical architecture allows the design and implementation of very large band monolithic sensors (10-7Hz 102 Hz), whose sensitivities for the most common applications are defined by the noise introduced by their readouts (e.g. ¡ 10-12 m/sqrt(Hz) with classical LVDT readouts). These unique features, coupled other relevant properties like scalability, compactness, lightness, high directivity, frequency tunability (typical resonance frequencies in the band 10-1 Hz 102 Hz), very high immunity to environmental noises and low cost make this class of sensors very effective for the implementation of uniaxial (horizontal and/or vertical) and triaxial seismometers and accelerometers for ground, space and underwater applications, including UHV and cryogenics ones. Typical applications of this class of monolithic sensors are in the field of earthquake engineering, seismology, geophysics, civil engineering, characterization of sites (including underground sites), structures (e.g. buildings, bridges, historical monuments), and, in general, in all applications requiring large band-low frequency performances coupled with high sensitivities and compactness.

  3. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Number 15, April 1--September 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    During the second half of fiscal year 1996, activities at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (Project) supported the objectives of the revised Program Plan released this period by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management of the US Department of Energy (Department). Outlined in the revised plan is a focused, integrated program of site characterization, design, engineering, environmental, and performance assessment activities that will achieve key Program and statutory objectives. The plan will result in the development of a license application for repository construction at Yucca Mountain, if the site is found suitable. Activities this period focused on two of the three near-term objectives of the revised plan: updating in 1997 the regulatory framework for determining the suitability of the site for the proposed repository concept and providing information for a 1998 viability assessment of continuing toward the licensing of a repository. The Project has also developed a new design approach that uses the advanced conceptual design published during the last reporting period as a base for developing a design that will support the viability assessment. The initial construction phase of the Thermal Testing Facility was completed and the first phase of the in situ heater tests began on schedule. In addition, phase-one construction was completed for the first of two alcoves that will provide access to the Ghost Dance fault.

  4. A Ten Step Protocol and Plan for CCS Site Characterization, Based on an Analysis of the Rocky Mountain Region, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPherson, Brian; Matthews, Vince

    2013-09-15

    This report expresses a Ten-Step Protocol for CO2 Storage Site Characterization, the final outcome of an extensive Site Characterization analysis of the Rocky Mountain region, USA. These ten steps include: (1) regional assessment and data gathering; (2) identification and analysis of appropriate local sites for characterization; (3) public engagement; (4) geologic and geophysical analysis of local site(s); (5) stratigraphic well drilling and coring; (6) core analysis and interpretation with other data; (7) database assembly and static model development; (8) storage capacity assessment; (9) simulation and uncertainty assessment; (10) risk assessment. While the results detailed here are primarily germane to the Rocky Mountain region, the intent of this protocol is to be portable or generally applicable for CO2 storage site characterization.

  5. Characterization of candidate DOE sites for fabricating MOX fuel for lead assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdaway, R.F.; Miller, J.W.; Sease, J.D.; Moses, R.J.; O`Connor, D.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Carrell, R.D. [Technical Resources International, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Jaeger, C.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Thompson, M.L.; Strasser, A.A. [Delta-21 Resources, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD) of the Department of Energy (DOE) is directing the program to disposition US surplus weapons-usable plutonium. For the reactor option for disposition of this surplus plutonium, MD is seeking to contract with a consortium, which would include a mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabricator and a commercial US reactor operator, to fabricate and burn MOX fuel in existing commercial nuclear reactors. This option would entail establishing a MOX fuel fabrication facility under the direction of the consortium on an existing DOE site. Because of the lead time required to establish a MOX fuel fabrication facility and the need to qualify the MOX fuel for use in a commercial reactor, MD is considering the early fabrication of lead assemblies (LAs) in existing DOE facilities under the technical direction of the consortium. The LA facility would be expected to produce a minimum of 1 metric ton heavy metal per year and must be operational by June 2003. DOE operations offices were asked to identify candidate sites and facilities to be evaluated for suitability to fabricate MOX fuel LAs. Savannah River Site, Argonne National Laboratory-West, Hanford, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory were identified as final candidates to host the LA project. A Site Evaluation Team (SET) worked with each site to develop viable plans for the LA project. SET then characterized the suitability of each of the five plans for fabricating MOX LAs using 28 attributes and documented the characterization to aid DOE and the consortium in selecting the site for the LA project. SET concluded that each option has relative advantages and disadvantages in comparison with other options; however, each could meet the requirements of the LA project as outlined by MD and SET.

  6. Application of new technologies for characterization of Hanford Site high-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, W.I.

    1998-02-03

    To support remediation of Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tanks, new chemical and physical measurement technologies must be developed and deployed. This is a major task of the Chemistry Analysis Technology Support (CATS) group of the Hanford Corporation. New measurement methods are required for efficient and economical resolution of tank waste safety, waste retrieval, and disposal issues. These development and deployment activities are performed in cooperation with Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. This paper provides an overview of current analytical technologies in progress. The high-level waste at the Hanford Site is chemically complex because of the numerous processes used in past nuclear fuel reprocessing there, and a variety of technologies is required for effective characterization. Programmatic and laboratory operational needs drive the selection of new technologies for characterizing Hanford Site high-level waste, and these technologies are developed for deployment in laboratories, hot cells or in the field. New physical methods, such as the propagating reactive systems screening tool (PRSST) to measure the potential for self-propagating reactions in stored wastes, are being implemented. Technology for sampling and measuring gases trapped within the waste matrix is being used to evaluate flammability hazards associated with gas releases from stored wastes. Application of new inductively coupled plasma and laser ablation mass spectrometry systems at the Hanford Site`s 222-S Laboratory will be described. A Raman spectroscopy probe mounted in a cone penetrometer to measure oxyanions in wastes or soils will be described. The Hanford Site has used large volumes of organic complexants and acids in processing waste, and capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) methods have been developed for determining several of the major organic components in complex waste tank matrices. The principles involved, system installation, and results from

  7. p53 binding sites in normal and cancer cells are characterized by distinct chromatin context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Feifei; LoVerso, Peter R; Fisk, Jeffrey N; Zhurkin, Victor B; Cui, Feng

    2017-08-18

    The tumor suppressor protein p53 interacts with DNA in a sequence-dependent manner. Thousands of p53 binding sites have been mapped genome-wide in normal and cancer cells. However, the way p53 selectively binds its cognate sites in different types of cells is not fully understood. Here, we performed a comprehensive analysis of 25 published p53 cistromes and identified 3,551 and 6,039 'high-confidence' binding sites in normal and cancer cells, respectively. Our analysis revealed 2 distinct epigenetic features underlying p53-DNA interactions in vivo. First, p53 binding sites are associated with transcriptionally active histone marks (H3K4me3 and H3K36me3) in normal-cell chromatin, but with repressive histone marks (H3K27me3) in cancer-cell chromatin. Second, p53 binding sites in cancer cells are characterized by a lower level of DNA methylation than their counterparts in normal cells, probably related to global hypomethylation in cancers. Intriguingly, regardless of the cell type, p53 sites are highly enriched in the endogenous retroviral elements of the ERV1 family, highlighting the importance of this repeat family in shaping the transcriptional network of p53. Moreover, the p53 sites exhibit an unusual combination of chromatin patterns: high nucleosome occupancy and, at the same time, high sensitivity to DNase I. Our results suggest that p53 can access its target sites in a chromatin environment that is non-permissive to most DNA-binding transcription factors, which may allow p53 to act as a pioneer transcription factor in the context of chromatin.

  8. U.S. Department of Energy's site screening, site selection, and initial characterization for storage of CO2 in deep geological formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodosta, T.D.; Litynski, J.T.; Plasynski, S.I.; Hickman, S.; Frailey, S.; Myer, L.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the lead Federal agency for the development and deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. As part of its mission to facilitate technology transfer and develop guidelines from lessons learned, DOE is developing a series of best practice manuals (BPMs) for carbon capture and storage (CCS). The "Site Screening, Site Selection, and Initial Characterization for Storage of CO2 in Deep Geological Formations" BPM is a compilation of best practices and includes flowchart diagrams illustrating the general decision making process for Site Screening, Site Selection, and Initial Characterization. The BPM integrates the knowledge gained from various programmatic efforts, with particular emphasis on the Characterization Phase through pilot-scale CO2 injection testing of the Validation Phase of the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (RCSP) Initiative. Key geologic and surface elements that suitable candidate storage sites should possess are identified, along with example Site Screening, Site Selection, and Initial Characterization protocols for large-scale geologic storage projects located across diverse geologic and regional settings. This manual has been written as a working document, establishing a framework and methodology for proper site selection for CO2 geologic storage. This will be useful for future CO2 emitters, transporters, and storage providers. It will also be of use in informing local, regional, state, and national governmental agencies of best practices in proper sequestration site selection. Furthermore, it will educate the inquisitive general public on options and processes for geologic CO2 storage. In addition to providing best practices, the manual presents a geologic storage resource and capacity classification system. The system provides a "standard" to communicate storage and capacity estimates, uncertainty and project development risk, data guidelines and analyses for adequate site characterization, and

  9. Integrated ground-water monitoring strategy for NRC-licensed facilities and sites: Case study applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, V.; Temples, T.; Hodges, R.; Dai, Z.; Watkins, D.; Imrich, J.

    2007-01-01

    This document discusses results of applying the Integrated Ground-Water Monitoring Strategy (the Strategy) to actual waste sites using existing field characterization and monitoring data. The Strategy is a systematic approach to dealing with complex sites. Application of such a systematic approach will reduce uncertainty associated with site analysis, and therefore uncertainty associated with management decisions about a site. The Strategy can be used to guide the development of a ground-water monitoring program or to review an existing one. The sites selected for study fall within a wide range of geologic and climatic settings, waste compositions, and site design characteristics and represent realistic cases that might be encountered by the NRC. No one case study illustrates a comprehensive application of the Strategy using all available site data. Rather, within each case study we focus on certain aspects of the Strategy, to illustrate concepts that can be applied generically to all sites. The test sites selected include:Charleston, South Carolina, Naval Weapons Station,Brookhaven National Laboratory on Long Island, New York,The USGS Amargosa Desert Research Site in Nevada,Rocky Flats in Colorado,C-Area at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina, andThe Hanford 300 Area.A Data Analysis section provides examples of detailed data analysis of monitoring data.

  10. Bunker Hill Sediment Characterization Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal A. Yancey; Debby F. Bruhn

    2009-12-01

    The long history of mineral extraction in the Coeur d’Alene Basin has left a legacy of heavy metal laden mine tailings that have accumulated along the Coeur d’Alene River and its tributaries (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2001; Barton, 2002). Silver, lead and zinc were the primary metals of economic interest in the area, but the ores contained other elements that have become environmental hazards including zinc, cadmium, lead, arsenic, nickel, and copper. The metals have contaminated the water and sediments of Lake Coeur d’Alene, and continue to be transported downstream to Spokane Washington via the Spokane River. In 1983, the EPA listed the Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex on the National Priorities List. Since that time, many of the most contaminated areas have been stabilized or isolated, however metal contaminants continue to migrate through the basin. Designation as a Superfund site causes significant problems for the economically depressed communities in the area. Identification of primary sources of contamination can help set priorities for cleanup and cleanup options, which can include source removal, water treatment or no action depending on knowledge about the mobility of contaminants relative to water flow. The mobility of contaminant mobility under natural or engineered conditions depends on multiple factors including the physical and chemical state (or speciation) of metals and the range of processes, some of which can be seasonal, that cause mobilization of metals. As a result, it is particularly important to understand metal speciation (National Research Council, 2005) and the link between speciation and the rates of metal migration and the impact of natural or engineered variations in flow, biological activity or water chemistry.

  11. CHARACTERIZING DOE HANFORD SITE WASTE ENCAPSULATION STORAGE FACILITY CELLS USING RADBALL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Coleman, R.

    2011-03-31

    RadBall{trademark} is a novel technology that can locate and quantify unknown radioactive hazards within contaminated areas, hot cells, and gloveboxes. The device consists of a colander-like outer tungsten collimator that houses a radiation-sensitive polymer semi-sphere. The collimator has a number of small holes with tungsten inserts; as a result, specific areas of the polymer are exposed to radiation becoming increasingly more opaque in proportion to the absorbed dose. The polymer semi-sphere is imaged in an optical computed tomography scanner that produces a high resolution 3D map of optical attenuation coefficients. A subsequent analysis of the optical attenuation data using a reverse ray tracing or backprojection technique provides information on the spatial distribution of gamma-ray sources in a given area forming a 3D characterization of the area of interest. RadBall{trademark} was originally designed for dry deployments and several tests, completed at Savannah River National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, substantiate its modeled capabilities. This study involves the investigation of the RadBall{trademark} technology during four submerged deployments in two water filled cells at the DOE Hanford Site's Waste Encapsulation Storage Facility.

  12. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Progress report number 17, April 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), created with the enactment of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), is tasked to accept and dispose of the nation`s high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in a deep geologic repository (high-level radioactive waste program). The report summarizes significant site characterization activities during the period from April 1, 1997 through September 30, 1997, in the evaluation of Yucca Mountain as a potential site for the geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes. The progress report also cites technical reports and research products that provide the detailed information on these activities. Chapter 2 outlines technical and regulatory issues that must be addressed by the Project and planned work toward achieving future objectives concerning the viability assessment, the environmental impact statement, the site recommendation, and the license application. Chapter 3 describes technical progress in preclosure radiological safety analysis, postclosure performance assessment, and performance confirmation activities. Chapter 4 describes various aspects of repository and waste package design and construction. It also discusses the Exploration Studies Facility cross drift. Chapter 5 describes site characterization activities, and Chapter 6 contains a complete list of references.

  13. Site qualification studies of the UCG-SDB at North Knobs, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, B.E.; Krajewski, S.A.; Ahner, P.F.; Avasthi, J.M.; Dolde, M.E.; Greenman, C.A.; Miranda, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    The site qualification program for the North Knobs UCG site near Rawlins, Wyoming has been completed. This site will be the location for the field tests of Underground Coal Gasification of Steeply Dipping Beds undertaken by Gulf Research and Development Company for DOE in a cost shared contract. Site characterization included a comprehensive geotechnical analysis along with vegetation, historical, and archeological studies. The G coal seam chosen for these tests is a subbituminous B coal with a true seam thickness of 22 feet and has thin coal benches above and below the main seam. The water table is at 90 feet below the surface. Hydrologic studies have defined the seam as an aquiclude (non-aquifer). The site is deemed restorable to regulatory requirements. Evaluation of this site indicates total acceptability for the three-test program planned by GR and DC.

  14. One-site versus two-site phacotrabeculectomy: a prospective randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moschos MM

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Marilita M Moschos,1 Irini P Chatziralli,2 Michael Tsatsos3 1First Department of Ophthalmology, University of Athens, 2Second Department of Ophthalmology, Ophthalmiatrion Athinon, Athens, Greece; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Cambridge University Hospital NHS, Cambridge, UK Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy and safety of one-site and two-site combined phacotrabeculectomy with foldable posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation.Methods: Thirty-four patients (41 eyes with glaucoma and cataract were randomly assigned to undergo either a one-site (22 eyes or a two-site (19 eyes combined procedure. One-site approach consisted of a standard superior phacotrabeculectomy with a limbus-based conjunctival flap, while two-site approach consisted of a clear cornea phacoemulsification and a separate superior trabeculectomy with a limbus-based conjunctival flap.Results: Mean follow-up period was 54 months (standard deviation [SD] 2.3. Mean preoperative intraocular pressure (IOP in the one-site group was 21.3 mmHg (SD 2.8 and in the two-site group was 21.8 mmHg (SD 3.0 (P>0.1. Mean postoperative IOP significantly decreased in both groups compared to the preoperative level and was 15.6 mmHg (SD 3.5 in the one-site group and 14.9 mmHg (SD 2.7 in the two-site group. Three months later, the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (P=0.058. The one-site group required significantly more medications than the two-site group (P=0.03. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA improved similarly in both groups, but there was less postoperative (induced astigmatism in the two-site group in a marginal statistical level (P=0.058. Intra- and postoperative complications were comparable in the two groups.Conclusion: Both techniques yielded similar results concerning final BCVA and IOP reduction. However, the two-site group had less induced astigmatism and a better postoperative IOP control with less required

  15. Cloning and characterization of a variant surface glycoprotein expression site from Trypanosoma equiperdum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raibaud, A; Buck, G; Baltz, T; Eisen, H

    1986-08-01

    Variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) genes of African trypanosomes are expressed when they are inserted into one of several telomere-linked expression sites. We cloned and characterized an 11-kilobase (kb) DNA fragment located upstream of an expressed VSG gene. A DNA sequence of 1.8 kb that is located immediately upstream of the inserted VSG gene contains sequences homologous to the 76-base-pair repeats described as being upstream of VSG genes in Trypanosoma brucei (D. A. Campbell, M. P. Van Bree, and J. C. Boothroyd, Nucleic Acids Res. 12:2759-2774). There are no such sequences elsewhere in the 11-kb cloned region. Southern blot analysis using probes from the cloned region revealed multiple unlinked copies of the same or very similar regions. At least three of these are located near telomeres, and two have been shown to be used for the expression of known Trypanosoma equiperdum VSG genes. Like VSG genes, the upstream sequences themselves can be duplicated and deleted. The choice of expression site to be used by a duplicated VSG gene is nonrandom; the site used for expression of the parental VSG gene is strongly favored for use in the daughter variant. Furthermore, even when the parental expression site is not used, the VSG gene occupying it is replaced. Thus, an active expression site is a preferential target for gene conversion in the next variation event.

  16. High Resolution Site Characterization as key element for proper design and cost estimation of groundwater remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Dijkshoorn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Substantial amounts of money are spent each year on cleaning up ground water contaminations that were caused by historical industrial site activities. Too often, however, remedial objectives are not achieved within the anticipated time frame. Moreover, remedial budgets which were estimated prior to the start of remediation turn out to be largely insufficient to meet the remedial objectives. This situation, very common, creates significant troubles for all the stakeholders involved in the remediation project. The reason for not meeting remedial regulatory closure criteria or exceeding remedial budgets is often due to an incomplete conceptual site model. Having conducted high resolution site characterization programs at numerous sites where remediation was previously conducted, ERM has found several recurring themes: • Missed source areas and plumes; • Inadequate understanding of source area and plume architectures (i.e., three-dimensional contaminant distribution; • Inadequate understanding of the effects of site (hydrogeologic conditions on the ability to access contamination (i.e., via remedial additive injections of groundwater/soil gas extraction. This paper explains why remediations often fail and what the alternatives to prevent these failures (and exceeding remedial budgets are. More specifically, it focuses on alternative investigation methods and approaches that help to get to a more complete (high resolution conceptual site model. This more complete conceptual site model in return helps a more focused remedial design with a higher remedial efficiency. As a minimum, it will take away a lot of (financial uncertainty during the decision making when selecting a remedial alternative. Contaminants that have a greater density then water are known to have a greater complexity in terms of both investigation as well as remediation. Therefore, they will be the main focus of this paper.

  17. Simultaneous Ka-Band Site Characterization: Goldstone, CA, White Sands, NM, and Guam, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Roberto; Morse, Jacquelynne; Zemba, Michael; Nessel, James; Morabito, David; Caroglanian, Armen

    2011-01-01

    To statistically characterize atmospheric effects on Ka-band links at NASA operational sites, NASA has constructed site test interferometers (STI s) which directly measure the tropospheric phase stability and rain attenuation. These instruments observe an unmodulated beacon signal broadcast from a geostationary satellite (e.g., Anik F2) and measure the phase difference between the signals received by the two antennas and its signal attenuation. Three STI s have been deployed so far: the first one at the NASA Deep Space Network Tracking Complex in Goldstone, California (May 2007); the second at the NASA White Sands Complex, in Las Cruses, New Mexico (February 2009); and the third at the NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) Remote Ground Terminal (GRGT) complex in Guam (May 2010). Two station-years of simultaneous atmospheric phase fluctuation data have been collected at Goldstone and White Sands, while one year of data has been collected in Guam. With identical instruments operating simultaneously, we can directly compare the phase stability and rain attenuation at the three sites. Phase stability is analyzed statistically in terms of the root-mean-square (rms) of the tropospheric induced time delay fluctuations over 10 minute blocks. For two years, the time delay fluctuations at the DSN site in Goldstone, CA, have been better than 2.5 picoseconds (ps) for 90% of the time (with reference to zenith), meanwhile at the White Sands, New Mexico site, the time delay fluctuations have been better than 2.2 ps with reference to zenith) for 90% of time. For Guam, the time delay fluctuations have been better than 12 ps (reference to zenith) at 90% of the time, the higher fluctuations are as expected from a high humidity tropical rain zone. This type of data analysis, as well as many other site quality characteristics (e.g., rain attenuation, infrastructure, etc.) will be used to determine the suitability of all the sites for NASA s future communication services at Ka-band.

  18. Spatial characterization and prediction of Neanderthal sites based on environmental information and stochastic modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maerker, Michael; Bolus, Michael

    2014-05-01

    We present a unique spatial dataset of Neanderthal sites in Europe that was used to train a set of stochastic models to reveal the correlations between the site locations and environmental indices. In order to assess the relations between the Neanderthal sites and environmental variables as described above we applied a boosted regression tree approach (TREENET) a statistical mechanics approach (MAXENT) and support vector machines. The stochastic models employ a learning algorithm to identify a model that best fits the relationship between the attribute set (predictor variables (environmental variables) and the classified response variable which is in this case the types of Neanderthal sites. A quantitative evaluation of model performance was done by determining the suitability of the model for the geo-archaeological applications and by helping to identify those aspects of the methodology that need improvements. The models' predictive performances were assessed by constructing the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves for each Neanderthal class, both for training and test data. In a ROC curve the Sensitivity is plotted over the False Positive Rate (1-Specificity) for all possible cut-off points. The quality of a ROC curve is quantified by the measure of the parameter area under the ROC curve. The dependent variable or target variable in this study are the locations of Neanderthal sites described by latitude and longitude. The information on the site location was collected from literature and own research. All sites were checked for site accuracy using high resolution maps and google earth. The study illustrates that the models show a distinct ranking in model performance with TREENET outperforming the other approaches. Moreover Pre-Neanderthals, Early Neanderthals and Classic Neanderthals show a specific spatial distribution. However, all models show a wide correspondence in the selection of the most important predictor variables generally showing less

  19. Site characterization report for the Old Hydrofracture Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    Several Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) structures (i.e., Building 7852, the bulk storage bins, the pump house, water tank T-5, and pump P-3) are surplus facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) slated for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). OHF was constructed in 1963 to allow experimentation and operations with an integrated solids storage, handling, mixing, and grout injection facility. It was shut down in 1980 and transferred to ORNL`s Surveillance and Maintenance Program. The hydrofracture process was a unique disposal method that involved injecting waste materials mixed with grout and additives under pumping pressures of 2,000 psi or greater into a deep, low-permeability shale formation. The injected slurry spread along fractures and bedding planes for hundreds of feet from the injection points, forming thin grout sheets (often less than 1/8 in. thick). The grout ostensibly immobilized and solidified the liquid wastes. Site characterization activities were conducted in the winter and spring of 1994 to collect information necessary to plan the D and D of OHF structures. This site characterization report documents the results of the investigation of OHF D and D structures, presenting data from the field investigation and laboratory analyses in the form of a site description, as-built drawings, summary tables of radiological and chemical contaminant concentrations, and a waste volume estimate. 25 refs., 54 figs., 17 tabs.

  20. Sandia National Laboratories site-wide hydrogeologic characterization project calendar year 1992 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowson, D.; Gibson, J.D.; Haase, C.S.; Holt, R.; Hyndman, D.; Krumhansl, J.; Lauffer, F.; McCord, J.P.; McCord, J.T.; Neel, D. [and others

    1993-10-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization (SWHC) project has been implemented as part of the SNL/NM Environmental Restoration (ER) Program to develop the regional hydrogeologic framework and baseline for the approximately 100 mi of Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) and adjacent withdrawn public lands upon which SNL/NM has performed research and development activities. Additionally, the SWHC project will investigate and characterize generic hydrogeologic issues associated with the 172 ER sites owned by SNL/NM across its facilities on KAFB. As called for in the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit agreement between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as the permitter and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and SNL/NM as the permittees, an annual report is to be prepared by the SWHC project team. This document serves two primary purposes: (1) to identify and describe the conceptual framework for the hydrogeologic system underlying SNL/NM and (2) to describe characterization activities undertaken in the preceding year that add to our understanding (reduce our uncertainties) regarding the conceptual and quantitative hydrogeologic framework. This SWHC project annual report focuses primarily on purpose 1, providing a summary description of the current {open_quotes}state of knowledge{close_quotes} of the Sandia National Laboratories/Kirtland Air Force Base (SNL/KAFB) hydrogeologic setting.

  1. Geomorphological and Spectrophotometric Study of Philae Landing Site A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajola, M.; La Forgia, F.; Giacomini, L.; Oklay, N.; Massironi, M.; Bertini, I.; Simioni, E.; Marzari, F.; Barbieri, C.; Naletto, G.; Groussin, O.; Lazzarin, M.; Scholten, F.; Preusker, F.; Fornasier, S.; Vincent, J. B.; Sierks, H.

    2015-10-01

    5 finalists, this site has the unique value to provide detailed analysis of the multiple fractures present on its cliff and on the neighboring Hathor. Figure 1: Site A as imaged by the OSIRIS NAC camera on 6 August 2014 at 02:20:12 UT. The distance from the comet center is 117.24 km, the scale is 2.17 m/px. EPSC Abstracts Vol. 10, EPSC2015-526, 2015 European Planetary Science Congress 2015 c Author(s) 2015 EPSC European Planetary Science Congress We here present the geomorphological map coupled with the size-frequency distributions of boulders # 2 m located on the different types of terrains here identified, such as outcropping layered terrains, gravitational accumulation deposits, taluses and fine particle deposits. Gravitational slopes, derived through the 67P shape model by assuming uniform density, have been used to characterize and better interpret the various terrains. Moreover, we show the spectrophotometric properties of the area, studied through images taken by OSIRIS NAC with a scale of 50 cm/px. Albedo maps, as well as surface reflectance spectra have been obtained by taking advantage of the shape model and DTM in order to correct for the illumination and observing conditions of the terrain. This multidisciplinary analysis highlights that different types of deposits show different photometric properties.

  2. Characterization of volatile sulphur compounds production at individual gingival crevicular sites in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coli, J M; Tonzetich, J

    1992-01-01

    The present investigation describes a method for collection and analysis of volatile sulphur compounds (VSC) from gingival crevicular sites in humans. Tenax-GC trapping devices were used to adsorb and concentrate VSC from crevicular air at -55 degrees C, which were then thermally desorbed at 120 degrees C. Gas chromatographic (GC) analyses were performed using a Tracor 550 GC equipped with a flame-photometric detector and a Teflon column packed with 5% polyphenyl ether and 0.05% phosphoric acid on 30-40 mesh Teflon. Sulfides identified from crevicular sites include hydrogen sulfide [H2S], methyl mercaptan [CH3SH], dimethyl sulfide [(CH3)2S], and dimethyl disulfide [(CH3S)2]. Of the seventeen patients studied, crevicular sites that were either deep (P.D. > or = 4 mm) or inflamed (BoP = 1) exhibited significantly larger CH3SH to H2S ratios than corresponding crevicular shallow (P.D. < or = 3 mm) sites (p < .10) or noninflamed (BoP = 0) sites (p < .05). Similarly, total sulphur in deep and inflamed sites was significantly higher than in corresponding shallow (p < .01) and noninflamed (p < .05) sites. This is the first known in vivo study to quantitate VSC directly from individual gingival crevices.

  3. The Effects of Site Characterization Activities on the Abundance of Ravens (Corvus corax) in the Yucca Mountain Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.E. Lederle

    1998-05-08

    In response to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) developed and is implementing the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Raven abundance was measured from August 1991 through August 1995 along treatment and control routes to evaluate whether site characterization activities resulted in increased raven abundance at Yucca Mountain. This study fulfills the requirement set forth in the incidental take provisions of the Biological Opinion that DOE monitor the abundance of ravens at Yucca Mountain. Ravens were more abundant at Yucca Mountain than in the control area, and raven abundance in both areas increased over time. However, the magnitude of differences between Yucca Mountain and control surveys did not change over time, indicating that the increase in raven abundance observed during this study was not related to site characterization activities. Increases over time on both Yucca Mountain and control routes are consistent with increases in raven abundance in the Mojave Desert reported by the annual Breeding Bird Survey of the US. Fish and Wildlife Service. Evidence from the Desert Tortoise Monitoring Program at Yucca Mountain suggests that ravens are not a significant predator of small tortoises in this locale. Carcasses of small tortoises (less than 110 mm in length) collected during the study showed little evidence of raven predation, and 59 radiomarked hatchlings that were monitored on a regular basis were not preyed upon by ravens. Overall, no direct evidence of raven predation on tortoises was observed during this study. Small tortoises are probably encountered so infrequently by ravens that they are rarely exploited as a food source. This is likely due to the relatively low abundance of both desert tortoises and ravens in the Yucca Mountain area.

  4. Scenarios constructed for basaltic igneous activity at Yucca Mountain and vicinity; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, G.E.; Dunn, E.; Dockery, H.; Barnard, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Valentine, G.; Crowe, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Basaltic volcanism has been identified as a possible future event initiating a release of radionuclides from a potential repository at the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository site. The performance assessment method set forth in the Site Characterization Plan (DOE, 1988) requires that a set of scenarios encompassing all significant radionuclide release paths to the accessible environment be described. This report attempts to catalogue the details of the interactions between the features and processes produced by basaltic volcanism in the presence of the presumed groundwater flow system and a repository structure, the engineered barrier system (EBS), and waste. This catalogue is developed in the form of scenarios. We define a scenario as a well-posed problem, starting from an initiating event or process and proceeding through a logically connected and physically possible combination or sequence of features, events, and processes (FEPs) to the release of contaminants.

  5. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Bibliography, July--December 1994: An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Following a reorganization of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management in 1990, the Yucca Mountain Project was renamed Yucca Mountain Site Charactrization Project. The title of this bibliography was also changed to Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Bibliography. Prior to August 5, 1988, this project was called the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. This bibliography contains information on this ongoing project that was added to the Department of Energy`s Science and Technology Database from July 1, 1994 through December 31, 1994. The bibliography is categorized by principal project participating organization. Participant-sponsored subcontractor reports, papers, and articles are included in the sponsoring organization`s list. Another section contains information about publications on the Energy Science and Technology Database that were not sponsored by the project but have some relevance to it.

  6. Characterization of the in vivo sites of serine phosphorylation on Lck identifying serine 59 as a site of mitotic phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavan, Kamala P; Isaacson, Christina C; Ashendel, Curtis L; Geahlen, Robert L; Harrison, Marietta L

    2002-04-26

    The lymphocyte-specific protein-tyrosine kinase Lck plays a critical role in T cell activation. In response to T cell antigen receptor binding Lck undergoes phosphorylation on serine residues that include serines 59 and 194. Serine 59 is phosphorylated by ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase. Recently, we showed that in mitotic T cells Lck becomes hyper-phosphorylated on serine residues. In this report, using one-dimensional phosphopeptide mapping analysis, we identify serine 59 as a site of in vivo mitotic phosphorylation in Lck. The mitotic phosphorylation of serine 59 did not require either the catalytic activity or functional SH2 or SH3 domains of Lck. In addition, the presence of ZAP-70 also was dispensable for the phosphorylation of serine 59. Although previous studies demonstrated that serine 59 is a substrate for the ERK MAPK pathway, inhibitors of this pathway did not block the mitotic phosphorylation of serine 59. These results identify serine 59 as a site of mitotic phosphorylation in Lck and suggest that a pathway distinct from that induced by antigen receptor signaling is responsible for its phosphorylation. Thus, the phosphorylation of serine 59 is the result of two distinct signaling pathways, differentially activated in response to the physiological state of the T cell.

  7. Environmental assessment for the Groundwater Characterization Project, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada; Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to conduct a program to characterize groundwater at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada, in accordance with a 1987 DOE memorandum stating that all past, present, and future nuclear test sites would be treated as Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites (Memorandum from Bruce Green, Weapons Design and Testing Division, June 6, 1987). DOE has prepared an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-0532) to evaluate the environmental consequences associated with the proposed action, referred to as the Groundwater Characterization Project (GCP). This proposed action includes constructing access roads and drill pads, drilling and testing wells, and monitoring these wells for the purpose of characterizing groundwater at the NTS. Long-term monitoring and possible use of these wells in support of CERCLA, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act, is also proposed. The GCP includes measures to mitigate potential impacts on sensitive biological, cultural and historical resources, and to protect workers and the environment from exposure to any radioactive or mixed waste materials that may be encountered. DOE considers those mitigation measures related to sensitive biological, cultural and historic resources as essential to render the impacts of the proposed action not significant, and DOE has prepared a Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) that explains how such mitigations will be planned and implemented. Based on the analyses presented in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and the Department is issuing this FONSI.

  8. Molecular characterization of senescence marker protein-30 gene promoter: Identification of repressor elements and functional nuclear factor binding sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruyama Naoki

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30, whose expression declines during aging in rat liver, has been proposed as an important aging marker. Besides apoptosis, SMP30 also protects cells against various other injuries by enhancement of membrane calcium-pump activity. The mechanism of this differential gene expression mechanism is not known. DNA-protein interactions, mutation analysis and luciferase reporter assay studies have been performed to elucidate the mechanism of transcriptional regulation of SMP30 gene. Results We have characterized up to -2750 bp of the promoter by DNA-protein interactions studies. Twenty eight transcription factor binding sites have been identified by DNase I footprinting and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA. Transient transfection of 5' and 3' -deleted promoter-reporter constructs and luciferase assay illustrated the region between -128/+157 bp is sufficient to drive promoter activity. We have mapped an essential regulatory region between -513 to -352 bp which causes a drastic decline of reporter activity. This region contains CdxA, GATA2 and SRY transcription factor binding sites. Individual mutation of these three sites showed increase in reporter activity. Mutation in SRY site (-403/-368 showed maximum increase in reporter activity among these three sites. Therefore, we suggest that SRY like protein may be acting as a strong repressor of SMP30 gene along with CdxA and GATA-2. We also report that mutation of both Sp1 (172/-148 bp and a C/EBPβ (-190/-177 bp transcription binding site located adjacent to each other on SMP30 gene promoter, causes a significant enhancement in reporter activity than individual mutation, thus may be causing the repression of SMP30 promoter activity. Conclusion These studies provide novel insights into the mechanism that regulate SMP30 gene expression.

  9. Radiologic characterization of the Mexican Hat, Utah, uranium mill tailings remedial action site: Addendum D1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludlam, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    This radiologic characterization of the inactive uranium millsite at Mexican Hat, Utah, was conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Grand Junctions Project Office in response to and in accord with a Statement of Work prepared by the DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) Technical Assistance Contractor, Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc. The objective of this project was to determine the horizontal and vertical extent of contamination that exceeds the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards at the Mexican Hat site. The data presented in this report are required for characterization of the areas adjacent to the Mexican Hat tailings piles and for the subsequent design of cleanup activities. Some on- pile sampling was required to determine the depth of the 15-pCi/g Ra- 226 interface in an area where wind and water erosion has taken place.

  10. Site characterization of the highest-priority geologic formations for CO2 storage in Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surdam, Ronald C. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Bentley, Ramsey [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Campbell-Stone, Erin [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Dahl, Shanna [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Deiss, Allory [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Ganshin, Yuri [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Jiao, Zunsheng [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Kaszuba, John [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Mallick, Subhashis [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); McLaughlin, Fred [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Myers, James [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Quillinan, Scott [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2013-12-07

    This study, funded by U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory award DE-FE0002142 along with the state of Wyoming, uses outcrop and core observations, a diverse electric log suite, a VSP survey, in-bore testing (DST, injection tests, and fluid sampling), a variety of rock/fluid analyses, and a wide range of seismic attributes derived from a 3-D seismic survey to thoroughly characterize the highest-potential storage reservoirs and confining layers at the premier CO2 geological storage site in Wyoming. An accurate site characterization was essential to assessing the following critical aspects of the storage site: (1) more accurately estimate the CO2 reservoir storage capacity (Madison Limestone and Weber Sandstone at the Rock Springs Uplift (RSU)), (2) evaluate the distribution, long-term integrity, and permanence of the confining layers, (3) manage CO2 injection pressures by removing formation fluids (brine production/treatment), and (4) evaluate potential utilization of the stored CO2

  11. Characterization of a novel /sup 3/H-5-hydroxytryptamine binding site subtype in bovine brain membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuring, R.E.; Peroutka, S.J.

    1987-03-01

    /sup 3/H-5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) binding sites were analyzed in bovine brain membranes. The addition of either the 5-HT1A-selective drug 8-OH-DPAT (100 nM) or the 5-HT1C-selective drug mesulergine (100 nM) to the assay resulted in a 5-10% decrease in specific /sup 3/H-5-HT binding. Scatchard analysis revealed that the simultaneous addition of both drugs decreased the Bmax of /sup 3/H-5-HT binding by 10-15% without affecting the KD value (1.8 +/- 0.3 nM). Competition studies using a series of pharmacologic agents revealed that the sites labeled by /sup 3/H-5-HT in bovine caudate in the presence of 100 nM 8-OH-DPAT and 100 nM mesulergine appear to be homogeneous. 5-HT1A selective agents such as 8-OH-DPAT, ipsapirone, and buspirone display micromolar affinities for these sites. RU 24969 and (-)pindolol are approximately 2 orders of magnitude less potent at these sites than at 5-HT1B sites which have been identified in rat brain. Agents displaying nanomolar potencies for 5-HT1C sites such as mianserin and mesulergine are 2-3 orders of magnitude less potent at the /sup 3/H-5-HT binding sites in bovine caudate. In addition, both 5-HT2- and 5-HT3-selective agents are essentially inactive at these binding sites. These /sup 3/H-5-HT sites display nanomolar affinity for 5-carboxyamidotryptamine, 5-methoxytryptamine, metergoline, and 5-HT. Apparent Ki values of 10-100 nM are obtained for d-LSD, RU 24969, methiothepin, tryptamine, methysergide, and yohimbine, whereas I-LSD and corynanthine are significantly less potent. In addition, these /sup 3/H-5-HT labeled sites are regulated by guanine nucleotides and calcium. Regional studies indicate that this class of sites is most dense in the basal ganglia but exists in all regions of bovine brain. These data therefore demonstrate the presence of a homogeneous class of 5-HT1 binding sites in bovine caudate that is pharmacologically distinct from previously defined 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1C, 5-HT2, and 5-HT3 receptor subtypes

  12. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 2, Part A: Chapters 3, 4, and 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1--5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 575 refs., 84 figs., 68 tabs.

  13. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 4, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.0 through 8.3.1.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 74 figs., 32 tabs.

  14. Exploratory shaft facility: It`s role in the characterization of the Yucca Mountain site for a potential nuclear repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalia, H.N.; Merson, T.J.

    1990-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is characterizing Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to assess its suitability as a potential site for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste from nuclear power plants and defense related activities. The assessment activities include surface investigations, drill holes from the surface, and an underground facility for in situ characterization tests. This underground exploratory shaft facility is being designed to meet the criteria for characterizing the mountain as described in the Site Characterization Plan. 9 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar for Hydrogeologic Characterization at the P Reactor Area, Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, A. E.; Knapp, C. C.; Addison, A.; Waddell, M.

    2006-12-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques were implemented at Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, in order to develop new approaches for hydrogeophysical characterization in heterogeneous environments. The study site is the P Reactor Area located within the Upper Atlantic Coastal Plain, with clastic sediments ranging from Late Cretaceous to Miocene age. Lithologies consist of sand, clayey sand, and clay with minor amounts of calcareous minerals. Increasing interest in the P Reactor Area in recent years is the result of the presence of several contaminant plumes including trichloroethylene (TCE) that originates from the northwest section of the reactor facility and discharges into nearby Steel Creek. Here, we present the results from subsurface characterization using the GPR technique involving the PulseEKKO 100 GPR system with 50, 100, and 200 MHz antennas. Data acquisition included (1) several regional 2D common-offset GPR transects for general stratigraphic characterization, (2) a series of common-mid point (CMP) profiles for velocity estimation, (3) a set of vertical radar profiles (VRP) at an existing borehole in the vicinity of the study area, and (4) a 3D GPR survey for detailed subsurface lithostratigraphic characterization collected with the 50 MHz antenna. The ongoing GPR processing will map key dielectric interfaces from the ground surface to ~20 meters, and will be integrated with co-located surface and vertical seismic reflection data as well as with lithologic information obtained from Cone Penetrometer Technology (CPT) tests performed at the study area. This lithosptratigraphic zonation will provide the framework for subsequent hydrological parameter estimation, which will be performed using borehole hydrogeological and crosshole seismic and GPR methods. This research was supported by the Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02-06ER64210.

  16. Site characterization report for Building 3515 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    Building 3515 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), also known as the Fission Product Pilot Plant, is a surplus facility in the main plant area to the east of the South Tank Farm slated for decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). The building consists of two concrete cells (north and south) on a concrete pad and was used to extract radioisotopes of ruthenium, strontium, cesium, cerium, rhenium and other elements from aqueous fission product waste. Site characterization activities of the building were initiated. The objective of the site characterization was to provide information necessary for engineering evaluation and planning of D&D approaches, planning for personal protection of D&D workers, and estimating waste volumes from D&D activities. This site characterization report documents the investigation with a site description, a summary of characterization methods, chemical and radiological sample analysis results, field measurement results, and waste volume estimates.

  17. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project bibliography, 1992--1994. Supplement 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-06-01

    Following a reorganization of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management in 1990, the Yucca Mountain Project was renamed Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The title of this bibliography was also changed to Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Bibliography. Prior to August 5, 1988, this project was called the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. This bibliography contains information on this ongoing project that was added to the Department of Energy`s Energy Science and Technology Database from January 1, 1992, through December 31, 1993. The bibliography is categorized by principal project participating organization. Participant-sponsored subcontractor reports, papers, and articles are included in the sponsoring organization`s list. Another section contains information about publications on the Energy Science and Technology Database that were not sponsored by the project but have some relevance to it. Earlier information on this project can be found in the first bibliography DOE/TIC-3406, which covers 1977--1985, and its three supplements DOE/OSTI-3406(Suppl.1), DOE/OSTI-3406(Suppl.2), and DOE/OSTI-3406(Suppl.3), which cover information obtained during 1986--1987, 1988--1989, and 1990--1991, respectively. All entries in the bibliographies are searchable online on the NNW database file. This file can be accessed through the Integrated Technical Information System (ITIS) of the US Department of Energy (DOE).

  18. Structural characterization of nonactive site, TrkA-selective kinase inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Hua-Poo; Rickert, Keith; Burlein, Christine; Narayan, Kartik; Bukhtiyarova, Marina; Hurzy, Danielle M.; Stump, Craig A.; Zhang, Xufang; Reid, John; Krasowska-Zoladek, Alicja; Tummala, Srivanya; Shipman, Jennifer M.; Kornienko, Maria; Lemaire, Peter A.; Krosky, Daniel; Heller, Amanda; Achab, Abdelghani; Chamberlin, Chad; Saradjian, Peter; Sauvagnat, Berengere; Yang, Xianshu; Ziebell, Michael R.; Nickbarg, Elliott; Sanders, John M.; Bilodeau, Mark T.; Carroll, Steven S.; Lumb, Kevin J.; Soisson, Stephen M.; Henze, Darrell A.; Cooke, Andrew J. (Merck)

    2016-12-30

    Current therapies for chronic pain can have insufficient efficacy and lead to side effects, necessitating research of novel targets against pain. Although originally identified as an oncogene, Tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA) is linked to pain and elevated levels of NGF (the ligand for TrkA) are associated with chronic pain. Antibodies that block TrkA interaction with its ligand, NGF, are in clinical trials for pain relief. Here, we describe the identification of TrkA-specific inhibitors and the structural basis for their selectivity over other Trk family kinases. The X-ray structures reveal a binding site outside the kinase active site that uses residues from the kinase domain and the juxtamembrane region. Three modes of binding with the juxtamembrane region are characterized through a series of ligand-bound complexes. The structures indicate a critical pharmacophore on the compounds that leads to the distinct binding modes. The mode of interaction can allow TrkA selectivity over TrkB and TrkC or promiscuous, pan-Trk inhibition. This finding highlights the difficulty in characterizing the structure-activity relationship of a chemical series in the absence of structural information because of substantial differences in the interacting residues. These structures illustrate the flexibility of binding to sequences outside of—but adjacent to—the kinase domain of TrkA. This knowledge allows development of compounds with specificity for TrkA or the family of Trk proteins.

  19. Three-Dimensional High-Frequency Ultrasonography for Early Detection and Characterization of Embryo Implantation Site Development in the Mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C Peavey

    Full Text Available Ultrasonography is a powerful tool to non-invasively monitor in real time the development of the human fetus in utero. Although genetically engineered mice have served as valuable in vivo models to study both embryo implantation and pregnancy progression, such studies usually require sacrifice of parous mice for subsequent phenotypic analysis. To address this issue, we used three-dimensional (3-D reconstruction in silico of high-frequency ultrasound (HFUS imaging data for early detection and characterization of murine embryo implantation sites and their development in utero. With HFUS imaging followed by 3-D reconstruction, we were able to precisely quantify embryo implantation site number and embryonic developmental progression in pregnant C57BL6J/129S mice from as early as 5.5 days post coitus (d.p.c. through to 9.5 d.p.c. using a VisualSonics Vevo 2100 (MS550S transducer. In addition to measurements of implantation site number, location, volume and spacing, embryo viability via cardiac activity monitoring was also achieved. A total of 12 dams were imaged with HFUS with approximately 100 embryos examined per embryonic day. For the post-implantation period (5.5 to 8.5 d.p.c., 3-D reconstruction of the gravid uterus in mesh or solid overlay format enabled visual representation in silico of implantation site location, number, spacing distances, and site volume within each uterine horn. Therefore, this short technical report describes the feasibility of using 3-D HFUS imaging for early detection and analysis of post-implantation events in the pregnant mouse with the ability to longitudinally monitor the development of these early pregnancy events in a non-invasive manner. As genetically engineered mice continue to be used to characterize female reproductive phenotypes, we believe this reliable and non-invasive method to detect, quantify, and characterize early implantation events will prove to be an invaluable investigative tool for the study of

  20. Site characterization of the Romanian Seismic Network stations: a national initiative and its first preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecu, Bogdan; Zahria, Bogdan; Manea, Elena; Neagoe, Cristian; Borleanu, Felix; Diaconescu, Mihai; Constantinescu, Eduard; Bala, Andrei

    2017-04-01

    The seismic activity in Romania is dominated by the intermediate-depth earthquakes occurring in Vrancea region, although weak to moderate crustal earthquakes are produced regularly in different areas of the country. The National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) built in the last years an impressive infrastructure for monitoring this activity, known as the Romanian Seismic Network (RSN). At present, RSN consists of 122 seismic stations, of which 70 have broadband velocity sensors and 42 short period sensors. One hundred and eleven stations out of 122 have accelerometer sensors collocated with velocity sensors and only 10 stations have only accelerometers. All the stations record continuously the ground motion and the data are transmitted in real-time to the Romanian National Data Center (RoNDC), in Magurele. Last year, NIEP has started a national project that addresses the characterization of all real-time seismic stations that constitute the RSN. We present here the steps that were undertaken and the preliminary results obtained since the beginning the project. The first two activities consisted of collecting all the existent technical and geological data, with emphasize on the latter. Then, we performed station noise investigations and analyses in order to characterize the noise level and estimate the resonances of the sites. The computed H/V ratios showed clear resonant peaks at different frequencies which correlate relatively well with the thickness of the sedimentary package beneath the stations. The polarization analysis of the H/V ratios indicates for some stations a strong directivity of the resonance peak which suggests possible topographic effects at the stations. At the same time, special attention was given to the estimation of the site amplification from earthquake data. The spectral ratios obtained from the analysis of more than 50 earthquakes with magnitudes (Mw) larger than 4.1 are characterized by similar resonance peaks as those obtained from

  1. Pharmacological characterization of intracellular, membrane, and plasma binding sites for corticosterone in house sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuner, Creagh W; Orchinik, Miles

    2009-09-01

    The diversity and specificity of glucocorticoid effects are dependent on cell-specific receptor mechanisms. Three known corticosteroid receptors mediate tissue effects of glucocorticoids in vertebrates: two intracellular receptors that act primarily as ligand-activated transcription factors, and a membrane-associated receptor. The intracellular receptor sub-types have been well characterized in mammals, however relatively little is known about them across non-mammalian vertebrates. The membrane-associated receptors are poorly characterized in most vertebrate taxa. To explore the basis for glucocorticoid action in birds, we pharmacologically characterized the three putative corticosteroid receptors in the brain, as well as a plasma corticosterone binding globulin, in the house sparrow (Passer domesticus). We found that house sparrow brain cytosol contained two distinguishable binding sites for corticosterone. A high affinity, mineralocorticoid-like receptor had subnanomolar affinity for corticosterone (K(d) approximately 0.2 nM). However, this 'MR-like' high-affinity receptor did not bind RU28318 or canrenoic acid, two compounds that bind mammalian MR with high affinity. A lower-affinity, glucocorticoid-like receptor in brain cytosol bound corticosterone with an average K(d)=5.61 nM. This GR-like receptor showed subnanomolar affinity for RU 486. MR- and GR-like receptors were found in equal numbers in whole brain assays (average B(max)=69 and 62 fmol/mg protein, respectively). House sparrow brain membranes contain a single binding site specific for glucocorticoids, with characteristics consistent with a steroid/receptor interaction. Corticosterone affinity for this putative membrane receptor was approximately 24 nM, with apparent B(max)=177 fmol/mg protein. House sparrow plasma contained a single binding site for [(3)H]corticosterone. Specific binding to plasma sites was inhibited by glucocorticoids, progesterone, and testosterone. Testosterone binding to this

  2. Site characterization using noninvasive single- and multi-station methods at southern California seismic stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, A.; Martin, A. J.; Pfau, J.; McPhillips, D.; Alvarez, M.; Lydeen, S.; Clerc, F.; Leue, N.

    2016-12-01

    In-situ measurements of shear-wave velocity (Vs) are used commonly to evaluate seismic response at earthquake monitoring station and project sites. Vs30, the time-averaged Vs in the upper 30 m, is a common parameter used to capture seismic site response and is used in almost all modern ground motion prediction equations. Traditional invasive downhole methods directly measure Vs; however, these methods are often cost- and/or environmentally-prohibitive and their results do not always reflect the lateral variability of seismic conditions beyond the immediate vicinity of the test site. In comparison, noninvasive methods record active- or passive-source data consisting of surface or body waves and are less prohibitive to use. Moreover, these methods use multiple horizontally-spaced surface receivers (multi-station array), thus, lateral variability beneath the array is accounted for in their results. Most noninvasive methods, however, indirectly measure Vs, and thus have inherent uncertainties. We have used a suite of noninvasive methods at ten stations in southern California. We record microseisms using standalone single-stations, located at the end- and mid-points of the measurement array, and over the same period, we also collect records from the seismic station. Using both single- and seismic-station records, we calculate the horizontal-to-vertical-spectra-ratios (HVSR), resonance frequency, and power spectral density to study site characteristics, including noise levels. For soil sites, we generally find insignificant lateral variability in subsurface conditions beneath our multi-station arrays by matching similar spectral peaks and frequencies in the three HVSR records; for rock sites, the magnitudes of the HVSR values are not as discernible. While we find general agreement in Vs30 computed using a variety of methods at each site, preliminary results for low-noise sites using standalone passive methods have large uncertainty in their computed Vs30 values.

  3. Immunological techniques as tools to characterize the subsurface microbial community at a trichloroethylene contaminated site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliermans, C.B.; Dougherty, J.M.; Franck, M.M.; McKinzey, P.C.; Hazen, T.C.

    1992-12-31

    Effective in situ bioremediation strategies require an understanding of the effects pollutants and remediation techniques have on subsurface microbial communities. Therefore, detailed characterization of a site`s microbial communities is important. Subsurface sediment borings and water samples were collected from a trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated site, before and after horizontal well in situ air stripping and bioventing, as well as during methane injection for stimulation of methane-utilizing microorganisms. Subsamples were processed for heterotrophic plate counts, acridine orange direct counts (AODC), community diversity, direct fluorescent antibodies (DFA) enumeration for several nitrogen-transforming bacteria, and Biolog {reg_sign} evaluation of enzyme activity in collected water samples. Plate counts were higher in near-surface depths than in the vadose zone sediment samples. During the in situ air stripping and bioventing, counts increased at or near the saturated zone, remained elevated throughout the aquifer, but did not change significantly after the air stripping. Sporadic increases in plate counts at different depths as well as increased diversity appeared to be linked to differing lithologies. AODCs were orders of magnitude higher than plate counts and remained relatively constant with depth except for slight increases near the surface depths and the capillary fringe. Nitrogen-transforming bacteria, as measured by serospecific DFA, were greatly affected both by the in situ air stripping and the methane injection. Biolog{reg_sign} activity appeared to increase with subsurface stimulation both by air and methane. The complexity of subsurface systems makes the use of selective monitoring tools imperative.

  4. Absolute gravity measurements at three sites characterized by different environmental conditions using two portable ballistic gravimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Filippo; Biolcati, Emanuele; Pistorio, Antonio; D'Agostino, Giancarlo; Germak, Alessandro; Origlia, Claudio; Del Negro, Ciro

    2015-03-01

    The performances of two absolute gravimeters at three different sites in Italy between 2009 and 2011 is presented. The measurements of the gravity acceleration g were performed using the absolute gravimeters Micro-g LaCoste FG5#238 and the INRiM prototype IMGC-02, which represent the state of the art in ballistic gravimeter technology (relative uncertainty of a few parts in 109). For the comparison, the measured g values were reported at the same height by means of the vertical gravity gradient estimated at each site with relative gravimeters. The consistency and reliability of the gravity observations, as well as the performance and efficiency of the instruments, were assessed by measurements made in sites characterized by different logistics and environmental conditions. Furthermore, the various factors affecting the measurements and their uncertainty were thoroughly investigated. The measurements showed good agreement, with the minimum and maximum differences being 4.0 and 8.3 μGal. The normalized errors are very much lower than 1, ranging between 0.06 and 0.45, confirming the compatibility between the results. This excellent agreement can be attributed to several factors, including the good working order of gravimeters and the correct setup and use of the instruments in different conditions. These results can contribute to the standardization of absolute gravity surveys largely for applications in geophysics, volcanology and other branches of geosciences, allowing achieving a good trade-off between uncertainty and efficiency of gravity measurements.

  5. Characterization of joining sites of a viral histone H4 on host insect chromosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    Full Text Available A viral histone H4 (CpBV-H4 is encoded in a polydnavirus, Cotesia plutellae bracovirus (CpBV. It plays a crucial role in parasitism of an endoparasitoid wasp, C. plutellae, against diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, by altering host gene expression in an epigenetic mode by its N-terminal tail after joining host nucleosomes. Comparative transcriptomic analysis between parasitized and nonparasitized P. xylostella by RNA-Seq indicated that 1,858 genes were altered at more than two folds in expression levels at late parasitic stage, including 877 up-regulated genes and 981 down-regulated genes. Among parasitic factors altering host gene expression, CpBV-H4 alone explained 16.3% of these expressional changes. To characterize the joining sites of CpBV-H4 on host chromosomes, ChIP-Seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing was applied to chromatins extracted from parasitized larvae. It identified specific 538 ChIP targets. Joining sites were rich (60.2% in AT sequence. Almost 40% of ChIP targets included short nucleotide repeat sequences presumably recognizable by transcriptional factors and chromatin remodeling factors. To further validate these CpBV-H4 targets, CpBV-H4 was transiently expressed in nonparasitized host at late larval stage and subjected to ChIP-Seq. Two kinds of ChIP-Seqs shared 51 core joining sites. Common targets were close (within 1 kb to genes regulated at expression levels by CpBV-H4. However, other host genes not close to CpBV-H4 joining sites were also regulated by CpBV-H4. These results indicate that CpBV-H4 joins specific chromatin regions of P. xylostella and controls about one sixth of the total host genes that were regulated by C. plutellae parasitism in an epigenetic mode.

  6. Lithological characterization of a contaminated site using Direct current resistivity and time domain Induced Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maurya, Pradip Kumar; Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben

    study a large contaminated site in Denmark was investigated using direct current resistivity and time domain induced polarization (DCIP). For this purpose 14 profiles were collected alongside a stream in order to investigate the contamination and delineate the lithological units. 2D inversion using...

  7. Relationship of atmospheric pollution characterized by gas (NO2) and particles (PM10) to microbial communities living in bryophytes at three differently polluted sites (rural, urban, and industrial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Caroline; Gilbert, Daniel; Gaudry, André; Franchi, Marielle; Nguyen, Hung Viet; Fabure, Juliette; Bernard, Nadine

    2010-02-01

    Atmospheric pollution has become a major problem for modern societies owing to its fatal effects on both human health and ecosystems. We studied the relationships of nitrogen dioxide atmospheric pollution and metal trace elements contained in atmospheric particles which were accumulated in bryophytes to microbial communities of bryophytes at three differently polluted sites in France (rural, urban, and industrial) over an 8-month period. The analysis of bryophytes showed an accumulation of Cr and Fe at the rural site; Cr, Fe, Zn, Cu, Al, and Pb at the urban site; and Fe, Cr, Pb, Al, Sr, Cu, and Zn at the industrial site. During this study, the structure of the microbial communities which is characterized by biomasses of microbial groups evolved differently according to the site. Microalgae, bacteria, rotifers, and testate amoebae biomasses were significantly higher in the rural site. Cyanobacteria biomass was significantly higher at the industrial site. Fungal and ciliate biomasses were significantly higher at the urban and industrial sites for the winter period and higher at the rural site for the spring period. The redundancy analysis showed that the physico-chemical variables ([NO(2)], relative humidity, temperature, and site) and the trace elements which were accumulated in bryophytes ([Cu], [Sr], [Pb]) explained 69.3% of the variance in the microbial community data. Moreover, our results suggest that microbial communities are potential biomonitors of atmospheric pollution. Further research is needed to understand the causal relationship underlined by the observed patterns.

  8. Feasibility study for the United Heckathorn Superfund Site, Richmond, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lincoff, A.H. [US Environmental Protection Agency, San Francisco, CA (United States). Region IX; Costan, G.P.; Montgomery, M.S.; White, P.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The United Heckathom Superfund Site in Richmond, California, was used to formulate pesticides from approximately 1947 to 1966. Soils at the site and sediments in the harbor were contaminated with various chlorinated pesticides, primarily DDT, as a result of these activities. The US Environmental Protection Agency listed the site on the Superfund National Priorities List in 1990. This document is part of the Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study phase of the Superfund response, which will provide the basis for selection of a final remedy that will protect human health and the environment and achieve compliance with federal and state envirorunental laws.

  9. A Fiber-Optic Borehole Seismic Vector Sensor System for Geothermal Site Characterization and Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsson, Bjorn N.P. [Paulsson, Inc., Van Nuys, CA (United States); Thornburg, Jon A. [Paulsson, Inc., Van Nuys, CA (United States); He, Ruiqing [Paulsson, Inc., Van Nuys, CA (United States)

    2015-04-21

    Seismic techniques are the dominant geophysical techniques for the characterization of subsurface structures and stratigraphy. The seismic techniques also dominate the monitoring and mapping of reservoir injection and production processes. Borehole seismology, of all the seismic techniques, despite its current shortcomings, has been shown to provide the highest resolution characterization and most precise monitoring results because it generates higher signal to noise ratio and higher frequency data than surface seismic techniques. The operational environments for borehole seismic instruments are however much more demanding than for surface seismic instruments making both the instruments and the installation much more expensive. The current state-of-the-art borehole seismic instruments have not been robust enough for long term monitoring compounding the problems with expensive instruments and installations. Furthermore, they have also not been able to record the large bandwidth data available in boreholes or having the sensitivity allowing them to record small high frequency micro seismic events with high vector fidelity. To reliably achieve high resolution characterization and long term monitoring of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) sites a new generation of borehole seismic instruments must therefore be developed and deployed. To address the critical site characterization and monitoring needs for EGS programs, US Department of Energy (DOE) funded Paulsson, Inc. in 2010 to develop a fiber optic based ultra-large bandwidth clamped borehole seismic vector array capable of deploying up to one thousand 3C sensor pods suitable for deployment into ultra-high temperature and high pressure boreholes. Tests of the fiber optic seismic vector sensors developed on the DOE funding have shown that the new borehole seismic sensor technology is capable of generating outstanding high vector fidelity data with extremely large bandwidth: 0.01 – 6,000 Hz. Field tests have shown

  10. TWRS privatization phase I site development engineering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shord, A.L.

    1996-09-30

    The DOE-RL is pursuing a new business strategy of hiring private contractors for treatment of Hanford Site tank wastes. This strategy is called `privatization` and includes design, permitting, construction, operation and deactivation of facilities for tank waste treatment. The TWRS Privatization Infrastructure Project consists of several sub-projects which will provide key services needed to support the privatization mission. One sub-project is to develop the selected site for the privatization facilities. This study addresses the pertinent issues related to the development of the site and specific parcels to be assigned to each of two private contractors. It also summarizes other studies that address provisions for utilities and other site services.

  11. Walker Branch Throughfall Displacement Experiment Data Report: Site Characterization, System Performance, Weather, Species Composition, and Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, P.J.

    2001-09-04

    This numeric data package provides data sets, and accompanying documentation, on site characterization, system performance, weather, species composition, and growth for the Throughfall Displacement Experiment, which was established in the Walker Branch Watershed of East Tennessee to provide data on the responses of forests to altered precipitation regimes. The specific data sets include soil water content and potential, coarse fraction of the soil profile, litter layer temperature, soil temperature, monthly weather, daily weather, hourly weather, species composition of trees and saplings, mature tree and sapling annual growth, and relative leaf area index. Fortran and SAS{trademark} access codes are provided to read the ASCII data files. The data files and this documentation are available without charge on a variety of media and via the Internet from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC).

  12. Characterization of ventilation ductwork in Building K-33 at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrochek, J.E.

    1992-05-01

    An extensive sampling and analysis program was initiated in September 1991 to characterize the ductwork of Building K-33, which is located at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. This building, 32.4 acres under roof, contains nearly 3 miles of main plenums without considering the side laterals, which are extensive. A large number (i.e., 131) of hexane-moistened wipe samples were taken from within randomly selected locations in the 16 main plenums and the side lateral network. Samples were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), uranium, and technetium. These samples were augmented by 5 bulk material and 13 metal coupon samples that were subjected to TCLP (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure) analyses for arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, selenium, silver, and mercury.

  13. Synthesis, characterization and studies on antioxidant and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In the present study, a new thiourea derivative bearing benzothiazole ligand, 1-(benzo[d]thiazol-2- yl)thiourea (btt) and its ternary metal (Cu(II), Co(II) and Ni(II)) complexes were synthesized. The structural characterization was carried out by micro analysis, IR, 1H-NMR, EPR, UV-Visible spectral analyses, molar.

  14. Physicochemical Characterization and Dissolution Studies of Solid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physicochemical characterization of the dispersions were performed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), x-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). In vitro drug release was carried out using the rotating disc method. Results: These studies showed that there was no ...

  15. Remote sensing supported surveillance and characterization of tailings behavior at a gold mine site, Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauhala, Anssi; Tuomela, Anne; Rossi, Pekka M.; Davids, Corine

    2017-04-01

    The management of vast amounts of tailings produced is one of the key issues in mining operations. The effective and economic disposal of the waste requires knowledge concerning both basic physical properties of the tailings as well as more complex aspects such as consolidation behavior. The behavior of tailings in itself is a very complex issue that can be affected by flocculation, sedimentation, consolidation, segregation, deposition, freeze-thaw, and desiccation phenomena. The utilization of remote sensing in an impoundment-scale monitoring of tailings could benefit the management of tailings, and improve our knowledge on tailings behavior. In order to gain better knowledge of tailings behavior in cold climate, we have utilized both modern remote sensing techniques and more traditional in situ and laboratory measurements in characterizing thickened gold tailings behavior at a Finnish gold mine site, where the production has been halted due to low gold prices. The remote sensing measurements consisted of elevation datasets collected from unmanned aerial vehicles during summers 2015 and 2016, and a further campaign is planned for the summer 2017. The ongoing traditional measurements include for example particle-size distribution, frost heave, frost depth, water retention, temperature profile, and rheological measurements. Initial results from the remote sensing indicated larger than expected settlements on parts of the tailings impoundment, and also highlighted some of the complexities related to data processing. The interpretation of the results and characterization of the behavior is in this case complicated by possible freeze-thaw effects and potential settlement of the impoundment bottom structure consisting of natural peat. Experiments with remote sensing and unmanned aerial vehicles indicate that they could offer potential benefits in frequent mine site monitoring, but there is a need towards more robust and streamlined data acquisition and processing. The

  16. Pressure versus temperature unfolding of ribonuclease A: an FTIR spectroscopic characterization of 10 variants at the carboxy-terminal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrent, J; Rubens, P; Ribó, M; Heremans, K; Vilanova, M

    2001-04-01

    FTIR spectroscopy was used to characterize and compare the temperature- and pressure-induced unfolding of ribonuclease A and a set of its variants engineered in a hydrophobic region of the C-terminal part of the molecule postulated as a CFIS. The results show for all the ribonucleases investigated, a cooperative, two-state, reversible unfolding transition using both pressure and temperature. The relative stabilities, among the different sites and different variants at the same site, monitored either through the changes in the position of the maximum of the amide I' band and the tyrosine band, or the maximum of the band assigned to the beta-sheet structure, corroborate the results of a previous study using fourth-derivative UV absorbance spectroscopy. In addition, variants at position 108 are the most critical for ribonuclease structure and stability. The V108G variant seems to present a greater conformational flexibility than the other variants. The pressure- and temperature-denaturated states of all the ribonucleases characterized retained some secondary structure. However, their spectral maxima were centered at different wavenumbers, which suggests that pressure- and temperature-denaturated states do not have the same structural characteristics. Nevertheless, there was close correlation between the pressure and temperature midpoint transition values for the whole series of protein variants, which indicated a common tendency of stability toward pressure and heat.

  17. Seismic Site Characterizations and Earthquake Loss Estimation Analyses for K-12 Schools in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, R.; Walsh, T. J.; Hayashi, K.; Norman, D. K.; Lau, T.; Scott, S.

    2016-12-01

    Washington State has the second-highest earthquake risk in the U.S. after only California, and major earthquakes in western Washington in 1946, 1949, 1965, and 2001 killed 15 people and caused billions of dollars' worth of property damage. Washington State has not been exempt from earthquake damage to school buildings. The mission of The Washington Department of Natural Resources-Division of Geology and Earth Resources is to "reduce or eliminate risks to life and property from natural hazards." We conducted active and passive seismic surveys, and estimated shear-wave velocity (Vs) profiles, then determined NEHRP soil classifications using calculated Vs30m values at public schools in Thurston, Grays Harbor, Walla Walla, Chelan and Okanogan counties, Washington. We used active and passive seismic surveys: 1D and 2D MASW and MAM, P- and S-wave refraction, horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (H/V), and 2-Station SPAC (2ST-SPAC) surveys to measure Vs and Vp at shallow (0-70m) and Vs at greater (10 to 500 or 10 -3000 meters) depths at the sites, respectively. We then ran Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) surveys along each seismic line to check possible horizontal subsurface variations between the survey line and the actual location of the school buildings. These survey results were then used for calculations of Vs30m to determine the NEHRP site classifications at school sites. These site classes were also used for determining soil amplification effects on the ground motions affecting structural damage estimations of the school buildings. These seismic site characterization results associated with structural engineering evaluations were then used as inputs in FEMA Hazus-Advanced Engineering Building Module (AEBM) analysis to provide estimated casualties, nonstructural, and structural losses. The final AEBM loss estimation along with the more detailed structural evaluations will help school districts assess the earthquake performance of school buildings in order to

  18. Mobile laboratories: An innovative and efficient solution for radiological characterization of sites under or after decommissioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudeau, V; Daniel, B; Dubot, D

    2017-04-21

    During the operation and the decommissioning of a nuclear site the operator must assure the protection of the workers and the environment. It must furthermore identify and classify the various wastes, while optimizing the associated costs. At all stages of the decommissioning radiological measurements are performed to determine the initial situation, to monitor the demolition and clean-up, and to verify the final situation. Radiochemical analysis is crucial for the radiological evaluation process to optimize the clean-up operations and to the respect limits defined with the authorities. Even though these types of analysis are omnipresent in activities such as the exploitation, the monitoring, and the cleaning up of nuclear plants, some nuclear sites do not have their own radiochemical analysis laboratory. Mobile facilities can overcome this lack when nuclear facilities are dismantled, when contaminated sites are cleaned-up, or in a post-accident situation. The current operations for the characterization of radiological soils of CEA nuclear facilities, lead to a large increase of radiochemical analysis. To manage this high throughput of samples in a timely manner, the CEA has developed a new mobile laboratory for the clean-up of its soils, called SMaRT (Shelter for Monitoring and nucleAR chemisTry). This laboratory is dedicated to the preparation and the radiochemical analysis (alpha, beta, and gamma) of potentially contaminated samples. In this framework, CEA and Eichrom laboratories has signed a partnership agreement to extend the analytical capacities and bring on site optimized and validated methods for different problematic. Gamma-emitting radionuclides can usually be measured in situ as little or no sample preparation is required. Alpha and beta-emitting radionuclides are a different matter. Analytical chemistry laboratory facilities are required. Mobile and transportable laboratories equipped with the necessary tools can provide all that is needed. The main

  19. Immunological techniques as tools to characterize the subsurface microbial community at a trichloroethylene contaminated site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliermans, C.B.; Dougherty, J.M.; Franck, M.M.; McKinzey, P.C.; Hazen, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    Effective in situ bioremediation strategies require an understanding of the effects pollutants and remediation techniques have on subsurface microbial communities. Therefore, detailed characterization of a site's microbial communities is important. Subsurface sediment borings and water samples were collected from a trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated site, before and after horizontal well in situ air stripping and bioventing, as well as during methane injection for stimulation of methane-utilizing microorganisms. Subsamples were processed for heterotrophic plate counts, acridine orange direct counts (AODC), community diversity, direct fluorescent antibodies (DFA) enumeration for several nitrogen-transforming bacteria, and Biolog [reg sign] evaluation of enzyme activity in collected water samples. Plate counts were higher in near-surface depths than in the vadose zone sediment samples. During the in situ air stripping and bioventing, counts increased at or near the saturated zone, remained elevated throughout the aquifer, but did not change significantly after the air stripping. Sporadic increases in plate counts at different depths as well as increased diversity appeared to be linked to differing lithologies. AODCs were orders of magnitude higher than plate counts and remained relatively constant with depth except for slight increases near the surface depths and the capillary fringe. Nitrogen-transforming bacteria, as measured by serospecific DFA, were greatly affected both by the in situ air stripping and the methane injection. Biolog[reg sign] activity appeared to increase with subsurface stimulation both by air and methane. The complexity of subsurface systems makes the use of selective monitoring tools imperative.

  20. Characterization and provenance of the building stones from Pompeii's archaeological site (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balassone, G.; Kastenmeier, P.; di Maio, G.; Mormone, A.; Joachimski, M.

    2009-04-01

    Pompeii is one of the most famous and complex areas of archaeological investigation in the world and with a uniquely favorable state of preservation. Even if many studies have been devoted in time to many archaeological aspects of this ancient city, large-scale and detailed studies aimed at characterizing mineralogy, petrography and isotope geochemistry of the building stones are still lacking. The scope of the present research is to fill this gap, pointing to the definition of the provenance of the stony materials used for ancient constructions of the city of Pompeii and to the possible trade routes. This work is part of a large-scale survey carried out by the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut of Berlin, with the purposes of reconstructing the sources of raw materials of various archaeological sites of the Sarno Plain (e.g. Longola-Poggiomarino settlement, Nuceria, Stabiae, etc.) and consequently also the paleo-environments of this area during the Olocene (Seiler, 2006, 2008; Kastemeier and Seiler, 2007). We sampled all the litotypes with different macroscopic characteristics from various buildings according to location, age (time span VI century B.C. - I century A.D.) and utilization; the architectural buildings considered for this study are mainly represented public and religious buildings, houses and funerary monuments. As possible source areas, representative litotypes have been sampled from ancient pits and outcrops surrounding Pompeii as well. A set of 80 samples have been sampled by means of micro-drillings for mineralogical, petrographic and geochemical analyses, comprising optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma mass, X-ray fluorescence and C-O isotope geochemistry. Minero-petrographic and XRD studies of Pompeii rock samples have shown that at least ten different litologies occur as building stones, belonging to basaltic to tephritic lavas, pyroclasts (tuffs, scoriae, etc.) and sedimentary rocks (limestone, travertines

  1. Subsurface soil characterization using geoelectrical and geotechnical investigations at a bridge site in Uttarakhand Himalayan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Anita; Israil, M.; Anbalagan, R.; Gupta, Pravin K.

    2017-09-01

    Geoelectrical characterization of subsurface soil has been done at a bridge foundation site on the banks of Bhagirathi River at Tehri reservoir site, Uttarakhand, India. For this purpose, the Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and the Standard Penetration Test (SPT) data, recorded at both banks of Bhagirathi River are analyzed. A total of six ERT profiles, recorded on both the West and East banks, were interpreted to determine an electrical resistivity image showing the resistivity variations with depth. The borehole data and geological inputs were used for lithological correlation and calibration of the resistivity values to the subsurface formation. Subsequently the electrical parameter (resistivity) for different subsurface lithological units has been inferred. Further, at selected points, the electrical resistivity sounding data, derived from the ERT, have been correlated with the Standard Penetration Test (SPT) data. This correlation results from the fact that in the subsurface soil both the electrical resistivity variations and the soil strength measured by SPT are controlled by the soil properties: grain size distribution, compactness, porosity and water saturation. It has been observed that the N-values smaller than 16 are unreliable and inconsistent. In the River Borne Material (RBM) on the West Bank it is due to the presence of coarse gravels while on the East Bank it is due to the boulders. The N-values greater than 16 mainly correspond to the weathered rock formation. For these values, there exists a linear relationship between N-values and resistivity with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.80. The coefficients of linear relationship at the two banks vary due to varying amount of clay content. Such a relationship is important for any site in tough Himalayan terrain because it can be used as an alternative to the SPT for determining soil strength parameters from ERT.

  2. Dynamic characterization of fractured carbonates at the Hontomín CO2 storage site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gallo, yann; de Dios, José Carlos; Salvador, Ignacio; Acosta Carballo, Taimara

    2017-04-01

    The geological storage of CO2 is investigated at the Technology Development Plant (TDP) at Hontomín (Burgos, Spain) into a deep saline aquifer, formed by fractured carbonates with poor matrix porosity. During the hydraulic characterization tests, 2,300 tons of liquid CO2 and 14,000 m3 synthetic brine were co-injected on site in various sequences to determine the pressure and temperature responses of the facture network. The results of the pressure tests were analyzed using an analytical approach to determine the overall petrophysical characteristics of the storage formation. Later on, these characteristics were implemented in a 3-D numerical model. The model is a compositional dual medium (fracture + matrix) which accounts for temperature effects, as CO2 is liquid at the well bottom-hole, and multiphase flow hysteresis as alternating water and CO2 injection tests were performed. The pressure and temperature responses of the storage formation were history-matched mainly through the petrophysical and geometrical characteristics of the facture network. This dynamic characterization of the fracture network controls the CO2 migration while the matrix does not appear to significantly contribute to the storage capacity. Consequently, the hydrodynamic behavior of the aquifer is one of the main challenge of the modeling workflow.

  3. Characterizing the Catalytic Potential of Deinococcus, Arthrobacter and other Robust Bacteria in Contaminated Subsurface Environments of the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, Michael J.

    2005-06-01

    Natural selection in highly radioactive waste sites may yield bacteria with favorable bioremediating characteristics. However, until recently the microbial ecology of such environments has remained unexplored because of the high costs and technical complexities associated with extracting and characterizing samples from such sites. We have examined the bacterial ecology within radioactive sediments from a high-level nuclear waste plume in the vadose zone on the DOE?s Hanford Site in south-central Washington state (Fredrickson et al, 2004). Manganese-dependent, radiation resistant bacteria have been isolated from this contaminated site including the highly Mn-dependent Deinococcus and Arthrobacter spp.

  4. Seismic site-response characterization of high-velocity sites using advanced geophysical techniques: application to the NAGRA-Net

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poggi, V.; Burjánek, Jan; Michel, C.; Fäh, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 210, č. 2 (2017), s. 645-659 ISSN 0956-540X Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : joint inversion * earthquake ground motions * seismic noise * site effects Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.414, year: 2016

  5. SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND MONITORING DATA FROM THE AREA 5 PILOT WELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECHTEL NEVADA; U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2005-09-01

    Three exploratory boreholes were drilled and completed to the uppermost alluvial aquifer in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, in 1992. The boreholes and associated investigations were part of the Area 5 Site Characterization Program developed to meet data needs associated with regulatory requirements applicable to the disposal of low-level, mixed, and high-specific-activity waste at this site. This series of boreholes was specifically designed to characterize the hydrogeology of the thick vadose zone and to help define the water quality and hydraulic properties of the uppermost aquifer. Wells UE5PW-1, UE5PW-2, and UE5PW-3 are located in a triangular array near the southeast, northeast, and northwest corners, respectively, of the approximately 2.6-square-kilometer Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site to give reasonable spatial coverage for sampling and characterization, and to help define the nearly horizontal water table. Two of the wells, UE5PW-1 and UE5PW-2, penetrated only unconsolidated alluvial materials. The third well, located closer to the margin of the basin, penetrated both alluvium and underlying ash-flow and bedded tuff units. The watertable was encountered at the elevation of approximately 734 meters. The results of laboratory testing of core and drill cuttings samples indicate that the mineralogical, material, and hydrologic properties of the alluvium are very similar within and between boreholes. Additional tests on the same core and drill cuttings samples indicate that hydrologic conditions within the alluvium are also similar between pilot wells. Both core and drill cuttings samples are dry (less than 10 percent water content by weight) throughout the entire unsaturated section of alluvium, and water content increases slightly with depth in each borehole. Water potential measurements on core samples show a large positive potential gradient (water tends to move upward, rather than downward) to a depth of approximately 30

  6. Characterization of materials for a reactive transport model validation experiment: Interim report on the caisson experiment. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, M.D.; Cheng, W.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ward, D.B.; Bryan, C.R. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences

    1995-08-01

    Models used in performance assessment and site characterization activities related to nuclear waste disposal rely on simplified representations of solute/rock interactions, hydrologic flow field and the material properties of the rock layers surrounding the repository. A crucial element in the design of these models is the validity of these simplifying assumptions. An intermediate-scale experiment is being carried out at the Experimental Engineered Test Facility at Los Alamos Laboratory by the Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories to develop a strategy to validate key geochemical and hydrological assumptions in performance assessment models used by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project.

  7. Characterization and Quantification of Pneumatic Fracturing Effects at a Clay Till Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Camilla Maymann; Riis, Charlotte; Christensen, Stine Brok

    2008-01-01

    for the distribution of the injected tracers in the subsurface. They reveal that tracer was distributed within 2 m of the fracturing well, mainly in existing fractures above the redox boundary (2 to 4 m.b.s.; 5 to 10 cm spacing). Spacing of observed tracer-filled fractures was large (>1 m) at greater depths...... on direct documentation of fracture propagation patterns and spacing, was performed at a typical basal clay till site. The study applied a novel package of documentation methods, including injection of five tracers with different characteristics (bromide, uvitex, fluorescein, rhodamine WT, and brilliant......Environmental fracturing offers assistance to remediation efforts at contaminated, low-permeability sites via creation of active fracture networks, and hence, reduction of mass transport limitations set by diffusion in low-permeability matrices. A pilot study of pneumatic fracturing, focusing...

  8. SNL-NUMO collaborative : development of a deterministic site characterization tool using multi-model ranking and inference.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, Matthew; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Arnold, Bill Walter; James, Scott Carlton; Gray, Genetha Anne; Ahlmann, Michael

    2008-08-01

    Uncertainty in site characterization arises from a lack of data and knowledge about a site and includes uncertainty in the boundary conditions, uncertainty in the characteristics, location, and behavior of major features within an investigation area (e.g., major faults as barriers or conduits), uncertainty in the geologic structure, as well as differences in numerical implementation (e.g., 2-D versus 3-D, finite difference versus finite element, grid resolution, deterministic versus stochastic, etc.). Since the true condition at a site can never be known, selection of the best conceptual model is very difficult. In addition, limiting the understanding to a single conceptualization too early in the process, or before data can support that conceptualization, may lead to confidence in a characterization that is unwarranted as well as to data collection efforts and field investigations that are misdirected and/or redundant. Using a series of numerical modeling experiments, this project examined the application and use of information criteria within the site characterization process. The numerical experiments are based on models of varying complexity that were developed to represent one of two synthetically developed groundwater sites; (1) a fully hypothetical site that represented a complex, multi-layer, multi-faulted site, and (2) a site that was based on the Horonobe site in northern Japan. Each of the synthetic sites were modeled in detail to provide increasingly informative 'field' data over successive iterations to the representing numerical models. The representing numerical models were calibrated to the synthetic site data and then ranked and compared using several different information criteria approaches. Results show, that for the early phases of site characterization, low-parameterized models ranked highest while more complex models generally ranked lowest. In addition, predictive capabilities were also better with the low-parameterized models. For

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Mobile Genetic Elements from Microbial Assemblages Obtained from the Field Research Center Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Sobecky; Cassie Hodges; Kerri Lafferty; Mike Humphreys; Melanie Raimondo; Kristin Tuttle; Tamar Barkay

    2004-03-17

    Considerable knowledge has been gained from the intensive study of a relatively limited group of bacterial plasmids. Recent efforts have begun to focus on the characterization of, at the molecular level, plasmid populations and associated mobile genetic elements (e.g., transposons, integrons) occurring in a wider range of aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Surprisingly, however, little information is available regarding the incidence and distribution of mobile genetic elements extant in contaminated subsurface environments. Such studies will provide greater knowledge on the ecology of plasmids and their contributions to the genetic plasticity (and adaptation) of naturally occurring subsurface microbial communities. We requested soil cores from the DOE NABIR Field Research Center (FRC) located on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The cores, received in February 2003, were sampled from four areas on the Oak Ridge Site: Area 1, Area 2, Area 3 (representing contaminated subsurface locales) and the background reference sites. The average core length (24 in) was subdivided into three profiles and soil pH and moisture content were determined. Uranium concentration was also determined in bulk samples. Replicate aliquots were fixed for total cell counts and for bacterial isolation. Four different isolation media were used to culture aerobic and facultative microbes from these four study areas. Colony forming units ranged from a minimum of 100 per gram soil to a maximum of 10,000 irrespective of media composition used. The vast majority of cultured subsurface isolates were gram-positive isolates and plasmid characterization was conducted per methods routinely used in the Sobecky laboratory. The percentage of plasmid incidence ranged from 10% to 60% of all isolates tested. This frequency appears to be somewhat higher than the incidence of plasmids we have observed in other habitats and we are increasing the number of isolates screened to confirm this observation. We are also

  10. Characterization and monitoring of contaminated sites by multi-geophysical approach (IP, ERT and GPR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampaolo, Valeria; Capozzoli, Luigi; Votta, Mario; Rizzo, Enzo

    2014-05-01

    The contamination of soils and groundwater by hydrocarbons, due to blow out, leakage from tank or pipe and oil spill, is a heavy environmental problem because infiltrated oil can persist in the ground for a long time leading to important changes on soils and physical and biogeochemical properties, which impact on ecosystems and shallow aquifers. The existing methods used for the characterization of hydrocarbon contaminated sites are invasive, time consuming and expensive. Therefore, in the last years, there was a growing interest in the use of geophysical methods for environmental monitoring (Börner et al., 1993; Vanhala, 1997; Atekwana et al., 2000; Chambers et al., 2004; Song et al., 2005; French et al., 2009). The goal of this work is to characterize underground contaminant distributions and monitoring a remediation activity using a multi-geophysical approach (cross-hole IP and ERT, GPR). The experiments consist in geophysical measurements both in surface and boreholes, to monitor a simulated hydrocarbon leachate into a ~1 m3 box. The tank is filled with quartz-rich sand (k = 1.16 x 10-12 m2) and it is equipped with six boreholes and 72 stainless steel ring electrodes, at 5 cm spacing, for cross-hole electrical resistivity and time-domain IP measurements. 25 additional stainless steel electrodes were installed at the surface of the tank. Two measurement phases were realized: first, we monitored electrical resistivity, IP, and dielectric conductivity of the uncontaminated soil; the second experimental phase consists in the geophysical monitoring of a crude oil controlled spill. Results showed significant changes in the responses of geoelectrical measurements in presence of a crude oil contamination. Instead IP results give a phase angle distribution related to the presence of hydrocarbon in the system but not so clear in the location of plume. Therefore, to clearly delineate the areas interested by contamination, we estimate the imaginary component of electrical

  11. Geologic Site Characterization of the North Korean Nuclear Test Site at Punggye-Ri: A Reconnaissance Mapping Redux

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-30

    clandestine nuclear test (e.g., the evaluation of seismic wave propagation, the prediction of gas releases, and evaluation of tunnel layouts). An...produce a high-resolution (5-meter) geologic map of the site. This map helps refine the USGS reconnaissance geology map (which was based on the...test locations, the relationship between fracture rock and containment, and possible motivation for continued tunneling at the â\\”South Portalâ

  12. Structural and biochemical characterization of two heme binding sites on α1-microglobulin using site directed mutagenesis and molecular simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutardottir, Sigurbjörg; Karnaukhova, Elena; Nantasenamat, Chanin; Songtawee, Napat; Prachayasittikul, Virapong; Rajabi, Mohsen; Rosenlöf, Lena Wester; Alayash, Abdu I; Åkerström, Bo

    2016-01-01

    α1-Microglobulin (A1M) is a reductase and radical scavenger involved in physiological protection against oxidative damage. These functions were previously shown to be dependent upon cysteinyl-, C34, and lysyl side-chains, K(92, 118,130). A1M binds heme and the crystal structure suggests that C34 and H123 participate in a heme binding site. We have investigated the involvement of these five residues in the interactions with heme. Four A1M-variants were expressed: with cysteine to serine substitution in position 34, lysine to threonine substitutions in positions (92, 118, 130), histidine to serine substitution in position 123 and a wt without mutations. Heme binding was investigated by tryptophan fluorescence quenching, UV-Vis spectrophotometry, circular dichroism, SPR, electrophoretic migration shift, gel filtration, catalase-like activity and molecular simulation. All A1M-variants bound to heme. Mutations in C34, H123 or K(92, 118, 130) resulted in significant absorbance changes, CD spectral changes, and catalase-like activity, suggesting involvement of these side-groups in coordination of the heme-iron. Molecular simulation support a model with two heme-binding sites in A1M involving the mutated residues. Binding of the first heme induces allosteric stabilization of the structure predisposing for a better fit of the second heme. The results suggest that one heme-binding site is located in the lipocalin pocket and a second binding site between loops 1 and 4. Reactions with the hemes involve the side-groups of C34, K(92, 118, 130) and H123. The model provides a structural basis for the functional activities of A1M: heme binding activity of A1M. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Energy conserving site design case study: Shenandoah, Georgia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The case study examines the means by which energy conservation can be achieved at an aggregate community level by using proper planning and analytical techniques for a new town, Shenandoah, Georgia, located twenty-five miles southwest of Atlanta's Hartsfield International Airport. A potentially implementable energy conservation community plan is achieved by a study team examining the land use options, siting characteristics of each building type, alternate infrastructure plans, possible decentralized energy options, and central utility schemes to determine how community energy conservation can be achieved by use of pre-construction planning. The concept for the development of mixed land uses as a passively sited, energy conserving community is based on a plan (Level 1 Plan) that uses the natural site characteristics, maximizes on passive energy siting requirement, and allows flexibility for the changing needs of the developers. The Level 2 Plan is identical with Level 1 plan plus a series of decentraized systems that have been added to the residential units: the single-family detached, the apartments, and the townhouses. Level 3 Plan is similar to the Level 1 Plan except that higher density dwellings have been moved to areas adjacent to central site. The total energy savings for each plan relative to the conventional plan are indicated. (MCW)

  14. Aespoe HRL - Geoscientific evaluation 1997/2. Results from pre-investigation and detailed site characterization. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhen, I. [VBB Viak, Goeteborg (Sweden); Baeckbom, G. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)] [eds.; Gustafsson, Gunnar [VBB Viak, Goeteborg (Sweden) and Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Stanfors, R. [RS Consulting, Lund (Sweden); Wikberg, P. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-05-01

    The work at Aespoe Hard rock laboratory provides an important scientific and technical basis for implementing and operating a future deep repository in Sweden. A milestone has now been reached with the completion of the pre investigation and construction phases at Aespoe HRL. The present data base at Aespoe HRL is one of the most comprehensive data bases in the world for crystalline rock properties, containing data from a large number of investigation methods from the surface down to 1700 m below ground level. Site characterization in conjunction with construction work has basically confirmed the pre-construction models. The site characterization has been a realistic `dress rehearsal` that is invaluable for planning and execution of surface and underground characterization of sites for the deep repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. 502 refs, 114 figs, 30 tabs.

  15. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: rationale and methodology for Argonne-conducted reviews of site characterization programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, W.; Ditmars, J.D.; Tisue, M.W.; Hambley, D.F.; Fenster, D.F.; Rote, D.M.

    1985-07-01

    Both regulatory and technical concerns must be addressed in Argonne-conducted peer reviews of site characterization programs for individual sites for a high-level radioactive waste repository in salt. This report describes the regulatory framework within which reviews must be conducted and presents background information on the structure and purpose of site characterization programs as found in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 4.17 and Title 10, Part 60, of the Code of Federal Regulations. It also presents a methodology to assist reviewers in addressing technical concerns relating to their respective areas of expertise. The methodology concentrates on elements of prime importance to the US Department of Energy's advocacy of a given salt repository system during the NRC licensing process. Instructions are given for reviewing 12 site characterization program elements, starting with performance objectives, performance issues, and levels of performance of repository subsystem components; progressing through performance assessment; and ending with plans for data acquisition and evaluation. The success of a site characterization program in resolving repository performance issues will be determined by judging the likelihood that the proposed data acquisition activities will reduce uncertainties in the performance predictions. 8 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Utility of Characterizing and Monitoring Suspected Underground Nuclear Sites with VideoSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauphin, S. M.; Yocky, D. A.; Riley, R.; Calloway, T. M.; Wahl, D. E.

    2016-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories proposed using airborne synthetic aperture RADAR (SAR) collected in VideoSAR mode to characterize the Underground Nuclear Explosion Signature Experiment (UNESE) test bed site at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The SNL SAR collected airborne, Ku-band (16.8 GHz center frequency), 0.2032 meter ground resolution over NNSS in August 2014 and X-band (9.6 GHz), 0.1016 meter ground resolution fully-polarimetric SAR in April 2015. This paper reports the findings of processing and exploiting VideoSAR for creating digital elevation maps, detecting cultural artifacts and exploiting full-circle polarimetric signatures. VideoSAR collects a continuous circle of phase history data, therefore, imagery can be formed over the 360-degrees of the site. Since the Ku-band VideoSAR had two antennas suitable for interferometric digital elevation mapping (DEM), DEMs could be generated over numerous aspect angles, filling in holes created by targets with height by imaging from all sides. Also, since the X-band VideoSAR was fully-polarimetric, scattering signatures could be gleaned from all angles also. Both of these collections can be used to find man-made objects and changes in elevation that might indicate testing activities. VideoSAR provides a unique, coherent measure of ground objects allowing one to create accurate DEMS, locate man-made objects, and identify scattering signatures via polarimetric exploitation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. The authors would like to thank the National Nuclear Security Administration, Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development, for sponsoring this work. We would also like to thank the Underground Nuclear Explosion Signatures Experiment team, a multi

  17. Multi-site N-Glycan mapping study 2: UHPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekrényes, Ákos; Park, SungAe Suhr; Cosgrave, Eoin; Jones, Aled; Haxo, Ted; Kimzey, Michael; Pourkaveh, Shiva; Szabó, Zoltán; Sosic, Zoran; Feng, Peng; Sejwal, Preeti; Dent, Kelsey; Michels, David; Freckleton, Gordon; Qian, Jun; Lancaster, Catherine; Duffy, Toni; Schwartz, Melissa; Luo, Jiann-Kae; van Dyck, Jonathan; Leung, Pui-King; Olajos, Marcell; Kowle, Ronald; Gao, Kai; Wang, Wenbo; Wegstein, Jo; Tep, Samnang; Domokos, Apolka; Váradi, Csaba; Guttman, András

    2018-01-13

    In the first part of this publication, the results from an international study evaluating the precision (i.e., repeatability and reproducibility) of N-glycosylation analysis using capillary electrophoresis of APTS-labeled N-glycans were presented. The corresponding results from ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) with fluorescence detection are presented here from 12 participating sites. All participants used the same lot of samples, reagents, and columns to perform the assays. Elution time, peak area and peak area percent values were determined for all peaks ≥0.1% peak area, and statistical analysis was performed following ISO 5725-2 guideline principles. The results demonstrated adequate reproducibility, within any given site as well across all sites, indicating that standard UHPLC-based N-glycan analysis platforms are appropriate for general use. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Characterization of powellite-based solid solutions by site-selective time resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Moritz; Heck, Stephanie; Bosbach, Dirk; Ganschow, Steffen; Walther, Clemens; Stumpf, Thorsten

    2013-06-21

    We present a comprehensive study of the solid solution system Ca2(MoO4)2-NaGd(MoO4)2 on the molecular scale, by means of site-selective time resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). Eu(3+) is used as a trace fluorescent probe, homogeneously substituting for Gd(3+) in the solid solution crystal structure. Site-selective TRLFS of a series of polycrystalline samples covering the whole composition range of the solid solution series from 10% substitution of Ca(2+) to the NaGd end-member reveals it to be homogeneous throughout the whole range. The trivalent ions are incorporated into the powellite structure in only one coordination environment, which exhibits a very strong ligand-metal interaction. Polarization-dependent measurements of a single crystal of NaGd(Eu)(MoO4)2 identify the coordination geometry to be of C2v point symmetry. The S4 symmetry of the Ca site within the powellite lattice can be transformed into C2v assuming minor motion in the first coordination sphere.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of 18F-labeled active site inhibited factor VII (ASIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlandsson, Maria; Nielsen, Carsten Haagen; Jeppesen, Troels Elmer

    2015-01-01

    Activated factor VII blocked in the active site with Phe-Phe-Arg-chloromethyl ketone (active site inhibited factor VII (ASIS)) is a 50-kDa protein that binds with high affinity to its receptor, tissue factor (TF). TF is a transmembrane glycoprotein that plays an important role in, for example......, thrombosis, metastasis, tumor growth, and tumor angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to develop an 18F-labeled ASIS derivative to assess TF expression in tumors. Active site inhibited factor VII was labeled using N-succinimidyl-4-[18F]fluorobenzoate, and the [18F]ASIS was purified on a PD-10 desalting...... column. The radiochemical yield was 25 ± 6%, the radiochemical purity was >97%, and the pseudospecific radioactivity was 35 ± 9 GBq/µmol. The binding efficacy was evaluated in pull-down experiments, which monitored the binding of unlabeled ASIS and [18F]ASIS to TF and to a specific anti-factor VII...

  20. Characterization of two heparan sulphate-binding sites in the mycobacterial adhesin Hlp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Previato Jose O

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The histone-like Hlp protein is emerging as a key component in mycobacterial pathogenesis, being involved in the initial events of host colonization by interacting with laminin and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs. In the present study, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR was used to map the binding site(s of Hlp to heparan sulfate and identify the nature of the amino acid residues directly involved in this interaction. Results The capacity of a panel of 30 mer synthetic peptides covering the full length of Hlp to bind to heparin/heparan sulfate was analyzed by solid phase assays, NMR, and affinity chromatography. An additional active region between the residues Gly46 and Ala60 was defined at the N-terminal domain of Hlp, expanding the previously defined heparin-binding site between Thr31 and Phe50. Additionally, the C-terminus, rich in Lys residues, was confirmed as another heparan sulfate binding region. The amino acids in Hlp identified as mediators in the interaction with heparan sulfate were Arg, Val, Ile, Lys, Phe, and Thr. Conclusion Our data indicate that Hlp interacts with heparan sulfate through two distinct regions of the protein. Both heparan sulfate-binding regions here defined are preserved in all mycobacterial Hlp homologues that have been sequenced, suggesting important but possibly divergent roles for this surface-exposed protein in both pathogenic and saprophic species.

  1. Atomic level characterization in corrosion studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Philippe; Maurice, Vincent

    2017-06-01

    Atomic level characterization brings fundamental insight into the mechanisms of self-protection against corrosion of metals and alloys by oxide passive films and into how localized corrosion is initiated on passivated metal surfaces. This is illustrated in this overview with selected data obtained at the subnanometre, i.e. atomic or molecular, scale and also at the nanometre scale on single-crystal copper, nickel, chromium and stainless steel surfaces passivated in well-controlled conditions and analysed in situ and/or ex situ by scanning tunnelling microscopy/spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. A selected example of corrosion modelling by ab initio density functional theory is also presented. The discussed aspects include the surface reconstruction induced by hydroxide adsorption and formation of two-dimensional (hydr)oxide precursors, the atomic structure, orientation and surface hydroxylation of three-dimensional ultrathin oxide passive films, the effect of grain boundaries in polycrystalline passive films acting as preferential sites of passivity breakdown, the differences in local electronic properties measured at grain boundaries of passive films and the role of step edges at the exposed surface of oxide grains on the dissolution of the passive film. This article is part of the themed issue 'The challenges of hydrogen and metals'.

  2. Characterization of DNA Binding Sites of the ComE Response Regulator from Streptococcus mutans▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, David C. I.; Downey, Jennifer S.; Ayala, Eduardo A.; Kreth, Jens; Mair, Richard; Senadheera, Dilani B.; Qi, Fengxia; Cvitkovitch, Dennis G.; Shi, Wenyuan; Goodman, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    In Streptococcus mutans, both competence and bacteriocin production are controlled by ComC and the ComED two-component signal transduction system. Recent studies of S. mutans suggested that purified ComE binds to two 11-bp direct repeats in the nlmC-comC promoter region, where ComE activates nlmC and represses comC. In this work, quantitative binding studies and DNase I footprinting analysis were performed to calculate the equilibrium dissociation constant and further characterize the binding site of ComE. We found that ComE protects sequences inclusive of both direct repeats, has an equilibrium dissociation constant in the nanomolar range, and binds to these two direct repeats cooperatively. Furthermore, similar direct repeats were found upstream of cslAB, comED, comX, ftf, vicRKX, gtfD, gtfB, gtfC, and gbpB. Quantitative binding studies were performed on each of these sequences and showed that only cslAB has a similar specificity and high affinity for ComE as that seen with the upstream region of comC. A mutational analysis of the binding sequences showed that ComE does not require both repeats to bind DNA with high affinity, suggesting that single site sequences in the genome may be targets for ComE-mediated regulation. Based on the mutational analysis and DNase I footprinting analysis, we propose a consensus ComE binding site, TCBTAAAYSGT. PMID:21602345

  3. Characterization of HSP27 phosphorylation sites in human atherosclerotic plaque secretome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durán, Mari-Carmen; Boeri-Erba, Elisabetta; Mohammed, Shabaz

    2007-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is one of the main causes of death in developed countries. Atheroma plaque formation is promoted by the interaction between the cells conforming the arterial wall, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells, together with lipoproteins and inflammatory cells (mainly macrophages and T......-lymphocytes). These interactions can be mediated by proteins secreted from these cells, which therefore exert an important role in the atherosclerotic process. We recently described a novel strategy for the characterization of the human atherosclerotic plaque secretome, combining two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass......, the role that phosphorylated HSP27 could play in the atherosclerotic process is actually under study. The present work shows the strategies employed to characterize the phosphorylation in the HSP27 secreted by atheroma plaque samples. The application of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (MS...

  4. Wildlife studies on the Hanford site: 1994 Highlights report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwell, L.L. [ed.

    1995-04-01

    The purposes of the project are to monitor and report trends in wildlife populations; conduct surveys to identify, record, and map populations of threatened, endangered, and sensitive plant and animal species; and cooperate with Washington State and federal and private agencies to help ensure the protection afforded by law to native species and their habitats. Census data and results of surveys and special study topics are shared freely among cooperating agencies. Special studies are also conducted as needed to provide additional information that may be required to assess, protect, or manage wildlife resources at Hanford. This report describes highlights of wildlife studies on the Site in 1994. Redd counts of fall chinook salmon in the Hanford Reach suggest that harvest restrictions directed at protecting Snake River salmon may have helped Columbia River stocks as well. The 1994 count (5619) was nearly double that of 1993 and about 63% of the 1989 high of approximately 9000. A habitat map showing major vegetation and land use cover types for the Hanford Site was completed in 1993. During 1994, stochastic simulation was used to estimate shrub characteristics (height, density, and canopy cover) across the previously mapped Hanford landscape. The information provided will be available for use in determining habitat quality for sensitive wildlife species. Mapping Site locations of plant species of concern continued during 1994. Additional sensitive plant species data from surveys conducted by TNC were archived. The 10 nesting pairs of ferruginous hawks that used the Hanford Site in 1993 represented approximately 25% of the Washington State population.

  5. Postclosure performance assessment of the SCP (Site Characterization Plan) conceptual design for horizontal emplacement: Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-08-01

    This report is a preliminary postclosure performance assessment of the repository design specified in the Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design Report (SCP-CDR) for horizontal emplacement of high-level nuclear waste. At the time that these analyses were done, horizontal emplacement was the preferred orientation for the waste packages but vertical emplacement is now the reference design. This assessment consists of (1) a review of the regulatory requirements and strategy to demonstrate compliance with these requirements, (2) an analysis of the performance of the total repository system, (3) an analysis of the thermomechanical behavior of the repository, (4) an analysis of brine mobility in the repository, (5) an analysis of the waste package performance, (6) an analysis of the performance of seals, and (7) comments on the sensitivity of the various performance measures to uncertainties in the data and models. These are preliminary analyses and, in most cases, involve bounding calculations of the repository behavior. They have several purposes including (1) assessing how well this conceptual design ''measures up'' against requirements, (2) gaining experience in implementing the performance assessment strategy and tools and thereby learning where improvements are needed, (3) helping to identify needed data, and (4) helping to indicate required design modifications. 26 refs., 40 figs., 20 tabs.

  6. Seismic characterization and dynamic site response of a municipal solid waste landfill in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbazhagan, P; SivakumarBabu, G L; Lakshmikanthan, P; VivekAnand, K S

    2016-03-01

    Seismic design of landfills requires an understanding of the dynamic properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) and the dynamic site response of landfill waste during seismic events. The dynamic response of the Mavallipura landfill situated in Bangalore, India, is investigated using field measurements, laboratory studies and recorded ground motions from the intraplate region. The dynamic shear modulus values for the MSW were established on the basis of field measurements of shear wave velocities. Cyclic triaxial testing was performed on reconstituted MSW samples and the shear modulus reduction and damping characteristics of MSW were studied. Ten ground motions were selected based on regional seismicity and site response parameters have been obtained considering one-dimensional non-linear analysis in the DEEPSOIL program. The surface spectral response varied from 0.6 to 2 g and persisted only for a period of 1 s for most of the ground motions. The maximum peak ground acceleration (PGA) obtained was 0.5 g and the minimum and maximum amplifications are 1.35 and 4.05. Amplification of the base acceleration was observed at the top surface of the landfill underlined by a composite soil layer and bedrock for all ground motions. Dynamic seismic properties with amplification and site response parameters for MSW landfill in Bangalore, India, are presented in this paper. This study shows that MSW has less shear stiffness and more amplification due to loose filling and damping, which need to be accounted for seismic design of MSW landfills in India. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. SITE-94. Geochemical characterization of Simpevarp ground waters near the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glynn, P.D.; Voss, C.I. [US Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    1999-09-01

    evidence remains to be found to prove or to disprove that deep penetration of oxygenated ground waters occurred during the last Pleistocene glaciation. Amorphous Fe-oxyhydroxides and goethites have been observed at great depths at several SKB sites in Sweden. These phases may have formed as a result of the intrusion of oxygenated glacial melt waters. The recommendations for future geochemical characterization of potential nuclear waste disposal sites made by the present report generally complement recommendations made earlier by Andrews based on the international program of hydrochemical work at the Stripa mine. In addition to better sampling techniques and protocols, future characterization efforts should place greater emphasis on the measurement of conservative constituents (Cl, Br, {sup 2}H, {sup 18}O) that may provide information on the origin of ground waters and also on the hydrologic disturbances induced by sampling, testing and excavation activities. (abstract truncated)

  8. Geophysical and Geochemical Characterization of Subsurface Drip Irrigation Sites, Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, B. L.; Bern, C. R.; Sams, J. I., III; Veloski, G.; Minsley, B. J.; Smith, B. D.

    2010-12-01

    Coalbed natural gas (CBNG) production in the Powder River Basin (PRB) in northeastern Wyoming has increased rapidly since 1997. CBNG production involves the extraction of large amounts of water containing >2000 mg/L total dissolved solids, dominantly sodium bicarbonate. Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is a beneficial disposal method of produced waters, provided that waters and associated salts are managed properly. We are studying how water and solute distributions change in soils with progressive irrigation at two PRB sites using a combination of geophysical, geochemical, and mineralogical analyses. Perennial crops are grown at both sites, drip tapes are located at 92 cm depth, and water is applied year-round. The first SDI site is located at the confluence of Crazy Woman Creek and the Powder River. Baseline ground-based and helicopter-borne frequency domain electromagnetic induction (EMI) surveys were completed in 2007 and 2008, respectively, prior to the installation of the SDI system. Since installation, additional ground-based EMI, resistivity, and downhole geophysical log surveys have been completed along with soil geochemical and mineralogical analyses. Determining baseline physical, chemical, and electrical soil characteristics at this study site is an important step in linking the EMI measurements to the soil characteristics they are intended to assess. EMI surveys indicate that soil conductivity has generally increased with irrigation, but lateral migration of water away from the irrigated blocks is minimal. Median downhole electrical conductivity was positively correlated with soil mass wetness but not correlated with soil mineralogy. Soil-water extract results indicate existing salts are chemically heterogeneous throughout the site and in depth. The observed EMI conductivity variations are therefore primarily attributed to water content changes and secondarily to soil texture. The second SDI site, located northeast of Sheridan, WY, has been operating

  9. Discovery and information-theoretic characterization of transcription factor binding sites that act cooperatively

    CERN Document Server

    Clifford, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factor binding to the surface of DNA regulatory regions is one of the primary causes of regulating gene expression levels. A probabilistic approach to model protein-DNA interactions at the sequence level is through Position Weight Matrices (PWMs) that estimate the joint probability of a DNA binding site sequence by assuming positional independence within the DNA sequence. Here we construct conditional PWMs that depend on the motif signatures in the flanking DNA sequence, by conditioning known binding site loci on the presence or absence of additional binding sites in the flanking sequence of each site's locus. Pooling known sites with similar flanking sequence patterns allows for the estimation of the conditional distribution function over the binding site sequences. We apply our model to the Dorsal transcription factor binding sites active in patterning the Dorsal-Ventral axis of Drosophila development. We find that those binding sites that cooperate with nearby Twist sites on average contain a...

  10. Characterization of U.S. Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Test Sites: A Catalogue of Met-Ocean Data.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallman, Ann Renee; Neary, Vincent Sinclair

    2014-10-01

    This report presents met - ocean data and wave energy characteristics at three U.S. wave energy converter (WEC) test and potential deployment sites . Its purpose is to enable the compari son of wave resource characteristics among sites as well as the select io n of test sites that are most suitable for a developer's device and that best meet their testing needs and objectives . It also provides essential inputs for the design of WEC test devices and planning WEC tests, including the planning of deployment and op eration s and maintenance. For each site, this report catalogues wave statistics recommended in the (draft) International Electrotechnical Commission Technical Specification (IEC 62600 - 101 TS) on Wave Energy Characterization, as well as the frequency of oc currence of weather windows and extreme sea states, and statistics on wind and ocean currents. It also provides useful information on test site infrastructure and services .

  11. Combining active and passive seismic methods for the characterization of urban sites in Cairo, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adly, Ashraf; Poggi, Valerio; Fäh, Donat; Hassoup, Awad; Omran, Awad

    2017-07-01

    The geology at Kottamiya, Rehab City and Zahraa-Madinat-Nasr to the East of Cairo (Egypt) is composed of low-velocity sediments on top of a rigid rock basement. Such sediments include the loose sands of the Gebel Ahmar formation, marl and shales of Maadi formation, in addition to sparse quaternary soil covers. Due to the contrast of the seismic impedance with the underlying bedrock, these soft sediments have the potential of considerably amplifying the ground motion during an earthquake. For the evaluation of site-specific seismic hazard, we computed the seismic site response in these areas by developing 1-D velocity models and derived average seismic velocities, including Vs30. To do that, we applied different active and passive source techniques, including the horizontal to vertical Fourier spectral ratio of ambient vibration recordings and multichannel analysis of artificially generated surface waves. A set of models representing the velocity structure of the site is then obtained by combined inversion of Rayleigh wave dispersion curves and ellipticity functions. While dispersion curves are used to constrain the uppermost low-velocity part of the soil profile, ellipticity helps in resolving the structure at the depth of the sediment-bedrock interface. From the retrieved velocity models, numerical ground-motion amplification is finally derived using 1-D SH-wave transfer function. We account for uncertainty in amplification by using a statistical model that accounts for the misfit of all the inverted velocity profiles. The study reveals that the different sites experience an important frequency-dependent amplification, with largest amplification occurring at the resonance frequencies of the sites. Amplification up to a factor of 5 is found, with some variability depending on the soil type (Vs30 ranges between 340 and 415 m s-2). Moreover, amplification is expected in the frequency range that is important for buildings (0.8-10 Hz), which is additional confirmation

  12. Reactive sites influence in PMMA oligomers reactivity: a DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, C. V.; Vásquez, S. R.; Flores, N.; García, L.; Rico, J. L.

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we present a theoretical study of methyl methacrylate (MMA) living anionic polymerization. The study was addressed to understanding two important experimental observations made for Michael Szwarc in 1956. The unexpected effect of reactive sites concentration in the propagation rate, and the self-killer behavior of MMA (deactivating of living anionic polymerization). The theoretical calculations were performed by density functional theory (DFT) to obtain the frontier molecular orbitals values. These values were used to calculate and analyze the chemical interaction descriptors in DFT-Koopmans’ theorem. As a result, it was observed that the longest chain-length species (related with low concentration of reactive sites) exhibit the highest reactivity (behavior associated with the increase of the propagation rate). The improvement in this reactivity was attributed to the crosslinking produced in the polymethyl methacrylate chains. Meanwhile, the self-killer behavior was associated with the intermolecular forces present in the reactive sites. This behavior was associated to an obstruction in solvation, since the active sites remained active through all propagation species. The theoretical results were in good agreement with the Szwarc experiments.

  13. Construction Site Workers’ Awareness on Using Safety Equipment: Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulang N. Md

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction sector is an important sector and contributed significantly to national development. However, this sector poses higher risk to accident. This is due to fact that construction site can be considered as a dangerous zone to workers and to the public. Due to the variety of cases occurs on site, the contractor will usually have to pay the cost related to accidents in the form of higher insurance premium. Despite various measures, accidents still occur at construction sites. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE is one of the important means to protect the wearer from hazards in the workplace. Since this equipment is the last frontier of the wearer from worksite hazards, it is important to select it based on the job scope and the intended protection. Therefore, this study was formulated to find out the level of knowledge and awareness of construction workers on PPE usage. It was also important to know what make the workers would want or do not want to use the PPE. It was found in this study that the level of awareness and knowledge among workers on the proper use of PPE is moderate. Construction sites accident can be further be reduced with proper implementation of PPE voluntarily by all workers.

  14. Mineralogical and textural characterization of mortars and plasters from the archaeological site of Barsinia, northern Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Mohammad AL-Naddaf

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Twelve mortar and plaster samples excavated in the archaeological site of Barsinia were mineralogically and petrographically examined by XRay Diffraction (XRD and Stereo and Polarized Light Microscopy, while the total carbonate content was measured using a DietrichFruhling Calcimeter. The physical properties of the samples, such as water uptake under atmospheric pressure and under vacuum, together with density and porosity, were measured. Only twelve samples were available for the purposes of this study: 8 plaster samples and 4 mortar samples. Eleven samples out of the total number of samples were mortars or plasters with lime binder and silica aggregate; calcite and quartz were identified in all of these samples. In most of the samples one or more pozzolanic components were detected; a hydraulic effect therefore exists in practically most of the studied mortars. Excluding the plasters taken from waterbearing constructions such as cisterns, and the mortar sample from the compact floor, the binder content is high; in general, the overall porosity of the studied samples is high. Porosity and petrographic investigation results suggest that the burning temperature of the limestone was low and/or the duration of the combustion was short; such preparation conditions produce a desirable quicklime. Owing to the significant compositional and textural differences between the samples that were reported, there is consequently no suitable general mortar that can be adopted for the restoration of the whole site.

  15. Integration of geophysical, geochemical and microbiological data for a comprehensive small-scale characterization of an aged LNAPL-contaminated site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arato, Alessandro; Wehrer, Markus; Biró, Borbala; Godio, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Characterization of aged hydrocarbon-contaminated sites is often a challenge due to the heterogeneity of subsurface conditions. Geoelectrical methods can aid in the characterization of such sites due to their non-invasive nature, but need to be supported by geochemical and microbiological data. In this study, a combination of respective methods was used to characterize an aged light non-aqueous phase liquid-contaminated site, which was the scene of a crude oil blow-out in 1994. As a consequence, a significant amount of crude oil was released into the subsurface. Complex resistivity has been acquired, both along single boreholes and in cross-hole configuration, in a two-borehole test site addressed with electrodes, to observe the electrical behaviour at the site over a two-year period (2010-2011). Geoelectrical response has been compared to results of the analysis of hydrocarbon contamination in soil and groundwater samples. Geochemical parameters of groundwater have been observed by collecting samples in a continuous multi-channel tubing (CMT) piezometer system. We have also performed a biological characterization on soil samples by drilling new boreholes close to the monitoring wells. Particular attention has been given to the characterization of the smear zone that is the sub-soil zone affected by the seasonal groundwater fluctuations. In the smear zone, trapped hydrocarbons were present, serving as organic substrate for chemical and biological degradation, as was indicated by an increase of microbial biomass and activity as well as ferrogenic-sulfidogenic conditions in the smear zone. The results show a good agreement between the intense electrical anomaly and the peaks of total organic matter and degradation by-products, particularly enhanced in the smear zone.

  16. 10 CFR Appendix IV to Part 960 - Types of Information for the Nomination of Sites as Suitable for Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Types of Information for the Nomination of Sites as Suitable for Characterization IV Appendix IV to Part 960 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR... hydraulic properties of aquifers, confining units, and aquitards. • Potential areas and modes of recharge...

  17. Structural characterization of Mg substituted on A/B sites in NiFe2O4 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-06-19

    Jun 19, 2017 ... Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 89; Issue 1. Structural characterization of Mg substituted on A/B sites in N i F e 2 O 4 nanoparticles .... Author Affiliations. MANOJIT DE1 H S TEWARI1. Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya, Bilaspur 495 009, India ...

  18. Characterization of chemical waste site contamination and its extent using bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J.M.; Callahan, C.A.; Cline, J.F.; Greene, J.C.; McShane, M.C.; Miller, W.E.; Peterson, S.A.; Simpson, J.C.; Skalski, J.R.

    1984-12-01

    Bioassays were used in a three-phase research project to assess the comparative sensitivity of test organisms to known chemicals, determine if the chemical components in field soil and water samples containing unknown contaminants could be inferred from our laboratory studies using known chemicals, and to investigate kriging (a relatively new statistical mapping technique) and bioassays as methods to define the areal extent of chemical contamination. The algal assay generally was most sensitive to samples of pure chemicals, soil elutriates and water from eight sites with known chemical contamination. Bioassays of nine samples of unknown chemical composition from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) site showed that a lettuce seed soil contact phytoassay was most sensitive. In general, our bioassays can be used to broadly identify toxic components of contaminated soil. Nearly pure compounds of insecticides and herbicides were less toxic in the sensitive bioassays than were the counterpart commercial formulations. This finding indicates that chemical analysis alone may fail to correctly rate the severity of environmental toxicity. Finally, we used the lettuce seed phytoassay and kriging techniques in a field study at RMA to demonstrate the feasibility of mapping contamination to aid in cleanup decisions. 25 references, 9 figures, 9 tables.

  19. TECHNICAL APPROACHES TO CHARACTERIZING AND CLEANING UP BROWNFIELDS SITES: PULP AND PAPER MILLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guidance document gives assistance to communities, decision-makers, states and municipalities, academia, and the private sector to address issues related to the redevelopment of Brownfields sites, specifically pulp and paper mills sites. The document helps users to understan...

  20. Using Pseudo 3-D P-wave Seismic Reflection Data for Developing a Robust Geologic Conceptual Model in Site Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, A. D.; Knapp, C. C.; Waddell, M. G.; Brantley, D. T.; Shafer, J. M.

    2008-12-01

    P-area at the Savannah River Site is located in the upper Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina. The site consists of approximately 350 m of interspersed, unconsolidated sand, clay, and gravel deposits. At P-area there is evidence for a contaminant plume of dissolved phase trichloroethylene (TCE) located in the Eocene age sand. The geometry of the plume, based on initial site characterization, appears to be confined to a narrow corridor within the sand overlying a clay unit approximately 25 meters below land surface. As part of a multi-scale hydrogeophysical and modeling study, a pseudo 3-D seismic reflection survey was conducted over the plume area to enhance the existing geologic model by resolving uncertainty in the litho-stratigraphic sequence. The survey area was 34 by 170 m, and the data were processed as a 3-D data volume instead of a series of closely spaced 2-D lines, allowing for better interpretation of the target horizons. The results show that there are two unexpected sand channel complexes that were interpreted on the seismic volume. These sand channels were not present in the initial conceptual model, and the middle and lower clays were found not to be continuous as previously thought. The geometry of the primary sand channel has been transposed over the plume to investigate any potential correlation between the shape of the plume and the presence of the channel complex. Based on this analysis, it is clear that the sand channel controls the plume shape. We also calculated the seismic attributes to correlate with the other hydrogeophysical data to be used in the modeling portion of the project .The outcome was the production of realistic horizon surfaces maps. Calibrating the seismic data with existing borehole geophysical logs, core data, as well as vertical seismic profiling (VSP) data at the site, allowed the seismic data to be inverted from two-way travel time to depth, thereby facilitating full integration of the seismic data into a solid

  1. Comparative Characterization of Atmospheric particles at an urban site and a roadside site in the City of Gaborone, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mmereki, B. T.; Khumoetsile, T.

    2016-12-01

    Characterization of individual atmospheric particles in the urban atmosphere is key to addressing a number of air quality issues ranging from pollution source apportionment, understanding their global biogeochemical cycling and environmental fate to the correlation of the particle morphology and chemical make-up to health related issues. Airborne particles were collected in the city of Gaborone Botswana using a High Volume air-sampler. Samples were collected in the summer and winter months at a location bordering a busy highway and a low income high-human population density locality where un-controlled fossil fuel burning provides for the requisite energy requirements of the population in this locality. Morphologies and elemental compositions of particles were obtained using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy-dispersive (X-ray) spectrometry (EDS). Preliminary results suggest a complex mix of aggregates of carbonaceous-diesel particles, complex carbonaceous matter, and inorganic nano-crystals. Ambient air morphology and concentrations of particles (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and ozone (O3) will be discussed. There is a notable influence of high traffic volumes to particle chemistry.

  2. SU-E-T-166: Characterization of Efficiency and Plan Quality for the FFF Beams On Various Anatomical Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rassiah-Szegedi, P; Szegedi, M; Sarkar, V; Zhao, H; Huang, Y; Huang, L; Salter, B [University of Utah Huntsman Cancer Institute, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To characterize efficiency and plan quality for the FFF beams for various sites. Methods: 5 brain, Head and Neck, prostate, lung and liver cancer patients IMRT plans (25 total) were generated on either Prowess 4.6 or Eclipse 13.5 using the same dose constraints for each treatment site. Step and shoot with static gantry IMRT was used for treatment delivery. PTV coverage, critical structure doses, MUs, number of segments and beam on times were compared. Results: The average PTV size was 29.0, 34.9, 89.2, 257.6, 289.2 cm3 for liver, lung, prostate, head and neck and brain respectively.All plans were normalized such that 95% of the PTV volume would receive at least 95% of prescribed dose. All doses to the critical structures for both the FFF and flat beam met the targeted dose constraints.For plans with field sizes < 10 cm, the number of segments and MUs required to achieve the same plan quality were similar. For these small field sizes with large dose per fraction, an increase in efficiency up to 58.8% is seen.Plans with field sizes > 10 cm, required 10% – 20% more segments and MUs for the FFF beam to achieve the same plan quality as the flat beam. Despite this, for fraction sizes less than 2.5 Gy the FFF beam is still approximately 13.9% more efficient in terms of delivery time. Conclusion: For the various treatment sites studied here, plans generated with the FFF beam were dosimetrically similar to those generated with a flattened beam. Despite the greater number of MUs and segments required to achieve the same plan quality as the flat beam for some plans, the FFF beam is still more efficient compared to the flat beam.

  3. Characterization of dustfall in rural and urban sites during three dust storms in northern China, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Yanli; Qu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Lianyou; Guo, Lanlan; Yang, Yanyan; Hu, Xia; Xiong, Yiying; Zhang, Guoming; Zhao, Mengdi; Liang, Bo; Dai, Jiadong; Zuo, Xiyang; Jia, Qingpan; Zheng, Hao; Han, Xujiao; Zhao, Shoudong; Liu, Qi

    2017-10-01

    Dust transport and deposition processes are important for understanding the environmental risk of dust storms. This study investigated characteristics of dustfall at two rural sites and four urban sites from dust sources to downwind regions during three dust storms (DS1: March 19-22, DS2: April 24-26, DS3: May 7-10, 2010). Analysis of near-surface instantaneous maximum wind speed and prevailing wind direction revealed the dust storms bursted out from northwestern arid and semiarid regions to eastern China. Microaggregates, angular, subangular, columnar, subrounded, and spherical particles were identified by scanning electron microscope. Dust deposition flux (DDF) during the dust storms was significantly high at sites near sand deserts and sandy land. During DS2, DDF was 25.1, 9.9, 2.3, and 1.5 g m-2 in Jingbian, Shapotou, Lanzhou, and Beijing, respectively. The three dust storms contributed 7.3% of Beijing's annual dustfall in 2010, which suggests anthropogenic dust might contribute the majority of annual dustfall in urban areas. The mass medium diameter of dustfall during DS2 in Shapotou, Jingbian, Lanzhou, and Beijing was 26.1, 9.0, 16.4, and 15.5 μm, respectively. Urban dustfall contained more heavy metals, sulfur and arsenic than rural dustfall. Cadmium contamination was identified in all urban dust particles. Anthropogenic pollutants in combination with mineral dust might lead to complex environmental risk on local, regional, and global scales. China's environmental pollution control should integrate reductions in land desertification and multisource anthropogenic emissions within the context of climate change mitigation.

  4. Discovery and information-theoretic characterization of transcription factor binding sites that act cooperatively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Jacob; Adami, Christoph

    2015-10-01

    Transcription factor binding to the surface of DNA regulatory regions is one of the primary causes of regulating gene expression levels. A probabilistic approach to model protein-DNA interactions at the sequence level is through position weight matrices (PWMs) that estimate the joint probability of a DNA binding site sequence by assuming positional independence within the DNA sequence. Here we construct conditional PWMs that depend on the motif signatures in the flanking DNA sequence, by conditioning known binding site loci on the presence or absence of additional binding sites in the flanking sequence of each site's locus. Pooling known sites with similar flanking sequence patterns allows for the estimation of the conditional distribution function over the binding site sequences. We apply our model to the Dorsal transcription factor binding sites active in patterning the Dorsal-Ventral axis of Drosophila development. We find that those binding sites that cooperate with nearby Twist sites on average contain about 0.5 bits of information about the presence of Twist transcription factor binding sites in the flanking sequence. We also find that Dorsal binding site detectors conditioned on flanking sequence information make better predictions about what is a Dorsal site relative to background DNA than detection without information about flanking sequence features.

  5. Nevada Test Site tortoise population monitoring study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, J.M.; Zander, K.K.

    1994-12-01

    A Tortoise Population Monitoring Study was initiated to determine and monitor the density of desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) on the Nevada Test Site. Quadrat sampling was conducted following methodology described in the Draft Desert Tortoise Recovery Plan (FWS, 1993). So few tortoises were found that densities could not be calculated. Based on estimates of capture probabilities and densities from other studies, it was determined that 1-km{sup 2} (0.4 mi{sup 2}) plots did not contain enough tortoises for estimating densities with the Recovery Plan methods. It was recommended that additional surveys on the Nevada Test Site using those methods not be conducted. Any future efforts to monitor desert tortoise densities should start by identifying other possible methods, determining their relative power to detect changes, and estimating their cost.

  6. Site Characterization of the Source Physics Experiment Phase II Location Using Seismic Reflection Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, E. A.; Snelson, C. M.; Chipman, V.; Emer, D. F.; White, R. L.; Emmitt, R.; Wright, A. A.; Drellack, S.; Huckins-Gang, H.; Mercadante, J.; Floyd, M.; McGowin, C.; Cothrun, C.; Bonal, N.

    2013-12-01

    An objective of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is to identify low-yield nuclear explosions from a regional distance. Low-yield nuclear explosions can often be difficult to discriminate among the clutter of natural and man-made explosive events (e.g., earthquakes and mine blasts). The SPE is broken into three phases. Phase I has provided the first of the physics-based data to test the empirical models that have been used to discriminate nuclear events. The Phase I series of tests were placed within a highly fractured granite body. The evolution of the project has led to development of Phase II, to be placed within the opposite end member of geology, an alluvium environment, thereby increasing the database of waveforms to build upon in the discrimination models. Both the granite and alluvium sites have hosted nearby nuclear tests, which provide comparisons for the chemical test data. Phase III of the SPE is yet to be determined. For Phase II of the experiment, characterization of the location is required to develop the geologic/geophysical models for the execution of the experiment. Criteria for the location are alluvium thickness of approximately 170 m and a water table below 170 m; minimal fracturing would be ideal. A P-wave mini-vibroseis survey was conducted at a potential site in alluvium to map out the subsurface geology. The seismic reflection profile consisted of 168 geophone stations, spaced 5 m apart. The mini-vibe was a 7,000-lb peak-force source, starting 57.5 m off the north end of the profile and ending 57.5 m past the southern-most geophone. The length of the profile was 835 m. The source points were placed every 5 m, equally spaced between geophones to reduce clipping. The vibroseis sweep was from 20 Hz down to 180 Hz over 8 seconds, and four sweeps were stacked at each shot location. The shot gathers show high signal-to-noise ratios with clear first arrivals across the entire spread and the suggestion of some shallow reflectors. The data were

  7. CO2 Field Laboratory at Svelvik Ridge: Site characterization after the first injection experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddensiek, M. L.; Lindeberg, E.; Mørk, A.; Jones, D.; Girard, J. F.; Kuras, O.; Barrio, M.; Royse, K.; Gal, F.; Meldrum, P.; Pezard, P.; Levannier, A.; Desroches, J.; Neyens, D.; Paris, J.; Henry, G.; Bakk, A.; Wertz, F.; Aker, E.; Børresen, M.

    2012-04-01

    The safety and acceptance of CO2 storage will depend on the ability to detect and quantify CO2 within and outside the storage complex. To determine sensitivity of CO2 monitoring systems with respect to CO2 distribution and leakage detection, the CO2 Field Lab project comprises two controlled CO2 injection tests in the shallow (100-300 m) and very shallow (20 m) subsurface of the glacial deposit that forms Svelvik ridge, 50 km south of Oslo. The CO2 displacement in the subsurface and at the surface has and will be monitored with an exhaustive set of techniques. Iteratively, observations and flow modeling will provide frequent updates of the CO2 distribution. The results will be upscaled to assess monitoring systems and requirements with the ultimate objective to provide guidelines to regulators, operators and technology providers for monitoring systems. The formation that comprises the laboratory is a glaciofluvial-glaciomarine terminal deposit formed during the Ski stage of the Holocene deglaciation. Nearby outcrops show that the formation is channeled and variably laminated with a significant variation in grain size and structure. Prior to the injection experiments, the site was characterized including 2D seismic and electric surveys, the drilling, logging and sampling of a 330 m deep appraisal well, core and flow line sample analyses, ground penetrating radar (GPR), a hydrodynamic appraisal, and geochemical and soil gas baseline surveys. These data were used to populate a geomodel. Flow modeling of the plume development included some variability in permeability and anisotropy, and various injection scenarios. Accordingly, the 20 m injection experiment was conducted in fall 2011 with a monitoring plan designed to spatially and temporally monitor the expected plume development. The monitoring equipment was thus distributed around the 20 m deep injection point of an inclined well. It included seven 6 m deep monitoring wells equipped with resistivity, sonic and

  8. Los Alamos National Laboratory Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project 1992 quality program status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolivar, S.L.; Burningham, A.; Chavez, P. [and others

    1994-03-01

    This status report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of the Los Alamos Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project`s quality assurance program for calendar year 1992. The report includes major sections on Program Activities and Trend Analysis. Program Activities are discussed periodically at quality meetings. The most significant issue addressed in 1992 has been the timely revision of quality administrative procedures. The procedure revision process was streamlined from 55 steps to 7. The number of forms in procedures was reduced by 38%, and the text reduced by 29%. This allowed revision in 1992 of almost half of all implementing procedures. The time necessary to complete the revision process (for a procedure) was reduced from 11 months to 3 months. Other accomplishments include the relaxation of unnecessarily strict training requirements, requiring quality assurance reviews only from affected organizations, and in general simplifying work processes. All members of the YMP received training to the new Orientation class Eleven other training classed were held. Investigators submitted 971 records to the Project and only 37 were rejected. The software program has 115 programs approved for quality-affecting work. The Project Office conducted 3 audits and 1 survey of Los Alamos activities. We conducted 14 audits and 4 surveys. Eight corrective action reports were closed, leaving only one open. Internally, 22 deficiencies were recognized. This is a decrease from 65 in 1991. Since each deficiency requires about 2 man weeks to resolve, the savings are significant. Problems with writing acceptable deficiency reports have essentially disappeared. Trend reports for 1992 were examined and are summarized herein. Three adverse trends have been closed; one remaining adverse trend will be closed when the affected procedures are revised. The number of deficiencies issued to Los Alamos compared to other participants is minimal.

  9. A strategy to seal exploratory boreholes in unsaturated tuff; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Case, J.B.; Givens, C.A.; Carney, B.C. [IT Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-04-01

    This report presents a strategy for sealing exploratory boreholes associated with the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Over 500 existing and proposed boreholes have been considered in the development of this strategy, ranging from shallow (penetrating into alluvium only) to deep (penetrating into the groundwater table). Among the comprehensive list of recommendations are the following: Those boreholes within the potential repository boundary and penetrating through the potential repository horizon are the most significant boreholes from a performance standpoint and should be sealed. Shallow boreholes are comparatively insignificant and require only nominal sealing. The primary areas in which to place seals are away from high-temperature zones at a distance from the potential repository horizon in the Paintbrush nonwelded tuff and the upper portion of the Topopah Spring Member and in the tuffaceous beds of the Calico Hills Unit. Seals should be placed prior to waste emplacement. Performance goals for borehole seals both above and below the potential repository are proposed. Detailed construction information on the boreholes that could be used for future design specifications is provided along with a description of the environmental setting, i.e., the geology, hydrology, and the in situ and thermal stress states. A borehole classification scheme based on the condition of the borehole wall in different tuffaceous units is also proposed. In addition, calculations are presented to assess the significance of the boreholes acting as preferential pathways for the release of radionuclides. Design calculations are presented to answer the concerns of when, where, and how to seal. As part of the strategy development, available technologies to seal exploratory boreholes (including casing removal, borehole wall reconditioning, and seal emplacement) are reviewed.

  10. Surface wave site characterization at 27 locations near Boston, Massachusetts, including 2 strong-motion stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Eric M.; Carkin, Bradley A.; Baise, Laurie G.; Kayen, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    The geotechnical properties of the soils in and around Boston, Massachusetts, have been extensively studied. This is partly due to the importance of the Boston Blue Clay and the extent of landfill in the Boston area. Although New England is not a region that is typically associated with seismic hazards, there have been several historical earthquakes that have caused significant ground shaking (for example, see Street and Lacroix, 1979; Ebel, 1996; Ebel, 2006). The possibility of strong ground shaking, along with heightened vulnerability from unreinforced masonry buildings, motivates further investigation of seismic hazards throughout New England. Important studies that are pertinent to seismic hazards in New England include source-parameter studies (Somerville and others, 1987; Boore and others, 2010), wave-propagation studies (Frankel, 1991; Viegas and others, 2010), empirical ground-motion prediction equations (GMPE) for computing ground-motion intensity (Tavakoli and Pezeshk, 2005; Atkinson and Boore, 2006), site-response studies (Hayles and others, 2001; Ebel and Kim, 2006), and liquefaction studies (Brankman and Baise, 2008). The shear-wave velocity (VS) profiles collected for this report are pertinent to the GMPE, site response, and liquefaction aspects of seismic hazards in the greater Boston area. Besides the application of these data for the Boston region, the data may be applicable throughout New England, through correlations with geologic units (similar to Ebel and Kim, 2006) or correlations with topographic slope (Wald and Allen, 2007), because few VS measurements are available in stable tectonic regions.Ebel and Hart (2001) used felt earthquake reports to infer amplification patterns throughout the greater Boston region and noted spatial correspondence with the dominant period and amplification factors obtained from ambient noise (horizontal-to-vertical ratios) by Kummer (1998). Britton (2003) compiled geotechnical borings in the area and produced a

  11. Leachate characterization and identification of dominant pollutants using leachate pollution index for an uncontrolled landfill site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. De

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Landfill leachates are potential threats for environmental degradation. This study was conducted to determine the leachate quality, to identify the dominant pollutants and to evaluate the leachate pollution potential of an active and closed dumping ground of an uncontrolled municipal solid waste landfill site in Kolkata, India using leachate pollution index. The results of the physico-chemical and biological analyses of leachate indicated that landfill site was in its methanogenic phase. Among the analysed leachate pollutants, TDS, BOD5, COD, TKN, NH3-N, Cl¯, TCB, Pb, and Hg surpassed the leachate discharge standards for inland surface water as specified by the municipal solid waste (Management and Handling Rules, 2013 for both the dumping grounds. Moreover the concentrations of total Cr and Zn also exceeded the leachate disposal standards for the active dumping ground. The leachate pollution potentialities of both the active and closed dumping grounds were comparable as the overall LPI obtained 34.02 and 31.80 respectively. The overall LPI, LPI organic (LPIor, LPI inorganic (LPIin and LPI heavy metals (LPIhm of both the dumping grounds largely exceeded the LPI and sub-LPI values for treated leachate before disposal to the inland surface water. In terms of the individual pollution rating, total coliform bacteria, TKN, NH3-N and Hg were identified as the dominant pollutants and major contributing factors for the leachate pollution potential.

  12. Relating groundwater and sediment chemistry to microbial characterization at a BTEX-contaminated site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfiffner, S.M.; Palumbo, A.V.; McCarthy, J.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Gibson, T. [General Motors Research and Development Center, Warren, MI (United States)] [and others

    1996-07-01

    The National Center for Manufacturing Science is investigating bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon at a site in Belleville, Michigan. As part of this study we examined the microbial communities to help elucidate biodegradative processes currently active at the site. We observed high densities of aerobic hydrocarbon degraders and denitrifiers in the less-contaminated sediments. Low densities of iron and sulfate reducers were measured in the same sediments. In contrast, the highly-contaminated sediments showed low densities of aerobic hydrocarbon degraders and denitrifiers and high densities of iron and sulfate reducers. Methanogens were also found in these highly-contaminated sediments. These contaminated sediments also showed a higher biomass, by phospholipid fatty acids, and greater ratios of phospholipid fatty acids which indicate stress within the microbial community. Aquifer chemistry analyses indicated that the more-contaminated area was more reduced and had lower sulfate than the less-contaminated area. These conditions suggest that the subsurface environment at the highly-contaminated area had progressed into sulfate reduction and methanogensis. The less-contaminated area, although less reduced, also appeared to be progressing into primarily iron- and sulfate-reducing microbial communities. The proposed treatment to stimulate bioremediation includes addition of oxygen and nitrate. Groundwater chemistry and microbial analyses revealed significant differences resulted from the injection of dissolved oxygen and nitrate in the subsurface. These differences included increases in pH and Eh and large decreases in BTEX, dissolved iron, and sulfate concentrations at the injection well.

  13. An overview on the seismic microzonation and site effect studies in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pilz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available During the past centuries, many cities in Central Asia have suffered significant damages caused by earthquakes. A crucial step towards preparedness for future events, the definition of the optimal engineering designs for civil structures and the mitigation of earthquake risks involves the accomplishment of site response studies. To accurately identify local variations of the site response at different locations within the cities, earthquakes recorded by seismic networks as well as measurements of the seismic noise can be used for estimating the resonance frequencies and for evaluating the expected level of ground motion at each site. Additionally, the measurements can help identifying site specific features like more-dimensional resonances and directional effects. This information can be complemented with array measurements of ambient seismic noise in order to estimate local shear-wave velocity profiles, an essential parameter for evaluating the dynamic properties of soil, and to characterize the corresponding sediment layers at each site. The present study gives an overview on the progressive development of the seismic zonation studies in the frame of EMCA carried out in several cities in Central Asia.

  14. Work plan addendum for the remedial investigation and feasibility study of the Salmon Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This document is intended as an addendum to the Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Work Plan for the Salmon Site (SS) (formerly the Tatum Dome Test Site) Lamar County, Mississippi. The original work plan - Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study of the Tatum Dome Test Site, Lamar County, Mississippi (herein after called the Work Plan) was approved by the state of Mississippi in 1992 and was intended as the operative document for investigative activities at the Tatum Dome Test Site. Subsequent to the approval of the document a series of activities were undertaken under the auspices of the work plan. This document is organized in the same manner as the original work plan: (1) Introduction; (2) Site Background and History; (3) Initial Evaluation; (4) Data Quality Objectives; (5) RI/FS Tasks; (6) Project Schedule; (7) Project Management; and (8) Reference. This addendum will identify changes to the original work plan that are necessary because of additional information acquired at the SS. This document is not intended to replace the work plan, rather, it is intended to focus the remaining work in the context of additional site knowledge gained since the development of the original work plan. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a focused and phased site characterization as a part, of the RI/FS. The RI/FS is the methodology under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) for evaluating hazardous waste sites on the National Priorities List (NPL). The SS is not listed on the NPL, but DOE has voluntarily elected to conduct the evaluation of the SS in accordance with CERCLA.

  15. Overview of the Ridge 2000 Integrated Studies Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, C.

    2005-12-01

    The Ridge 2000 program is in its fourth year and fieldwork at each of the Integrated Studies Sites (ISS) is in full swing. Multidisciplinary monitoring continues at the EPR ISS with seismic, temperature, and current data being continuously recorded. Long-term fluid sampling programs aimed at furthering our understanding of temporal variations in the chemistry of high-temperature hydrothermal vents are continuing. In situ fluid chemistry monitors have been deployed for weeks, and longer deployments are planned as the technology matures. Nested within these monitoring studies are experiments addressing larval dispersal and changes in microbial and macrobiological communities. In early 2006, geodetic monitoring will begin, with an array of pressure gauges as well as a detailed compliance study. By early 2007, a 3-D multichannel seismic survey will have provided unprecedented details of the crustal structure at 9°50'N. Together these studies provide a strong framework for an interdisciplinary understanding of the links between the forces that produce a mid-ocean ridge spreading center and their manifestation on the seafloor. Fieldwork on the Endeavour segment of the Juan de Fuca ridge in 2005 also included a balance of monitoring, experimental, and sampling programs across a wide range of disciplines. Four interdisciplinary field programs were conducted to maintain and expand ongoing Ridge 2000 and proto-NEPTUNE experiments. These research programs continued development and testing in situ chemical and microbial sensors, conducted co-registered sampling of fluids, fauna, and chimney material, and recovered moorings that measured heat and chemical fluxes at the segment scale. High-resolution mapping was also completed at this site, which has been chosen for one of the two initial NEPTUNE Canada nodes to prepare the way for the collaborative, cabled observatory projects. The mapping cruise included 5 secondary school teachers as part of the REVEL outreach and education

  16. O-GlcNAcylation of the Plum pox virus capsid protein catalyzed by SECRET AGENT: characterization of O-GlcNAc sites by electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Cheon; Udeshi, Namrata D; Balsbaugh, Jeremy L; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F; Olszewski, Neil E

    2011-03-01

    The capsid protein of Plum pox virus (PPV-CP) is modified with O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). In Arabidopsis thaliana this modification is made by an O-GlcNAc transferase named SECRET AGENT (SEC). Modification of PPV-CP by SEC is hypothesized to have a direct role in the infection process, because virus titer and rate of spread are reduced in SEC mutants. Previous studies used deletion mapping and site-directed mutagenesis to identify four O-GlcNAc sites on the capsid protein that are modified by Escherichia coli-expressed SEC. The infection process was not affected when two of these sites were mutated suggesting that O-GlcNAcylation of these sites does not have a significant role in the infection process or that a subset of the modifications is sufficient. Since it is possible that the mutational mapping approach missed or incorrectly identified O-GlcNAc sites, the modifications produced by E. coli-expressed SEC were characterized using mass spectrometry. O-GlcNAcylated peptides were enzymatically tagged with galactose, the products were enriched on immobilized Ricinus communis agglutinin I and sequenced by electron transfer dissociation (ETD) mass spectrometry. Five O-GlcNAc sites on PPV-CP were identified. Two of these sites were not identified in by the previous mutational mapping. In addition, one site previously predicted by mutation mapping was not detected, but modification of this site was not supported when the mutation mapping was repeated. This study suggests that mapping modification sites by ETD mass spectrometry is more comprehensive and accurate than mutational mapping.

  17. Characterization of inhibitor binding to human kinesin spindle protein by site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, C Gary; Torrent, Maricel; Williams, Olusegun; Hamilton, Kelly A; Buser, Carolyn A

    2009-04-01

    A number of inhibitors of kinesin spindle protein (KSP) have been described, which are known from X-ray crystallography studies to bind to an induced fit pocket defined by the L5 loop. We describe the characterization of eight mutant forms of KSP in which six residues that line this pocket have been altered. Mutants were analyzed by measuring rates of enzyme catalysis, in the presence and absence of six KSP inhibitors of four diverse structural classes and of varied ATP-competition status. Our analysis was in agreement with the model of binding established by the structural studies and suggests that binding energy is well distributed across functional groups in these molecules. The majority of the mutants retained significant enzymatic activity while diminishing inhibitor binding, indicating potential for the development of drug resistance. These data provide detailed information on interactions between inhibitor and binding pocket at the functional group level and enable the development of novel KSP inhibitors.

  18. From Site Characterization through Safe and Successful CO2 Injection Operation to Post-injection Monitoring and Site Closure - Closing the Full Life Cycle Research at the Ketzin Pilot Site, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebscher, Axel

    2017-04-01

    Initiated in 2004, the Ketzin pilot site near Berlin, Germany, was the first European onshore storage project for research and development on geological CO2 storage. After comprehensive site characterization the site infrastructure was build comprising three deep wells and the injection facility including pumps and storage tanks. The operational CO2 injection period started in June 2008 and ended in August 2013 when the site entered the post-injection closure period. During these five years, a total amount of 67 kt of CO2 was safely injected into an Upper Triassic saline sandstone aquifer at a depth of 630 m - 650 m. In fall 2013, the first observation well was partially plugged in the reservoir section with CO2 resistant cement; full abandonment of this well finished in 2015 after roughly 2 years of cement plug monitoring. Abandonment of the remaining wells will be finished by summer 2017 and hand-over of liability to the competent authority is scheduled for end of 2017. The CO2 injected was mainly of food grade quality (purity > 99.9%). In addition, 1.5 kt of CO2 from the oxyfuel pilot capture facility "Schwarze Pumpe" (purity > 99.7%) was injected in 2011. The injection period terminated with a CO2-N2 co-injection experiment of 650 t of a 95% CO2/5% N2 mixture in summer 2013 to study the effects of impurities in the CO2 stream on the injection operation. During regular operation, the CO2 was pre-heated on-site to 40°C prior to injection to ensure a single-phase injection process and avoid any phase transition or transient states within the injection facility or the reservoir. Between March and July 2013, just prior to the CO2-N2 co-injection experiment, the injection temperature was stepwise decreased down to 10°C within a "cold-injection" experiment to study the effects of two-phase injection conditions. During injection operation, the combination of different geochemical and geophysical monitoring methods enabled detection and mapping of the spatial and

  19. Radionuclide migration studies at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, J.L.

    1989-12-01

    The United States government routinely tests nuclear devices at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in southern Nevada. A significant amount of radioactive material exists underground at the NTS with no containers or engineered barriers to inhibit its subsequent migration. The Department of Energy has sponsored for many years a research program on radionuclide movement in the geologic media at this location. Goals of this research program are to measure the extent of movement of radionuclides away from underground explosion sites and to determine the mechanisms by which such movement occurs. This program has acquired significance in another aspect of nuclear waste management because of the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain at the NTS is being intensively studied as the possible site for a mined repository for high level nuclear waste. The NTS provides a unique setting for field studies concerning radionuclide migration; there is the potential for greatly increasing our knowledge of the behavior of radioactive materials in volcanogenic media. This review summarizes some of the significant findings made under this research program at the NTS and identifies reports in which the details of the research may be found. 36 refs., 4 figs.

  20. A simplified radionuclide source term for total-system performance assessment; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M.L.

    1991-11-01

    A parametric model for releases of radionuclides from spent-nuclear-fuel containers in a waste repository is presented. The model is appropriate for use in preliminary total-system performance assessments of the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; for this reason it is simpler than the models used for detailed studies of waste-package performance. Terms are included for releases from the spent fuel pellets, from the pellet/cladding gap and the grain boundaries within the fuel pellets, from the cladding of the fuel rods, and from the radioactive fuel-assembly parts. Multiple barriers are considered, including the waste container, the fuel-rod cladding, the thermal ``dry-out``, and the waste form itself. The basic formulas for release from a single fuel rod or container are extended to formulas for expected releases for the whole repository by using analytic expressions for probability distributions of some important parameters. 39 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Site Characterization of Landfill using Soil gas, Hydrochemical and Geophysical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Ko, K.; Park, S.; Son, J.; Oh, I.

    2005-12-01

    To identify the effect of landfill waste for groundwater and unsaturated soil environment, the expedited site assessment, soil gas, geophysical prospecting, and in-situ chemical analysis of contaminants and indicators of pollution were executed. The aquifer of the study area is mainly composed of 8 to 10 m sandy sediment overlying Jurassic granite. The active sampling method was addressed to investigate the distribution of soil gas at the study area. The spatial distribution of soil gas at the depth of 80-100cm showed the boundary of buried waste and the biodegradation processes and the degree of waste decomposition. The CO2 and CH4 concentration across the disposed direction increased by the intensive decomposition of waste and this indicated the methanogenic condition of unsaturated zone of landfill. The geophysical survey at the municipal landfill was executed to delineate the size and extent of soil and groundwater contamination. The electromagnetic (EM), magnetic, and resistivity method were used for site investigation. From the EM method, we can get the information of soil conductivity directly related to the leachate of the contamination. The magnetic anomalies showed the boundary of landfill which was not identified on the surface due to soil capping. The results of geophysical survey were well matched to those of hydrogeochemical survey carried out inside and near the landfill. Electric conductivity (EC) of the groundwater sampled from low resistivity anomaly region of EM result was higher than background value and the border estimated from the magnetic survey showed good agreement with that estimated from the soil gas detection survey. The monitoring of electrical resistivity survey showed the leakage of leachate from landfill and this results well coincided with the groundwater chemistry. From the research results for groundwater quality, it was considered that the groundwater contamination by leachate from landfill is controlled by groundwater flow

  2. Atopy and Specific Cancer Sites: a Review of Epidemiological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yubao; Hill, Andrew W

    2016-12-01

    Mounting evidence appears to link asthma and atopy to cancer susceptibility. This review presents and discusses published epidemiological studies on the association between site-specific cancers and atopy. PubMed was searched electronically for publications between 1995 and 2015, and cited references were researched manually. Quantitative studies relating to atopy, allergy, or asthma and cancer were identified and tabulated. Despite many exposure-related limitations, patterns in the studies were observed. Asthma, specifically, has been observed to be a risk factor for lung cancer. A protective effect of atopic diseases against pancreatic cancer has been shown consistently in case-control studies but not in cohort studies. Allergy of any type appears to be protective against glioma and adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Most studies on atopic diseases and non-Hodgkin lymphoma or colorectal cancer reported an inverse association. The other sites identified had varying and non-significant outcomes. Further research should be dedicated to carefully defined exposure assessments of "atopy" as well as the biological plausibility in the association between atopic diseases and cancer.

  3. The Study on Policy Options for Siting Hazardous Energy Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Oh [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2000-10-01

    The problem of site allocation on locally unwanted land uses related to energy utilities that extended most recently is becoming a new energy policy issue due to the improvement of national standard of living and livelihood quality. Residents do not generally agree on establishing the construction of public energy utilities in their village due to NIMBY syndrome while they basically agree to have them. These circumstances made a big problem against mass production of industry society and the improvement of the national welfare. Locally unwanted land use related to energy utilities includes waste incineration system, nuclear power plant, coal fired power plant, oil and Gas storage tank, briquette manufacturing plant and etc. Opportunity for SOC projects carried out by central and local government is lost because of the regional egoism. The site dispute between government and residents obstructs optimal energy supply to be necessary for industry growth and the national welfare. The main objective of this study is to propose the policy option for finding a solution after surveying theory and background of site troubles and dispute factors. Final results of this study propose a solution on structural and institutional dispute. The former introduces three kinds of approaches such as tradition, compensation and negotiation. The transition of an environmentally sound energy consumption pattern and the improvement of energy efficiency could be carried out by traditional approaches. To claim the damage and offer the accommodation facilities could be settled by compensational approaches. The establishment of regional decentralization on NIMBY facilities could be settled by negotiatory approaches through fair share criteria. The latter proposes 1) 'polluter pays principle', 2) internalization of social cost and benefit on air or water pollution, 3) the behind - the - scene negotiation in a bid to settle a site dispute, 4) and supporting system for peripheral areas

  4. Prediction, conservation analysis, and structural characterization of mammalian mucin-type O-glycosylation sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julenius, Karin; Mølgaard, Anne; Gupta, Ramneek

    2004-01-01

    than a nonglycosylated one. The Protein Data Bank was analyzed for structural information, and 12 glycosylated structures were obtained. All positive sites were found in coil or turn regions. A method for predicting the location for mucin-type glycosylation sites was trained using a neural network...... approach. The best overall network used as input amino acid composition, averaged surface accessibility predictions together with substitution matrix profile encoding of the sequence. To improve prediction on isolated (single) sites, networks were trained on isolated sites only. The final method combines...

  5. Prediction, conservation analysis, and structural characterization of mammalian mucin-type O-glycosylation sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julenius, Karin; Mølgaard, Anne; Gupta, Ramneek

    2005-01-01

    than a nonglycosylated one. The Protein Data Bank was analyzed for structural information, and 12 glycosylated structures were obtained. All positive sites were found in coil or turn regions. A method for predicting the location for mucin-type glycosylation sites was trained using a neural network...... approach. The best overall network used as input amino acid composition, averaged surface accessibility predictions together with substitution matrix profile encoding of the sequence. To improve prediction on isolated (single) sites, networks were trained on isolated sites only. The final method combines...

  6. Characterization of the minimum domain required for targeting budding yeast myosin II to the site of cell division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolliday Nicola J

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All eukaryotes with the exception of plants use an actomyosin ring to generate a constriction force at the site of cell division (cleavage furrow during mitosis and meiosis. The structure and filament forming abilities located in the C-terminal or tail region of one of the main components, myosin II, are important for localising the molecule to the contractile ring (CR during cytokinesis. However, it remains poorly understood how myosin II is recruited to the site of cell division and how this recruitment relates to myosin filament assembly. Significant conservation between species of the components involved in cytokinesis, including those of the CR, allows the use of easily genetically manipulated organisms, such as budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in the study of cytokinesis. Budding yeast has a single myosin II protein, named Myo1. Unlike most other class II myosins, the tail of Myo1 has an irregular coiled coil. In this report we use molecular genetics, biochemistry and live cell imaging to characterize the minimum localisation domain (MLD of budding yeast Myo1. Results We show that the MLD is a small region in the centre of the tail of Myo1 and that it is both necessary and sufficient for localisation of Myo1 to the yeast bud neck, the pre-determined site of cell division. Hydrodynamic measurements of the MLD, purified from bacteria or yeast, show that it is likely to exist as a trimer. We also examine the importance of a small region of low coiled coil forming probability within the MLD, which we call the hinge region. Removal of the hinge region prevents contraction of the CR. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP, we show that GFP-tagged MLD is slightly more dynamic than the GFP-tagged full length molecule but less dynamic than the GFP-tagged Myo1 construct lacking the hinge region. Conclusion Our results define the intrinsic determinant for the localization of budding yeast myosin II and show

  7. Characterization of Hydraulically Significant Discontinuities in Mudrocks at the Waste Control Specialists (WCS) Site, West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuszmaul, J. S.; Holt, R. M.; Powers, D. W.; Beauheim, R.; Pickens, J. F.; grisak, G. E.; Hughes, E.; Cook, S.

    2011-12-01

    Triassic mudrocks of the Dockum Group (Cooper Canyon Formation) host four, below-grade landfills at the Waste Control Specialists (WSC) site in Andrews County, Texas, including: a hazardous waste landfill and three radioactive waste landfills. At many radioactive waste disposal facilities, the long-term performance of the facility may be influenced by the transport of radionuclides through interconnected fracture networks. WCS developed an integrated geologic mapping and hydraulic testing program to evaluate the hydraulic significance of discontinuities within Dockum rocks. At the WCS site, the Dockum consists of mudrocks with sparse siltstone/sandstone interbeds that developed in a semi-arid environment from an ephemeral meandering fluvial system. Sedimentary studies reveal that the mudrocks are ancient floodplain vertisols (soils with swelling clays) and siltstone/sandstone interbeds are fluvial channel deposits that were frequently subaerially exposed. Rock discontinuities, including fractures, were mapped during the excavation of the WCS radioactive waste landfills along vertical faces prepared by the construction contractor. Face locations were selected to insure nearly complete vertical coverage for each landfill. Individual discontinuities were mapped and their strike, dip, length, roughness, curvature, staining, and evidence of displacement were described. In the three radioactive waste disposal landfills, over 1750 discontinuities across 35 excavated faces were mapped and described, where each face was nominally 8 to 10 ft tall and 50 to 100 ft long. On average, the orientation of the discontinuities was horizontal, and no other significant trends were observed. Mapping within the landfill excavations shows that most discontinuities within Dockum rocks are horizontal, concave upward, slickensided surfaces that developed in the depositional environment, as repeated wetting and drying cycles led to shrinking and swelling of floodplain vertisols. Fractures

  8. Buildings radiological characterization report for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-04-01

    This report summarizes radiological characterization data on the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant (WSCP) buildings gathered as part of five previous investigations, and provides a consistent will be used to support future feasibility studies which will determine the best available technologies for ultimate disposition of the buildings and associated equipment. At present no structure or piece of equipment can be released from the WSCP for unrestricted use without further radiation measurements being performed. A final group of equipment and building components contains surface radioactivity levels in excess of DOE guidelines; this group, usually found in buildings housing uranium and/or thorium processing equipment, will require decontamination and comprehensive scanning in order to be considered for unrestricted use release. 9 refs., 44 tabs.

  9. Noninvasive characterization of the Trecate (Italy) crude-oil contaminated site: links between contamination and geophysical signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassiani, Giorgio; Binley, Andrew; Kemna, Andreas; Wehrer, Markus; Orozco, Adrian Flores; Deiana, Rita; Boaga, Jacopo; Rossi, Matteo; Dietrich, Peter; Werban, Ulrike; Zschornack, Ludwig; Godio, Alberto; JafarGandomi, Arash; Deidda, Gian Piero

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of contaminated sites can benefit from the supplementation of direct investigations with a set of less invasive and more extensive measurements. A combination of geophysical methods and direct push techniques for contaminated land characterization has been proposed within the EU FP7 project ModelPROBE and the affiliated project SoilCAM. In this paper, we present results of the investigations conducted at the Trecate field site (NW Italy), which was affected in 1994 by crude oil contamination. The less invasive investigations include ground-penetrating radar (GPR), electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), and electromagnetic induction (EMI) surveys, together with direct push sampling and soil electrical conductivity (EC) logs. Many of the geophysical measurements were conducted in time-lapse mode in order to separate static and dynamic signals, the latter being linked to strong seasonal changes in water table elevations. The main challenge was to extract significant geophysical signals linked to contamination from the mix of geological and hydrological signals present at the site. The most significant aspects of this characterization are: (a) the geometrical link between the distribution of contamination and the site's heterogeneity, with particular regard to the presence of less permeable layers, as evidenced by the extensive surface geophysical measurements; and (b) the link between contamination and specific geophysical signals, particularly evident from cross-hole measurements. The extensive work conducted at the Trecate site shows how a combination of direct (e.g., chemical) and indirect (e.g., geophysical) investigations can lead to a comprehensive and solid understanding of a contaminated site's mechanisms.

  10. Insights from native mass spectrometry approaches for top- and middle- level characterization of site-specific antibody-drug conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botzanowski, Thomas; Erb, Stéphane; Hernandez-Alba, Oscar; Ehkirch, Anthony; Colas, Olivier; Wagner-Rousset, Elsa; Rabuka, David; Beck, Alain; Drake, Penelope M; Cianférani, Sarah

    2017-07-01

    Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) have emerged as a family of compounds with promise as efficient immunotherapies. First-generation ADCs were generated mostly via reactions on either lysine side-chain amines or cysteine thiol groups after reduction of the interchain disulfide bonds, resulting in heterogeneous populations with a variable number of drug loads per antibody. To control the position and the number of drug loads, new conjugation strategies aiming at the generation of more homogeneous site-specific conjugates have been developed. We report here the first multi-level characterization of a site-specific ADC by state-of-the-art mass spectrometry (MS) methods, including native MS and its hyphenation to ion mobility (IM-MS). We demonstrate the versatility of native MS methodologies for site-specific ADC analysis, with the unique ability to provide several critical quality attributes within one single run, along with a direct snapshot of ADC homogeneity/heterogeneity without extensive data interpretation. The capabilities of native IM-MS to directly access site-specific ADC conformational information are also highlighted. Finally, the potential of these techniques for assessing an ADC's heterogeneity/homogeneity is illustrated by comparing the analytical characterization of a site-specific DAR4 ADC to that of first-generation ADCs. Altogether, our results highlight the compatibility, versatility, and benefits of native MS approaches for the analytical characterization of all types of ADCs, including site-specific conjugates. Thus, we envision integrating native MS and IM-MS approaches, even in their latest state-of-the-art forms, into workflows that benchmark bioconjugation strategies.

  11. Characterizing Microseismicity at the Newberry Volcano Geothermal Site using PageRank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, A. C.; Myers, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Newberry Volcano, within the Deschutes National Forest in Oregon, has been designated as a candidate site for the Department of Energy's Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) program. This site was stimulated using high-pressure fluid injection during the fall of 2012, which generated several hundred microseismic events. Exploring the spatial and temporal development of microseismicity is key to understanding how subsurface stimulation modifies stress, fractures rock, and increases permeability. We analyze Newberry seismicity using both surface and borehole seismometers from the AltaRock and LLNL seismic networks. For our analysis we adapt PageRank, Google's initial search algorithm, to evaluate microseismicity during the 2012 stimulation. PageRank is a measure of connectivity, where higher ranking represents highly connected windows. In seismic applications connectivity is measured by the cross correlation of 2 time windows recorded on a common seismic station and channel. Aguiar and Beroza (2014) used PageRank based on cross correlation to detect low-frequency earthquakes, which are highly repetitive but difficult to detect. We expand on this application by using PageRank to define signal-correlation topology for micro-earthquakes, including the identification of signals that are connected to the largest number of other signals. We then use this information to create signal families and compare PageRank families to the spatial and temporal proximity of associated earthquakes. Studying signal PageRank will potentially allow us to efficiently group earthquakes with similar physical characteristics, such as focal mechanisms and stress drop. Our ultimate goal is to determine whether changes in the state of stress and/or changes in the generation of subsurface fracture networks can be detected using PageRank topology. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under

  12. Characterization report for Area 23, Building 650 Leachfield, Corrective Action Unit Number 94, Nevada Test Site. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-27

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Number 94, Building 650 Leachfield, is an historic laboratory disposal unit located in Area 23 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada. The objectives of this project were twofold: characterize subsurface conditions at the CAU with respect to the on-site disposal unit, and provide sufficient information to develop a closure strategy for the leachfield. To this end, subsurface sampling was conducted in the vicinity of the piping above the distribution box, under and around the distribution box, and within the leachfield.

  13. Characterization of the interactions between the active site of a protein tyrosine kinase and a divalent metal activator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayrapetov Marina K

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein tyrosine kinases are important enzymes for cell signalling and key targets for anticancer drug discovery. The catalytic mechanisms of protein tyrosine kinase-catalysed phosphorylation are not fully understood. Protein tyrosine kinase Csk requires two Mg2+ cations for activity: one (M1 binds to ATP, and the other (M2 acts as an essential activator. Results Experiments in this communication characterize the interaction between M2 and Csk. Csk activity is sensitive to pH in the range of 6 to 7. Kinetic characterization indicates that the sensitivity is not due to altered substrate binding, but caused by the sensitivity of M2 binding to pH. Several residues in the active site with potential of binding M2 are mutated and the effect on metal activation studied. An active mutant of Asn319 is generated, and this mutation does not alter the metal binding characteristics. Mutations of Glu236 or Asp332 abolish the kinase activity, precluding a positive or negative conclusion on their role in M2 coordination. Finally, the ability of divalent metal cations to activate Csk correlates to a combination of ionic radius and the coordination number. Conclusion These studies demonstrate that M2 binding to Csk is sensitive to pH, which is mainly responsible for Csk activity change in the acidic arm of the pH response curve. They also demonstrate critical differences in the metal activator coordination sphere in protein tyrosine kinase Csk and a protein Ser/Thr kinase, the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. They shed light on the physical interactions between a protein tyrosine kinase and a divalent metal activator.

  14. Site-Specific N-Glycosylation Characterization of Windmill Palm Tree Peroxidase Using Novel Tools for Analysis of Plant Glycopeptide Mass Spectrometry Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Margaret R; Tabb, David L; Ching, Travers; Zimmerman, Lisa J; Sakharov, Ivan Y; Li, Qing X

    2016-06-03

    Plant secretory (Class III) peroxidases are redox enzymes that rely on N-glycosylation for full enzyme activity and stability. Peroxidases from palm tree leaves comprise the most stable and active plant peroxidases characterized to date. Herein, site-specific glycosylation and microheterogeneity of windmill palm tree (Trachycarpus fortunei) peroxidase are reported. The workflow developed in this study includes novel tools, written in R, to aid plant glycan identification, pGlycoFilter, for annotation of glycopeptide fragmentation spectra, gPSMvalidator, and for relative quantitation of glycoforms, glycoRQ. Mass spectrometry analysis provided a detailed glycosylation profile at the 13 sites of N-linked glycosylation on windmill palm tree peroxidase. Glycan microheterogeneity was observed at each site. Site Asn211 was the most heterogeneous and contained 30 different glycans. Relative quantitation revealed 90% of each glycosylation site was occupied by three or fewer glycans, and two of the 13 sites were partially unoccupied. Although complex and hybrid glycans were identified, the majority of glycans were paucimannosidic, characteristic of plant vacuolar glycoproteins. Further studies pertaining to the glycan structure-activity relationships in plant peroxidases can benefit from the work outlined here.

  15. Topographic gradient based site characterization in India complemented by strong ground-motion spectral attributes

    KAUST Repository

    Nath, Sankar Kumar

    2013-12-01

    We appraise topographic-gradient approach for site classification that employs correlations between 30. m column averaged shear-wave velocity and topographic gradients. Assessments based on site classifications reported from cities across India indicate that the approach is reasonably viable at regional level. Additionally, we experiment three techniques for site classification based on strong ground-motion recordings, namely Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR), Response Spectra Shape (RSS), and Horizontal-to-Vertical Response Spectral Ratio (HVRSR) at the strong motion stations located across the Himalayas and northeast India. Statistical tests on the results indicate that these three techniques broadly differentiate soil and rock sites while RSS and HVRSR yield better signatures. The results also support the implemented site classification in the light of strong ground-motion spectral attributes observed in different parts of the globe. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Conductance based characterization of structure and hopping site density in 2D molecule-nanoparticle arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCold, Cliff E.; Fu, Qiang; Howe, Jane Y.; Hihath, Joshua

    2015-09-01

    Composite molecule-nanoparticle hybrid systems have recently emerged as important materials for applications ranging from chemical sensing to nanoscale electronics. However, creating reproducible and repeatable composite materials with precise properties has remained one of the primary challenges to the implementation of these technologies. Understanding the sources of variation that dominate the assembly and transport behavior is essential for the advancement of nanoparticle-array based devices. In this work, we use a combination of charge-transport measurements, electron microscopy, and optical characterization techniques to determine the role of morphology and structure on the charge transport properties of 2-dimensional monolayer arrays of molecularly-interlinked Au nanoparticles. Using these techniques we are able to determine the role of both assembly-dependent and particle-dependent defects on the conductivities of the films. These results demonstrate that assembly processes dominate the dispersion of conductance values, while nanoparticle and ligand features dictate the mean value of the conductance. By performing a systematic study of the conductance of these arrays as a function of nanoparticle size we are able to extract the carrier mobility for specific molecular ligands. We show that nanoparticle polydispersity correlates with the void density in the array, and that because of this correlation it is possible to accurately determine the void density within the array directly from conductance measurements. These results demonstrate that conductance-based measurements can be used to accurately and non-destructively determine the morphological and structural properties of these hybrid arrays, and thus provide a characterization platform that helps move 2-dimensional nanoparticle arrays toward robust and reproducible electronic systems.Composite molecule-nanoparticle hybrid systems have recently emerged as important materials for applications ranging from

  17. Synthesis and Preliminary Characterization of a PPE-Type Polymer Containing Substituted Fullerenes and Transition Metal Ligation Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne A. Basinger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A substituted fullerene was incorporated into a PPE-conjugated polymer repeat unit. This subunit was then polymerized via Sonogashira coupling with other repeat units to create polymeric systems approaching 50 repeat units (based on GPC characterization. Bipyridine ligands were incorporated into some of these repeat units to provide sites for transition metal coordination. Photophysical characterization of the absorption and emission properties of these systems shows excited states located on both the fullerene and aromatic backbone of the polymers that exist in a thermally controlled equilibrium. Future work will explore other substituted polyaromatic systems using similar methodologies.

  18. Hanford Site Annual Treatability Studies Report, Calendar Year 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grohs, Eugene L.

    2003-02-28

    This report provides information required to be reported annually by the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-071 (3)(r)(ii)(F) and (3)(s)(ix) on the treatability studies conducted on the Hanford Site in 2002. These studies were conducted as required by WAC 173-303-071, “Excluded Categories of Waste,” sections (3)(r) and (s). Unless otherwise noted, the waste samples were provided by and the treatability studies were performed for the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, P.O. Box 550, Richland, Washington 99352. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency identification number for these studies is WA7890008967.

  19. Characterization of Aspartate Kinase from Corynebacterium pekinense and the Critical Site of Arg169

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihong Min

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aspartate kinase (AK is the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of aspartate-derived amino acids. Recombinant AK was efficiently purified and systematically characterized through analysis under optimal conditions combined with steady-state kinetics study. Homogeneous AK was predicted as a decamer with a molecular weight of ~48 kDa and a half-life of 4.5 h. The enzymatic activity was enhanced by ethanol and Ni2+. Moreover, steady-state kinetic study confirmed that AK is an allosteric enzyme, and its activity was inhibited by allosteric inhibitors, such as Lys, Met, and Thr. Theoretical results indicated the binding mode of AK and showed that Arg169 is an important residue in substrate binding, catalytic domain, and inhibitor binding. The values of the kinetic parameter Vmax of R169 mutants, namely, R169Y, R169P, R169D, and R169H AK, with l-aspartate as the substrate, were 4.71-, 2.25-, 2.57-, and 2.13-fold higher, respectively, than that of the wild-type AK. Furthermore, experimental and theoretical data showed that Arg169 formed a hydrogen bond with Glu92, which functions as the entrance gate. This study provides a basis to develop new enzymes and elucidate the corresponding amino acid production.

  20. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION STUDIES OF 2-[(2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... Antioxidant picryhydrazyl (DPPH) and the results were the ligand and copper (II) complexes pos ... r (II) complexes possess antioxidant property while zinc (II) comp bial, Antioxidant, Characterization, Ligand, ..... complexes of copper and zinc were synthesi the compounds were characterized. Antimicrob.

  1. Characterization of the geology, geochemistry, hydrology and microbiology of the in-situ air stripping demonstration site at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, C.A.; Looney, B.B.; Dougherty, J.M.; Hazen, T.C.; Kaback, D.S.

    1991-05-01

    The Savannah River Site is the location of an Integrated Demonstration Project designed to evaluate innovative remediation technologies for environmental restoration at sites contaminated with volatile organic contaminants. This demonstration utilizes directionally drilled horizontal wells to deliver gases and extract contaminants from the subsurface. Phase I of the Integrated Demonstration focused on the application and development of in-situ air stripping technologies to remediate soils and sediments above and below the water table as well as groundwater contaminated with volatile organic contaminants. The objective of this report is to provide baseline information on the geology, geochemistry, hydrology, and microbiology of the demonstration site prior to the test. The distribution of contaminants in soils and sediments in the saturated zone and groundwater is emphasized. These data will be combined with data collected after the demonstration in order to evaluate the effectiveness of in-situ air stripping. New technologies for environmental characterization that were evaluated include depth discrete groundwater sampling (HydroPunch) and three-dimensional modeling of contaminant data.

  2. Application of the microtremor measurements to a site effect study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Sadegh; Choobbasti, Asskar Janalizadeh

    2017-06-01

    Earthquake has left much life and property damages. The occurrence of such events necessitates the execution of plans for combating the earthquakes. One of the most important methods for combating earthquakes includes assessing dynamic characteristics of soil and site effect. One of the methods by which one can state dynamic characteristics of the soil of an area is the measurement of microtremors. Microtremors are small-scale vibrations that occur in the ground and have an amplitude range of about 0.1-1 microns. Microtremor measurement is fast, applicable, cost-effective. Microtremor measurements were taken at 15 stations in the Babol, north of Iran. Regarding H/ V spectral ratio method, peak frequency and amplification factor were calculated for all microtremor stations. According to the analysis, the peak frequency varies from 0.67 to 8.10 Hz within the study area. Also, the authors investigated the validity of the results by comparing them with SESAME guidelines and geotechnical conditions of study area. The microtremor analysis results are consistent with SESAME guidelines and geotechnical condition of study area. The results show that the microtremor observations are acceptable methods for assessing dynamic characteristics of soil and site effect in the Babol City.

  3. Preliminary Hydrogeologic Characterization Results from the Wallula Basalt Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.P. McGrail; E. C. Sullivan; F. A. Spane; D. H. Bacon; G. Hund; P. D. Thorne; C. J. Thompson; S. P. Reidel; F. S. Colwell

    2009-12-01

    The DOE's Big Sky Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership has completed drilling the first continental flood basalt sequestration pilot borehole to a total depth (TD) of 4,110 feet on the Boise White Paper Mill property at Wallula, Washington. Site suitability was assessed prior to drilling by the 2007-2008 acquisition, processing and analysis of a four-mile, five-line three component seismic swath, which was processed as a single data-dense line. Analysis of the seismic survey data indicated a composite basalt formation thickness of {approx}8,000 feet and absence of major geologic structures (i.e., faults) along the line imaged by the seismic swath. Drilling of Wallula pilot borehole was initiated on January 13, 2009 and reached TD on April 6, 2009. Based on characterization results obtained during drilling, three basalt breccia zones were identified between the depth interval of 2,716 and 2,910 feet, as being suitable injection reservoir for a subsequent CO2 injection pilot study. The targeted injection reservoir lies stratigraphically below the massive Umtanum Member of the Grande Ronde Basalt, whose flow-interior section possesses regionally recognized low-permeability characteristics. The identified composite injection zone reservoir provides a unique and attractive opportunity to scientifically study the reservoir behavior of three inter-connected reservoir intervals below primary and secondary caprock confining zones. Drill cuttings, wireline geophysical logs, and 31one-inch diameter rotary sidewall cores provided geologic data for characterization of rock properties. XRF analyses of selected rock samples provided geochemical characterizations of the rocks and stratigraphic control for the basalt flows encountered by the Wallula pilot borehole. Based on the geochemical results, the pilot borehole was terminated in the Wapshilla Ridge 1 flow of the Grande Ronde Basalt Formation. Detailed hydrologic test characterizations of 12 basalt interflow

  4. A Toxicology and Characterization Study of Microplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Amy; Sullivan, Kelley; n/a Collaboration

    Plastic is everywhere. Microplastic particles are found in our toothpaste and soap, and are also created when larger plastics degrade under natural forces and sunlight. Studies have shown that filter feeders in aquatic systems eat microplastics, which transports plastic up the food chain. We used fluorescence microscopy to characterize the size, shape, and types of plastic found in several personal care products in order to create a clear picture of a significant source of microplastics found in our local Cayuga Lake ecosystem in Upstate New York. We also studied toxin absorption and emission of these plastics using environmentally relevant concentrations of BPA. For Neutrogena face scrub, the microplastics were polyethylene and roughly pill shaped. The majority of these microplastics are either smaller than 0.1 mm2, or were distributed in a bell-shaped curve about 0.5 mm2. The concentration of a solution of environmentally relevant BPA that microplastics were immersed in decreased by 13% over a 12-hour period. These results indicate that these microplastics pose a threat to organisms in the environment - they are small enough and shaped appropriately to be mistaken as prey, and they absorb toxins quickly. As the number of microplastics exponentially build up in the environment, the food chain will be negatively affected. Ithaca College DANA Student Internship program.

  5. Preliminary recommendations on the design of the characterization program for the Hanford Site single-shell tanks: A system analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, J.W.; Peffers, M.S.; Hwang, S.T.

    1991-11-01

    The work described in this volume was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to provide preliminary recommendations on data quality objectives (DQOs) to support the Waste Characterization Plan (WCP) and closure decisions for the Hanford Site single-shell tanks (SSTs). The WCP describes the first of a two-phase characterization program that will obtain information to assess and implement disposal options for SSTs. This work was performed for the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), the current operating contractor on the Hanford Site. The preliminary DQOs contained in this volume deal with the analysis of SST wastes in support of the WCP and final closure decisions. These DQOs include information on significant contributors and detection limit goals (DLGs) for SST analytes based on public health risk.

  6. Characterization of overwintering sites of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug in natural landscapes using human surveyors and detector canines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doo-Hyung Lee

    Full Text Available Halyomorpha halys is an invasive species from Asia causing major economic losses in agricultural production in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Unlike other crop pests, H. halys is also well-known for nuisance problems in urban, suburban, and rural areas, as massive numbers of adults often invade human-made structures to overwinter inside protected environments. Research efforts have focused on populations in human-made structures while overwintering ecology of H. halys in natural landscapes is virtually unknown. We explored forested landscapes in the mid-Atlantic region to locate and characterize natural overwintering structures used by H. halys. We also evaluated the use of detector canines to locate overwintering H. halys to enhance the accuracy and efficiency of surveys. From these studies, we indentified shared characteristics of overwintering sites used by H. halys in natural landscapes. Overwintering H. halys were recovered from dry crevices in dead, standing trees with thick bark, particularly oak (Quercus spp. and locust (Robinia spp.; these characteristics were shared by 11.8% of all dead trees in surveyed landscapes. For trees with favorable characteristics, we sampled ∼20% of the total above-ground tree area and recovered 5.9 adults per tree from the trees with H. halys present. Two detector canines were successfully trained to recognize and detect the odor of adult H. halys yielding >84% accuracy in laboratory and semi-field trials. Detector canines also found overwintering H. halys under field conditions. In particular, overwintering H. halys were recovered only from dead trees that yielded positive indications from the canines and shared key tree characteristics established by human surveyors. The identified characteristics of natural overwintering sites of H. halys will serve as baseline information to establish crop economic risk levels posed by overwintering populations, and accordingly develop sustainable

  7. Characterization and evaluation of sites for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in fractured rocks. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The third Aespoe International Seminar was organised by SKB to assess the state of the art in characterisation and evaluation of sites for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in fractured rocks. Site characterisation and evaluation are important elements for determining the site suitability and long-term safety of a geological repository for radioactive waste disposal. Characterisation work also provides vital information for the design of the underground facility and the engineered barrier system that will contain the waste. The aim of the seminar was to provide a comprehensive assessment of the current know-how on this topic based on world-wide experience from more than 20 years of characterisation and evaluation work. The seminar, which was held at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory was attended by 72 scientists from 10 different countries. The program was divided into four sessions of which two were run in parallel. A total of 38 oral and 5 poster presentations were given at the seminar. The presentations gave a comprehensive summary of recently completed and current work on site characterisation, modelling and application in performance assessments. The results presented at the seminar generally show that significant progress has been made in this field during the last decade. New characterisation techniques have become available, strategies for site investigations have developed further, and model concepts and codes have reached new levels of refinement. Data obtained from site characterisation have also successfully been applied in several site specific performance assessments. The seminar clearly showed that there is a solid scientific basis for assessing the suitability of sites for actual repositories based on currently available site characterisation technology and modelling capabilities. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 38 of the presentations

  8. Characterization and reclamation assessment for the Central Shops Diesel Storage Facility, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliermans, C.B.; Hazen, T.C.; Bledsoe, H.

    1993-10-01

    The contamination of subsurface terrestrial environments by organic contaminants is a global phenomenon. The remediation of such environments requires innovative assessment techniques and strategies for successful clean-ups. Central Shops Diesel Storage Facility at Savannah River Site was characterized to determine the extent of subsurface diesel fuel contamination using innovative approaches and effective bioremediation techniques for clean-up of the contaminant plume have been established.

  9. Seismic Site Characterization through Joint Modeling of Complementary Data Functionals, with Applications to Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwed, M.; Pulliam, J.; Sen, M. K.; Willemann, R. J.; Huerta-Lopez, C.; Moschetti, M. P.; Schmitz, M.; Louie, J. N.; Polanco, E.; Huerfano Moreno, V.; Pasyanos, M.

    2013-12-01

    New approaches suggest that it may be possible to determine ground shaking during earthquakes through low-cost, non-invasive seismic surveys that make use of ambient noise, and that the results can be used for 'shake-casting' to produce scenarios for the purposes of urban planning, improving community resilience, and emergency response. We will present a strategy for determining seismic 'site characterization' through joint modeling of and horizontal to vertical spectral ratios (HVSR) and surface wave dispersion, determined via spatial autocorrelation (SPAC), refraction microtremor (ReMi), and/or multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW). Fitting of data functionals by synthetics is driven by global optimization and the models are assessed quantitatively. The products of this approach are shear wave velocity profiles for the shallow subsurface, accompanied by posterior probability distributions and parameter correlation matrices that allow for the assessment of model reliability. Optimization strategies for solving nonlinear problems in geophysics have several advantages over linearized inversions. Jointly fitting dispersion curves and HVSR functionals via global optimization allows us to characterize the space of possible models, assess model reliability, identify parts of the 'best-fit' model that are poorly constrained, and guide us toward new data that might improve constraints on the model. Tools such as the posterior probability distribution and the parameter correlation matrix allow us to assess the relative contribution of both types of data to model constraints and how to choose the optimal weights between data types. The joint modeling technique is applied to data acquired in an NSF-funded Pan-American Advanced Studies Institute in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, entitled 'New Frontiers in Geophysical Research: Bringing New Tools and Techniques to Bear on Earthquake Hazard Analysis and Mitigation', as a proof-of-concept survey in a highly built

  10. Characterization of chlorophyll-a over CAL-VAL site at Kavaratti in the Lakshadweep Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Babu, K.N; Shukla, A; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Singh, S.K.; Sawant, S.S.

    Under the Meteorology and Oceanography Programme (MOP) of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), a Calibration-Validation site is planned at Kavaratti in the Lakshadweep Sea with a pair of moored data buoys consisting of fully programmed...

  11. CHARACTERIZING POPULATIONS OF THE ESTUARINE FISH FUNDULUS HETEROCLITUS INDIGENOUS TO SITES WITH DIFFERING ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Populations of the non-migratory estuarine fish Fundulus heteroclitus were collected from New Bedford Harbor and distant clean sites to investigate whether indigenous populations have adapted genetically to the harbor's contamination. New Bedford Harbor, a major port in southe...

  12. Protozooplankton characterization of two contrasting sites in a tropical coastal ecosystem (Guanabara Bay, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Ana Traversim Gomes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Much time and resources have been invested in understanding plankton dynamics in Guanabara Bay (Brazil, but no attention has been devoted to the protozooplankton. To fulfill this lacuna, abundance and composition of protozooplankton were investigated from January to December - 2000 in fortnightly surface water samplings at two distinct water quality sites (Urca - closer to the bay entrance, more saline and cleaner waters; Ramos - inner reaches, hypereutrophic waters. The density at Urca (10³ - 10(5 cell.l-1 was one to three orders of magnitude lower than at Ramos (10(4 - 10(5 cell.l-1. A seasonal trend for nanoplankton and protozooplankton was more evident at Urca, but both sites had lower densities during the colder period. Small heterotrophic dinoflagellates (20-30 mm were dominant in over 50% of the samples. The protozooplankton abundance and composition reflected the distinct trophic conditions states found at the bay. During the wet-warm season, non-oligotrich ciliates were representative of Ramos site with Gymnodiniaceae dinoflagellates, while tintinnids and heterotrophic dinoflagellates were predominantly found at Urca mainly during the dry-cold season. This first descriptive study towards the understanding of the intricate relationships among the microbial food web components reveals that protozooplankton can be a good indicator of water quality conditions at the bay.Muito tem sido investido para entender a dinâmica do plâncton da Baía de Guanabara (Brasil, estuário tropical com sérios problemas ambientais, mas pouco se sabe sobre o protozooplâncton. Preenchendo esta lacuna, a composição e abundância do protozooplâncton (ciliados, flagelados heterotróficos foram investigadas em 2000, por meio de amostragens subsuperficiais, quinzenais, em dois locais com qualidade distinta de água (Urca - entrada da baía, águas mais salinas e limpas; Ramos - região mais interna, águas hipereutróficas e menos salinas. A densidade na Urca

  13. Characterization of the size-segregated water-soluble inorganic ions at eight Canadian rural sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang

    2008-12-01

    the particle size from the nucleation mode to the accumulation mode was not consistent from site to site or from season to season. Particles in the accumulation mode were more acidic than those in the nucleation mode when submicron particles were in the state of strong acidity; however, when submicron particles were neutral or weakly acidic, particles in the nucleation mode could sometimes be more acidic. The inconsistency of the dependence of the particle acidity on the particle size should have been caused by the different emission sources of all the related species and the different meteorological conditions during the different campaigns. The results presented here at least partially explain the controversial phenomenon found in previous studies on this topic.

  14. In situ vitrification demonstration at Pit 1, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Volume 2: Site characterization report of the Pit 1 area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, B.P.; Bogle, M.A.; Cline, S.R.; Naney, M.T.; Gu, B.

    1997-12-01

    A treatability study was initiated in October 1993, initially encompassing the application of in situ vitrification (ISV) to at least two segments of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) seepage Pit 1 by the end of fiscal year (FY) 1995. This treatability study was to have supported a possible Interim Record of Decision (IROD) or removal action for closure of one or more of the seepage pits and trenches as early as FY 1997. The Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 7, which contains these seven seepage pits and trenches, will probably not begin until after the year 2000. This treatability study will establish the field-scale technical performance of ISV for (1) attaining the required depth, nominally 15 ft, to incorporate source contamination within and beneath the pits; (2) demonstrating field capability to overlap melt settings that are necessary to achieve fused, melted segments of the source contamination; (3) demonstrating off-gas handling technology for accommodating and minimizing the volatilization of {sup 137}Cs; (4) demonstrating adequate site characterization techniques to predict ISV melting kinetics, processing temperatures, and product durability; and (5) promoting public acceptance of ISV technology by demonstrating its safety, implementability, site impacts, and air emissions and by coordinating the treatability study within the regulatory closure process. This report summarizes the site characterization information gathered through the end of September 1996 which supports the planning and assessment of ISV for Pit 1 (objective 4 above).

  15. SHRINE: enabling nationally scalable multi-site disease studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J McMurry

    Full Text Available Results of medical research studies are often contradictory or cannot be reproduced. One reason is that there may not be enough patient subjects available for observation for a long enough time period. Another reason is that patient populations may vary considerably with respect to geographic and demographic boundaries thus limiting how broadly the results apply. Even when similar patient populations are pooled together from multiple locations, differences in medical treatment and record systems can limit which outcome measures can be commonly analyzed. In total, these differences in medical research settings can lead to differing conclusions or can even prevent some studies from starting. We thus sought to create a patient research system that could aggregate as many patient observations as possible from a large number of hospitals in a uniform way. We call this system the 'Shared Health Research Information Network', with the following properties: (1 reuse electronic health data from everyday clinical care for research purposes, (2 respect patient privacy and hospital autonomy, (3 aggregate patient populations across many hospitals to achieve statistically significant sample sizes that can be validated independently of a single research setting, (4 harmonize the observation facts recorded at each institution such that queries can be made across many hospitals in parallel, (5 scale to regional and national collaborations. The purpose of this report is to provide open source software for multi-site clinical studies and to report on early uses of this application. At this time SHRINE implementations have been used for multi-site studies of autism co-morbidity, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, peripartum cardiomyopathy, colorectal cancer, diabetes, and others. The wide range of study objectives and growing adoption suggest that SHRINE may be applicable beyond the research uses and participating hospitals named in this report.

  16. SHRINE: enabling nationally scalable multi-site disease studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurry, Andrew J; Murphy, Shawn N; MacFadden, Douglas; Weber, Griffin; Simons, William W; Orechia, John; Bickel, Jonathan; Wattanasin, Nich; Gilbert, Clint; Trevvett, Philip; Churchill, Susanne; Kohane, Isaac S

    2013-01-01

    Results of medical research studies are often contradictory or cannot be reproduced. One reason is that there may not be enough patient subjects available for observation for a long enough time period. Another reason is that patient populations may vary considerably with respect to geographic and demographic boundaries thus limiting how broadly the results apply. Even when similar patient populations are pooled together from multiple locations, differences in medical treatment and record systems can limit which outcome measures can be commonly analyzed. In total, these differences in medical research settings can lead to differing conclusions or can even prevent some studies from starting. We thus sought to create a patient research system that could aggregate as many patient observations as possible from a large number of hospitals in a uniform way. We call this system the 'Shared Health Research Information Network', with the following properties: (1) reuse electronic health data from everyday clinical care for research purposes, (2) respect patient privacy and hospital autonomy, (3) aggregate patient populations across many hospitals to achieve statistically significant sample sizes that can be validated independently of a single research setting, (4) harmonize the observation facts recorded at each institution such that queries can be made across many hospitals in parallel, (5) scale to regional and national collaborations. The purpose of this report is to provide open source software for multi-site clinical studies and to report on early uses of this application. At this time SHRINE implementations have been used for multi-site studies of autism co-morbidity, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, peripartum cardiomyopathy, colorectal cancer, diabetes, and others. The wide range of study objectives and growing adoption suggest that SHRINE may be applicable beyond the research uses and participating hospitals named in this report.

  17. Activity-Based Probes for Isoenzyme- and Site-Specific Functional Characterization of Glutathione S -Transferases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoddard, Ethan G. [Chemical Biology and Exposure; Killinger, Bryan J. [Chemical Biology and Exposure; Nair, Reji N. [Chemical Biology and Exposure; Sadler, Natalie C. [Chemical Biology and Exposure; Volk, Regan F. [Chemical Biology and Exposure; Purvine, Samuel O. [Chemical Biology and Exposure; Shukla, Anil K. [Chemical Biology and Exposure; Smith, Jordan N. [Chemical Biology and Exposure; Wright, Aaron T. [Chemical Biology and Exposure

    2017-11-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) comprise a highly diverse family of phase II drug metabolizing enzymes whose shared function is the conjugation of reduced glutathione to various endo- and xenobiotics. Although the conglomerate activity of these enzymes can be measured by colorimetric assays, measurement of the individual contribution from specific isoforms and their contribution to the detoxification of xenobiotics in complex biological samples has not been possible. For this reason, we have developed two activity-based probes that characterize active glutathione transferases in mammalian tissues. The GST active site is comprised of a glutathione binding “G site” and a distinct substrate binding “H site”. Therefore, we developed (1) a glutathione-based photoaffinity probe (GSH-ABP) to target the “G site”, and (2) a probe designed to mimic a substrate molecule and show “H site” activity (GST-ABP). The GSH-ABP features a photoreactive moiety for UV-induced covalent binding to GSTs and glutathione-binding enzymes. The GST-ABP is a derivative of a known mechanism-based GST inhibitor that binds within the active site and inhibits GST activity. Validation of probe targets and “G” and “H” site specificity was carried out using a series of competitors in liver homogenates. Herein, we present robust tools for the novel characterization of enzyme- and active site-specific GST activity in mammalian model systems.

  18. Electron microscopy methods in studies of cultural heritage sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, A. L., E-mail: a.vasiliev56@gmail.com; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Yatsishina, E. B. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute” (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    The history of the development and application of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXMA) in studies of cultural heritage sites is considered. In fact, investigations based on these methods began when electron microscopes became a commercial product. Currently, these methods, being developed and improved, help solve many historical enigmas. To date, electron microscopy combined with microanalysis makes it possible to investigate any object, from parchment and wooden articles to pigments, tools, and objects of art. Studies by these methods have revealed that some articles were made by ancient masters using ancient “nanotechnologies”; hence, their comprehensive analysis calls for the latest achievements in the corresponding instrumental methods and sample preparation techniques.

  19. Functional characterization of the major and minor phosphorylation sites of the P protein of Borna disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Sonja; Mayer, Daniel; Schneider, Urs; Schwemmle, Martin

    2007-06-01

    The phosphoprotein P of Borna disease virus (BDV) is an essential cofactor of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. It is preferentially phosphorylated at serine residues 26 and 28 by protein kinase C epsilon (PKCepsilon) and, to a lesser extent, at serine residues 70 and 86 by casein kinase II (CKII). To determine whether P phosphorylation is required for viral polymerase activity, we generated P mutants lacking either the PKCepsilon or the CKII phosphate acceptor sites by replacing the corresponding serine residues with alanine (A). Alternatively, these sites were replaced by aspartic acid (D) to mimic phosphorylation. Functional characterization of the various mutants in the BDV minireplicon assay revealed that D substitutions at the CKII sites inhibited the polymerase-supporting activity of P, while A substitutions maintained wild-type activity. Likewise, D substitutions at the PKC sites did not impair the cofactor function of BDV-P, whereas A substitutions at these sites led to increased activity. Interestingly, recombinant viruses could be rescued only when P mutants with modified PKCepsilon sites were used but not when both CKII sites were altered. PKCepsilon mutant viruses showed a reduced capacity to spread in cell culture, while viral RNA and protein expression levels in persistently infected cells were almost normal. Further mutational analyses revealed that substitutions at individual CKII sites were, with the exception of a substitution of A for S86, detrimental for viral rescue. These data demonstrate that, in contrast to other viral P proteins, the cofactor activity of BDV-P is negatively regulated by phosphorylation.

  20. Functional Characterization of the Major and Minor Phosphorylation Sites of the P Protein of Borna Disease Virus▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Sonja; Mayer, Daniel; Schneider, Urs; Schwemmle, Martin

    2007-01-01

    The phosphoprotein P of Borna disease virus (BDV) is an essential cofactor of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. It is preferentially phosphorylated at serine residues 26 and 28 by protein kinase C ɛ (PKCɛ) and, to a lesser extent, at serine residues 70 and 86 by casein kinase II (CKII). To determine whether P phosphorylation is required for viral polymerase activity, we generated P mutants lacking either the PKCɛ or the CKII phosphate acceptor sites by replacing the corresponding serine residues with alanine (A). Alternatively, these sites were replaced by aspartic acid (D) to mimic phosphorylation. Functional characterization of the various mutants in the BDV minireplicon assay revealed that D substitutions at the CKII sites inhibited the polymerase-supporting activity of P, while A substitutions maintained wild-type activity. Likewise, D substitutions at the PKC sites did not impair the cofactor function of BDV-P, whereas A substitutions at these sites led to increased activity. Interestingly, recombinant viruses could be rescued only when P mutants with modified PKCɛ sites were used but not when both CKII sites were altered. PKCɛ mutant viruses showed a reduced capacity to spread in cell culture, while viral RNA and protein expression levels in persistently infected cells were almost normal. Further mutational analyses revealed that substitutions at individual CKII sites were, with the exception of a substitution of A for S86, detrimental for viral rescue. These data demonstrate that, in contrast to other viral P proteins, the cofactor activity of BDV-P is negatively regulated by phosphorylation. PMID:17376920

  1. Preclinical study evaluating a novel trocar site closure system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker PA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Peter A Walker,1 Shinil K Shah,1,2 Erik B Wilson11Department of Surgery, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX, USA; 2Michael E DeBakey Institute for Comparative Cardiovascular Science and Biomedical Devices, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USAIntroduction: Novel trocar closure devices using subperitoneal anchor placement avoid the need for a closed loop suture, and could allow faster trocar site closure with less risk derived from less instrument penetration into the abdominal cavity while decreasing fascial ischemia and tension. We completed a series of animal experiments to compare the Carter-Thomason® suture closure device and neoClose® AnchorGuide device in order to evaluate device safety, efficacy, and ease of utilization.Methods: A porcine model was utilized where 12 mm port sites were closed with either the Carter-Thomason® device or neoClose® AnchorGuide device. Animals were sacrificed at 14 and 56 days after trocar site closure followed by macroscopic and microscopic wound examination. A second group of animals underwent video analysis to evaluate the time required for fascial closure as well as depth of needle passage into the abdomen.Results: All animals survived to the endpoints (14 and 56 days without mortality or trocar site hernia. A trend towards decreased closure times was identified when using the neoClose® device (t=18.5±2.3 seconds compared to closure with the Carter-Thomason® device (t=32.0±8.9 seconds (P=0.153. A significant decrease in the depth of needle penetration was seen with the neoClose® device (t=31.22±1.45 mm compared to closure with the Carter-Thomason device (t=51.0±3.1 mm (P<0.001. Microscopic analysis showed subperitoneal anchor location at 56 days with minimal fibrosis (neoClose® device compared to nearly complete suture degradation with deep intramuscular location (Carter-Thomason device.Conclusion: Novel trocar closure devices could offer decreased deployment

  2. Characterization of an aldolase-binding site in the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscaglia, Carlos A; Penesetti, Deepak; Tao, Mingyuan; Nussenzweig, Victor

    2006-01-20

    The thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP) is an essential transmembrane molecule in Plasmodium sporozoites. TRAP displays adhesive motifs on the extracellular portion, whereas its cytoplasmic tail connects to actin via aldolase, thus driving parasite motility and host cell invasion. The minimal requirements for the TRAP binding to aldolase were scanned here and found to be shared by different human proteins, including the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) family members. In vitro and in vivo binding of WASp members to aldolase was characterized by biochemical, deletion mapping, mutagenesis, and co-immunoprecipitation studies. As in the case of TRAP, the binding of WASp to aldolase is competitively inhibited by the enzyme substrate/products. Furthermore, TRAP and WASp, but not other unrelated aldolase binders, compete for the binding to the enzyme in vitro. Together, our results define a conserved aldolase binding motif in the WASp family members and suggest that aldolase modulates the motility and actin dynamics of mammalian cells. These findings along with the presence of similar aldolase binding motifs in additional human proteins, some of which indeed interact with aldolase in pull-down assays, suggest supplementary, non-glycolytic roles for this enzyme.

  3. Assessment of rock wool as support material for on-site sanitation: hydrodynamic and mechanical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanko, Adrien; Laurent, Julien; Bois, Paul; Mosé, Robert; Wagner-Kocher, Christiane; Bahlouli, Nadia; Tiffay, Serge; Braun, Bouke; Provo kluit, Pieter-Willem

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes mechanical and hydrodynamic characterization of rock wool used as support material in compact filter. A double-pronged approach, based on experimental simulation of various physical states of this material was done. First of all a scanning electron microscopy observation allows to highlight the fibrous network structure, the fibres sizing distribution and the atomic absorption spectrum. The material was essentially lacunar with 97 ± 2% of void space. Static compression tests on variably saturated rock wool samples provide the fact that the strain/stress behaviours depend on both the sample conditioning and the saturation level. Results showed that water exerts plastifying effect on mechanical behaviour of rock wool. The load-displacement curves and drainage evolution under different water saturation levels allowed exhibiting hydraulic retention capacities under stress. Finally, several tracer experiments on rock wool column considering continuous and batch feeding flow regime allowed: (i) to determine the flow model for each test case and the implications for water dynamic in rock wool medium, (ii) to assess the rock wool double porosity and discuss its advantages for wastewater treatment, (iii) to analyse the benefits effect for water treatment when the high level of rock wool hydric retention was associated with the plug-flow effect, and (iv) to discuss the practical contributions for compact filter conception and management.

  4. Construction, characterization, and selected site-specific mutagenesis of an anti-single-stranded DNA single-chain autoantibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbley, C A; Denzin, L K; Yantz, L; Tetin, S Y; Voss, E W

    1993-06-25

    Single-chain antibodies are comprised of immunoglobulin light and heavy chain variable domains joined through a polypeptide linker. A single-chain autoantibody, containing the 14-amino acid 212-polypeptide linker (GSTSGSGKSSEGKG), was constructed based on the light and heavy chain variable region gene sequences of anti-single-stranded DNA autoantibody BV04-01 (IgG2b, kappa). Following protein expression in Escherichia coli, denaturation, refolding, and affinity purification, single-chain autoantibody 04-01 binding with single-stranded DNA and poly(dT) was characterized in solid-phase and solution-phase assays. Homopolymer ligand binding results demonstrated that single-chain autoantibody 04-01 possessed anti-DNA binding properties similar to BV04-01 IgG and Fab fragments. Based on x-ray crystallographic analyses of BV04-01, site-specific mutagenesis studies were conducted on 2 residues (L32Tyr and H100aTrp) involved in aromatic stacking interactions with the middle thymidine of a (dT)3 ligand.

  5. FY94 site characterization and multilevel well installation at a west Bear Creek Valley research site on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moline, G.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Schreiber, M.E. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

    1996-03-01

    The goals of this project are to collect data that will assist in determining what constitutes a representative groundwater sample in fractured shale typical of much of the geology underlying the ORR waste disposal sites, and to determine how monitoring-well construction and sampling methods impact the representativeness of the sample. This report details the FY94 field activities at a research site in west Bear Creek Valley on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). These activities funded by the Energy Systems Groundwater Program Office through the Oak Ridge Reservation Hydrologic and Geologic Studies (ORRHAGS) task, focus on developing appropriate sampling protocols for the type of fractured media that underlies many of the ORR waste disposal sites. Currently accepted protocols were developed for porous media and are likely to result in nonrepresentative samples in fractured systems.

  6. RESULTS CONCERNING PEDOLOGICAL STUDIES IN ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE FROM SLAVA RUSĂ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Pirnau

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of the elements, chemical processes and soil morphology, related to archaeo-zoological analysis of fauna material taken from the archaeological site of Slava Rusă, provides important information for understanding the evolution of the settlement, taking into account the close relationship between natural deposits, which include soil, and cultural features of the site. Thus, the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of soil are important in this context, because environmental factors that led to the formation of distinct soil, leaving traces in the morphology, are the same factors that influenced the morphology and the evolution of inhabited areas. This approach is useful if the environmental conditions that have affected the settlement have not been changed significantly over time, and, at the Slava Rusă, data regarding soil conditions suggest bioclimatic stability for a very long time. The soils are poorly evolved, texture is not differentiated, and calcium carbonates are present in the soil to depths of 3-4 m. All these features confirm that the current climate of the region remained unchanged, from the Neolithic to the present, climate underwent only insignificant oscillations.

  7. Health Risks to Ecological Workers on Contaminated Sites - the Department of Energy as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    At most contaminated sites the risk to workers focuses on those 'hazardous waste workers' directly exposed to chemicals or radionuclides, and to the elaborate approaches implemented to protecting their health and safety. Ecological workers generally are not considered. To explore the risks to the health and safety of ecological workers on sites with potential chemical and radiological exposures before, during or after remediation of contamination. To use the U.S. Department of Energy as a case study, and to develop concepts that apply generally to sites contaminated with hazardous or nuclear wastes. Develop categories of ecological workers, describe their usual jobs, and provide information on the kinds of risks they face. Ecological activities include continued surveillance and monitoring work on any sites with residual contamination, subject to institutional controls and engineered barriers following closure as well as the restoration. The categories of ecological workers and their tasks include 1) Ecological characterization, mapping and monitoring, 2) biodiversity studies, 2) Contaminant fate and transport, 3) On-going industrial activities 4) Remediation activities (environmental management), 5) Environmental restoration, 6) Post-cleanup surveillance and monitoring, and 7) Post-closure future site activities. There are a set of functional activities that can occur with different frequencies and intensities, including visual inspection, collecting biological samples, collecting media physical samples, collecting biological debris, restoration planting, and maintaining ecosystems. Ecological workers face different exposures and risks than other environmental cleanup workers. Many of their tasks mimic shift work with long hours leading to fatigue, and they are exposed to biological as well as chemical/radiological hazards. DOE and other entities need to examine the risks to ecological workers on site with an eye to risk reduction.

  8. Assessing landslide potential on coastal bluffs near Mukilteo, Washington—Geologic site characterization for hydrologic monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirus, Benjamin B.; Smith, Joel B.; Benjamin Stark,; York Lewis,; Abigail Michel,; Baum, Rex L.

    2016-07-01

    During the summer 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey collected geologic and geotechnical data for two sites on coastal bluffs along the eastern shore of Puget Sound, Washington. The U.S. Geological Survey also installed hydrologic instrumentation at the sites and collected specimens for laboratory testing. The two sites are located on City of Mukilteo open-space land and are about 0.6 kilometers apart. The bluffs at each site are approximately 42 meters high, and rise steeply from the shoreline with 32–35° slopes. The more northerly of the two sites occupies an active landslide and is mostly unvegetated. The other site is forested, and although stable during the preparation of this report, shows evidence of historical and potential landslide activity. The slopes of the bluffs at both sites are mantled by a thin, nonuniform colluvium underlain by clay-rich glacial deposits and tills of the Whidbey Formation or Double Bluff Drift. Till consisting of sand, gravel, and cobbles caps the bluffs and rests on finer grained glacial deposits of sand, silt, and clay. These types of different glacial deposits are dense, vertically fractured, and generally have low permeability, but field observations indicate that locally the deposits are sufficiently permeable to allow lateral flow of water along fractures and subhorizontal boundaries between deposits of different texture. Laboratory tests indicate that many of the deposits are highly plastic, with low hydraulic conductivity, and moderate shear strength. Steep slopes combined with the strength and hydraulic characteristics of the deposits leave the bluffs prone to slope instability, particularly during the wet season when infiltrating rainfall changes moisture content, pore-water pressure, and effective stress within the hillslope. The instrumentation was designed to primarily observe rainfall variability and hydrologic changes in the subsurface that can affect stability of the bluffs, and also to compare the hydrologic

  9. Hydrologic characterization of the Fry Canyon, Utah site prior to field demonstration of reactive chemical barriers to control radionuclide and trace-element contamination in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naftz, D.L.; Freethey, G.W. [Geological Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Davis, J.A. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    The Fry Canyon Site in southeastern Utah has been selected as a long term demonstration site to assess the performance of selected reaction barrier technologies for the removal of uranium and other trace elements from ground water. Objectives include site characterization and evaluation of barrier technologies.

  10. Siting guidelines for concentrating solar power plants in the Sahel: Case study of Burkina Faso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azoumah, Y.; Tapsoba, G.; Thiam, S. [Laboratoire Energie Solaire et Economie d' Energie (LESEE), Fondation 2iE (International Institute of Water an Environmental Engineering), 01 BP 594, Ouagadougou 01 (Burkina Faso); Ramde, E.W. [Solar Energy Application Laboratory (SEAL), KNUST, Kumasi (Ghana)

    2010-08-15

    Selecting a site that meets the technical requirements for a concentrating solar power plant (CSP) is a very critical exercise. This paper points out crucial factors and provides guidelines regarding the selection of suitable sites. It especially focuses on Sahelian countries which have their own climatic peculiarities. These countries, characterized by low access to electricity, are well endowed in solar resources. They are potentially good locations for concentrating solar power plants since their mean daily solar radiation exceeds 5.5 kWh/m{sup 2}. CSP presents therefore, a good opportunity for them to increase in a sustainable manner, their energy supply. The guidelines developed in this paper are applied to Burkina Faso as a case study. (author)

  11. Marginal sites in for biomass production - case study sites in northern Greece. Obstacles and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiourtsis, Fotios; Keramitzis, Dimitris; Papatheodorou, Ioannis; Tsoulakaki, Dimitra; Gontzaridou, Marina; Lampetsou, Eugenia; Fragkiskakis, Nikitas; Gerwin, Werner; Repmann, Frank; Baumgarten, Wibke

    2017-04-01

    In 2016, D.A.M.T, the Hellenic Forest Service for northern Greece (Macedonia and Thrace Regions), with the support of BTU Cottbus-Senftenberg Reseach Center Landscape Development and Mining Landscapes experts and following common standard protocols of the SEEMLA project, established three plots, in the northeastern part of Greece, in Rodopi prefecture (main forest species for biomass production: Pinus Nigra, Pinus Brutia and Robinia Pseudacacia). Nearby productive ecosystems (including forests etc.) or successional sites will be used as references for estimating the potentials of MagL. Further existing plantations of energy crops on similar MagL, will be used to assess potential crop yields. These plots represent different types of marginal lands, they were specifically selected for SEEMLA purposes (reliable and sustainable exploitation of biomass) and are entirely different from other inventories, used for typical forest operations in Greece. The main differences are:  an intensively studied core area,  Soil Quality Rating (SQR) method measurements,  Soil Classification Maps - parameters estimation (land capability classes and landforms),  tightly spaced plantations (1,5 m x 1,5 m),  cropping systems,  shorter rotations and  the need for special forest management study. The combination of these requirements with the soil conditions of the area has created significant issues on plots establishment and accurate recording of supply chain stages. Main expected SEEMLA impacts are: • provide a substantial amount of EU energy needs from marginal/degraded land, • avoidance of land use conflicts by strengthening the ability to use MagL for biomass production for energy, • reduction of EU-wide greenhouse gas, • mitigation of conflicts regarding sustainability and biodiversity for the utilization of MagL for biomass production, • growth of plantations of bioenergy carriers from MagL at competitive costs, • expansion of economic opportunities

  12. Digital recovery management: Characterizing recovery-specific social network site participation and perceived benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Brandon G; Kelly, Nathaniel W; Hoeppner, Bettina B; Vilsaint, Corrie L; Kelly, John F

    2017-06-01

    Research shows that digital social network sites (SNSs) may be valuable platforms to effect health behavior change. Little is known specifically about their ability to help address alcohol and other drug problems. This gap is noteworthy, given that individuals are already participating in existing, recovery-specific SNSs (hereafter referred to as recovery SNSs): online communities with the functionality of conventional SNSs (e.g., Facebook) that focus on substance use disorder (SUD) recovery. For example, InTheRooms.com (ITR) is a large, well-known recovery SNS that is available for free 24 hr/day via website and mobile smartphone applications. It offers recovery tools within a digital social milieu for over 430,000 registered users. To augment the knowledge base on recovery SNS platforms, we conducted an online survey of 123 ITR participants (M = 50.8 years old; 56.9% female; 93.5% White; M = 7.3 years of abstinence, range of 0-30 years; 65% cited alcohol as their primary substance). Respondents engaged with ITR, on average, for about 30 min/day several times each week. Daily meditation prompts and live online video meetings were the most commonly utilized resources. Participants generally endorsed ITR as a helpful platform, particularly with respect to increased abstinence/recovery motivation and self-efficacy. Compared to individuals abstinent for 1 or more years, those abstinent less than 1 year (including nonabstinent individuals) showed similar rates of engagement with ITR activities and similar levels of perceived benefit. Our findings suggest that longitudinal studies are warranted to examine the clinical utility of ITR and other recovery SNSs as SUD treatment adjuncts and/or recovery self-management tools. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Characterization of archaeological structures using the magnetic method in Thaje archaeological site, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhatib Alkontar, Rozan; Calou, Paul; Rohmer, Jérôme; Munschy, Marc

    2017-04-01

    Among the surface methods of exploration that have been developed to meet the new requirements of archaeological research, geophysical methods offer a wide range of applications in the study of buried deposits. As a result of the most recent development, the magnetic field- prospection method is very efficient to highlight buried foundations even if the corresponding construction material is weakly magnetized like, for example, limestone. The magnetic field, that is being measured in a specific place and at a specific time, is the vector sum of the main regional magnetic field, the effect of subsurface structures, the temporal variation (mainly solar influence) and local disturbances such as power lines, buildings, fences … The measurement method is implemented by using an array of fluxgate 3-components magnetometers carried 1 m above the floor. The advantage of using vector magnetometers is that magnetic compensation can be of achieved. An array of four magnetometers are used to survey the archaeological site of Thaje (100-300 yr BC), Saudi Arabia, and to obtain a precise location of measurements, a differential global navigation satellite system is used with an accuracy of about 10 cm relative to the base station. 25 hectares have been surveyed within 13 days and data are compile to obtain a total magnetic intensity map with a node spacing of 25 cm. The map is interpreted using magnetic field transforms, such as reduction to the pole, fractional vertical derivatives. Tilt-angle. The results show a fairly precise plan of the city where main streets, buildings and rampart can be clearly distinguished.

  14. Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array: Module Characterization Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalavadia, Mital A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smith, Leon E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McDonald, Benjamin S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kulisek, Jonathan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mace, Emily K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Deshmukh, Nikhil S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The work presented in this report is focused on the characterization and refinement of the Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array (HEVA) approach, which combines the traditional 186-keV 235U signature with high-energy prompt gamma rays from neutron capture in the detector and surrounding collimator material, to determine the relative enrichment and 235U mass of the cylinder. The design of the HEVA modules (hardware and software) deployed in the current field trial builds on over seven years of study and evolution by PNNL, and consists of a ø3''×3'' NaI(Tl) scintillator coupled to an Osprey digital multi-channel analyzer tube base from Canberra. The core of the HEVA methodology, the high-energy prompt gamma-ray signature, serves as an indirect method for the measurement of total neutron emission from the cylinder. A method for measuring the intrinsic efficiency of this “non-traditional” neutron signature and the results from a benchmark experiment are presented. Also discussed are potential perturbing effects on the non-traditional signature, including short-lived activation of materials in the HEVA module. Modeling and empirical results are presented to demonstrate that such effects are expected to be negligible for the envisioned implementation scenario. In comparison to previous versions, the new design boosts the high-energy prompt gamma-ray signature, provides more flexible and effective collimation, and improves count-rate management via commercially available pulse-processing electronics with a special modification prompted by PNNL.

  15. Study the active site of flavonoid applying radiation chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Jilan; Sun Gang; Zhang Fugen; He Yongke; Li Jiuqiang [Department of Technical Physics, Peking Univ., Beijing (China)

    2000-03-01

    Flavonoid are a large and important class of naturally occurring, low molecular weight benzo-{gamma}-pyrone derivatives which are reported to have a myriad of biological activities, but the study on the active sites of flavonoids is still ambiguous. In this paper, rutin, quercetin and baicalin have been selected as model compounds. It is well known that rutin is used in inhibiting arteriosclerosis and baicalin is antibacterial and antiviral. They have similar basic structure, but their medicinal properties are so different, why? As most flavonoids contain carbonyl group, which can capture electron effectively, we predict that flavonoids can capture electron to form radical anion. The formation of anion radical may have influence on the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The difference in the ability of forming anion radical may cause the difference in their medicinal effects. (author)

  16. Nuclear Energy Center study. Phase II. Site suitability analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, W.S.; Sharp, J.M.; Benator, B.I.

    1978-06-01

    A site screening study was conducted to identify a site or sites for detailed, site-specific study as a nuclear energy center. Using technical criteria of water requirements, geotechnical constraints, and projected load center and transmission considerations as well as environmental and institutional considerations, five potential study sites in the State of South Carolina were identified, evaluated against established criteria, and ranked according to their acceptability as potential nuclear energy center study sites. Consideration of what is ''representative'' of a site as well as the ranking score was factored into site recommendations, since the site deemed easiest to license and permit may not be the most desirable site for future study of the technical and institutional feasibility and practicality of a specific site. The sites near Lake Hartwell and the Savannah River Plant (SRP) of the Department of Energy were selected as potential study sites after consideration of the above criteria. Because the Lake Hartwell site offers the opportunity to consider institutional issues which may be more representative of other possible NEC sites, it is recommended that the Lake Hartwell site be studied to establish the feasibility and practicality of the nuclear energy concept on a site-specific basis.

  17. Insights into the glycyl radical enzyme active site of benzylsuccinate synthase: a computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Vivek S; Dean, Anthony M; Maupin, C Mark

    2013-08-21

    The fumarate addition reaction, catalyzed by the enzyme benzylsuccinate synthase (BSS), is considered to be one of the most intriguing and energetically challenging reactions in biology. BSS belongs to the glycyl radical enzyme family and catalyzes the fumarate addition reaction, which enables microorganisms to utilize hydrocarbons as an energy source under anaerobic conditions. Unfortunately, the extreme sensitivity of the glycyl radical to oxygen has hampered the structural and kinetic characterization of BSS, thereby limiting our knowledge on this enzyme. To enhance our molecular-level understanding of BSS, a computational approach involving homology modeling, docking studies, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations has been used to deduce the structure of BSS's catalytic subunit (BSSα) and illuminate the molecular basis for the fumarate addition reaction. We have identified two conserved and distinct binding pockets at the BSSα active site: a hydrophobic pocket for toluene binding and a polar pocket for fumaric acid binding. Subsequent dynamical and energetic evaluations have identified Glu509, Ser827, Leu390, and Phe384 as active site residues critical for substrate binding. The orientation of substrates at the active site observed in MD simulations is consistent with experimental observations of the syn addition of toluene to fumaric acid. It is also found that substrate binding tightens the active site and restricts the conformational flexibility of the thiyl radical, leading to hydrogen transfer distances conducive to the proposed reaction mechanism. The stability of substrates at the active site and the occurrence of feasible radical transfer distances between the thiyl radical, substrates, and the active site glycine indicate a substrate-assisted radical transfer pathway governing fumarate addition.

  18. Weeks Island brine diffuser site study: baseline conditions and environmental assessment technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-12

    This technical report presents the results of a study conducted at two alternative brine diffuser sites (A and B) proposed for the Weeks Island salt dome, together with an analysis of the potential physical, chemical, and biological effects of brine disposal for this area of the Gulf of Mexico. Brine would result from either the leaching of salt domes to form or enlarge oil storage caverns, or the subsequent use of these caverns for crude oil storage in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program. Brine leached from the Weeks Island salt dome would be transported through a pipeline which would extend from the salt dome either 27 nautical miles (32 statute miles) for Site A, or 41 nautical miles (47 statute miles) for Site B, into Gulf waters. The brine would be discharged at these sites through an offshore diffuser at a sustained peak rate of 39 ft/sup 3//sec. The disposal of large quantities of brine in the Gulf could have a significant impact on the biology and water quality of the area. Physical and chemical measurements of the marine environment at Sites A and B were taken between September 1977 and July 1978 to correlate the existing environmental conditions with the estimated physical extent of tthe brine discharge as predicted by the MIT model (US Dept. of Commerce, 1977a). Measurements of wind, tide, waves, currents, and stratification (water column structure) were also obtained since the diffusion and dispersion of the brine plume are a function of the local circulation regime. These data were used to calculate both near- and far-field concentrations of brine, and may also be used in the design criteria for diffuser port configuration and verification of the plume model. Biological samples were taken to characterize the sites and to predict potential areas of impact with regard to the discharge. This sampling focused on benthic organisms and demersal fish. (DMC)

  19. Physicochemical characterization of ceramics from Sao Paulo II archaeological site; Caracterizacao fisico-quimica da ceramica do sitio arqueologico Sao Paulo II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Rogerio Baria

    2013-08-01

    Archaeometry is a consolidated field with a wide application of nuclear analytical techniques for the characterization, protection, and restoration of archaeological pieces. This project aimed at studying the elementary chemical composition of 70 ceramic fragments samples from Sao Paulo II archaeological site, located along the Solimoes River channel, next to Coari city, in Brazilian Amazon. The characterization of samples was performed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). By the determination of 24 elements in the ceramic fragments ( Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Sb, Sm. Rb, Se, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn), it was possible to define groups of samples regarding the similarity/dissimilarity in elementary chemical composition. For such a task, the multivariate statistical methods employed were cluster analysis (C A), principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA). Afterwards, seven ceramic fragments were selected based on the groups previously established, for the characterization of the site temporal horizon. Those ceramic fragments were analyzed by thermoluminescence (TL) and EPR for dating purposes. The firing temperatures were determined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique, in order to infer about some aspects of the ceramic manufacture employed by the ancient peoples that lived in Sao Paulo 11. By the results obtained in this study, it was possible to identify the quantity of clay sources employed by the ceramists and the age of the ceramic pieces. Therefore, the results of this research may contribute to the study on the occupation dynamics in the pre-colonial Brazilian Amazon. (author)

  20. Background complementary hydrogeochemical studies. SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinowski, Birgitta E. (ed.)

    2008-08-15

    The overall objectives of the hydrogeochemical description for Forsmark are to establish a detailed understanding of the hydrogeochemical conditions at the site and to develop models that fulfil the needs identified by the safety assessment groups during the site investigation phase. Issues of concern to safety assessment are radionuclide transport and technical barrier behaviour, both of which are dependent on the chemistry of groundwater and pore water and their evolution with time. The work has involved the development of descriptive and mathematical models for groundwaters in relation to rock domains, fracture domains and deformation zones. Past climate changes are one of the major driving forces for hydrogeochemical changes and therefore of fundamental importance for understanding the palaeohydrogeological, palaeohydrogeochemical and present evolution of groundwater in the crystalline bedrock of the Fennoscandian Shield. Understanding current undisturbed hydrochemical conditions at the proposed repository site is important when predicting future changes in groundwater chemistry. The causes of copper corrosion and/or bentonite degradation are of particular interest as they may jeopardise the long-term integrity of the planned SKB repository system. Thus, the following variables are considered for the hydrogeochemical site descriptive modelling: pH, Eh, sulphur species, iron, manganese, uranium, carbonate, phosphate, nitrogen species, total dissolved solids (TDS), isotopes, colloids, fulvic and humic acids and microorganisms. In addition, dissolved gases (e.g. carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen) are of interest because of their likely participation in microbial reactions. In this series of reports, the final hydrogeochemical evaluation work of the site investigation at the Forsmark site, is presented. The work was conducted by SKB's hydrogeochemical project group, ChemNet, which consists of independent consultants and university researchers with expertise

  1. Characterization of uranium contaminated soils from DOE Fernald Environmental Management Project Site: Results of Phase 1 characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.Y.; Marsh, J.D. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The Integrated Demonstration (ID) for remediation of uranium- contaminated soils has been established by the DOE Office of Technology Development. The Fernald (Feed Materials Production Center) site was selected as the DOE facility for the field demonstration. The principle objective of this ID is to evaluate and compare the versatility, efficiency, and economics of various technologies that may be combined into systems for the removal of uranium from contaminated soils. Several leaching solutions were employed to determine their effectiveness in extracting uranium from the soil. The extractants and their means of preparation were: 0.1 N nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}): 6.25 mL of concentrated nitric acid was diluted to 1 L with distilled water; 2% ammonium carbonate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}CO{sub 3}): 20 g of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}CO{sub 3} was dissolved in distilled water and diluted to 1 L; 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl): 50 mL of NaOCl reagent (Cl < 6%) was diluted to 1 L with distilled water; 0.1 M ethylenediaminetetraacetric acid, disodium salt (EDTA): 37.224 g EDTA was dissolved in distilled water and diluted to 1 L; 2% citric acid monohydrate solution (H{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O{sub 7}{center dot}H{sub 2}O): 20 g of critic acid was diluted to 1 L with distilled water; 0.1 M hydroxylamine-hydrochloride (NH{sub 2}OH{center dot}HCl) in 0.01 N nitric acid: 6.95 g (NH{sub 2}OH{center dot}HCl) was dissolved and diluted to 1 L with 0.01 N HNO{sub 3}. The 0.01 N nitric acid was prepared by diluting 3 mL concentrated nitric acid to 5 L with distilled water; and the sodium citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite (CBD) method: 0.3 M sodium citrate (88 g tribasic sodium citrate, Na{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O{sub 7}{center dot}2H{sub 2}O, per liter); 1 M sodium bicarbonate (84 g NaHCO{sub 3} per liter); and 5 g sodium dithionite, Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 4}.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and conductivity studies of polypyrrole ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The polypyrrole–fly ash composites were also characterized by employing X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (IR). ... Department of Physics, GM Institute of Technology, Davangere 577 006, India; Department of Physics, KBN College of Engineering, Gulbarga 585 104, India; Department of Materials ...

  3. Initial characterization of mudstone nanoporosity with small angle neutron scattering using caprocks from carbon sequestration sites.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCray, John (Colorado School of Mines); Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis (Colorado School of Mines); Mouzakis, Katherine (Colorado School of Mines); Heath, Jason E.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Rother, Gernot (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)

    2010-11-01

    Geological carbon sequestration relies on the principle that CO{sub 2} injected deep into the subsurface is unable to leak to the atmosphere. Structural trapping by a relatively impermeable caprock (often mudstone such as a shale) is the main trapping mechanism that is currently relied on for the first hundreds of years. Many of the pores of the caprock are of micrometer to nanometer scale. However, the distribution, geometry and volume of porosity at these scales are poorly characterized. Differences in pore shape and size can cause variation in capillary properties and fluid transport resulting in fluid pathways with different capillary entry pressures in the same sample. Prediction of pore network properties for distinct geologic environments would result in significant advancement in our ability to model subsurface fluid flow. Specifically, prediction of fluid flow through caprocks of geologic CO{sub 2} sequestration reservoirs is a critical step in evaluating the risk of leakage to overlying aquifers. The micro- and nanoporosity was analyzed in four mudstones using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). These mudstones are caprocks of formations that are currently under study or being used for carbon sequestration projects and include the Marine Tuscaloosa Group, the Lower Tuscaloosa Group, the upper and lower shale members of the Kirtland Formation, and the Pennsylvanian Gothic shale. Total organic carbon varies from <0.3% to 4% by weight. Expandable clay contents range from 10% to {approx}40% in the Gothic shale and Kirtland Formation, respectively. Neutrons effectively scatter from interfaces between materials with differing scattering length density (i.e. minerals and pores). The intensity of scattered neutrons, I(Q), where Q is the scattering vector, gives information about the volume of pores and their arrangement in the sample. The slope of the scattering data when plotted as log I(Q) vs. log Q provides information about the fractality or geometry of

  4. Hayabusa2 NIRS3’s Investigation to Characterize and Select Sampling and Landing Sites on Asteroid (25143) Ryugu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takir, Driss; Hibbitts, Charles A.; Le Corre, Lucille; Emery, Joshua P.; Kitazato, Kohei; Sugita, Seiji; Nakauchi, Yusuke

    2017-10-01

    Following the visit of the spacecraft Hayabusa to (25143) Itokawa in 2005, the Japanese Space Agency (JAXA) launched a second spacecraft, Hayabusa2, in 2014 to the near-Earth Apollo asteroid (162173) Ryugu, a C-complex asteroid. Hayabusa2 will arrive at Ryugu in 2018. Near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) are important objects to study because of their possible role in the delivery of water and complex organic molecules to early Earth, and their threats to impact the Earth at irregular and unpredictable periods in the future. Hayabusa2 mission will provide exceptional science with a primary objective to illuminate the origin, evolution, and distribution of volatiles and organics on the surface of Ryugu and in the Solar System. Here we present our Near Infrared Spectrometer(NIRS3)-related strategy and plan to help the science team to characterize and select sampling and landing sites to collect carbonaceous samples from Ryugu and bring them back to Earth in 2020. Our plan includes, (1) measuring spectra of various carbonaceous chondrites and end-member hydrated silicates under asteroid-like conditions (vacuum and elevated temperatures) to develop spectral parameters of minerals and chemical compounds that we expect to detect on Ryugu, particularly around 2.8 to 3.2 µm, and (2) thermally and photometrically correcting Ryugu’s spectra to create site-specific and global maps of the mineralogical and chemical relative abundances across Ryugu’s surface, in addition to creating various albedo maps, including the geometric and bolometric Bond albedo. Previous 3-µm spectroscopic studies were conducted in ambient terrestrial environments, and hence were contaminated by atmospheric water. In our work, however, chondrite reflectance and hydrated mineral spectra are measured under asteroid-like conditions to remove adsorbed water and accurately compute the spectral parameters that will be used for Ryugu’s mineralogical and chemical mapping.AcknowledgementsWe wish to thank the

  5. In vivo and in vitro characterization of site-specific recombination of a novel serine integrase from the temperate phage EFC-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Bohyun; Kim, Inki; Nam, Ja-Ae [Asan Institute for Life Sciences, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, 86 Asanbyeoungwon-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Hyo-Ihl [College of Life Sciences & Biotechnology, Korea University, 5-1 Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Chang Hoon, E-mail: chhoonha@amc.seoul.kr [Asan Institute for Life Sciences, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, 86 Asanbyeoungwon-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-22

    EFC-1 integrase is a site-specific recombinase that belongs to the large family of serine recombinase. In previously study, we isolated the temperate phage EFC-1, and characterized its genomic sequence. Within its genome, Orf28 was predicted encode a 464 amino acid of a putative integrase gene. In this study, EFC-1 integrase was characterized in vitro and in vivo. In vitro assay was performed using purified His-tag fusion integrase. Also, to identify which serine is involved in the catalytic domain, we used site-directed mutagenesis and analyzed by a recombination assay in vitro. In vivo assay involved PCR and confocal microscopy in HEK293 cells, and determined the minimal lengths of attP and attB sites. According to our results, the EFC-1 integrase-mediated recombination was site-specific and unidirectional system in vitro and in vivo. Serine 21 of EFC-1 integrase plays a major role in the catalytic domain, and minimal sizes of attB and attP was defined 48 and 54 bp. Our finding may help develop a useful tool for gene therapy and gene delivery system. - Highlights: • EFC-1 integrase-mediated recombination was site-specific and unidirectional system. • Serine 21 of EFC-1 integrase plays a major role in the catalytic domain. • The functional minimal sizes of attB and attP was defined 48 and 54 bp.

  6. Seismic site characterization of an urban dedimentary basin, Livermore Valley, California: Site tesponse, basin-edge-induced surface waves, and 3D simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, Stephen; Leeds, Alena L.; Ramirez-Guzman, Leonardo; Allen, James P.; Schmitt, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    Thirty‐two accelerometers were deployed in the Livermore Valley, California, for approximately one year to study sedimentary basin effects. Many local and near‐regional earthquakes were recorded, including the 24 August 2014 Mw 6.0 Napa, California, earthquake. The resulting ground‐motion data set is used to quantify the seismic response of the Livermore basin, a major structural depression in the California Coast Range Province bounded by active faults. Site response is calculated by two methods: the reference‐site spectral ratio method and a source‐site spectral inversion method. Longer‐period (≥1  s) amplification factors follow the same general pattern as Bouguer gravity anomaly contours. Site response spectra are inverted for shallow shear‐wave velocity profiles, which are consistent with independent information. Frequency–wavenumber analysis is used to analyze plane‐wave propagation across the Livermore Valley and to identify basin‐edge‐induced surface waves with back azimuths different from the source back azimuth. Finite‐element simulations in a 3D velocity model of the region illustrate the generation of basin‐edge‐induced surface waves and point out strips of elevated ground velocities along the margins of the basin.

  7. Characterization of a former dump site in the Lagoon of Venice contaminated by municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash, and estimation of possible environmental risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, Chiarafrancesca; Zamengo, Luca; Rampazzo, Giancarlo; Argese, Emanuele

    2009-10-01

    Bottom ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator on a former contaminated site, the island of Sacca San Biagio (Lagoon of Venice), was examined in order to evaluate levels of pollutants and their potential mobility and availability. Heavy metal concentrations were determined and the actual contamination of the site was compared with national legislation on polluted sites. The site was mainly contaminated by zinc, copper and lead. Physico-chemical characterization of bottom ash was carried out by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) with micro-analysis by EDS (Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy) and XRD (X-ray Diffractometry), for information on newly formed minerals. SEM-EDS analysis revealed the presence of particles, compounds and clusters containing heavy metals and, in particular, the presence of barium sulfate, which was assumed to be a site-specific compound. Similarities between bottom ash and atmospheric PM10 collected on the adjacent island of Sacca Fisola were studied and a risk of aerodispersion of the fine fraction of ash was assumed. Lastly, in order to evaluate the potentially available fraction of metals (non-residual fraction) and the directly exchangeable fraction, two single extraction procedures with HCl and citric acid were carried out, respectively. Results showed a relatively low concentration of readily phyto-available metals, as well as the high concentrations found for some heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn) in the potentially mobilizable fraction.

  8. Congenital Anomalies in Contaminated Sites: A Multisite Study in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Michele; Minichilli, Fabrizio; Pierini, Anna; Astolfi, Gianni; Bisceglia, Lucia; Carbone, Pietro; Conti, Susanna; Dardanoni, Gabriella; Iavarone, Ivano; Ricci, Paolo; Scarano, Gioacchino; Bianchi, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    The health impact on populations residing in industrially contaminated sites (CSs) is recognized as a public health concern especially in relation to more vulnerable population subgroups. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of congenital anomalies (CAs) in Italian CSs. Thirteen CSs covered by regional CA registries were investigated in an ecological study. The observed/expected ratios (O/E) with 90% confidence intervals (CI) for the total and specific subgroups of CAs were calculated using the regional areas as references. For the CSs with waste landfills, petrochemicals, and refineries, pooled estimates were calculated. The total number of observed cases of CAs was 7085 out of 288,184 births (prevalence 245.8 per 10,000). For some CSs, excesses for several CA subgroups were observed, in particular for genital and heart defects. The excess of genital CAs observed in Gela (O/E 2.36; 90% CI 1.73–3.15) is consistent with findings from other studies. For CSs including petrochemical and landfills, the pooled risk estimates were 1.10 (90% CI 1.01–1.19) and 1.07 (90% CI 1.02–1.13), respectively. The results are useful in identifying priority areas for analytical investigations and in supporting the promotion of policies for the primary prevention of CAs. The use of short-latency effect indicators is recommended for the health surveillance of the populations residing in CSs. PMID:28287452

  9. Characterization of stored defense production spent nulcear fuel and associated materials at Hanford Site, Richland Washington: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    There are about 2,100 tonnes (2,300 tons) of defense production spent nuclear fuel stored in the 100-K Area Basins located along the south shore of the Columbia River in the northern part of the Hanford Site. Some of the fuel which has been in storage for a number of years is in poor condition and continues to deteriorate. The basins also contain fuel fragments and radioactively contaminated sludge. The DOE needs to characterize defense production spent nuclear fuel and associated materials stored on the Hanford Site. In order to satisfy that need, the Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to select, collect and transport samples of spent nuclear fuel and associated materials to the 327 Building for characterization. As a result of that characterization, modes of interim storage can be determined that would be compatible with the material in its present state and alternative treatment processes could be developed to permit a broader selection of storage modes. Environmental impacts of the proposed action were determined to be limited principally to radiation exposure of workers, which, however, were found to be small. No health effects among workers or the general public would be expected under routine operations. Implementation of the proposed action would not result in any impacts on cultural resources, threatened, endangered and candidate species, air or water quality, socioeconomic conditions, or waste management.

  10. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization Report, Revision 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Cannon, Sandra D.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Hoitink, Dana J.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.; Reidel, Steve P.; Rohay, Alan C.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Scott, Michael J.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2005-09-30

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many environmental documents being prepared by DOE contractors concerning the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). No statements about significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year’s report is the seventeenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the eighteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (EISs) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology; air quality; geology; hydrology; ecology; cultural, archaeological, and historical resources; socioeconomics; noise; and occupational health and safety. Sources for extensive tabular data related to these topics are provided in the chapter. Most subjects are divided into a general description of the characteristics of the Hanford Site, followed by site-specific information, where available, of the 100, 200, 300, and other areas. This division allows the reader to go directly to those sections of particular interest. When specific information on each of these separate areas is not complete or available, the general Hanford Site description should be used. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities

  11. Collaborative Research: Hydrogeological-Geophysical Methods for Subsurface Site Characterization - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavko, G.

    2000-01-01

    This research contributes three newly-developed relationships that significantly improve aquifer characterization: (1) a general relationship between total and channel porosities, (2) a general relationship between electrical resistivity and channel porosity, and (3) bounds on the electrical resistivity - seismic velocity relationship.

  12. Characterization of lysine 56 of histone H3 as an acetylation site in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozdemir, A.; Spicuglia, S.; Lasonder, E.; Vermeulen, M.; Campsteijn, C.G.; Stunnenberg, H.G.; Logie, C.

    2005-01-01

    Post-translational histone modifications abound and regulate multiple nuclear processes. Most modifications are targeted to the amino-terminal domains of histones. Here we report the identification and characterization of acetylation of lysine 56 within the core domain of histone H3. In the crystal

  13. 76 FR 51391 - Commercial Wind Lease Issuance and Site Characterization Activities on the Atlantic Outer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... Characterization Activities on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Rhode Island and Massachusetts... wind energy developers, and the public in the Department of the Interior's (DOI) ``Smart from the Start'' wind energy initiative. The purpose of the ``Smart from the Start'' wind energy initiative is to...

  14. 76 FR 40925 - Commercial Wind Lease Issuance and Site Characterization Activities on the Atlantic Outer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... Characterization Activities on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland... online at: http://www.boemre.gov/offshore/RenewableEnergy/SmartFromTheStart.htm . Authority: This Notice... November 23, 2010, Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar announced the ``Smart from the Start'' renewable...

  15. 76 FR 7226 - Commercial Wind Lease Issuance and Site Characterization Activities; Atlantic Outer Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... Characterization Activities; Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Offshore NJ, DE, MD, and VA AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean... developers, and the public in the Department of the Interior's (DOI) ``Smart from the Start'' wind energy... Salazar announced the ``Smart from the Start'' renewable energy initiative to accelerate responsible...

  16. Ab Initio Study of Lattice Site Occupancies in Binary Sigma Phases Using a Single-Site Mean Field Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya Kabliman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The site occupation of binary Fe-Cr, Co-Cr, Re-W and Fe-V sigma phases is studied in the present work with a first-principles-based single-site mean field theory. We show that the alloy components in these systems exhibit similar site preferences except for the Re-W system, where the occupation of two sites is reversed in agreement with previously published works. In case of the FeV sigma phase, for which the size mismatch between the alloy components is large, we also include into our consideration the effect of local lattice relaxations. The obtained results are found in good agreement with the experimental data and previous theoretical studies.

  17. The content and design of Web sites : an empirical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizingh, EKRE

    2000-01-01

    To support the emergence of a solid knowledge base for analyzing Web activity, we have developed a framework to analyze and categorize the capabilities of Web sites. This distinguishes content from design. Content refers to the information, features, or services that are offered in the Web site,

  18. Characterization of Italian strong-motion recording sites for a new soil classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacor, F.; Luzi, L.; Bindi, D.; Parolai, S.; Picozzi, M.; Pilz, M.; Mucciarelli, M.; Gallipoli, M.; Paolucci, R.

    2009-12-01

    This works is carried out in the framework of the project S4 “Italian strong-motion database” funded by the Italian Civil Protection, whose aims include the evaluation of the seismic response of accelerometric stations and explore new soil parameters to be used for site classification scheme. Actually, the site classification of the national accelerometric network is mainly based on geological information, since only for few stations detailed geophysical/geotechnical information are available. From the Italian strong motion data set, we developed ground motion prediction equations (GrMPEs) in which the sites are subdivided into three classes based on geology and deposit thickness. We found that the dominant component of variance is related to the inter-station component, suggesting that alternative classification criteria should be adopted in order to reduce the inter-station variability. To evaluate the effectiveness of the average shear wave velocity of the topmost 30m as parameter to classify the soils, we collected about 50 Italian sites, where measures of Vs30 were available, together with a relevant number of seismic recordings. Furthermore, we planned to determinate shear wave velocity profiles at about other 50 accelerometer stations through the active and passive surface wave methods. In this analysis we also considered data from stations in the area of the recently occurred Mw 6.3 Abruzzo earthquake. In particular, the S-wave velocity profile for the village of Onna, that was severely damaged during the earthquake, was included to the data set. We calculated the site response using empirical techniques and simplified theoretical models. Moreover we compared the observed strong motion parameters to those from seismic provisions or from GrMPEs and evaluated the residuals. In many cases the inefficiency of the Vs30 classification was evident, especially for those sites located on deep sedimentary basins. The results confirm that additional parameters

  19. Geostatistical characterization of soil pollution at industrial sites Case of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at former coking plants; Caracterisation geostatistique de pollutions industrielles de sols cas des hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques sur d'anciens sites de cokeries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeannee, N.

    2001-05-15

    Estimating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in soil at former industrial sites poses several practical problems on account of the properties of the contaminants and the history of site: 1)collection and preparation of samples from highly heterogeneous material, 2) high short scale variability, particularly in presence of backfill, 3) highly contrasted grades making the vario-gram inference complicated. The sampling strategy generally adopted for contaminated sites is based on the historical information. Systematic sampling recommended for geostatistical estimation is often considered to be excessive and unnecessary. Two former coking plants are used as test cases for comparing several geostatistical methods for estimating (i) in situ concentrations and (ii) the probability that they are above a pollution threshold. Several practical and methodological questions are considered: 1) the properties of various estimators of the experimental vario-gram and the validity of the results; 2) the use of soft data, such as historical information, organoleptic observations and semi-quantitative methods, with a view to improve the precision of the estimates; 3) the comparison of standard sampling strategies, taking into account vertical repartition of grades and the history of the site. Multiple analyses of the same sample give an approximation of the sampling error. Short scale sampling shows the difficulty of selecting soils in the absence of a spatial structure. Sensitivity studies are carried out to assess how densely sampled soft data can improve estimates. By using mainly existing models, this work aims at giving practical recommendations for the characterization of soil pollution. (author)

  20. Modification and characterization of sites giving acid cracking on aluminium oxide supports; Modification et caracterisation des sites responsables du craquage acide sur des supports a base d`alumine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillaume, D.

    1997-10-23

    The aim of this work is to characterize the surface acid properties of {gamma} alumina, especially the nature, the amount, the strength and the environment of acid sites. The techniques that have been used are: the thermo-desorption of trimethyl-phosphine followed by {sup 31}P MAS NMR, the infrared spectroscopy, the n-heptane cracking, the modification of {gamma} alumina by the addition of chlorine, silicon and alkali (K{sup +}, Na{sup +}), alkaline-earths (Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}), lanthanum (La{sup 3+}) cations. The combination of these techniques has allowed to identify the surface acid properties of {gamma} alumina through the n-heptane transformation reactions under reforming conditions. We have shown that Lewis acidity is responsible for cracking reactions leading to C{sub 1}-C{sub 6} and C{sub 2}-C{sub 5} whereas the cracking of n-heptane producing C{sub 3}-C{sub 4} is due to Broensted acid sites. The isomerization and cyclization reactions both require weaker Broensted acid sites than cracking leading to C{sub 3}-C{sub 4}. The mechanisms involved in the formation of products of these reactions have been identified. Despite the complexity of surface acid properties of {gamma} alumina, this study has determined the environment of catalytically active sites, considering the presence of cation vacancies. (author) 206 refs.

  1. Thermodynamic DNA Looping by a Two-Site Restriction Endonuclease Studied using Optical Tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmen, Gregory J.

    2005-03-01

    Many enzyme-DNA interactions involve multimeric protein complexes that bind at two distant sites such that the DNA is looped. An example is the type IIe restriction enzyme Sau3AI, which requires two recognition sites to cleave the DNA. Here we study this process at the single DNA level using force measuring optical tweezers. We characterize cleavage rates of single DNA molecules in the presence of Sau3AI as a function of enzyme concentration, incubation time, and the fractional extension of the DNA molecule. Activity is completely inhibited by tensions of a few picoNewtons. By replacing Mg^2+ with Ca^2+, the Sau3AI dimers form but do not cleave the DNA, thus trapping DNA loops. We are able to pull apart these loops, measuring the force needed and the length of DNA released for each. We also characterize the number and length distributions of these loops as a function of incubation time and DNA fractional extension. The results of these studies are discussed in the context of a Brownian dynamics model of DNA looping.

  2. Characterization of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats sites in Streptococcus mutans isolated from early childhood caries patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Li, Tiancheng; Zhou, Xuedong; Cheng, Lei; Huo, Yuanyuan; Zou, Jing; Li, Yuqing

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) sites in 45 clinical Streptococcus mutans strains and their relationship to the clinical manifestations of early childhood caries (ECC). Forty-five S. mutans strains were isolated from the plaque samples taken from sixty-three children. CRISPR sites were sequenced and BLAST was used to compare these sites to those in the CRISPRTarget database. The association between the distribution of CRISPR sites and the manifestation of caries was analyzed by Chi-Square test. Further, biofilm formation (by crystal violet staining) and the synthesis of polysaccharide (by anthrone-sulfuric method) of all clinical isolated S. mutans strains with both CRISPR sites and no CRISPR site were comapared. Finally, acidogenicity and acidurity of two typical strains were determined using pH drop and acid tolerance assays. Biofilm formation and EPS synthesis by two typical strains were compared by 3D CLSM (Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope) assays and the expression of gtf genes were evaluated using qPCR. We found that most of the spacers in the clinical S. mutans strains were derived from Streptococcus phages APCM01 and M102. The number of CRISPR sites in these strains was associated with the clinical manifestations of ECC. Moreover, we found that the biofilm formation and EPS synthesis ability of the S. mutans strains with both CRISPR sites was significant improved. An association was found between the distribution of CRISPR sites and the clinical manifestations of caries. The CRISPR sites might contribute to the cariogenic potential of S. mutans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Discovery and characterization of surface binding sites in polysaccharide converting enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkens, Casper

    Enzymes that act on various polysaccharides are widespread in any domain of life and they play a role in degradation, modification, and synthesis of carbohydrates. These carbohydrate active enzymes interact with their substrate (the polysaccharide) at the active site and often at so called subsites...... polysaccharide binding interactions to also occur at a distance from the active site. AnAbf62A-m2,3’s preferred substrate is wheat arabinoxylan having kcat and KM of 178 ± 26 s-1 and 4.90 ± 0.91 mg ml-1, respectively. While AnAbf62A-m2,3 from singly substituted xylose releases 1,2-linked at threefold higher rate...

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF BENTONITE FOR ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEMS IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravko Domitrović

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Engineered barrier systems are used in radioactive waste disposal sites in order to provide better protection of humans and the environment from the potential hazards associated with the radioactive waste disposal. The engineered barrier systems usually contain cement or clay (bentonite because of their isolation properties and long term performance. Quality control tests of clays are the same for all engineering barrier systems. Differences may arise in the required criteria to be met due for different application. Prescribed clay properties depend also on the type of host rocks. This article presents radioactive waste management based on best international practice. Standard quality control procedures for bentonite used as a sealing barrier in radioactive waste disposal sites are described as some personal experiences and results of the index tests (free swelling index, water adsorption capacity, plasticity limits and hydraulic permeability of bentonite (the paper is published in Croatian.

  5. Hydrogeological characterization of a bank filtration experiment site at the Rio Grande, El Paso, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, R.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Pillai, S.; Abdel-Fattah, A.; Widmer, K.

    2003-04-01

    An experiment site was constructed along an artificial channel of the Rio Grande in El Paso, Texas. The experiment was funded by the EPA and is designed to measure the effectiveness of bank filtration in an arid environment. Regionally, the experiment is important because of the hundreds of thousands of people drinking water from shallow wells drilled in close proximity to septic systems. A pumping well was drilled 17 meters from the stream bank and screened from 3.5 to 8 m depth. A cruciform array of observation wells with several multilevel completions allows detection of downstream and vertical movement of water as well as flow from the stream to the well. All of the wells were continuously cored during drilling. Analysis of the cores reveals that the site consists of two stacked channels filled with sand deposited from the meandering Rio Grande. A grid of ground-penetrating radar lines provided three-dimensional coverage between wells and showed bedding to 6.5 m depth. Constant head hydraulic conductivities show that the aquifer consists of two more permeable units separated by the less permeable upper fill of the lower channel complex, with vertical hydraulic conductivities of (1x10-6 to 2x10-6 m/s?). The intervals above and below this interval have the highest vertical conductivities (up to 3.5x10-5 m/s). A multiple pumping and tracer test was conducted using the cruciform array of the field site that consisted of a pumping well, 16 observation wells, and a stream sampling point. The average hydraulic conductivity of the geological media at the field site was about 2 x 10-3 m/s based on pumping test analysis. However, the type curve responses revealed significant heterogeneity of hydraulic conductivity throughout the field site. For the tracer test, bromide and microspheres were used as tracers. Microspheres were used to mimic the behavior of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. The tracers (bromide and microspheres of different sizes and colors) were injected in one

  6. Preface Special issue: Monitoring and Seismic Characterization of Archaeological Sites and Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Clemente

    2017-07-01

    In this perspective a team composed by researchers of ENEA, INGV and Sapienza University of Rome has recently carried out geophysical and st