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Sample records for sir ian william

  1. Whither Sir William?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Greenberg, MSLS, PhD

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There are times when something is simply so familiar that we can no longer see it at all. It can be a story, or a concept, or even a flesh-and-blood person. Familiarity breeds not only contempt, but a kind of invisibility as well. For too many of us, such is the case with Sir William Osler. In his time (1849–1919, many considered him to be one of the greatest practitioners, teachers, and writers ever in the field of medicine. He was instrumental in the founding of the Medical Library Association (MLA and was elected its second president.

  2. Sir William Mitchell (1925-2002)

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Sir William (Bill) Mitchell, former President of the CERN Council, died on 30th October 2002 at the age of 77. Mitchell was professor of Physics at Oxford University from 1978 to 1989, having previously been Professor of Physics, Dean of Science and Deputy Vice-Chancellor at Reading University. From 1985 to 1990 he was Chairman of the UK's Science and Engineering Research Council (SERC), which at the time was the funding agency for the UK's participation in the CERN programme. As Chairman, Mitchell was one of the UK representatives on the CERN Council, and in 1991 he was elected President, a position he held for three years. This was a difficult period for CERN. Financial problems were being faced in many member states, notably in Germany as a result of unification. This led to calls for reductions in the CERN budget and, more significantly, to requests for delays in consderation of future programmes. On the other hand for the future of CERN and the progress of elementary particle physics, it was necessary...

  3. Sir William Jenner (1815-1898) and Queen Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, David; Queen Victoria

    2004-08-01

    This biographical note outlines the work of Sir William Jenner (1815-1898), court physician 1861-93 and President of the Royal College of Physicians 1881-8. He was the first to distinguish between typhoid and typhus both clinically and pathologically.

  4. Ian D. Copestake, The Ethics of William Carlos Williams’s Poetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristotle University of Greece

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ian D. Copestake’s monograph on William Carlos Williams’s poetry offers a well-informed and well-documented insight into the connection between Williams’s writing with Unitarianism and Emersonian thinking. In this very well-written and accessible book, the reader gets introduced to a number of poems in addition to excerpts from Williams’s essays, letters and autobiography which facilitate the understanding and appreciation of the poet’s attempt to promote “independent thought and action” (5....

  5. Sir William Osler's speech at Troy: a Trojan horse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael E

    2012-01-01

    Troy, New York, is a city of 55,000 people in upstate New York located along the Hudson River. A city of surprisingly rich cultural heritage, it was the home of New York state's first hospital outside New York City. The 50th anniversary celebration of Troy's hospital brought William Osler to the city as the keynote speaker. This speech, delivered on November 28, 1900, is one of Sir William's less well known addresses. Osler began his comments with Sir Thomas More's Utopia and talked at length about the hospital, its obligations, the influences it has upon the community, and the role of physicians and surgeons. He broached one of his old saws, the salary of attending physicians and their needed role in hospital management. His words were published in the diamond jubilee's records, but the hospital did not outlive its prominent guest professor, and it closed its doors in 1914. Just like the great historical city of Troy, New York's own Troy was on the brink of decline, and its hospital would be the first fatality. Therefore, it is almost prescient that the words of Osler, taken into historical context juxtaposed against the socioeconomic forces at work, are akin to the Greek's offering of a wooden edifice to end the Trojan War.

  6. OBITUARY: Sir William Mitchell Physicist and enthusiast for science

    CERN Multimedia

    Cowley, R

    2002-01-01

    "William Mitchell was successively head of Physics at Reading and Oxford universities, and Chairman of the Science and Engineering Research Council from 1985 to 1990. He is largely responsible for the excellent neutron and X-ray facilities that are available for research by scientists in the UK. He was one of the first to realise that these uniquely powerful facilities would be essential tools not only for physicists but also for chemists, biologists, materials scientists and engineers" (1 page).

  7. [Sir William Richard Gowers: author of the "bible of neurology"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Genjiro

    2014-11-01

    William Richard Gowers is one of the great pioneers in neurology and the author of the well-known neurology textbook, "A Manual of Diseases of the Nervous System." His concepts of neurology are based on meticulously and carefully accumulated knowledge of history, observations, and neurological examinations of patients with various neurological diseases. He is not only a great neurologist but also a great teacher who loves teaching students and physicians through well-prepared lectures. We can glean the essence of the field of neurology through his life story and numerous writings concerning neurological diseases.

  8. Sir William Petty: modern epidemiologist (1623-1687).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, J E

    1987-01-01

    William Petty, physician, epidemiologist, political economist, demographer, cartographer, and administrator was an intellectual product of the seventeenth century. Petty was born in the year 1623 in Romsey, England of lower middle class parents; however, by the time of his death in 1687 he had become a knight of the realm, founder of the Royal Society, and friend of kings. Petty's life reflected the northern renaissance which induced such dramatic changes in science, technology, politics, and entrepreneurship. His education was eclectic, nonetheless he took his Doctor of Physic degree from Oxford in 1649 and became an Oxford don, where he spent the next few years as an academic before undertaking a definitive survey of Ireland on behalf of the Cromwell government. Ireland changed Petty's destiny and he became a man of the world and entrepreneur which stimulated his interest in public policy formulation and economics. It was Petty's peculiar genius to be innovative in the application of measurement, statistics, and mathematics to socioeconomic and demographic phenomena. As a physician he related his knowledge of health and disease to these phenomena in what in the modern context would be called human ecology or social epidemiology. These relationships and their measurement were employed to establish an objective set of data which could be analyzed for the purpose of rational public policy planning by the state. This scientific approach to public policy places Petty squarely in the context of modern epidemiologic and public health practice and marks the initiation of a major use of the epidemiologic method.

  9. Ut Pictura Poesis : dialéctica entre palabras e imagen en Sir William Sterling Maxwell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Macartney

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se analiza la estrecha relación entre la historia del arte de Sir William Stirling Maxwell, su biblioteca y su colección artística. Este vínculo encierra la clave para la comprensión de su excepcional aportación a la historiografía del arte español. Sus diversas actividades, como historiador del arte, coleccionista de libros y cuadros, y director de ediciones privadas de libros raros, fueron todas manifestaciones de su gran fascinación por el paralelo entre la literatura y el arte, la palabra y la imagen. Tal relación se encuentra incluso en el esquema decorativo de su biblioteca.This article examines the remarkable unity between Sir William Stirling Maxwell's art history, his library and his art collection and argües that this relationship is the key to understanding his unique contribution to scholarship of Spanish art. In particular, it will be shown that his actlvities as an art historian, bibliophile, art collector and editor of prívate editions of rare books were all expressions of his fascination with the relationship between literature and art in general, and more specifically between word and image. Even the decorative scheme of his library emphasised this relationship.

  10. Sir William Burnett (1779-1861), professional head of the Royal Naval Medical Department and entrepreneur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Christopher

    2004-08-01

    Sir William Burnett (1779-1861) had an active career as a Royal Navy surgeon in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, including service at the battles of St Vincent, the Nile and Trafalgar. From 1822 to 1855 he was professional head of the Royal Naval Medical Department, when he provided effective leadership in a time of great change. Although his official work earned him the reputation of a "hard-working, unimaginative, somewhat harsh man", his correspondence shows a very humane centre under the official carapace. His official performance and reputation were both eroded towards the end of his career by his determined promotion of zinc chloride, for which he held lucrative patents.

  11. Sir William Turner (1832-1916) - Lancastrian, anatomist and champion of the Victorian era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Quenton; Correia, Janine Carla; Taylor, Adam M

    2016-11-01

    Sir William Turner, a Lancastrian, was renowned as a scientist, anatomist and a great reformer of medical education. His students became anatomists at various international institutions, which consequently shaped the future of anatomy as a subject matter both in the United Kingdom and in South Africa. Although Turner's accomplishments have been documented, little is known about the details that determined his career path and the individuals that shaped his future. Here the authors aim to highlight some aspects of Turner's academic achievements and his personal life as well as how he crossed paths with other great minds of the Victorian era including Richard Owen, Charles Darwin, James Paget and Joseph Lister. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Sir William Osler's perceptions of urolithiasis and the case of the indigo calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael E; Das, Sakti; Rosenberg, Stuart A

    2005-12-01

    Sir William Osler published his textbook, The Principles and Practice of Medicine, in 1892. It became the definitive treatise on a wide variety of diseases. The section on nephrolithiasis clearly presents the etiology, pathology, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatments. What remains a mystery is the mention, under rare forms of human stones, of a type called "indigo." A search of Index Medicus starting from 1909 backward to its inception in 1879 was performed for key words "indigo," "calculus," "renal" or "bladder stones" and "indicanuria." Twelve textbooks of urology published before 1940 were scrutinized for references to indigo calculi. Only two references to indigo were found, both related to its use for treating constipation (1887 and 1891). Of the 12 textbooks, only 4 make passing reference to "indigo stones." They all mention that such calculi are very rare, but direct references to cases are lacking. One textbook references a study of blue stones from Egyptian mummies. It is unlikely that Osler's reference to an indigo calculus was taken lightly during his writing of The Principles and Practice of Medicine. The case of the indigo calculus is fascinating and perhaps enlightening if only for the source of Osler's intrigue.

  13. The Herschel objects and how to observe them exploring sir William Herschel's star clusters, nebulae, and galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Mullaney, James

    2007-01-01

    Deep-sky observers are always on the lookout for new observing challenges. "The Herschel Objects, and How to Observe them" offers an exciting opportunity to retrace the footsteps of Sir William Herschel, discoverer of Uranus and arguably the greatest visual observer and celestial explorer that ever lived!Following a biography of Herschel that details his life and the telescopes he used, this practical observer's guide lists all the most impressive of Herschel's star clusters, nebulae and galaxies.More than 600 of the brightest of the objects that Herschel observed are covered, and there are detailed descriptions and images of almost 200 of the very best Herschel objects for amateur astronomers.

  14. Ramparts of empire the fortifications of sir william jervois, royal engineer 1821 - 1897

    CERN Document Server

    Crick, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    William Jervois was a military engineer who rose to prominence as a result of Lord Palmerston's extensive programme of fortification against a feared French invasion in the middle years of the nineteenth century. Ramparts of Empire is a detailed and engaging study of his life and works.

  15. Ian Ingram: Next Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015.......Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015....

  16. Sir William Rowan Hamilton

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    In this picture, wave fronts are defined as surfaces of constant S(x), while .... Recall here that physical quantities are represented in ... his memory imperishable? Hamilton ... self in the words Ptolemy used of Hipparchus: a lover of labour and a ...

  17. Sir William Rowan Hamilton

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 6 ... and in particular of mechanics, over thecenturies since Galileo and Newton, we ... and the remarkableways in which his work paved the way to theconstruction ...

  18. The Professor and the Student, Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher (1890-1962) and William Sealy Gosset (1876-1937): Careers of two giants in mathematical statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Shreena A; Desai, Sukumar P

    2015-05-01

    Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher and William Sealy Gosset were responsible for laying the foundations of statistical inference. Tests that bear their names are used by students and researchers in a wide variety of scientific disciplines. Similar and different in many respects, their lives and careers are the subject of this essay. They were not teacher and pupil; in fact the student was 14 years older than the professor. Their careers did not require them to interact with one another much but they were aware of one another's work. Although Sir Ronald is assigned the role of the professor, his success as a teacher was impaired by his inability to understand the limitations of his students. Meanwhile Gosset was forced to publish his work under the pseudonym 'Student' in order to make contributions to the field of mathematical statistics. Both men are undisputed giants in the field of statistics and we celebrate their achievements as much as we try to understand their struggles. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  19. Obituary: Ian R. Bartky, 1934-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Ian Robertson Bartky, a physical chemist who turned to history for his second career, died 18 December 2007 of complications from lung cancer. He was 73. In addition to his scientific career, he will be remembered for his meticulous research on the evolution of time systems, especially for his two books Selling the True Time: Nineteenth Century Timekeeping in America (Stanford University Press, 2000), and One Time Fits All: The Campaigns for Global Uniformity (Stanford University Press, 2007). Ian was born on 15 March 1934 in Chicago, Illinois. He was the son of Walter Bartky, a Professor of Astronomy at the University of Chicago, and eventually its Dean of the Division of Physical Sciences. The elder Bartky's astronomy textbook, Highlights of Astronomy, published in 1935 and reprinted as late as 1964, includes a considerable discussion of time and standard meridians, which may have influenced Ian, even though his father died in 1958 at the age of 57 when Ian would have been only in his early 20s. Imbued with the love of science from his father, Ian graduated from Illinois Institute of Technology, and went on to obtain his doctorate in physical chemistry from the University of California Berkeley. He mentor was Nobelist William F. Giauque, and Ian always spoke fondly of Giauque's influence in setting rigorous standards that Ian followed when he joined the National Bureau of Standards [NBS] in 1961. Ian spent most of his career there, and it was there that he acquired his professional interest in time, notably when the House Commerce Committee asked him in the mid-1970s to determine whether the dates of Daylight Saving Time should be extended. This resulted in an NBS report in 1976, which concluded that any energy savings would be miniscule. With his usual attention to detail, Ian researched the entire history of the problem, and thus acquired his second great love after science--history. With Elizabeth Harrison he published a well-known article on the issues

  20. Ian Hacking, Learner Categories and Human Taxonomies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    I use Ian Hacking's views to explore ways of classifying people, exploiting his distinction between indifferent kinds and interactive kinds, and his accounts of how we "make up" people. The natural kind/essentialist approach to indifferent kinds is explored in some depth. I relate this to debates in psychiatry about the existence of mental…

  1. Williams syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Beuren syndrome ... Williams syndrome is caused by not having a copy of several genes. It may be passed down in families. ... history of the condition. However, people with Williams syndrome have a 50% chance of passing the disorder ...

  2. Sir John Meurig Thomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John Meurig

    2013-10-11

    "My greatest achievement has been to combine being a teacher, a researcher, and a popularizer of science for over 50 years. My worst nightmare is to find myself dumbstruck when I am about to give a lecture …︁" This and more about Sir John Meurig Thomas can be found on page 10938. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Review of Super Crunchers by Ian Ayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Gaze

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Ayers, I. Super Crunchers: Why Thinking-by-Numbers Is the New Way to be Smart. (Bantam Dell Publishing Group, 2007. 272 pp. Hard cover $25 ISBN 978-0-553-80540-6.Super Crunchers tells the story of how analyzing data is changing the ways in which decisions are made. We in the National Numeracy Network make a case for the importance of quantitative literacy by referring to how much quantitative information is now available to each of us: “a world awash in numbers.” Ian Ayres zeroes in on the people who are making a living crunching all of these data. From the seemingly innocuous (how wines are rated, and the scouting of baseball players to the life impacting (diagnosis of disease, and parole of inmates, this book paints a vivid portrayal of how data analysis is impacting decision making at every level in our society. The use of simple regression models and randomized trials is calling into question who the “experts” of the twenty-first century will be, and why thinking-by-numbers really is the new way to be smart.

  4. Book Review Psychotherapy and Phenomenology By Ian Rory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Review Psychotherapy and Phenomenology By Ian Rory Owen (2006) ... Psychotherapy and Phenomenology: On Freud, Husserl and Heidegger. New York: iUniverse. Soft Cover (352 ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  5. Sir William Henry Perkin: The Man and his 'Mauve'

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    design was different. Just before he .... leaving the Royal College of Chemistry to take up manufacturing, as it was ... For Perkin, the situation to start an industry to manufacture .... Alizarin, in the early years of its production, had become a.

  6. Sir Isaac Newton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Venter

    1964-03-01

    Full Text Available Die geweldige oplewing van die Christelike wetenskaps- gedagte in ons geeslose tyd, is ongetwyfeld ’n haas onverklaar- bare verskynsel. Dwarsdeur die eeue het Christene ook wetenskap beoefen saam met ongelowiges, maar dit was eers in ons leeftyd dat die principia van die Christelike religie ook vrugbaar gemaak is vir die wetenskapsbeoefening. In hierdie verband sal die name van Dooyeweerd, Vollenhoven, Stoker e.a. steeds met eer vermeld word. Natuurlik het belydende Christene ook voorheen wel deeglik saamgewerk aan die gebou van die wetenskap. Die intieme verband tussen religie, wysbegeerte en wetenskaps­ beoefening is toe egter nog nie suiwer ingesien nie. Uit hier­ die tydperk dateer die arbeid van sir Isaac Newton.

  7. Non-Fick ian law for the neutron density current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa P, G.; Vazquez R, R.; Morales S, J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a fractional wave equation for the average neutron motion in a nuclear reactor is considered. This representation covers the full spectrum of the average neutron transport behavior, i.e., Fick ian and non-Fick ian effects. The fractional diffusion model retains the main dynamic characteristics of the neutron motion. The relaxation time associated with a rapid variation in the neutron flux contains an adjustable parameter, which can be manipulated to obtain the best representation of the neutron transport phenomena. (Author)

  8. Ian Bird, head of Grid development at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    "The Grid enables us to harness the power of scientific computing centres wherever they may be to provide the most powerful computing resource the world has to offer," said Ian Bird, head of Grid development at CERN. The Grid is a new method of sharing processing power between computers in centres around the world.

  9. One day, Sir, you may tax it

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    “One day, Sir, you may tax it”… Those are the words I used to get the audience's attention during my talk at the World Economic Forum’s annual meeting in Davos, where I was invited to speak about the science agenda in 2011. For those of you who don’t know the quote, it was Michael Faraday’s response to William Gladstone when asked to comment on the utility of his blue-sky research into the newfangled phenomenon of electricity.   So what does a 19th century English scientist have to do with the science agenda today? A great deal, I would contend. Faraday was doing basic science, but he had the foresight to realise that through applied research his findings could one day be developed into something taxable – as it turned out, electric light. Faraday had a sense of the potential of his blue-sky research, but he also appreciated that basic science alone is not enough. This was my key message in Davos. Governments often speak of ...

  10. Sir Karl Popper and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    Sir Karl Popper is one of England's most distinguished contemporary philosophers and it is surprising that his thought has not permeated and informed educational discussion. This paper suggests that educationists have much to learn from Karl Popper's writings and explores ways in which his ideas can illuminate and advance discussion about…

  11. Geim, Prof. Sir Andre Konstantin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fellow Profile. Elected: 2015 Honorary. Geim, Prof. Sir Andre Konstantin FRS. Date of birth: 21 October 1958. Address: Royal Society Research Professor, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, UK Contact: Office: (+44-161) 275 4120. Email: geim@manchester.ac.uk. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook ...

  12. Thomas, Prof. Sir John Meurig

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thomas, Prof. Sir John Meurig FRS. Date of birth: 15 December 1932. Address: Department of Materials Science and, Metallurgy, New Museums Site, 27, Babbage ... Theory Of Evolution. Posted on 23 January 2018. Joint Statement by the Three Science Academies of India on the teaching of the theory of evolution more.

  13. King, Prof. Sir David Anthony

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Elected: 1998 Honorary. King, Prof. Sir David Anthony Sc.D., FRS. Date of birth: 12 August 1939. Address: Chief Scientific Adivser & Head, Office of Science and Innovation, London SW1H 0ET, U.K.. Contact: Office: (+44-020) 7215 3821. Fax: (+44-020) 7215 0314. Email: mpst.king@dti.gsi.gov.uk, dak10@cus.cam.ac.uk.

  14. A Transdisciplinary Mind: An Interview with Ian Mitroff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russ Volckmann

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Known more widely as the “Father of Crisis Management,” University of Southern California professor Ian Mitroff came to the work of Ken Wilber and integral theory over two decades ago. No one else has brought an integral perspective to the fields of management and organization theory for as long as Mitroff. In this interview he talks about the development of his theories, the people he has worked closely with, his spiritual development and the streams of his work, including his research on spirituality in organizations. While his involvement with Wilber’s Integral Institute is not what he would like it to be, he sees there the potential to develop an institution that addresses the politicization and failures of our institutions of higher education. In the face of the crisis in leadership, integral and transdisciplinary approaches have the potential for making a positive difference as we are faced with the dissolution of distinctions that underlie how we make meaning in the world.

  15. Book Review: Revolutionary Keywords for A New Left by Ian Parker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal Z Clyne

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Eyal Clyne reviews Ian Parker's "Revolutionary Keywords for A New Left" (Winchester and Washington: Zero books ISBN: 978-1-78535-642-1, a book that unlocks complex Left-struggle issues in short and accessible essays.

  16. The Spread of Economic Ideas among Romanian People. Case Study: Dionisie Pop Marţian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela ROGOJANU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the nineteenth century, the accelerating globalizationstarted to show demands that the majority of the Romanians could notunderstand. The delay in the economic development, the political-stateestablishment, the scarcity of instruction and education, the historical andgeographical context marked by hostility, all these formed the gap betweenthe "West" and "East". The renewing economic ideas penetrated hard,often deformed ... The relentless intelligence of some young peopleeducated outside the Romanian land, as Dionisie Pop Marţian (1829-1865, has started the struggle for "the economic emancipation of thenation" by promoting the ideas, the principles and the institutions on whichwas build the prosperity of the West. Seen as a "reactionary" or as a "manof progress", Marţian has delivered a heterogeneous economic outlook, amixture of liberal principles and protectionist principles. The mostsignificant "protection" supported by Marţian was the one againstignorance. The compilation made by Marţian using the works of variousauthors sustaining the "social economy" shows the dimensions of economicbackwardness - the absence of current economic terms from the lexicon.Marţian invents some economic terms, which are understandable, such as:„comerciu”(trade, „manufaptură” (manufacture, „product”, „const”,„fair price”, „banc-rupt” etc. Marţian's mission was clear: "the spreadingof economics through speaking and writing.".

  17. Modification of the IAN-R1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaime, J.; Ahumada, S.; Spin, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    The IAN-R1 reactor is the only nuclear reactor operating in Colombia; it is installed at the Institute of Nuclear Affairs (AIN) in Bogota, which is an official body coming under the Ministry of Mining and Energy. This reactor started operation in January 1965 with a rated power of 10 kW and was modified a year later to operate at 20 kW, which has been its rated power up to the present. Given its importance for the application of nuclear technology in Columbia for various purposes, principally in the areas of neutron activation analysis, determination of uranium content in minerals using the delayed neutron counting method, production of certain radioisotopes such as 198 Au and 82 Br for engineering applications, and production of radioactive material for teaching and research purposes, research has been in progress for some years into ways of increasing its power. The study on experimental requirements and on the demand for locally produced radioisotopes came to the conclusion that its power should be increased to 1000 kW, which would allow the facility to remain on the same site. The modification includes conversion of the core to low-enriched fuel, operation up to 1 MW, modification of the shielding, renovation of instrumentation and installation of a radioisotope processing plant. When the reactor is modified we will be able to produce other radioisotopes for applications in nuclear medicine, industry and engineering; at the same time, the safety of the facility will be optimized and the experimental facilities improved

  18. Non-Fick ian law for the neutron density current; Atomos para el desarrollo de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa P, G.; Vazquez R, R. [UAM-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, Mexico D.F. 09340 (Mexico); Morales S, J. [UNAM, Laboratorio de Analisis en Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, Jiutepec, Morelos 62550 (Mexico)]. e-mail: gepe@xanum.uam.mx

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, a fractional wave equation for the average neutron motion in a nuclear reactor is considered. This representation covers the full spectrum of the average neutron transport behavior, i.e., Fick ian and non-Fick ian effects. The fractional diffusion model retains the main dynamic characteristics of the neutron motion. The relaxation time associated with a rapid variation in the neutron flux contains an adjustable parameter, which can be manipulated to obtain the best representation of the neutron transport phenomena. (Author)

  19. Tectonic geomorphology of the Andes with SIR-A and SIR-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Arthur L.; Fielding, Eric J.

    1986-01-01

    Data takes from SIR-A and SIR-B (Shuttle Imaging Radar) crossed all of the principal geomorphic provinces of the central Andes between 17 and 34 S latitude. In conjunction with Thematic Mapping images and photographs from hand-held cameras as well as from the Large Format Camera that was flown with SIR-B, the radar images give an excellent sampling of Andean geomorphology. In particular, the radar images show new details of volcanic rocks and landforms of late Cenozoic age in the Puna, and the exhumed surfaces of tilted blocks of Precambrian crystalline basement in the Sierras Pampeanas.

  20. Sir Charles Scott Sherrington (1857–1952)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Twentieth century bore witness to remarkable scientists whohave advanced our understanding of the brain. Among them,Sir Charles Scott Sherrington's ideas about the way in whichthe central nervous system operates has continuing relevanceeven today. He received honorary doctorates from twentytwouniversities and ...

  1. Sir Ronald Ross and the Malarial Parasite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1997-08-20

    Aug 20, 1997 ... In 1857, a General in the Indian Army, Sir C C G Ross and his wife Matilda .... generally low-caste Indians who required a fee before drinking the water and ... nary demand being made upon their systems, as by fatigue, chill,.

  2. Sir Ronald Ross and the Malarial Parasite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 7. Sir Ronald Ross and the Malarial Parasite - Discovery of its Route - From Man to Mosquito and Back. Shobhona Sharma. General Article Volume 11 Issue 7 July 2006 pp 4-13 ...

  3. Sir Charles Scott Sherrington (1857–1952)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Twentieth century bore witness to remarkable scientists whohave advanced our understanding of the brain. Among them,Sir Charles Scott Sherrington's ideas about the way in whichthe central nervous system operates has continuing relevanceeven today. He received honorary doctorates from ...

  4. [Sir Geoffrey Keynes 1887-1982. Surgical pioneer, medical historian, humanist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergljung, Lars

    2005-01-01

    Sir Geoffrey Keynes (1887 - 1982), was a pioneer in the surgery of breast cancer and thymic deseases, n.b. in patients suffering from myastenia gravis. He strongly disapproved of the longstanding dogma of so called radical mastectomy in breast cancer, and advocated a more limited surgical approach, followed by radiation therapy. This was done more than fifty years before breastconserving surgery has become the therapy of choice and against considerable opposition from the surgical establishment of his days. He also became a pioneer in the surgical treatment of myastenia gravis by thymectomy, at a time when there was no real understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and when considerable controversy existed as to the importance or non importance of concomitant tumour formation in the thymus. Besides being a busy surgeon Sir Geoffrey was a medical historian, writing the biography of among others William Harvey, a bibliographer with a special interest in the poet and artist William Blake and a bibliophil with a large book collection of great value to medical history.

  5. New digital control system for the operation of the Colombian research reactor IAN-R1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celis del A, L.; Rivero, T.; Bucio, F.; Ramirez, R.; Segovia, A.; Palacios, J.

    2015-09-01

    En 2011, Mexico won the Colombian international tender for the renewal of instrumentation and control of the IAN-R1 Reactor, to Argentina and the United States. This paper presents the design criteria and the development made for the new digital control system installed in the Colombian nuclear reactor IAN-R1, which is based on a redundant and diverse architecture, which provides increased availability, reliability and safety in the reactor operation. This control system and associated instrumentation met all national export requirements, with the safety requirements established by the IAEA as well as the requirements demanded by the Colombian Regulatory Body in nuclear matter. On August 20, 2012, the Colombian IAN-R1 reactor reached its first criticality controlled with the new system developed at Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ). On September 14, 2012, the new control system of the Colombian IAN-R1 reactor was officially handed over to the Colombian authorities, this being the first time that Mexico exported nuclear technology through the ININ. Currently the reactor is operating successfully with the new control system, and has an operating license for 5 years. (Author)

  6. Calculation of radiation heat generation on a graphite reflector side of IAN-R1 Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duque O, J.; Velez A, L.H.

    1987-01-01

    Calculation methods for radiation heat generation in nuclear reactor, based on the point kernel approach are revisited and applied to the graphite reflector of IAN-R1 reactor. A Fortran computer program was written for the determination of total heat generation in the reflector, taking 1155 point in it

  7. "A'ole" Drugs! Cultural Practices and Drug Resistance of Rural Hawai'ian Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Po'A-Kekuawela, Ka'Ohinani; Okamoto, Scott K.; Nebre, La Risa H.; Helm, Susana; Chin, Coralee I. H.

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study examined how Native Hawai'ian youths from rural communities utilized cultural practices to promote drug resistance and/or abstinence. Forty-seven students from five different middle schools participated in gender-specific focus groups that focused on the cultural and environmental contexts of drug use for Native Hawai'ian…

  8. Foreword: Sir John Pendry FRS Sir John Pendry FRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglesfield, John; Echenique, Pedro

    2008-07-01

    scattering is much weaker, and this allowed him to develop a method of successive approximation. The material and the calculation are cut up into a series of atomic slices, and the electronic structure solved without approximation in each slice. Being two-dimensional, this was much more manageable than a full three-dimensional calculation. Then the slices could be put together by a sort of perturbation theory to calculate the scattering current as a function of energy along each of the reciprocal lattice 'rods' allowed by the surface periodicity. John didn't just stop at having solved the problem in principle, he also developed a suite of computer codes to do the job in a routine way. He even published the code for all to use, and I believe that to the present day the calculations are still done effectively in the same way. Without the calculations, one cannot interpret the data in terms of a surface atomic structure. Effectively one is doing a computer experiment in parallel to the laboratory experiment, and one fiddles more or less systematically with the surface structure until one gets agreement between the simulations and the laboratory data. One of the things that John noticed was that the process of photoemission (UPS) from a surface is rather similar, and can be calculated in an analogous way. This suddenly became very important because the new synchrotron at Daresbury was about to become operational, pumping out billions of photons for solid state research. Sam Edwards (now Sir Sam) was head of SRC (forerunner of EPSRC) at the time and recognised the problem of interpreting all the data that the machine would provide. And after UPS would come EXAFS, and after that XANES and all the rest of the alphabet soup. With that foresight, unusual at the time, John Pendry was appointed to head the theory group at Daresbury. Previously the theoreticians had revolved around the nuclear physics accelerator, and John had to turn it completely around and refocus it, which he did

  9. Genetics Home Reference: Williams syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do well on tasks that involve spoken language, music, and learning by repetition (rote memorization). Affected individuals ... Resources (5 links) Disease InfoSearch: Williams syndrome Genetic Science Learning Center, University of Utah MalaCards: williams-beuren ...

  10. William Wilde: Historian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, L

    2016-05-01

    This essay attempts to assess William Wilde as a social historian. It examines some of his contributions to the discipline of history and looks particularly at 'The food of the Irish', which was published in the Dublin University Magazine in February 1854.

  11. Anderson, Prof. Basil Williams

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1964 Honorary. Anderson, Prof. Basil Williams. Date of birth: 3 July 1901. Date of death: 24 February 1984. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 January 2018. The 29th Mid-year meeting of the Academy will be held ...

  12. Florence Jessie Mac Williams

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CPMGIKAlBGE-340/2003-05. Resonance - January 2005. Licenced to post WPP No.6 RT Nagar Postoffice. Florence Jessie Mac Williams. (1917 - 1990). Registered with Registrar of Newspapers in India vide Regn. No. 66273/96. ISSN 0971-8044. Price per copy: Rs 40.

  13. Interaction with William Carnall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judd, Brian R.

    2005-01-01

    A personal account is given of interaction with William T. Carnall during the period 1977-1988, when I made regular visits to the Argonne National Laboratory to discuss the theoretical background to the spectroscopic work he was carrying out on the lanthanides and actinides

  14. Series, Prof. George William

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1984 Honorary. Series, Prof. George William. Date of birth: 22 February 1920. Date of death: 2 January 1995. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 January 2018. The 29th Mid-year meeting of the Academy will be held ...

  15. David Owen WILLIAMS

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Lidy Williams-Oonk and her children Mark & Marietta, being unable to thank everybody individually, would like to express their sincere thanks to friends and colleagues at CERN and abroad for their great help and support, their messages and flowers, as well as their donations to the Ligue Genevoise contre le Cancer, on the death of their beloved husband and father.

  16. William Henry Bragg, man and scientist, Nobel Laureate and First Professor of Physics, University of Adelaide 1886-1909.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, John; George, Robert

    2018-03-01

    In London, November 1915, a telegram was received at the home of William Henry Bragg from the secretary of the Academy of Science in Stockholm announcing the award of the Nobel Prize in Physics for "the analysis of crystal structures by means of X-rays". A second similar telegram was addressed to his 25 year old son William Lawrence Bragg (Jenkin, 2008). This article commemorates the centenary of that event and the unveiling of a bust of Sir William Bragg alongside that of his son, Sir Lawrence Bragg, on North Terrace in Adelaide where he spent 23 years of his early career. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Sumoylation of Sir2 differentially regulates transcriptional silencing in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Abdul; Abraham, Neethu Maria; Goyal, Siddharth; Jamir, Imlitoshi; Priyakumar, U Deva; Mishra, Krishnaveni

    2015-12-02

    Silent information regulator 2 (Sir2), the founding member of the conserved sirtuin family of NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase, regulates several physiological processes including genome stability, gene silencing, metabolism and life span in yeast. Within the nucleus, Sir2 is associated with telomere clusters in the nuclear periphery and rDNA in the nucleolus and regulates gene silencing at these genomic sites. How distribution of Sir2 between telomere and rDNA is regulated is not known. Here we show that Sir2 is sumoylated and this modification modulates the intra-nuclear distribution of Sir2. We identify Siz2 as the key SUMO ligase and show that multiple lysines in Sir2 are subject to this sumoylation activity. Mutating K215 alone counteracts the inhibitory effect of Siz2 on telomeric silencing. SUMO modification of Sir2 impairs interaction with Sir4 but not Net1 and, furthermore, SUMO modified Sir2 shows predominant nucleolar localization. Our findings demonstrate that sumoylation of Sir2 modulates distribution between telomeres and rDNA and this is likely to have implications for Sir2 function in other loci as well. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. SIR - small is safe [in reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayns, M.

    1989-01-01

    A joint USA-UK venture has been initiated to design a small nuclear reactor which offers low capital cost, greater flexibility and a potentially lower environmental impact. Called Safe Integral Reactor (SIR), the lead unit could be built in the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority's (UKAEA's) Winfrith site if the design is accepted by the UK Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII). This article describes the 320 MWe reactor unit that is the basis of the design being developed. (author)

  19. Field Marshal Sir William J. Slim - Paragon of Moral and Ethical Courage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baylor, Richard

    1998-01-01

    ... during the most desperate and brutal times. This paper looks closely at Field Marshal Slim's ethical development and leadership during his younger years, his senior leader years, and his later years...

  20. Williams propylene upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chappell, D. [Williams Energy Canada Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Edmonton-based Williams Energy Canada Inc. extracts petrochemicals from oil sands and operates a straddle plant business and an olefins business. This presentation provided an update of both businesses and reviewed the advantage of polypropylene production in Alberta, with reference to premium markets and to comparative rail costs to Chicago via Texas, and rail costs to Chicago from Alberta. Williams' straddle plant business includes the Cochrane Straddle Plant, the Empress 2 Straddle Plant, and the Empress 5 Straddle Plant. The Fort McMurray Extraction Plant was also described along with the Redwater Olefins Fractionator and its potential for salt cavern storage and distribution. It was noted that Alberta is well positioned for polypropylene production because it already has a secure supply and an excellent distribution network. tabs., figs.

  1. Williams propylene upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chappell, D.

    2004-01-01

    Edmonton-based Williams Energy Canada Inc. extracts petrochemicals from oil sands and operates a straddle plant business and an olefins business. This presentation provided an update of both businesses and reviewed the advantage of polypropylene production in Alberta, with reference to premium markets and to comparative rail costs to Chicago via Texas, and rail costs to Chicago from Alberta. Williams' straddle plant business includes the Cochrane Straddle Plant, the Empress 2 Straddle Plant, and the Empress 5 Straddle Plant. The Fort McMurray Extraction Plant was also described along with the Redwater Olefins Fractionator and its potential for salt cavern storage and distribution. It was noted that Alberta is well positioned for polypropylene production because it already has a secure supply and an excellent distribution network. tabs., figs

  2. The mitochondrial SIR2 related protein 2 (SIR2RP2 impacts Leishmania donovani growth and infectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimisha Mittal

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania donovani, a protozoan parasite is the major causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis. Increased toxicity and resistance to the existing repertoire of drugs has been reported. Hence, an urgent need exists for identifying newer drugs and drug targets. Previous reports have shown sirtuins (Silent Information Regulator from kinetoplastids as promising drug targets. Leishmania species code for three SIR2 (Silent Information Regulator related proteins. Here, we for the first time report the functional characterization of SIR2 related protein 2 (SIR2RP2 of L. donovani.Recombinant L. donovani SIR2RP2 was expressed in E. coli and purified. The enzymatic functions of SIR2RP2 were determined. The subcellular localization of LdSIR2RP2 was done by constructing C-terminal GFP-tagged full-length LdSIR2RP2. Deletion mutants of LdSIR2RP2 were generated in Leishmania by double targeted gene replacement methodology. These null mutants were tested for their proliferation, virulence, cell cycle defects, mitochondrial functioning and sensitivity to known SIR2 inhibitors.Our data suggests that LdSIR2RP2 possesses NAD+-dependent ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. However, NAD+-dependent deacetylase and desuccinylase activities were not detected. The protein localises to the mitochondrion of the promastigotes. Gene deletion studies showed that ΔLdSIR2RP2 null mutants had restrictive growth phenotype associated with accumulation of cells in the G2/M phase and compromised mitochondrial functioning. The null mutants had attenuated infectivity. Deletion of LdSIR2RP2 resulted in increased sensitivity of the parasites to the known SIR2 inhibitors. The sirtuin inhibitors inhibited the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of recombinant LdSIR2RP2. In conclusion, sirtuins could be used as potential new drug targets for visceral leishmaniasis.

  3. Modernization of control instrumentation and security of reactor IAN - R1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    The program to modernize IAN-R1 research reactor control and safety instrumentation has been carried out considering two main aspects: updating safety philosophy requirements and acquiring the newest reactor control instrumentation controlled by computer, following the present criteria internationally recognized, for safety and reliable reactor operations and the latest developments of nuclear electronic technology. The new IAN-R1 reactor instrumentation consist of two wide range neutron monitoring channels, commanded by microprocessor a data acquisition system and reactor control, (controlled by computers). The reactor control desk is providing through two displays; all safety and control signals to the reactor operators; furthermore some signals like reactor power, safety and period signals are also showed on digital bar graphics, which are hard wired directly from the neutron monitoring channels

  4. The algebra of observables in Gaußian normal spacetime coordinates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodendorfer, Norbert [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,Pasteura 5, 02-093, Warsaw (Poland); Duch, Paweł [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University,Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Lewandowski, Jerzy; Świeżewski, Jędrzej [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,Pasteura 5, 02-093, Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-01-11

    We discuss the canonical structure of a spacetime version of the radial gauge, i.e. Gaußian normal spacetime coordinates. While it was found for the spatial version of the radial gauge that a “local” algebra of observables can be constructed, it turns out that this is not possible for the spacetime version. The technical reason for this observation is that the new gauge condition needed to upgrade the spatial to a spacetime radial gauge does not Poisson-commute with the previous gauge conditions. It follows that the involved Dirac bracket is inherently non-local in the sense that no complete set of observables can be found which is constructed locally and at the same time has local Dirac brackets. A locally constructed observable here is defined as a finite polynomial of the canonical variables at a given physical point specified by the Gaußian normal spacetime coordinates.

  5. Human (InConsistencies in Ian McEwan’s Amsterdam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anghel Florentina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ian McEwan’s Amsterdam has supplied its readers with psychological, moral and social topical issues presented in an easy flowing and exhilarating style. Starting from the assumption that life consists of a series of inconsistencies which are inherent and bring their contribution to the individual’s formation, the paper aims at demonstrating that the protagonists’ judgmental and moral inconsistencies, which are used as a plot generator and are environmentally determined, reveal features of their personality.

  6. The "Goldberg Variations" and Ian McEwan's Saturday - a study of interdisciplinary analogies

    OpenAIRE

    Lykka, Inga Hild

    2014-01-01

    This thesis examines the musical influence on Ian McEwan’s fiction, in particular that of the Goldberg Variations’ influence on his novel Saturday. This involves an interdisciplinary analysis that compares the two arts, and sheds light on both possibilities and difficulties with regards to which musical features are likely to occur in literature or not. The analysis is founded on previous interdisciplinary studies of music and literature in general, studies of representations of the Goldberg ...

  7. Blood on the Stone Ian Smillie se raconte | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ci-dessous, Ian Smillie raconte comment il en est venu à participer à la lutte pour mettre fin au commerce illicite de diamants, qui a attisé des guerres ayant coûté la vie à des millions de personnes en Afrique. Il décrit cette lutte dans son nouveau livre,Blood on the Stone: Greed, Corruption and War in the Global Diamond ...

  8. Who's there? - First morphological and DNA barcoding catalogue of the shallow Hawai'ian sponge fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez Pons, Laura; Calcinai, Barbara; Gates, Ruth D

    2017-01-01

    The sponge fauna has been largely overlooked in the Archipelago of Hawai'i, notwithstanding the paramount role of this taxon in marine ecosystems. The lack of knowledge about Porifera populations inhabiting the Hawai'ian reefs limits the development of ecological studies aimed at understanding the functioning of these marine systems. Consequently, this project addresses this gap by describing the most representative sponge species in the shallow waters of the enigmatic bay of Kane'ohe Bay, in O'ahu Island. A total of 30 species (28 demosponges and two calcareous sponges) living associated to the reef structures are here reported. Six of these species are new records to the Hawai'ian Porifera catalogue and are suspected to be recent introductions to these islands. Morphological descriptions of the voucher specimens are provided, along with sequencing data of two partitions involving the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) marker and a fragment covering partial (18S and 28S) and full (ITS-1, 5.8S and ITS-2) nuclear ribosomal genes. Species delimitations based on genetic distances were calculated to valitate how taxonomic assignments from DNA barcoding aligned with morphological identifications. Of the 60 sequences submitted to GenBank ~88% are the first sequencing records for the corresponding species and genetic marker. This work compiles the first catalogue combining morphological characters with DNA barcoding of Hawai'ian sponges, and contributes to the repository of public databases through the Sponge Barcoding Project initiative.

  9. Who's there? - First morphological and DNA barcoding catalogue of the shallow Hawai'ian sponge fauna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Núñez Pons

    Full Text Available The sponge fauna has been largely overlooked in the Archipelago of Hawai'i, notwithstanding the paramount role of this taxon in marine ecosystems. The lack of knowledge about Porifera populations inhabiting the Hawai'ian reefs limits the development of ecological studies aimed at understanding the functioning of these marine systems. Consequently, this project addresses this gap by describing the most representative sponge species in the shallow waters of the enigmatic bay of Kane'ohe Bay, in O'ahu Island. A total of 30 species (28 demosponges and two calcareous sponges living associated to the reef structures are here reported. Six of these species are new records to the Hawai'ian Porifera catalogue and are suspected to be recent introductions to these islands. Morphological descriptions of the voucher specimens are provided, along with sequencing data of two partitions involving the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI marker and a fragment covering partial (18S and 28S and full (ITS-1, 5.8S and ITS-2 nuclear ribosomal genes. Species delimitations based on genetic distances were calculated to valitate how taxonomic assignments from DNA barcoding aligned with morphological identifications. Of the 60 sequences submitted to GenBank ~88% are the first sequencing records for the corresponding species and genetic marker. This work compiles the first catalogue combining morphological characters with DNA barcoding of Hawai'ian sponges, and contributes to the repository of public databases through the Sponge Barcoding Project initiative.

  10. Raymond Williams and local cultures

    OpenAIRE

    B Longhurst

    1991-01-01

    In this paper it is maintained that Raymond Williams's writings on culture are of great importance to current developments in cultural geography. His work is periodised into three stages and its different subject matters identified. An interpretation of Williams's theory of culture is offered which places particular emphasis on his concepts of 'structure of feeling' and 'knowable community'. The creative tension between Williams's holistic treatment of culture and his stress on cultural strug...

  11. Análise das relações sociais entre Falstaff e os personagens femininos em peças teatrais de William Shakespeare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Gallindo Gonçalves Silva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende analisar e discutir a natureza do personagem Sir John Falstaff, de William Shakespeare, e de como ele dirige seus relacionamentos com as representações do feminino que o circundam, sua atitude em relação às mulheres e à honra, assim como suas preocupações com seu corpo.

  12. Who Invented the Word Asteroid: William Herschel or Stephen Weston?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Clifford J.; Orchiston, Wayne

    2011-11-01

    William Herschel made the first serious study of 1 Ceres and 2 Pallas in the year 1802. He was moved by their dissimilarities to the other planets to coin a new term to distinguish them. For this purpose he enlisted the aid of his good friends William Watson and Sir Joseph Banks. Watson gave him a long list of possible names, which Herschel rejected. With a lifetime of experience classifying and naming newly found objects in nature, Banks became the man both Erasmus Darwin (in 1781) and William Herschel (in 1802) turned to for sage advice in developing a new descriptive language. In the case of Ceres and Pallas, Banks turned the task over to his friend, the noted philologist Stephen Weston, FRS. It has recently been stated by a noted British historian that it was Weston - not Herschel - who coined the term 'asteroid' to collectively describe Ceres and Pallas. This claim is investigated, and parallels are drawn in the use of neologism in astronomy and botany.

  13. "Cet obscur objet du Désir"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reto Melchior

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available Luis Bunuel’s last film is based on Pierre Louÿs’ La Femme et le Pantin. This now forgotten bestseller, published in 1898, is drawn from Goya s painting El Pelele, in which four women are playing with a male puppet. In Pierre Louÿs’ novel this scene is inverted so that one woman with two faces plays with four men. In Cet Obscur Objet du Désir this “femme fatale” is interpreted by two actresses. The concentric structure of the film puts focus on a scene of being excluded from knowing. The technique of continually interrupting the flash-back sequences frustrates the audience because of its exclusion from the “real” course of events and gives rise to doubts whether the male protagonist tells the truth about his love-affair or whether he satisfies the curiosity of the audience by telling them Pierre Louÿs’ novel as his own story. This ambiguous art of narration mirrors Bunuel’s claim that the main topic of Cet Obscur Objet du Désir is frustration.

  14. Neutrons characterization of the nuclear reactor Ian-R1 of Colombia; Caracterizacion de los neutrones del reactor nuclear IAN-R1 de Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez P, L. X.; Martinez O, S. A. [Universidad Pedagogica y Tecnologica de Colombia, Grupo de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada y Simulacion, Carretera Central del Norte Km. 1, Via Paipa, 150003 Tunja, Boyaca (Colombia); Vega C, H. R., E-mail: s.agustin.martinez@uptc.edu.co [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    By means of Monte Carlo methods, with the code MCNPX, the neutron characteristics of the research nuclear reactor Ian-R1 of Colombia, in power off but with the neutrons source in their start position, have been valued. The neutrons spectra, the total flow and their average power were calculated in the irradiation spaces inside the graphite reflector, as well as in the cells with air. Also the spectra, the total flow and the absorbed dose were calculated in several places distributed along the radial shaft inside the water moderator. The neutrons total flow was also considered to the long of the axial shaft. The characteristics of the neutrons spectra vary depending on their position regarding the source and the material that surrounds to the cell where the calculation was made. (Author)

  15. Sir John Macpherson, the first but sometimes overlooked Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Sydney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Richard T

    2014-08-01

    To chronicle the creation of the Chair of Psychiatry at the University of Sydney, and the career and legacy, in New South Wales, of the first incumbent, Professor Sir John Macpherson CB MD FRCPE. The creation of the Chair, Macpherson's appointment, and his contributions to psychiatry in Sydney during the 52 months of his tenure, are well documented in contemporaneous sources and demonstrate that he was a very worthy Foundation Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Sydney. There are several possible reasons why Macpherson has been overlooked, including an erroneous statement in The World History of Psychiatry (1975) that William Siegfried Dawson, his successor from 1927 to 1952, was the first Professor of Psychiatry. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  16. Ian Verstegen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Verstegen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The following essay asks whether art history is still a ‘coy’ science in the sense outlined by Donald Preziosi in his groundbreaking Rethinking Art History of 1989. Surprisingly, the answer is ‘yes,’ because Preziosi’s central point has been largely missed. While most art historians embraced forms of anti-foundationalism and relativism as a response to the ‘crisis of art history,’ Preziosi actually pointed to a deeper problem – the contingency of a disciplinary vantage point at all. In reviewing Preziosi’s critique of art history, and his demonstration of a healthy reflexivity in his work on Aegean art and architecture, it is shown that the proper response to Preziosi’s challenge is to place the act of writing history at the basis of questions of the discipline’s status.

  17. Centennial ties: Harvey Cushing (1869-1939) and William Osler (1849-1919) on Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toodayan, Nadeem

    2017-08-01

    Andreas Vesalius is often regarded as the founding father of modern anatomical study. The quincentennial anniversary of his birth - 31 December 2014 - has been very widely commemorated, and it is the purpose of this article to contrast these celebrations with what happened during the Vesalius quatercentenary year of 1914. More specifically, we look at how Vesalius was perceived a century ago by examining his influence on two of western medicine's most iconic gentlemen - Harvey Williams Cushing (1869-1939) and his larger than life mentor, Sir William Osler (1849-1919).

  18. [Sir Francis Galton: the father of eugenics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert-Marson, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Not only was Sir Francis Galton a famous geographer and statistician, he also invented "eugenics" in 1883. Eugenics, defined as the science of improving racial stock, was developed from a new heredity theory, conceived by Galton himself, and from the evolution theory of Charles Darwin, transposed to human society by Herbert Spencer. Galton's eugenics was a program to artificially produce a better human race through regulating marriage and thus procreation. Galton put particular emphasis on "positive eugenics", aimed at encouraging the physically and mentally superior members of the population to choose partners with similar traits. In 1904, he presented his ideas in front of a vast audience of physicians and scientists in London. His widely-publicized lecture served as the starting point for the development of eugenics groups in Europe and the United States during the first half of the 20th century.

  19. Ian Scott, From Pinewood to Hollywood: British Filmmakers in American Cinema, 1910-1969.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilaria Loyo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Ian Scott’s From Pinewood to Hollywood is a book about the emigration, film careers and socio-cultural influence of British filmmakers who moved to Hollywood during a time period that precedes and follows the studio era, as clearly indicated in its subtitle, British Filmmakers in American Cinema, 1910-1969. Although it is not presented as such, this book can be seen as a timely contribution to the recent academic interest within film studies in the transnational practices that have historical...

  20. Calculations and selection of a TRIGA core for the Nuclear Reactor IAN-R1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castiblanco, L.A.; Sarta, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Reactor Group used the code WIMS reduced to five groups of energy, together with the code CITATION, and evaluated four configurations for a core, according to the grid actually installed. The four configurations were taken from the two proposals presented to the Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares y Energias Alternativas by General Atomics Company. In this paper, the Authors selected the best configuration according to the performance of flux distribution and excess reactivity, for a TRIGA core to be installed in the Nuclear Reactor IAN-R1

  1. The Exploration of Political Conflicts and Personal Relationships in Ian McEwan’s The Innocent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Abbasiyannejad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Political conflicts have historically affected the relationships of nations. Ian McEwan’s The Innocent is an excellent example of a story set within the web of such a conflict—the Cold War—that was brought about by U.S. and Soviet confrontation over spheres of influence after the Second World War. This article aims to show how Ian McEwan pictures Americanization as a form of cultural politics aimed at spreading American influence throughout the occupied countries such as Germany for political domination. Max Weber’s theory of political power along with semiotics as a tool is the framework of the article. Signs that refer to the Americanization process, including inferences in the dialogues, gestures, choice of food, and even clothing, are scrutinized and interpreted within the socio-political context the of Cold War. The analysis of The Innocent provides an example of the ways in which fiction represents political conflicts permeating personal and intimate relationships, and how such conflicts may result in a sense of mistrust and intrigue among both people and nations.

  2. Neutron flux measurement and thermal power calibration of the IAN-R1 TRIGA reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarta Fuentes, Jose A.; Castiblanco Bohorquez, Luis A

    2008-10-29

    The IAN-R1 TRIGA reactor in Colombia was initially fueled with MTR-HEU enriched to 93% U-235, operated since 1965 at 10 kW, and was upgraded to 30 kW in 1980. General Atomics achieved in 1997 the conversion of HEU fuel to LEU fuel TRIGA type, and upgraded the reactor power to 100 kW. Since the IAN-R1 TRIGA reactor was in an extended shutdown during seven years, it was necessary to repeat some results of the commissioning test conducted in 1997. The thermal power calibration was carried out using the calorimetric method. The reactor was operated approximately at 20 kW during 3.5 hours, with manual power corrections since the automatic control system failed and with the forced refrigeration off. During the calorimetric experiment, the pool temperature was measured with a RTD which is installed near to the core. The dates were collected in intervals of 30 minutes. For establishing thermal power reactor, the water temperature versus the running were registered. For a calculated tank volume of 16 m{sup 3}, the tank constant calculated for the IAN-R1 TRIGA reactor is 0.0539 C/kW-hr. The reactor power determined was 19 kW. The core configuration is a rectangular grid plate that holds a combination of 4-rod and 3-rod clusters. The core contains 50 fuel rods with LEU fuel TRIGA (UZr H1.6) type enriched to 19.7%. The radial reflector consists of twenty graphite elements six of which are used for isotope production. The top an bottom reflectors are the cylindrical graphite end reflectors which are installed above and below of the active fuel section in each fuel rod. The spatial dependence of thermal neutron flux was measured axially in the 3-rod clusters 4C, 3D, 5E and in the 4F graphite element. The spatial distribution of the thermal neutron was determined using a self-powered detector and the absolute value of thermal neutron flux was determined by a gold activation detector. The (n, b- ) reaction is applied to determine the relative spatial distribution of thermal

  3. [William Harvey revisited ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, Hubert

    2015-07-01

    William Harvey's discovery of the circulation of the blood is often described as a product of the Scientific Revolution of the Seventeenth Century. Modern research has, however, shown thatHarvey followed the Aristotelian research tradition and thus tried to reveal the purpose of the organs through examination of various animals. His publication of 1628 has to be read as an argument of natural philosophy, or, more precisely, as a series of linked observations, experiments and philosophical reasonings from which the existence of circulation has to be deduced as a logical consequence. Harvey did not consider experiments as superior to philosophical reasoning nor intended he to create a new system of medicine. He believed in the vitality of the heart and the blood and rejected Francis Bacon's empirism and the mechanistic rationalism of Descartes. Harvey's contribution and originality lied less in his single observations and experiments but in the manner how he linked them with critical reasoning and how he accepted, presented and defended the ensuing radical findings.

  4. Sir Victor Horsley: pioneer craniopharyngioma surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, José M; Prieto, Ruth; Mazzarello, Paolo

    2015-07-01

    Sir Victor Horsley (1857-1916) is considered to be the pioneer of pituitary surgery. He is known to have performed the first surgical operation on the pituitary gland in 1889, and in 1906 he stated that he had operated on 10 patients with pituitary tumors. He did not publish the details of these procedures nor did he provide evidence of the pathology of the pituitary lesions operated on. Four of the patients underwent surgery at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery (Queen Square, London), and the records of those cases were recently retrieved and analyzed by members of the hospital staff. The remaining cases corresponded to private operations whose records were presumably kept in Horsley's personal notebooks, most of which have been lost. In this paper, the authors have investigated the only scientific monograph providing a complete account of the pituitary surgeries that Horsley performed in his private practice, La Patologia Chirurgica dell'Ipofisi (Surgical Pathology of the Hypophysis), written in 1911 by Giovanni Verga, Italian assistant professor of anatomy at the University of Pavia. They have traced the life and work of this little-known physician who contributed to the preservation of Horsley's legacy in pituitary surgery. Within Verga's pituitary treatise, a full transcription of Horsley's notes is provided for 10 pituitary cases, including the patients' clinical symptoms, surgical techniques employed, intraoperative findings, and the outcome of surgery. The descriptions of the topographical and macroscopic features of two of the lesions correspond unmistakably to the features of craniopharyngiomas, one of the squamous-papillary type and one of the adamantinomatous type. The former lesion was found on necropsy after the patient's sudden death following a temporal osteoplastic craniectomy. Surgical removal of the lesion in the latter case, with the assumed nature of an adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma, was successful. According to the

  5. An uncommon clinical feature of IAN injury after third molar removal: a delayed paresthesia case series and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgonovo, Andrea; Bianchi, Albino; Marchetti, Andrea; Censi, Rachele; Maiorana, Carlo

    2012-05-01

    After an inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) injury, the onset of altered sensation usually begins immediately after surgery. However, it sometimes begins after several days, which is referred to as delayed paresthesia. The authors considered three different etiologies that likely produce inflammation along the nerve trunk and cause delayed paresthesia: compression of the clot, fibrous reorganization of the clot, and nerve trauma caused by bone fragments during clot organization. The aim of this article was to evaluate the etiology of IAN delayed paresthesia, analyze the literature, present a case series related to three different causes of this pathology, and compare delayed paresthesia with the classic immediate symptomatic paresthesia.

  6. First measurement of 153Sm in the SIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G.; Lucas, L.

    1999-01-01

    In June 1998, the NIST sent to the International Reference System (SIR) a solution of 153 Sm standardized in a 4π ionization chamber. As this radionuclide had not previously been measured in the SIR, the resulting equivalent activity A e,NIST is compared with the value calculated from the efficiency curve of the SIR. However, problems occurred owing to the presence of 154 Eu and 156 Eu impurities in the solution. The manner in which the final equivalent activity value for this solution of 153 Sm has been deduced is described in this report. (authors)

  7. William Rowan Hamilton: Mathematical genius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, D.R. [School of Mathematics, Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland)]. E-mail: dwilkins@maths.tcd.ie

    2005-08-01

    This year Ireland celebrates the bicentenary of the mathematician William Rowan Hamilton, best remembered for 'quaternions' and for his pioneering work on optics and dynamics. Two centuries after his birth, the extent to which terms such as 'Hamiltonian' and 'Hamiltonian system' have entered the everyday language of mathematicians and physicists testifies to the continuing impact of the scientific work of William Rowan Hamilton. (U.K.)

  8. William Rowan Hamilton: Mathematical genius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    This year Ireland celebrates the bicentenary of the mathematician William Rowan Hamilton, best remembered for quaternions and for his pioneering work on optics and dynamics. Two centuries after his birth, the extent to which terms such as Hamiltonian and Hamiltonian system have entered the everyday language of mathematicians and physicists testifies to the continuing impact of the scientific work of William Rowan Hamilton. (U.K.)

  9. 33 CFR 167.1702 - In Prince William Sound: Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In Prince William Sound: Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme. 167.1702 Section 167.1702 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST....1702 In Prince William Sound: Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme. The Prince William Sound...

  10. New digital control system for the operation of the Colombian research reactor IAN-R1; Nuevo sistema de control digital para la operacion del reactor de investigacion Colombiano IAN-R1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celis del A, L.; Rivero, T.; Bucio, F.; Ramirez, R.; Segovia, A.; Palacios, J., E-mail: lina.celis@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    En 2011, Mexico won the Colombian international tender for the renewal of instrumentation and control of the IAN-R1 Reactor, to Argentina and the United States. This paper presents the design criteria and the development made for the new digital control system installed in the Colombian nuclear reactor IAN-R1, which is based on a redundant and diverse architecture, which provides increased availability, reliability and safety in the reactor operation. This control system and associated instrumentation met all national export requirements, with the safety requirements established by the IAEA as well as the requirements demanded by the Colombian Regulatory Body in nuclear matter. On August 20, 2012, the Colombian IAN-R1 reactor reached its first criticality controlled with the new system developed at Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ). On September 14, 2012, the new control system of the Colombian IAN-R1 reactor was officially handed over to the Colombian authorities, this being the first time that Mexico exported nuclear technology through the ININ. Currently the reactor is operating successfully with the new control system, and has an operating license for 5 years. (Author)

  11. Sir Robert Sidney’s Poems Revisited: the alternative sequence

    OpenAIRE

    Relvas, Maria de Jesus C.

    1997-01-01

    The essay approaches the lyric sequence written by Sir Robert Sidney (1563-1626) in the Elizabethan age, by mainly exploring its unique formal structure, which encloses an alternative sequence formed by a re-numbering of several poems.

  12. Validation of the Spanish SIRS with monolingual Hispanic outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Amor A; Rogers, Richard; Hoersting, Raquel

    2010-09-01

    Psychologists are faced with formidable challenges in making their assessment methods relevant to growing numbers of Hispanic clients for whom English is not the primary or preferred language. Among other clinical issues, the determination of malingering has profound consequences for clients. In this investigation, we evaluated a Spanish translation of the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS; Rogers, Bagby, & Dickens, 1992) with 80 Spanish-speaking Hispanic American outpatients. Using a between-subjects simulation design, the Spanish SIRS was found to produce reliable results with small standard errors of measurement. Regarding validity, very large effect sizes (mean Cohen's d= 2.00) were observed between feigners and honest responders for the SIRS primary scales. We consider the potential role of the Spanish SIRS with reference to Spanish translations for other assessment instruments.

  13. Concepts, Diagnosis and the History of Medicine: Historicising Ian Hacking and Munchausen Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Chris

    2017-08-01

    Concepts used by historians are as historical as the diagnoses or categories that are studied. The example of Munchausen syndrome (deceptive presentation of illness in order to adopt the 'sick role') is used to explore this. Like most psychiatric diagnoses, Munchausen syndrome is not thought applicable across time by social historians of medicine. It is historically specific, drawing upon twentieth-century anthropology and sociology to explain motivation through desire for the 'sick role'. Ian Hacking's concepts of 'making up people' and 'looping effects' are regularly utilised outside of the context in which they are formed. However, this context is precisely the same anthropological and sociological insight used to explain Munchausen syndrome. It remains correct to resist the projection of Munchausen syndrome into the past. However, it seems inconsistent to use Hacking's concepts to describe identity formation before the twentieth century as they are given meaning by an identical context.

  14. Milk progesterone to monitor reproductive performance in Holstein Fries ian cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubbadeh, W.F.

    1995-01-01

    A study was conducted to monitor reproductive of lactating Holstein Fries ian cows by measuring milk progesterone levels. Sequential post-partum milk samples were collected weekly throughout 20 weeks after pregnancy. Progesterone concentrations were determined by solid phase RIA. Lactating cows required an average of 5.2 weeks to resume luteal activity; 48% of the cows conceived after first insemination and had significantly high progesterone concentrations during the first 5 weeks after insemination than cows which returned to heat 5-8 weeks after insemination> Results also revealed that adequate level of progesterone, which varied between 4.2 and 9.1 nmol/l, is required to maintain early pregnancy and progesterone level remains high in pregnant cows. (Author) 17 refs., 3 Tabs

  15. Contemporary computational mathematics a celebration of the 80th birthday of Ian Sloan

    CERN Document Server

    Kuo, Frances; Woźniakowski, Henryk

    2018-01-01

    This book is a tribute to Professor Ian Hugh Sloan on the occasion of his 80th birthday. It consists of nearly 60 articles written by international leaders in a diverse range of areas in contemporary computational mathematics. These papers highlight the impact and many achievements of Professor Sloan in his distinguished academic career. The book also presents state of the art knowledge in many computational fields such as quasi-Monte Carlo and Monte Carlo methods for multivariate integration, multi-level methods, finite element methods, uncertainty quantification, spherical designs and integration on the sphere, approximation and interpolation of multivariate functions, oscillatory integrals, and in general in information-based complexity and tractability, as well as in a range of other topics. The book also tells the life story of the renowned mathematician, family man, colleague and friend, who has been an inspiration to many of us. The reader may especially enjoy the story from the perspective of his fami...

  16. Neutrons characterization of the nuclear reactor Ian-R1 of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez P, L. X.; Martinez O, S. A.; Vega C, H. R.

    2014-08-01

    By means of Monte Carlo methods, with the code MCNPX, the neutron characteristics of the research nuclear reactor Ian-R1 of Colombia, in power off but with the neutrons source in their start position, have been valued. The neutrons spectra, the total flow and their average power were calculated in the irradiation spaces inside the graphite reflector, as well as in the cells with air. Also the spectra, the total flow and the absorbed dose were calculated in several places distributed along the radial shaft inside the water moderator. The neutrons total flow was also considered to the long of the axial shaft. The characteristics of the neutrons spectra vary depending on their position regarding the source and the material that surrounds to the cell where the calculation was made. (Author)

  17. [Williams-Beuren syndrome (Williams syndrome). Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklós, Györgyi; Fekete, György; Haltrich, Irén; Tóth, Miklós; Reismann, Péter

    2017-11-01

    Williams syndrome is a rare genetic disorder, that occurs equally in all ethnic groups and both sexes. The diagnosis might be missed during childhood in mild cases. However, establishing the diagnosis is important, not only to find the cause of intellectual disability but to look for cardiovascular, endocrine, psychiatry, urology and other conditions, which can occur at any age in the patients' lifetime. This case report presents the story of 47-year-old woman, who was admitted with haematemesis. During her stay on the ward, in the light of the distinctive facial features, mental retardation, and social behaviour patterns, the possibility of Williams syndrome emerged. Later, the diagnosis was confirmed by genetic analysis. This female is the oldest living patient with Williams syndrome in Hungary. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(47): 1883-1888.

  18. Cani kunagine laulja Tallinnas. Led Zeppelin koguneb taas? Ian Brown müüb oma maja liiga kallilt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Damo Suzuki ja tema uue ansambli Damo Suzuki Network esinemisest Von Krahli Teatri baaris 21.oktoobril. Led Zeppelini plaanist korraldada järgmisel aastal kontserttuur mööda USAd. Ansambli Stone Roses kunagise solisti Ian Browni suvemaja müügist Põhja-Walesis Llithfaenis

  19. Infection by rhinovirus: similarity of clinical signs included in the case definition of influenza IAn/H1N1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oña Navarro, Maria; Melón García, Santiago; Alvarez-Argüelles, Marta; Fernández-Verdugo, Ana; Boga Riveiro, Jose Antonio

    2012-08-01

    Although new influenza virus (IAn/H1N1) infections are mild and indistinguishable from any other seasonal influenza virus infections, there are few data on comparisons of the clinical features of infection with (IAn/H1N1) and with other respiratory viruses. The incidence, clinical aspects and temporal distribution of those respiratory viruses circulating during flu pandemic period were studied. Respiratory samples from patients with acute influenza-like symptoms were collected from May 2009 to December 2009. Respiratory viruses were detected by conventional culture methods and genome amplification techniques. Although IAn/H1N1 was the virus most frequently detected, several other respiratory viruses co-circulated with IAn/H1N1 during the pandemic period, especially rhinovirus. The similarity between clinical signs included in the clinical case definition for influenza and those caused by other respiratory viruses, particularly rhinovirus, suggest that a high percentage of viral infections were clinically diagnosed as case of influenza. Our study offers useful information to face future pandemics caused by influenza virus, indicating that differential diagnoses are required in order to not overestimate the importance of the pandemic. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of Immunopathobiogenesis on SIRS-Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Guntur Hermawan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, sepsis has been diagnosed according to consensus guidelines established in 1991 as an infection in addition to the symptoms of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS. In addition to the previous criteria, the 2001 conference added several new diagnostic criteria for sepsis. Of particular interest was the inclusion of the biomarkers procalcitonin (PCT and C-reactive protein (CRP, despite the overall conclusion that it was premature to use biomarkers for sepsis diagnosis. The primary recommendation of the panel was the implementation of the Predisposition, insult Infection, Response, and Organ dysfunction (PIRO.The immune system has traditionally been devided into innate and adaptive components, each of which has a different role and function in defending the host against infectious agents. Stimulation of different TLRs induces distinct patterns of gene expression, which not only leads to the activation of innate immunity but also increasing evidence supports an additional critical role for TLRs in orchestrating the development of adaptive immune responses. The superantigens are able to induce toxic shock syndrome and can sometimes cause multiple organ failure via adaptive immune system. The superantigenic activity of the bacterial exotoxins can be attributed to their ability to cross-link major histocompatibility complex class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells outside the peptide groove with T-cell receptors to form a trimolecular complex. This trimolecular interaction leads to uncontrolled release of a number of proinflammatory cytokines. Proinflammatory cytokines especially IFN-γ and TNF-α, the key cytokines causing toxic shock syndrome. KEYWORDS: sepsis, innate immunity, adaptive.

  1. Lymphocyte integrin expression differences between SIRS and sepsis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, D S; Monaghan, S F; Ayala, Alfred

    2017-11-01

    Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis remain leading causes of death. Despite many similarities, the two entities are very distinct clinically and immunologically. T-Lymphocytes play a key pivotal role in the pathogenesis and ultimately outcome following both SIRS and sepsis. Integrins are essential in the trafficking and migration of lymphocytes. They also serve vital roles in efficient wound healing and clearance of infections. Here, we investigate whether integrin expression, specifically β1 (CD29) and β2 (CD18), are disrupted in SIRS and sepsis, and assess differences in integrin expression between these two critically ill clinical categories. T-Lymphocytes were isolated from whole blood collected from ICU patients exhibiting SIRS or sepsis. Samples were analyzed for CD18 (β2) and CD29 (β1) on CD3 + T cells through flow cytometry. Septic patients were stratified into either exclusively abdominal or non-abdominal sources of sepsis. CD18 was almost ubiquitously expressed on CD3 + T cells irrespective of clinical condition. However, CD29 (β1 integrin) was lowest in SIRS patients (20.4% of CD3 + T cells) when compared with either septic patients (35.5%) or healthy volunteers (54.1%). Furthermore, there was evidence of compartmentalization in septic patients, where abdominal sources had a greater percentage of CD3 + CD29 + T cells (41.7%) when compared with those with non-abdominal sources (29.5%). Distinct differences in T-cell integrin expression exists between patients in SIRS versus sepsis, as well as relative to the source of sepsis. Further work is needed to understand cause and effect relative to the progression from SIRS into sepsis.

  2. [Sir Humphry Davy, the discoverer of anesthetic action of nitrous oxide--Davy and poets of British Romanticism and inhalation of laughing gas by his friends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, T

    1998-01-01

    In "Dove Cottage", the old house of the poet laureate William Wordsworth (1770-1850) in Grasmere, England, there is a portrait of Sir Humphry Davy (1778-1829). In 1804, Wordsworth invited his young friend to his home. Davy's works in the field of chemistry are well known. Interestingly enough, once he wished he could be a poet. His future seemed to be prosperous and delightful. He was highly evaluated by Robert Southey, poet laureate. But he has chosen the way of chemist. The author found some facts from literatures and received some information by courtesy of the Wordsworth Trust, Centre for British Romanticism. Davy's life and his works were introduced chronologically.

  3. Interview: William and Barbara Christopher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaching Exceptional Children, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Asserting that the biggest mistake educators can make is to set themselves up as experts vis-a-vis parents as amateurs, Barbara and William Christopher emphasize the importance of continued education for the autistic individual and relate their experiences with the educational community as they sought help for their autistic son. (JC)

  4. SIR-2 Data Normalization and Integration with M3 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grumpe, A.; Felder, M. P.; Wöhler, C.; Mall, U.

    2013-09-01

    The point spectrometer SIR-2 on Chandrayaan-1 provided radiance spectra integrated over circular footprints of 200 m diameter in the wavelength range 934-2410.8 nm in 256 channels [1]. To analyze SIR-2 reflectance spectra in their spatial context, a coregistration to Chandrayaan-1 M³ hyperspectral images [2] as well as a correction for topography and thermal emission are inevitable. The thermal and topographic correction procedure is based on the surface temperature and a digital elevation model (DEM) inferred from M³ data. The corrected reflectance spectra are then normalized to a standard illumination and viewing geometry.

  5. The Relationship between History and Ethics in Ian McEwan’s Black Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sedaghat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between history and ethics may seem irrelevant at first; however, these two have been related during the long history of war, violence and mass killing. The need of history to ethics is for saving itself from all the violence and terror. Emmanuel Levinas as a philosopher has tried to define ethics in a way that suits the terrible historical condition of humanity in the twentieth century. In his view, ethics is the infinite responsibility towards other human beings. He defines ‘being’ in relation to the ‘other’ who may be a complete stranger. In this definition a person bears complete responsibility toward the other and should answer the other’s call for help. In Ian McEwan's novel Black Dogs the protagonist is exposed to historical legacies of violence, and develops an ethical consciousness until the end of the novel. Responsibility seems to be a good answer to historical mass killing and violence that is dominant in the world.

  6. Who’s there? – First morphological and DNA barcoding catalogue of the shallow Hawai’ian sponge fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Ruth D.

    2017-01-01

    The sponge fauna has been largely overlooked in the Archipelago of Hawai’i, notwithstanding the paramount role of this taxon in marine ecosystems. The lack of knowledge about Porifera populations inhabiting the Hawai’ian reefs limits the development of ecological studies aimed at understanding the functioning of these marine systems. Consequently, this project addresses this gap by describing the most representative sponge species in the shallow waters of the enigmatic bay of Kane’ohe Bay, in O’ahu Island. A total of 30 species (28 demosponges and two calcareous sponges) living associated to the reef structures are here reported. Six of these species are new records to the Hawai’ian Porifera catalogue and are suspected to be recent introductions to these islands. Morphological descriptions of the voucher specimens are provided, along with sequencing data of two partitions involving the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) marker and a fragment covering partial (18S and 28S) and full (ITS-1, 5.8S and ITS-2) nuclear ribosomal genes. Species delimitations based on genetic distances were calculated to valitate how taxonomic assignments from DNA barcoding aligned with morphological identifications. Of the 60 sequences submitted to GenBank ~88% are the first sequencing records for the corresponding species and genetic marker. This work compiles the first catalogue combining morphological characters with DNA barcoding of Hawai’ian sponges, and contributes to the repository of public databases through the Sponge Barcoding Project initiative. PMID:29267311

  7. Skin findings in Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozel, Beth A; Bayliss, Susan J; Berk, David R; Waxler, Jessica L; Knutsen, Russell H; Danback, Joshua R; Pober, Barbara R

    2014-09-01

    Previous examination in a small number of individuals with Williams syndrome (also referred to as Williams-Beuren syndrome) has shown subtly softer skin and reduced deposition of elastin, an elastic matrix protein important in tissue recoil. No quantitative information about skin elasticity in individuals with Williams syndrome is available; nor has there been a complete report of dermatologic findings in this population. To fill this knowledge gap, 94 patients with Williams syndrome aged 7-50 years were recruited as part of the skin and vascular elasticity (WS-SAVE) study. They underwent either a clinical dermatologic assessment by trained dermatologists (2010 WSA family meeting) or measurement of biomechanical properties of the skin with the DermaLab™ suction cup (2012 WSA family meeting). Clinical assessment confirmed that soft skin is common in this population (83%), as is premature graying of the hair (80% of those 20 years or older), while wrinkles (92%), and abnormal scarring (33%) were detected in larger than expected proportions. Biomechanical studies detected statistically significant differences in dP (the pressure required to lift the skin), dT (the time required to raise the skin through a prescribed gradient), VE (viscoelasticity), and E (Young's modulus) relative to matched controls. The RT (retraction time) also trended longer but was not significant. The biomechanical differences noted in these patients did not correlate with the presence of vascular defects also attributable to elastin insufficiency (vascular stiffness, hypertension, and arterial stenosis) suggesting the presence of tissue specific modifiers that modulate the impact of elastin insufficiency in each tissue. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. On the Shoulders of Sir Isaac Newton and Arthur Storer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Helen E.; Evans-Gondo, Bonita

    2013-01-01

    Helen E. Martin, the author of this article, is a retired National Board Certified Teacher who has been researching Sir Isaac Newton's unpublished manuscripts for over three decades. While researching the work of Newton, a teacher she was mentoring asked for some hands-on activities to study planetary motion. The description of the activity…

  9. Investigating The Travelling Wave Solution For an SIR Endemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the travelling wave solution for an SIR endemic disease model with no disease related death when the spatial spread of the susceptible is not negligible. In this case the disease is driven by both the susceptible and the infective classes. The population is open since the disease is habitually prevalent in ...

  10. Buffels (Wes), Elsies, Sir Lowry's pass, Steenbras and Buffels (Oos)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heinecken, TJE

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available This report is a synthesis of all available information on five of the smaller rivers discharging in to False bay combined as a single volume. The rivers dealt with are the Buffels (Wes), Elsies, Sir Lowry' Pass, Steenbras and Buffels (Oos). False...

  11. Sir John and Lady Rita Cornforth: a distinguished chemical partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchase, Rupert; Hanson, James R

    2015-01-01

    This review describes the life of Sir John Cornforth AC CBE FRS, who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1975. It covers his early life in Australia, his work in Oxford, the National Institute for Medical Research, the Milstead Laboratory of Chemical Enzymology and the University of Sussex, together with the contributions made by his wife, Lady Rita Cornforth.

  12. Science and controversy a biography of Sir Norman Lockyer

    CERN Document Server

    Meadows, A

    2008-01-01

    Sir Norman Lockyer left Nature, the world''s leading scientific journal, as his lasting memorial. But his life, and controversial theories, are an important part of science history. His ideas were at the forefront of public debate, and ranged from brilliant to perverse. This entertaining book is a fascinating insight into his eventful life

  13. Sex Complexity and Politics in Black Dogs by Ian McEwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasiyannejad, Mina; Talif, Rosli

    Ian McEwan's Black Dogs (BD) is a story of socio-political conflict during the critical era of the Cold War. Black Dogs is riddled with party (political) domination and its outcomes in society. Europe is still suffering the consequences of the Second World War, perhaps the biggest war of the twentieth century. In the aftermath of such worldwide upheaval, the conflicts that were in tandem with the scramble for political domination emerged in diverse ways, affecting nations and their human populations. Systematic sexual assault during the war years showed that sex was used both for intimidation and humiliation. This study attempts to picture the multidimensional aspects of politics which are practically related to the most intimate human relationship, that is, sex. It pictures how personal is equated with the political and vice versa. The theory of sexual politics is the theoretical framework used to scrutinize power-structure relationship. By reviewing the major conflicts in such a scenario, as the Cold War, and societal restriction, this study concludes that conflict in the macrocosm (world and society) affects the microcosm (individual) in McEwan's Black Dogs. It provides a rather broad picture of politics and sexuality and highlights the stresses of wider society on human dysfunctional relationships. Rape as a tactic of war for a political goal demonstrates another aspect of sex. Reviewing the period in which the story takes place and relating it to the conflicts in society, the study goes beyond simple cause and effect problems among individuals and portrays a holistic view of sexuality and society.

  14. 33 CFR 147.817 - Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.817 Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform (Morpeth...

  15. Commanders-In-Chief of the American War for Independence: A Leadership Study of George Washington and Sir William Howe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, Haydn

    2001-01-01

    .... By reviewing four leadership theories, two German, one British, and one American, a model developed that contained the enduring interrelated tenets of courage, judgment, determination, integrity, vision, and luck...

  16. Regulating repression: roles for the sir4 N-terminus in linker DNA protection and stabilization of epigenetic states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Kueng

    Full Text Available Silent information regulator proteins Sir2, Sir3, and Sir4 form a heterotrimeric complex that represses transcription at subtelomeric regions and homothallic mating type (HM loci in budding yeast. We have performed a detailed biochemical and genetic analysis of the largest Sir protein, Sir4. The N-terminal half of Sir4 is dispensable for SIR-mediated repression of HM loci in vivo, except in strains that lack Yku70 or have weak silencer elements. For HM silencing in these cells, the C-terminal domain (Sir4C, residues 747-1,358 must be complemented with an N-terminal domain (Sir4N; residues 1-270, expressed either independently or as a fusion with Sir4C. Nonetheless, recombinant Sir4C can form a complex with Sir2 and Sir3 in vitro, is catalytically active, and has sedimentation properties similar to a full-length Sir4-containing SIR complex. Sir4C-containing SIR complexes bind nucleosomal arrays and protect linker DNA from nucleolytic digestion, but less effectively than wild-type SIR complexes. Consistently, full-length Sir4 is required for the complete repression of subtelomeric genes. Supporting the notion that the Sir4 N-terminus is a regulatory domain, we find it extensively phosphorylated on cyclin-dependent kinase consensus sites, some being hyperphosphorylated during mitosis. Mutation of two major phosphoacceptor sites (S63 and S84 derepresses natural subtelomeric genes when combined with a serendipitous mutation (P2A, which alone can enhance the stability of either the repressed or active state. The triple mutation confers resistance to rapamycin-induced stress and a loss of subtelomeric repression. We conclude that the Sir4 N-terminus plays two roles in SIR-mediated silencing: it contributes to epigenetic repression by stabilizing the SIR-mediated protection of linker DNA; and, as a target of phosphorylation, it can destabilize silencing in a regulated manner.

  17. William Henry Broadbent (1835-1907) as a neurologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eadie, Mervyn

    2015-01-01

    By the end of his career, Sir William Broadbent (1835-1907) had become an eminent London general physician who had been appointed Physician-in-Ordinary to King Edward VII and to the Prince of Wales. Previously he had been Physician-in-Extraordinary to Queen Victoria. At earlier stages in his professional life, he had played a significant role in the development of clinical neurology in Victorian-era Britain. In 1866, he had enunciated a principle (Broadbent's hypothesis) that for the first time satisfactorily accounted for the mechanisms by which the trunk and bulbar muscles and the upper face were spared in hemiplegia. He had also carried out original investigations into the distribution of fiber tracts in the human cerebral hemispheres. At intervals over the years, he published on aspects of aphasia and developed a rather complicated though logical conceptual schema of the presumed anatomical background to the process of speech, based on clinic-pathological correlations. His role in all this neurological research and his other contributions on subjects such as neurosyphilis have largely been forgotten by subsequent generations.

  18. Sir Karl Popper and his philosophy of physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammer, Max

    1991-12-01

    The eminent mathematical physicist Sir Hermann Bondi once said: “There is no more to science than its method, and there is no more to its method than Popper has said.” Indeed, many regard Sir Karl Raimund Popper the greatest philosopher of science in our generation. Much of what Popper “has said” refers to physics, but physicists, generally speaking, have little knowledge of what he has said. True, Popper's philosophy of science and, in particular, his realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics deviates considerably from the generally accepted doctrine. But as Popper, rightly I think, points out, it is precisely the proliferation of divergent theories which promotes the growth of scientific knowledge; it would be a danger for physics if physicists were dogmatically tied to a single theory or would not test their theory against alternatives. It is for this purpose that, on the occasion of the nonagenarian celebration of Popper's birthday, the present essay has been written.

  19. The susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model for viral marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Siti Suhaila; Akil, Ku Azlina Ku; Chulan, Majdah; Sharif, Noorzila

    2017-11-01

    Viral marketing is a marketing strategy utilizes social media to spread information about a product or services provided. It is the most powerful way to share information in a short amount of time. The objective of this study is to investigate the dynamic of viral marketing within a time duration in the point of view of mathematics. This study used the epidemiological model known as Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR). The model consists of a system of three differential equations with three state variables namely susceptible (S), infected (I) and recovered (R). It considers a case of SIR model with demography. Numerical experiments have been performed. The results show that viral marketing reaches its peak within two days. The online messages shared will become higher if the initial number of the infected individual has been increased.

  20. Stability analysis of the Euler discretization for SIR epidemic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryanto, Agus

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we consider a discrete SIR epidemic model obtained by the Euler method. For that discrete model, existence of disease free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium is established. Sufficient conditions on the local asymptotical stability of both disease free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium are also derived. It is found that the local asymptotical stability of the existing equilibrium is achieved only for a small time step size h. If h is further increased and passes the critical value, then both equilibriums will lose their stability. Our numerical simulations show that a complex dynamical behavior such as bifurcation or chaos phenomenon will appear for relatively large h. Both analytical and numerical results show that the discrete SIR model has a richer dynamical behavior than its continuous counterpart

  1. The Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS in acutely hospitalised medical patients: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Storgaard Merete

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sepsis is an infection which has evoked a systemic inflammatory response. Clinically, the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS is identified by two or more symptoms including fever or hypothermia, tachycardia, tachypnoea and change in blood leucocyte count. The relationship between SIRS symptoms and morbidity and mortality in medical emergency ward patients is unknown. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of the frequency of SIRS and its relationship to sepsis and death among acutely hospitalised medical patients. In 437 consecutive patients, SIRS status, blood pressure, infection and comorbidity on admission was registered together with 28-day mortality. Results A hundred and fifty-four patients (35% had SIRS on admission, 211 patients (48% had no SIRS, and 72 patients (16% had insufficient data to evaluate their SIRS status. SIRS patients were 2.2 times more frequently infected, with 66/154 SIRS patients versus 41/211 non-SIRS patients: p Conclusion We found SIRS status on admission to be moderately associated with infection and strongly related to 28-day mortality.

  2. SirT1 regulates energy metabolism and response to caloric restriction in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino Boily

    Full Text Available The yeast sir2 gene and its orthologues in Drosophila and C. elegans have well-established roles in lifespan determination and response to caloric restriction. We have studied mice carrying two null alleles for SirT1, the mammalian orthologue of sir2, and found that these animals inefficiently utilize ingested food. These mice are hypermetabolic, contain inefficient liver mitochondria, and have elevated rates of lipid oxidation. When challenged with a 40% reduction in caloric intake, normal mice maintained their metabolic rate and increased their physical activity while the metabolic rate of SirT1-null mice dropped and their activity did not increase. Moreover, CR did not extend lifespan of SirT1-null mice. Thus, SirT1 is an important regulator of energy metabolism and, like its orthologues from simpler eukaryotes, the SirT1 protein appears to be required for a normal response to caloric restriction.

  3. Stability and bifurcation analysis in a delayed SIR model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zhichao; Wei Junjie

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a time-delayed SIR model with a nonlinear incidence rate is considered. The existence of Hopf bifurcations at the endemic equilibrium is established by analyzing the distribution of the characteristic values. A explicit algorithm for determining the direction of the Hopf bifurcation and the stability of the bifurcating periodic solutions are derived by using the normal form and the center manifold theory. Numerical simulations to support the analytical conclusions are carried out

  4. [Sir Harold Ridley--the creator of modern cataract surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obuchowska, Iwona; Mariak, Zofia

    2005-01-01

    In February 2000, the worldwide ophthalmology community celebrated the 50th anniversary of one of the twentieth century's most important innovations in eye care--the implantation of the first intraocular lens after cataract extraction by Sir Harold Ridley. It was the initiation of a golden age for the development of ophthalmology, especially cataract surgery. In our paper we would like to remember this outstanding English ophthalmologist and his great invention.

  5. Development of SIR-C Ground Calibration Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, A.; Azeem, M.; Haub, D.; Sarabandi, K.

    1993-01-01

    SIR-C/X-SAR is currently scheduled for launch in April 1994. SIR-C is an L-Band and C-Band, multi-polarization spaceborne SAR system developed by NASA/JPL. X- SAR is an X-Band SAR system developed by DARA/ASI. One of the problems involved in calibrating the SIR-C instrument is to make sure that the horizontal (H) and vertical (V) polarized beams are aligned in the azimuth direction, i.e.. that they are pointing in the same direction. This is important if the polarimetric performance specifications for the system are to be met. To solve this problem, we have designed and built a prototype of a low-cost ground receiver capable of recording received power from two antennas, one H-polarized, the other V-polarized. The two signals are mixed to audio then recorded on the left and right stereo channels of a standard audio cassette player. The audio cassette recording can then be played back directly into a Macintosh computer, where it is digitized. Analysis of.

  6. Circuits design of action logics of the protection system of nuclear reactor IAN-R1 of Colombia; Diseno de los circuitos de la logica de actuacion del sistema de proteccion del reactor nuclear IAN-R1 de Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez M, J. L.; Rivero G, T.; Sainz M, E., E-mail: joseluis.gonzalez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    Due to the obsolescence of the instrumentation and control system of the nuclear research reactor IAN-R1, the Institute of Geology and Mining of Colombia, IngeoMinas, launched an international convoking for renewal it which was won by the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ). Within systems to design, the reactor protection system is described as important for safety, because this carried out, among others two primary functions: 1) ensuring the reactor shutdown safely, and 2) controlling the interlocks to protect against operational errors if defined conditions have not been met. To fulfill these functions, the various subsystems related to the safety report the state in which they are using binary signals and are connected to the inputs of two redundant logic wiring circuits called action logics (Al) that are part of the reactor protection system. These Al also serve as logical interface to indicate at all times the status of subsystems, both the operator and other systems. In the event that any of the subsystems indicates a state of insecurity in the reactor, the Al generate signals off (or scram) of the reactor, maintaining the interlock until the operator sends a reset signal. In this paper the design, implementation, verification and testing of circuits that make up the Al 1 and 2 of IAN-R1 reactor is described, considering the fulfillment of the requirements that the different international standards imposed on this type of design. (Author)

  7. A human neurodevelopmental model for Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chailangkarn, Thanathom; Trujillo, Cleber A; Freitas, Beatriz C; Hrvoj-Mihic, Branka; Herai, Roberto H; Yu, Diana X; Brown, Timothy T; Marchetto, Maria C; Bardy, Cedric; McHenry, Lauren; Stefanacci, Lisa; Järvinen, Anna; Searcy, Yvonne M; DeWitt, Michelle; Wong, Wenny; Lai, Philip; Ard, M Colin; Hanson, Kari L; Romero, Sarah; Jacobs, Bob; Dale, Anders M; Dai, Li; Korenberg, Julie R; Gage, Fred H; Bellugi, Ursula; Halgren, Eric; Semendeferi, Katerina; Muotri, Alysson R

    2016-08-18

    Williams syndrome is a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by an uncommon hypersociability and a mosaic of retained and compromised linguistic and cognitive abilities. Nearly all clinically diagnosed individuals with Williams syndrome lack precisely the same set of genes, with breakpoints in chromosome band 7q11.23 (refs 1-5). The contribution of specific genes to the neuroanatomical and functional alterations, leading to behavioural pathologies in humans, remains largely unexplored. Here we investigate neural progenitor cells and cortical neurons derived from Williams syndrome and typically developing induced pluripotent stem cells. Neural progenitor cells in Williams syndrome have an increased doubling time and apoptosis compared with typically developing neural progenitor cells. Using an individual with atypical Williams syndrome, we narrowed this cellular phenotype to a single gene candidate, frizzled 9 (FZD9). At the neuronal stage, layer V/VI cortical neurons derived from Williams syndrome were characterized by longer total dendrites, increased numbers of spines and synapses, aberrant calcium oscillation and altered network connectivity. Morphometric alterations observed in neurons from Williams syndrome were validated after Golgi staining of post-mortem layer V/VI cortical neurons. This model of human induced pluripotent stem cells fills the current knowledge gap in the cellular biology of Williams syndrome and could lead to further insights into the molecular mechanism underlying the disorder and the human social brain.

  8. Language and Communicative Development in Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mervis, Carolyn B.; Becerra, Angela M.

    2007-01-01

    Williams syndrome, a genetic disorder caused by a microdeletion of approximately 25 genes on chromosome 7q11.23, is associated with mild to moderate intellectual disability or learning difficulties. Most individuals with Williams syndrome evidence a cognitive profile including relative strengths in verbal short-term memory and language, and…

  9. Williams Syndrome with a “Twist”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despoina Maritsi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Williams syndrome is a rare genetic condition with multisystemic involvement, caused by a microscopic deletion in the chromosome band 7q11.23. We describe the first case of a toddler with Williams syndrome who developed Benign Paroxysmal Torticollis (BPT, a benign dystonic disorder of unknown aetiology.

  10. Circuits design of action logics of the protection system of nuclear reactor IAN-R1 of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez M, J. L.; Rivero G, T.; Sainz M, E.

    2014-10-01

    Due to the obsolescence of the instrumentation and control system of the nuclear research reactor IAN-R1, the Institute of Geology and Mining of Colombia, IngeoMinas, launched an international convoking for renewal it which was won by the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ). Within systems to design, the reactor protection system is described as important for safety, because this carried out, among others two primary functions: 1) ensuring the reactor shutdown safely, and 2) controlling the interlocks to protect against operational errors if defined conditions have not been met. To fulfill these functions, the various subsystems related to the safety report the state in which they are using binary signals and are connected to the inputs of two redundant logic wiring circuits called action logics (Al) that are part of the reactor protection system. These Al also serve as logical interface to indicate at all times the status of subsystems, both the operator and other systems. In the event that any of the subsystems indicates a state of insecurity in the reactor, the Al generate signals off (or scram) of the reactor, maintaining the interlock until the operator sends a reset signal. In this paper the design, implementation, verification and testing of circuits that make up the Al 1 and 2 of IAN-R1 reactor is described, considering the fulfillment of the requirements that the different international standards imposed on this type of design. (Author)

  11. Crystal clear the autobiographies of Sir Lawrence and Lady Bragg

    CERN Document Server

    Thomson, Patience

    2015-01-01

    The main body of this book contains the hitherto unpublished autobiographies of both William Lawrence Bragg, an innovative scientist who won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1915, and his wife, Alice, a Mayor of Cambridge and National Chairman of Marriage Guidance. Their autobiographies give unusual insights into the lives and times of two distinguished people and the real personalities behind their public appearance.

  12. American views of Sir Victor Horsley in the era of Cushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Kurt R; Schulder, Michael

    2018-03-09

    Sir Victor Horsley was a pioneering British neurosurgeon known for his numerous neurosurgical, scientific, and sociopolitical contributions. Although word of these surgical and scientific achievements quickly spread throughout Europe and North America in the late 19th century, much of modern neurosurgery's view of Horsley has been colored by a single anecdote from John Fulton's biography of Harvey Cushing. In this account, Cushing observes a frenetic Horsley hastily removing a Gasserian ganglion from a patient in the kitchen of a British mansion. Not long after, Cushing left Britain saying that he had little to learn from British neurosurgery. The authors of this paper examined contemporary views of Horsley to assess what his actual reputation was in the US and Canada. The authors conducted a thorough search of references to Horsley using the following sources: American surgical and neurosurgical textbooks; major biographies; diary entries and letters; PubMed; newspaper articles; and surgical and neurosurgical texts. The positive reception of his work is corroborated by invitations for Horsley to speak in America. Research additionally revealed that Horsley had numerous personal and professional relationships with prominent Americans in medicine, including William Osler, John Wheelock Elliot, Ernest Sachs, and (yes) Harvey Cushing. Horsley's contributions to medicine and science were heavily reported in American newspapers; outside of neurosurgery, his strong opposition to the antivivisectionists and his support for alcohol prohibition were widely reported in popular media. Horsley's contributions to neurosurgery in America are undeniable. Writings from and about prominent Americans reveal that he was viewed favorably by those who had met him. Frequent publication of his views in the American media suggests that medical professionals and the public in the US valued his contributions on scientific as well as social issues. Horsley died too young, but not without the

  13. An SIRS model with a nonlinear incidence rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Yu; Wang, Wendi; Xiao Shiwu

    2007-01-01

    The global dynamics of an SIRS model with a nonlinear incidence rate is investigated. We establish a threshold for a disease to be extinct or endemic, analyze the existence and asymptotic stability of equilibria, and verify the existence of bistable states, i.e., a stable disease free equilibrium and a stable endemic equilibrium or a stable limit cycle. In particular, we find that the model admits stability switches as a parameter changes. We also investigate the backward bifurcation, the Hopf bifurcation and Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation and obtain the Hopf bifurcation criteria and Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation curves, which are important for making strategies for controlling a disease

  14. Sir Winston Churchill: treatment for pneumonia in 1943 and 1944.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, J A; Scadding, J W

    2017-12-01

    This paper reviews Churchill's illnesses in February 1943 and August/September 1944 when he developed pneumonia; on the first occasion this followed a cold and sore throat. Churchill was managed at home by Sir Charles Wilson (later Lord Moran) with the assistance of two nurses and the expert advice of Dr Geoffrey Marshall, Brigadier Lionel Whitby and Colonel Robert Drew. A sulphonamide (sulphathiazole on the first occasion) was prescribed for both illnesses. Churchill recovered, and despite his illnesses continued to direct the affairs of State from his bed. On the second occasion, Churchill's illness was not made public.

  15. Sir Rudolf Peierls Selected private and scientific correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sabine

    2007-01-01

    This edition of the private and scientific correspondence of Sir Rudolf Peierls gives a unique insight into the life and work of one of the greatest theoretical physicists of the 20th century. Rudolf Peierls' scientific work contributed to the early developments in quantum mechanics, and he is well known and much appreciated for his contributions to various disciplines, including solid state physics, nuclear physics, and particle physics. As an enthusiastic and devoted teacher, he passed on his knowledge and understanding and inspired the work of collaborators and students alike. As an effecti

  16. Sir Ronald A. Fisher and the International Biometric Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billard, Lynne

    2014-06-01

    The year 2012 marks the 50th anniversary of the death of Sir Ronald A. Fisher, one of the two Fathers of Statistics and a Founder of the International Biometric Society (the "Society"). To celebrate the extraordinary genius of Fisher and the far-sighted vision of Fisher and Chester Bliss in organizing and promoting the formation of the Society, this article looks at the origins and growth of the Society, some of the key players and events, and especially the roles played by Fisher himself as the First President. A fresh look at Fisher, the man rather than the scientific genius is also presented. © 2014, The International Biometric Society.

  17. SIR-ZEE: plataforma tecnológica para el desarrollo local SIR-ZEE: technology platform for local development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Treviño Villalobos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available El Sistema de Información Regional de la Zona Económica Especial (SIR-ZEE nació en Costa Rica aproximadamente en 1998, cuando se concibió la idea de crear un sistema informático para recopilar, gestionar y ofrecer temáticas generadas en forma digital por diferentes entidades públicas y privadas. En el 2008, con los fondos del Programa de Regionalización Interuniversitaria del Consejo Nacional de Rectores, se aprobó la iniciativa SIR-ZEE, Plataforma Tecnológica para el Desarrollo Local, que buscó fortalecer las capacidades productivas y las capacidades de gobernabilidad en la Región Huetar Norte mediante el acceso a la información oportuna y relevante para el desarrollo económico local. Este artículo tiene como objetivo mostrar no solo la relevancia de un sistema de información en la planificación del desarrollo local, sino también que, en la actualidad, el SIR-ZEE se está convirtiendo en una ventaja competitiva para la Región Huetar Norte, ya que facilita el proceso de toma decisiones. Los principales resultados obtenidos al final de la iniciativa fueron una propuesta metodológica para la elaboración de planes estratégicos de desarrollo local en la Región Huetar Norte, la sensibilización de los actores locales sobre la participación ciudadana en las diferentes fases de la planificación, un diagnóstico territorial con el valor agregado de contar con la información georreferenciada y disponible en un sitio web, y avances en la elaboración del Plan estratégico de desarrollo local.The Regional Information System of the Special Economic Zone (SIR-ZEE was born about the year 1998 as a computer system to collect, manage and offer thematic generated in digital format by different public and private entities. In 2008, with the funds of Interuniversity Regionalization Program the National Council of Rectors approved the initiative SIR- ZEE: Platform Technology for Local Development which sought to strengthen productive

  18. A Novel Method of SIR Measurement for Power Control in CDMA Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, J; Wu, S B; He, J Z

    2006-01-01

    CDMA is interference limited multiple access system. Power control is an effective way to reduce co-channel interference and solve the near-far problem. Consequently, it can improve the system capacity, and make higher data rate possible. CDMA2000 employs fast closed-loop power control in reverse link to combat channel fading, and the estimation of signal to interference ratio (SIR) is required for closed-loop power control. Transmitting power is adjusted by comparing the SIR estimation with SIR target. So, it is crucial to measure the SIR of received signal accurately. Traditional measurement methods mostly depend on pilot signal strongly, when the pilots are few, there is a greater error brought to the measurement of SIR. In this paper, we discuss the SIR measurement of the received signal under the fewer pilots condition (especially only one pilot symbol) and present a novel SIR measurement method. According to the simulation, the numerical results indicate that the SIR measured by the proposed method is more accurate than the SIR measured by conventional method under fewer pilots condition

  19. William Paley's lost "intelligent design".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Adam R

    2009-01-01

    William Paley's Natural Theology has experienced a resurgence in popularity in recent decades with the continuing controversies over the teaching of evolution and the emergence of a new "intelligent design" movement. But while both the movement's supporters and detractors agree that Paley is an intellectual forefather of the present-day movement, this agreement is forged at the expense of historical accuracy. Paley's intelligent design has almost nothing in common with the present day movement and, in fact, suggests theological arguments against the type of reasoning used by the modern movement. Paley wrote in reaction to Hume and in response to the evolutionary theories of Buffon and Erasmus Darwin. In this light, the Natural Theology suggests a different reading than it is usually given. Paley's narrowly-argued theology relies upon the ability to detect the presence of "purpose" in nature without relying upon knowing what those purposes are. His empirically-argued theology leads him to a God who operates through natural law, not in its contravention, and his concern goes far beyond proving the existence of a deity to undertaking the theological project of determining the attributes and characteristics of the deity. Though not himself an evolutionist, Paley put forth a theological worldview consistent with evolution. In fact, given his arguments that the observation of great contrivance increases the testimony of nature to God's power, Paley's philosophy might be more consistent with a theistic Darwinian evolution than with special creation.

  20. David Owen Williams (1944 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Many people, not only at CERN but also throughout the world, were saddened to learn that their friend and colleague David Williams had passed away in the early hours of Tuesday 24 October. His death came after a year of fighting cancer with all of his usual determination and optimism. Even days before the end he was still welcoming to visitors, and was alert and interested in all their news. Born in 1944, David came to CERN from the University of Cambridge in 1966, with a degree in Physics and Computer Science. Joining what at the time was called the Documents and Data (DD) Division, in the earlier part his career he worked first on software for analysis of bubble chamber photographs, subsequently leading the group that supported experiments with 'hybrids' of bubble chambers and electronic detectors and then the group supporting online computing in experiments. He thus witnessed all of the enormous changes that took place in particle physics as the era of bubble chambers came to an end and the availability ...

  1. William Harvey, Aristotle and astrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    In this paper I argue that William Harvey believed in a form of astrology. It has long been known that Harvey employed a macrocosm-microcosm analogy and used alchemical terminology in describing how the two types of blood change into one another. This paper then seeks to examine a further aspect of Harvey in relation to the magical tradition. There is an important corollary to this line of thought, however. This is that while Harvey does have a belief in astrology, it is strongly related to Aristotle's views in this area and is quite restricted and attenuated relative to some contemporary beliefs in astrology. This suggests a more general thesis. While Harvey was amenable to ideas which we associate with the natural magic tradition, those ideas had a very broad range of formulation and there was a limit to how far he would accept them. This limit was largely determined by Harvey's adherence to Aristotle's natural philosophy and his Christian beliefs. I argue that this is also the case in relation to Harvey's use of the macrocosm-microcosm analogy and of alchemical terminology, and, as far as we can rely on the evidence, this informs his attitudes towards witches as well. Understanding Harvey's influences and motives here is important in placing him properly in the context of early seventeenth-century thought.

  2. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: HYDRO (Hydrology)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  3. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: INVERT (Invertebrates)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  4. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: INDEX

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  5. 33 CFR 167.1700 - In Prince William Sound: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In Prince William Sound: General... Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1700 In Prince William Sound: General. The Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme consists of four parts: Prince William Sound Traffic Separation...

  6. Sir Victor Horsley (1857-1916): pioneer of neurological surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tze-Ching; Black, Peter McL

    2002-03-01

    Immortalized in surgical history for the introduction of "antiseptic wax," Sir Victor Horsley played a pivotal role in shaping the face of standard neurosurgical practice. His contributions include the first laminectomy for spinal neoplasm, the first carotid ligation for cerebral aneurysm, the curved skin flap, the transcranial approach to the pituitary gland, intradural division of the trigeminal nerve root for trigeminal neuralgia, and surface marking of the cerebral cortex. A tireless scientist, he was a significant player in discovering the cure for myxedema, the eradication of rabies from England, and the invention of the Horsley-Clarke stereotactic frame. As a pathologist, Horsley performed research on bacteria and edema and founded the Journal of Pathology. Horsley's kindness, humility, and generous spirit endeared him to patients, colleagues, and students. Born to privilege, he was nonetheless dedicated to improving the lot of the common man and directed his efforts toward the suffrage of women, medical reform, and free health care for the working class. Knighted in 1902 for his many contributions to medicine, Sir Victor met an untimely death during World War I from heat stroke at the age of 59. An iconoclast of keen intellect, unlimited energy, and consummate skill, his life and work justify his epitaph as a "pioneer of neurological surgery."

  7. The blot on the landscape: Fred Williams and Australian art history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Broadfoot

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A defining shift in Australian art historiography occurred with the publishing of Bernard Smith’s 1980 Boyer Lecture series, The Spectre of Truganini. Seeing the exclusion of an Aboriginal presence in Australian art through the ideas of Freud, the history of Australian art, Smith proposed, was a history of repression. After Smith, Ian McLean has developed the most detailed account of the history of Australian art according to this methodology. This essay examines the work of the modern Australian artist Fred Williams in relation to both Smith and McLean’s understanding of the history of Australian art but to expand on their work I argue that, rather than Freud alone, it is Lacan’s refiguring of Freud that offers us the most insight into Williams’s work. Further, insofar as I argue that the history of Australian art is the very subject matter of Williams’s work, his work stands in for a wider project, the understanding of the history of Australian art according to Lacan’s proposal of a foundational split between the eye and the gaze.

  8. Colour discrimination and categorisation in Williams syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Farran, E. K.; Cranwell, M. B.; Alvarez, J.; Franklin, A.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) present with impaired functioning of the dorsal visual stream relative to the ventral visual stream. As such, little attention has been given to ventral stream functions in WS. We investigated colour processing, a predominantly ventral stream function, for the first time in nineteen individuals with Williams syndrome. Colour discrimination was assessed using the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test. Colour categorisation was assessed using a match-to-sample ...

  9. Sastra dan Difabel: Menilik Citra Difabel dalam Novel Biola Tak Berdawai dari Sudut Pandang Sosiologi Sastra Ian Watt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhanif Yasin Yusuf

    2015-06-01

    Dengan menggunakan pendekatan teori sosiologi sastra Ian Watt, Biola Tak Berdawai tidak jauh berbeda dengan karya-karya Seno lainnya yang melemparkan gagasan kritis terhadap realitas sosial. Latar belakang sosial Seno yang sekaligus sebagai wartawan melemparkan gagasan kritisnya terkait kondisi difabel yang masih mendapat stigma negatif dari masyarakat. Cerminan sosial dalam novel tidak jauh berbeda dengan realitas yang terjadi di Indonesia, dimana ideologi kenormalan menyumbangkan berbagai bentuk ketidakadilan terhadap difabel. Difabel masih dianggap sebagai individu yang cacat, sebagai kutukan Tuhan, dan sebagai sumber aib bagi keluarga. Pendobrakan terhadap realitas yang ada, dilakukan pengarang lewat tokoh utama “Aku” yang difabel dengan menyajikan fakta bahwa difabel memiliki kemampuan yang berbeda, tetapi masyarakat masih belum memahaminya karena sudah terlanjur terjebak pada stigma negatif terhadap difabel.

  10. Neutronic calculations in core conversion of the IAN-R1 research reactor from MTR HEU to TRIGA LEU fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarta Fuentes, Jose A.; Castiblanco, L.A.

    2003-01-01

    With cooperation of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), neutronic calculations were carried out for conversion of the Ian-R1 Reactor from MTR-HEU fuel to TRIGA-LEU fuel. In order to establish a staff for neutronic calculation at the Instituto de Cancan's Nucleares y Energia s Alternatives (INEA) a program was established. This program included training, acquisition of hardware, software and calculation for the core with MTR-HEU fuel , enriched nominally to 93% and calculation for several arrangements with the TRIGA-LEU fuel, enriched to 19.7%. The results were verified and compared with several groups of calculation at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) in Mexico, and General Atomics (GA) in United States. As a result of this program, several technical reports have been wrote. (author)

  11. INFORMAÇÕES SOBRE GESTÃO DE RISCOS NAS IANs DAS EMPRESAS LISTADAS NO NOVO MERCADO DA BOVESPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Carlos Fernandes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las mejores prácticas de gobierno corporativo previenen que la gestión de la empresa conozca los riesgos asumidos y que los inversionistas sean informados sobre ellos. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo levantar las prácticas de divulgación sobre riesgos adoptadas en las Informaciones Anuales (IANs de las empresas. Se presenta un análisis del con - tenido de estos instrumentos de comunicación de las empresas clasificadas en el nivel de gobierno del Nuevo Mercado de la Bovespa. La metodología de la pesquisa aplicada se caracteriza como descriptiva y cualitativa, empleando como método el análisis docu - mental. Los resultados muestran que 73 de las 99 empresas del Nuevo Mercado habían divulgado sus IANs hasta 31.05.08, siendo que 12 de ellas nada relatan sobre su políticas de gestión de riesgos y de las 61 restantes apenas 6 presentan un apartado especifico sobre gestión de riesgo en sus informes. El análisis de contenido muestra que las empre-sas que adoptan las mejores prácticas ofrecen diversas informaciones sobre gestión de riesgo, incluyendo estructura organizacional, técnicas utilizadas y políticas de protección. Se concluye que los reportes sobre riesgos de la mayoría de las empresas aún presentan niveles bajos de evidencia.

  12. Permanence for a Delayed Nonautonomous SIR Epidemic Model with Density-Dependent Birth Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yingke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on some well-known SIR models, a revised nonautonomous SIR epidemic model with distributed delay and density-dependent birth rate was considered. Applying some classical analysis techniques for ordinary differential equations and the method proposed by Wang (2002, the threshold value for the permanence and extinction of the model was obtained.

  13. Dynamical Analysis of SIR Epidemic Models with Distributed Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wencai Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available SIR epidemic models with distributed delay are proposed. Firstly, the dynamical behaviors of the model without vaccination are studied. Using the Jacobian matrix, the stability of the equilibrium points of the system without vaccination is analyzed. The basic reproduction number R is got. In order to study the important role of vaccination to prevent diseases, the model with distributed delay under impulsive vaccination is formulated. And the sufficient conditions of globally asymptotic stability of “infection-free” periodic solution and the permanence of the model are obtained by using Floquet’s theorem, small-amplitude perturbation skills, and comparison theorem. Lastly, numerical simulation is presented to illustrate our main conclusions that vaccination has significant effects on the dynamical behaviors of the model. The results can provide effective tactic basis for the practical infectious disease prevention.

  14. Sir Robert Ball: Victorian Astronomer and Lecturer par excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. I. G.

    2005-12-01

    Between 1875 and 1910 Sir Robert Stawell Ball gave an estimated 2,500 lectures in towns and cities all over the British Isles and abroad. This paper traces his lecturing career from its beginnings in Ireland to the triumphs of the Royal Institution, and on lecture tours in the United States of America. After a period in mathematics and mechanics, he became a populariser of science, especially astronomy, and found fame and fortune among the working classes and the aristocracy. What motivated him to tireless travels is uncertain, but it might have been that it was rewarding, financially and to his reputation. Whatever his motives, contemporary accounts are clear that BallÕs lectures were extremely popular and well-received.

  15. Microstrip Cross-coupled Interdigital SIR Based Bandpass Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Maharjan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple and compact 4.9 GHz bandpass filter for C-band applications is proposed. This paper presents a novel microstrip cross-coupled interdigital half-wavelength stepped impedance resonator (SIR based bandpass filter (BPF.The designed structure is similar to that of a combination of two parallel interdigital capacitors. The scattering parameters of the structure are measured using vector network analyzer (VNA. The self generated capacitive and inductive reactances within the interdigital resonators exhibited in a resonance frequency of 4.9 GHz. The resonant frequency and bandwidth of the capacitive cross-coupled resonator is directly optimized from the physical arrangement of the resonators. The measured insertion loss (S21 and return loss (S11 were 0.3 dB and 28 dB, respectively, at resonance frequency which were almost close to the simulation results.

  16. Vaccination strategies for SIR vector-transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Pacheco, Gustavo; Esteva, Lourdes; Vargas, Cristobal

    2014-08-01

    Vector-borne diseases are one of the major public health problems in the world with the fastest spreading rate. Control measures have been focused on vector control, with poor results in most cases. Vaccines should help to reduce the diseases incidence, but vaccination strategies should also be defined. In this work, we propose a vector-transmitted SIR disease model with age-structured population subject to a vaccination program. We find an expression for the age-dependent basic reproductive number R(0), and we show that the disease-free equilibrium is locally stable for R(0) ≤ 1, and a unique endemic equilibrium exists for R(0) > 1. We apply the theoretical results to public data to evaluate vaccination strategies, immunization levels, and optimal age of vaccination for dengue disease.

  17. SIR (Safe Integral Reactor) - reducing size can reduce cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayns, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    Traditional engineering economics have favoured the advantages of larger size as a means of reducing specific capital costs and hence unit generating costs. For large and small plants utilising the same concept, e.g. a small four-loop PWR vs a large four-loop PWR with the same number of components, economies of scale are well established. If, however, a smaller plant is sized to take advantage of features which are only feasible at smaller outputs, is of simpler design, with the advantage taken of the simplified design to produce the most cost-effective layout, and incorporates fewer, more easily replaceable components with minimal assembly on site, it is possible to produce a plant which is competitive with larger plant of more traditional design. When 'system' effects, such as better matching of installed capacity to the growth in demand and the fact that a smaller total capacity will be needed to meet a given demand with a specified level of confidence, are taken into account, it can be shown that a utility's overall cash-flow position can be improved with lower associated absolute financial risks. The UK/US Safe Integral Reactor (SIR) is an integral pressurized water reactor in the 300-400 MW(e) range which utilises conventional water reactor technology in a way not feasible at the very large, sizes of recent years. The SIR concept is briefly explained and its technical and economic advantages in terms of simplicity, construction, maintenance, availability, decommissioning, safety and siting described. The results of system analyses which demonstrate the overall financial advantages to a utility are presented. (author)

  18. Williams-Beuren's Syndrome: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Hassan; Babazadeh, Kazem; Fattahi, Saeid; Mokhtari-Esbuie, Farzad

    2012-01-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome is a rare familial multisystem disorder occurring in 1 per 20,000 live births. It is characterized by congenital heart defects (CHD), skeletal and renal anomalies, cognitive disorder, social personality disorder and dysmorphic facies. We present a case of Williams syndrome that presented to us with heart murmur and cognitive problem. A 5-year-old girl referred to pediatric cardiologist because of heart murmurs. She had a systolic murmur (2-3/6) in right upper sternal border with radiation to right cervical region. She also had a bulge forehead. Angiography showed mild supra valvular aortic stenosis and mild multiple peripheral pulmonary stenosis. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed and the result was: 46.XX, ish del (7q11.2) (ELN X1) (7q22 X2) ELN deletion compatible with Williams syndrome. Peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis is associated with Noonan syndrome, Alagille syndrome, Cutis laxa, Ehler-Danlos syndrome, and Silver-Russel syndrome. The patient had peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis, but no other signs of these syndromes were present, and also she had a supravalvular aortic stenosis which was not seen in other syndromes except Williams syndrome. Conclusion. According to primary symptoms, paraclinical and clinical finding such as dysmorphic facies, cognitive disorder and congenital heart defect, Williams syndrome was the first diagnosis. We suggest a more attention for evaluating heart murmur in childhood period, especially when the patient has abnormal facial features or mental problem.

  19. Williams-Beuren's Syndrome: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Zamani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Williams-Beuren syndrome is a rare familial multisystem disorder occurring in 1 per 20,000 live births. It is characterized by congenital heart defects (CHD, skeletal and renal anomalies, cognitive disorder, social personality disorder and dysmorphic facies. We present a case of Williams syndrome that presented to us with heart murmur and cognitive problem. A 5-year-old girl referred to pediatric cardiologist because of heart murmurs. She had a systolic murmur (2-3/6 in right upper sternal border with radiation to right cervical region. She also had a bulge forehead. Angiography showed mild supra valvular aortic stenosis and mild multiple peripheral pulmonary stenosis. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH was performed and the result was: 46.XX, ish del (7q11.2 (ELN X1 (7q22 X2 ELN deletion compatible with Williams syndrome. Peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis is associated with Noonan syndrome, Alagille syndrome, Cutis laxa, Ehler-Danlos syndrome, and Silver-Russel syndrome. The patient had peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis, but no other signs of these syndromes were present, and also she had a supravalvular aortic stenosis which was not seen in other syndromes except Williams syndrome. Conclusion. According to primary symptoms, paraclinical and clinical finding such as dysmorphic facies, cognitive disorder and congenital heart defect, Williams syndrome was the first diagnosis. We suggest a more attention for evaluating heart murmur in childhood period, especially when the patient has abnormal facial features or mental problem.

  20. Social Cognition in Williams Syndrome: Face Tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A; Heiz, Julie; Sokolov, Alexander N; Barisnikov, Koviljka

    2016-01-01

    Many neurological, neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric, and psychosomatic disorders are characterized by impairments in visual social cognition, body language reading, and facial assessment of a social counterpart. Yet a wealth of research indicates that individuals with Williams syndrome exhibit remarkable concern for social stimuli and face fascination. Here individuals with Williams syndrome were presented with a set of Face-n-Food images composed of food ingredients and in different degree resembling a face (slightly bordering on the Giuseppe Arcimboldo style). The primary advantage of these images is that single components do not explicitly trigger face-specific processing, whereas in face images commonly used for investigating face perception (such as photographs or depictions), the mere occurrence of typical cues already implicates face presence. In a spontaneous recognition task, participants were shown a set of images in a predetermined order from the least to most resembling a face. Strikingly, individuals with Williams syndrome exhibited profound deficits in recognition of the Face-n-Food images as a face: they did not report seeing a face on the images, which typically developing controls effortlessly recognized as a face, and gave overall fewer face responses. This suggests atypical face tuning in Williams syndrome. The outcome is discussed in the light of a general pattern of social cognition in Williams syndrome and brain mechanisms underpinning face processing.

  1. Investigating the ''social brain'' through Williams syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamine, Masanori; Mimura, Masaru; Reiss, A.L.; Hoeft, F.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in social cognitive neuroscience have led to the concept of the ''social brain''. The social brain includes neural processes specialized for processing social information necessary for the recognition of self and others, and interpersonal relationships. Because of its unique behavioral phenotypic features which includes 'hypersociability', Williams syndrome has gained popularity among social cognitive neuroscientists. Individuals with Williams syndrome share the same genetic risk factor for cognitive-behavioral dysfunction utilizing brain imaging to elucidate endophenotype provides us with an unprecendented opportunity to study gene, brain and behavior relationships especially those related to social cognition. In this review, we provide an overview of neuroimaging studies on social cognition in Williams syndrome and discuss the neural basis of the social brain. (author)

  2. William Carlos Williams’ cubism: The sensory dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J-L Kruger

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article the cubism of the American poet William Carlos Williams is discussed as a product of sensory elements combined with techniques derived from the work of the visual artists associated with this style. Through the study o f a number of poems written in the period between 1917 and 1923 it is shown that Williams employs the cubist intersection of sensory planes in particular to create a sensory dimension that not only renews the traditions and mode of poetry, but also reveals the cubist concern with the defamiliarization and foregrounding of fragments of everyday experiences. Ultimately the article is an attempt to indicate Williams’ incorporation o f a sensual dimension in creating a style that achieves modernist presentation revealing an independence from both traditional literary and visual styles.

  3. [Association between Williams syndrome and adrenal insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rchachi, Meryem; Larwanou, Maazou Mahamane; El Ouahabi, Hanan; Ajdi, Farida

    2017-01-01

    Williams syndrome is a developmental disorder including dysmorphia, cardiovascular malformations and a specific neuropsychological profile together with other associated disorders. We report the case of a 17-year old girl, born of a non-inbred marriage, with Williams syndrome discovered during an assessment of degree of failure to thrive. Its association with primary adrenal insufficiency makes it unique. Diagnosis is confirmed by cytogenetic and molecular analysis. Its management consists of the implementation of treatment for adrenal insufficiency associated with a clinico-biological monitoring.

  4. Nicotinamide clearance by Pnc1 directly regulates Sir2-mediated silencing and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Christopher M; Smith, Daniel L; Smith, Jeffrey S

    2004-02-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sir2 protein is an NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase (HDAC) that functions in transcriptional silencing and longevity. The NAD(+) salvage pathway protein, Npt1, regulates Sir2-mediated processes by maintaining a sufficiently high intracellular NAD(+) concentration. However, another NAD(+) salvage pathway component, Pnc1, modulates silencing independently of the NAD(+) concentration. Nicotinamide (NAM) is a by-product of the Sir2 deacetylase reaction and is a natural Sir2 inhibitor. Pnc1 is a nicotinamidase that converts NAM to nicotinic acid. Here we show that recombinant Pnc1 stimulates Sir2 HDAC activity in vitro by preventing the accumulation of NAM produced by Sir2. In vivo, telomeric, rDNA, and HM silencing are differentially sensitive to inhibition by NAM. Furthermore, PNC1 overexpression suppresses the inhibitory effect of exogenously added NAM on silencing, life span, and Hst1-mediated transcriptional repression. Finally, we show that stress suppresses the inhibitory effect of NAM through the induction of PNC1 expression. Pnc1, therefore, positively regulates Sir2-mediated silencing and longevity by preventing the accumulation of intracellular NAM during times of stress.

  5. His Excellency Mr Ian de Jong, Ambassador, Permanent Representative of the Kingdom of the Netherlands to the United Nations Office in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Visit of His Excellency Mr Ian de Jong, Ambassador, Permanent Representative of the Kingdom of the Netherlands to the United Nations Office in Geneva, June 2003. From left to right: Dr Albert Ijspeert, Deputy Leader, Magnet and electrical systems Group, Accelerator Technology Division; Mr Maarten Wilbers, Legal Service; Prof. Cecilia Jarlskog, Adviser to the Director-General for Member State Relations; Mr Jan van der Boon, Director of Administration; His Excellency Mr Ian de Jong, Ambassador, Permanent Representative of the Kingdom of the Netherlands to the United Nations Office in Geneva; Prof. Frank Linde, NIKHEF; Dr Lucie Linssen Experimental Physics Division, Technical Assistance Group and Mr C. J. van Riel, Ministry of Education, Culture and Science, Netherlands, Dutch Delegate to Council and Finance Committee.

  6. SirR, a Novel Iron-Dependent Repressor in Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Philip J.; Cockayne, Alan; Landers, Patrick; Morrissey, Julie A.; Sims, Catriona M.; Williams, Paul

    1998-01-01

    In Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus, a number of cell wall- and cytoplasmic membrane-associated lipoproteins are induced in response to iron starvation. To gain insights into the molecular basis of iron-dependent gene regulation in the staphylococci, we sequenced the DNA upstream of the 3-kb S. epidermidis sitABC operon, which Northern blot analysis indicates is transcriptionally regulated by the growth medium iron content. We identified two DNA sequences which are homologous to elements of the Corynebacterium diphtheriae DtxR regulon, which controls, in response to iron stress, for example, production of diphtheria toxin, siderophore, and a heme oxygenase. Upstream of the sitABC operon and divergently transcribed lies a 645-bp open reading frame (ORF), which codes for a polypeptide of approximately 25 kDa with homology to the DtxR family of metal-dependent repressor proteins. This ORF has been designated SirR (staphylococcal iron regulator repressor). Within the sitABC promoter/operator region, we also located a region of dyad symmetry overlapping the transcriptional start of sitABC which shows high homology to the DtxR operator consensus sequence, suggesting that this region, termed the Sir box, is the SirR-binding site. The SirR protein was overexpressed, purified, and used in DNA mobility shift assays; SirR retarded the migration of a synthetic oligonucleotide based on the Sir box in a metal (Fe2+ or Mn2+)-dependent manner, providing confirmatory evidence that this motif is the SirR-binding site. Furthermore, Southern blot analysis of staphylococcal chromosomal DNA with the synthetic Sir box as a probe confirmed that there are at least five Sir boxes in the S. epidermidis genome and at least three in the genome of S. aureus, suggesting that SirR controls the expression of multiple target genes. Using a monospecific polyclonal antibody raised against SirR to probe Western blots of whole-cell lysates of S. aureus, S. carnosus, S. epidermidis

  7. The world in eighteen lessons: Christopher Williams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berrebi, S.

    2011-01-01

    Conceptual photographer Christopher Williams is a real artist's artist. Ever since he moved to Germany, his measured work, which both reveres and examines the art of photography, has more and more easily found its way into European art institutes, such as this spring at Museum Dhondt-Dhaenens in

  8. De wereld in 18 lessen: Christopher Williams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berrebi, S.

    2011-01-01

    Hij is een echte artist’s artist, de conceptuele fotograaf Christopher Williams. Sinds hij in Duitsland woont en werkt, vindt zijn afgewogen werk, dat de fotografie tegelijk eert en ondervraagt, steeds makkelijker onderdak in Europese kunstinstituten, zoals dit voorjaar bij Museum Dhondt-Dhaenens in

  9. March 1964 Prince William Sound, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Prince William Sound magnitude 9.2 Mw earthquake on March 28, 1964 at 03:36 GMT (March 27 at 5:36 pm local time), was the largest U.S. earthquake ever recorded...

  10. Fears, Hyperacusis and Musicality in Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomberg, Stefan; Rosander, Michael; Andersson, Gerhard

    2006-01-01

    The study investigated the prevalence of fear and hyperacusis and the possible connections between fear, hyperacusis and musicality in a Swedish sample of individuals with Williams syndrome (WS). The study included 38 individuals and a cross-sectional design, with no matched control group. Two persons, who knew the participant well, completed a…

  11. Psycholinguistic Abilities of Children with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Natalia F.; Heinze, Elena Garayzabal; Giacheti, Celia M.; Goncalves, Oscar F.; Sampaio, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the psycholinguistic abilities of children with Williams syndrome (WS) and typically developing children using the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA). Performance on the ITPA was analysed in a group with WS (N=20, mean age=8.5 years, SD=1.62) and two typically developing groups,…

  12. Who Was the Real William Shakespeare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Michael Todd

    2009-01-01

    This article highlights a project that encourages students to connect reading and mathematics instruction by using a data analysis approach. Students analyze sonnets from statistical, literary, and historical points of view in an effort to uncover the true identity of William Shakespeare. (Contains 10 figures.)

  13. Florence Jessie Mac Williams (1917-1990)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 1. Florence Jessie Mac Williams (1917-1990). Featured Scientist Volume 10 Issue 1 January 2005 pp 98-98. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/010/01/0098-0098. Resonance ...

  14. Denigrating Carl Rogers: William Coulson's Last Crusade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschenbaum, Howard

    1991-01-01

    Reviews William Coulson's assertions that Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow, and he initiated the humanistic education field, that Rogers repudiated his philosophy late in life, and that they owe the nation's parents an apology. Argues that these charges are groundless and provides examples and quotations from Rogers' later writings to show how Rogers…

  15. Mr. William Shakespeare and the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Barbara

    2000-01-01

    Describes resources and links on a Web site entitled "Mr. William Shakespeare and the Internet," with suggestions for using them with students. Highlights include: historical context; impact of events/situations on works; motivational/preparatory lessons; reading and understanding Shakespeare; analysis of works; language; assessing other…

  16. MRI Amygdala Volume in Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitao, Liliana; Sampaio, Adriana; Sampaio, Cassandra; Vasconcelos, Cristiana; Fernandez, Montse; Garayzabal, Elena; Shenton, Martha E.; Goncalves, Oscar F.

    2011-01-01

    One of the most intriguing characteristics of Williams Syndrome individuals is their hypersociability. The amygdala has been consistently implicated in the etiology of this social profile, particularly given its role in emotional and social behavior. This study examined amygdala volume and symmetry in WS individuals and in age and sex matched…

  17. Analysis of Speech Fluency in Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Natalia Freitas; Sampaio, Adriana; Goncalves, Oscar F.; Giacheti, Celia Maria

    2011-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder, often referred as being characterized by dissociation between verbal and non-verbal abilities, although the number of studies disputing this proposal is emerging. Indeed, although they have been traditionally reported as displaying increased speech fluency, this topic has not been…

  18. Attention to Faces in Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riby, Deborah M.; Jones, Nicola; Brown, Philippa H.; Robinson, Lucy J.; Langton, Stephen R. H.; Bruce, Vicki; Riby, Leigh M.

    2011-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is associated with distinct social behaviours. One component of the WS social phenotype is atypically prolonged face fixation. This behaviour co-exists with attention difficulties. Attention is multi-faceted and may impact on gaze behaviour in several ways. Four experiments assessed (i) attention capture by faces, (ii)…

  19. Attentional Disengagement in Adults with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lense, Miriam D.; Key, Alexandra P.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a distinctive behavioral and cognitive profile, including widespread problems with attention. However, the specific nature of their attentional difficulties, such as inappropriate attentional allocation and/or poor attentional disengagement abilities, has yet to be…

  20. Stranger Danger Awareness in Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riby, D. M.; Kirk, H.; Hanley, M.; Riby, L. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The developmental disorder Williams syndrome (WS) is characterised by a distinctive cognitive profile and an intriguing social phenotype. Individuals with the disorder are often highly social engaging with familiar and unfamiliar people and once in an interaction they often show subtle abnormalities of social behaviour. Atypically…

  1. Fading-Figure Tracing in Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Chiyoko; Inui, Toshio; Iwata, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe impairment of visuospatial abilities. Figure-drawing abilities, which are thought to reflect visuospatial abilities, have yet to be fully investigated in WS. The purpose of the present study was to clarify whether drawing abilities differ between WS individuals and…

  2. Attribution of Negative Intention in Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbee, Kali; Porter, Melanie A.

    2013-01-01

    People with Williams syndrome (WS) are said to have sociable and extremely trusting personalities, approaching strangers without hesitation. This study investigated whether people with WS are less likely than controls to attribute negative intent to others when interpreting a series of ambiguous pictures. This may, at least partially, explain…

  3. Northern gas: Williams petrochemical feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chappell, D. [Williams Energy Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    Williams Energy is a company that is involved in the following fields: gas pipelines, exploration and production, midstream, refining, petrochemical, power, and marketing and trading. The author provides an overview of the global and Canadian infrastructure before proceeding to discuss Arctic gas, which is viewed by Williams Energy as necessary. It favors the Alaska Highway route with a consortium for project development. Williams performed a petrochemical study to determine the feasibility of a petrochemical complex utilizing natural gas liquid from an Arctic gas pipeline. The scope of the study encompassed facilities (extraction plant, cracker, polyolefins plant), size (world scale, approximately 2 billion pounds per year), and location (Fairbanks or Alberta). The study led to the following findings: (1) review of several scenarios for both locations, (2) complex to produce two grades of polyethylene, (3) feedstock cost favors Alaska, (4) construction costs lower in Alberta, (5) and the primary market for the Alaska complex would be northeast Asia, while the primary market for the Alberta location would be the United States. It was determined that both options would be viable, however Alberta was favored due to the polyethylene forecast. The challenges still being faced by Williams include low frac spread, market inefficiencies, empress volumes, carbon dioxide, and fuel and electricity cost. Each of these challenges is discussed separately. The author concludes by indicating that incremental ethane is available, carbon dioxide issues need resolution, and Alberta and Alaska are attractive for Arctic ethane petrochemical production. figs.

  4. Executive Functions in Individuals with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menghini, D.; Addona, F.; Costanzo, F.; Vicari, S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The present study was aimed at investigating working memory (WM) and executive functions capacities in individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) as compared with mental-age matched typically developing (TD) children. Method: In order to serve the study goal, a sizeable battery of tasks tapping WM as well as attention, memory, planning,…

  5. [Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Sherlock Holmes and infectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledermann D, Walter

    2010-10-01

    Besides a pleasant author of best sellers, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle was a medical doctor, writing excellent short stories about the exercise of his profession in England. However, even he mentions The British Medical Journal and The Lancet in the Sherlock Holmes's stories, when in the plot introduces infectious diseases, Conan Doyle ignores important discoveries in the field of tetanus. Anyway, the appearing of infectious diseases in the adventures of the detective are rare: one mention of tetanus, another of leprosy and- the most analyzed in medical literature a case of murder by inoculation of bacteria, probably the agent of melioidosis. Also he makes his hero discovers the toxic actions of a medusa and a transplant of solid organ. Little for a physician and less for an author who also wrote science fiction: it seems that the history of the great medical discoveries at the end of nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth has passed by his side.., and he just couldn't see it.

  6. Italian Society of Rheumatology (SIR recommendations for performing arthrocentesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Spadaro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Joint fluid aspiration, or arthrocentesis, is one of the most useful and commonly performed procedures for the diagnosis and treatment of rheumatic diseases, but to date no definite guidelines have been published. For this reason, a group of experts of the Italian Society of Rheumatology (SIR produced evidence based recommendations for performing arthrocentesis. Among them, the most relevant are: a arthrocentesis is necessary when synovial effusion of unknown origin is present, especially if septic or crystal arthritis is suspected; b the patient should be clearly informed of the benefits and risks of the procedure in order to give an informed consent; c ultrasonography should be used to facilitate arthrocentesis in difficult joints; d fluid evacuation often has a therapeutic effect and facilitates the success of the following intraarticular injection; e careful skin disinfection and the use of sterile, disposable material is mandatory for avoiding septic complications. Disposable, non sterile gloves should always be used by the operator, mainly for his own protection; f contraindications are the presence of skin lesions or infections in the area of the puncture; g the patient’s anticoagulant treatment is not a contraindication, providing the therapeutic range is not exceeded; h joint rest after arthrocentesis is not indicated. Several of these recommendations were based on experts’ opinion rather than on published evidence which is scanty.

  7. 76 FR 1130 - Prince William Sound Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Prince William Sound Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Prince William Sound Resource Advisory... conducted: The Prince William Sound Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will be discussing and voting on...

  8. 76 FR 18715 - Prince William Sound Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Prince William Sound Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Prince William Sound Resource Advisory... meeting is open to the public. The following business will be conducted: The Prince William Sound Resource...

  9. 75 FR 39910 - Prince William Sound Resource Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Prince William Sound Resource Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Prince William Sound Resource..., Anchorage, Alaska 99503. Send written comments to Prince William Sound Resource Advisory Committee, c/o USDA...

  10. 77 FR 45331 - Prince William Sound Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Prince William Sound Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Prince William Sound Resource Advisory... Prince William Sound Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will be discussing and voting on proposals that...

  11. 33 CFR 110.233 - Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prince William Sound, Alaska. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.233 Prince William Sound, Alaska. (a) The anchorage grounds. In Prince William Sound, Alaska, beginning at a point at latitude 60°40′00″ N., longitude 146°40...

  12. Sir James Paget: Paget's disease of the nipple, Paget's disease of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Harold

    2013-04-01

    Sir James Paget was one of the 'great' Victorians. Eminent as a surgeon, pathologist and teacher, his nobility of character and application to his work made him a leader in his profession in that age of great men.

  13. SIR-A views our environment An Experiment in the Batu Angkal Area, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutanto .

    2013-07-01

    Factors affecting the ease of identification are. mainly tonal contrast, shape, size, surface roughness, direction in relation to the illumination, and dielectric constant. Due to the future availability of SIR-B image of Kalimantan, further study is recommended.

  14. Identifying settlements on the SIR-B images of Rimbobujang and the surrounding areas, Sumatra, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutanto .

    2013-07-01

    SIR-B image proves to be a reasonably good tool to identify rural settlement in an open area, especially for that with high density of houses. Its use to identify towns and cities is more recommended.

  15. SIR JOHN CRAWFORD MEMORIAL ADDRESS: Agriculture: The challenges of the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Beddington, Sir John

    2012-01-01

    The Sir John Crawford Memorial Address has been presented since 1985, in honour of the distinguished Australian civil servant, educator and agriculturalist in whose name the Crawford Fund was established. Sir John Crawford was a remarkable Australian who contributed at the highest levels, and was a passionate supporter of international agricultural research for development. This talk draws attention to four current and interrelated trends that suggest the world will be rather different by 202...

  16. ‘Global’ Identity or the (IrReducible Other: The Cultural Logic of Global Identity in Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s The Man with the Twisted Lip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available After the Syrian civil war, deaths of those fleeing crisis areas have tragically become a regular news item. Not new to the world, however, such crises emerge from tensions between identity and difference as codified in international politics, whereby refugees and migrants become the Other and subject to unyielding universals, such as the law or narrow concepts of what is right. Indeed, the cultural logic of “global identities” informing the current refugee and migrant crisis seems recurrent, as exemplified in the recent cases of the Tamils from Sri Lanka and the Somalis. The cultural logic of global identity is also reflected in the popular nineteenth-century novella by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, The Man with the Twisted Lip, in which the main character disguises himself as a professional beggar to appeal to middle class values in order to incite their guilty consciences. Drawing on Ian Baucom, Marc Shell, and Jean-Joseph Goux, this article argues that the main character’s actions reflect and embody the cultural logic of the global politico-economy in late nineteenth century London. As such, Doyle’s novella illustrates the Derridean notion of hospitality by revealing that “identity and difference are mutually constitutive” (Baker 109 and offers insightful commentary on the current refugee and migrant crisis.

  17. Scientific objectives and selection of targets for the SMART-1 Infrared Spectrometer (SIR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Keller, H. U.; Nathues, A.; Mall, U.; Hiesinger, H.; Rosiek, M.

    2004-12-01

    The European SMART-1 mission to the Moon, primarily a testbed for innovative technologies, was launched in September 2003 and will reach the Moon in 2005. On board are several scientific instruments, including the point-spectrometer SMART-1 Infrared Spectrometer (SIR). Taking into account the capabilities of the SMART-1 mission and the SIR instrument in particular, as well as the open questions in lunar science, a selection of targets for SIR observations has been compiled. SIR can address at least five topics: (1) Surface/regolith processes; (2) Lunar volcanism; (3) Lunar crust structure; (4) Search for spectral signatures of ices at the lunar poles; and (5) Ground truth and study of geometric effects on the spectral shape. For each topic we will discuss specific observation modes, necessary to achieve our scientific goals. The majority of SIR targets will be observed in the nadir-tracking mode. More than 100 targets, which require off-nadir pointing and off-nadir tracking, are planned. It is expected that results of SIR observations will significantly increase our understanding of the Moon. Since the exact arrival date and the orbital parameters of the SMART-1 spacecraft are not known yet, a more detailed planning of the scientific observations will follow in the near future.

  18. Occupational exposure following Yttrium-90 microspheres SIR therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, P.; Boirie, G.; Dieudonne, A.; Leguludec, D.; Lebtahi, R.; Ben Reguiga, M.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Introduction: Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT) is a promising technique for solid hepatic neoplasms treatment. SIRT consists in implanting radioactive microspheres (RMS) in targeted hepatic lesions via femoral artery. Two RMS-Therapsheres [glass-microspheres/TSR] and Sir-Spheres [resin-spheres/SSR]- are marketed in the European market, both radiolabeled with Yttrium-90. The objective of this study is to assess occupational exposure for nuclear medicine, radiology and clinical staff involved in Y 90 -RMS preparation and implantation. Materials and methods: The study was conducted on 20 patients treated for Hepato-Cellular Carcinoma: 10 treated with TSR and 10 with SSR. Dose rate (DR, mSv/h) or absorbed doses (mSv) measurements were made during all steps of TSR and SSR handling: sources receipt and unpacking, preparation, transport to radiology, implantation, and patient care. Measurements were made with portable ionization chamber(Babyline/Nardeux), spectrometer(FieldSpect/Aries), digital dosimeter (NED/Unfors) and operational dosimeter (Mk2/Siemens). Values were expressed as mean±SD. Results: patients received of 1.8 GBq to 3.1 GBq of TSR and 0.55 GBq to 2.4 GBq of SSR. TSR were delivered ready-to-use with the prescribed activity. For SSR only one activity was commercially available and shipped (3 GBq at calibration-time)requiring a preparation step to adjust needed activity. DR measured during RMS was 1723 ± 157 μSv/h SSR and 1189 ± 92 μSv/h for TSR. When preparing spheres in radiopharmacy, fingers and whole body doses were respectively 8326 ± 2360 μSv and 12.3 ± 5,2 μSv for Sir-Spheres vs. 33.5 ± 7.8 μSv and 1.1 ± 0.3 μSv for TSR. DR in contact with carrying case during RMS transfer to radiology were 299 ± 102 μSv/h for SSR and 5.3 ± 1.2 μSv/h for TSR. During RMS infusion, radiologist's finger doses were limited to 3.6 ± 1 μSv for SSR and 0.7± 0.3 μSv for TSR. Finally, following RMS

  19. Rorty, Williams, and Davidson: Skepticism and Metaepistemology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Ranalli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We revisit an important exchange on the problem of radical skepticism between Richard Rorty and Michael Williams. In his contribution to this exchange, Rorty defended the kind of transcendental approach to radical skepticism that is offered by Donald Davidson, in contrast to Williams’s Wittgenstein-inspired view. It is argued that the key to evaluating this debate is to understand the particular conception of the radical skeptical problem that is offered in influential work by Barry Stroud, a conception of the skeptical problem which generates metaepistemological ramifications for anti-skeptical theories. In particular, we argue that, contra Williams, Rorty’s view that Davidson was offering a theoretical diagnosis of radical skepticism can be consistently maintained with his transcendental approach.

  20. Ethical Life in Kierkegaard and Williams

    OpenAIRE

    Stocker, Barry

    2018-01-01

    A discussion of how the criticisms of ethical theory in Søren Kierkegaard and Bernard Williams both reinforce each other and also provide some challenges to each other. Despite Williams’ brief and dismissive encounter with Kierkegaard around the reading of a ancient tragedy, both oppose any tendency to see the characters in those tragedies as lacking in agency. Both are consistently concerned with how the individual struggles for some ethical agency and how no individual can be free of the in...

  1. Random Thoughts on William Shakespeare and Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    KV Sahasranam

    2017-01-01

    Medicine and literature have always been connected over the ages. William Shakespeare (1564-1616) is no exception. There are plenty of references to medicine and diseases in the works of Shakespeare. The knowledge which Shakespeare has of medical conditions is much more than is expected of a common man. This is attributed to his association with practitioners of his time and reading of contemporary texts in medicine. Also his son in law Dr. John Hall who married Susanna, Shakespeare's eldest ...

  2. Neural Correlates of Amusia in Williams Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lense, Miriam D.; Dankner, Nathan; Pryweller, Jennifer R.; Thornton-Wells, Tricia A.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Congenital amusia is defined by marked deficits in pitch perception and production. Though historically examined only in otherwise typically developing (TD) populations, amusia has recently been documented in Williams syndrome (WS), a genetic, neurodevelopmental disorder with a unique auditory phenotype including auditory sensitivities and increased emotional responsiveness to music but variable musical skill. The current study used structural T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and diffus...

  3. Learning by observation: insights from Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, Francesca; Menghini, Deny; Mandolesi, Laura; Federico, Francesca; Vicari, Stefano; Petrosini, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Observing another person performing a complex action accelerates the observer's acquisition of the same action and limits the time-consuming process of learning by trial and error. Observational learning makes an interesting and potentially important topic in the developmental domain, especially when disorders are considered. The implications of studies aimed at clarifying whether and how this form of learning is spared by pathology are manifold. We focused on a specific population with learning and intellectual disabilities, the individuals with Williams syndrome. The performance of twenty-eight individuals with Williams syndrome was compared with that of mental age- and gender-matched thirty-two typically developing children on tasks of learning of a visuo-motor sequence by observation or by trial and error. Regardless of the learning modality, acquiring the correct sequence involved three main phases: a detection phase, in which participants discovered the correct sequence and learned how to perform the task; an exercise phase, in which they reproduced the sequence until performance was error-free; an automatization phase, in which by repeating the error-free sequence they became accurate and speedy. Participants with Williams syndrome beneficiated of observational training (in which they observed an actor detecting the visuo-motor sequence) in the detection phase, while they performed worse than typically developing children in the exercise and automatization phases. Thus, by exploiting competencies learned by observation, individuals with Williams syndrome detected the visuo-motor sequence, putting into action the appropriate procedural strategies. Conversely, their impaired performances in the exercise phases appeared linked to impaired spatial working memory, while their deficits in automatization phases to deficits in processes increasing efficiency and speed of the response. Overall, observational experience was advantageous for acquiring competencies

  4. Learning by observation: insights from Williams syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Foti

    Full Text Available Observing another person performing a complex action accelerates the observer's acquisition of the same action and limits the time-consuming process of learning by trial and error. Observational learning makes an interesting and potentially important topic in the developmental domain, especially when disorders are considered. The implications of studies aimed at clarifying whether and how this form of learning is spared by pathology are manifold. We focused on a specific population with learning and intellectual disabilities, the individuals with Williams syndrome. The performance of twenty-eight individuals with Williams syndrome was compared with that of mental age- and gender-matched thirty-two typically developing children on tasks of learning of a visuo-motor sequence by observation or by trial and error. Regardless of the learning modality, acquiring the correct sequence involved three main phases: a detection phase, in which participants discovered the correct sequence and learned how to perform the task; an exercise phase, in which they reproduced the sequence until performance was error-free; an automatization phase, in which by repeating the error-free sequence they became accurate and speedy. Participants with Williams syndrome beneficiated of observational training (in which they observed an actor detecting the visuo-motor sequence in the detection phase, while they performed worse than typically developing children in the exercise and automatization phases. Thus, by exploiting competencies learned by observation, individuals with Williams syndrome detected the visuo-motor sequence, putting into action the appropriate procedural strategies. Conversely, their impaired performances in the exercise phases appeared linked to impaired spatial working memory, while their deficits in automatization phases to deficits in processes increasing efficiency and speed of the response. Overall, observational experience was advantageous for

  5. Congenital heart defects in Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shi-Min

    2017-01-01

    Yuan SM. Congenital heart defects in Williams syndrome. Turk J Pediatr 2017; 59: 225-232. Williams syndrome (WS), also known as Williams-Beuren syndrome, is a rare genetic disorder involving multiple systems including the circulatory system. However, the etiologies of the associated congenital heart defects in WS patients have not been sufficiently elucidated and represent therapeutic challenges. The typical congenital heart defects in WS were supravalvar aortic stenosis, pulmonary stenosis (both valvular and peripheral), aortic coarctation and mitral valvar prolapse. The atypical cardiovascular anomalies include tetralogy of Fallot, atrial septal defects, aortic and mitral valvular insufficiencies, bicuspid aortic valves, ventricular septal defects, total anomalous pulmonary venous return, double chambered right ventricle, Ebstein anomaly and arterial anomalies. Deletion of the elastin gene on chromosome 7q11.23 leads to deficiency or abnormal deposition of elastin during cardiovascular development, thereby leading to widespread cardiovascular abnormalities in WS. In this article, the distribution, treatment and surgical outcomes of typical and atypical cardiac defects in WS are discussed.

  6. Sir David Brewster's changing ideas on the plurality of worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Asúa, Miguel

    2006-06-01

    In the course of his long life the Scottish physicist David Brewster wrote copiously about the plurality of worlds. More Worlds than One (1854), perhaps his strongest statement on the question, was written as an answer to William Whewell's On the Plurality of Worlds (1853), which argued that life was a privilege of the Earth. Brewster's ideas changed drastically along the years in many crucial issues such as the habitability of the Sun and the Moon, the possibility that extraterrestrials could be different from humans, and the occupation of the Earth by intelligent races in the distant past. This paper succinctly surveys Brewster's main lines of thought about the plurality of worlds underlining the significance of his first two articles devoted exclusively to this topic. They were published in 1838 in The Monthly Chronicle, and affirm the habitability of the planets while denying that of the Moon. As is the case with many Victorian scientists, belief in pluralism was for Brewster part and parcel of a complex of ideas and attitudes in which it is hard to distinguish science from religion. I shall argue that a fair number of the shifting opinions and inconsistencies detectable in Brewster's ideas on the plurality of worlds can be attributed to the fact that these were used as pliable apologetic instruments in his scientific writings, many of which are permeated by strong religious concerns.

  7. New Processing of Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, F. J.; Gracheva, V.; Arko, S. A.; Labelle-Hamer, A. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) was a radar system, which successfully operated on two separate shuttle missions in April and October 1994. During these two missions, a total of 143 hours of radar data were recorded. SIR-C was the first multifrequency and polarimetric spaceborne radar system, operating in dual frequency (L- and C- band) and with quad-polarization. SIR-C had a variety of different operating modes, which are innovative even from today's point of view. Depending on the mode, it was possible to acquire data with different polarizations and carrier frequency combinations. Additionally, different swaths and bandwidths could be used during the data collection and it was possible to receive data with two antennas in the along-track direction.The United States Geological Survey (USGS) distributes the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images as single-look complex (SLC) and multi-look complex (MLC) products. Unfortunately, since June 2005 the SIR-C processor has been inoperable and not repairable. All acquired SLC and MLC images were processed with a course resolution of 100 m with the goal of generating a quick look. These images are however not well suited for scientific analysis. Only a small percentage of the acquired data has been processed as full resolution SAR images and the unprocessed high resolution data cannot be processed any more at the moment.At the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) a new processor was developed to process binary SIR-C data to full resolution SAR images. ASF is planning to process the entire recoverable SIR-C archive to full resolution SLCs, MLCs and high resolution geocoded image products. ASF will make these products available to the science community through their existing data archiving and distribution system.The final paper will describe the new processor and analyze the challenges of reprocessing the SIR-C data.

  8. Ian Curtis (2001)

    OpenAIRE

    Dalwood, D

    2016-01-01

    This exhibition offers a presentation of FRAC Champagne-Ardenne‘s collection; artists included: Francesco Arena, Sylvie Auvray, Dara Birnbaum, Rossella Biscotti, Tom Burr, Antoine Catala, Guy de Cointet, Ann Craven, Dexter Dalwood, Hassan Darsi, Plamen Dejanoff, Marcelline Delbecq, Julien Discrit, Jimmie Durham, Ruth Ewan, Michel François, Linda Fregni Nagler, Aurélien Froment, General Idea, Oscar Giaconia, Jean-Michel Hannecart, Sharon Hayes, Charline von Heyl, Barbara Kasten, Nick Mauss, Ma...

  9. Verification of the linearity of the new SIR using sources of 64Cu and 99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michotte, Carine

    2012-02-01

    The linearity of the new SIR electronics has been verified by looking for deviations from the exponential decay for several 64 Cu and 99m Tc sources. Data analyses are compared with the half-life used as a fixed or free parameter. It is concluded that no significant non-linearity is observed in the new SIR. For comparison, the same method has been applied to analyse existing data from the original SIR. (author)

  10. New plasmid-mediated aminoglycoside 6'-N-acetyltransferase, AAC(6')-Ian, and ESBL, TLA-3, from a Serratia marcescens clinical isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wanchun; Wachino, Jun-Ichi; Kimura, Kouji; Yamada, Keiko; Arakawa, Yoshichika

    2015-05-01

    Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates showing amikacin resistance (MIC 64 to >256 mg/L) in the absence of 16S rRNA methyltransferase (MTase) genes were found. The aim of this study was to clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying amikacin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates that do not produce 16S rRNA MTases. PCR was performed to detect already-known amikacin resistance determinants. Cloning experiments and sequence analyses were performed to characterize unknown amikacin resistance determinants. Transfer of amikacin resistance determinants was performed by conjugation and transformation. The complete nucleotide sequence of the plasmids was determined by next-generation sequencing technology. Amikacin resistance enzymes were purified with a column chromatography system. The enzymatic function of the purified protein was investigated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and HPLC. Among the 14 isolates, 9 were found to carry already-known amikacin resistance determinants such as aac(6')-Ia and aac(6')-Ib. Genetic analyses revealed the presence of a new amikacin acetyltransferase gene, named aac(6')-Ian, located on a 169 829 bp transferable plasmid (p11663) of the Serratia marcescens strain NUBL-11663, one of the five strains negative for known aac(6') genes by PCR. Plasmid p11663 also carried a novel ESBL gene, named blaTLA-3. HPLC and TLC analyses demonstrated that AAC(6')-Ian catalysed the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl coenzyme A onto an amine at the 6'-position of various aminoglycosides. We identified aac(6')-Ian as a novel amikacin resistance determinant together with a new ESBL gene, blaTLA-3, on a transferable plasmid of a S. marcescens clinical isolate. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Fighting addiction's death row: British Columbia Supreme Court Justice Ian Pitfield shows a measure of legal courage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Small Dan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The art in law, like medicine, is in its humanity. Nowhere is the humanity in law more poignant than in BC Supreme Court Justice Ian Pitfield's recent judgment in the legal case aimed at protecting North America's only supervised injection facility (SIF as a healthcare program: PHS Community Services Society versus the Attorney General of Canada. In order to protect the SIF from politicization, the PHS Community Services Society, the community organization that established and operates the program, along with two people living with addiction and three lawyers working for free, pro bono publico, took the federal government of Canada to court. The courtroom struggle that ensued was akin to a battle between David and Goliath. The judge in the case, Justice Pitfield, ruled in favour of the PHS and gave the Government of Canada one year to bring the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (CDSA into compliance with the country's Charter of Rights and Freedoms. If parliament fails to do so, then the CDSA will evaporate from enforceability and law in June of 2009. Despite the fact that there are roughly twelve million intravenous drug addiction users in the world today, politics andprejudice oards harm reduction are still a barrier to the widespread application of the "best medicine" available for serious addicts. Nowhere is this clearer than in the opposition by conservative Prime Minister Stephen Harper and his faithful servant, federal health minister Tony Clement, towards Vancouver's SIF ("Insite". The continued angry politicization of addiction will only lead to the tragic loss of life, as addicts are condemned to death from infectious diseases (HIV & hepatitis and preventable overdoses. In light of the established facts in science, medicine and now law, political opposition to life-saving population health programs (including SIFs to address the effects of addiction is a kind of implicit capital punishment for the addicted. This commentary

  12. Serum inflammatory markers in the elderly: are they useful in differentiating sepsis from SIRS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshid Talebi-Taher

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Differentiating sepsis from other noninfectious causes of systemic inflammation is often difficult in the elderly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of C-reactive protein (CRP, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR, procalcitonin (PCT, and Interleukin-6 (IL-6 to identify elderly patients with sepsis. In this single center prospective observational study, we included all consecutive elderly patients admitted with suspected sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS in an emergency department. Blood samples for measuring CRP, PCT, IL-6, ESR and white blood cells (WBC count were taken at first day of admission. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated for each inflammatory markers being studied. A total of 150 elderly patients aged 65 and older, 50 with sepsis and 50 with SIRS, and fifty individuals in a normal health status were included. CRP exhibited the greatest sensitivity (98% and negative predictive value (98.6% and performed best in differentiating patients with sepsis from those with SIRS. In a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, IL-6 performed best in distinguishing between SIRS and the control group (AUC 0.75, 95% CI. On the other hand, both CRP and ESR appeared to be a more accurate diagnostic parameter for differentiating sepsis from SIRS among elderly patients.

  13. Constitutive Relation of Engineering Material Based on SIR Model and HAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoxiang He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As an epidemic mathematical model, the SIR model represents the transition of the Susceptible, Infected, and Recovered. The profound implication of the SIR model is viewed as the propagation and dynamic evolutionary process of the different internal components and the characteristics in a complex system subject to external effect. The uniaxial stress-strain curve of engineering material represents the basic constitutive relation, which also represents the damage propagation in the units of the damaged member. Hence, a novel dynamic stress-strain model is established based on the SIR model. The analytical solution and the approximate solution for the proposed model are represented according to the homotopy analysis method (HAM, and the relationship of the solution and the size effect and the strain rate is discussed. In addition, an experiment on the size effect of confined concrete is carried out and the solution of SIR model is suitable for simulation. The results show that the mechanical mechanism of the parameters of the uniaxial stress-strain model proposed in this paper reflects the actual characteristics of the materials. The solution of the SIR model can fully and accurately show the change of the mechanical performance and the influence of the size effect and the strain rate.

  14. SIRS score on admission and initial concentration of IL-6 as severe acute pancreatitis outcome predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoric, Pavle; Pavle, Gregoric; Sijacki, Ana; Ana, Sijacki; Stankovic, Sanja; Sanja, Stankovic; Radenkovic, Dejan; Dejan, Radenkovic; Ivancevic, Nenad; Nenad, Ivancevic; Karamarkovic, Aleksandar; Aleksandar, Karamarkovic; Popovic, Nada; Nada, Popovic; Karadzic, Borivoje; Borivoje, Karadzic; Stijak, Lazar; Stefanovic, Branislav; Branislav, Stefanovic; Milosevic, Zoran; Zoran, Milosević; Bajec, Djordje; Djordje, Bajec

    2010-01-01

    Early recognition of severe form of acute pancreatitis is important because these patients need more agressive diagnostic and therapeutical approach an can develope systemic complications such as: sepsis, coagulopathy, Acute Lung Injury (ALI), Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS), Multiple Organ Failure (MOF). To determine role of the combination of Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) score and serum Interleukin-6 (IL-6) level on admission as predictor of illness severity and outcome of Severe Acute Pancreatitis (SAP). We evaluated 234 patients with first onset of SAP appears in last twenty four hours. A total of 77 (33%) patients died. SIRS score and serum IL-6 concentration were measured in first hour after admission. In 105 patients with SIRS score 3 and higher, initial measured IL-6 levels were significantly higher than in the group of remaining 129 patients (72 +/- 67 pg/mL, vs 18 +/- 15 pg/mL). All nonsurvivals were in the first group, with SIRS score 3 and 4 and initial IL-6 concentration 113 +/- 27 pg/mL. The values of C-reactive Protein (CRP) measured after 48h, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) score on admission and Ranson score showed the similar correlation, but serum amylase level did not correlate significantly with Ranson score, IL-6 concentration and APACHE II score. The combination of SIRS score on admission and IL-6 serum concentration can be early, predictor of illness severity and outcome in SAP.

  15. A Dirty Hero’s Fight for Clean Energy: Satire, Allegory, and Risk Narrative in Ian McEwan’s Solar

    OpenAIRE

    Evi Zemanek

    2012-01-01

    A diferencia de la mayoría de los textos de ficción que narran crisis écologicas, la novela "Solar" (2010) de Ian McEwan, celebrada como "el libro sobre el cambio climático", no esboza un escenario apocalíptico que culmina en una catástrofe colectiva. En lugar de eso, se burla a nivel del discurso de la actual retórica del riesgo, al mismo tiempo que pone en escena la desastrosa gestión de riesgos de su protagonista utilizando el género de la sátira. Mientras que las descr...

  16. Reading the Anthropocene through science and apocalypse in the selected contemporary fiction of J.G. Ballard, Kurt Vonnegut, Cormac McCarthy and Ian McEwan

    OpenAIRE

    Fevyer, David

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examines how six contemporary novels variously intervene in the current crisis of climate change. Through close readings of J G Ballard’s The Drowned World (1962) and Hello America (1981); Cormac McCarthy’s The Road (2006); Kurt Vonnegut’s Cat’s Cradle (1963) and Galapagos (1985); and Ian McEwan’s Solar (2010), the thesis aims to identify how the narrative and generic resources of contemporary fiction might help readers to think through and beyond the consequences of anthropocentr...

  17. En torno a la construcción social de la locura: Ian Hacking y la historia cultural de la psiquiatría

    OpenAIRE

    Huertas, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la contribución del filósofo de la ciencia Ian Hacking a la historia cultural de la psiquiatría. Partiendo de conceptos propuestos por el autor, como "enfermedad mental transitoria" o "inventar/construir gente", se reflexiona en torno a la construcción socio-cultural de la enfermedad mental. Se examinan y discuten los dos estudios de caso propuestos por Hacking: la fuga disociativa y la personalidad múltiple, identificando las fortalezas y debilidades d...

  18. SirT1—A Sensor for Monitoring Self-Renewal and Aging Process in Retinal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hsien Peng

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Retinal stem cells bear potency of proliferation, self-renewal, and differentiation into many retinal cells. Utilizing appropriate sensors one can effectively detect the self-renewal and aging process abilities. Silencing information regulator (SirT1, a member of the sirtuin family, is a NAD-dependent histone deacetylase and an essential mediator for longevity in normal cells by calorie restriction. We firstly investigate the SirT1 mRNA expression in retinal stem cells from rats and 19 human eyes of different ages. Results revealed that SirT1 expression was significantly decreased in in vivo aged eyes, associated with poor self-renewal abilities. Additionally, SirT1 mRNA levels were dose-dependently increased in resveratrol- treated retinal stem cells. The expression of SirT1 on oxidative stress-induced damage was significantly decreased, negatively correlated with the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species production. Treatment with resveratrol could effectively further reduce oxidative stress induced by H2O2 treatment in retinal stem cells. Importantly, the anti-oxidant effects of resveratrol in H2O2-treated retinal stem cells were significantly abolished by knockdown of SirT1 expression (sh-SirT1. SirT1 expression provides a feasible sensor in assessing self-renewal and aging process in retinal stem cells. Resveratrol can prevent reactive oxygen species-induced damages via increased retinal SirT1 expression.

  19. TENNESSEE WILLIAMS E O TEATRO MARGINAL GAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Falqueto Lemos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The work developed in this text aims to read the dramatist Tennnessee Williams in a play in two scenes “E Contar Tristes Histórias das Mortes das Bonecas” which was published in Brazil in the book “Mister Paradise e outras peças em um ato” (2011. The intention is to reflect upon one of his recurring themes, the marginalization. In order to perform the analysis, the theoretical support was grounded in “Literatura e Sociedade” by Antonio Candido (2006, concerning the participation of society and authorship in a piece of literature.

  20. TENNESSEE WILLIAMS E O TEATRO MARGINAL GAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Falqueto Lemos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The work developed in this text aims to read the dramatist Tennnessee Williams in a play in two scenes “E Contar Tristes Histórias das Mortes das Bonecas” which was published in Brazil in the book “Mister Paradise e outras peças em um ato” (2011. The intention is to reflect upon one of his recurring themes, the marginalization. In order to perform the analysis, the theoretical support was grounded in “Literatura e Sociedade” by Antonio Candido (2006, concerning the participation of society and authorship in a piece of literature.

  1. WILLIAM HAZLITT, OBSESSIVE LOVE, AND LIBER AMORIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trosman, Harry

    2017-07-01

    William Hazlitt, a distinguished literary figure of the early nineteenth century and a forerunner of psychoanalytic insights, had a keen awareness of the impact of the imagination on assessing works of art. At forty-two, he became hopelessly involved in an obsessive love affair with a nineteen-year-old woman and could not extricate himself from the relationship. The affair followed the death of his father, a powerful influence on his life. Factors in his obsessive love included finding an object of idealization subject to his imaginative creation and narcissistically reexperiencing himself about to begin a new life. © 2017 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  2. Enough room for Williams and IMF? / Paul Beckman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Beckman, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Lõppesid Leedu ja USA energeetikakompanii Williams International läbirääkimised Leedu naftakompleksis osaluse omandamise asjus. IMF uurib Leedu majanduslikku arengut, mida tehing Williamsiga komplitseerib

  3. BOREAS RSS-15 SIR-C and Landsat TM Biomass and Landcover Maps of the NSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Ranson, K. Jon

    2000-01-01

    As part of BOREAS, the RSS-15 team conducted an investigation using SIR-C, X-SAR, and Landsat TM data for estimating total above-ground dry biomass for the SSA and NSA modeling grids and component biomass for the SSA. Relationships of backscatter to total biomass and total biomass to foliage, branch, and bole biomass were used to estimate biomass density across the landscape. The procedure involved image classification with SAR and Landsat TM data and development of simple mapping techniques using combinations of SAR channels. For the SSA, the SIR-C data used were acquired on 06-Oct-1994, and the Landsat TM data used were acquired on 02-Sep-1995. The maps of the NSA were developed from SIR-C data acquired on 13-Apr-1994. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  4. William Butler Yeats’s ‘The Symbolic System’ of William Blake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Antonielli

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The theosophical systems formulated by great poets, such as William Blake and William Butler Yeats, represent a personal idiosyncratic actualization of an ancient repertoire of magical symbols and occult visions. This study wants to focus the attention on the philosophical, mythical, and esoteric syncretism that W. B. Yeats drew from William Blake’s symbolical system. A fundamental step of Yeats’s deep investigation into the Blakean ‘vision’ was given by his monumental work, written together with Edwin John Ellis, on Blake’s poetic and pictorial production, completed in 1893 with a three-volume edition entitled The Works of William Blake, Poetic, Symbolic, and Critical. This work, published in London by Bernard Quaritch, deeply influenced Yeats’s symbolical and imaginary system, determining its subsequent development up to its codification in the volume of A Vision. With WWB, Yeats was able to systematize for the first time his own thought, giving unity to his Weltanschauung and his poetry. Following this hypothesis, I concentrated on Yeats’s and Ellis’s numerous analyses dedicated to Blake’s mythological and symbolical corpus and, in particular, I examined the last chapter of the first volume of the Quaritch edition. This chapter, entitled “The Symbolic System”, constitutes an unquestionable link between Yeats the reader and scholar of Blake, and Yeats the poet and follower of Blake.

  5. Comparison of QSOFA score and SIRS criteria as screening mechanisms for emergency department sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydar, Samir; Spanier, Matthew; Weems, Patricia; Wood, Samantha; Strout, Tania

    2017-11-01

    The Quick Sequential [Sepsis-related] Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) score has been shown to accurately predict mortality in septic patients and is part of recently proposed diagnostic criteria for sepsis. We sought to ascertain the sensitive of the score in diagnosing sepsis, as well as the diagnostic timeliness of the score when compared to traditional systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria in a population of emergency department (ED) patients treated in the ED, admitted, and subsequently discharged with a diagnosis of sepsis. Electronic health records of 200 patients who were treated for suspected sepsis in our ED and ultimately discharged from our hospital with a diagnosis of sepsis were randomly selected for review from a population of adult ED patients (N=1880). Data extracted included the presence of SIRS criteria and the qSOFA score as well as time required to meet said criteria. In this cohort, 94.5% met SIRS criteria while in the ED whereas only 58.3% met qSOFA. The mean time from arrival to SIRS documentation was 47.1min (95% CI: 36.5-57.8) compared to 84.0min (95% CI: 62.2-105.8) for qSOFA. The median ED "door" to positive SIRS criteria was 12min and 29min for qSOFA. Although qSOFA may be valuable in predicting sepsis-related mortality, it performed poorly as a screening tool for identifying sepsis in the ED. As the time to meet qSOFA criteria was significantly longer than for SIRS, relying on qSOFA alone may delay initiation of evidence-based interventions known to improve sepsis-related outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Delineation of major geologic structures in Turkey using SIR-B data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toksoz, M. N.; Pettengill, G. H.; Ford, P.; Gulen, L.

    1984-01-01

    Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) images of well mapped segments of major faults, such as the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) and East Anatolian Fault (EAF) will be studied to identify the prominent signatures that characterize the fault zones for those specific regions. The information will be used to delineate the unmapped fault zones in areas with similar geological and geomorphological properties. The data obtained from SIR-B images will be compared and correlated with the LANDSAT thematic mapper and seismicity alignments based on well constrained earthquake epicenters.

  7. The scientific legacy of William Herschel

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    This book presents a modern scholarly analysis of issues associated with England’s most famous astronomer, William Herschel. The world’s leading experts on Herschel, discoverer of the planet Uranus, here offer their combined wisdom on many aspects of his life and astronomical research. Solar system topics include comets, Earth’s Moon, and the spurious moons of Uranus, all objects whose observation was pioneered by Herschel.  The contributors examine his study of the structure of the Milky Way and an in-depth look at the development of the front view telescopes he built. The popular subject of extraterrestrial life is looked at from the point of view of both William Herschel and his son John, both of whom had an interest in the topic. William’s personal development through the educational system of the late eighteenth-century is also explored, and the wide range of verse and satire in various languages associated with his discoveries is collected here for the first time. Hershel worked at a time of i...

  8. Colour discrimination and categorisation in Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farran, Emily K; Cranwell, Matthew B; Alvarez, James; Franklin, Anna

    2013-10-01

    Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) present with impaired functioning of the dorsal visual stream relative to the ventral visual stream. As such, little attention has been given to ventral stream functions in WS. We investigated colour processing, a predominantly ventral stream function, for the first time in nineteen individuals with Williams syndrome. Colour discrimination was assessed using the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test. Colour categorisation was assessed using a match-to-sample test and a colour naming task. A visual search task was also included as a measure of sensitivity to the size of perceptual colour difference. Results showed that individuals with WS have reduced colour discrimination relative to typically developing participants matched for chronological age; performance was commensurate with a typically developing group matched for non-verbal ability. In contrast, categorisation was typical in WS, although there was some evidence that sensitivity to the size of perceptual colour differences was reduced in this group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 76 FR 44893 - Prince William Sound Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Prince William Sound Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Prince William Sound Resource Advisory... District, 145 Forest Station Road, Girdwood, AK; Prince Willam Sound Community College, 303 Lowe Street...

  10. The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. http://www.hewlett.org/. Think Tank Initiative. This initiative is creating high-quality independent research and policy institutions throughout the developing world. View more. Think Tank Initiative. Growth and Economic Opportunities for ...

  11. 78 FR 28953 - William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    .... Ford Federal Direct Loan Program; Interim Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 95... [Docket ID ED-2013-OPE-0066] RIN 1840-AD13 William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program AGENCY: Office of... Secretary amends the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program (Direct Loan Program) regulations to...

  12. Handedness and corpus callosal morphology in Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Marilee A; Wilson, Sarah J; Chen, Jian; Wood, Amanda G; Reutens, David C

    2013-02-01

    Williams syndrome is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder caused by a hemizygous deletion on chromosome 7q11.23, resulting in atypical brain structure and function, including abnormal morphology of the corpus callosum. An influence of handedness on the size of the corpus callosum has been observed in studies of typical individuals, but handedness has not been taken into account in studies of callosal morphology in Williams syndrome. We hypothesized that callosal area is smaller and the size of the splenium and isthmus is reduced in individuals with Williams syndrome compared to healthy controls, and examined age, sex, and handedness effects on corpus callosal area. Structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained on 25 individuals with Williams syndrome (18 right-handed, 7 left-handed) and 25 matched controls. We found that callosal thickness was significantly reduced in the splenium of Williams syndrome individuals compared to controls. We also found novel evidence that the callosal area was smaller in left-handed participants with Williams syndrome than their right-handed counterparts, with opposite findings observed in the control group. This novel finding may be associated with LIM-kinase hemizygosity, a characteristic of Williams syndrome. The findings may have significant clinical implications in future explorations of the Williams syndrome cognitive phenotype.

  13. Mental Health Problems in Adults with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinton, Chris; Elison, Sarah; Howlin, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Although many researchers have investigated emotional and behavioral difficulties in individuals with Williams syndrome, few have used standardized diagnostic assessments. We examined mental health problems in 92 adults with Williams syndrome using the Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adults with Developmental Disabilities--PAS-ADD (Moss,…

  14. Emotional Responsivity in Young Children with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Debbie J.; Hepburn, Susan L.; Most, David E.; Philofsky, Amy; Rogers, Sally J.

    2007-01-01

    The hypothesis that young children with Williams syndrome show higher rates of emotional responsivity relative to other children with developmental disabilities was explored. Performance of 23 young children with Williams syndrome and 30 MA-matched children with developmental disabilities of nonspecific etiologies was compared on an adaptation of…

  15. Discovering Structure in Auditory Input: Evidence from Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsabbagh, Mayada; Cohen, Henri; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2010-01-01

    We examined auditory perception in Williams syndrome by investigating strategies used in organizing sound patterns into coherent units. In Experiment 1, we investigated the streaming of sound sequences into perceptual units, on the basis of pitch cues, in a group of children and adults with Williams syndrome compared to typical controls. We showed…

  16. Mailability v. the Crusader: Williams v. O'Brien.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Charles E.

    The issues of prior restraint and press censorship are examined in this paper, which focuses on the 1970 Williams v. O'Brien court case. The paper discusses the litigation, in which Robert F. Williams, as an American citizen living in Peking, China, sued the United States Postmaster General over the banning of the May 1967 issue of "The…

  17. Malformations vasculaires au cours du syndrome de Williams ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le syndrome de Williams-Beuren est une maladie génétique rare, il associe classiquement une dysmorphie faciale assez spécifique, des malformations cardiovasculaires et un profil neuropsychologique particulier. Nous rapportons les observations de trois enfants atteints du syndrome de Williams-Beuren en insistant ...

  18. Pursuing the Panderer: An Analysis of "United States v. Williams"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrain, Patrick N.; Moore, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    In May 2008, the Supreme Court addressed whether the government can regulate the ownership and distribution of virtual child pornography. "U.S. v. Williams" marked the first time the Court directly addressed the concept of pandering virtual child pornography. This article examines the Court's decision in "U.S. v. Williams" and…

  19. Threshold Dynamics of a Stochastic SIR Model with Vertical Transmission and Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Miao, Anqi; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Tongqian; Pradeep, B. G. Sampath Aruna

    2017-01-01

    A stochastic SIR model with vertical transmission and vaccination is proposed and investigated in this paper. The threshold dynamics are explored when the noise is small. The conditions for the extinction or persistence of infectious diseases are deduced. Our results show that large noise can lead to the extinction of infectious diseases which is conducive to epidemic diseases control.

  20. The Threshold of a Stochastic SIRS Model with Vertical Transmission and Saturated Incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjuan Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The threshold of a stochastic SIRS model with vertical transmission and saturated incidence is investigated. If the noise is small, it is shown that the threshold of the stochastic system determines the extinction and persistence of the epidemic. In addition, we find that if the noise is large, the epidemic still prevails. Finally, numerical simulations are given to illustrate the results.

  1. Threshold Dynamics of a Stochastic SIR Model with Vertical Transmission and Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anqi Miao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A stochastic SIR model with vertical transmission and vaccination is proposed and investigated in this paper. The threshold dynamics are explored when the noise is small. The conditions for the extinction or persistence of infectious diseases are deduced. Our results show that large noise can lead to the extinction of infectious diseases which is conducive to epidemic diseases control.

  2. Lyapunov functions and global stability for SIR and SEIR models with age-dependent susceptibility

    KAUST Repository

    Korobeinikov, Andrei; Melnik, Andrey V.

    2013-01-01

    We consider global asymptotic properties for the SIR and SEIR age structured models for infectious diseases where the susceptibility depends on the age. Using the direct Lyapunov method with Volterra type Lyapunov functions, we establish conditions for the global stability of a unique endemic steady state and the infection-free steady state.

  3. A Possible Source For Sir Thomas More’s ‘Mountainish Inhumanity’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergh, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    Shakespeare’s authorship of a scene in Sir Thomas More has been established as highly probable on the basis of an analysis of the handwriting, vocabulary, and collocations stylistics. His addition to the play was long believed to have been written soon after publication of the original play, in

  4. Mammalian Sir2 homolog SIRT3 regulates global mitochondrial lysine acetylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombard, David B; Alt, Frederick W; Cheng, Hwei-Ling

    2007-01-01

    Homologs of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sir2 protein, sirtuins, promote longevity in many organisms. Studies of the sirtuin SIRT3 have so far been limited to cell culture systems. Here, we investigate the localization and function of SIRT3 in vivo. We show that endogenous mouse SIRT3 is a solubl...

  5. Application of Homotopy Perturbation and Variational Iteration Methods to SIR Epidemic Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghotbi, Abdoul R.; Barari, Amin; Omidvar, M.

    2011-01-01

    effective strategy against childhood diseases, the development of the framework that would predict the optimal vaccine coverage level needed to prevent the spread of diseases is crucial. The SIR model is a standard compartmental model that has been used to describe many epidemiological diseases...

  6. 90Sr content in 90Y-labeled SIR-spheres and Zevalin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metyko, John; Erwin, William; Poston, John; Jimenez, Sandra

    2014-11-01

    Three different 90Y internally administered radionuclide therapies are currently used in both standard-of-care and clinical trial procedures atMD Anderson Cancer Center. TheraSphere and SIR-Spheres therapies utilize 90Y-labeled microspheres, while Zevalin is an 90Y-labeled radioimmunotherapeutic agent. Several publications have indicated radionuclidic impurities resulting from 90Y production methods. The 90Y in SIR-Spheres and Zevalin are produced from a 90Sr/90Y generator, which leaves measurable quantities of 90Sr in the final product. TheraSphere 90Y is produced in a nuclear reactor which results in a large number of impurities, most notably 88Y and 91Y. Product information sheets reference these impurities with specific limits given. These limits represent a tiny fraction of the total product activity, and in the case of TheraSphere and SIR-Spheres gamma-emitting impurities, this has been verified in the literature. An analysis of 90Sr impurities in SIR-Spheres and Zevalin is presented in this paper. Impurity quantities were found to be within the vendors’ documented limits.

  7. C. elegans SIRT6/7 homolog SIR-2.4 promotes DAF-16 relocalization and function during stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Wei-Chung; Tishkoff, Daniel X; Yang, Bo; Wilson-Grady, Joshua; Yu, Xiaokun; Mazer, Travis; Eckersdorff, Mark; Gygi, Steven P; Lombard, David B; Hsu, Ao-Lin

    2012-09-01

    FoxO transcription factors and sirtuin family deacetylases regulate diverse biological processes, including stress responses and longevity. Here we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans sirtuin SIR-2.4--homolog of mammalian SIRT6 and SIRT7 proteins--promotes DAF-16-dependent transcription and stress-induced DAF-16 nuclear localization. SIR-2.4 is required for resistance to multiple stressors: heat shock, oxidative insult, and proteotoxicity. By contrast, SIR-2.4 is largely dispensable for DAF-16 nuclear localization and function in response to reduced insulin/IGF-1-like signaling. Although acetylation is known to regulate localization and activity of mammalian FoxO proteins, this modification has not been previously described on DAF-16. We find that DAF-16 is hyperacetylated in sir-2.4 mutants. Conversely, DAF-16 is acetylated by the acetyltransferase CBP-1, and DAF-16 is hypoacetylated and constitutively nuclear in response to cbp-1 inhibition. Surprisingly, a SIR-2.4 catalytic mutant efficiently rescues the DAF-16 localization defect in sir-2.4 null animals. Acetylation of DAF-16 by CBP-1 in vitro is inhibited by either wild-type or mutant SIR-2.4, suggesting that SIR-2.4 regulates DAF-16 acetylation indirectly, by preventing CBP-1-mediated acetylation under stress conditions. Taken together, our results identify SIR-2.4 as a critical regulator of DAF-16 specifically in the context of stress responses. Furthermore, they reveal a novel role for acetylation, modulated by the antagonistic activities of CBP-1 and SIR-2.4, in modulating DAF-16 localization and function.

  8. Robert Williams Wood: pioneer of invisible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shruti; Sharma, Amit

    2016-03-01

    The Wood's lamp aids in the diagnosis of multiple infectious, inflammatory and neoplastic dermatologic conditions. Although the Wood's lamp has many applications, which have improved both the diagnosis and management of disease, the man credited for its invention is relatively unknown in medicine. Robert Williams Wood, a prominent physicist of the early 20th century, is credited for the invention of the Wood's lamp. Wood was the father of infrared and ultraviolet photography and made significant contributions to other areas in optics and spectroscopy. Wood's work encompassed the formative years of American Physics; he published over 200 original papers over his lifetime. A few years after the invention of the Wood's lamp for ultraviolet photography, physicians in Europe adopted the Wood's lamp for dermatologic applications. Wood's lamp remains popular in clinics globally, given its ease of use and ability to improve diagnostic precision. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. A Mystic in English Literature: William Blake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Fahri DOĞAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Human beings have never been satisfied with this ephemeral world. Perhaps, yearning and desire of rejoining −stemming from the descent from the heaven to the earth− are the emotions felt by the members of both celestial and non-celestial religions. Mysticism, having started with the zeal of people who weren‘t satisfied with this ephemeral world towards the eternal world, aimed at the love of God in the religions where there is a belief of single God. In this article, glancing at the life of a Christian mystic William Blake, we will try to shed light into his mystic thoughts. While studying Blake‘s mystic thoughts, there will be common points with Sufism. Nevertheless, analysis of these common points has been assigned to other studies.

  10. Random Thoughts on William Shakespeare and Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KV Sahasranam

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Medicine and literature have always been connected over the ages. William Shakespeare (1564-1616 is no exception. There are plenty of references to medicine and diseases in the works of Shakespeare. The knowledge which Shakespeare has of medical conditions is much more than is expected of a common man. This is attributed to his association with practitioners of his time and reading of contemporary texts in medicine. Also his son in law Dr. John Hall who married Susanna, Shakespeare's eldest daughter would have contributed substantially to the knowledge of medicine in Shakespeare's compositions. Surgery at the Elizabethan times was well known and is reflected to a large extent in his plays.

  11. William Osler's "The Nervousness of American Women".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Richard L

    2008-02-01

    Almost a century ago, William Osler, the foremost physician of his time, was approached by a leading periodical to write a series of articles on the health of the American woman. Osler, then the Regius Professor of Medicine at Oxford, wrote an essay dealing with the psychological stresses affecting the "new woman" of the early 20th century at varying stages of her development and the "nervousness" that ensued. The article was never published as a result of his belated reservations on the propriety of a professional writing for a lay journal. Osler's thinking frequently reflected the spirit of his Victorian-Edwardian era, although at times he demonstrated advanced and prescient ideas about sexuality, not often the subject of discussion, even in circumspect form, in contemporary nonprofessional literature.

  12. [William W. Cadbury and canton hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ze-Sheng; Liu, Ze-En

    2004-01-01

    William W. Cadbury M.D. was born in Philadelphia, USA and graduated from the Medical College of Pennsylvania University. It was nearly 40 years since he arrived in Canton (Guangzhou) in 1909 and left at retirement age. He taught western medicine in Canton Christian College and worked as a medical doctor in Canton Hospital, the oldest western medical hospital in the Orient. He was regarded as a famous foreign doctor and an excellent professor in internal medicine in the Republic of China. He wrote At the point of Lancet: 100 years of Canton Hospital 1835 - 1935, which recorded the achievement made by American missionary doctors, particularly the pioneers such as Peter Parker M.D. and John G. Kerr. M.D. So far the book is still an important reference for the studies on history of western medicine in China and the history of modern medical exchange between China and other countries.

  13. William Crabtree and the date of Easter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, D.

    2014-04-01

    A previously unknown treatise by William Crabtree (c.1603-c.1644) has recently been unearthed in the Lancashire Record Office. The treatise, in manuscript form and written in 1640, deals with the controversy over the long-term impact of the Julian Calendar - then in use in England - upon the ecclesiastical dating of Easter. By Crabtree's time, the timing of the Easter celebration in England was often several weeks adrift of the intentions of the early Church Fathers. The Gregorian Calendar, which Roman Catholic countries had adopted as long ago as 1582 in order to resolve the problem, was still vehemently resisted by the English state. This is possibly the only surviving manuscript in Crabtree's own hand. In it, he displays noteworthy dispassionate objectivity as he outlines the astronomical basis for the Easter date and explains why it has gone awry.

  14. SIRS Digues 2.0: A Cooperative Software For Levees Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moins Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available SIRS Digues is a computing tool that makes informations on levees more durable and accessible in order to enhance their management. The first version of the software, which was IRSTEA’s initiative, was deployed in 2004. The second version was released in 2015. This article aims at pointing out the innovative aspects of this last version. They concern thematic and functionalities, computing technics and architecture, and last but not least, the business model chosen in order to build a long lasting software. The software’s kernel is sketched to propose a general description of levees: it focuses on description of the levees and linked objects, on disorders that affects them, on works... Most of these topics were already broached by the first version. The kernel of the version 2 may be extended using optional thematic modules. These modules concern: vegetation monitoring, reporting (in coherence with current French regulatory requirements, riverbanks, riverbed... Main functionnalities perfomed by SIRS Digues V1 and V2 are : data structuring and centralisation, quick access to relevant data, reporting and mapping, etc. SIRS Digues 2.0 updates and improves already existing functionalities of the first version. SIRS Digues V2 relies on an documentoriented NoSQL database, CouchDB, and on geospatial libraries, Geotoolkit and Apache-SIS. SIRS Digues V2 was released with a copyleft license. Copyrights belong to the French levees managers’ society, “France Digues”, which acts as a cooperative. Members put their heads together in order to gather their financial capacities and fund software development. France Digues has got the technical and thematic expertise and supply various services to the members. This business model aims to ensure accessibility, durability and adaptability of the software.

  15. SirT1 confers hypoxia-induced radioresistance via the modulation of c-Myc stabilization on hepatoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Yuexia; Zhang Jianghong; Shao Chunlin; Xu Yanwu

    2012-01-01

    Intratumoral hypoxia is an important contributory factor to tumor cell resistance to radiotherapy. SirT1, a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + )-dependent histone/protein deacetylase, has been linked to the decrease of radiation-induced DNA damage and seems to be critical for cancer therapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of SirT1 in hypoxia-induced radiation response on hepatoma cells. It was found that the administration with resveratrol, a putative SirT1 activator, enhanced the resistance of HepG2 cells against radiation-induced DNA damage of MN formation under hypoxia condition; while nicotinamide, a well-known SirT1 inhibitor, sensitized this radiation damage. Nevertheless, pretreatment of cells with 10058-F4, a specific inhibitor of c-Myc, almost eliminated the nicotinamide-induced radiosensitive effect. Further studies revealed that resveratrol inhibited c-Myc protein accumulation via up-regulation of SirT1 expression and deacetylase activity, and this loss of c-Myc protein was abolished by inhibiting its degradation in the presence of MG132, a potent inhibitor of proteasome. In contrast, nicotinamide attenuated c-Myc protein degradation induced by radiation under hypoxia through inhibition of SirT1 deacetylase activity. Our findings suggest that SirT1 could serve as a novel potent target of radiation-induced DNA damage and thus as a potential strategy to advance the efficiency of radiation therapy in hepatoma entities. (author)

  16. Discoverers of the universe William and Caroline Herschel

    CERN Document Server

    Hoskin, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Discoverers of the Universe tells the gripping story of William Herschel, the brilliant, fiercely ambitious, emotionally complex musician and composer who became court astronomer to Britain's King George III, and of William's sister, Caroline, who assisted him in his observations of the night sky and became an accomplished astronomer in her own right. Together, they transformed our view of the universe from the unchanging, mechanical creation of Newton's clockmaker god to the ever-evolving, incredibly dynamic cosmos that it truly is. William was in his forties when his amateur observations usi

  17. A case of William's syndrome associated peripheral pulmonary arterial stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kyung Hwa; Hwang, Mi Soo; Kim, Sun Yong; Chang, Jae Chun; Park, Bok Hwan

    1988-01-01

    William's syndrome, in order to more completely delineate the total spectrum of the disorder, indicates that 'infantile hypercalcemia', 'peculiar facies' and 'supravalvular aortic stenosis.' In has other many vascular anomalies, such as peripheral pulmonary arterial stenosis, coronary arterial stenosis, celiac arterial stenosis, and renal aterial stenosis. Only 32% of the patients have evidence of supravalvular aortic stenosis. And it is very rare disease entity that has been reported rarely in Korea. Recently authors experienced a case that was questioned William's syndrome with peripheral pulmonary arterial stenosis, clinically and preliminary radiologically and this case was confirmed by operation. Here we report a case of William's syndrome with peripheral pulmonary arterial stenosis and reviewed literatures

  18. Fkh1 and Fkh2 associate with Sir2 to control CLB2 transcription under normal and oxidative stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eLinke

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Forkhead box family of transcription factors is evolutionary conserved from yeast to higher eukaryotes and its members are involved in many physiological processes including metabolism, DNA repair, cell cycle, stress resistance, apoptosis and aging. In budding yeast, four Forkhead transcription factors were identified, namely Fkh1, Fkh2, Fhl1, and Hcm1, which are implicated in chromatin silencing, cell cycle regulation and stress response. These factors impinge transcriptional regulation during cell cycle progression, and histone deacetylases play an essential role in this process, e.g. the nuclear localisation of Hcm1 depends on Sir2 activity, whereas Sin3/Rpd3 silence cell cycle specific gene transcription in G2/M phase. However, a direct involvement of Sir2 in Fkh1/Fkh2-dependent regulation of target genes is at present unknown. Here, we show that Fkh1 and Fkh2 associate with Sir2 in G1 and M phase, and that Fkh1/Fkh2-mediated activation of reporter genes is antagonized by Sir2. We further report that Sir2 overexpression strongly affects cell growth in an Fkh1/Fkh2-dependent manner. In addition, Sir2 regulates the expression of the mitotic cyclin Clb2 through Fkh1/Fkh2-mediated binding to the CLB2 promoter in G1 and M phase. We finally demonstrate that Sir2 is also enriched at the CLB2 promoter under stress conditions, and that the nuclear localization of Sir2 is dependent on Fkh1 and Fkh2. Taken together, our results show a functional interplay between Fkh1/Fkh2 and Sir2 suggesting a novel mechanism of cell cycle repression. Thus, in budding yeast, not only the regulation of G2/M gene expression but also the protective response against stress could be directly coordinated by Fkh1 and Fkh2.

  19. Porters, watchmen, and the crime of William Sayers: the non-scientific staff of the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, in Victorian times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Allan

    2003-06-01

    A careful study of the detailed archives of the Victorian Royal Observatory makes it possible to build up a picture of the employment and working conditions not only of the astronomical staff who worked at Greenwich, but also of the labourers, watchmen, and gate porters. Indeed, the archives open up a window on to how the Observatory was run on a daily basis: how its non-scientific staff were recruited and paid, and what were their terms of employment. They also say a great deal about how Sir George Biddell Airy directed and controlled every aspect of the Observatory's life. Yet while Airy was a strict employer, he emerges as a man who was undoubtedly fair-minded and sometimes even generous to his non-scientific work-force. A study of the Observatory staff files also reveals the relationship between the Observatory labouring staff and the Airy family's domestic servants. And of especial interest is the robbery committed by William Sayers, the Airy family footman in 1868, bringing to light as it does Sir George and Lady Richarda Airy's views on crime and its social causes and consequences, the prison rehabilitation service in 1868, and their opinions on the reform of offenders. Though this paper is not about astronomy as such, it illuminates a fascinating interface where the world of astronomical science met and worked alongside the world of ordinary Victorian people within the walls of one of the nineteenth century's most illustrious astronomical institutions.

  20. William L. Donn 1918-1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedzelman, Stanley David

    William L. Donn, Professor Emeritus of the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, City College of New York, and Special Research Scientist at Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory (LDGO) of Columbia University (Palisades, N.Y.), died at his home on June 30, 1987, at the age of 69. Bill demonstrated expertise in a wide range of fields, with a highly productive and creative research and writing career that included geology, oceanography, climatology, atmospheric physics, and meteorology.Donn was born in Brooklyn, N.Y., on March 2, 1918. At the tender age of 10 years, he demonstrated his love and talent for science by building a telescope with his brother, Bertram. During his undergraduate years at Brooklyn College, he switched his major from astronomy to geology. He was largely selftrained in both meteorology and oceanography, serving as head of the Meteorology Section, U.S. Merchant Marine Academy during World War II . One by-product of these years was the textbook Meteorology—With Marine Applications, first published in 1946. This widely adopted text became a standard for a generation of mariners and college students.

  1. Neurocranial morphology and growth in Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Stefan; Kjaer, Inger; Heiberg, Arvid; Bjørnland, Tore; Storhaug, Kari

    2005-02-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare congenital neurodevelopmental disorder with distinctive facial features, cardiovascular abnormalities, short stature, mental retardation, and behaviour and cognitive characteristics. The aim of this study was to describe the neurocranial morphology and growth in a group of 62 individuals with WS. The neurocranium was analysed on lateral cephalograms and comparisons were made with neurocranial standards from longitudinal data derived from the Oslo University Craniofacial Growth Archive. The size and morphology of the neurocranium in WS subjects differed from controls. Females as a group showed greater differences than males. The posterior cranial base length was shorter in both WS males and females, and the anterior cranial base length was shorter in WS females whereas it was close to normal in the WS male group. The cranial base angle was, however, not different from the control groups. A flattening was seen in the superior aspect of the parietal bone in both WS males and females. In the posterior part of the neurocranium, the prominence of the occipital bone was larger than in the control groups, which was also reflected in a larger total length of the neurocranium. The thickness of the frontal and occipital bones was considerably greater than in the control group. The deviant size and morphology of the neurocranium in WS subjects was already established in the youngest age group and maintained throughout the observation period. The growth pattern of the neurocranium in WS subjects seemed to be similar to that of the control groups, except in a few individuals.

  2. Imaging of cardiovascular malformations in Williams syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shiguo; Zhao Shihua; Jiang Shiliang; Huang Lianjun; Xu Zhongying; Ling Jian; Zheng Hong; Yan Chaowu; Lu Jinguo

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the imaging methods for cardiovascular malformations in Williams syndrome(WS). Methods: Thirteen cases of WS (7 males and 6 females) aged 10 months to 13 years were involved in this study. All patients underwent chest X-ray radiography, electrocardiography, echocardiography and physical examination. 3 cases underwent electronic beam computed tomography (EBCT), cardiac catheterization and angiography were performed in 8 cases. Results: Twelve patients were referred to our hospital for cardiac murmur and 1 case for cyanosis after birth. 7 patients were found with 'elfin-like' facial features, 6 patients with pulmonary arterial stenosis, 2 cases with patent ductus arteriosus, 2 cases with severe pulmonary hypertension and 1 case with total endocardial cushion defect. Sudden death occurred in 2 patients during and after catheterization, respectively. Conclusions: Conventional angiography is the golden standard for the diagnosis of cardiovascular malformations in WS. Noninvasive methods such as MSCT and MRI should be suggested because of the risk of sudden death in conventional angiography. (authors)

  3. National uranium resource evaluation: Williams quadrangle, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, A.J.; Nystrom, R.J.; Thiede, D.S.

    1981-03-01

    Geologic environments of the Williams Quadrangle, Arizona, were evaluated for uranium favorability by means of literature research, uranium-occurrence investigation and other surface studies, subsurface studies, aerial radiometric data, hydrogeochemical data, and rock-sample analytic data. Favorability criteria are those of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Three geologic environments are favorable for uranium: the Tertiary fluvial rocks of the Colorado Plateau where they unconformably overlie impermeable bed rock (for channel-controlled peneconcordant deposits); collapse breccia pipes in Paleozoic strata of the Colorado Plateau (for vein-type deposits in sedimentary rocks); and Precambrian crystalline rocks of the Hualapai, Peacock, and Aquarius Mountains, and Cottonwood and Grand Wash Cliffs (for magmatic-hydrothermal deposits). Unfavorable geologic environments are: Tertiary and Quaternary volcanic rocks, Tertiary and Quaternary sedimentary rocks of the Colorado Plateau, nearly all Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, and the Precambrian-Cambrian unconformity of the Grand Wash Cliffs area. Tertiary rocks in Cenozoic basins and Precambrian crystalline rocks in the Grand Canyon region and in parts of the Aquarius Mountains and Cottonwood and Grand Wash Cliffs are unevaluated

  4. Neural correlates of amusia in williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lense, Miriam D; Dankner, Nathan; Pryweller, Jennifer R; Thornton-Wells, Tricia A; Dykens, Elisabeth M

    2014-11-21

    Congenital amusia is defined by marked deficits in pitch perception and production. Though historically examined only in otherwise typically developing (TD) populations, amusia has recently been documented in Williams syndrome (WS), a genetic, neurodevelopmental disorder with a unique auditory phenotype including auditory sensitivities and increased emotional responsiveness to music but variable musical skill. The current study used structural T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging to examine neural correlates of amusia in 17 individuals with WS (4 of whom met criteria for amusia). Consistent with findings from TD amusics, amusia in WS was associated with decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). The relationship between amusia and FA in the inferior component of the SLF was particularly robust, withstanding corrections for cognitive functioning, auditory sensitivities, or musical training. Though the number of individuals with amusia in the study is small, results add to evidence for the role of fronto-temporal disconnectivity in congenital amusia and suggest that novel populations with developmental differences can provide a window into understanding gene-brain-behavior relationships that underlie musical behaviors.

  5. Space perception and William James's metaphysical presuppositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Martin J

    2011-05-01

    William James's overtly philosophical work may be more continuous with his psychological work than is sometimes thought. His Essays in Radical Empiricism can be understood as an explicit statement of the absolute presupposition that formed the basis of Jamesian psychology: that direct experience is primary and has to be taken at face value. An examination of James's theory of space perception suggests that, even in his early work, he presupposed the primacy of direct experience, and that later changes in his account of space perception can be understood as making his view more consistent with this presupposition. In his earlier view of space perception, James argued that sensations were directly experienced as spatial, though he accepted that spatial relations between sensations may be constructed by higher order thought. In his later view, however, James argued that spatial relations were just as directly experienced as sensations. The work of T. H. Green may have prompted James to recognize the full consequence of his ideas and to realize that taking experience at face value required that spatial relations be thought of as intrinsic to experience rather than the result of intellectual construction.

  6. Neural Correlates of Amusia in Williams Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam D. Lense

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Congenital amusia is defined by marked deficits in pitch perception and production. Though historically examined only in otherwise typically developing (TD populations, amusia has recently been documented in Williams syndrome (WS, a genetic, neurodevelopmental disorder with a unique auditory phenotype including auditory sensitivities and increased emotional responsiveness to music but variable musical skill. The current study used structural T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging to examine neural correlates of amusia in 17 individuals with WS (4 of whom met criteria for amusia. Consistent with findings from TD amusics, amusia in WS was associated with decreased fractional anisotropy (FA in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF. The relationship between amusia and FA in the inferior component of the SLF was particularly robust, withstanding corrections for cognitive functioning, auditory sensitivities, or musical training. Though the number of individuals with amusia in the study is small, results add to evidence for the role of fronto-temporal disconnectivity in congenital amusia and suggest that novel populations with developmental differences can provide a window into understanding gene-brain-behavior relationships that underlie musical behaviors.

  7. William James and the Heidelberg fiasco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundlach, Horst

    2018-02-01

    Urged on by his father to become a physician instead of a painter, William James pursued 3 evasion stratagems. First, to avoid becoming a practitioner, he declared that he wanted to specialize in physiology. Based upon this premise, he left for Germany in the spring of 1867. The second step was giving up general physiology and announcing that he would specialize in the nervous system and psychology. Based upon this premise, he declared that he would go to Heidelberg and study with Helmholtz and Wundt. However, he then deferred going there. When, at last, he was urged by an influential friend of his father's to accompany him to Heidelberg, he employed his default stratagem: He simply fled. He returned home after 3 terms in Europe without enrolling at a single university. There is no evidence that he had learned anything there about psychology or experimental psychology, except, possibly, by reading books. James's "Heidelberg fiasco" was the apogee of his evasion of his father's directive. A dense fog of misinformation surrounds his stay in Heidelberg to this day. By analyzing circumstances and context, this article examines the fiasco and places it in the pattern of his behavior during his stay in Europe. Nevertheless, experiencing this fiasco potentially shaped James's ambivalent attitude toward experimental psychology on a long-term basis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Ending Caleb Williams: on storytelling influencing William Godwin’s politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Roberto da Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available William Godwin escreveu o romance gótico Things as They Are; or, the Adventures of Caleb Williams (“As Coisas como Elas São; ou, as Aventuras de Caleb Williams”, em tradução livre em 1794 para disseminar suas ideias filosóficas e políticas. Inicio o artigo revisando a literatura para demonstrar como sua teoria influenciou tanto sua decisão de escrever ficções quanto o tipo de ficção que ele escreveu, mostrando como o autor usou e inovou convenções do gênero gótico para transmitir suas ideias para um público mais amplo. Então comparo duas perspectivas divergentes na literatura quanto à maneira como suas narrativas influenciaram suas ideias políticas e filosóficas, em particular a partir de comentários acerca do significado e do impacto de mudanças de última hora ao desfecho de Caleb Williams. Argumento que essa relação ambígua entre narrativa e política na obra de Godwin é relevante para reflexões políticas contemporâneas sobre a relação entre representação e ação política, ou como narrativas sobre a condição humana e realidades políticas podem afetas as ideias, atitudes e relações sociais de seus narradores.

  9. Global and local music perception in children with Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deruelle, Christine; Schön, Daniele; Rondan, Cécilie; Mancini, Josette

    2005-04-25

    Musical processing can be decomposed into the appreciation of global and local elements. This global/local dissociation was investigated with the processing of contour-violated and interval-violated melodies. Performance of a group of 16 children with Williams syndrome and a group of 16 control children were compared in a same-different task. Control participants were more accurate in detecting differences in the contour-violated than in the interval-violated condition while Williams syndrome individuals performed equally well in both conditions. This finding suggests that global precedence may occur at an early perceptual stage in normally developing children. In contrast, no such global precedence is observed in the Williams syndrome population. These data are discussed in the context of atypical cognitive profiles of individuals with Williams syndrome.

  10. Comparison of the acute effects of Tulbaghia violacea William Henry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    William Henry Harvey (Alliaceae) on blood pressure and heart rate of ... (WKY), and compare the results obtained with those for adult spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Methods: T. ... have similar secondary metabolites and biological ...

  11. Herbert Hoover and William Shakespeare: Two Writers on Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Margaret L.

    1979-01-01

    Outlines the ways in which Herbert Hoover and William Shakespeare wrote about professional ethics (for engineers and kings, respectively) using the writing techniques of concreteness, audience awareness, and development by induction. (TJ)

  12. Dental management of patient with Williams Syndrome - A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Daniel; Ramachandra, Srinivas Sulugodu; Singh, Ashish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Williams syndrome is a multisystemic rare genetic disorder caused by deletion of 26-28 genes in the long arm of chromosome 7. It is characterized by developmental and physical abnormalities including congenital cardiovascular abnormalities, mental retardation, neurological features, growth deficiency, genitourinary manifestations, gastrointestinal problems, musculoskeletal problems, unique behavioral characteristics, and dental problems. Dental abnormalities include malocclusion, hypodontia, malformed teeth, taurodontism, pulp stones, increased space between teeth, enamel hypoplasia, and high prevalence of dental caries. Authors report a 17-year-old female patient with underlying Williams syndrome. Oral features and problems seen in the patient are listed. Malocclusion and screwdriver shaped teeth were noticed. Generalized widening of the periodontal ligament space with vital teeth was seen. This finding has not been reported in cases of Williams syndrome earlier. Precautions taken during dental treatment in patients with Williams syndrome are also discussed.

  13. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: NESTS (Bird Nests)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  14. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  15. 34 CFR 685.100 - The William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program. 685...) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION WILLIAM D. FORD FEDERAL DIRECT LOAN PROGRAM Purpose and Scope § 685.100 The William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program. (a) Under the William D. Ford...

  16. Le continent noir du désir masculin : Colet et Flaubert, encore

    OpenAIRE

    Vinken, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Il y a peu d’échanges de lettres qui surprennent le lecteur aussi douloureusement que celui entre Louise Colet et Gustave Flaubert. Rarement, l’espoir qui sommeille au fond de tout lecteur d’une histoire d’amour heureux fut à ce point frustré.Les études de Freud – un des plus grands sceptiques en matière d’amour – sur la vie sexuelle éclairent les vicissitudes du désir amoureux masculin. Les Lettres de Flaubert à Colet sont la mise en scène dramatique d’un désir qui suit les complications du ...

  17. Determination of the Geographical Origin of All Commercial Hake Species by Stable Isotope Ratio (SIR) Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Mónica; Gallardo, José M

    2017-02-08

    The determination of the geographical origin of food products is relevant to comply with the legal regulations of traceability, to avoid food fraud, and to guarantee food quality and safety to the consumers. For these reasons, stable isotope ratio (SIR) analysis using an isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) instrument is one of the most useful techniques for evaluating food traceability and authenticity. The present study was aimed to determine, for the first time, the geographical origin for all commercial fish species belonging to the Merlucciidae family using SIR analysis of carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N). The specific results enabled their clear classification according to the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) fishing areas, latitude, and geographical origin in the following six different clusters: European, North African, South African, North American, South American, and Australian hake species.

  18. Mutations that Allow SIR2 Orthologs to Function in a NAD+-Depleted Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondracek, Caitlin R; Frappier, Vincent; Ringel, Alison E; Wolberger, Cynthia; Guarente, Leonard

    2017-03-07

    Sirtuin enzymes depend on NAD + to catalyze protein deacetylation. Therefore, the lowering of NAD + during aging leads to decreased sirtuin activity and may speed up aging processes in laboratory animals and humans. In this study, we used a genetic screen to identify two mutations in the catalytic domain of yeast Sir2 that allow the enzyme to function in an NAD + -depleted environment. These mutant enzymes give rise to a significant increase of yeast replicative lifespan and increase deacetylation by the Sir2 ortholog, SIRT1, in mammalian cells. Our data suggest that these mutations increase the stability of the conserved catalytic sirtuin domain, thereby increasing the catalytic efficiency of the mutant enzymes. Our approach to identifying sirtuin mutants that permit function in NAD + -limited environments may inform the design of small molecules that can maintain sirtuin activity in aging organisms. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sir Peter Medawar: science, creativity and the popularization of Karl Popper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calver, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Sir Peter Medawar was respected by scientists and literati alike. It was perhaps not surprising, then, that he would choose to involve himself in the ‘two cultures’ debate of 1959 and beyond. The focus of his intervention was the philosophy of Sir Karl Popper. However, Medawar's Popper was not the guru of falsification familiar from philosophy textbooks. Medawar's distinctive interpretation of Popper treated him instead as the source of insights into the role of creativity and imagination in scientific inquiry. This paper traces the context for Medawar's adoption of Popperian philosophy, together with its application before the debate. It then examines, within the context of the debate itself, the way in which Medawar attempted to reconcile scientific inquiry with literary practice. Medawar became increasingly convinced that not only was induction epistemologically unsound, but it was also damaging to the public role of the scientist. His construction of Popperianism would, he envisaged, provide a worthy alternative for scientists’ self-image.

  20. The threshold of a stochastic delayed SIR epidemic model with temporary immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qun; Chen, Qingmei; Jiang, Daqing

    2016-05-01

    This paper is concerned with the asymptotic properties of a stochastic delayed SIR epidemic model with temporary immunity. Sufficient conditions for extinction and persistence in the mean of the epidemic are established. The threshold between persistence in the mean and extinction of the epidemic is obtained. Compared with the corresponding deterministic model, the threshold affected by the white noise is smaller than the basic reproduction number R0 of the deterministic system.

  1. Traveling waves in a delayed SIR model with nonlocal dispersal and nonlinear incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shou-Peng; Yang, Yun-Rui; Zhou, Yong-Hui

    2018-01-01

    This paper is concerned with traveling waves of a delayed SIR model with nonlocal dispersal and a general nonlinear incidence. The existence and nonexistence of traveling waves of the system are established respectively by Schauder's fixed point theorem and two-sided Laplace transform. It is also shown that the spread speed c is influenced by the dispersal rate of the infected individuals and the delay τ.

  2. Global analysis of multi-strains SIS, SIR and MSIR epidemic models

    OpenAIRE

    Bichara , Derdei; Iggidr , Abderrahman; Sallet , Gauthier

    2014-01-01

    International audience; We consider SIS, SIR and MSIR models with standard mass action and varying population, with $n$ different pathogen strains of an infectious disease. We also consider the same models with vertical transmission. We prove that under generic conditions a competitive exclusion principle holds. To each strain a basic reproduction ratio can be associated. It corresponds to the case where only this strain exists. The basic reproduction ratio of the complete system is the maxim...

  3. Competitive exclusion principle for SIS and SIR models with n strains

    OpenAIRE

    Bichara , Derdei; Iggidr , Abderrahman; Sallet , Gauthier

    2012-01-01

    We consider SIS and SIR models with standard mass action and varying population, with $n$ different pathogen strains of an infectious disease. We also consider the same models with vertical transmission. We prove that under generic conditions a competitive exclusion principle holds. To each strain a basic reproduction ratio can be associated. It corresponds to the case where only this strain exists. The basic reproduction ratio of the complete system is the maximum of each individual basic re...

  4. Design of power controller in CDMA system with power and SIR error minimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shulan KONG; Huanshui ZHANG; Zhaosheng ZHANG; Hongxia WANG

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, an uplink power control problem is considered for code division multiple access (CDMA) systems. A distributed algorithm is proposed based on linear quadratic optimal control theory. The proposed scheme minimizes the sum of the power and the error of signal-to-interference ratio (SIR). A power controller is designed by constructing an optimization problem of a stochastic linear quadratic type in Krein space and solving a Kalman filter problem.

  5. Analysis of Active Lava Flows on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, Using SIR-C Radar Correlation Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebker, H. A.; Rosen, P.; Hensley, S.; Mouginis-Mark, P. J.

    1995-01-01

    Precise eruption rates of active pahoehoe lava flows on Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, have been determined using spaceborne radar data acquired by the Space Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C). Measurement of the rate of lava flow advance, and the determination of the volume of new material erupted in a given period of time, are among the most important observations that can be made when studying a volcano.

  6. Dynamic Behavior for an SIRS Model with Nonlinear Incidence Rate and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhong Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers an SIRS model with nonlinear incidence rate and treatment. It is assumed that susceptible and infectious individuals have constant immigration rates. We investigate the existence of equilibrium and prove the global asymptotical stable results of the endemic equilibrium. We then obtained that the model undergoes a Hopf bifurcation and existences a limit cycle. Some numerical simulations are given to illustrate the analytical results.

  7. Thermal vacuum test of space equipment: tests of SIR-2 instrument Chandrayaan-1 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, P.

    2008-11-01

    We describe the reasons of proceeding Thermal-Vacuum tests for space electronic. We will answer on following questions: why teams are doing TV tests, what kind of phases should be simulated, which situations are the most critical during TV tests, what kind of results should be expected, which errors can be detect. As an example, will be shown TV-test of SIR-2 instrument for Chandrayaan-1 moon mission.

  8. Milestones in plant sulfur research on sulfur-induced-resistance (SIR in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke eBloem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Until the 1970´s of the last century sulfur (S was mainly regarded as a pollutant being the main contributor of acid rain, causing forest dieback in central Europe. When Clean Air Acts came into force at the start of the 1980´s SO2 contaminations in the air were consequently reduced within the next years. S changed from an unwanted pollutant into a lacking plant nutrient in agriculture since agricultural fields were no longer fertilized indirectly by industrial pollution. S deficiency was first noticed in Brassica crops that display an especially high S demand because of its content of S-containing secondary metabolites, the glucosinolates. In Scotland, where S depositions decreased even faster than in continental Europe, an increasing disease incidence with Pyrenopeziza brassicae was observed in oilseed rape in the beginning 1990´s and the concept of sulfur-induced-resistance (SIR was developed after a relationship between the S status and the disease incidence was uncovered. Since then a lot of research was carried out to unravel the background of SIR in the metabolism of agricultural crops and to identify metabolites, enzymes and reactions, which are potentially activated by the S metabolism to combat fungal pathogens. The S status of the crop is affecting many different plant features such as color and scent of flowers, pigments in leaves, metabolite concentrations and the release of gaseous S compounds which are directly influencing the desirability of a crop for a variety of different organisms from microorganisms, over insects and slugs to the point of grazing animals.The present paper is an attempt to sum up the knowledge about the effect of the S nutritional status of agricultural crops on parameters that are directly related to their health status and by this to SIR. Milestones in SIR research are compiled, open questions are addressed and future projections were developed.

  9. Montaigne, Sir Ralph Bankes and other English readers of the Essais.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, John

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with a hitherto unknown and unpublished early modern English manuscript account of Montaigne's Essais by Sir Ralph Bankes (1631?–77) of Kingston Lacy in Dorset. Bankes's account covers a range of features in Montaigne's work: crucial elements of self-portraiture such as judgement, but also his attitude to women and doctors. These characteristics are analysed and compared first with Montaigne's own pronouncements about the aspects Bankes selects and secondly with two other s...

  10. Disease mapping based on stochastic SIR-SI model for Dengue and Chikungunya in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samat, N. A.; Ma' arof, S. H. Mohd Imam [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjung Malim, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-12-04

    This paper describes and demonstrates a method for relative risk estimation which is based on the stochastic SIR-SI vector-borne infectious disease transmission model specifically for Dengue and Chikungunya diseases in Malaysia. Firstly, the common compartmental model for vector-borne infectious disease transmission called the SIR-SI model (susceptible-infective-recovered for human populations; susceptible-infective for vector populations) is presented. This is followed by the explanations on the stochastic SIR-SI model which involve the Bayesian description. This stochastic model then is used in the relative risk formulation in order to obtain the posterior relative risk estimation. Then, this relative estimation model is demonstrated using Dengue and Chikungunya data of Malaysia. The viruses of these diseases are transmitted by the same type of female vector mosquito named Aedes Aegypti and Aedes Albopictus. Finally, the findings of the analysis of relative risk estimation for both Dengue and Chikungunya diseases are presented, compared and displayed in graphs and maps. The distribution from risk maps show the high and low risk area of Dengue and Chikungunya diseases occurrence. This map can be used as a tool for the prevention and control strategies for both diseases.

  11. Disease mapping based on stochastic SIR-SI model for Dengue and Chikungunya in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samat, N. A.; Ma'arof, S. H. Mohd Imam

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes and demonstrates a method for relative risk estimation which is based on the stochastic SIR-SI vector-borne infectious disease transmission model specifically for Dengue and Chikungunya diseases in Malaysia. Firstly, the common compartmental model for vector-borne infectious disease transmission called the SIR-SI model (susceptible-infective-recovered for human populations; susceptible-infective for vector populations) is presented. This is followed by the explanations on the stochastic SIR-SI model which involve the Bayesian description. This stochastic model then is used in the relative risk formulation in order to obtain the posterior relative risk estimation. Then, this relative estimation model is demonstrated using Dengue and Chikungunya data of Malaysia. The viruses of these diseases are transmitted by the same type of female vector mosquito named Aedes Aegypti and Aedes Albopictus. Finally, the findings of the analysis of relative risk estimation for both Dengue and Chikungunya diseases are presented, compared and displayed in graphs and maps. The distribution from risk maps show the high and low risk area of Dengue and Chikungunya diseases occurrence. This map can be used as a tool for the prevention and control strategies for both diseases

  12. Simulation of emotional contagion using modified SIR model: A cellular automaton approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Libi; Song, Weiguo; Lv, Wei; Lo, Siuming

    2014-07-01

    Emotion plays an important role in the decision-making of individuals in some emergency situations. The contagion of emotion may induce either normal or abnormal consolidated crowd behavior. This paper aims to simulate the dynamics of emotional contagion among crowds by modifying the epidemiological SIR model to a cellular automaton approach. This new cellular automaton model, entitled the “CA-SIRS model”, captures the dynamic process ‘susceptible-infected-recovered-susceptible', which is based on SIRS contagion in epidemiological theory. Moreover, in this new model, the process is integrated with individual movement. The simulation results of this model show that multiple waves and dynamical stability around a mean value will appear during emotion spreading. It was found that the proportion of initial infected individuals had little influence on the final stable proportion of infected population in a given system, and that infection frequency increased with an increase in the average crowd density. Our results further suggest that individual movement accelerates the spread speed of emotion and increases the stable proportion of infected population. Furthermore, decreasing the duration of an infection and the probability of reinfection can markedly reduce the number of infected individuals. It is hoped that this study will be helpful in crowd management and evacuation organization.

  13. Nicotinamide supplementation phenocopies SIR2 inactivation by modulating carbon metabolism and respiration during yeast chronological aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandi, Ivan; Pellegrino Coppola, Damiano; Strippoli, Maurizio; Ronzulli, Rossella; Vai, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Nicotinamide (NAM), a form of vitamin B 3 , is a byproduct and noncompetitive inhibitor of the deacetylation reaction catalyzed by Sirtuins. These represent a family of evolutionarily conserved NAD + -dependent deacetylases that are well-known critical regulators of metabolism and aging and whose founding member is Sir2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we investigated the effects of NAM supplementation in the context of yeast chronological aging, the established model for studying aging of postmitotic quiescent mammalian cells. Our data show that NAM supplementation at the diauxic shift results in a phenocopy of chronologically aging sir2Δ cells. In fact, NAM-supplemented cells display the same chronological lifespan extension both in expired medium and extreme Calorie Restriction. Furthermore, NAM allows the cells to push their metabolism toward the same outcomes of sir2Δ cells by elevating the level of the acetylated Pck1. Both these cells have the same metabolic changes that concern not only anabolic pathways such as an increased gluconeogenesis but also respiratory activity in terms both of respiratory rate and state of respiration. In particular, they have a higher respiratory reserve capacity and a lower non-phosphorylating respiration that in concert with a low burden of superoxide anions can affect positively chronological aging. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Disease mapping based on stochastic SIR-SI model for Dengue and Chikungunya in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samat, N. A.; Ma'arof, S. H. Mohd Imam

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes and demonstrates a method for relative risk estimation which is based on the stochastic SIR-SI vector-borne infectious disease transmission model specifically for Dengue and Chikungunya diseases in Malaysia. Firstly, the common compartmental model for vector-borne infectious disease transmission called the SIR-SI model (susceptible-infective-recovered for human populations; susceptible-infective for vector populations) is presented. This is followed by the explanations on the stochastic SIR-SI model which involve the Bayesian description. This stochastic model then is used in the relative risk formulation in order to obtain the posterior relative risk estimation. Then, this relative estimation model is demonstrated using Dengue and Chikungunya data of Malaysia. The viruses of these diseases are transmitted by the same type of female vector mosquito named Aedes Aegypti and Aedes Albopictus. Finally, the findings of the analysis of relative risk estimation for both Dengue and Chikungunya diseases are presented, compared and displayed in graphs and maps. The distribution from risk maps show the high and low risk area of Dengue and Chikungunya diseases occurrence. This map can be used as a tool for the prevention and control strategies for both diseases.

  15. Epistemologia pragmatyczna Michaela Williamsa (PRAGMATIST EPISTEMOLOGY BY MICHAEL WILLIAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Ziemińska

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents three main elements of Williams' epistemology: the concept of knowledge, the problem of skepticism and the concept of truth. Williams takes knowledge not as pure descriptive but partly normative concept (to know is to be engaged and entitled. He rejects the demonstrative conception of knowledge (knowledge is infallible and prefers the fallibilist conception of knowledge (knowledge is uncertain and fallible. Williams is good at bringing skeptical presuppositions to light: the demonstrative conception of knowledge and the conception of justification with Prior Grounding Requirement, epistemological realism and priority for internal knowledge. He rightly observes that when we change that presuppositions (skeptic's context, knowledge does exist. However, Williams-fallibilist is close to a skeptic: they both agree that our beliefs are uncertain. The difference is only whether some of our beliefs deserve to be called knowledge. The most important worries concern Williams' concept of truth (deflationary pragmatism. According to Williams truth has no nature and it is not a goal of inquiry. However, if truth is not a goal, we can hardly understand the previous discussion with skepticism and the defense of rationality.

  16. Analysis of data acquired by Shuttle Imaging Radar SIR-A and Landsat Thematic Mapper over Baldwin County, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S.-T.

    1985-01-01

    Seasonally compatible data collected by SIR-A and by Landsat 4 TM over the lower coastal plain in Alabama were coregistered, forming a SIR-A/TM multichannel data set with 30 m x 30 m pixel size. Spectral signature plots and histogram analysis of the data were used to observe data characteristics. Radar returns from pine forest classes correlated highly with the tree ages, suggesting the potential utility of microwave remote sensing for forest biomass estimation. As compared with the TM-only data set, the use of SIR-A/TM data set improved classification accuracy of the seven land cover types studied. In addition, the SIR-A/TM classified data support previous finding by Engheta and Elachi (1982) that microwave data appear to be correlated with differing bottomland hardwood forest vegetation as associated with varying water regimens (i.e., wet versus dry).

  17. Hoarding symptoms among psychiatric outpatients: confirmatory factor analysis and psychometric properties of the Saving Inventory – Revised (SI-R

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    Siau Pheng Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing interest in problematic hoarding as an independent clinical condition has led to the development of the Saving Inventory-Revised (SI-R to assess hoarding phenomenology. The SI-R is one of the most widely used instruments to measure hoarding symptoms; however, it lacks validation in non-Western samples. Methods The current study examined the construct, convergent, and discriminant validity of the SI-R among 500 outpatients at a psychiatric hospital in Singapore. The three-factor structure solution of the SI-R was fitted in a confirmatory factor analysis. Results The final model achieved mediocre fit (χ2 = 1026.02, df = 186; RMSEA = 0.095, SRMR = 0.06; CFI = 0.86; NNFI = 0.85. Two reverse-coded items (items 2 and 4 were removed due to insufficient factor loadings, resulting in the modified 21-item SI-R (SIR-21. Our findings indicate the need to further examine the construct validity of the SI-R, particularly in non-Western samples. Nonetheless, correlations with other hoarding-related constructs, such as anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory and depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II, supported the convergent and discriminant validity of the SIR-21 in our sample. Conclusions Findings in our current majority Chinese sample were consistent with previous observations from other Chinese samples. Implications were discussed from a cross-cultural perspective, such as cultural emphasis on saving for future use and overlap between the concepts of discarding and acquiring in Chinese samples. Future studies should also examine differences among other ethnic groups (e.g., Malay, Indian.

  18. William James, Gustav Fechner, and Early Psychophysics

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    Stephanie L. Hawkins

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available American psychologist and philosopher William James devoted the entirety of his career to exploring the nature of volition, as expressed by such phenomena as will, attention, and belief. As part of that endeavor, James's unorthodox scientific pursuits, from his experiments with nitrous oxide and hallucinogenic drugs to his investigation of spiritualist mediums, represent his attempt to address the "hard problems" of consciousness for which his training in brain physiology and experimental psychology could not entirely account. As a student, James's reading in chemistry and physics had sparked his interest in the concepts of energy and force, terms that he later deployed in his writing about consciousness and in his arguments against philosophical monism and scientific materialism, as he developed his radically empiricist ideas privileging discontinuity and plurality. Despite James's long campaign against scientific materialism, he was, however, convinced of the existence of a naturalistic explanation for the more "wayward and fitful" aspects of mind, including transcendent experiences associated with hysteria, genius, and religious ecstasy. In this paper, I examine aspects of James's thought that are still important for contemporary debates in psychology and neuroscience: his "transmission theory" of consciousness, his ideas on the "knowing of things together," and, finally, the related concept of "the compounding of consciousness," which postulates the theoretical possibility for individual entities within a conscious system of thought to "know" the thoughts of others within the system. Taken together, these ideas suggest that James, in spite of, or perhaps because of, his forays into metaphysics, was working toward a naturalistic understanding of consciousness, what I will term a "distributive model," based on his understanding of consciousness as an "awareness" that interacts dynamically within, and in relation to, its environment.

  19. Metabolic abnormalities in Williams-Beuren syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Verdú, María Gabriela; Segura-Puimedon, Maria; Borralleras, Cristina; Flores, Raquel; Del Campo, Miguel; Campuzano, Victoria; Pérez-Jurado, Luis Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS, OMIM-194050) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with multisystemic manifestations caused by a 1.55-1.83 Mb deletion at 7q11.23 including 26-28 genes. Reported endocrine and metabolic abnormalities include transient hypercalcaemia of infancy, subclinical hypothyroidism in ∼ 30% of children and impaired glucose tolerance in ∼ 75% of adult individuals. The purpose of this study was to further study metabolic alterations in patients with WBS, as well as in several mouse models, to establish potential candidate genes. We analysed several metabolic parameters in a cohort of 154 individuals with WBS (data available from 69 to 151 cases per parameter), as well as in several mouse models with complete and partial deletions of the orthologous WBS locus, and searched for causative genes and potential modifiers. Triglyceride plasma levels were significantly decreased in individuals with WBS while cholesterol levels were slightly decreased compared with controls. Hyperbilirubinemia, mostly unconjugated, was found in 18.3% of WBS cases and correlated with subclinical hypothyroidism and hypotriglyceridemia, suggesting common pathogenic mechanisms. Haploinsufficiency at MLXIPL and increased penetrance for hypomorphic alleles at the UGT1A1 gene promoter might underlie the lipid and bilirubin alterations. Other disturbances included increased protein and iron levels, as well as the known subclinical hypothyroidism and glucose intolerance. Our results show that several unreported biochemical alterations, related to haploinsufficiency for specific genes at 7q11.23, are relatively common in WBS. The early diagnosis, follow-up and management of these metabolic disturbances could prevent long-term complications in this disorder. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. William Byrd: Political and Recusant Composer

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    Ariel Foshay Bacon

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Amidst the pendulum of political and religious upheaval that pervaded England throughout the sixteenth and seventeenth century, William Byrd stands as one of the best loved and lauded composers. Byrd succeeded in the secular and sacred realms, contributing great works to the Anglican Church, popularizing the English madrigal and producing prolific amounts of sacred music. However, in a time where one’s religious beliefs were often linked with political loyalty, Byrd defied his monarch’s established and enforced Protestant religion, composing politically charged music for recusant use in clandestine Catholic Church services. His themes were aligned with the Jesuit mission and his texts were often drawn from the lips of martyred Catholics at the gallows; their last words forever immortalized by Byrd for the furthering of the Jesuit cause and the Counter-Reformation. The examination of sources by prominent Byrd scholars, an analyses of Byrd’s ‘political’ compositions and a study of the social and historical background are used to place Byrd within the appropriate context, prove his recusant and political leanings, and analyze his precarious relationship with the English monarch, Elizabeth I. It is shown that Byrd could not have proceeded with his recusant practices, personally or musically, had it not been for his status as a composer, as well as Byrd’s shrewdness in procuring diplomatic relationships with high persons at court and with Queen Elizabeth I through the Chapel Royal. Finally, Byrd’s success at writing for the Anglican Church service and popular secular music showcased his ability to take a moderate stance in situations that benefitted his status with the crown

  1. Sir James Reid and the Death of Queen Victoria: An Early Model for End-of-Life Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Robert C

    2015-12-01

    An appraisal of the last ten days of Queen Victoria's life, viewed primarily from the perspective of her personal physician, Sir James Reid, is presented. Sir James' clinical encounters with his patient and the Royal Family are examined to reveal his strategic and medical thinking and gauge his level of success in basic palliative aims. It was found that the lack of effective medical interventions, tensions within the Royal Family, the importance of his post to Sir James' professional career, and the political ramifications unavoidably connected with the illness of a head of state, all presented challenges to Reid's efforts to ease the physical and emotional pain of Queen Victoria's dying. Key features of Sir James' approach included reliance on physician-patient and physician-family relationships, emphasis on emotional support for the patient, and the careful selection of interventions for the family. In the first years of the 20th century, an era when the contemporary concepts of palliative care, hospice, and family dynamics did not exist, Sir James' management of the Queen's final illness suggested an early model for end-of-life care. By the end of Queen Victoria's life, Sir James was seen to have preserved his patient's comfort and dignity, at the same time advancing family and societal acceptance of the death of this matriarchal figure. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Obituary: William A. Rense (1914-2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, Glen

    2009-12-01

    On March 28, 2008, the space research community lost another of its pioneers. William A. Rense, professor emeritus of physics at the University of Colorado in Boulder, who died in Estes Park, Colorado, following complications from cancer. He was 94. Bill, as he was widely known, was born in 1914 in Massillon, Ohio, the son of German immigrants. His was a large family - five brothers and one sister. His father, Joseph Rense, worked for the city of Cleveland while his mother, Rosalia (Luther) Rense was a housewife. As a child, Bill developed a love of astronomy which led him to earn a bachelor's degree in physics and astronomy from Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, followed by master's and PhD degrees in physics at Ohio State University. He held teaching positions at Rutgers, University of Miami (Florida), Texas A & M, and Louisiana State University before taking his final appointment at CU in 1949. While teaching at LSU, he met and in 1942 married Wanda (Childs) Rense. In addition to teaching physics at CU, Bill did research in CU's Upper Air Laboratory. His early work there included studies of polarized light and its implications for the analysis of zodiacal light. He and his co-workers also began developing instrumentation to be flown above the Earth's atmosphere in sounding rockets. In 1952 he obtained the first photographic spectrogram of the solar Lyman-alpha line of hydrogen (121.6nm). This work was followed in 1956 by the first full disk spectroheliogram in Lyman-alpha. These results could not have been possible without the use of pointing control systems for sounding rockets. These "sun trackers" kept the payloads pointed at the sun long enough for the measurements to be made, and CU was a pioneer in their development. The expanding research venue led the Upper Air Laboratory to be renamed the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP), and Bill Rense was its first director. He continued his research into the properties of the solar

  3. Recent paleoseismicity record in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, Steven A.; Miller, Eric J.; Marshall, Nicole R.; Dellapenna, Timothy M.

    2017-12-01

    Sedimentological and geochemical investigation of sediment cores collected in the deep (>400 m) central basin of Prince William Sound, along with geochemical fingerprinting of sediment source areas, are used to identify earthquake-generated sediment gravity flows. Prince William Sound receives sediment from two distinct sources: from offshore (primarily Copper River) through Hinchinbrook Inlet, and from sources within the Sound (primarily Columbia Glacier). These sources are found to have diagnostic elemental ratios indicative of provenance; Copper River Basin sediments were significantly higher in Sr/Pb and Cu/Pb, whereas Prince William Sound sediments were significantly higher in K/Ca and Rb/Sr. Within the past century, sediment gravity flows deposited within the deep central channel of Prince William Sound have robust geochemical (provenance) signatures that can be correlated with known moderate to large earthquakes in the region. Given the thick Holocene sequence in the Sound ( 200 m) and correspondingly high sedimentation rates (>1 cm year-1), this relationship suggests that sediments within the central basin of Prince William Sound may contain an extraordinary high-resolution record of paleoseismicity in the region.

  4. Celiac disease in patients with Williams-Beuren syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mıhçı, Ercan; Nur, Banu Güzel; Berker-Karaüzüm, Sibel; Yılmaz, Aygen; Artan, Reha

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune, gastrointestinal disorder characterized by intolerance to the dietary grain protein gluten. An increased prevalence of celiac disease has been reported in Down syndrome and Turner syndrome, but there has been only few previous reports with respect to the association of celiac disease in Williams-Beuren syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of celiac disease in our 24 Williams-Beuren syndrome patients. Gastrointestinal problems and celiac disease symptoms of patients were noted. All patients were analyzed by the titer of tissue transglutaminases IgA and IgG. HLA genotyping and intestinal biopsy was performed to the patients with positive serology. We also performed gluten free diet in the presence of compatible symptoms, serology, HLA genotyping and intestinal biopsy. In our study, two patients had positive tTG antibodies, but only one had positive biopsy finding for celiac disease. The frequency of celiac disease in patients with Williams-Beuren syndrome was estimated as 1/24 (4.1%). Though the number of participants in this study was limited, the results show that the frequency of celiac disease is higher in Williams-Beuren syndrome compared to the general population. We suggest that a high suspicion and testing for celiac disease should be recommended at certain intervals in all cases with Williams-Beuren syndrome to detect the cause of growth retardation and gastrointestinal problems.

  5. Williams Syndrome and 15q Duplication: Coincidence versus Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, Aditi; Agarwal, Swashti; Perez-Colon, Sheila

    2017-01-01

    Williams syndrome is a multisystem disorder caused by contiguous gene deletion in 7q11.23, commonly associated with distinctive facial features, supravalvular aortic stenosis, short stature, idiopathic hypercalcemia, developmental delay, joint laxity, and a friendly personality. The clinical features of 15q11q13 duplication syndrome include autism, mental retardation, ataxia, seizures, developmental delay, and behavioral problems. We report a rare case of a girl with genetically confirmed Williams syndrome and coexisting 15q duplication syndrome. The patient underwent treatment for central precocious puberty and later presented with primary amenorrhea. The karyotype revealed 47,XX,+mar. FISH analysis for the marker chromosome showed partial trisomy/tetrasomy for proximal chromosome 15q (15p13q13). FISH using an ELN -specific probe demonstrated a deletion in the Williams syndrome critical region in 7q11.23. To our knowledge, a coexistence of Williams syndrome and 15q duplication syndrome has not been reported in the literature. Our patient had early pubertal development, which has been described in some patients with Williams syndrome. However, years later after discontinuing gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue treatment, she developed primary amenorrhea.

  6. Obituary: William K. Rose (1935-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia

    2011-12-01

    Stellar astrophysicist William Kenneth Rose died near his home in Potomac, Maryland, on September 30, 2010, after an extended illness. Rose was the son of pharmacist Kenneth William Rose and Shirley Near Rose and was born in Ossining, New York, on August 10, 1935. He received an AB from Columbia College in 1957 and a PhD in physics from Columbia University in 1963, with a thesis on "measurements of linear polarization in discrete radio sources using a 9.4 cm maser," under the direction of Charles H. Townes. Rose played a major role in designing and constructing the maser and used it at a radio telescope at Maryland Point that belonged to the Naval Research Lab. He observed Jupiter and Saturn and a number of extra-solar-system sources, and also diffuse centimeter emission (see appendix). The thesis was not published in an archival journal, but can be found under Library of Congress code QB 475.R67. While in graduate School, Bill married Sheila Tuchman, whose primary scientific interests were biological. None of their three children chose to be scientists, but two are CPAs. Bill moved successfully through the academic hurdles) from a research position at Princeton (1963-67), where a collaboration with Nick Woolf and Martin Schwarzchild on the infrared spectra of giant stars became one of his most-cited papers, to assistant and associate professorships at MIT (1967-71), and then associate and full professorships at the University of Maryland (1971 to retirement in 2005). His most innovative work was probably that on nova explosions arising from degenerate ignition of hydrogen accreted on white dwarfs in close binary systems, published in 1968. The same idea occurred to others at about the same time, and Bill did not, perhaps, get quite his fair share of the credit. I first met Sheila and Bill in summer 1969 at the Stony Brook summer school on stellar evolution (not published until 1972). He lectured on the nature of nova explosions and on nuclear burning in thin

  7. The influence of percutaneous nephrolithotomy on human systemic stress response, SIRS and renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Pengfei; Wei, Wuran; Yang, Xiaochun; Zeng, Hao; Li, Xiong; Yang, Jie; Wang, Jia; Huang, Jiaoti

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the influences of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) and open surgery nephrolithotomy on the systemic stress response, SIRS and renal function. Forty patients with kidney calculi were enrolled in the study. Twenty cases were randomized to the PNL group and the other twenty cases to the open surgery group. Levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6(IL-6), β(2)-microglobulin (β(2)-MG), respiration rate, heart rate, body temperature and white blood cell counts were examined. CRP and IL-6 were measured in all patients pre-operatively and on post-operative days 1, 3 and 6, respectively. There was significant difference in their pre- and post-operation levels (P PNL group and 12 cases in open surgery group; there was significant difference between the two groups (P 0.05). Urine β(2)-MG levels were also measured. There was significant difference between pre- and the first day post-PNL (P PNL (P > 0.05). There was significant difference between pre- and first and third day post-open surgery (P 0.05). There was significant difference between two groups at the first, third and sixth days (P PNL group and open surgery group to some extent. The degree of stress response of PNL is lower than that of open surgery, proving the advantages of PNL with reference to serum immunology. There were cases in both the groups with SIRS, but the degree of SIRS in PNL group was lesser than the other group. Both the groups have no obvious effect on glomerular filtration function after operation and have effect on renal tubular reabsorption in the early stage after operation; but the recovery of the PNL group is faster than the open surgery group. It is thus shown that PNL is much safer and more feasible and has lesser effect on renal function.

  8. Coronary ostium occlusion by coronary cusp displacement in Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiohama, Tadashi; Fujii, Katsunori; Ebata, Ryota; Funabashi, Nobusada; Matsumiya, Goro; Saito, Yuko Kazato; Takechi, Fumie; Yonemori, Yoko; Nakatani, Yukio; Shimojo, Naoki

    2016-06-01

    Williams syndrome is a contiguous gene deletion syndrome resulting from a heterozygous deletion on chromosome 7q11.23, and is characterized by distinctive facial features and supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS). This syndrome rarely presents unpredictable cardiac death, and yet, as illustrated in the present case, it is still not possible to predict it, even on close monitoring. We herein describe the case of a 6-year-old Japanese girl with Williams syndrome, who had sudden cardiac collapse due to cardiac infarction after pharyngitis. Cardiac failure followed a critical course that did not respond to catecholamine support or heart rest with extracardiac mechanical support. Although marked coronary stenosis was not present, the left coronary cusp abnormally adhered to the aortic wall, which may synergistically cause coronary ostium occlusion with SVAS. Altered hemodynamic state, even that caused by the common cold, may lead to critical myocardial events in Williams syndrome with SVAS. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  9. A class of stochastic delayed SIR epidemic models with generalized nonlinear incidence rate and temporary immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kuangang; Zhang, Yan; Gao, Shujing; Wei, Xiang

    2017-09-01

    A class of SIR epidemic model with generalized nonlinear incidence rate is presented in this paper. Temporary immunity and stochastic perturbation are also considered. The existence and uniqueness of the global positive solution is achieved. Sufficient conditions guaranteeing the extinction and persistence of the epidemic disease are established. Moreover, the threshold behavior is discussed, and the threshold value R0 is obtained. We show that if R0 extinct with probability one, whereas if R0 > 1, then the system remains permanent in the mean.

  10. The threshold of a stochastic delayed SIR epidemic model with vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qun; Jiang, Daqing

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we study the threshold dynamics of a stochastic delayed SIR epidemic model with vaccination. We obtain sufficient conditions for extinction and persistence in the mean of the epidemic. The threshold between persistence in the mean and extinction of the stochastic system is also obtained. Compared with the corresponding deterministic model, the threshold affected by the white noise is smaller than the basic reproduction number Rbar0 of the deterministic system. Results show that time delay has important effects on the persistence and extinction of the epidemic.

  11. Global stability of an SIR model with differential infectivity on complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xinpeng; Wang, Fang; Xue, Yakui; Liu, Maoxing

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, an SIR model with birth and death on complex networks is analyzed, where infected individuals are divided into m groups according to their infection and contact between human is treated as a scale-free social network. We obtain the basic reproduction number R0 as well as the effects of various immunization schemes. The results indicate that the disease-free equilibrium is locally and globally asymptotically stable in some conditions, otherwise disease-free equilibrium is unstable and exists an unique endemic equilibrium that is globally asymptotically stable. Our theoretical results are confirmed by numerical simulations and a promising way for infectious diseases control is suggested.

  12. Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842) and his contributions to early neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Riech, Sheryl; Verma, Ketan; Mortazavi, Martin M; Loukas, Marios; Benninger, Brion; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2012-03-01

    The renowned surgeon, neuroanatomist, and artist Sir Charles Bell not only impacted the lives of his peers through his creative endeavors and passion for art, but also sparked noteworthy breakthroughs in the field of neuroscience. His empathetic nature and zest for life enabled him to develop an early proclivity for patient care. As a result of his innovative findings regarding sensory and motor nerves and the anatomical makeup of the brain, he accepted some of the most prestigious awards and received an honorable reputation in society. Bell is recognized for his diligence, perseverance, and his remarkable contributions to surgery. The present review will explore his contributions to the discipline now known as neurosurgery.

  13. Dynamics analysis of SIR epidemic model with correlation coefficients and clustering coefficient in networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juping; Yang, Chan; Jin, Zhen; Li, Jia

    2018-07-14

    In this paper, the correlation coefficients between nodes in states are used as dynamic variables, and we construct SIR epidemic dynamic models with correlation coefficients by using the pair approximation method in static networks and dynamic networks, respectively. Considering the clustering coefficient of the network, we analytically investigate the existence and the local asymptotic stability of each equilibrium of these models and derive threshold values for the prevalence of diseases. Additionally, we obtain two equivalent epidemic thresholds in dynamic networks, which are compared with the results of the mean field equations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Obituary: William L. Kraushaar, 1920-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, George W.

    2009-01-01

    Professor William L. Kraushaar, a former MIT physics professor and a pioneer in the field of high-energy astronomy, died 21 March 2008 of complications from Parkinson's disease. He was 87. Kraushaar received his bachelor's degree from Lafayette College in 1942. During World War II he worked at the National Bureau of Standards on projects that included development of the proximity fuse for artillery shells. After the war he earned his doctorate at Cornell University. In 1949 Kraushaar was appointed research associate at MIT, where he made the first measurements of the mean life of the pi meson at the MIT electron synchrotron. Over the next fifteen years he rose through the faculty ranks, becoming a full professor before leaving MIT for the University of Wisconsin at Madison in 1965. In 1957 Kraushaar began a decade-long effort to map the sky in the "light" of cosmic gamma rays. Their detection promised to open new ways to investigate high-energy processes in the universe. Initial balloon-borne experiments failed due to background gamma rays generated in the residual atmosphere above the highest attainable altitudes. In 1958, Kraushaar seized a new opportunity for experiments above the atmosphere. Working with Professor George Clark, he directed the development in the MIT Laboratory for Nuclear Science of a gamma-ray detector for a satellite experiment that was launched in April 1961 as Explorer 11. It registered 31 events with the electronic signatures of cosmic gamma rays with energies greater than 50 MeV. Kraushaar then initiated a second and more refined experiment to be carried on OSO 3. In this project Kraushaar and Clark were joined by Gordon Garmire, a former student of Kraushaar. The OSO 3 experiment, launched in March of 1967, registered 621 cosmic gamma-ray events. It yielded the first all-sky map of high-energy cosmic gamma rays showing a concentration of gamma rays from directions in the Milky Way where gamma-ray producing interactions of charged cosmic

  15. William Barlow and the Determination of Atomic Arrangement in Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauskopf, Seymour H

    2015-04-01

    William Barlow (1845-1934) was an important if unconventional scientist, known for having developed the 'closest-packing' atomic models of crystal structure. He resumed an early nineteenth-century tradition of utilizing crystallographical and chemical data to determine atomic arrangements in crystals. This essay recounts Barlow's career and scientific activity in three parts: (a) His place in the tradition of determining atomic arrangement in context of this earlier tradition and of contemporaneous developments of crystallography and chemistry, (b) his unconventional career, and (c) the 'success' of his program to determine atomic arrangements in crystals and its influence on the work of William Lawrence Bragg.

  16. Investigating Environmentally Sustainable Transport Based on DALY weights and SIR Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Nezamianpour Jahromi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Accessibility is one of the main causes of well-being and growth in contemporary societies. Transportation is the backbone of accessibility systems that lead to the growth of economic and social networks and spatial dispersion of activities. Unfortunately, the adverse effects of transportation have a great impact on the natural and human environment. Since transportation is associated with fossil fuel combustion, it results in emissions of pollutants that cause damage to human health. To save the global eco-system, sustainable development has become an international priority. To deal with the sustainability of transportation systems is an important issue as testified by a growing number of initiatives framed to define and measure sustainability in transportation planning and infrastructure planning as well. The capability of environmental assessment as a sustainability instrument is well known. This study proposes a new approach to rank countries based on environmental sustainability development applying disability adjusted life year (DALY weights for transportation sector emissions. DALY weights consider actual impacts of pollutants on human health. By employing SIR method, a superiority and inferiority ranking method is presented for multiple criteria decision making, the sustainability ranking of a number of European countries is presented. Three various ranking methods extracted from SIR ranking method are discussed and the results and the correlation among them are demonstrated.

  17. New approaches to improve a WCDMA SIR estimator by employing different post-processing stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amnart Chaichoet

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available For effective control of transmission power in WCDMA mobile systems, a good estimate of signal-to-interference ratio (SIR is needed. Conventionally, an adaptive SIR estimator employs a moving average (MA filter (Yoon et al., 2002 to encounter fading channel distortion. However, the resulting estimate seems to have high estimation error due to fluctuation in the channel variation. In this paper, an additional post-processing stage is proposed to improve the estimation accuracy by reducing the variation of the estimate. Four variations of post-processing stages, namely 1 a moving average (MA postfilter,2 an exponential moving average (EMA post-filter, 3 an IIR post-filter and 4 least-mean-squared (LMS adaptive post-filter, are proposed and their optimal performance in terms of root-mean-square error (RMSE are then compared by simulation. The results show the best comparable performance when the MA and LMS post-filter are used. However, the MA post-filter requires a lookup table of filter order for optimal performance at different channel conditions, while the LMS post-filter can be used conveniently without a lookup table.

  18. Medicinal use of earths and minerals from Hippocrates to Sir Hans Sloane and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retsas, Spyros

    2012-12-01

    In 1931 two pharmaceutical drawers containing mineral specimens, belonging to Sir Hans Sloane, the 18th century collector, Royal Physician, President of the Royal Society and of the Royal College of Physicians of London, were found in the Department of Botany of the Natural History Museum (NHM) of London. The drawers, each divided into 49 compartments, contained a total of 107 mineral pharmaceutical specimens, some labelled as mercury or white arsenic. Their registration, identification with the Sloane Manuscript Catalogues and subsequent transfer to the Mineralogy department of the NHM where one of these drawers is now on public display, had been documented by 1935. In antiquity therapeutic empiricism attributed medicinal properties to animal products, plants and minerals, including the soil of specific geographic locations. This communication traces the medicinal use of certain earths and minerals, listed in Sir Hans Sloane's manuscript catalogues, to classical antiquity with a reference to Arsenic compounds, which in our time are finding application in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukaemia and to Terra Lemnia, a celebrated antidote of repute spanning twenty centuries, also included in the Sloane collections.

  19. Influence of heat conductivity on the performance of RTV SIR coatings with different fillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siderakis, K [High Voltage Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Patras, GR-26110 Patras (Greece); Agoris, D [High Voltage Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Patras, Greece, GR-26500, Rion, Greece (Greece); Gubanski, S [High Voltage Laboratory, Department of Electric Power Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, S-41296, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2005-10-07

    Room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber (RTV SIR) coatings are employed in order to improve the pollution performance of high voltage ceramic insulators by imparting surface hydrophobicity. In this paper, the performance of three RTV SIR coatings containing different fillers is investigated in a salt-fog test. Alumina trihydrate (ATH) and silica are the fillers included in the formulation, aiming to increase the material endurance to the energy supplied by the surface electrical activity during periods of hydrophobicity loss. The primary action of these fillers is to increase the material heat conductivity, i.e. the amount of energy conducted to the substrate. In addition, in the case of ATH relief is also achieved due to particle decomposition. The results indicate that for the compositions commercially available, where low amounts of fillers are used, and under the conditions of the test, ATH filled coatings performed better than the silica filled ones. This is attributed to ATH decomposition which further relieves the material structure and therefore decelerates material aging.

  20. Filtering authentic sepsis arising in the ICU using administrative codes coupled to a SIRS screening protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudduth, Christopher L; Overton, Elizabeth C; Lyu, Peter F; Rimawi, Ramzy H; Buchman, Timothy G

    2017-06-01

    Using administrative codes and minimal physiologic and laboratory data, we sought a high-specificity identification strategy for patients whose sepsis initially appeared during their ICU stay. We studied all patients discharged from an academic hospital between September 1, 2013 and October 31, 2014. Administrative codes and minimal physiologic and laboratory criteria were used to identify patients at high risk of developing the onset of sepsis in the ICU. Two clinicians then independently reviewed the patient record to verify that the screened-in patients appeared to become septic during their ICU admission. Clinical chart review verified sepsis in 437/466 ICU stays (93.8%). Of these 437 encounters, only 151 (34.6%) were admitted to the ICU with neither SIRS nor evidence of infection and therefore appeared to become septic during their ICU stay. Selected administrative codes coupled to SIRS criteria and applied to patients admitted to ICU can yield up to 94% authentic sepsis patients. However, only 1/3 of patients thus identified appeared to become septic during their ICU stay. Studies that depend on high-intensity monitoring for description of the time course of sepsis require clinician review and verification that sepsis initially appeared during the monitoring period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The optimal dynamic immunization under a controlled heterogeneous node-based SIRS model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lu-Xing; Draief, Moez; Yang, Xiaofan

    2016-05-01

    Dynamic immunizations, under which the state of the propagation network of electronic viruses can be changed by adjusting the control measures, are regarded as an alternative to static immunizations. This paper addresses the optimal dynamical immunization under the widely accepted SIRS assumption. First, based on a controlled heterogeneous node-based SIRS model, an optimal control problem capturing the optimal dynamical immunization is formulated. Second, the existence of an optimal dynamical immunization scheme is shown, and the corresponding optimality system is derived. Next, some numerical examples are given to show that an optimal immunization strategy can be worked out by numerically solving the optimality system, from which it is found that the network topology has a complex impact on the optimal immunization strategy. Finally, the difference between a payoff and the minimum payoff is estimated in terms of the deviation of the corresponding immunization strategy from the optimal immunization strategy. The proposed optimal immunization scheme is justified, because it can achieve a low level of infections at a low cost.

  2. A mixed SIR-SIS model to contain a virus spreading through networks with two degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essouifi, Mohamed; Achahbar, Abdelfattah

    Due to the fact that the “nodes” and “links” of real networks are heterogeneous, to model computer viruses prevalence throughout the Internet, we borrow the idea of the reduced scale free network which was introduced recently. The purpose of this paper is to extend the previous deterministic two subchains of Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS) model into a mixed Susceptible-Infected-Recovered and Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIR-SIS) model to contain the computer virus spreading over networks with two degrees. Moreover, we develop its stochastic counterpart. Due to the high protection and security taken for hubs class, we suggest to treat it by using SIR epidemic model rather than the SIS one. The analytical study reveals that the proposed model admits a stable viral equilibrium. Thus, it is shown numerically that the mean dynamic behavior of the stochastic model is in agreement with the deterministic one. Unlike the infection densities i2 and i which both tend to a viral equilibrium for both approaches as in the previous study, i1 tends to the virus-free equilibrium. Furthermore, since a proportion of infectives are recovered, the global infection density i is minimized. Therefore, the permanent presence of viruses in the network due to the lower-degree nodes class. Many suggestions are put forward for containing viruses propagation and minimizing their damages.

  3. Adaptive Functioning in Williams Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawn, Gabrielle; Porter, Melanie

    2018-01-01

    Literature on the level of adaptive functioning and relative strengths and weaknesses in functioning of individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) was reviewed. The electronic databases PsycINFO, PubMed, Expanded Academic, Web of Science, Scopus and ProQuest were searched electronically for relevant articles and dissertations using the search terms…

  4. Beyond Behaviour: Is Social Anxiety Low in Williams Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Helen F.; Schniering, Carolyn A.; Porter, Melanie A.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) exhibit striking social behaviour that may be indicative of abnormally low social anxiety. The present research aimed to determine whether social anxiety is unusually low in WS and to replicate previous findings of increased generalised anxiety in WS using both parent and self report. Fifteen individuals…

  5. Climatic data for Williams Lake, Hubbard County, Minnesota, 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturrock, A.M.; Rosenberry, D.O.; Winter, T.C.

    1987-01-01

    Research on the hydrology of Williams Lake, north-central Minnesota includes study of evaporation. Presented here are those climatic data needed for energy-budget and mass-transfer studies, including: water-surface temperature, dry-bulb and wet-bulb air temperatures, wind speed, precipitation, and solar and atmospheric radiation. Data are collected at raft and land stations.

  6. Climatic data for Williams Lake, Hubbard County, Minnesota, 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturrock, A.M.; Rosenberry, D.O.; Scarborough, J.L.; Winter, T.C.

    1986-01-01

    Research on the hydrology of Williams Lake, north-central Minnesota includes study of evaporation. Presented here are those climatic data needed for energy-budget and mass-transfer studies, including: water-surface temperature, dry-bulb and wet-bulb air temperatures, wind speed, precipitation, and solar and atmospheric radiation. Data are collected at raft and land stations.

  7. Climatic data for Williams Lake, Hubbard County, Minnesota, 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturrock, A.M.; Rosenberry, D.O.; Engelbrecht, L.G.; Gothard, W.A.; Winter, T.C.

    1984-01-01

    Research on the hydrology of Williams Lake, north-central Minnesota includes study of evaporation. Presented here are those climatic data needed for energy-budget and mass-transfer studies,including: water-surface temperature, dry-bulb and wet-bulb air temperatures, wind speed, precipitation, and solar radiation. Data are collected at raft and land stations.

  8. Edward Christopher Williams and His Impact on Librarianship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Carlos

    Edward Christopher Williams had a major impact on librarianship, not only as the first documented African American to graduate from a library school, but also as a developer of education for librarians and as an active member of the American Library Association (ALA) and the Ohio Library Association. This study used the historical methodology…

  9. Atypical Sleep Architecture and Altered EEG Spectra in Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombos, F.; Bodizs, R.; Kovacs, I.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder characterised by physical abnormalities and a distinctive cognitive profile with intellectual disabilities (IDs) and learning difficulties. Methods: In our study, nine adolescents and young adults with WS and 9 age- and sex-matched typically developing (TD) participants…

  10. Astronaut William Fisher preparing to train in the WETF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Astronaut William Fisher is shown in his extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) preparing to train in the Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF). He is wearing the communications carrier assembly but not the full helmet (32102); Reflections of the WETF can be seen on the closed visor of the EMU helmet Fiser is wearing (32103).

  11. I Know! It's Backwards Day! Gender Roles and William's Doll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Kleut, Geraldine

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a case study of an exploration of gender roles in a second-grade classroom. The author discusses some of the discursive identities in which she and her students are positioned, and then uses the picture book William's Doll to introduce a discussion of discursive gender identities with her students. She then asks students to…

  12. Elicited Production of Relative Clauses in Children with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukowski, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Relative clauses have been implicated alternately as a strength and a weakness in the language of people with Williams Syndrome (WS). To clarify the facts, an elicited production test was administered to 10 people with WS (age 10-16 years), 10 typically developing children (age 4-7 years), and 12 typically developing adults. Nearly every WS…

  13. Shepard Award Winners, Part 2: Dr. Tracie Williams

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-07-29

    This podcast highlights the accomplishments of Dr. Tracie Williams, recipient of the prestigious 2009 CDC Charles C. Shepard Award.  Created: 7/29/2009 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 7/29/2009.

  14. Orientation Perception in Williams Syndrome: Discrimination and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares, Melanie; Landau, Barbara; Egeth, Howard

    2009-01-01

    Williams Syndrome (WS) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder, which stems from a genetic deletion on chromosome 7 and causes a profound weakness in visuospatial cognition. Our current study explores how orientation perception may contribute to the visuospatial deficits in WS. In Experiment 1, we found that WS individuals and normal 3-4 year olds…

  15. How Executive Functions Are Related to Intelligence in Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Ana; Cruz, Raquel; Sampaio, Adriana; Garayzabal, Elena; Martinez-Regueiro, Rocio; Goncalves, Oscar F.; Carracedo, Angel; Fernandez-Prieto, Montse

    2012-01-01

    Williams syndrome is characterized by impairments in executive functions (EFs). However, it remains unknown how distinct types of EFs relate to intelligence in this syndrome. The present study analyzed performance on working memory, inhibiting and shifting, and its links to IQ in a sample of 17 individuals with WS, and compared them with a group…

  16. Biblionef SA: Bringing books to the bookless | Williams | Innovation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biblionef SA: Bringing books to the bookless. Jean Williams. Abstract. No abstract available. Innovation (2003) No. 26, pp 43-47. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  17. William Shakespeare’s“Hamlet”and Oedipus Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迪丽努尔

    2014-01-01

    “Hamlet”is one of the great dramas of William Shakespeare. This paper by describing the relationship between Hamlet and his mother, the Ghost and his uncle, tries to approve that Oedipus complex is the main reason of Hamlet’s kil ing his uncle.

  18. A Conversation with William A. Fowler Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, John

    2005-06-01

    Physicist William A.Fowler initiated an experimental program in nuclear astrophysics after World War II. He recalls here the Steady State versus Big Bang controversy and his celebrated collaboration with Fred Hoyle and Geoffrey and Margaret Burbidge on nucleosynthesis in stars. He also comments on the shift away from nuclear physics in universities to large accelerators and national laboratories.

  19. Florence Jessie MacWilliams (1917-1990)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    famous mathematician Oscar Zariski, well known for his work in algebraic geometry, at. Johns Hopkins University, following him to Harvard University to study with him for a year. There was a break in her studies for many years following her marriage in 1941 to. W al ter Mac Williams, an engineer, and the birth and raising of ...

  20. La Fondation William et Flora Hewlett | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La Fondation William et Flora Hewlett. http://www.hewlett.org/ · What we do · Funding · Resources · About IDRC. Knowledge. Innovation. Solutions. Careers · Contact Us · Site map. Sign up now for IDRC news and views sent directly to your inbox each month. Subscribe · Copyright · Open access policy · Privacy policy ...

  1. William Knocke receives 2008 Virginia Outstanding Civil Engineer Award

    OpenAIRE

    Daniilidi, Christina

    2008-01-01

    William R. Knocke, W.C. English Professor and head of the Charles E. Via, Jr. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Virginia Tech, was awarded the 2008 Virginia Outstanding Civil Engineer Award at the Virginia Section of the American Society of Civil Engineers' (ASCE) banquet, held recently in Williamsburg, Va.

  2. 77 FR 76414 - William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... Federal Direct Loan Program AGENCY: Department of Education. ACTION: Final regulations; correction... Loan (Perkins Loan) Program; the Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL) Program; and the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan (Direct Loan) Program, including the Public Service Loan Forgiveness (PSLF) Program...

  3. 77 FR 72960 - William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... Federal Direct Loan Program AGENCY: Office of Postsecondary Education, Department of Education. ACTION... document to establish the date for the early implementation of William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan (Direct Loan) program regulations that establish a new income-contingent repayment plan based on the President...

  4. Perceptual Speech and Paralinguistic Skills of Adolescents with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrove, Patricia M.; Pittelko, Stephen; Fillingane, Evan; Rustman, Emily; Lund, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to compare selected speech and paralinguistic skills of speakers with Williams syndrome (WS) and typically developing peers and to demonstrate the feasibility of providing preexisting databases to students to facilitate graduate research. In a series of three studies, conversational samples of 12 adolescents with…

  5. Williams Syndrome: Daily Challenges and Positive Impact on the Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scallan, Susan; Senior, Joyce; Reilly, Colin

    2011-01-01

    Background: Despite the distinctive physical, cognitive, personality and behavioural characteristics associated with Williams syndrome, few studies to date have examined parental experiences of raising a child with this genetic syndrome. Methods: This explorative pilot study employed predominantly qualitative methodologies via face-to-face…

  6. Language and Literacy Development of Children with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mervis, Carolyn B.

    2009-01-01

    Williams syndrome is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder caused by deletion of approximately 25 genes on chromosome 7q11.23. Children with the syndrome evidence large individual differences in both broad language and reading abilities. Nevertheless, as a group, children with this syndrome show a consistent pattern characterized by relative…

  7. Advocating for Inclusion of Children with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Michelle A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and explore the experience of inclusion of students with Williams syndrome, a rare genetic condition of a microdeletion on chromosome 7 which has medical, behavior, and cognitive issues. The study was conducted by gaining an understanding from the parents' point of view. The study was twofold. First, the…

  8. Gender Attribution and Gender Agreement in French Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boloh, Yves; Ibernon, Laure; Royer, Stephanie; Escudier, Frederique; Danillon, Aurelia

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies on grammatical gender in French individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) have led to conflicting findings and interpretations regarding keys abilities--gender attribution and gender agreement. New production data from a larger SW sample (N = 24) showed that gender attribution scores in SW participants exactly mirrored those of…

  9. Examining Reports of Mental Health in Adults with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinton, Chris; Tomlinson, Katie; Estes, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Prior research suggests that individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) have a disposition towards anxiety. Information regarding this is typically derived from parents and carers. The perspectives of the individuals with WS are rarely included in research of this nature. We examined the mental health of 19 adults with WS using explicit (psychiatric…

  10. Electrophysiological Correlates of Semantic Processing in Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Ana P.; Galdo-Alvarez, Santaigo; Sampaio, Adriana; Niznikiewicz, Margaret; Goncalves, Oscar F.

    2010-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS), a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder due to microdeletion in chromosome 7, has been described as a syndrome with an intriguing socio-cognitive phenotype. Cognitively, the relative preservation of language and face processing abilities coexists with severe deficits in visual-spatial tasks, as well as in tasks involving…

  11. Comprehension of Metaphor and Metonymy in Children with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annaz, Dagmara; Van Herwegen, Jo; Thomas, Michael; Fishman, Roza; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Rundblad, Gabriella

    2009-01-01

    Background: Figurative language, such as metaphor and metonymy, is very common in daily language use. Its underlying cognitive processes are sometimes viewed as lying at the interface of language and thought. Williams syndrome, which is a rare genetic developmental disorder, provides an opportunity to study this interface because individuals with…

  12. The Interplay between Anxiety and Social Functioning in Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riby, Deborah M.; Hanley, Mary; Kirk, Hannah; Clark, Fiona; Little, Katie; Fleck, Ruth; Janes, Emily; Kelso, Linzi; O'Kane, Fionnuala; Cole-Fletcher, Rachel; Allday, Marianne Hvistendahl; Hocking, Darren; Cornish, Kim; Rodgers, Jacqui

    2014-01-01

    The developmental disorder Williams syndrome (WS) has been associated with an atypical social profile of hyper-sociability and heightened social sensitivity across the developmental spectrum. In addition, previous research suggests that both children and adults with WS have a predisposition towards anxiety. The current research aimed to explore…

  13. Visually Guided Step Descent in Children with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Dorothy; Braddick, Oliver; Atkinson, Janette

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) have impairments in visuospatial tasks and in manual visuomotor control, consistent with parietal and cerebellar abnormalities. Here we examined whether individuals with WS also have difficulties in visually controlling whole-body movements. We investigated visual control of stepping down at a change of…

  14. Musicality Correlates with Sociability and Emotionality in Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Rowena; Lai, Philip; Levitin, Daniel J.; Bellugi, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurogenetic developmental disorder characterized by peaks and valleys of cognitive abilities. One peak that has been understudied is the affinity that many individuals with WS have with music. It remains unknown whether their high levels of musical interest, skill, and expressivity are related to their sociable…

  15. Pulmonary arterial stent implantation in an adult with Williams syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reesink, Herre J.; Henneman, Onno D. F.; van Delden, Otto M.; Biervliet, Jules D.; Kloek, Jaap J.; Reekers, Jim A.; Bresser, Paul

    2007-01-01

    We report a 38-year-old patient who presented with pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular dysfunction due to pulmonary artery stenoses as a manifestation of Williams syndrome, mimicking chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. The patient was treated with balloon angioplasty and stent

  16. The use of emotions in narratives in Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Herwegen, Jo; Aznar, Ana; Tenenbaum, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    Although individuals with Williams syndrome are very sociable, they tend to have limited contact and friendships with peers. In typically developing children the use of positive emotions (e.g., happy) has been argued to be related to peer relationships and popularity. The current study investigated the use and development of emotion words in Williams syndrome using cross-sectional developmental trajectories and examined children's use of different types of emotion words. Nineteen children with Williams syndrome (WS) and 20 typically developing (TD) children matched for chronological age told a story from a wordless picture book. Participants with WS produced a similar number of emotion words compared to the control group and the use of emotion words did not change when plotted against chronological age or vocabulary abilities in either group. However, participants with WS produced more emotion words about sadness. Links between emotion production and friendships as well as future studies are discussed. After reading this article, readers will be able to: explain the development of positive and negative emotions in Williams syndrome and recognize that emotion production is atypical in this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterisation of Sleep Problems in Children with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annaz, Dagmara; Hill, Catherine M.; Ashworth, Anna; Holley, Simone; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2011-01-01

    Sleep is critical to optimal daytime functioning, learning and general health. In children with established developmental disorders sleep difficulties may compound existing learning difficulties. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence and syndrome specificity of sleep problems in Williams syndrome (WS), a…

  18. Comparison of the acute effects of Tulbaghia violacea William Henry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the effect of the crude methanol leaf extracts of Tulbaghia violacea William Henry Harvey (Alliaceae) on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate in ageing normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY), and compare the results obtained with those for adult spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Methods: T.

  19. Potential Beneficial Effects of Tulbaghia violacea William Henry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tulbaghia violacea William Henry Harvey (Harv. Alliaceae) is a small bulbous herb belonging to the family Alliaceae. It is used in South Africa to treat fever, colds, asthma, paralysis, and hypertension. Meanwhile, cardiovascular disease accounts for about 30 % of total global death, with most of these deaths occurring in low ...

  20. Personal Space Regulation in Williams Syndrome: The Effect of Familiarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lough, Emma; Flynn, Emma; Riby, Deborah M.

    2016-01-01

    Personal space refers to a protective barrier that we strive to maintain around our body. We examined personal space regulation in young people with Williams syndrome (WS) and their typically developing, chronological age-matched peers using a parent report questionnaire and a stop-distance paradigm. Individuals with WS were reported by their…

  1. ProRisk : risk analysis instrument : developed for William properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, W.H.W.; Egeberg, Ingrid; Hendrickx, Kristoff; Kahramaner, Y.; Masseur, B.; Waijers, Koen; Weglicka, K.A.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a Risk Analysis Instrument developed for William Properties. Based on the analysis, it appears that the practice of Risk Analysis exists within the organization, yet rather implicit. The Risk Analysis Instrument comes with a package of four components: an activity diagram, a

  2. Experiences of Bullying for Individuals with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Marisa H.; Lough, Emma; Griffin, Megan M.; Lane, Laurel A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Individuals with intellectual disability experience high rates of bullying, but it is not known how people with specific syndromes, such as Williams syndrome (WS), experience and respond to bullying. Given their behavioral profile, including hypersociability and heightened anxiety, and their risk for experiencing other forms of…

  3. Quantitative measurement of Y90 brehmmstrahlung images after of Y90 Sir-Spheres implantation to assess lung shunting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forwood, Nicholas J.; Pocock, Nicholas; Shin, Jane; Young, Andy M; Szeto, Edwin R.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Background: In clinical practice the dose of Y 9 0 Sir-Spheres is calculated using a pre injection of Tc 9 9 m MAA. There is however a potential difference due to the different properties of Tc 9 9 m MAA and Y 9 0 Sir-Spheres. We assessed the concordance of lung shunting of Y 9 0 Sir-Spheres estimated using Y 9 0 Bremsstrahlung imaging, compared to shunting assessed using Tc 9 9 m MAA. Methods: 15 Patients were evaluated using 150-200 MBq of Tc 9 9 m MAA injected into the hepatic artery under angiographic guidance. Whole body images were acquired using a LEAP collimator (window of 140 kEv+/-10%). The patients were subsequently treated with Y 9 0 Sir-Spheres. After microspheres injection, whole body brehmsstrahlung images were acquired using a medium energy collimator (window settings of 75 kEv +/- 20%). Tc 9 9 m MAA images were paired with their corresponding bremsstrahlung image and lung shunting in the stu ides calculated simultaneously. Each paired dataset was analyzed by 5 operators. Results: The mean lung shunting for Tc 9 9 m MAA acquisition was 3.32% (SD 2.03) which was significantly lower than the lung shunting using the Y 9 0 acquisitions: mean 16.19% (SD of 6.43). The Pearson coefficient was r = 0.62 (p 9 0 Sir-Spheres bremsstrahlung imaging is higher than that calculated by Tc 9 9 m MAA imaging. The relationship is not sufficiently strong to use bremsstahlung imaging to retrospectively quantify the lung-to-liver shunting as indicated using Tc 9 9 M AA. Further studies are underway to assess the reliability of Tc 9 9 m MAA lung uptake calculations in determining the dose of Y 9 0 Sir-Spheres.

  4. Word-Preserving Arts: Material Inscription, Ekphrasis, and Spatial Form in the Later Work of William Wordsworth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Peter

    William Wordsworth, posterity, reading, material inscription, ekphrasis, description, sonnet, portraiture......William Wordsworth, posterity, reading, material inscription, ekphrasis, description, sonnet, portraiture...

  5. Impulsive vaccination and dispersal on dynamics of an SIR epidemic model with restricting infected individuals boarding transports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jianjun; Cai, Shaohong; Li, Limei

    2016-05-01

    To understand the effect of impulsive vaccination and restricting infected individuals boarding transports on disease spread, we establish an SIR model with impulsive vaccination, impulsive dispersal and restricting infected individuals boarding transports. This SIR epidemic model for two regions, which are connected by transportation of non-infected individuals, portrays the evolvement of diseases. We prove that all solutions of the investigated system are uniformly ultimately bounded. We also prove that there exists globally asymptotically stable infection-free boundary periodic solution. The condition for permanence is discussed. It is concluded that the approach of impulsive vaccination and restricting infected individuals boarding transports provides reliable tactic basis for preventing disease spread.

  6. L’économie politique du désir dans le rituel et le militantisme au SriLanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Van Daele

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Le désir est au cœur des interactions complexes entre le développement et la religion. Cet article examine ses différentes expressions, comme étant une des préoccupations fondamentales de nombreuses religions, qui motivent à la fois le développement et les alternatives au développement. Au SriLanka, face au changement social, la forme néolibérale et mondialisée du développement est comprise et réinterprétée à travers des idiomes et des formations locales du désir. L’économie néolibérale cultive le désir et mène à un accroissement présumé de la présence des preta (fantômes affamés et avides qui se manifestent parfois au moment de la mort d’une personne. Les fantômes affamés, en tant que formations fétichisées du désir, trouvent un écho chez les consommateurs et les entrepreneurs, qui montrent unappétit insatiable vis-à-vis d’une richesse matérielle en constante croissance. Ainsi, l’apaisement ritualisé des fantômes affamés et le militantisme social de groupes tels que le Movement for National Land and Agricultural Reform (MONLAR sont clairement liés par leur préoccupation mutuelle face à l’insécurité existentielle des êtres humains et non humains, causée par un désir excessif et déséquilibré. L’action rituelle et le militantisme social divergent toutefois dans la formulation explicite de leurs préoccupations spécifiques concernant le désir. Le rituel matérialise et condense l’angoisse liée au désir, alors que le militantisme social décrit la fétichisation du désir en termes économiques, politiques et scientifiques plus abstraits.

  7. 33 CFR 161.60 - Vessel Traffic Service Prince William Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... William Sound. 161.60 Section 161.60 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Movement Reporting System Areas and Reporting Points § 161.60 Vessel Traffic Service Prince William Sound... Cape Hinchinbrook Light to Schooner Rock Light, comprising that portion of Prince William Sound between...

  8. 75 FR 16159 - Prince William Sound Regional Citizens' Advisory Council (PWSRCAC) Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [USCG-2010-0121] Prince William Sound Regional... the Prince William Sound Regional Citizens' Advisory Council (PWSRCAC) as an alternative voluntary advisory group for Prince William Sound, Alaska. This certification allows the PWSRCAC to monitor the...

  9. 77 FR 19301 - Prince William Sound Regional Citizens' Advisory Council Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [USCG-2012-0099] Prince William Sound Regional... Prince William Sound Regional Citizens' Advisory Council (PWSRCAC) as an alternative voluntary advisory group for Prince William Sound, Alaska. This certification allows the PWSRCAC to monitor the activities...

  10. 33 CFR 165.1704 - Prince William Sound, Alaska-regulated navigation area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prince William Sound, Alaska... District § 165.1704 Prince William Sound, Alaska-regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Hinchinbrook Light to Schooner Rock Light, comprising that portion of Prince William Sound between 146°30′ W...

  11. 76 FR 1187 - Application for Recertification of Prince William Sound Regional Citizens' Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... Prince William Sound Regional Citizens' Advisory Council AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... on, the application for recertification submitted by the Prince William Sound Regional Citizen's... advisory group in lieu of a Regional Citizens' Advisory Council for Prince William Sound, Alaska. This...

  12. Probed Serial Recall in Williams Syndrome: Lexical Influences on Phonological Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Jan; McCormack, Teresa; Boucher, Jill

    2005-01-01

    Williams syndrome is a genetic disorder that, it has been claimed, results in an unusual pattern of linguistic strengths and weaknesses. The current study investigated the hypothesis that there is a reduced influence of lexical knowledge on phonological short-term memory in Williams syndrome. Fourteen children with Williams syndrome and 2…

  13. Outcome in Adult Life for People with Williams Syndrome Results from a Survey of 239 Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlin, P.; Udwin, O.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although there has been considerable research into the genotype and phenotype of Williams syndrome, there have been relatively few studies of long-term prognosis. As a preliminary to a more detailed investigation of adults with Williams syndrome, a parental questionnaire was distributed to members of the UK Williams Syndrome…

  14. 77 FR 47374 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; William D. Ford Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ...; William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan (Direct Loan) Program/ Federal Family Loan (FFEL) Program: Deferment... which borrowers in the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan (Direct Loan) and Federal Family Education... considered public records. Title of Collection: William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan (Direct Loan) Program...

  15. 78 FR 11857 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ...; Comment Request; William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program (DL) Regulations AGENCY: Department of... in response to this notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: William D. Ford.... Abstract: The William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program regulations cover areas of program administration...

  16. 77 FR 43276 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; William D. Ford Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ...; William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program General Forbearance Request SUMMARY: Borrowers who receive loans through the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program will use this form to request forbearance... considered public records. Title of Collection: William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program General...

  17. Seasonal distribution of Dall's porpoise in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, John R.; O'Dell, Matthew B.; Arimitsu, Mayumi L.; Straley, Janice M.; Dickson, Danielle M. S.

    2018-01-01

    Dall's porpoise, Phocoenoides dalli, are a conspicuous predator in the Prince William Sound ecosystem, yet there has been little effort directed towards monitoring this species since the 1980s, prior to the Exxon Valdez oil spill. We used vessel-based surveys to examine the seasonal distribution of Dall's porpoise in the waters of Prince William Sound during eight years from 2007 to 2015. Over the course of 168 days and 15,653 km of survey effort, 921 Dall's porpoise were encountered in 210 groups. We estimate an encounter rate of 0.061 porpoise/km traveled or 1 porpoise encountered for every 16.5 km traveled. Dall's porpoise were found throughout the year in Prince William Sound, and used a wide range of habitats, including those not considered typical of the species, such as bays, shallow water, and nearshore waters. Dall's porpoise seasonally shifted their center of distribution from the western passages in fall to the bays of the eastern Sound in winter and spring. Dall's porpoises were widely dispersed throughout the Sound in summer. We identified potential Dall's porpoise habitat (depth, slope, and distance from shore) within Prince William Sound using generalized additive models (GAM). Dall's porpoise were found in deeper water during summer and in shallowest water during spring. We propose that their use of novel habitats is a function of reduced predation risk associated with the decline of their main predator, killer whales (Orcinus orca), following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, and the presence of overwintering and spawning Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii). While the size of the Dall's porpoise population within Prince William Sound remains unknown, our encounter rates were lower than those reported in the 1970s. Their high metabolic rate and ubiquitous presence makes them one of the more important, yet understudied, forage fish predators in the region.

  18. Enhanced radiosensitivity and radiation-induced apoptosis in glioma CD133-positive cells by knockdown of SirT1 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.-J.; Hsu, C.-C.; Yung, M.-C.; Chen, K.-Y.; Tzao Ching; Wu, W.-F.; Chou, H.-Y.; Lee, Y.-Y.; Lu, K.-H.; Chiou, S.-H.; Ma, H.-I

    2009-01-01

    CD133-expressing glioma cells play a critical role in tumor recovery after treatment and are resistant to radiotherapy. Herein, we demonstrated that glioblastoma-derived CD133-positive cells (GBM-CD133 + ) are capable of self-renewal and express high levels of embryonic stem cell genes and SirT1 compared to GBM-CD133 - cells. To evaluate the role of SirT1 in GBM-CD133 + , we used a lentiviral vector expressing shRNA to knock-down SirT1 expression (sh-SirT1) in GBM-CD133 + . Silencing of SirT1 significantly enhanced the sensitivity of GBM-CD133 + to radiation and increased the level of radiation-mediated apoptosis. Importantly, knock-down of SirT1 increased the effectiveness of radiotherapy in the inhibition of tumor growth in nude mice transplanted with GBM-CD133 + . Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that the mean survival rate of GBM-CD133 + mice treated with radiotherapy was significantly improved by Sh-SirT1 as well. In sum, these results suggest that SirT1 is a potential target for increasing the sensitivity of GBM and glioblastoma-associated cancer stem cells to radiotherapy.

  19. dSir2 in the Adult Fat Body, but Not in Muscles, Regulates Life Span in a Diet-Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushal Kr. Banerjee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sir2, an evolutionarily conserved NAD+-dependent deacetylase, has been implicated as a key factor in mediating organismal life span. However, recent contradictory findings have brought into question the role of Sir2 and its orthologs in regulating organismal longevity. In this study, we report that Drosophila Sir2 (dSir2 in the adult fat body regulates longevity in a diet-dependent manner. We used inducible Gal4 drivers to knock down and overexpress dSir2 in a tissue-specific manner. A diet-dependent life span phenotype of dSir2 perturbations (both knockdown and overexpression in the fat body, but not muscles, negates the effects of background genetic mutations. In addition to providing clarity to the field, our study contrasts the ability of dSir2 in two metabolic tissues to affect longevity. We also show that dSir2 knockdown abrogates fat-body dFOXO-dependent life span extension. This report highlights the importance of the interplay between genetic factors and dietary inputs in determining organismal life spans.

  20. Threshold Dynamics in Stochastic SIRS Epidemic Models with Nonlinear Incidence and Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the dynamical behaviors for a stochastic SIRS epidemic model with nonlinear incidence and vaccination are investigated. In the models, the disease transmission coefficient and the removal rates are all affected by noise. Some new basic properties of the models are found. Applying these properties, we establish a series of new threshold conditions on the stochastically exponential extinction, stochastic persistence, and permanence in the mean of the disease with probability one for the models. Furthermore, we obtain a sufficient condition on the existence of unique stationary distribution for the model. Finally, a series of numerical examples are introduced to illustrate our main theoretical results and some conjectures are further proposed.

  1. On pulse vaccine strategy in a periodic stochastic SIR epidemic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fengyan; Wang, Xiaoyi; Zhang, Shuwen; Ding, Changming

    2014-01-01

    A periodic stochastic SIR epidemic model with pulse vaccination is studied. The system has global positive solutions and under some conditions it admits a unique positive periodic disease-free solution, which is globally exponentially stable in mean square. The mathematical expectation and variance of the positive periodic solution are obtained. Two threshold parameters R 1 and R 2 (R 1 >R 2 ) are identified; if R 1 <1, the susceptible will be persistent in the mean and the disease will go to extinction; if R 2 >1, the susceptible and the disease will be weakly persistent in the mean. We show that by repeatedly vaccinating the susceptible population in series of pulses, it is possible to eradicate the infective from the entire model population in the random environment

  2. Oceanographic data collected from the Sir John Franklin in the Beaufort Sea, September 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, R W; Carmack, E C; O' Brien, M C; McLaughlin, F A; Minkley, B G; Berger-North, K

    1989-09-01

    The data reported here were collected from the Canadian Coast Guard ship Sir John Franklin during a cruise to the Canadian Beaufort Sea from August 21 to Sept 5, 1989. The cruise had two broad objectives: to collect chemical and conductivity temperature depth (CTD) data at a deep station in the Canadian Basin, and to survey intensively the shelf break with the Mackenzie Canyon as a focus. Conductivity temperature depth was measured using a CTD guideline system. Water samples consisting of hydrocast for 6 shelf edge stations at 200 m depth and one deep station at 3200 m depth were tested for salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, nutrients, and chlorophyll a. In addition, samples were collected for analysis of tritium, C-14, and oxygen isotope composition and acoustic profiles were run. Isotope composition and acoustic profile data are not included in this report.

  3. Threshold dynamics and ergodicity of an SIRS epidemic model with Markovian switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Liu, Shengqiang; Cui, Jing'an

    2017-12-01

    This paper studies the spread dynamics of a stochastic SIRS epidemic model with nonlinear incidence and varying population size, which is formulated as a piecewise deterministic Markov process. A threshold dynamic determined by the basic reproduction number R0 is established: the disease can be eradicated almost surely if R0 disease persists almost surely if R0 > 1. The existing method for analyzing ergodic behavior of population systems has been generalized. The modified method weakens the required conditions and has no limitations for both the number of environmental regimes and the dimension of the considered system. When R0 > 1, the existence of a stationary probability measure is obtained. Furthermore, with the modified method, the global attractivity of the Ω-limit set of the system and the convergence in total variation to the stationary measure are both demonstrated under a mild extra condition.

  4. Newton's gift how Sir Isaac Newton unlocked the system of the world

    CERN Document Server

    Berlinski, David

    2000-01-01

    Sir Isaac Newton, creator of the first and perhaps most important scientific theory, is a giant of the scientific era. Despite this, he has remained inaccessible to most modern readers, indisputably great but undeniably remote. In this witty, engaging, and often moving examination of Newton's life, David Berlinski recovers the man behind the mathematical breakthroughs. The story carries the reader from Newton's unremarkable childhood to his awkward undergraduate days at Cambridge through the astonishing year in which, working alone, he laid the foundation for his system of the world, his Principia Mathematica, and to the subsequent monumental feuds that poisoned his soul and wearied his supporters. An edifying appreciation of Newton's greatest accomplishment, Newton's Gift is also a touching celebration of a transcendent man.

  5. Granular statistical mechanics - Building on the legacy of Sir Sam Edwards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, Raphael

    When Sir Sam Edwards laid down the foundations for the statistical mechanics of jammed granular materials he opened a new field in soft condensed matter and many followed. In this presentation we review briefly the Edwards formalism and some of its less discussed consequences. We point out that the formalism is useful for other classes of systems - cellular and porous materials. A certain shortcoming of the original formalism is then discussed and a modification to overcome it is proposed. Finally, a derivation of an equation of state with the new formalism is presented; the equation of state is analogous to the PVT relation for thermal gases, relating the volume, the boundary stress and measures of the structural and stress fluctuations. NUDT, Changsha, China, Imperial College London, UK, Cambridge University, UK.

  6. Optimizing Real-Time Vaccine Allocation in a Stochastic SIR Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Nguyen

    Full Text Available Real-time vaccination following an outbreak can effectively mitigate the damage caused by an infectious disease. However, in many cases, available resources are insufficient to vaccinate the entire at-risk population, logistics result in delayed vaccine deployment, and the interaction between members of different cities facilitates a wide spatial spread of infection. Limited vaccine, time delays, and interaction (or coupling of cities lead to tradeoffs that impact the overall magnitude of the epidemic. These tradeoffs mandate investigation of optimal strategies that minimize the severity of the epidemic by prioritizing allocation of vaccine to specific subpopulations. We use an SIR model to describe the disease dynamics of an epidemic which breaks out in one city and spreads to another. We solve a master equation to determine the resulting probability distribution of the final epidemic size. We then identify tradeoffs between vaccine, time delay, and coupling, and we determine the optimal vaccination protocols resulting from these tradeoffs.

  7. A stochastic SIRS epidemic model with infectious force under intervention strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yongli; Kang, Yun; Banerjee, Malay; Wang, Weiming

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we extend a classical SIRS epidemic model with the infectious forces under intervention strategies from a deterministic framework to a stochastic differential equation (SDE) one through introducing random fluctuations. The value of our study lies in two aspects. Mathematically, by using the Markov semigroups theory, we prove that the reproduction number R0S can be used to govern the stochastic dynamics of SDE model. If R0S 1, under mild extra conditions, it has an endemic stationary distribution which leads to the stochastical persistence of the disease. Epidemiologically, we find that random fluctuations can suppress disease outbreak, which can provide us some useful control strategies to regulate disease dynamics.

  8. The SIR model of Zika virus disease outbreak in Brazil at year 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aik, Lim Eng; Kiang, Lam Chee; Hong, Tan Wei; Abu, Mohd Syafarudy

    2017-05-01

    This research study demonstrates a numerical model intended for comprehension the spread of the year 2015 Zika virus disease utilizing the standard SIR framework. In modeling virulent disease dynamics, it is important to explore whether the illness spread could accomplish a pandemic level or it could be eradicated. Information from the year 2015 Zika virus disease event is utilized and Brazil where the event began is considered in this research study. A three dimensional nonlinear differential equation is formulated and solved numerically utilizing the Euler's method in MS excel. It is appeared from the research study that, with health intercessions of public, the viable regenerative number can be decreased making it feasible for the event to cease to exist. It is additionally indicated numerically that the pandemic can just cease to exist when there are no new infected people in the populace.

  9. Sir John Adams: his legacy to the world of particle accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, E J N

    2011-01-01

    John Adams acquired an unrivalled reputation for his leading part in designing and constructing the Proton Synchrotron (PS) in CERN’s early days. In 1968, and after several years heading a fusion laboratory in the UK, he came back to Geneva to pilot the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) project to approval and then to direct its construction. By the time of his early death in 1984 he had built the two flagship proton accelerators at CERN and, during the second of his terms as Director-General, he laid the groundwork for the proton–antiproton collider which led to the discovery of the intermediate vector boson. How did someone without any formal academic qualification achieve this? What was the magic behind his leadership? The speaker, who worked many years alongside him, will discuss these questions and speculate on how Sir John Adams might have viewed today’s CERN.

  10. Stability and bifurcation analysis of an SIR epidemic model with logistic growth and saturated treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jinhui; Teng, Zhidong; Wang, Guangqing; Zhang, Long; Hu, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the saturated treatment and logistic growth rate into an SIR epidemic model with bilinear incidence. The treatment function is assumed to be a continuously differential function which describes the effect of delayed treatment when the medical condition is limited and the number of infected individuals is large enough. Sufficient conditions for the existence and local stability of the disease-free and positive equilibria are established. And the existence of the stable limit cycles also is obtained. Moreover, by using the theory of bifurcations, it is shown that the model exhibits backward bifurcation, Hopf bifurcation and Bogdanov–Takens bifurcations. Finally, the numerical examples are given to illustrate the theoretical results and obtain some additional interesting phenomena, involving double stable periodic solutions and stable limit cycles.

  11. Maurice Couturier. Nabokov ou la cruauté du désir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Alladaye

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available La lecture peut avoir partie liée avec la transgression. Maurice Couturier en apporte la preuve dans son dernier ouvrage, Nabokov ou la cruauté du désir, en enfreignant l’un des plus célèbres interdits nabokoviens, celui de la lecture psychanalytique de son œuvre. On se souvient des préfaces des romans où l’auteur ne se fait jamais faute de décourager la moindre velléité freudienne et d’une réponse des plus tranchantes administrée dans le cadre d’un entretien : « Laissons les crédules et les ...

  12. Yeast Tdh3 (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase is a Sir2-interacting factor that regulates transcriptional silencing and rDNA recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison E Ringel

    Full Text Available Sir2 is an NAD(+-dependent histone deacetylase required to mediate transcriptional silencing and suppress rDNA recombination in budding yeast. We previously identified Tdh3, a glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, as a high expression suppressor of the lethality caused by Sir2 overexpression in yeast cells. Here we show that Tdh3 interacts with Sir2, localizes to silent chromatin in a Sir2-dependent manner, and promotes normal silencing at the telomere and rDNA. Characterization of specific TDH3 alleles suggests that Tdh3's influence on silencing requires nuclear localization but does not correlate with its catalytic activity. Interestingly, a genetic assay suggests that Tdh3, an NAD(+-binding protein, influences nuclear NAD(+ levels; we speculate that Tdh3 links nuclear Sir2 with NAD(+ from the cytoplasm.

  13. An individual-based approach to SIR epidemics in contact networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Mina; Scoglio, Caterina

    2011-08-21

    Many approaches have recently been proposed to model the spread of epidemics on networks. For instance, the Susceptible/Infected/Recovered (SIR) compartmental model has successfully been applied to different types of diseases that spread out among humans and animals. When this model is applied on a contact network, the centrality characteristics of the network plays an important role in the spreading process. However, current approaches only consider an aggregate representation of the network structure, which can result in inaccurate analysis. In this paper, we propose a new individual-based SIR approach, which considers the whole description of the network structure. The individual-based approach is built on a continuous time Markov chain, and it is capable of evaluating the state probability for every individual in the network. Through mathematical analysis, we rigorously confirm the existence of an epidemic threshold below which an epidemic does not propagate in the network. We also show that the epidemic threshold is inversely proportional to the maximum eigenvalue of the network. Additionally, we study the role of the whole spectrum of the network, and determine the relationship between the maximum number of infected individuals and the set of eigenvalues and eigenvectors. To validate our approach, we analytically study the deviation with respect to the continuous time Markov chain model, and we show that the new approach is accurate for a large range of infection strength. Furthermore, we compare the new approach with the well-known heterogeneous mean field approach in the literature. Ultimately, we support our theoretical results through extensive numerical evaluations and Monte Carlo simulations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. May thrombopoietin be a useful marker of sepsis severity assessment in patients with SIRS entering the emergency department?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segre, Elisabetta; Pigozzi, Luca; Lison, Davide; Pivetta, Emanuele; Bosco, Ornella; Vizio, Barbara; Suppo, Umberto; Turvani, Fabrizio; Morello, Fulvio; Battista, Stefania; Moiraghi, Corrado; Montrucchio, Giuseppe; Lupia, Enrico

    2014-10-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO), a growth factor primarily involved in regulating thrombopoiesis, has been recently implicated in the pathogenesis of sepsis. TPO levels are, indeed, greatly increased in patients with sepsis compared to control subjects, and correlate with sepsis severity. The aim of this study was to evaluate TPO as predictive biomarker of sepsis and of sepsis severity in patients entering the emergency department (ED) with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). This was a prospective observational study. Ours is a sub-study of the 'Need-speed trial', a multi-center observational study involving six Italian centers affiliated to the GREAT Italian Network. TPO was measured by ELISA. We enrolled 13 patients with SIRS (6 with acute pancreatitis, 3 with acute heart failure, 1 with pulmonary embolism, and 3 with allergic reactions), and 40 patients with sepsis, eight of whom had severe sepsis and three septic shock. TPO was significantly higher in patients with sepsis than with SIRS. In addition, TPO was higher in patients with severe sepsis than with sepsis, and in patients with septic shock than with severe sepsis, although these differences did not reach the statistical significance. Our preliminary results suggest that TPO may have the potential to be considered a promising early biomarker for both the diagnosis of sepsis and the assessment of sepsis severity in patients with SIRS entering the ED.

  15. Does SOFA predict outcomes better than SIRS in Brazilian ICU patients with suspected infection? A retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regis Goulart Rosa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We compared the discriminatory capacity of the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA versus the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS score for predicting ICU mortality, need for and length of mechanical ventilation, ICU stay, and hospitalization in patients with suspected infection admitted to a mixed Brazilian ICU. We performed a retrospective analysis of a longitudinal ICU database from a tertiary hospital in Southern Brazil. Patients were categorized according to whether they met the criteria for sepsis according to SOFA (variation ≥2 points over the baseline clinical condition and SIRS (SIRS score ≥2 points. From January 2008 to December 2014, 1487 patients were admitted to the ICU due to suspected infection. SOFA ≥2 identified more septic patients than SIRS ≥2 (79.0% [n = 1175] vs. 68.5% [n = 1020], p  7 days (AUROC = 0.65 vs. 0.63, p = 0.004, and length of hospitalization >10 days (AUROC = 0.61 vs. 0.59, p 7 days.

  16. Spontaneous Transient Lateral Thoracic Lung Herniation Resulting in Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS and Subsequent Contralateral Lung Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony Kaliyadan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung herniation is a relatively rare clinical entity that is most commonly either congenital or acquired traumatically. We describe a case of spontaneous lung herniation secondary to acute cough in an obese male smoker complicated by contralateral acute lung injury and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS. Mechanisms of lung herniation, classification, diagnosis, and management will be discussed.

  17. Sir Charles Alfred Ballance (1856-1936) and the introduction of facial nerve crossover anastomosis in 1895

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Graaf, Robert C.; Ijpma, Frank F. A.; Nicolai, Jean-Philippe A.

    Sir Charles Ballance (1856-1936) was the first surgeon in history to perform a facial nerve crossover anastomosis in 1895. Although, recently, several papers on the history of facial nerve surgery have been published, little is known about this historically important operation, the theoretical

  18. The use of multifrequency and polarimetric SIR-C/X-SAR data in geologic studies of Bir Safsaf, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaber, G.G.; McCauley, J.F.; Breed, C.S.

    1997-01-01

    Bir Safsaf, within the hyperarid 'core' of the Sahara in the Western Desert of Egypt, was recognized following the SIR-A and SIR-B missions in the 1980s as one of the key localities in northeast Africa, where penetration of dry sand by radar signals delineates previously unknown, sand-buried paleodrainage valleys ('radar-rivers') of middle Tertiary to Quaternary age. The Bir Safsaf area was targeted as a focal point for further research in sand penetration and geologic mapping using the multifrequency and polarimetric SIR-C/X-SAR sensors. Analysis of the SIR-C/X-SAR data from Bir Safsaf provides important new information on the roles of multiple SAR frequency and polarimetry in portraying specific types of geologic units, materials, and structures mostly hidden from view on the ground and on Landsat TM images by a relatively thin, but extensive blanket of blow sand. Basement rock units (granitoids and gneisses) and the fractures associated with them at Bir Safsaf are shown here for the first time to be clearly delineated using C- and L-band SAR images. The detectability of most geologic features is dependent primarily on radar frequency, as shown for wind erosion patterns in bedrock at X-band (3 cm wavelength), and for geologic units and sand and clay-filled fractures in weathered crystal-line basement rocks at C-band (6 cm) and L-band (24 cm). By contrast, Quaternary paleodrainage channels are detectable at all three radar frequencies owing, among other things, to an usually thin cover of blow sand. The SIR-C/X-SAR data investigated to date enable us to make specific recommendations about the utility of certain radar sensor configurations for geologic and paleoenvironmental reconnaissance in desert regions.Analysis of the shuttle imaging radar-C/X-synthetic aperture radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) data from Bir Safsaf provides important new information on the roles of multiple SAR frequency and polarimetry in portraying specific types of geologic units, materials, and

  19. Ian Stevenson: An Omega Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastenbaum, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Presents interview with Professor of Psychiatry and Director, Division of Personality Studies, in Department of Psychiatric Medicine at University of Virginia (Charlottesville). Discusses one controversial topic in area of death studies, cases suggestive of reincarnation. Describes first case he investigated, method of inquiry used to investigate…

  20. Ischemic Stroke in Williams-Beuren Syndrome: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Der Lee

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A 15-year-old girl was admitted because of an acute onset of facial palsy and right hemiparesis. The patient had a history of moderate mental retardation and developmental delay. On admission, her vital signs were stable, except for high blood pressure. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an infarct involving the left internal capsule and putamen. Because of the patient's young age, an extensive stroke survey was performed. Williams-Beuren syndrome was finally confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Compared with the previously reported cases, no evidence of cerebral arterial stenosis or cardiac abnormalities was found by noninvasive imaging techniques. Because Williams-Beuren syndrome is a complex, multiple congenital anomaly syndrome with prominent cardiovascular features, regular assessment and antihypertensive treatment are necessary to minimize the lifelong cardiovascular risk in patients with this syndrome.

  1. Williams syndrome and mature B-Leukemia: A random association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decimi, Valentina; Fazio, Grazia; Dell'Acqua, Fabiola; Maitz, Silvia; Galbiati, Marta; Rizzari, Carmelo; Biondi, Andrea; Cazzaniga, Giovanni; Selicorni, Angelo

    2016-12-01

    Williams syndrome (WBS) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder with specific phenotypic characteristics and cardiac abnormalities, but is not considered as a cancer predisposing condition. However, in rare cases, malignancies have been described in patients with WBS, with hematologic cancer (mainly Burkitt Lymphoma and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia) as the most represented. We report here the case of a boy with WS and B-NHL. This is the unique case within the large cohort of patients (n = 117) followed in our institution for long time (mean clinical follow-up, 13 years). We herewith propose that the BCL7B gene, located in the chromosomal region commonly deleted in Williams syndrome, could potentially have a role in this particular association. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Climatic data for Williams Lake, Hubbard County, Minnesota, 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberry, D.O.; Sturrock, A.M.; Scarborough, J.L.; Winter, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    Research on the hydrology of Williams Lake, north-central Minnesota includes study of evaporation. Those climatic data needed for energy budget and mass transfer studies are presented , including: water surface temperature, dry-bulb and wet-bulb air temperatures, wind speed, precipitation, and solar and atmospheric radiation. Some calculated values necessary for these studies are also presented, such as vapor pressure and Bowen-ratio values. Data are collected at raft and land stations.

  3. Climatic data for Williams Lake, Hubbard County, Minnesota, 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberry, D.O.; Sturrock, A.M.; Winter, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    Research on the hydrology of Williams Lake, north-central Minnesota includes study of evaporation. Presented here are those climatic data needed for energy-budget and mass-transfer studies, including: water-surface temperature, dry-bulb and wet-bulb air temperatures, wind speed, precipitation, and solar and atmospheric radiation. Some calculated values necessary for these studies, such as vapor pressure and Bowen ratio numbers, also are presented. Data are collected at raft and land stations.

  4. William Gaddis’s Immortality: Celebration, Cartoon, or Corruption?

    OpenAIRE

    Alberts, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    Although ostensibly a review of 'The Letters of William Gaddis' edited by Steven Moore (Champaign: Dalkey Archive, 2013), this article evaluates Moore’s volume in light of generally accepted practices of scholarly editions and the handling of historical documents. In particular, Alberts compares some of Moore’s edited letters to the originals housed either at Washington University in St. Louis or the Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas, Austin and reveals issues involving the repre...

  5. Morphological differences in the mirror neuron system in Williams Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Rowena; Brown, Timothy T.; Erhart, Matthew; Järvinen, Anna M.; Korenberg, Julie R.; Bellugi, Ursula; Halgren, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic condition characterized by an overly gregarious personality, including high empathetic concern for others. Although seemingly disparate from the profile of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), both are associated with deficits in social communication/cognition. Notably, the mirror neuron system (MNS) has been implicated in social dysfunction for ASD; yet, the integrity of this network and its association with social functioning in WS remains unknown. Magnetic re...

  6. William J. Donovan: Visionary, Strategic Leader, an Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-03

    War II years until his death . 1945 through 1959. Strategy, without Information on which It can rely, is helpless. Information Is useless unless It Is...was again emulating his Rough Rider hero, because like him, he was now a cavalryman.32 Donovan had never been a horseman or soldier before, but like...Intelligence officer and Chief of Combined Operatlrns during World War II, said of General William Donovan In 1966, seven years after his death , "This

  7. The development of perceptual grouping in infants with Williams syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Farran, E. K.; Brown, J. H.; Cole, V. L.; Houston-Price, C.; Karmiloff-Smith, A.

    2007-01-01

    Perceptual grouping by luminance similarity and by proximity was investigated in infants with Williams syndrome (WS) aged between 6 and 36 months (visit 1, N=29). WS infants who were still under 36 months old, 8 months later, repeated the testing procedure (visit 2, N=15). Performance was compared to typically developing (TD) infants aged from 2 to 20 months (N=63). Consistent with the literature, TD participants showed grouping by luminance at the youngest testing age, 2 months. Grouping by ...

  8. William H. Sheldon and the culture of the somatotype

    OpenAIRE

    Gatlin, Stephen H.

    1997-01-01

    The burden of this dissertation is to show that William Sheldon's somatotype project should be seen as an integral aspect of modernist culture. Sheldon engaged the same problems with modernity and the "Second Industrial Revolution" (urbanization, overpopulation, industrialization, alienation) that confronted modernist poets, novelists, and philosophers. In this I am elaborating Dorothy Ross's recent metaphor, "modernist impulses in the human sciences" (1994). Both scientists and artists were ...

  9. La Fondation William et Flora Hewlett | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La Fondation William et Flora Hewlett. http://www.hewlett.org/. Initiative Think tank. Cette initiative permet d'établir des organismes indépendants qui se consacrent à la recherche et à l'élaboration de politiques dans des pays en développement. Voir davantage. Initiative Think tank. Croissance de l'économie et débouchés ...

  10. Sleep-EEG in dizygotic twins discordant for Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bódizs, Róbert; Gombos, Ferenc; Szocs, Katalin; Réthelyi, János M; Gerván, Patrícia; Kovács, Ilona

    2014-01-30

    Reports on twin pairs concordant and discordant for Williams syndrome were published before, but no study unravelled sleep physiology in these cases yet. We aim to fill this gap by analyzing sleep records of a twin pair discordant for Williams syndrome extending our focus on presleep wakefulness and sleep spindling. We performed multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification of the 7q11.23 region of a 17 years old dizygotic opposite-sex twin pair discordant for Williams syndrome. Polysomnography of laboratory sleep at this age was analyzed and followed-up after 1.5 years by ambulatory polysomnography. Sleep stages scoring, EEG power spectra and sleep spindle analyses were carried out. The twin brother showed reduced levels of amplification for all of the probes in the 7q11.23 region indicating a typical deletion spanning at least 1.038 Mb between FKBP6 and CLIP2. The results of the twin sister showed normal copy numbers in the investigated region. Lower sleep times and efficiencies, as well as higher slow wave sleep percents of the twin brother were evident during both recordings. Roughly equal NREM, Stage 2 and REM sleep percents were found. EEG analyses revealed state and derivation-independent decreases in alpha power, lack of an alpha spectral peak in presleep wakefulness, as well as higher NREM sleep sigma peak frequency in the twin brother. Faster sleep spindles with lower amplitude and shorter duration characterized the records of the twin brother. Spectra show a striking reliability and correspondence between the two situations (laboratory vs. home records). Alterations in sleep and specific neural oscillations including the alpha/sigma waves are inherent aspects of Williams syndrome.

  11. Parents perceptions of social inclusion for children with Williams Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gulliver, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    This thesis explores parents’ perceptions of social inclusion for children with Williams Syndrome; a rare intellectual disability with a distinct social cognitive profile. 5 interviews with parents give rich understanding to what parents’ value for their child’s education, and how this is achieved. Thematic analysis highlights key similarities and differences in experiences between parents of children attending mainstream schools and one special school. Severity of disability affects how pare...

  12. Generalized Bragg-Williams method for 'antiferromagnetic' lattice gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio, R.

    1983-01-01

    The many-sublattice Bragg-Williams approximation of statistical mechanics is applied to the two-dimensional square and triangular lattice-gas models with nearest-neighbor repulsive interactions. Each problem is solved through both the canonical and grand-canonical methods. The present treatment emphasizes the duality between concentration and chemical potential and illustrates the appearance of first- and second -order transitions in each method. (Author) [pt

  13. Fissured and geographic tongue in Williams-Beuren syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Williams-Beuren Syndrome (WBS is a rare, most often sporadic, genetic disease caused by a chromosomal microdeletion at locus 7q11.23 involving 28 genes. It is characterized by congenital heart defects, neonatal hypercalcemia, skeletal and renal abnormalities, cognitive disorder, social personality disorder, and dysmorphic facies. A number of clinical findings has been reported, but none of the studies evaluated this syndrome considering oral cavity. We here report a fissured and geographic tongue in association with WBS.

  14. Patriachy, indoctrination and education. The therapeutic power of creation in women's literature. Two case studies: Carmen Mart??n Gaite's "The back room" (1978) and Ian McEwan's "Atonnement" (2001)

    OpenAIRE

    Garc??a Lara, Antonia

    2011-01-01

    My dissertation deals with the patriarchal education that indoctrinates women and forces them to be domestic angels and how this education provokes a trauma that they try to heal by creation in the form of writing. I will use two case studies to illustrate my point: Carmen Mart??n Gaite???s C., who is Mart??n Gaite???s alter ego in El Cuarto de Atr??s [The Back Room] (1978), and Briony Tallis, who is a fictional character in Ian McEwan???s Atonement (2001). Briony is actually the one who writ...

  15. MacWilliams Identity for M-Spotty Weight Enumerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kazuyoshi; Fujiwara, Eiji

    M-spotty byte error control codes are very effective for correcting/detecting errors in semiconductor memory systems that employ recent high-density RAM chips with wide I/O data (e.g., 8, 16, or 32bits). In this case, the width of the I/O data is one byte. A spotty byte error is defined as random t-bit errors within a byte of length b bits, where 1 le t ≤ b. Then, an error is called an m-spotty byte error if at least one spotty byte error is present in a byte. M-spotty byte error control codes are characterized by the m-spotty distance, which includes the Hamming distance as a special case for t =1 or t = b. The MacWilliams identity provides the relationship between the weight distribution of a code and that of its dual code. The present paper presents the MacWilliams identity for the m-spotty weight enumerator of m-spotty byte error control codes. In addition, the present paper clarifies that the indicated identity includes the MacWilliams identity for the Hamming weight enumerator as a special case.

  16. Dreamers in dialogue: evolution, sex and gender in the utopian visions of William Morris and William Henry Hudson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Novák

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to explore the parallels between two late-nineteenth-century utopias,William Henry Hudsons A Crystal Age (1882 and William Morriss News from Nowhere (1891. Itaims to explore how these two works respond to the transition from a kinetic to a static conception ofutopia that under pressure from evolutionary and feminist discourses took place during the period.Particular focus lies on the way in which this is negotiated through the depiction of evolution, sexuality,and gender roles in the respective novels, and how the depiction of these disruptive elements may workas a means of ensuring the readers active engagement in political, intellectual and emotional terms.

  17. On Reading Poems: Visual & Verbal Icons in William Carlos Williams' «Landscape With The Fall Of Icarus»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene R. Fairley

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Williams' admiration for Brueghel's landscape is coded in structural and stylistic correspondences between the poem and the painting. Structures in the poem have effects analogous to the use of devices of color, line, foregrounding in the painting. The poem, like the painting, presents a «neutral» scene but subtly insures the reader's involvement. Further, Williams draws a visual statement so that graphic features suggest a global image isomorphic with the motif of descent. Features of the poem, such as line and clause length, syntactic construction, semantic coherence, are discussed as factors that contribute to rapid glancing and increase readability. A study of readers shows their sensitivity to graphic features including the poem's shape, and corroborates the importance of stylistic features.

  18. An Overview of Justice in Sir Walter Scott Waverley Novels: The Heart of Mid-Lothian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique García Díaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although Sir Walter Scott is a well-known writer most of his readers know that he became an advocate in 1792, when he was admitted to the bar. Since then Scott and other advocates walked the floor at Parliament House (home of the Faculty of Advocates and the Court of Session waiting to be hired. Scott’s own experiences as a fledgling advocate are echoed in those of Alain Fairford in his novel Redgauntlet (Scott 1824, which provides a vivid picture of Parliament House in the eighteenth century. During his life, Scott combined extensive writing and editing issues with his daily work as Clerk of Session and Sheriff-Depute of Selkirkshire. Walter Scott was not unaware of Justice and Law and The Heart of Mid-Lothian is the novel in which he introduces to the reader the Scottish Legal System during the eighteenth century. However, there are few more examples that I will explain. Aunque Sir Walter Scott es un conocido escritor, la mayoría de sus lectores saben que en 1792 se hizo abogado, cuando fue admitido en el colegio de abogados. Desde entonces Scott y otros abogados rondaron el Parlamento con la esperanza de ser contratados. Las propias experiencias de Scott como un abogado novel se reflejan en las de Alain Fairford en su novela Redgauntlet (Scott 1824, lo que ofrece una vívida imagen del Parlamento (sede de la facultad de Derecho y Tribunal Supremo en el siglo XVIII. Durante su vida, Scott compaginó una profusa actividad como escritor y editor con su trabajo diario como juez en Selkirk. Walter Scott conocía la justicia y el derecho y El corazón de Mid-Lothian es la novela en la presenta al lector el régimen jurídico de Escocia durante el siglo XVIII. Sin embargo, se explicarán algunos otros ejemplos. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2543538

  19. Genomic Targets and Features of BarA-UvrY (-SirA Signal Transduction Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfalem R Zere

    Full Text Available The two-component signal transduction system BarA-UvrY of Escherichia coli and its orthologs globally regulate metabolism, motility, biofilm formation, stress resistance, virulence of pathogens and quorum sensing by activating the transcription of genes for regulatory sRNAs, e.g. CsrB and CsrC in E. coli. These sRNAs act by sequestering the RNA binding protein CsrA (RsmA away from lower affinity mRNA targets. In this study, we used ChIP-exo to identify, at single nucleotide resolution, genomic sites for UvrY (SirA binding in E. coli and Salmonella enterica. The csrB and csrC genes were the strongest targets of crosslinking, which required UvrY phosphorylation by the BarA sensor kinase. Crosslinking occurred at two sites, an inverted repeat sequence far upstream of the promoter and a site near the -35 sequence. DNAse I footprinting revealed specific binding of UvrY in vitro only to the upstream site, indicative of additional binding requirements and/or indirect binding to the downstream site. Additional genes, including cspA, encoding the cold-shock RNA-binding protein CspA, showed weaker crosslinking and modest or negligible regulation by UvrY. We conclude that the global effects of UvrY/SirA on gene expression are primarily mediated by activating csrB and csrC transcription. We also used in vivo crosslinking and other experimental approaches to reveal new features of csrB/csrC regulation by the DeaD and SrmB RNA helicases, IHF, ppGpp and DksA. Finally, the phylogenetic distribution of BarA-UvrY was analyzed and found to be uniquely characteristic of γ-Proteobacteria and strongly anti-correlated with fliW, which encodes a protein that binds to CsrA and antagonizes its activity in Bacillus subtilis. We propose that BarA-UvrY and orthologous TCS transcribe sRNA antagonists of CsrA throughout the γ-Proteobacteria, but rarely or never perform this function in other species.

  20. Caracterização mecânica e térmica da borracha natural formulada e vulcanizada dos clones: GT 1, IAN 873, PB 235 e RRIM 600 Mechanical and thermal characterization of compounds of natural rubber of the clones: GT 1, IAN 873, PB 235 and RRIM 600

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Dall'Antonia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho estudou-se o desempenho mecânico e térmico de compostos de borracha natural (Hevea brasiliensis de 4 diferentes clones (GT 1, IAN 873, PB 235 e RRIM 600 cultivados no Estado de São Paulo, assim como de uma mistura destes clones e de uma borracha comercial, GEB-1. Estas borrachas foram formuladas e vulcanizadas com tempos de 5, 7 e 9 minutos. A caracterização foi realizada por calorimetria exploratória diferencial, termogravimetria, ensaios de resistência à tração, análise dinâmico-mecânica, medidas de dureza Shore A, microscopia eletrônica de varredura e espectroscopia na região do infravermelho. Os resultados permitiram concluir que o tempo de vulcanização e o tipo de clone não influenciaram na temperatura de transição vítrea (Tg dos compostos. Os valores de Tg obtidos por DMA foram de cerca de -62 °C, e os resultados ensaios de dureza apresentaram valores próximos de 60 para todos os compostos estudados. Os ensaios de resistência à tração mostraram que o melhor desempenho mecânico foi obtido pelo clone RRIM 600. De acordo com os resultados obtidos neste trabalho, todos os clones atingiram as propriedades reportadas na literatura, podendo ser utilizados, em princípio, nas indústrias de artefatos de borracha separadamente ou na forma de mistura.The objective of this work was to study the mechanical and thermal performance of natural rubber (Hevea brasiliensis compounds of different types of clones (GT 1, IAN 873, PB 235 and RRIM 600, as well as a mixture made from these clones and a commercial rubber GEB-1. These rubbers were formulated and prepared in a two-roll mill and vulcanized at different times (5, 7 and 9 minutes. The evaluation of the mechanical and thermal performance of different natural rubber compounds was carried out by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermogravimetry analysis (TGA, mechanical properties (tensile and hardness tests, dynamic mechanic thermal analysis (DMTA

  1. The Secret Life of Archives: Sally Siddons, Sir Thomas Lawrence, and The Material of Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Engel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay is in two parts, in the first I attempt to map out strategies for considering archival materials through the lens of performance, and in the second I enact or perform some of those strategies through a close reading of a letter from Sally Siddons, daughter of the famous actress Sarah Siddons, to the renown portrait painter and rakish bad boy, Sir Thomas Lawrence. I present a methodology that considers archival researchers as tourists who approach archival objects and images as material for curating a virtual exhibition. I argue that this strategy allows us to recognize and attempt to envision the interdisciplinary relationship amongst archival materials in order to imagine them in spatial, theatrical, and visual proximity to one another. In this way as researchers we are performing a kind of re-enactment, an animation, of the secret life of archives, which attempts to account the embodied traces of the past by providing an accessible thought provoking map for audiences.

  2. Vital endowments: Sir Charles Bell and the history of some congenital abnormalities of the upper limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Alan

    2011-12-01

    Born in Edinburgh in 1774 Sir Charles Bell, as a young man, studied anatomy and surgery in his hometown. There followed a distinguished career that culminated in his becoming the first professor of Anatomy and Surgery at the College of Surgeons in London. Renowned as a brilliant neuroanatomist he was invited, on the advice of His Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Bishop of London, to contribute one of eight volumes of a work on the Power Wisdom and Goodness of God as manifested in the Creation - known as the Bridgewater Treatises. 'The Hand its Mechanism and Vital Endowments as Evincing Design' was published in 1833 and it is an account of his considering the hand as a machine that has been engineered to exacting standards to interact with the environment in which we live. In it he expressed a deep understanding of the similarity of the structure of the upper limbs of the higher orders of animals. The similarity of the paddle of a turtle and a human hand with acrosymbrachydactyly is unmistakable. This congenital abnormality, given the eponymous title of Apert's syndrome, is one of a number of congenital abnormalities that have parallels in the animal kingdom. Others who have had similar syndromes named after them include Poland, Marfan, Streeter and a number of others. The life and times of these men and their contributions to medicine will be presented in this paper. © 2011 The Author. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2011 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  3. Sir Patrick Dun and the Complete School of Physic in eighteenth-century Dublin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, S

    2015-03-01

    2013 is the tercentenary of the death of Sir Patrick Dun. When Dun died in 1713, he left the proceeds of his estate to enhance medical education in Dublin by funding chairs in medicine. He showed remarkable innovation, but it took 95 years, five Acts of Parliament, two House of Commons enquiries and a House of Lords enquiry before Dun's wishes were brought to fruition and systematic clinical education was available for Dublin medical students. The passage of the final School of Physic Act in 1800 insured that a hospital would open in his name and regular clinical education was provided. The physician, Richard Steevens, who died 3 years earlier in 1710, left the proceeds of his estate to found a hospital, which opened, in his name, in 1733. The contemporary primary sources have been analysed and material from relevant secondary sources has been included where appropriate. Dublin was the beneficiary of these bequests and if circumstances had been more favourable, and the proceeds had been used more efficiently at the start of the eighteenth-century, Dublin could well have rivalled Edinburgh as the seat of medical education in the eighteenth century. In the early nineteenth century, it would fulfil that role and equal Edinburgh as one of the primary centres of medical education in Europe.

  4. Sir John Adams - His Legacy to the World of Particle Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    John Adams acquired an unrivalled reputation for his leading part in designing and constructing the PS in CERN’s early days. In 1968, and after several years heading a fusion laboratory in the UK, he came back to Geneva to pilot the SPS project to approval and then to direct its construction. At the time of his untimely death in 1984 he had built Europe’s two largest proton accelerators at CERN. He went on, during the second of his terms as DG, to lay the groundwork for the proton-antiproton collider which led to the discovery of the intermediate vector boson. How did someone without any formal academic qualification achieve this? What was the magic behind his leadership? How did he achieve political success with the Member States of CERN in turning the almost hopeless quest for approval of the SPS to CERN’s advantage? How did he view his US counterpart, R. R. Wilson? The speaker, who worked many years alongside Adams, will discuss these questions and speculate on how Sir John Adams might have viewed t...

  5. A Historical Survey of Sir Karl Popper's Contribution to Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William M. Shields

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Sir Karl Popper (1902-1994, though not trained as a physicist and embarrassed early in his career by a physics error pointed out by Einstein and Bohr, ultimately made substantial contributions to the interpretation of quantum mechanics. As was often the case, Popper initially formulated his position by criticizing the views of others - in this case Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg. Underlying Popper's criticism was his belief that, first, the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics abandoned scientific realism and second, the assertion that quantum theory was complete (an assertion rejected by Einstein among others amounted to an unfalsifiable claim. Popper insisted that the most basic predictions of quantum mechanics should continue to be tested, with an eye towards falsification rather than mere adding of decimal places to confirmatory experiments. His persistent attacks on the Copenhagen interpretation were aimed not at the uncertainty principle itself and the formalism from which it was derived, but at the acceptance by physicists of an unclear epistemology and ontology that left critical questions unanswered. Quanta 2012; 1: 1–12.

  6. Sir Karl Popper (1902-1994): in memoriam, 15 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notturno, Mark Amadeus

    2009-12-01

    September 17th, 2009 marks the 15th anniversary of Sir Karl Popper's death. Popper was an outspoken champion of critical rationalism, and a constant critic of authoritarian tendencies in science and society. He was also one of the spiritual founders of this journal and served on its first editorial advisory board. Popper was recognized around the world as one of the 20th century's greatest philosophers of science and one of its most articulate and influential critics of Marxism and closed society. When he died, the contemporary wisdom among professional philosophers was that his philosophy was generally right-but somehow obsolete. Some commentators said that it was now obvious that scientific theories cannot be shown to be true. Others said that we had witnessed the end of history and that his critique of closed societies, while no doubt important in its day, had been fully assimilated into Western thinking and still had meaning, if at all, only for the democracies in transition that were trying to emerge from the former Soviet Union. But 15 years after his death, a look at science and society around the world gives us good reason to remember his philosophy.

  7. Contribuciones de Sir Roland Fisher a la Estadística Genética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Cuadros

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Sir Ronald Fisher (18901962 fue profesor de genética y muchas de sus innovaciones estadísticas encontraron expresión en el desarrollo de metodología en estadística genética. Sin embargo, mientras sus contribuciones en estadística matemática son fácilmente identificadas, en genética de poblaciones compartió su supremacía con Sewall Wright (1889 1988 y J. S. S. Haldane (1892 1965. Este documento muestra algunas de las mejores contribuciones de Fisher a las bases de la estadística genética, y sus interacciones con Wright y Haldane, los cuales contribuyeron al desarrollo del tema. Con la tecnología moderna, tanto la metodología la estadística como la información genética están cambiando. No obstante, muchos de los trabajos de Fisher permanecen relevantes, y pueden aun servir como una base para investigaciones futuras en el análisis estadístico de datos de DNA. El trabajo de este autor refleja su visión del papel de Ia estadística en Ia inferencia científica expresada en 1949

  8. SIRS Model of Passengers’ Panic Propagation under Self-Organization Circumstance in the Subway Emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Subway emergency may lead to passengers’ panic, especially under self-organizing circumstance, which will spread rapidly and have an adverse impact on the society. This paper builds an improved SIRS model of passengers’ panic spread in subway emergency with consideration of passengers’ density, the characteristic of subway car with the confined space, and passengers’ psychological factors. The spread of passengers’ panic is simulated by use of Matlab, which draws the rules of how group panic spreads dynamically. The trend of stable point of the infection ratio is analyzed by changing different parameters, which help to draw a conclusion that immunization rate, spontaneous immune loss rate, and passenger number have a great influence on the final infected ratio. Finally, we propose an integrated control strategy and find the peak of passengers’ panic and the final infected ratio is greatly improved through the numerical simulation. The research plays a vital role in helping the government and subway administration to master the panic spread mechanism and reduce the panic spread by improving measures and also provides certain reference significance for rail system construction, emergency contingency plans, and the construction and implementation of emergency response system.

  9. Classification of surface types using SIR-C/X-SAR, Mount Everest Area, Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Thomas P.; Painter, Thomas H.; Roberts, Dar A.; Shi, Jiancheng; Dozier, Jeff; Fielding, Eric

    1998-01-01

    Imaging radar is a promising tool for mapping snow and ice cover in alpine regions. It combines a high-resolution, day or night, all-weather imaging capability with sensitivity to hydrologic and climatic snow and ice parameters. We use the spaceborne imaging radar-C/X-band synthetic aperture radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) to map snow and glacial ice on the rugged north slope of Mount Everest. From interferometrically derived digital elevation data, we compute the terrain calibration factor and cosine of the local illumination angle. We then process and terrain-correct radar data sets acquired on April 16, 1994. In addition to the spectral data, we include surface slope to improve discrimination among several surface types. These data sets are then used in a decision tree to generate an image classification. This method is successful in identifying and mapping scree/talus, dry snow, dry snow-covered glacier, wet snow-covered glacier, and rock-covered glacier, as corroborated by comparison with existing surface cover maps and other ancillary information. Application of the classification scheme to data acquired on October 7 of the same year yields accurate results for most surface types but underreports the extent of dry snow cover.

  10. Different strategies of osmoadaptation in the closely related marine myxobacteria Enhygromyxa salina SWB007 and Plesiocystis pacifica SIR-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri Moghaddam, Jamshid; Boehringer, Nils; Burdziak, Amal; Kunte, Hans-Jörg; Galinski, Erwin A; Schäberle, Till F

    2016-02-03

    Only a few myxobacteria are known to date which are classified as marine due to their salt-dependency. In this study, the salt tolerance mechanism of these bacteria was investigated. Therefore, a growth medium was designed, in which the mutated Escherichia coli strain BKA13 served as sole food source for the predatory, heterotrophic myxobacteria. This enabled measurement of the osmolytes without any background and revealed that the closely related strains Enhygromyxa salina SWB007 and Plesiocystis pacifica SIR-1 developed different strategies to handle salt stress. P. pacifica SIR-1, which was grown between 1-4 % NaCl, relies solely on the accumulation of amino acids, while E. salina SWB007, which was grown between 0.5-3 % NaCl, employs, beside betaine, hydroxyectoine as the major compatible solute. In accordance with this analysis, only in the latter strain a gene locus was identified which codes for genes corresponding to the biosynthesis of betaine, ectoine, and hydroxyectoine.

  11. Positron-emitting resin microspheres as surrogates of 90Y SIR-Spheres: a radiolabeling and stability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila-Rodriguez, Miguel A.; Selwyn, Reed G.; Hampel, Joseph A.; Thomadsen, Bruce R.; DeJesus, Onofre T.; Converse, Alexander K.; Nickles, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Commercially available resin microspheres and SIR-Spheres were labeled with metallic positron emitters and evaluated as positron emission tomography (PET) imaging surrogates of 90 Y SIR-Spheres. Radiolabeling was performed using a batch method, and in vitro stability over 24 h was evaluated in saline at physiological pH at 37 o C. The activity per microsphere distribution, as evaluated by autoradiography, showed the activity per microsphere to be proportional to the square radius of the spheres, suggesting surface binding. The in vivo stability of radiolabeling was evaluated in rats by micro-PET imaging after the intravenous injection of labeled microspheres. The different resin microspheres and radionuclides evaluated in this study all showed good radiolabeling efficiency and in vitro stability. However, only resins labeled with 86 Y and 89 Zr proved to have the in vivo stability required for clinical applications

  12. William Gaddis’s Immortality: Celebration, Cartoon, or Corruption?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal Alberts

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although ostensibly a review of 'The Letters of William Gaddis' edited by Steven Moore (Champaign: Dalkey Archive, 2013, this article evaluates Moore’s volume in light of generally accepted practices of scholarly editions and the handling of historical documents. In particular, Alberts compares some of Moore’s edited letters to the originals housed either at Washington University in St. Louis or the Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas, Austin and reveals issues involving the representation of the archival material, inconsistencies in editorial principles, and a misattributed letter, among other things.

  13. Seguridad social, empleo y propiedad privada en William Beveridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Llanos Reyes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to approach the economic and political notions of William Beveridge, which proposed the construction of the British Welfare State immediately after WWII. A form of State which sought to overcome the crisis of capitalism by proposing control over the system. We attempt to demonstrate the relation that should exist, according to Beveridge, the "father" of this model of capitalist State, between the development of a social security system, employment, and the situation of private property, while simultaneously pointing out the specifics and complexity of his ideas in the relation observed between full occupation and private property as basic elements for the construction of a Social Security system.

  14. Categories are alive: interview with Brackette F. Williams

    OpenAIRE

    Durão, Susana; Bastos, Cristiana; Williams, Brackette F.

    2013-01-01

    Brackette F. Williams is an American anthropologist and a Senior Justice ­Advocate, currently an associate professor of Cultural Anthropology at the University of ­Arizona. She studied at the University of Cornell, the University of Arizona, and received her doctorate from Johns Hopkins University. Her work interweaves ­matters of race, gender, class, ideology and politics in a unique manner – as seen in the article “A class act: Anthropology and the race to nation across ethnic terrain” (Ann...

  15. The other Dr Hooker: William Dawson Hooker (1816-40).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Harold

    2011-11-01

    William Hooker and his son Joseph were famous as botanists and as the creators of the Royal Botanic Gardens in Kew. Joseph was famous also as the friend and mentor of Charles Darwin. But there was another brother, a little older than Joseph, also a doctor and naturalist. He went to Jamaica in the interests of his health and soon died there of yellow fever. His life was short and tragic with a medical conundrum at its end but its story also illustrates many of the beliefs and concerns that preoccupied doctors in this early Victorian era. It also illustrates the close relationship between medicine and botany that prevailed then.

  16. Dr. William O. Coffee and his absorption cure for cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, A P

    1989-08-01

    Dr. William O. Coffee was an ophthalmologist who conducted an office and mail-order practice in the Midwest from the 1880s until 1927. His main stock in trade was a self-discovered absorption cure for a variety of ocular diseases, with particular emphasis on the medical cure of cataracts. Dr. Coffee's career was a checkered one, marked by dubious credentials, exuberant self-promotion, unlikely and exaggerated claims of medical successes, plagiarism, and rejection by the medical "establishment." Certain parallels may be drawn between his activities and some currently observed practices in ophthalmology.

  17. Pulmonary Arterial Stent Implantation in an Adult with Williams Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reesink, Herre J.; Henneman, Onno D. F.; Delden, Otto M. van; Biervliet, Jules D.; Kloek, Jaap J.; Reekers, Jim A.; Bresser, Paul

    2007-01-01

    We report a 38-year-old patient who presented with pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular dysfunction due to pulmonary artery stenoses as a manifestation of Williams syndrome, mimicking chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. The patient was treated with balloon angioplasty and stent implantation. Short-term follow-up showed a good clinical result with excellent patency of the stents but early restenosis of the segments in which only balloon angioplasty was performed. These stenoses were subsequently also treated successfully by stent implantation. Stent patency was observed 3 years after the first procedure

  18. Deforestation and Secondary Growth in Rondonia, Brazil from SIR-C SAR and Landsat.SPOT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rignot, Eric; Salas, William A.; Skole, David L.

    1996-01-01

    Covers problems with existing data collected with high-resolution optical sensors. They say active microwave sensors could complement other sensors in getting through things like cloud cover. They analyzed SIR-C data in combination with Landsat TM data, a 9-year time series of SPOT XS data, and a preliminary field survey. They report findings and draw conclusions, including that SARs operating at long radar wavelengths, with both like and cross-polarizations, are needed for tropical deforestation studies.

  19. Unravelling starlight: William and Margaret Huggins and the rise of the new astronomy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Becker, Barbara J

    2011-01-01

    ...). A pioneer in adapting the spectroscope to new astronomical purposes, William Huggins rose to scientific prominence in London and transformed professional astronomy to become a principal founder...

  20. The β-1,3-glucanosyltransferase Gas1 regulates Sir2-mediated rDNA stability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Cheol Woong; Kim, Kwantae; Chang, Yeon Ji; Kim, Bongkeun; Huh, Won-Ki

    2014-07-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the stability of highly repetitive rDNA array is maintained through transcriptional silencing. Recently, a β-1,3-glucanosyltransferase Gas1 has been shown to play a significant role in the regulation of transcriptional silencing in S. cerevisiae. Here, we show that the gas1Δ mutation increases rDNA silencing in a Sir2-dependent manner. Remarkably, the gas1Δ mutation induces nuclear localization of Msn2/4 and stimulates the expression of PNC1, a gene encoding a nicotinamidase that functions as a Sir2 activator. The lack of enzymatic activity of Gas1 or treatment with a cell wall-damaging agent, Congo red, exhibits effects similar to those of the gas1Δ mutation. Furthermore, the loss of Gas1 or Congo red treatment lowers the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activity in a cell wall integrity MAP kinase Slt2-dependent manner. Collectively, our results suggest that the dysfunction of Gas1 plays a positive role in the maintenance of rDNA integrity by decreasing PKA activity and inducing the accumulation of Msn2/4 in the nucleus. It seems that nuclear-localized Msn2/4 stimulate the expression of Pnc1, thereby enhancing the association of Sir2 with rDNA and promoting rDNA stability. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. Patterns of Gram-stained fecal flora as a quick diagnostic marker in patients with severe SIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kentaro; Ogura, Hiroshi; Tomono, Kazunori; Tasaki, Osamu; Asahara, Takashi; Nomoto, Koji; Morotomi, Masami; Matsushima, Asako; Nakahori, Yasutaka; Yamano, Shuhei; Osuka, Akinori; Kuwagata, Yasuyuki; Sugimoto, Hisashi

    2011-06-01

    The gut is an important target organ of injury during critically ill conditions. Although Gram staining is a common and quick method for identifying bacteria, its clinical application has not been fully evaluated in critically ill conditions. This study's aims were to identify patterns of Gram-stained fecal flora and compare them to cultured bacterial counts and to investigate the association between the patterns and septic complications in patients with severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Fifty-two patients with SIRS were included whose Gram-stained fecal flora was classified into three patterns. In a diverse pattern, large numbers of multiple kinds of bacteria completely covered the field. In a single pattern, one specific kind of bacteria or fungi predominantly covered the field. In a depleted pattern, most bacteria were diminished in the field. In the analysis of fecal flora, the numbers of total obligate anaerobes in the depleted pattern was significantly lower than those in the diverse pattern and single pattern (p Gram-stained fecal flora can be classified into three patterns and are associated with both cultured bacterial counts and clinical information. Gram-stained fecal bacteria can be used as a quick bedside diagnostic marker for severe SIRS patients.

  2. Agro-transformation and evaluation of resistance to Phytophthora infestansin Solanum tuberosumL. variety Désirée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Orbegozo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Oomycete Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary, the causal agent of the disease known as late blight, is primarily responsible for the decreased in production performance and potato crops worldwide. The integration of the complete Rgenes sequences in the potato genome using Agro-transformation appears an alternative to be considered in the fight against this pathogen. The Rpi-blb2 gene (Rgene from the wild species Solanum bulbocastanumDunal shows a broad resistance to isolates ofP. infestans,making it an important candidate for plant breeding studies. This paper reports the integration of the Rpi-blb2gene into potato var. Désirée genome by Agrobacterium tumefaciens- mediated transformation system, the molecular characterization of 29 events transformed and whole plant infection with isolate POX67 of P. infestansfrom Peru. Désirée events [Rpi-blb2] 4 and Désirée [Rpi-blb2] 30, showed a substantial resistance to P. infestansinfection confirming complete transfer of the Rpi-blb2gene from a wild species to a cultivated species by genetic transformation.

  3. Procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and serum lactate dehydrogenase in the diagnosis of bacterial sepsis, SIRS and systemic candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglietta, Fabio; Faneschi, Maria Letizia; Lobreglio, Giambattista; Palumbo, Claudio; Rizzo, Adriana; Cucurachi, Marco; Portaccio, Gerolamo; Guerra, Francesco; Pizzolante, Maria

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), platelet count (PLT) and serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as early markers for diagnosis of SIRS, bacterial sepsis and systemic candidiasis in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Based on blood culture results, the patients were divided into a sepsis group (70 patients), a SIRS group (42 patients) and a systemic candidiasis group (33 patients). PCT, CRP, LDH and PLT levels were measured on day 0 and on day 2 from the sepsis symptom onset. PCT levels were higher in Gram negative sepsis than those in Gram positive sepsis, although the P value between the two subgroups is not significant (P=0.095). Bacterial sepsis group had higher PCT and CRP levels compared with the systemic candidiasis group, whereas PLT and LDH levels showed similar levels in these two subgroups. The AUC for PCT (AUC: 0.892, P candidiasis groups (P=0.093 N.S.). In conclusion, PCT can be used as a preliminary marker in the event of clinical suspicion of systemic candidiasis; however, low PCT levels (candidiasis and SIRS groups.

  4. Biotinylation of lysine method identifies acetylated histone H3 lysine 79 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a substrate for Sir2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bheda, Poonam; Swatkoski, Stephen; Fiedler, Katherine L; Boeke, Jef D; Cotter, Robert J; Wolberger, Cynthia

    2012-04-17

    Although the biological roles of many members of the sirtuin family of lysine deacetylases have been well characterized, a broader understanding of their role in biology is limited by the challenges in identifying new substrates. We present here an in vitro method that combines biotinylation and mass spectrometry (MS) to identify substrates deacetylated by sirtuins. The method permits labeling of deacetylated residues with amine-reactive biotin on the ε-nitrogen of lysine. The biotin can be utilized to purify the substrate and identify the deacetylated lysine by MS. The biotinyl-lysine method was used to compare deacetylation of chemically acetylated histones by the yeast sirtuins, Sir2 and Hst2. Intriguingly, Sir2 preferentially deacetylates histone H3 lysine 79 as compared to Hst2. Although acetylation of K79 was not previously reported in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we demonstrate that a minor population of this residue is indeed acetylated in vivo and show that Sir2, and not Hst2, regulates the acetylation state of H3 lysine 79. The in vitro biotinyl-lysine method combined with chemical acetylation made it possible to identify this previously unknown, low-abundance histone acetyl modification in vivo. This method has further potential to identify novel sirtuin deacetylation substrates in whole cell extracts, enabling large-scale screens for new deacetylase substrates.

  5. PALEODRAINAGES OF THE EASTERN SAHARA - THE RADAR RIVERS REVISITED (SIR - A/B IMPLICATIONS FOR A MID - TERTIARY TRANS - AFRICAN DRAINAGE SYSTEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, John F.; Breed, Carlos S.; Schaber, Gerald G.; McHugh, William P.; Issawi, Bahay; Haynes, C. Vance; Grolier, Maurice J.; El Kilani, Ali

    1986-01-01

    A complex history of Cenozoic fluvial activity in the presently hyperarid eastern Sahara is inferred from Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR) data and postflight field investigations in southwest Egypt and northwest Sudan. SIR images were coregistered with Landsat and existing maps as a guide to exploration of the buried paleodrainages (radar rivers) first discovered by SIR-A. Field observations explain the radar responses of three types of radar rivers: RR-1, RR-2, and RR-3. A generalized model of the radar rivers, based on field studies and regional geologic relations, shows apparent changes in river regimen since the large valleys were established during the late Paleogene-early Neogene eras. SIR-based mapping of these paleodrainages, although incomplete, reveals missing links in an area once thought to be devoid of master streams.

  6. Sir Francis Joseph Campbell and His Family: The First Family in Professional Services for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Richard L.

    2008-01-01

    The author discusses the pivotal roles of Sir Francis Campbell (1832-1914) and members of his family, especially his son Charles Campbell, in the evolution of the blindness field to a professional and reason-based service.

  7. SirT1 knockdown potentiates radiation-induced bystander effect through promoting c-Myc activity and thus facilitating ROS accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yuexia [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Central Laboratory, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai (China); Tu, Wenzhi; Zhang, Jianghong; He, Mingyuan; Ye, Shuang; Dong, Chen [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Shao, Chunlin, E-mail: clshao@shmu.edu.cn [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • γ-Irradiation induced bystander effects between hepatoma cells and hepatocyte cells. • SirT1 played a protective role in regulating this bystander effect. • SirT1 contributed to the protective effects via elimination the accumulation of ROS. • The activity of c-Myc is critical for maintaining the protective role of SirT1. - Abstract: Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has important implications for secondary cancer risk assessment during cancer radiotherapy, but the bystander signaling processes, especially under hypoxic condition, are still largely unclear. The present study found that micronuclei (MN) formation could be induced in the non-irradiated HL-7702 hepatocyte cells after being treated with the conditioned medium from irradiated hepatoma HepG2 and SK-Hep-1 cells under either normoxia or hypoxia. This bystander response was dramatically diminished or enhanced when the SirT1 gene of irradiated hepatoma cells was overexpressed or knocked down, respectively, especially under hypoxia. Meanwhile, SirT1 knockdown promoted transcriptional activity for c-Myc and facilitated ROS accumulation. But both of the increased bystander responses and ROS generation due to SirT1-knockdown were almost completely suppressed by c-Myc interference. Moreover, ROS scavenger effectively abolished the RIBE triggered by irradiated hepatoma cells even with SirT1 depletion. These findings provide new insights that SirT1 has a profound role in regulating RIBE where a c-Myc-dependent release of ROS may be involved.

  8. SirT1 knockdown potentiates radiation-induced bystander effect through promoting c-Myc activity and thus facilitating ROS accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Yuexia; Tu, Wenzhi; Zhang, Jianghong; He, Mingyuan; Ye, Shuang; Dong, Chen; Shao, Chunlin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • γ-Irradiation induced bystander effects between hepatoma cells and hepatocyte cells. • SirT1 played a protective role in regulating this bystander effect. • SirT1 contributed to the protective effects via elimination the accumulation of ROS. • The activity of c-Myc is critical for maintaining the protective role of SirT1. - Abstract: Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has important implications for secondary cancer risk assessment during cancer radiotherapy, but the bystander signaling processes, especially under hypoxic condition, are still largely unclear. The present study found that micronuclei (MN) formation could be induced in the non-irradiated HL-7702 hepatocyte cells after being treated with the conditioned medium from irradiated hepatoma HepG2 and SK-Hep-1 cells under either normoxia or hypoxia. This bystander response was dramatically diminished or enhanced when the SirT1 gene of irradiated hepatoma cells was overexpressed or knocked down, respectively, especially under hypoxia. Meanwhile, SirT1 knockdown promoted transcriptional activity for c-Myc and facilitated ROS accumulation. But both of the increased bystander responses and ROS generation due to SirT1-knockdown were almost completely suppressed by c-Myc interference. Moreover, ROS scavenger effectively abolished the RIBE triggered by irradiated hepatoma cells even with SirT1 depletion. These findings provide new insights that SirT1 has a profound role in regulating RIBE where a c-Myc-dependent release of ROS may be involved

  9. Pre-spill shoreline mapping in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, E.H.; Lamarche, A.; Reimer, P.D.; Marchant, S.O.; O'Brien, D.K.

    2003-01-01

    A long-term shoreline mapping program has been initiated in Prince William Sound, Alaska, to generate pre-spill data to assist in the planning activities for oil spill response in the area. Low-altitude aerial videotape surveys and video images form the basis for the mapping effort. The coast was initially divided into alongshore segments. The physical shore-zone is relatively homogeneous within each segment. A pre-spill Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Team (SCAT) database, using the ShoreData software, was created based on this initial detailed mapping. The SCAT field teams are therefore equipped with a detailed analysis of the shore-zone character. The same information was also used to develop a separate database for use by planning and response operations groups. The data is entered into the Graphical Resource Database (GRD), and a Geographic Information System (GIS). A simplified characterization of the primary features of each segment is then made available through interpretation of the data. In the event of an oil spill, the SCAT data in the ShoreData files can be combined with field data on shoreline oiling conditions using a second software package called ShoreAccess R which provides summaries of the main parameters required by the planning group. It can also be used as a data storage and management tool. As part of this program, more than 1700 kilometres of shoreline in Prince William Sound have already been mapped. 24 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

  10. Predicting changes in reported notifiable disease rates for New Zealand using a SIR modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Graham; Slaney, David; Tait, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    The New Zealand health system has defined as 'notifiable' over 50 diseases. Of these campylobacteriosis is the most commonly reported comprising 41% of all notifications in 2011 (presently about 150 illness cases per 100,000 population per annum). Furthermore, the incidence of this mild illness, which is potentially waterborne, is under-reported by at least an order-of-magnitude. Increased downstream pathogen loads and/or disease incidence have been found to be associated with increased rainfall, particularly in agricultural landscapes. Therefore, given the predominance of agricultural land uses in New Zealand, transmission and exposure to its agent (thermotolerant Campylobacter bacteria) may be affected by changing rainfall and temperature patterns associated with climate change. Reporting rates for other potentially water-borne zoonoses are also noticeable (for example, the reported rate for cryptosporidiosis for 2011 was 14 per 100,000 population). The distribution of Cryptosporidium oocysts in the environment may be influenced by climate change because it has often been implicated in drinking-water contamination, and heavy rainfall events have been found to be associated with increased pathogen loads in rivers and disease incidence. Given this background, which may also be applicable to other countries with agriculturally-dominated landscapes, a New Zealand study was initiated to develop a decision-support system for the projected effects of climate change on a selected suite of environmentally-transmitted pathogens, including Campylobacter and Cryptosporodium oocysts. Herein we report on the manner in which a linear SIR (Susceptible-Ill-Recovered) model previously developed for campylobacteriosis can be extended to cryptosporidiosis, applied to changes in pathogen contact rate and hence reported illness, and coupled to climate change projections associated with different greenhouse gas emission scenarios. The resulting SIR model outputs provided projected

  11. Another Look at a Bahamian Mystery: The Murder of Sir Harry Oakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LeGrand, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stop me if you've heard this one:The richest man in the Bahamas, no, the richest man in the British empire, is murdered in his bed. He has suffered a fatal head wound caused by a boat's winch lever. Or by bullets from a small-caliber gun. No, by a conch shell. Or by some blunt object close at hand, still unidentified.The rich man's body is set afire in order to burn down his house and conceal the details of the crime. Or as a diversionary tactic, to confuse the authorities. No, in a voodoo ritual.The killer is his son-in-law. Or his houseguest. Or a mafia hitman.The reason for the murder: to eliminate a powerful opponent of casino gambling. Or to prevent this rich man from leaving the Bahamas with his businesses and wealth. Or to avenge the rich man's resentment of his daughter's choice of husband. Or to steal the enormous horde of gold reported to be hidden in his house.The richest man in the Bahamas (if not the whole Empire was Sir Harry Oakes, who earned his fortune from gold prospecting and spent the rest of his life avoiding the tax man. He was found murdered in the morning of 8 July 1943, having been killed sometime after midnight during a summer thunderstorm. His body, bearing four lethal head wounds and burns from the fire, was discovered the next morning by his close friend and houseguest, Harold Christie, an influential Bahamian estate agent.Add to this cast of characters a smooth-operating Mauritian (Alfred de Marigny married to Oakes' young daughter; a former King of England (the Duke of Windsor, now forced to serve this tiny colonial outpost; and the Duke's scandalous wife (the Duchess of Windsor, for whom he renounced his crown.Also, factor in the war raging around the globe. France had recently fallen to the Nazis; German U-boats patrolled the Atlantic; and the shortages and other exigencies of wartime were the rule. The trial of Alfred deMarigny, Oakes' son-in-law, made international news and his eventual acquittal left the case

  12. Sir Kenelm Digby (1603-1665): diplomat, entrepreneur, privateer, duellist, scientist and philosopher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellick, Sam A

    2011-12-01

    Kenelm Digby was a man with widely differing interests. He studied at Oxford but left without a degree. At the age of 20, he was involved in a dramatic street brawl in Madrid; the following year saw him as a successful privateer in the Mediterranean and adjacent Atlantic waters, and he was then appointed a naval administrator with lucrative trade monopolies. He practised medicine without formal qualifications and gained notoriety by promoting the use of 'sympathetic' powder for healing wounds. Befriended by King James I and his son who succeeded him, he became chancellor to Queen Henrietta and was knighted by King James I on 21 October 1623 and appointed to the Privy Council. At one time, he even spent a brief time in prison, but he later became a founding member of the Royal Society and published two major philosophical treatises as well as a popular cookbook. He designed and manufactured wine bottles with tapered necks for simpler pouring and square sides for easy stacking. He dabbled in mathematics and corresponded with Fermat of 'Last Theorem' fame. In 1641, he challenged a French nobleman who publicly cast a slur on the British King to a 'digladiation' (a sword duel) and quickly dispatched him. He was a friend and admirer of Sir Thomas Browne whose 'Religio Medici' he helped to publish. The Cowlishaw Library holds a 1659 5th edition copy of this remarkable book, with Digby's name on the spine. Truly, Digby must qualify as a Renaissance man. © 2011 The Author. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2011 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  13. Frequency Analysis Using Bootstrap Method and SIR Algorithm for Prevention of Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T.; Kim, Y. S.

    2017-12-01

    The frequency analysis of hydrometeorological data is one of the most important factors in response to natural disaster damage, and design standards for a disaster prevention facilities. In case of frequency analysis of hydrometeorological data, it assumes that observation data have statistical stationarity, and a parametric method considering the parameter of probability distribution is applied. For a parametric method, it is necessary to sufficiently collect reliable data; however, snowfall observations are needed to compensate for insufficient data in Korea, because of reducing the number of days for snowfall observations and mean maximum daily snowfall depth due to climate change. In this study, we conducted the frequency analysis for snowfall using the Bootstrap method and SIR algorithm which are the resampling methods that can overcome the problems of insufficient data. For the 58 meteorological stations distributed evenly in Korea, the probability of snowfall depth was estimated by non-parametric frequency analysis using the maximum daily snowfall depth data. The results show that probabilistic daily snowfall depth by frequency analysis is decreased at most stations, and most stations representing the rate of change were found to be consistent in both parametric and non-parametric frequency analysis. This study shows that the resampling methods can do the frequency analysis of the snowfall depth that has insufficient observed samples, which can be applied to interpretation of other natural disasters such as summer typhoons with seasonal characteristics. Acknowledgment.This research was supported by a grant(MPSS-NH-2015-79) from Disaster Prediction and Mitigation Technology Development Program funded by Korean Ministry of Public Safety and Security(MPSS).

  14. Inversion of the Williams syndrome region is a common polymorphism found more frequently in parents of children with Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobart, Holly H; Morris, Colleen A; Mervis, Carolyn B; Pani, Ariel M; Kistler, Doris J; Rios, Cecilia M; Kimberley, Kendra W; Gregg, Ronald G; Bray-Ward, Patricia

    2010-05-15

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a multisystem disorder caused by deletion of about 1.55 Mb of DNA (including 26 genes) on chromosome 7q11.23, a region predisposed to recombination due to its genomic structure. Deletion of the Williams syndrome chromosome region (WSCR) occurs sporadically. To better define chance for familial recurrence and to investigate the prevalence of genomic rearrangements of the region, 257 children with WS and their parents were studied. We determined deletion size in probands by metaphase FISH, parent-of-origin of the deleted chromosome by molecular genetic methods, and inversion status of the WSCR in both parents by interphase FISH. The frequency of WSCR inversion in the transmitting parent group was 24.9%. In contrast, the rate of inversion in the non-transmitting parent group (a reasonable estimate of the rate in the general population) was 5.8%. There were no significant gender differences with respect to parent-of-origin for the deleted chromosome or the incidence of the inversion polymorphism. There was no difference in the rate of spontaneous abortion for mothers heterozygous for the WSCR inversion relative to mothers without the inversion. We calculate that for a parent heterozygous for a WSCR inversion, the chance to have a child with WS is about 1 in 1,750, in contrast to the 1 in 9,500 chance for a parent without an inversion.

  15. 76 FR 13667 - Commercial Furniture Group, Inc., Formerly Known as Falcon Products, Inc., Shelby Williams, Howe...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... Furniture Group, Inc., Formerly Known as Falcon Products, Inc., Shelby Williams, Howe and Thonet, Including...., Formerly Known as Falcon Products, Inc., Shelby Williams, Howe and Thonet, Chicago, IL; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance In accordance with Section 223 of...

  16. 77 FR 63308 - J. William Foley Incorporated v. United Illuminating Company; Notice of Complaint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL12-106-000] J. William Foley Incorporated v. United Illuminating Company; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on October 5...) and 825(e), J. William Foley Incorporated (Complainant) filed a formal complaint against United...

  17. A MacWilliams Identity for Convolutional Codes: The General Case

    OpenAIRE

    Gluesing-Luerssen, Heide; Schneider, Gert

    2008-01-01

    A MacWilliams Identity for convolutional codes will be established. It makes use of the weight adjacency matrices of the code and its dual, based on state space realizations (the controller canonical form) of the codes in question. The MacWilliams Identity applies to various notions of duality appearing in the literature on convolutional coding theory.

  18. A MacWilliams Identity for Convolutional Codes : The General Case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gluesing-Luerssen, Heide; Schneider, Gert

    A MacWilliams Identity for convolutional codes will be established. It makes use of the weight adjacency matrices of the code and its dual, based on state space realizations (the controller canonical form) of the codes in question. The MacWilliams Identity applies to various notions of duality

  19. 33 CFR 164.43 - Automatic Identification System Shipborne Equipment-Prince William Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic Identification System Shipborne Equipment-Prince William Sound. 164.43 Section 164.43 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Automatic Identification System Shipborne Equipment—Prince William Sound. (a) Until December 31, 2004, each...

  20. Music and Anxiety in Williams Syndrome: A Harmonious or Discordant Relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykens, Elisabeth M.; Rosner, Beth A.; Ly, Tran; Sagun, Jaclyn

    2005-01-01

    In this two-part study, we assessed musical involvements in two samples of persons with Williams syndrome compared to others with mental retardation and also related musicality to anxiety and fears in Study 2. Relative to others with mental retardation, those with Williams syndrome were more likely to take music lessons, play an instrument, and…

  1. 33 CFR 167.1701 - In Prince William Sound: Precautionary areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In Prince William Sound: Precautionary areas. 167.1701 Section 167.1701 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1701 In Prince William Sound...

  2. Repetition Priming in Adults with Williams Syndrome: Age-Related Dissociation between Implicit and Explicit Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J.; Kittler, Phyllis; Brown, W. Ted; Jenkins, Edmund C.; Devenny, Darlynne A.

    2005-01-01

    We examined implicit and explicit memory in adults with Williams syndrome. An age-related dissociation was found; repetition priming (reflecting implicit memory) did not show change with age, but free recall (reflecting explicit memory) was markedly reduced. We also compared the performance of adults with Williams syndrome to adults with Down…

  3. Auditory Attraction: Activation of Visual Cortex by Music and Sound in Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton-Wells, Tricia A.; Cannistraci, Christopher J.; Anderson, Adam W.; Kim, Chai-Youn; Eapen, Mariam; Gore, John C.; Blake, Randolph; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    Williams syndrome is a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder with a distinctive phenotype, including cognitive-linguistic features, nonsocial anxiety, and a strong attraction to music. We performed functional MRI studies examining brain responses to musical and other types of auditory stimuli in young adults with Williams syndrome and typically…

  4. Anxiety and Repetitive Behaviours in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Williams Syndrome: A Cross-Syndrome Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Jacqui; Riby, Deborah M.; Janes, Emily; Connolly, Brenda; McConachie, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder or Williams syndrome are vulnerable to anxiety. The factors that contribute to this risk remain unclear. This study compared anxiety in autism spectrum disorder and Williams Syndrome and examined the relationship between repetitive behaviours and anxiety. Thirty-four children with autism and twenty children…

  5. Intracranial arteries in individuals with the elastin gene hemideletion of Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wint, D P; Butman, J A; Masdeu, J C; Meyer-Lindenberg, A; Mervis, C B; Sarpal, D; Morris, C A; Berman, K F

    2014-01-01

    Williams syndrome, a rare genetic disorder with a striking neurobehavioral profile characterized by extreme sociability and impaired visuospatial construction abilities, is caused by a hemideletion that includes the elastin gene, resulting in frequent supravavular aortic stenosis and other stenotic arterial lesions. Strokes have been reported in Williams syndrome. Although the extracranial carotid artery has been studied in a sample of patients with Williams syndrome, proximal intracranial arteries have not. Using MRA, we studied the intracranial vessels in 27 participants: 14 patients with Williams syndrome (age range, 18-44 years; mean age, 27.3 ± 9.1; 43% women) and 13 healthy control participants with similar age and sex distribution (age range, 22-52 years; mean age, 33.4 ± 7.6; 46% women). All participants with Williams syndrome had hemideletions of the elastin gene. Blinded to group allocation or to any other clinical data, a neuroradiologist determined the presence of intracranial vascular changes in the 2 groups. The Williams syndrome group and the healthy control group had similar patency of the proximal intracranial arteries, including the internal carotid and vertebral arteries; basilar artery; and stem and proximal branches of the anterior cerebral artery, MCA, and posterior cerebral arteries. The postcommunicating segment of the anterior cerebral artery was longer in the Williams syndrome group. Despite the elastin haploinsufficiency, the proximal intracranial arteries in Williams syndrome preserve normal patency.

  6. [Vascular malformations in the Williams-Beuren syndrome: report of three new cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sator, Hicham; Rhouni, Fatima Ezzahra; Benjouad, Ibitihale; Rhouni, Fatima Ezzahra; Benjouad, Ibitihale; Dafiri, Rachida; Chat, Latifa

    2016-01-01

    The Williams-Beuren syndrome is a rare genetic disease. It combines classically specific facial dysmorphism, cardiovascular malformations and specific neuropsychological profile. We report three cases of Williams-Beuren syndrome in children with particular emphasis on vascular abnormalities observed on CT angiography and MR angiography.

  7. Brief Report: Developing Spatial Frequency Biases for Face Recognition in Autism and Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Hayley C.; Annaz, Dagmara; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Johnson, Mark H.

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated whether contrasting face recognition abilities in autism and Williams syndrome could be explained by different spatial frequency biases over developmental time. Typically-developing children and groups with Williams syndrome and autism were asked to recognise faces in which low, middle and high spatial frequency…

  8. 78 FR 45515 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan...

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    2013-07-29

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  9. 77 FR 58818 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; William D. Ford Federal...

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  10. 78 FR 52169 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan...

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    2013-08-22

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  11. A new case of keratoconus associated with Williams-Beuren syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Melissa Machado; Frasson, Maria; Leão, Letícia Lima; Stofanko, Martin; Gonçalves-Dornelas, Higgor; Cunha, Pricila da Silva; de Aguiar, Marcos José Burle

    2013-09-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome is a multisystemic genetic disorder caused by a contiguous gene deletion at 7q11.23. Keratoconus is a complex disease and it is suspected to have a genetic origin, although the specific gene responsible for keratoconus has not been identified. Although there are several ocular features in Williams-Beuren syndrome, keratoconus is not regularly described as part of this syndrome. To report a new patient with keratoconus and Williams-Beuren syndrome. This is the third case of an association between Williams-Beuren syndrome and keratoconus. The authors believe that the Williams-Beuren syndrome chromosome region can be a possible target for further investigation as the genetic basis of keratoconus.

  12. Infantile ictal apneas in a child with williams-beuren syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kenneth A; McLeod, D Ross; Bello-Espinosa, Luis

    2013-02-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome is a genetic disorder rarely associated with seizures. The few described cases of Williams-Beuren syndrome and epilepsy have primarily involved infantile spasms and deletions extending beyond the common deletion region for this disorder. We present the case of a 5-week-old child with ictal apneas and typical Williams-Beuren syndrome deletion. Diagnosis was challenging, because the child had cardiac, respiratory, and gastrointestinal abnormalities typically associated with Williams-Beuren syndrome, which are also associated with cyanotic episodes. The results of interictal electroencephalography were normal, illustrating that prolonged electroencephalography is often essential in evaluation of suspected ictal apneas. Seizure freedom was achieved with carbamazepine. Sudden death is seen in Williams-Beuren syndrome, and this case raises the question whether some of these cases may be related to ictal apneas and could potentially be preventable with appropriate pharmaceutical intervention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ian Taylor MBE MP Chairman Parliamentary and Scientific Committee, United Kingdom (second from left) with (from left to right) CMS Technical Coordinator A. Ball, CMS Spokesperson Tejinder (Jim) Virdee and Adviser to the Director-General J. Ellis on 2 November 2009.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice; CMS

    2009-01-01

    Ian Taylor MBE MP Chairman Parliamentary and Scientific Committee, United Kingdom (second from left) with (from left to right) CMS Technical Coordinator A. Ball, CMS Spokesperson Tejinder (Jim) Virdee and Adviser to the Director-General J. Ellis on 2 November 2009.

  14. Bora Bora, Tahaa, and Raiatea, French Polynesia, Landsat and SIR-C Images Compared to SRTM Shaded

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Bora Bora, Tahaa, and Raiatea (top to bottom) are Polynesian Islands about 220 kilometers (135 miles) west-northwest of Tahiti in the South Pacific. Each of the islands is surrounded by a coral reef and its associated islets ('motus') that enclose a lagoon. Actually, as seen here, Tahaa and Raiatea are close enough together to share a common lagoon and reef. These islands are volcanic in origin and were built up from the sea floor by lava extrusions millions of years ago. None is now active, and all are deeply eroded. This display compares three differing 'views from space' of these islands. On the left, an image from the Landsat 7 satellite shows the islands as they might have appeared to an astronaut in orbit in 1999 (but a little sharper and with atmospheric haze suppressed). In the middle is an image created from data gathered by the third-generation Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-C), flown in 1994. On the right is a graphic illustrating elevation data gathered by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) in 2000. Each of these images shows very different information as compared to the other two. Landsat sees clouds, which are almost always above these islands, blocking the view of the terrain. It also readily sees through shallow water down to the reefs. SIR-C sees the waves and other effects of winds upon the ocean surface. It does not look through water to see the reefs, but it clearly separates land and water. It also provides a bolder (but distorted) view of the islands' topographic patterns. With the ability of radar to see through clouds and provision of its own illumination, the SIR-C view is not limited by clouds nor their shadows. SRTM was designed to provide new information that is missing in the Landsat and SIR-C views. Specifically, SRTM created the world's first near-global, detailed elevation model. Natural topographic shading in Landsat imagery and radar topographic shadowing of SIR-C give some evidence of the shape of the ground but do not

  15. Everything and Nothing: The Many Lives of William Shakespeare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Chartier

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The essay is devoted to an analysis of the contributions gathered in this issue of JEMS. It begins with the scarcity (or total absence of literary archives and autograph manuscripts for the English playwrights of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries (and among them Shakespeare. Such a diagnosis leads to stress the conditions ruling the composition and publication of plays: collaborative writing, reuse of the same stories and commonplaces, use of the author’s name as a commodity, publication based on memorial reconstruction, prompt books, or corrupted copies, etc. The consequences of these practices (so different from the romantic textual ideology of the author’s singularity, originality and propriety are discussed in relation with the criticism of the traditional criteria of attribution studies and the operations necessary for writing the literary biography of an author without (literary archives and (quite any autograph remains (whence the discussion about Shakespeare’s signatures, his holograph – or not – will, and his hand in the manuscript of Sir Thomas More. Two perspectives could enrich these issues: on the one hand, a literary geography of Shakespeare’s works mapping the publication and circulation of the performances, editions, and later translations of his plays; on the other hand, comparative approaches locating the specificity (or not of English drama and Shakespeare’s plays within the European context of Spanish comedias and Italian commedia dell’arte.

  16. Syntax in Spanish-speaking children with Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Burraco, Antonio; Garayzábal, Elena; Cuetos, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The syntactic skills of Spanish-speaking children with Williams syndrome (WS) were assessed in different areas (phrase structure, recursion, and bound anaphora). Children were compared to typically-developing peers matched either in chronological age (CA-TD) or in verbal age (VA-TD). In all tasks children with WS performed significantly worse than CA-TD children, but similarly to VA-TD children. However, significant differences were observed in specific domains, particularly regarding sentences with cross-serial dependencies. At the same time, children with WS were less sensitive to syntactic constraints and exhibited a poorer knowledge of some functional words (specifically, of nonreflexive pronouns). A processing bottleneck or a computational constraint may account for this outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Grammatical gender vs. natural gender in French Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibernon, Laure; Boloh, Yves

    2010-01-01

    This article reports grammatical gender attribution scores in French Williams participants (N=28, mean chronological age=15.1) in an experiment similar to the classic one from Karmiloff-Smith (1979) where grammatical gender was pitted against natural gender. WS participants massively opted for the masculine gender as the default one, just as MA-controls did. They differed from CA-controls, however, in that they provided fewer sex-based responses. Splitting the WS group into two subgroups did not reveal a shift to sex-based responses similar to the one found in controls. It is argued that this latter difference could plausibly be related to differences in cognitive, lexical or meta-linguistic abilities. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Values of Masculinity in William Shakespeare’s Macbeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafruha Ferdous

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The theme of gender plays a vital role in William Shakespeare’s famous political play Macbeth. From the very beginning of the play the dramatist focuses on the importance of masculinity in gaining power and authority. Lady Macbeth along with the three witches are as important characters as Macbeth. Because they influence Macbeth profoundly. And Shakespeare very carefully draws the character of Lady Macbeth who being a female sometimes exhibits more masculinity than Macbeth. Similarly is the case of the three witches. Though they look like women they are also bearded which prove the presence of masculinity in their nature. Throughout the play several times the exposition of masculinity is demanded from the character of Macbeth. So the value of masculinity plays an important part in the drama.

  19. What motion is: William Neile and the laws of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemeny, Max

    2017-07-01

    In 1668-1669 William Neile and John Wallis engaged in a protracted correspondence regarding the nature of motion. Neile was unhappy with the laws of motion that had been established by the Royal Society in three papers published in 1668, deeming them not explanations of motion at all, but mere descriptions. Neile insisted that science could not be informative without a discussion of causes, meaning that Wallis's purely kinematic account of collision could not be complete. Wallis, however, did not consider Neile's objections to his work to be serious. Rather than engage in a discussion of the proper place of natural philosophy in science, Wallis decided to show how Neile's preferred treatment of motion lead to absurd conclusions. This dispute is offered as a case study of dispute resolution within the early Royal Society.

  20. Charles William Lacaillade. Biologist, Parasitologist, Educator, and Mentor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperato, Pascal James

    2017-02-01

    Charles William Lacaillade (1904-1978) was an eminent biologist in the middle decades of the twentieth century. He was born in Lawrence, Massachusetts of parents whose ancestors were French Canadians. His father, also named Charles William Lacaillade, was a dentist who graduated from Tufts University School of Dentistry in 1898. His mother, Elodia Eno, came from a family of very successful businessmen. Lacaillade was the third of six children. His two older brothers, Harold Carleton and Hector Eno, both graduated from the University of Louisville, School of Dentistry, while his younger brother, Lawrence, became a businessman. His sister, Luemma, married Dr. Henry Steadman, a veterinarian, while his youngest sister, Gloria, married a U.S. Army officer, Lieutenant Colonel Victor Anido. Lacaillade received his MS and PhD degrees in biology and zoology from Harvard University. He then became a fellow at The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research. At both institutions, he studied under some of the most eminent biological scientists of the time. These included Rudolf W. Glaser, George Howard Parker, Theobald Smith, Carl TenBroeck, and William Morton Wheeler. At the Rockefeller Institute, he co-discovered the vector and mode of transmission of Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis. This discovery, and the research he conducted with Rudolf W. Glaser, quickly established him as an outstanding biological researcher. However, a change in leadership at the Rockefeller Institute resulted in research priorities being given to the disciplines of general physiology, physical chemistry, and nutrition. This shift in the research agenda away from the biological sciences precluded career advancement at the Rockefeller Institute for post-doctoral fellows like Lacaillade. It was the height of the Great Depression, and even biologists with terminal doctoral degrees found it difficult to find positions. In 1935, Lacaillade accepted a position as an assistant in biology at St. John

  1. William Whewell's philosophy of architecture and the historicization of biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Aleta

    2016-10-01

    William Whewell's work on historical science has received some attention from historians and philosophers of science. Whewell's own work on the history of German Gothic church architecture has been touched on within the context of the history of architecture. To a large extent these discussions have been conducted separately. I argue that Whewell intended his work on Gothic architecture as an attempt to (help) found a science of historical architecture, as an exemplar of historical science. I proceed by analyzing the key features of Whewell's philosophy of historical science. I then show how his architectural history exemplifies this philosophy. Finally, I show how Whewell's philosophy of historical science matches some developments in a science (biological systematics) that, in the mid-to late-nineteenth century, came to be reinterpreted as a historical science. I comment briefly on Whewell as a potential influence on nineteenth century biology and in particular on Darwin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 78 FR 5431 - Annual Notice of Interest Rates of Federal Student Loans Made Under the William D. Ford Federal...

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    2013-01-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Annual Notice of Interest Rates of Federal Student Loans Made Under the... amended, the Chief Operating Officer for Federal Student Aid announces the interest rates for the period... interest rates to the public. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ian Foss, U.S. Department of Education, 830...

  3. A buoyancy-based screen of Drosophila larvae for fat-storage mutants reveals a role for Sir2 in coupling fat storage to nutrient availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Reis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has a strong genetic component, but few of the genes that predispose to obesity are known. Genetic screens in invertebrates have the potential to identify genes and pathways that regulate the levels of stored fat, many of which are likely to be conserved in humans. To facilitate such screens, we have developed a simple buoyancy-based screening method for identifying mutant Drosophila larvae with increased levels of stored fat. Using this approach, we have identified 66 genes that when mutated increase organismal fat levels. Among these was a sirtuin family member, Sir2. Sirtuins regulate the storage and metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids by deacetylating key regulatory proteins. However, since mammalian sirtuins function in many tissues in different ways, it has been difficult to define their role in energy homeostasis accurately under normal feeding conditions. We show that knockdown of Sir2 in the larval fat body results in increased fat levels. Moreover, using genetic mosaics, we demonstrate that Sir2 restricts fat accumulation in individual cells of the fat body in a cell-autonomous manner. Consistent with this function, changes in the expression of metabolic enzymes in Sir2 mutants point to a shift away from catabolism. Surprisingly, although Sir2 is typically upregulated under conditions of starvation, Sir2 mutant larvae survive better than wild type under conditions of amino-acid starvation as long as sugars are provided. Our findings point to a Sir2-mediated pathway that activates a catabolic response to amino-acid starvation irrespective of the sugar content of the diet.

  4. 77 FR 58819 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Federal Student Aid; William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan...

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    2012-09-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Federal Student Aid; William D. Ford... William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program will use this form to request forbearance on their loans when... of Collection: William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program General Forbearance Request. OMB Control...

  5. 77 FR 29988 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Federal Student Aid; William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan...

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    2012-05-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Federal Student Aid; William D. Ford... borrowers in the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan (Direct Loan) and Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL... of Collection: William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program Deferment Request Forms. OMB Control...

  6. Isonicotinamide Enhances Sir2 Protein-mediated Silencing and Longevity in Yeast by Raising Intracellular NAD+ Concentration*

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Julie M.; Wierman, Margaret B.; Maqani, Nazif; Smith, Jeffrey S.

    2012-01-01

    Sirtuins are an evolutionarily conserved family of NAD+-dependent protein deacetylases that function in the regulation of gene transcription, cellular metabolism, and aging. Their activity requires the maintenance of an adequate intracellular NAD+ concentration through the combined action of NAD+ biosynthesis and salvage pathways. Nicotinamide (NAM) is a key NAD+ precursor that is also a byproduct and feedback inhibitor of the deacetylation reaction. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the nicotinamidase Pnc1 converts NAM to nicotinic acid (NA), which is then used as a substrate by the NAD+ salvage pathway enzyme NA phosphoribosyltransferase (Npt1). Isonicotinamide (INAM) is an isostere of NAM that stimulates yeast Sir2 deacetylase activity in vitro by alleviating the NAM inhibition. In this study, we determined that INAM stimulates Sir2 through an additional mechanism in vivo, which involves elevation of the intracellular NAD+ concentration. INAM enhanced normal silencing at the rDNA locus but only partially suppressed the silencing defects of an npt1Δ mutant. Yeast cells grown in media lacking NA had a short replicative life span, which was extended by INAM in a SIR2-dependent manner and correlated with increased NAD+. The INAM-induced increase in NAD+ was strongly dependent on Pnc1 and Npt1, suggesting that INAM increases flux through the NAD+ salvage pathway. Part of this effect was mediated by the NR salvage pathways, which generate NAM as a product and require Pnc1 to produce NAD+. We also provide evidence suggesting that INAM influences the expression of multiple NAD+ biosynthesis and salvage pathways to promote homeostasis during stationary phase. PMID:22539348

  7. Isonicotinamide enhances Sir2 protein-mediated silencing and longevity in yeast by raising intracellular NAD+ concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Julie M; Wierman, Margaret B; Maqani, Nazif; Smith, Jeffrey S

    2012-06-15

    Sirtuins are an evolutionarily conserved family of NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases that function in the regulation of gene transcription, cellular metabolism, and aging. Their activity requires the maintenance of an adequate intracellular NAD(+) concentration through the combined action of NAD(+) biosynthesis and salvage pathways. Nicotinamide (NAM) is a key NAD(+) precursor that is also a byproduct and feedback inhibitor of the deacetylation reaction. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the nicotinamidase Pnc1 converts NAM to nicotinic acid (NA), which is then used as a substrate by the NAD(+) salvage pathway enzyme NA phosphoribosyltransferase (Npt1). Isonicotinamide (INAM) is an isostere of NAM that stimulates yeast Sir2 deacetylase activity in vitro by alleviating the NAM inhibition. In this study, we determined that INAM stimulates Sir2 through an additional mechanism in vivo, which involves elevation of the intracellular NAD(+) concentration. INAM enhanced normal silencing at the rDNA locus but only partially suppressed the silencing defects of an npt1Δ mutant. Yeast cells grown in media lacking NA had a short replicative life span, which was extended by INAM in a SIR2-dependent manner and correlated with increased NAD(+). The INAM-induced increase in NAD(+) was strongly dependent on Pnc1 and Npt1, suggesting that INAM increases flux through the NAD(+) salvage pathway. Part of this effect was mediated by the NR salvage pathways, which generate NAM as a product and require Pnc1 to produce NAD(+). We also provide evidence suggesting that INAM influences the expression of multiple NAD(+) biosynthesis and salvage pathways to promote homeostasis during stationary phase.

  8. Photographic Standards for Patients With Facial Palsy and Recommendations by Members of the Sir Charles Bell Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosa, Katherine B; Fattah, Adel; Gavilán, Javier; Hadlock, Tessa A; Snyder-Warwick, Alison K

    2017-07-01

    There is no widely accepted assessment tool or common language used by clinicians caring for patients with facial palsy, making exchange of information challenging. Standardized photography may represent such a language and is imperative for precise exchange of information and comparison of outcomes in this special patient population. To review the literature to evaluate the use of facial photography in the management of patients with facial palsy and to examine the use of photography in documenting facial nerve function among members of the Sir Charles Bell Society-a group of medical professionals dedicated to care of patients with facial palsy. A literature search was performed to review photographic standards in patients with facial palsy. In addition, a cross-sectional survey of members of the Sir Charles Bell Society was conducted to examine use of medical photography in documenting facial nerve function. The literature search and analysis was performed in August and September 2015, and the survey was conducted in August and September 2013. The literature review searched EMBASE, CINAHL, and MEDLINE databases from inception of each database through September 2015. Additional studies were identified by scanning references from relevant studies. Only English-language articles were eligible for inclusion. Articles that discussed patients with facial palsy and outlined photographic guidelines for this patient population were included in the study. The survey was disseminated to the Sir Charles Bell Society members in electronic form. It consisted of 10 questions related to facial grading scales, patient-reported outcome measures, other psychological assessment tools, and photographic and videographic recordings. In total, 393 articles were identified in the literature search, 7 of which fit the inclusion criteria. Six of the 7 articles discussed or proposed views specific to patients with facial palsy. However, none of the articles specifically focused on

  9. Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) and Sir John Forbes (1787-1861): neighbours in Old Burlington Street, Westminster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Robin

    2015-05-01

    The year 2010 marks the centenary of the birth of Florence Nightingale and will, no doubt, be universally remembered. Her life and nursing career have recently been fully described by Bostridge. It is less well known that her neighbour from November 1856 was the distinguished Scottish physician Sir John Forbes MD Edin FRCP Lond FRS DCL Oxon. Although they never met, they exchanged copies of each other's books and shared a mutual respect. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. Dynamics of a stochastic delayed SIR epidemic model with vaccination and double diseases driven by Lévy jumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qun; Jiang, Daqing; Shi, Ningzhong; Hayat, Tasawar

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we study the dynamics of a stochastic delayed SIR epidemic model with vaccination and double diseases which make the research more complex. The environment variability in this paper is characterized by white noise and Lévy noise. We establish sufficient conditions for extinction and persistence in the mean of the two epidemic diseases. It is shown that: (i) time delay and Lévy noise have important effects on the persistence and extinction of epidemic diseases; (ii) two diseases can coexist under certain conditions.

  11. Williams-Beuren syndrome associated with single kidney and nephrocalcinosis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, Kamel; Jellouli, Manel; Ben Rabeh, Rania; Hammi, Yousra; Gargah, Tahar

    2015-01-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by congenital heart defects, abnormal facial features, mental retardation with specific cognitive and behavioral profile, growth hormone deficiency, renal and skeletal anomalies, inguinal hernia, infantile hypercalcaemia. We report a case with Williams-Beuren syndrome associated with a single kidney and nephrocalcinosis complicated by hypercalcaemia. A male infant, aged 20 months presented growth retardation associated with a psychomotor impairment, dysmorphic features and nephrocalcinosis. He had also hypercalciuria and hypercalcemia. Echocardiography was normal. DMSA renal scintigraphy showed a single functioning kidney. The FISH generated one ELN signal in 20 metaphases read and found the presence of ELN deletion, with compatible Williams-Beuren syndrome.

  12. Sir Harold Delf Gillies, the otolaryngologist and father of modern facial plastic surgery: review of his rhinoplasty case notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, C R

    2015-06-01

    Sir Harold Gillies, born in New Zealand, is widely considered a British icon and the father of modern plastic surgery. This article provides an overview of his life and the circumstances which led to him laying the foundations of plastic surgery in Britain in the early twentieth century. A hand search and review of case notes from the Gillies Archives at Queen Mary's Hospital in Sidcup, UK, where he made history, was conducted. Gillies' ongoing legacy was found to also include his influence on the development of his cousin Sir Archibald McIndoe's work. Gillies was a talented sportsman who engaged in charitable activities. Additionally, he was a gifted teacher, with his hospital attracting many young surgeons from around the world. He was found to have expressed genius in both the design and execution of the art and science of surgery. He incepted reconstructive techniques ranging from the world's first gender reassignment operation to facial reanimation procedures for the treatment of facial paralysis. His operative work on ex-servicemen in need of complex rhinoplasty and in particular the inception of the tubed pedicle flap are depicted.

  13. Law of large numbers for the SIR model with random vertex weights on Erdős-Rényi graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiaofeng

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we are concerned with the SIR model with random vertex weights on Erdős-Rényi graph G(n , p) . The Erdős-Rényi graph G(n , p) is generated from the complete graph Cn with n vertices through independently deleting each edge with probability (1 - p) . We assign i. i. d. copies of a positive r. v. ρ on each vertex as the vertex weights. For the SIR model, each vertex is in one of the three states 'susceptible', 'infective' and 'removed'. An infective vertex infects a given susceptible neighbor at rate proportional to the production of the weights of these two vertices. An infective vertex becomes removed at a constant rate. A removed vertex will never be infected again. We assume that at t = 0 there is no removed vertex and the number of infective vertices follows a Bernoulli distribution B(n , θ) . Our main result is a law of large numbers of the model. We give two deterministic functions HS(ψt) ,HV(ψt) for t ≥ 0 and show that for any t ≥ 0, HS(ψt) is the limit proportion of susceptible vertices and HV(ψt) is the limit of the mean capability of an infective vertex to infect a given susceptible neighbor at moment t as n grows to infinity.

  14. Sawtooth events and O+ in the plasma sheet and boundary layer: CME- and SIR-driven events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, E. J.; Nowrouzi, N.; Kistler, L. M.; Cai, X.; Liao, J.

    2017-12-01

    The role of ionospheric ions in sawtooth events is an open question. Simulations[1,2,3] suggest that O+ from the ionosphere produces a feedback mechanism for driving sawtooth events. However, observational evidence[4,5] suggest that the presence of O+ in the plasma sheet is neither necessary nor sufficient. In this study we investigate whether the solar wind driver of the geomagnetic storm has an effect on the result. Building on an earlier study[4] that used events for which Cluster data is available in the plasma sheet and boundary layer, we perform a superposed epoch analysis for coronal mass ejection (CME) driven storms and streaming interaction region (SIR) driven storms separately, to investigate the hypothesis that ionospheric O+ is an important contributor for CME-driven storms but not SIR-driven storms[2]. [1]O. J. Brambles et al. (2011), Science 332, 1183.[2]O. J. Brambles et al. (2013), JGR 118, 6026.[3]R. H. Varney et al. (2016), JGR 121, 9688.[4]J. Liao et al. (2014), JGR 119, 1572.[5]E. J. Lund et al. (2017), JGR, submitted.

  15. Neurosurgeon as innovator: William V. Cone (1897-1959).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preul, M C; Stratford, J; Bertrand, G; Feindel, W

    1993-10-01

    Neurosurgeons are well known for being productive researchers and innovators. Few, however, have possessed the prolific ingenuity of William Cone. In 1934, he and William Penfield were cofounders of the Montreal Neurological Institute where, until 1959, he filled the twin roles of neurosurgeon-in-chief and neuropathologist. Because he did not find writing easy, many of his technical inventions and refinements remained unpublished. His numerous innovations included the extensive use of twist-drill technique for biopsy, drainage for subdural hematoma and cerebral abscess, and ventriculography. In the mid-1940's, he developed power tools driven by nitrogen that led to the modern, universally used air-driven tool systems. He had a special interest in the treatment of spinal dysfunction, for which he invented the Cone-Barton skull-traction tongs along with the Cone spinal operating table. He also devised operative procedures for vertebral fracture-dislocation and craniospinal anomalies. For the maintenance of muscle tone in the paralyzed bladder, he constructed a tidal drainage system. He introduced and popularized ventriculoperitoneal shunting techniques and carried out some of the earliest experimental trails to treat brain infections with sulphonamide and antibiotic drugs. He designed his own set of surgical suction devices, bone rongeurs, and a personal suction "air-conditioning" system for each surgeon. He had a keen early interest in intracranial tumors, and also demonstrated on monkeys how subdural mass lesions caused pupillary dilation and mesial temporal lobe damage due to cerebral compression. His work for the military during World War II on effects of altitude on brain pressure remained classified for many years. The first clipping and excision of an intracranial aneurysm is attributed to Cone. Although Penfield was known as "the Chief," Cone was referred to as "the Boss." His fervent dedication to provide total care to his patients was expressed in round

  16. Early Science Results from the Williams College Eclipse Expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Person, Michael J.; Dantowitz, Ron; Lockwood, Christian A.; Nagle-McNaughton, Tim; Meadors, Erin N.; Perez, Cielo C.; Marti, Connor J.; Yu, Ross; Rosseau, Brendan; Daly, Declan M.; Ide, Charles A.; Davis, Allen B.; Lu, Muzhou; Sliski, David; Seiradakis, John; Voulgaris, Aris; Rusin, Vojtech; Peñaloza-Murillo, Marcos A.; Roman, Michael; Seaton, Daniel B.; Steele, Amy; Lee, Duane M.; Freeman, Marcus J.

    2018-01-01

    We describe our first cut of data reduction on a wide variety of observations of the solar corona and of the effect of the penumbra and umbra on the terrestrial atmosphere, carried out from our eclipse site on the campus of Willamette University in Salem, Oregon. Our team of faculty, undergraduate students, graduate students, and other colleagues observed the eclipse, taking images and spectra with a variety of sensors and telescopes. Equipment included frame-transfer cameras observing at 3 Hz in 0.3 nm filters at the coronal green and red lines to measure the power spectrum of oscillations in coronal loops or elsewhere in the lower corona; 3 spectrographs; a variety of telescopes and telephotos for white-light imaging; a double Lyot system tuned at Fe XIV 530.3 nm (FWHM 0.4 nm) and Fe X 637.4 nm (FWHM 0.5 nm); and a weather station to record changes in the terrestrial atmosphere. We are comparing our observations with predictions based on the previous mapping of the photospheric magnetic field, and preparing wide-field complete coronal imaging incorporating NOAA/NASA GOES-16 SUVI and NRL/NASA/LASCO for the corona outside our own images (which extend, given the completely clear skies we had, at least 4 solar radii), and NASA SDO/AIA and NOAA/NASA GOES-16 SUVI for the solar disk. One of our early composites appeared as Astronomy Picture of the Day for September 27: https://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap170927.htmlOur expedition was supported in large part by grants from the Committee for Research and Exploration of the National Geographic Society and from the Solar Terrestrial Program of the Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences Division of the National Science Foundation, with additional student support from the STP/AGS of NSF, the NASA Massachusetts Space Grant Consortium, the Sigma Xi honorary scientific society, the Clare Booth Luce Foundation studentship and the Freeman Foote Expeditionary Fund at Williams College, other Williams College funds, and U. Pennsylvania funds.

  17. sir, besoin, dépendance : l'addiction comme (épreuve de la modernité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Di Lorenzo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available La frontière entre la santé et la pathologie est un lieu fascinant et dangereux, au caractère poreux et riche de familiarités des deux côtés, inavouées et coûteuses. Le terme d’addiction semble s’installer précisément sur cette frontière, gagnant en étendue médiatique ce qu’il perd en précision nosographique ; ainsi, aujourd’hui, nous serions « tous addicts » – au sucre, au téléphone portable, au chocolat, au café, aux soldes, à la chirurgie esthétique, à Facebook, à l’amour, cette liste pouvant être continuée par chacun d’entre nous puisque nous avons tous fait, nous faisons et ferons tous, l’expérience de la force des (mauvaises habitudes, du désir, voire de la pulsion, de l’abus et de la dépendance. Notre société contemporaine semble stimuler cette expérience, en multipliant tant les objets addictogènes que les comportements addictifs : d’une part par le statut attribué aux biens sériels, d’autre part par la dimension pulsionnelle revendiquée dans les habitudes de consommation. Société du plaisir, peut-être plus hédoniste qu’épicurienne, l’époque contemporaine impose le plaisir et son désir comme nouvelle norme. Dès lors, quel est notre rapport à la pulsion, au désir compulsif, au dépassement des limites imposées aux besoins et aux envies socialement acceptables ? Comment notre société régule le désir ? Comment la politique et les médias concourent-ils à le structurer, voire à le prescrire ? Quels mécanismes à l’œuvre dans l’addiction contredisent cette prescription, et surtout : s’agit-il véritablement d’une contradiction ? Notre culture de performance et satisfaction rapides peut effectivement expliquer certaines dépendances induites par leur objet ; néanmoins, la véritable addiction mentale se nourrit d’éléments plus profondément constitutifs de l’identité de l’homme moderne et contemporain : avant tout, la fragilité des acquis, la

  18. Deteriorated stress response in stationary-phase yeast: Sir2 and Yap1 are essential for Hsf1 activation by heat shock and oxidative stress, respectively.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inbal Nussbaum

    Full Text Available Stationary-phase cultures have been used as an important model of aging, a complex process involving multiple pathways and signaling networks. However, the molecular processes underlying stress response of non-dividing cells are poorly understood, although deteriorated stress response is one of the hallmarks of aging. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a valuable model organism to study the genetics of aging, because yeast ages within days and are amenable to genetic manipulations. As a unicellular organism, yeast has evolved robust systems to respond to environmental challenges. This response is orchestrated largely by the conserved transcription factor Hsf1, which in S. cerevisiae regulates expression of multiple genes in response to diverse stresses. Here we demonstrate that Hsf1 response to heat shock and oxidative stress deteriorates during yeast transition from exponential growth to stationary-phase, whereas Hsf1 activation by glucose starvation is maintained. Overexpressing Hsf1 does not significantly improve heat shock response, indicating that Hsf1 dwindling is not the major cause for Hsf1 attenuated response in stationary-phase yeast. Rather, factors that participate in Hsf1 activation appear to be compromised. We uncover two factors, Yap1 and Sir2, which discretely function in Hsf1 activation by oxidative stress and heat shock. In Δyap1 mutant, Hsf1 does not respond to oxidative stress, while in Δsir2 mutant, Hsf1 does not respond to heat shock. Moreover, excess Sir2 mimics the heat shock response. This role of the NAD+-dependent Sir2 is supported by our finding that supplementing NAD+ precursors improves Hsf1 heat shock response in stationary-phase yeast, especially when combined with expression of excess Sir2. Finally, the combination of excess Hsf1, excess Sir2 and NAD+ precursors rejuvenates the heat shock response.

  19. Deteriorated stress response in stationary-phase yeast: Sir2 and Yap1 are essential for Hsf1 activation by heat shock and oxidative stress, respectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, Inbal; Weindling, Esther; Jubran, Ritta; Cohen, Aviv; Bar-Nun, Shoshana

    2014-01-01

    Stationary-phase cultures have been used as an important model of aging, a complex process involving multiple pathways and signaling networks. However, the molecular processes underlying stress response of non-dividing cells are poorly understood, although deteriorated stress response is one of the hallmarks of aging. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a valuable model organism to study the genetics of aging, because yeast ages within days and are amenable to genetic manipulations. As a unicellular organism, yeast has evolved robust systems to respond to environmental challenges. This response is orchestrated largely by the conserved transcription factor Hsf1, which in S. cerevisiae regulates expression of multiple genes in response to diverse stresses. Here we demonstrate that Hsf1 response to heat shock and oxidative stress deteriorates during yeast transition from exponential growth to stationary-phase, whereas Hsf1 activation by glucose starvation is maintained. Overexpressing Hsf1 does not significantly improve heat shock response, indicating that Hsf1 dwindling is not the major cause for Hsf1 attenuated response in stationary-phase yeast. Rather, factors that participate in Hsf1 activation appear to be compromised. We uncover two factors, Yap1 and Sir2, which discretely function in Hsf1 activation by oxidative stress and heat shock. In Δyap1 mutant, Hsf1 does not respond to oxidative stress, while in Δsir2 mutant, Hsf1 does not respond to heat shock. Moreover, excess Sir2 mimics the heat shock response. This role of the NAD+-dependent Sir2 is supported by our finding that supplementing NAD+ precursors improves Hsf1 heat shock response in stationary-phase yeast, especially when combined with expression of excess Sir2. Finally, the combination of excess Hsf1, excess Sir2 and NAD+ precursors rejuvenates the heat shock response.

  20. William Basse’s Polyhymnia and the Poetry of Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Crabstick

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The career of the little-known seventeenth-century poet William Basse (c. 1583-1653? combined two distinctive elements. He served, in the first instance, as a ‘retainer’ to the Wenman family of Thame Park in Oxfordshire for a period of more than forty years. He was also, however, a published poet who produced a substantial body of verse which reflected and intertwined with his career in service. The article aims to stimulate interest in Basse by drawing attention to a manuscript collection of his poems which remains unpublished and has until now been considered ‘lost’ in scholarly accounts of the poet. The Polyhymnia, held at Chetham’s Library in Manchester, was prepared as a gift in the late 1640s or early 1650s for relations of the Wenmans who lived on the nearby Rycote estate. It brought together poems from across the course of Basse’s career, and displayed him writing in a wide variety of forms and genres. The article summarises current knowledge of Basse’s life in service, sets out the context of the Polyhymnia as a manuscript apparently designed to fortify the links between Thame Park and Rycote, and explores the importance of Basse’s perspective as a servant to some of the more intriguing poems in the collection. It concludes by suggesting some of the ways in which a renewed focus upon Basse might contribute to study of the links between service and literature in the future.